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Русский язык и культура речи

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?onneee ycue

?onneee ycue – yoi iaoeeiiaeueiue ycue aaeeeiai ?onneiai ia?iaea. I?e
iiiiue ?onneiai ycuea iiaeii au?aceoue oii/aeoea iooaiee iunee,
?ane?uoue naiua aeoaieea /oanoaa. Eeiaaenoe/aneee aeon, eae e aanue
eoeueoo?iue iaeee /aeiaaea,— ?acoeueoao iiuoa, aeecie.

Aaeeiue ycue ?onneie iaoeee, ycue iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iauaiey a
nia?aiaiiii ie?a. Oneeeaathuaany aeeyiea ?onneiai ycuea ia ae?oaea
ycuee. Caia/aoaeueiue ycue ie?a ii ?aciiia?aceth a?aiiaoe/aneeo oi?i e
ii aiaaonoao neiaa?y, aiaaoaeoae ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

?iaeiie ycue – yoi aeeaay naycue a?aiai. N iiiiuueth ycuea /aeiaae
iniciaao ?ieue naiaai ia?iaea a i?ioeii e ianoiyuai, i?eiauaaony e
eoeueoo?iiio ianeaaeeth.

?onneee ycue – yoi iaoeeiiaeueiue ycue aaeeeiai ?onneiai ia?iaea.
Cia/aiea ?onneiai ycuea a iaoa a?aiy ia?iiii. Nia?aiaiiue eeoa?aoo?iue
?onneee ycue – yoi ycue iaoeo aacao e aeo?iaeia, ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eeoa?aoo?u e iaoee, ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee,
?aaeei, eeii e oaeaaeaeaiey.

sscue iacuaatho iaeiei ec naiuo oaeeaeoaeueiuo i?oaeee a ?oeao
/aeiaa/anoaa. Iaeiaei iieueciaaoueny ei ioaeii oiaei, eco/ea ana aai
iniaaiiinoe e nae?aou. A iiaeao ee ethaie ec aan n oaa?aiiinoueth
neacaoue, /oi iaeaaeae a niaa?oainoaa ?iaeiui ycueii? Aeoiaaony, /oi
n?aaee /eoaoaeae yoie eieae oaeeo ia ieaaeaony. E aio ii/aio: /ai
aieueoa iu iniciaai aiaaonoai e aaee/ea ?onneiai ycuea, oai
o?aaiaaoaeueiae noaiiaeiny e iaoae ?a/e, oai ino?aa iuouaai
iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaa?oainoaiaaoue naie noeeue, ai?ioueny ca /enoioo
ycuea, i?ioeainoiyoue aai ii?/a. I. I. Ea?aicei, iiiai naeaeaaoee aeey
?acaeoey e iaiaauaiey ?onneiai ycuea, ienae: «Aieueoa? neacae, /oi a
oanoue eao iiaeii auo/eoueny anai aeaaiui ycueai, ii anth aeeciue
iaaeiaii o/eoueny naiaio i?e?iaeiiio. Iai, ?onneei, aua aieaa o?oaea,
iaaeaee ae?oaei».

Aiai?eoue e ienaoue i?aaeeueii e aiai?eoue e ienaoue oi?ioi ia iaeii e
oi aea. Aeaaea anee au naiaiaeii aeaaeaaoa eeoa?aoo?iui ycueii, anaaaea
iieacii caaeoiaoueny i oii, eae naeaeaoue naith ?a/ue aiaa/a,
au?aceoaeueiaa. Yoiio o/eo noeeenoeea – iaoea ia oiaeii auai?a ycueiauo
n?aaenoa.

*ai a?aiioiaa /aeiaae, oai aieaa o?aaiaaoaeai ii e naiae ?a/e, oai
ino?aa ii iiieiaao, eae aaaeii o/eoueny oi?ioaio neiao o caia/aoaeueiuo
?onneeo ienaoaeae. Iie iaonoaiii ?aaioaee iaae niaa?oainoaiaaieai e
iaiaauaieai ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ?a/e e caaauaee iai aa?aaeii ioiineoueny e
?iaeiiio ycueo. ?onneee ycue anaaaea aue ai?aeinoueth iaoeo
ienaoaeae-eeanneeia, ii anaeye a ieo aa?o a iiao/ea neeu e aaeeeia
i?aaeiacia/aiea ?onneiai ia?iaea. «Ai aeie niiiaiee, ai aeie oyainoiuo
?acaeoiee i noaeueaao iiae ?iaeeiu – ou iaeei iia iiaeaea?aeea e iii?a,
i aaeeeee, iiao/ee, i?aaaeeaue e naiaiaeiue ?onneee ycue!»-ienae E. N.
Oo?aaiaa.

I?e iiiiue ?onneiai ycuea iiaeii au?aceoue oii/aeoea iooaiee iunee,
?ane?uoue naiua aeoaieea /oanoaa. Iao oaeiai iiiyoey, eioi?ia iaeuecy
auei au iacaaoue ?onneei neiaii. *eoay i?iecaaaeaiey aaeeeeo ienaoaeae,
iu iia?oaeaainy a ie?, nicaeaiiue eo oaioaceae, neaaeei ca iuneyie e
iiaaaeaieai eo aa?iaa e iiae/an caauaaai, /oi eeoa?aoo?a – eneonnoai
neiaa. A aaaeue ana, i /ai iu ociaai ec eiea, aiieiuaii a neiaa, aia
neiaa ia nouanoaoao!

Aieoaaiua e?anee ?onneie i?e?iaeu, iienaiea aiaaoie aeooiaiie aeecie
ethaeae, aanue iaiauyoiue ie? /aeiaa/aneeo /oanoa – ana ainnicaeaaony
ienaoaeai n iiiiuueth oao naiuo neia, eioi?ua neoaeao e iai a
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Ia neo/aeii ycue iacuaatho iaeiei ec naiuo
oaeeaeoaeueiuo i?oaeee a ?oeao /aeiaa/anoaa. Iaaei oieueei oiaoue ei
iieueciaaoueny. Aio aeey yoiai-oi e iaiaoiaeeii eco/aoue noeeenoeeo.

Ieeoi ia ?iaeaeaaony n aioiaui /oanoaii ycuea. Eeiaaenoe/aneee aeon, eae
e aanue eoeueoo?iue iaeee /aeiaaea,- ?acoeueoao iiuoa, aeecie,
ainieoaiey. Eoi ainieouaaao /oanoai ycuea? ?iaeeoaee, anee eo ?a/ue
eeoa?aoo?ii i?aaeeueia e aianoa n oai nio?aiyao y?einoue au?aceoaeueiuo
n?aaenoa e /enoioo ia?iaeiiai ycuea; o/eoaey, eioi?ua i?iaiaeyo o?iee n
ethaiaueth e aieiaieai e ?iaeiiio ycueo (aoaeue yoi aeaaea o?iee
iaoaiaoeee, aaia?aoee, oeceoeueoo?u eee o?oaea); eieaa aieueoiai
ienaoaey, oaao?, ?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiea — ana yoi niinianoaoao au?aaioea
oi?ioaai eeiaaenoe/aneiai aeona o aeaoae e ac?ineuo, o anao neooaoaeae e
/eoaoaeae.

Ia?aaeei ?annoaeaeatho oaeei ia?acii: «Eiia/ii, iaoaiaoeeo eee oeceeo
iaaei niaoeeaeueii eco/aoue. Ii /oi eanaaony ycuea, oi oae aiai?eoue-oi
y oiath aac anyeie iaoee». A naiii aeaea, ycue — yaeaiea niaa?oaiii
ini-aaiiia a aeecie /aeiaaea. Aaaeiaeoaa n?aaenoai iauaiey – ycue –
aeinooiii eaaeaeiio n aeaonoaa e eniieuecoaony iinoiyiii eaaeaeui /eaiii
aeaiiiai iauanoaa. Yoi nicaeaao o /aeiaaea eeethceth, /oi ii
iieiiaeanoiue oi-cyei naiae ?a/e: eaaeaony, /oi «iie» eeiaaenoe/aneea
aeonu, «iie» acaeyaeu ia ycue e «iie» iauyniaiey — iauaeoeaiay enoeia,
iaycaoaeueiay aeey anao ae?oaeo. Caeanue e e?iaony i?e/eia iiyaeaiey
iaaaaeanoaaiiuo n oi/ee c?aiey iaoee «ioe?uoee» e oiaey/eo iiaiee, oioy
e aicieeatho iau/ii iie ec ene?aiieo e niaa?oaiii aeia?iniaanoiuo
iiaoaeaeaiee.

Eiia/ii, anoue oaeea neaioeee, eioi?ua n/eoatho: «Eae neacae – oae e
eaaeii. Ana ?aaii iieioo»! Ii i?aau ee iie? Iiaeii ee ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
iaa?aaeioth, iaoi/ioth, ia?yoeeaoth ?a/ue i?aaeeueii iieioo? A eaeea
«iaoaycee» auoiaeyo eiie ?ac ec-ca iai?aaeeueiiai oieeiaaiey, yoi
eaaeaeue eniuoae ia naiai nianoaaiiii iiuoa. Cia/eo, iaeuecy
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny iaoeo?ui i?aaeeii «ana ?aaii iieioo». Iao,
iai?aaeeueioth ?a/ue eee o?oaeii iiiyoue, eee iiaeii iiiyoue ioeai/ii. A
iai?aaeeueii iieiaoue – ia-i?aaeeueii e iinooieoue. Cia/eo, eoeueoo?a
?a/e ia ee/iia aeaei eaaeaeiai ec ian, a iauanoaaiiay iio?aaiinoue e
iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

*oi aea oaeia eoeueoo?a ?a/e?

A oceii eeiaaenoe/aneii niunea – yoi aeaaeaiea ycueiauie ii?iaie (a
i?ieciioaiee, oaea?aiee, neiaioiio?aaeaiee, a iino?iaiee o?ac e o. i.),
a oaeaea oiaiea iieueciaaoueny au?aceoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie ycuea a
?aciuo oneiaeyo iauaiey a niioaaonoaee n oeaeueth e niaea?aeaieai ?a/e.
Ii eoeueoo?a ?a/e a aieaa oe?ieii niunea – yoi e eoeueoo?a /oaiey, e
aaaeiaeoay /anoue iauae eoeueoo?u /aeiaaea.

Naii neiai «eoeueoo?a» (io eaoeineiai nultura) aoeaaeueii cia/eo
«aicaeaeuaaiea», «ia?aaaouaaiea». Yoi oi, /oi «ia?aaioaii», «aicaeaeaii»
e ia?aaeaii iai ii ianeaaenoao iaoeie i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie; yoi oi, /oi
«ia?aaaouaaaony» e «aicaeaeuaaaony», oeeooaony iaie, /oiau ia?aaeaoue
neaaeothuei iieieaieyi.

sscue – aaaeiaeoaa n?aaenoai /aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey e i?oaeea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa. Eoeueoo?a ?a/e (eee eoeueoo?a ycuea)-yoi
noaiaiue iaoaai aeaaeaiey iaenoiueiuie aiaaonoaaie ycuea. A yoii niunea
e aiai?yo i aunieie eoeueoo?a ?a/e eee i ieceie, iaaeinoaoi/iie ?a/aaie
eoeueoo?a oiai eee eiiai /aeiaaea e o. i. Eae e a ethaie iaeanoe ciaiee,
niaieoiiinoe iaaueia caeanue ana caaeneo io ian naieo, io iaoaai
aeaeaiey iaeaaeaoue aunioaie eoeueoo?u.

A ai?aea 1941 aiaea, aunooiay ia?aae iineianeeie
oeieueieeaie-noa?oaeeannieeaie, Ieoaee Eaaiiae/ Eaeeiei neacae: «*oiau
noaoue oai?oeaie aieueoie aeecie, aai iaaei iaeaaeaoue o?aiy i?aaeiaoaie
aaoae o/aaiie i?ia?aiiu». A /enea o?ao aeaaiuo oeieueiuo aeenoeeieei
Ieoaee Eaaiiae/ iacaae oeceoeueoo?o. Iiiyoii, ii/aio ii iinoaaee aa a
?yae iniiaiuo i?aaeiaoia: iai iaaei aioiaeoue naaa caei?iaoth niaio.
Iieiaeaaeue aeieaeia auoue neeueiie, eiaeie, auiineeaie, a ana yoe
ea/anoaa ainieouaaao e ?acaeaaao oece/aneay eoeueoo?a.

Ae?oaie i?aaeiao, eioi?ue Eaeeiei n/eoae iaeiei ec aeaaiuo a oeieueiii
i?aiiaeaaaiee, i?aaeiao, iaiaoiaeeiue ethaeyi ?aciuo i?ioannee,- yoi
iaoaiaoeea. A iao aae oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aeieacuaaoue i?aaeeueiinoue yoiai ooaa?aeaeaiey.

Iaeiaei eioa?anii e ciaiaiaoaeueii, /oi n?aaee o?ao aeaaiuo o/aaiuo
i?aaeiaoia ia ia?aia ianoi Ieoaee Eaaiiae/ noaaeo eco/aiea ?onneiai
ycuea. «I?aaeaea anaai,– aiai?ee ii,– au aeieaeiu oi?ioi ciaoue
?onneee ycue. Aaaeue iao oaeie iaoee, eioi?oth aai i?eaeaony eco/aoue,
iao oaeie noa?u iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aaea au ia o?aaiaaeinue
oi?ioaa ciaiea ?onneiai ycuea. E aeaaea a iauaeaiiie aeecie oaeia ciaiea
iaia-oiaeeii aeey oiai, /oiau i?aaeeueii e oi/ii au?aaeaoue naie iunee,
/oanoaa, naiua aeoaeiu ia?aaeeaaiee».

Neacaiiia Ieoaeeii Eaaiiae/ai iiiai eao iacaae n iieiui iniiaaieai
iiaeii aae?aniaaoue e nia?aiaiiie iieiaeaaee. Ciaiea ?onneiai ycuea ai
anai aai aiaaonoaa iaiaoiaeeii ethaeyi anao niaoeeaeueiinoae.

I?aaaea, ieeoi ia iiaeao canoaaeoue /aeiaaea aiai?eoue i?aaeeueii, y?ei,
oi/ii, au?aceoaeueii, anee ii nai yoiai ia oi/ao. Ii iiii/ue /aeiaaeo
iiiyoue, ii/aio ii aeieaeai no?aieoueny e iaeaaeaieth anaie oiieinoyie
?a/e,- yoi aeiea eaaeaeiai, eiio aei?ia iao ycue.

E. I. Oienoie aiai?ee: «Neiai – aeaei aaeeeia. Aaeeeia iioiio, /oi
neiaii iiaeii niaaeeieoue ethaeae, neiaii iiaeii e ?acuaaeeieoue eo,
neiaii neoaeeoue ethaae, neiaii aea iiaeii neoaeeoue a?aaeaea e
iaiaaenoe». Niaaoneee ienaoaeue A. I. Oienoie ni?aaaaeeeai n/eoae, /oi
«ia?auaoueny n ycueii eia-eae — cia/eo e iuneeoue eia-eae: iaoi/ii,
i?eaeeceoaeueii, iaaa?ii». A E. N. Oo?aaiaa i?ecuaae: «aa?aaeoa iao
ycue, iao i?ae?aniue ?onneee ycue, yoio eeaae, yoi aeinoiyiea,
ia?aaeaiiia iai iaoeie i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie…»

A iaoe aeie ?onneee ycue iienoeia noaiiaeony eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiui. E yoi
iiaaeaaaao iai auniei aea?aeaoue ciaiy ?onneiai ycuea. Ana iu -aeey eiai
?onneee ycue aei?ia — ianai ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aai /enoioo,
i?aaeeue-iinoue, oi/iinoue e au?aceoaeueiinoue. «Iae ycue – aea ai?aie
ea/aao!» -aiai?eo iineiaeoea. Oae aoaeai aea n oaaaeaieai ioiineoueny e
yoiio aeaaioo. E ionoue ieeoi ia caauaaao, /oi neea e iiuue ?onneiai
neiaa caaenyo io oiai, eae eaaeaeue ec ian aeaaeaao iaen/a?iaaiuie
aiaaonoaaie ?onneie ?a/e.

E aeey oiai, /oiau iiieiaoue ana, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a ie?oaeathuai ie?a,
aeey oiai, /oiau e ian iiieiaee oa, n eai iu iauaainy, iu aeieaeiu
oi?ioi aeaaeaoue nia?aiaiiui ?onneei ycueii. Iaeiaei, ia/aai cae?uaaoue
aeaca ia oi, /oi i/aiue /anoi iu aiai?ei iaa?aaeii ia oieueei aeiia, ii
e ia nia?aiee, eia-eae ieoai ia oieueei aanoi/eo ?iaeiui, ii e caiaoeo a
noaiaacaoo, /eoaai aaca?aiioiua auaanee e iauyaeaiey, neuoei
eneaaeaiioth ?a/ue a o?aiaaa, a iaaaceia e ie?einy n yoei, ia ia?auaai
ia yoi aieiaiey, ia i?eaeaai yoiio cia/aiey.

A aaaeue, neieueei iaaei?acoiaiee aicieeaao ec-ca ycueiaie iaa?aaeiinoe!
Eae /anoi iu iaeaeaai ae?oa ae?oaa, naie oiai ia aeaeay, ec-ca iaoiaiey
ynii au?aceoue naith iuneue. Anee iaoa ?a/ue iaiiiyoia niaanaaeieeo, eae
eaaei iaoe neiaa iiaoo auoue ia?aoieeiaaiu ia ae?oaie eaae! Io oiai,
oi/ii ee au?aaeaai iu naith iuneue, naiaiaeii ee aeaaeaai ?a/ueth,
caaeneo, aoaeai ee iu i?aaeeueii iiiyou ie?oaeathueie.

Eiia/ii, iiaeii aic?aceoue: iie eoeueoo?iue o?iaaiue, iie ycue – yoi iia
ee/iia aeaei, e i?ioo inoaaeoue iaiy a iieia.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiaiai?eoue i nouaea ia?aae ?onneei neiaii. *aeiaae aeieaeai
iniciaaaoue, /oi aai ?a/ue – aai aeinoieinoai.

Nouae – iaeii ec naiuo oiieeo, aeaeeeaoiuo e aianoa n oai aeeciaiii
iaiaoiaeeiuo ea/anoa. *aeiaae aeieaeai nouaeeoueny, e iiiai nouaeeoueny,
anee ii /aeiaae. Iiaiai?ei i nouaea ia?aae neiaii. *ai aieueoa yoiai
nouaea, oai eo/oa iaoa ?onneay ?a/ue.

Ia aii?in «*oi oaeia neaa?iineiaea?» ioaa/atho ii-?aciiio. Iaeie
ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi yoi ii?ie, iaaeinoaoie, iici?yuaa naienoai. Ae?oaea
n/eoatho, /oi yoi aieaciue, eae aeeiaieeci eee eo?aiea. Aeoiaaony, /oi
iaa ioaaoa aa?iu, oae eae iaeii auoaeaao ec ae?oaiai. Aeeiaieeci,
eo?aiea, neaa?iineiaea nia/aea, eiaaea iiaeii aua ia caeo?eoue, ia
auieoue, ia neacaoue, ia i?iecianoe, – ii?ie. Ii iacaiaoii neaa?iineiaea
noaiiaeony aieaciueth. *aeiaae oaea ia iiaeao iino?ieoue yeaiaioa?iia
i?aaeeiaeaiea, ia oiio?aaea ieioeo neia. Anaaeicaieaiiinoue ?a/e
iai?a/eaaaony aieaciueth eioaeeaeoa, niciaiey. *anoi oaeie /aeiaae,
iiiaaeay a «i?eee/iia iauanoai», noa?aaony aieueoa iie/aoue, /oiau
iaia?ieii ia neacaoue a?oaiai neiaa.

Oae ee iianii ?ani?ino?aiaiea neaa?iineiaey? Ioaeii ee ia yoii a?iiei
cayaeyoue? Aea, eai neaa?iineiaea i?eieiaao oa?iaeathuea /a?ou e oi?iu,
iii ioaaoeei ii/oe ana aic?anou; ?oaaoaeuenoaa noaee caiaieoaeyie iaoc.
A anee y ia neaa?iineiaeth, oi a /ai oiaaea iianiinoue aeey iaiy? Anee,
ia eo?y naie, iu i?inoi aaeuoaai caiao /oaeie neaa?aou, oi oai naiui
oaea a?aaeei naaa. Oae e neaa?iua neiaa, iaie ia i?ieciineiua, ii
neuoeiua, ia-caiaoii e aeoaiei i?iieeatho a ian, a iaoa iiaeniciaiea.
Ecaanoiu neo/ae, eiaaea, aoaeo/e iiae ia?eicii, ?oaaeenue eioaeeeaaioiua
ethaee, ieeiaaea a iau/iii ninoiyiee ia i?eaaaaaoea e iaoo.

Iiyoiio e aicieeaao ino?ay iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoaoue i?iaeaio
neaa?iineiaey. Ioaeii ia ienaoue e ia ia/aoaoue ?oaaoaeuenoa: anee
iaia-/aoiia neiai noaei ia/aoiui, ai?ioueny n yoei aua o?oaeiaa. Ie/aai
ia aeano aeey ai?ueau ni neaa?iineiaeai caiaia ?oaaoaeuenoa ia/aeueiuie
aoeaaie: iao i?eioeeieaeueiie ?acieoeu, i?ieciineee ee au neiai oeaeeeii
eee ia?aie/eeenue aai ciaeii. Ana ?aaii yoi – neaa?iineiaea, aao neaiae
iioae a niciaiea. Ia iaaei caiaiyoue ?oaaoaeuenoaa neiaa/eaie oeia
aeee-iaeee, aeei, yiiineee ai?iaeiaie. Iu niaainy, oneuoaa eo,
i?aaeeueii oaaaeuaay iiaeoaeno yoie o?acu. Eoeueoo?iua ?oaaoaeuenoaa ia
eo/oa e ia /eua iau/iuo.

Eae aa?a/ue /enoioo ?a/e, iiea au o/eoanue a oeiea? Iaaeaaeiuo ?aoeaioia
iao. Ii i?eaiu, i?eiyoua e iaeia?aiiua aaie, iiiiaoo ecaaaeaoue
neaa?iineiaey.

Ia aiai?eoa ieioeo neia naie. ss ciath: ii?ie neiaeii onoiyoue, ia
oi/aony auaeaeyoueny, auoue aaeie ai?iiie, iioiio /oi ianiaoee
iai?eyoiu, iaeaeiu, iu aieiny inoaoueny a iaeeii/anoaa. Caeanue
nianeoaeueia iuneue i oii, /oi auaatho ia?eiaeu a aeecie /aeiaaea,
eiaaea iao ?yaeii ae?ocae, ii inoathony naiuey, ?aaioa, oaea/aiey,
o/aaa.

Ia eiie?oeoa ae?oaeo, ia aiai?eoa, eae ana, ia noa?aeoanue auoue
iioiaeeie ia eiai-oi, nio?aiyeoa naiiauoiinoue e iiiieoa: «Ia oi, /oi
aoiaeeo a onoa, ineaa?iyao eo, ii oi, /oi auoiaeeo ec ono». Ioeai/ii
n/eoaaony, /oi, au?oaaaoenue, /aeiaae ?anneaaeeny, auieanioe iaaieaaoaa,
a cia/eo, aeecei oniieiaiea. Aea, ?anneaaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii /aeiaaeo. Ii
iaeuecy aai iaeoe |ie a eo?aiee, ie a aeia, ie a neaa?iineiaee. Aai
iiaeii iaeoe a ia/oa, neeueiie e y?-eie, a auni/aeoai nii?oeaiii
iai?yaeaiee, a iocuea, a ?oeiaeaeee, eieeaeoeeiie?iaaiee, a ea/anoaaiiii
eniieiaiee aeiiaoieo aeae.

A eae auoue n oaie, eoi neaa?iineiaeo? Iu, eiia/ii, ia iiaeai eni?aaeoue
iauanoai a oeaeii, ii i?ana/ue neaa?iineiaea a naiuea, a eeanna iiaeii.
Aeaaea a naiie oaeaniie n?aaea anoue ethaee, e eioi?ui a?ycue eae au ia
i?enoaao, anaaaea iaeaeaony eoi-oi, ia eiai iiaeii iia?aoueny, n eai
aianoa i?ioeainoiyoue ceo.

?oaaoaeuenoao iiaeii i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue neiai oi?ioaa. Cayae naaa:
«Naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue – iie aeaaiue aeaiue!». E i?eaee a oeieo ia?yaeiui,
iaaaaee aie?oa naay ii?yaeie, oaiei oeuaaeny e na?aea/ii iioaaee
/aeiaaea ca iaei/ue. Iiiie i iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe ee/iinoe, i
iaaeiionoeiinoe oa?aeoa?enoee-iaiauaiee: «Ou aiiaua oaeie», «Ou anaaaea
oae». A anee ia naea?aeaeenue, iii?ineoa i?iuaiey.

Aa?othuea ethaee ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi, eiaaea /aeiaae aiai?eo ieioea
neiaa, io iaai ioeaoatho aiaaeu-o?aieoaee, e oiaaea /aeiaae noaiiaeony
aaccaueoiaa e oycaeiaa.

A AAIO aeaenoaoao aaeeinoaaiiay a ?anioaeeea neoaeaa, aaea aaeaaeiaaii
nianatho «aaeeeee e iiao/ee».

– ss neo/ath ca Iineaie ! – oneuoaea ia aeiyo io iaeie oiiiie aeaaeoeu,
i?iaoeeaaaoaeny iiae ?oeo n iieiaeui /aeiaaeii ii oiea oaao?a. Ia ciath,
eae auian yoio ia-iuneeiue ?a/aaie iai?io thiioa, ii iia iaaeiia
oeeieiae/aneia ooi ii ?acaioe, eae iocueaioa oaeueoeaay iioa. Io
iiaeiaiuo ycueiauo eyiia i?inoi niano iao: neiaa «caIieo», «oieI/aii»,
«aeIaiai?» e eaea n ieie i?aneaaeotho iaiy aaeaaeiaaii, canoaaeyy
aeaeaoue i oii, /oi y ia ?iaeeeanue ia?o aaeia iacaae.

A nouiinoe, aaaeue aeey eioaeeeaaioiiai /aeiaaea aeo?ii aiai?eoue
aeieaeii au n/eoaoue oaeei aea iai?eee/eai, eae ia oiaoue /eoaoue e
ienaoue…», -ioia/ae *aoia a naiae caiaoea i e?anii?a/ee «Oi?ioay
iiainoue». «?a/ue – yoi e anoue oeeaeeecaoeey», – eaeao aeaeueoa Oiian
Iaii a eieaa «Aieoaaiay ai?a». Iiaeai ee iu n/eoaoue naay
oeeaeeeciaaiiuie ethaeueie, anee ?a/ue iaoa aeaeaea io niaa?oainoaa?

sscue – iniiaiia n?aaenoai iauaiey, e ciaiea aai ii?i i?aaeiieaaaao
aaeaeaaoiia aeaaeaiea neooaoeeae.

A nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa eioi?iaoeey ea?aao naioth aaaeioth ?ieue. Ii
oiaieai ia?aaeaoue e i?eiyoue eioi?iaoeeth, a cia/eo, auoue iiiyoui,
aeaaeaao ia eaaeaeue. Anee au ia oiaaoa a?aiioii iauaoueny, aan aeaeao
eiiioieeaoeaiay iaoaea/a: iaiiaeienaiea aaaeiiai eiio?aeoa, i?iaae i?e
niaanaaeiaaiee, nni?a ec-ca ionoyea. Ciaoue ?onneee ycue ia i?inoi
iaiaoiaeeii, ii e Ii?anoeaeii. Iaoa neoaeaa aeieacuaaao yoi ia i?aeoeea
aaeaaeiaaii.

Aaca?aiioiinoue naaiaeiy i?inoi aiiethuay. A yoii niunea n?aaenoaa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, oaeaaeaeaiea, eioa?iao, ea?atho iaaaoeaioth ?ieue.
Ii?ie io aeeeoi?ia oeaio?aeueiuo eaiaeia oaeia oneuoeoue! CMC-niiauaiey,
eioi?uie iaiaieaathony iiae?inoee, aiiaua ioaa?aatho ana i?aaeea
?onneiai ycuea: eneeth/athony ciaee i?aieiaiey, caaeaaiua aoeau, aeoeaii
eniieuecothony nie?auaiey neia. Aaoiiaoe/anee ana yoi ia?aiineony e a
oao?aaee. N iaaeaaieo ii? Neoaeaa ?onneiai ycuea inaa-eaaao aua iaeio
noa?o aeayoaeueiinoe: eeiaaenoe/aneoth yenia?oeco. Iiiieoa ciaiaieooth
o?aco «Eacieoue iaeuecy iiieeiaaoue»? Ii?ie iai?aaeeueii iinoaaeaiiay
caiyoay niiniaia aa?oeoue /aeiaa/aneea noaeueau. Ca iainoi?iaeiia
oiio?aaeaiea eaeiai-oi neiaa i?eoiaeeony ioaa/aoue ia iaiueoa, /ai ca
aeaea. Noaeaaiua enee, naycaiiua n caueoie /anoe e aeinoieinoaa,
ia?ooaieai aaoi?neeo i?aa, nii?aie ii iiaiaeo iai?aaeeueiiai
oiio?aaeaiey i?oia?aoee e ioieooaoeee a ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioao,
?anooo n eaaeaeui aiaeii. Ethaee ia?auathony e ycueiaaaeai n i?inueaie
iiaeoaa?aeeoue, /oi au?aaeaiea yaeyaony inei?aeaieai, /oi ?aeeaia ianao
ne?uoue ia-aeaeaoaeueiue iiaeoaeno e o. ae. A iauanoaa neo/athony
ia?eiaeu i?aiaa?aaeaiey e ii?iai ycuea, ii yoi n?iaeie ai-eacie, eioi?ay
i?ioiaeeo. E ethaee niiaa ia/eiatho iiieiaoue aaaeiinoue i?aaeeueiie,
e?aneaie, aaeaeaaoiie ?a/e. Aaaeue n/anouea — yoi eiaaea oaay
iiieiatho…

2. Iiiyoea eoeueoo?u ?a/e

Eoeueoo?a ?a/e – /anoue iauae eoeueoo?u /aeiaaea. Ii oiio, eae /aeiaae
aiai?eo eee ieoao, iiaeii noaeeoue ia o?iaia aai aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey,
aai aioo?aiiae eoeueoo?u. Aeaaeaiea /aeiaaeii eoeueoo?ie ?a/e yaeyaony
ia oieueei iieacaoaeai aunieiai o?iaiy eioaeeaeooaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai
?acaeoey, ii e naiaia?aciui iieacaoaeai i?ioanneiiaeueiie i?eaiaeiinoe
aeey ethaeae naiuo ?acee/iuo i?ioannee: aeeieiiaoia, th?enoia,
iieeoeeia, i?aiiaeaaaoaeae oeie e aocia, ?aaioieeia ?aaeei e
oaeaaeaeaiey, aeo?iaeenoia, iaiaaeaea?ia e o. ae. Eoeueoo?ie ?a/e aaaeii
aeaaeaoue anai, eoi ii ?iaeo naiae aeayoaeueiinoe naycai n ethaeueie,
i?aaiecoao e iai?aaeyao eo ?aaioo, o/eo, ainieouaaao, aaaeao aeaeiaua
ia?aaiai?u, ieacuaaao ethaeyi ?acee/iua oneoae.

*oi aea iiae?acoiaaaao iiiyoea «eoeueoo?a ?a/e»?

Neiaini/aoaiea «eoeueoo?a ?a/e» i?eiaiyaony a o?ao iniiaiuo cia/aieyo:
Aieiaei A. I. Iniiau eoeueoo?u ?a/e.- I., 1988.

1. Eoeueoo?a ?a/e – yoi ?acaeae oeeieiae/aneie iaoee, eco/athuee
?a/aaoth aeeciue iauanoaa a ii?aaeaeaiioth yiioo e onoaiaaeeaathuee ia
iao/iie iniiaa i?aaeea iieueciaaiey ycueii eae iniiaiui n?aaenoaii
iauaiey ethaeae, i?oaeeai oi?ie?iaaiey e au?aaeaiey iuneae. Eiuie
neiaaie, neiaini/aoaiey «eoeueoo?a ?a/e» a yoii cia/aiee – yoi o/aiea i
niaieoiiinoe e nenoaia eiiioieeaoeaiuo ea/anoa ?a/e.

2. Eoeueoo?a ?a/e – yoi eaeea-oi aa i?eciaee e naienoaa, niaieoiiinoue e
nenoaiu eioi?uo aiai?yo i aa eiiioieeaoeaiii niaa?oainoaa.

3. Eoeueoo?a ?a/e – yoi niaieoiiinoue iaaueia e ciaiee /aeiaaea,
iaania/eaathueo oeaeaniia?aciia e iacao?oaeiaiiia i?eiaiaiea ycuea a
oeaeyo iauaiey, «aeaaeaiea ii?iaie onoiiai e ienueiaiiiai eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea (i?aaeeaie i?ieciioaiey, oaea?aiey, neiaioiio?aaeaiey, a?aiiaoeee,
noeeenoeee), a oaeaea oiaiea eniieueciaaoue au?aceoaeueiua n?aaenoaa
ycuea a ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo iauaiey a niioaaonoaee n oeaeyie e
niaea?aeaieai ?a/e».

Ia?aia cia/aiea neiaini/aoaiey «eoeueoo?a ?a/e» ii?aaeaeyao i?aaeiao
eco/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiie io?anee oeeieiaee. Aoi?ia e o?aouea cia/aiea
ii?aaeaeytho eoeueoo?o ?a/e eae niaieoiiinoue e nenoaio aa ii?iaoeaiuo
eiiioieeaoeaiuo ea/anoa, ciaiea e iaeaaeaiea eioi?uie yaeyaony oeaeueth
eco/aiey yoie aeenoeeieeiu nooaeaioaie. A yoii niunea «eoeueoo?a ?a/e»
oiaeaeanoaaiii iiiyoeth «eoeueoo?iay ?a/ue», «oi?ioay ?a/ue».

Enneaaeiaaoaee auaeaeytho o?e aniaeoa eoeueoo?u ?a/e: ii?iaoeaiue,
eiiioieeaoeaiue e yoe/aneee. Ia?aue, aaaeiaeoee aniaeo – ii?iaoeaiue.
sscueiaay ii?ia – yoi oeaio?aeueiia iiiyoea eoeueoo?u ?a/e. Eoeueoo?a
?a/e, i?aaeaea anaai, i?aaeiieaaaao niaethaeaiea ii?i eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea, eioi?ua aini?eieiathony aai iineoaeyie, aiai?yueie eee ieooueie,
a ea/anoaa «eaeaaea», ia?acoea. Ii?ia yaeyaony aeaaiui ?aaoeyoi?ii
?a/aaiai iiaaaeaiey ethaeae. Iaeiaei yoi iaiaoiaeeiue, ii iaaeinoaoi/iue
?aaoeyoi?, iioiio /oi iaeiiai niaethaeaiey i?aaeienaiee ii?iu ia oaaoaao
aeey oiai, /oiau onoiay eee ienueiaiiay ?a/ue ieacaeanue aiieia oi?ioae,
o. a. oaeiaeaoai?yea ana iio?aaiinoe eiiioieeaoeee. Iiaeii i?eaanoe
aieueoia eiee/anoai naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo ii niaea?aeaieth oaenoia,
aacoi?a/iuo n oi/ee c?aiey eeoa?aoo?iuo ii?i, ii ia aeinoeaathueo oeaee.
Iaania/eaaaony yoi oai, /oi ii?ia ?aaoee?oao a aieueoae ia?a /enoi
no?oeoo?ioth, ciaeiaoth, ycueiaoth noi?iio ?a/e, ia cao?aaeaay
aaaeiaeoeo ioiioaiee ?a/e e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iauanoao, niciaieth,
iiaaaeaieth ethaeae. Iiyoiio aoi?ui aaaeiui ea/anoaii eoeueoo?u ?a/e
yaeyaony eiiioieeaoeaiay oeaeaniia?aciinoue – yoi oiaiea iaoiaeeoue, a
ycueiaie nenoaia aeey au?aaeaiey eiie?aoiiai niaea?aeaiey a eaaeaeie
?aaeueiie neooaoeee ?a/aaiai iauaiey aaeaeaaoioth ycueiaoth oi?io. Auai?
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeaiiie oeaee e a aeaiiie neooaoeee ycueiauo n?aaenoa
– iniiaa eiiioieeaoeaiiai aniaeoa ?a/e.

N eiiioieeaoeaiie oeaeaniia?aciinoueth oanii naycai e o?aoee – yoe/aneee
aniaeo eoeueoo?u ?a/e. Eiiioieeaoeaiay oeaeaniia?aciinoue eae e?eoa?ee
eoeueoo?u ?a/e eanaaony eae oi?iu au?aaeaiey iunee, oae e aa
niaea?aeaiey. Yoe/aneee aniaeo eoeue oo?u ?a/e i?aaeienuaaao ciaiea e
i?eiaiaiea i?aaee ycueiaiai iiaaaeaiey a eiie?aoiuo neooaoeeyo oaeei
ia?acii, /oiau ia oieceoue aeinoieinoaa o/anoieeia iauaiey. Yoe/aneea
ii?iu iauaiey i?aaeoniao?eaatho niaethaeaiea ?a/aaiai yoeeaoa. ?a/aaie
yoeeao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaio n?aaenoa e niiniaia au?aaeaiey
ioiioaiey iauathueony ae?oa e ae?oao. ?a/aaie yoeeao aeeth/aao ?a/aaua
oi?ioeu i?eaaonoaey, i?inueau, aii?inu, aeaaiaea?iinoe, iicae?aaeaiey,
ia?auaiey ia «ou» e «au», auai? iieiiai eee nie?auaiiiai eiaie, oi?ioeu
ia?auaiey e o. ae. Yoe/aneee eiiiiiaio eoeueoo?u ?a/e iaeeaaeuaaao
no?iaee cai?ao ia neaa?iineiaea a i?ioeanna iauaiey e ae?oaea oi?iu
inei?aeythuea aeinoieinoai o/anoieeia iauaiey eee ie?oaeathueo ethaeae.
Ana auoaeceiaeaiiia iicaieyao i?eiyoue i?aaeeiaeaiiia A. I. Oe?yaaui
ii?aaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u ?a/e: «Eoeueoo?a ?a/e – yoi oaeie auai? e
i?aaiecaoeey ycueiauo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua a ii?aaeaeaiiie neooaoeee
iauaiey i?e niaethaeaiee nia?aiaiiuo ycueiauo ii?i e yoeee iauaiey
iicaieytho iaania/eoue iaeaieueoee yooaeo a aeinoeaeaiee iinoaaeaiiuo
eiiioieeaoeaiuo caaea/». Oe?yaa A. I. Eoeueoo?a ?a/e eae eeiaaenoe/aneay
aeenoeeieeia // ?onneee ycue e nia?aiaiiinoue: I?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey ?onenoeee. – I., 1991. *. 1. N. 27

3.*oi oaeia eoeueoo?a ?a/e?

I?aaeaea anaai, yoi noaiaiue aeaaeaiey ycueiauie ii?iaie (a iaeanoe
i?ieciioaiey, oaea?aiey, neiaioiio?aaeaiey e a?aiiaoeee) a oaeaea oiaiea
iieueciaaoueny anaie au?aceoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie ycuea a ?aciuo oneiaeyo
iauaiey (eiiioieeaoeee) e a niioaaonoaee n iinoaaeaiiuie oeaeyie a
niaea?aeaiee auneacuaaiee.

E?iia oiai, eoeueoo?a ?a/e – yoi e niaoeeaeueiay ycueiaaae/aneay
aeenoeeieeia, iai?aaeaiiay ia eco/aiea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea eae i?oaeey iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u, o?aieoaey aeooiaiuo aiaaonoa
ia?iaea.

Iaoea i eoeueoo?a ?a/e iaiauaao iieiaeaiey e auaiaeu ii?iaoeaiie
a?aiiaoeee e noeeenoeee n oeaeueth aeeaiai iia?aoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
ycueiaoth i?aeoeeo. Iaeiaei a ioee/ea io ii?iaoeaiie noeeenoeee o/aiea i
eoeueoo?a ?a/e ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia oa ?a/aaua yaeaiey, noa?u e eo
?aciiaeaeiinoe, eioi?ua ia aoiaeyo a eaiii eeoa?aoo?iuo ii?i:
iaeeoa?aoo?iia i?inoi?a/ea, oa??eoi?eaeueiua e nioeeaeueiua aeeaeaeou e
aiai?u, aea?aiiu e neaia, i?ioanneiiaeueioth ?a/ue e o.i.

Iao/iay ii?iaeecaoeey ycuea i?ioiaeeo a iinoiyiiie ai?ueaa n aeaoiy
e?aeiinoyie: io?eciii (io eao. purus – ” /enoue”), n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
aioeii?iaeecaoi?noaii n ae?oaie.

Io?eci – yoi iai?eyoea, ?aoeoaeueiue ioeac io ethauo iiaoanoa eee
eciaiaiee a ycuea e aeaaea eiina?aaoeaiia eo cai?auaiea – ii iioeaai
eiae/aneei, eaeaieiae/aneei, iaoeeiiaeueiiiio?aieoaeueiui eee noaoai
aeoniaui.

*oi eanaaony aioeii?iaeecaoi?noaa, oi iii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?aeeiiaiea ia?aae noeoeae ycuea, io?eoeaiea aiciiaeiinoe niciaoaeueiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a ?a/aaoth i?aeoeeo, aicaeaenoaey iauanoaa ia ycue.

Eae ecaanoii, e?aeiinoe anaaaea noiaeyony: a iniiaa e io?ecia, e
aioeii?iaeecaoi?noaa ieacuaathony iao/iue ieaeeeci, noauaeoeaiue
ycueiaie aeon.

Iaaeaeo oai e eeoa?aoo?iui ii?iai ycuea, e ioeaieai aai oaeoia n oi/ee
c?aiey i?aaeeueiinoe – iai?aaeeueiinoe iaeuecy iiaeoiaeeoue
ii-ethaeoaeuenee, n iiceoeee /enoi aeoniauo ioeaiie e i?eau/ae eee
ioaea/aiiuo oai?aoe/aneeo ?annoaeaeaiee. Oieueei ia iniiaa ouaoaeueiiai
eco/aiey enoi?ee eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea e ananoi?iiiaai aiaeeca aai
nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiaeii aeaeaoue iauaeoeaiua
auaiaeu i oaiaeaioeeyo ?acaeoey eeoa?aoo?iuo ii?i, iao/ii iai?aaeyoue e
?aaoee?iaaoue yoi ?acaeoea.

Ii?iu eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea – ia canouaoea ?ac e iaanaaaea oi?iu. Iie
eciaiythony ai a?aiaie. Iaeiaei neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i?e anao
aiciiaeiuo eciaiaieyo e naeaeaao ?onneee ycue onoie/eai nio?aiyao a
aaeao naith ii?iaoeaii-eeoa?aoo?ioth iniiao. Nenoaia eeoa?aoo?iuo ii?i,
auaeaeiooay e iienaiiay aua I. A. Eiiiiiniaui a aai “?inneeneie
a?aiiaoeea” (1755 a.) ii?aaeaeeea anth aeaeueiaeooth noaeueao ?onneiai
ycuea e a oeaeii nio?aiyaony aei iaoaai a?aiaie.

Caeiiiia?iia ?acaeoea ycuea, aai oai?/aneia iaiaauaiea iaaei ioee/aoue
io cani?aiey e iaaaeiaiey. A cani?yao e iaaaeiyao aai ana oi, /oi
eneaaeaao e ia?oaeyao, noeeenoe/anee ieaaee?oao e iaoo iianaaeiaaioth
?a/ue, e ycue ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u, e ?a/aaoth i?aeoeeo n?aaenoa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee – i?annu, ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiey. Nthaea ioiinyony,
iai?eia?, eaioeaey?eciu e ooaiiu ?a/e, iiiaea aea?aiiiua e
a?oai-i?inoi?a/iua neiaa, iaioaeiua caeinoaiaaiey ec ae?oaeo ycueia,
iaoianoiua i?ioanneiiaeeciu, iaii?aaaeaiiua aunieea neiaa e, eiia/ii
aea, neo/ae iaa?aiioiiai, iai?aaeeueiiai eee iaoi/iiai oiio?aaeaiey
neia.

Aicueiai i?iaeaio caeinoaiaaiee. Iia aeey ycuea e ?a/aaie eoeueoo?u
a?iaea au e noa?ay, ii a oiaea a?aiy aa/ii iiaay e ino?ay. A ie?a
i?aeoe/anee iao ycueia, eioi?ua ia eiaee au eiiycu/iuo neia. Yoi e
iiiyoii. Aaaeue acaeiiaeaenoaea ycueia – yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea e
acaeiiiaiaauaiea eoeueoo? ?aciuo ia?iaeia. Ii ooo neaaeoao oi?ioi
?acee/aoue caeinoaiaaiey oianoiua, iaiaoiaeeiua, iaiaauathuea ?iaeiie
ycue iiauie eaeayie e iiiyoeyie, e caeinoaiaaiey iaioaeiua,
iaii?aaaeaiiua, ia i?eiinyuea a ?a/ue ie/aai iiaiai ii n?aaiaieth n
eneiiiuie neiaaie e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, cani?ythuea aa. A iao/iuo o?oaeao
eee a ycuea aeciana ia iaieoenue aac iiiaeo eiiycu/iuo ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth oa?ieiia. Ii a iaeoiaeiie ?a/e eee a ioaee/iuo
aunooieaieyo iie iiaoo aucaaoue iaiiieiaiea, iayniinoue. E oiio aea
aieueoeinoai ec ieo eaaei caiaieoue neiaaie ?onneiai ycuea. *ai,
neaaeai, niiioaiiue eo/oa neo/aeiiai eee iai?aaeiaia?aiiiai e
naiii?iecaieueiiai? Eee ia?eoao /anoi oiio?aaeytho aianoi ?aaainoai,
?aaiii?aaea. Eieaeae aianoi ia?ac, iaeee. Yeneethceaiue aianoi
eneeth/eoaeueiue. A oae eaeea ni/aoaiey noeeenoe/anee ianiaianoeiuo
neia, eae iai?eia?, nieea? aeoiu, aeaaa aaeieieno?aoeee, noi?aoaeo
ie?oaa, aeeai iaiiieiatho aaniiuaaeioth a?eaiaaeianeoth (onoaie
*aoeeiai) ioeaieo “niaoaiuey ycueia – o?aioeocneiai n ieaeaai?iaeneei”!

Iaoa iianaaeiaaiay ?a/ue, e niaeaeaieth, noaiiaeony a?oaie,
noeeenoe/anee nieaeaiiie. E, eae yoi ie ia?aaeienaeueii, i?e/eia caeanue
– oao aea iiauo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oneiaeyo naiaiaeu neiaa e aeaniinoe.

I?ioeannu nieaeaiey noeey ?a/e, aa aoeueaa?iiai ia?oaeaiey aeaeaei ia
iiau, iie oa?aeoa?iu aeey ia?eiaeia iauanoaaiiuo ia?aai?ioia,
?aaiethoeee, ?aaeeeaeueiie aeaiie?aoecaoeee oeeaaeia aeecie e iauaiey
ethaeae. Oae auei e iinea Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee, oae aea auei
e o ian iinea 1917 aiaea.

Aiai?y i eeiaainoeeenoe/aneie noi?iia aoeueaa?ecaoeee ycuea, oianoii
iaiiiieoue neiaa aeaaeaieea E. A. Ua?au i noeeenoe/aneie ycueiaie
ia?niaeoeaa, i “aiaaonoaa aioiauo aiciiaeiinoae au?aaeaoue ?aciiia?aciua
iooaiee”.

Noeeenoe/anee ia?acai?/eaia e iiaeaa?aeaiiia aoeueaa?ecaoeee ?a/aaia
oiio?aaeaiea ?ac?ooaao au?aceoaeueioth no?oeoo?o ycuea.

A noaouea “Nia?aiaiiue ?onneee eeoa?aoo?iue ycue” (1939a.) E. A. Ua?aa
ienae ia yoii oae: “Eeoa?aoo?iue ycue i?eieiaao iiiaia, iaaycuaaaiia aio
?acaiai?iui ycueii e aeeaeaeoaie, e oaeei ia?acii e niaa?oaaony aai
?acaeoea, ii eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea ii i?eniiniaee iiaia e naiae nenoaia,
iiaei?aaea e ia?aaeaeaa aai niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii.

Ii aaaea, anee ?acii?iaeiia, aannenoaiiia ii nouanoao iiaia caeueao
eeoa?aoo?iue ycue e aaciaaeaaeii enii?oeo aai nenoaio au?aceoaeueiuo
n?aaenoa, eioi?ua oieueei iioiio e au?aceoaeueiu, /oi ia?acotho nenoaio.

Oiaaea ianooiaao eiiaoe eeoa?aoo?iiio ycueo, e iiiaiaaeiaoth ?aaioo ii
aai nicaeaieth i?eoiaeeony ia/eiaoue nuciiaa, n ioey. Oae auei n
eaoeineei ycueii, eiaaea ia aai iniiaa noaee nicaeaaaoueny nia?aiaiiua
?iiaineea ycuee”.

Ia aeae, eiia/ii, Aia, oaeaeaoue iai eiiaoe ?onneiai eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea
a ?acoeueoaoa ?ac?ooaiey aai noeeenoe/aneie nenoaiu e niuneiaie
no?oeoo?u aoeueaa?eciaie, aea?aiieciaie, iaiainiiaaiiuie eiiycu/iuie
caeinoaiaaieyie, a oi i?inoi iaoiaeui n iei ia?auaieai.

A nia?aiaiiii ?onneii eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea, eae e ai anyeii aeeaii,
?acaeaathuainy ycuea, i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiia naeeaeaiea
o?aaeeoeeiiii-eieaeiuo n?aaenoa au?aaeaiey n iaeoiaeii-?acaiai?iie
noeoeae, n nioeeaeueiuie e oa??eoi?eaeueiuie aiai?aie a eo nia?aiaiiii
ninoiyiee. Iaeiaei ecaanoiia “?ane?aiiuaiea” e iaiiaeaiea eeoa?aoo?iuo
ii?i ia aeieaeii i?eaiaeeoue e eo ?ac?ooaieth, e noeeenoe/aneiio
nieaeaieth naiie ?a/e, e aa ia?oaeaieth e aoeueaa?ecaoeee.

A yoeo oneiaeyo ii?iaoeaiinoue, i?aaeeueiinoue ?a/e i?eia?aoatho iniaia
e aeooaeueiia cia/aiea. A yiioo iiaaeoeo oaoiieiaee, anaiauae e iieiie
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee, ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeaeaioaoieee e ae?oaeo aeinoeaeaiee
nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee aeoaieia ciaiea ?iaeiiai ycuea, aeaaeaiea aai
eeoa?aoo?iuie ii?iaie iaycaoaeueii aeey anyeiai ia?aciaaiiiai /aeiaaea e
iao?eioa.

I?aaeeueiinoue ?a/e – ooiaeaiaio ycueiaie eoeueoo?u; aac iaa iao e ia
iiaeao auo ie eeoa?aoo?iiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ianoa?noaa, ie eneonnoaa
aeeaiai e ienueiaiiiai neiaa.

4. EAENEEA

«Aa?iae eeaaee nooiaiue iiae». I?eaaaey yoo o?aco eae i?eia?
iai?aaeeueiiai neiaioiio?aaeaiey neia, niaoaiey niunea, I. Ai?ueeee
e?iie/anee oeacuaae , /oi aaoi? «ia caia/aao iaeioi?iai ianoiaenoaa
iaaeaeo nooiiae iiae e nooiaiueth eanoieoeu». Neo/ae iiaeiaiiai niaoaiey
aeeceeo ii cao/aieth, ii aeaeaeeo ii cia/aieth eee ?anoiaeyueony a naieo
cia/aieyo neia (ycueiaaaeu iacuaatho oaeea neiaa ia?iieiaie)
ano?a/athony a i?aeoeea ?a/e aeiaieueii /anoi.

Eeanne/aneei noae i?eia? niaoaiey aeaaieia iaeaaaoue e iaaeaaaoue. «Ii
iaeae iaeueoi e oeyio e auoae ia oeeoeo» – aeaaie iaeaoue (iaeaaaoue)
cia/eoaeueii aeoeaiaa naiaai nia?aoa. Iaeiaei a iiaeiaiuo i?eia?ao
eeoa?aoo?iay ii?ia ia noaiao caueuaoue oaeia oiio?aaeaiea. Aeaei a oii,
/oi aeaaie iaeaaaoue iaicia/aao aeaenoaea, ia?auaiiia ia ae?oaie
i?aaeiao (a a?aiiaoe/aneii cia/aiee yoiai neiaa, oi anoue ei iiaeao
auoue e /aeiaae, e aeeaioiia, e iaiaeooaaeaiiue i?aaeiao), iai?eia?:
iaeaaaoue ?aaaiea, iaeaaaoue eiiy iiiiiie, iaeaaaoue eoeeo. Anee aea
aeaenoaea ia?auaii ia aai i?iecaiaeeoaey, oi oiio?aaeyaony aeaaie
iaaeaoue (iaaeaaaoue), iai?eia?: iaaeaoue iaeueoi, iaaeaoue oeyio,
oooee, eaeioe, ia?/aoee, i/ee, eiiueee e o.ae. Iaeiaei a eiino?oeoeeyo n
i?aaeeiaii ia aeaaie iaaeaoue (iaaeaaaoue) iaicia/aao aeaenoaea,
i?iecaiaeeiia ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaiio eeoeo eee i?aaeiaoo, iai?eia?:
iaaeaoue ooao ia ?aaaiea, iaaeaoue /aoie ia e?anei.

Niaoaiea aeeceeo ii cao/aieth neia iaoiaeei a i?aaeeiaeaiee «Ii iieiue
iaaaaea a aii?inao eneonnoaa» (aianoi iaaaaeaea – «iaeinaaaeouee,
iaeiia?aciaaiiue /aeiaae»; a iaaaaea – yoi «a?oaue, iaainieoaiiue
/aeiaae»).

Noa?ue, aeaaiee, noa?eiiue, aaooee, ae?aaiee. I?eaaaey yoio ?yae
neiiieiia-i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, ienaoaeue Ae. E. Oiiaecei oae iauyniye
niuneiaia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ieie: «Noa?i oi, /oi aeaaii auei iiai;
noa?eiiui iacuaaaony oi, /oi aaaeaony ecaeaaia. Aeaaii oi, /aio iiiai
a?aiaie i?ioei. A ianoiyuai oiio?aaeaiee aaooei iacuaaaony oi, /oi io
noa?inoe enoeaei eee iaaaeeeinue. Ae?aaia oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeei a
ioaeaeaiiaeoeo aaeao». Aeey eeethno?aoeee yoeo cia/aiee Ae. E. Oiiaecei
aeaao oaeia i?iaeieaeaiea: «Noa?ue /aeiaae iaueiiaaiii ethaeo
aniiieiaoue aeaaiea i?ienoanoaey e ?anneacuaaoue i noa?eiiuo iau/ayo; a
anee ii neoi, oi a noiaeoeao aai iaeaeaoue iiiai aaooiai. Neo i?eia?ia
noieueei iuia, neieueei auaaei e a ae?aaiea a?aiaia».

Eoae, aeeth/aiiua a neiiieie/aneee ?yae neiaa iaicia/atho i?eia?ii iaeii
e oi aea e iaeiia?aiaiii ia iaeii e oi aea, a ieo caeeth/ai iauee aeey
ieo niune, ii ?aciua aai iooaiee. Eiaiii iineaaeiea i?e oiio?aaeaiee
neiiieiia ea?atho ?ieue: iie iaiiieiatho iooaiee e?anie o ooaeiaeieea,
ithainu caoeia o iocueaioa. Yoe iooaiee iaeaaei oeiaeoue. Iai?eia?,
aoaeao cao?oaeieoaeueii auynieoue oiieea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
i?eeaaaoaeueiuie: niaeue, o?aa?ue, ioaaaeiue, ioaeanoaaiiue,
aanno?aoiue, iaono?aoeiue. A yoi ?acee/ea aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaoao:
anee iineoaeai iauaai cia/aiey yaeyaony neiai niaeue, oi o?aa?ue –
«aeoeaii niaeue, ia aiyueeny iianiinoe, eaeouee iaano?a/o ae»; ioaaaeiue
– «i/aiue niaeue, aioiaue niaa?oeoue iinooiie, o?aaothuee aanno?aoey»;
ioaeanoaaiiue – «ia oa?ythuee i?enoonoaey aeooa ia?aae eeoeii
iianiinoe»; aanno?aoiue – /?acau/aeii niaeue, ii ia ciathuee no?aoa»;
iaono?aoeiue – «oaeie, eioi?iai ie/oi ia ono?aoeo».

Eaeie aea ec neiiieiia aua?aoue a eiie?aoiie neooaoeee? Caeanue iai
iiiiaatho ?aciua neiaa?e e ienaoaee. Oiaiea iieueciaaoueny neiiieiaie –
aaaeiaeoaa oneiaea iaiaauaiey ?a/e, i?eaeaiey ae ?aciiia?acey e
au?aceoaeueiinoe. Aiaaoay neiiieieea ?onneiai ycuea iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue
iacieeeaiai iiaoi?aiey iaeieo e oao aea neia a oaenoa, /oi ia?aaeei
iaaethaeaaony, iai?eia?, i?e oiio?aaeaiee aeaaieia ?a/e (neacaoue,
ni?ineoue, ioaaoeoue, niiaueoue e o.ae.). A iaaeaeo oai ienaoaee oiaei
eniieuecotho iiaeiaiua aeaaieu ia oieueei aeey ono?aiaiey eaene/aneiai
iaeiiia?acey, ii e aeey aieaa au?aceoaeueiie ia?aaea/e niuneiauo e
ecia?aceoaeueiuo iooaieia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo neooaoeeth auneacuaaiey.

Neiiieiu iiaoo ?acee/aoueny aeiiieieoaeueiuie iooaieaie,
oa?aeoa?ecothueie /aeiaaea, ianoaiiaeo e o.ae. e i?eaeathueie
auneacuaaieth, e i?eia?o, oa?aeoa? oi?aeanoaaiiinoe, a?oaiaaoinoe eee,
eia/a, noeeenoe/aneie ie?aneie ( neiaa iaeo?aeueiua, eieaeiua,
?acaiai?iua, i?inoi?a/iua): ?ano?aoeoue (iaeo?.) – ?ano?aiaee?eoue
(?aca.), i?eciaee (iaeo?.) – neiioiiu (eieaei.). Iiaeiaiua iiiaou
aeathony a oieeiauo neiaa?yo.

Iiaoo ?acee/aoueny neiiieiu oaeaea yeni?anneaiie ie?aneie: ?iaeeia
(iaeo?.) – io/ecia (aunie.), eeoei (iaeo?.) – oa?y (a?oaia).

A neiiieie/aneii ?yaeo neiaa iiaoo ?aniieaaaoueny eee ii i?eciaeo
oneeaiey i?eciaea, eee, iaiai?io, ii i?eciaeo aai ineaaeaiey.

?acaeaaaeee, /eoaeee, eo?eeee. Yoe neiaa aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaotho a
?onneii ycuea, ii noa?a eo eniieueciaaiey ia?aie/aia iaeanoueth
i?inoi?a/ey e iaeoiaeii-?acaiai?iie ?a/e. Iaaei inoa?aaaoueny aiineoue
iiaeiaiua neiaa a ienueiaiioth ?a/ue eee onoiue aeieeaae. Ia oe?aoatho
?a/aaie eaeneeii e aoeueaa?ii-i?inoi?a/iua neiaa e au?aaeaiey, eee
aoeueaa?eciu, i?ioea i?iieeiiaaiey eioi?uo a eeoa?aoo?iue ycue oae ?acei
aunooiae I. Ai?ueeee. A noaouea «I ycuea» ii ienae: «Ai?ueaa ca i/euaiea
eiea io «iaoaea/iuo o?ac» oae aea iaiaoiaeeia, eae e ai?ueaa i?ioea
?a/aaie aanniuneeoeu. N aaee/aeoei iai?/aieai i?eoiaeeony oeacaoue, /oi
a no?aia, eioi?ay oae oniaoii – a iauai – ainoiaeeo ia aunooth nooiaiue
eoeueoo?u, ycue ?a/aaie iaiaaoeeny oaeeie iaeaiuie neiaa/eaie e
iiaiai?eaie, eae iai?eia?, «io?a», «aoca», «aieuieoue», «oaiaoue» e
o.ae.»

E niaeaeaieth, e a ?aaioao iaeioi?uo nia?aiaiiuo ienaoaeae ano?a/athony
eniieueciaaiiua aac noeeenoe/aneie iaaeiaiinoe i?inoi?a/iua e
aoeueaa?iua au?aaeaiey.

Aeaeaei ia ana, /oi ano?a/aaony a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie i?ica, aeinoieii
iiae?aaeaiey.

«Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue neaaeothuea oaeou». Iiaeiaiua ni/aoaiey ano?a/athony
aeiaieueii /anoi a ?aciuo oaenoao, aeiiieiyy niaie ieia?u noeeenoe/anee
iaiieiioeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee. Eo iaaeinoaoie, ia anaaaea caia/aaiue
ieoouei eee aiai?yuei, caeeth/aaony a oae iacuaaaiie oaaoieiaee –
iiaoi?aiee iaeieo e oao aea eee iaeiiei?aiiuo neia.

Aianoa n oai oaaoieiaey ia?aaeei eniieuecoaony ienaoaeyie eae iniaue
noeeenoe/aneee i?eai aeey iiae/a?eeaaiey eaeeo-eeai aeaoaeae a iienaiee,
aeey nicaeaiey au?aceoaeueiinoe e o.ae.

Iiaeii i?eaanoe oaeie i?eia?:

Neea neea aeieacaea!

Neea neea – ia ?iaiy.

Anoue iaoaee i?i/iae iaoaeea,

Anoue iaiiue no?aoiae iaiy.

(A. Oaa?aeianeee)

sscueiaua n?aaenoaa neaaeoao ?anoiaeiaaoue yeiiiiii. Anee «e?aoeinoue –
nano?a oaeaioa» (A. *aoia), oi iiiaineiaea – a?aa yniinoe.

Ia?aaeei ano?a/athony ni/aoaiey neia, ianoieueei aeeceeo ii au?aaeaaiiio
eie iiiyoeth, /oi iaeioi?ua ec aeaiiuo neia noaiiayony niaa?oaiii
eeoieie. Iai?eia?, «aia?aua ciaeiieoueny» (ciaeiieony «ai aoi?ie ?ac»
oaea iaeuecy); «iu aei?iaeei eaaeaeie ieiooie a?aiaie» (eeoiaa neiai
a?aiaie; aeiionoeiu ni/aoaiey eaaeaeay ieiooa ?aai/aai a?aiaie, eaaeaeay
ieiooa o/aaiiai a?aiaie e o.i.); «aa?iooueny a ai?aea ianyoea»,
«aeanyoue ?oaeae aeaiaa» ; «iaienae naith aaoiaeia?aoeth» e o.ae.
sscueiaaaeu iacuaatho oaeia yaeaiea ieaiiaciii (eceeoanoaii).

Iiiaineiaea eaaei ia?aoiaeeo a ionoineiaea. Aicueiai oaeie i?eia?: «Iao
eiiaiaee? aua ca 15 ieioo aei naiae nia?oe aue aeea» (i?aaeeiaeaiea
acyoi ec oooi/iie ianie o?aioeocneeo nieaeao ia/aea XVI a.). Iiaeiaiua
i?eia?u oa?aeoa?ecothony ia oieueei eiie/aneie iaeaiinoueth e
au?aaeaieai naiii/aaeaeiie enoeiu, ii e i?enouei ei iiiaineiaeai: aaaeue
ynii, /oi /aeiaae aeea aei naiae (a ia /oaeie) nia?oe.

Eeoiea neiaa naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia oieueei i noeeenoe/aneie
iaa?aaeiinoe, iie oeacuaatho oaeaea ia ia/aoeinoue i?aaenoaaeaiee aaoi?a
i i?aaeiaoa auneacuaaiey.

«Iaeuecy iaaeeaee?iaaoue naieie iaycaiiinoyie». Iao?oaeii aeaeaoue
iaoianoiinoue oiio?aaeaiey a yoii i?aaeeiaeaiee neiaa iaaeeaee?iaaoue:
aeaei ia oieueei a onoa?aeii aai oa?aeoa?a, ii e a iaii?aaaeaiiii
eniieueciaaiee eiiycu/iiai ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth neiaa aianoi aiieia
iiaeoiaeyuaai ii oneiaeyi aeaiiiai eiioaenoa ?onneiai neiaa
i?aiaa?aaaoue.

Ano?a/aaony ceioiio?aaeaiea eiiycu/iuie neiaaie e a ycuea ia/aoe,
iai?eia?: «Iauaa aieiaiea i?eaeaeae iiaue aiiin, auaaoaiiue ia aoiaeiie
aeaa?e o/?aaeaeaiey»; «Ea?aeeiaeueiue ioieo ?anoiaeaeaiey iaaeaeo
o/anoieeaie aeeneonnee iooai eiii?iienna aue naaaeai ia iao»; «Ieeaeea
?aciiu ia aeaenoaiaaee ia oi?yiiai nii?ueea, e ieeaeea a?aoiaiou ia
iiaee aai ia?aoaaaeeoue»; «I?aoi? aiai?ee aanueia iaiuuaiii, /oi
i?iecaaei ia aoaeeoi?eth iaaaoeaiue yooaeo».

A.A.Aaeeineee ni?aaaaeeeai ienae: «A ?onneee ycue ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe
aioei iiiaeanoai eiino?aiiuo neia, iioiio /oi a ?onneoth aeeciue aioei
iiiaeanoai eiino?aiiuo iiiyoee e eaeae. Iiaeiaiia yaeaiea ia iiai…
Ecia?aoaoue naie oa?ieiu aeey au?aaeaiey /oaeeo iiiyoee i/aiue o?oaeii,
e aiiaua yoio o?oae ia?aaeei oaeaaony. Iiyoiio n iiaui iiiyoeai, eioi?ia
iaeei aa?ao o ae?oaiai, ii aa?ao e naiia neiai, au?aaeathuaa yoi
iiiyoea». A.A. Aaeeineee ienae oaeaea, /oi «iaoaea/ii i?eaeoiaiiia
?onneia neiai aeey au?aaeaiey iiiyoey ia oieueei ia eo/oa, ii
?aoeoaeueii ooaea eiino?aiiiai neiaa».

«Aaaeeo neiiaa aieiao». Aeaeiia ianoi a iaoae ?a/e caieiatho
o?acaieiae/aneea iai?iou – oeaeueiua ii niuneo, onoie/eaua
neiaini/aoaiey, iau/ii ia?acii ia?aaeathuea caeeth/aiiia a ieo cia/aiea.
Eo i?aeiouanoai ia?aae ioaeaeueiuie neiaaie eee naiaiaeiuie ni/aoaieyie
neia ninoieo a oii, /oi iie eaaei aini?iecaiaeyony a aeaea aioiauo
?a/aauo oi?ioe, iicaieytho yeiiiieoue a?aiy e oneeey, iaeaa/atho
i?ioeann iauaiey, i?eaeatho ?a/e ia?aciinoue e au?aceoaeueiinoue.
Iai?eia?: aea?aeaoue eaiaiue ca iacooie – «eiaoue ne?uoii ceua iaia?aiey
ii ioiioaieth e eiio-ieaoaeue», aeiai n iaiai ia nuuaoue – «o?oaeii
iaeoe», ec iooe aeaeaoue neiia – «i?aoaaee/eaaoue» e o.ae. Nthaea aea
ioiinyony oaeea ia?aciua au?aaeaiey, eae no?aeyiue ai?iaae, o?aaeaiue
aiee, eaioeaey?neay e?una, iaaeaaaeuey oneoaa e iiiaea ae?oaea.

I/aiue /anoi o?acaieiae/aneea iai?iou eniieuecotho ia oi/ii, eae,
iai?eia?, a i?eaaaeaiiii caaieiaea, aaea aianoi i?eiyoiai neiiy aieiao
oiio?aaeaii iai?aaeeueiia «neiiaa aieiao». Eiia/ii, o?acaieiaeciu ia
neaaeoao oieeiaaoue aoeaaeueii.

Eneaaeaiea o?acaieiaeciia, e niaeaeaieth, ano?a/aaony e a ia/aoe,
iai?eia?: «Ii acye naaa eueaeioth /anoue» (aianoi eueaeioth aeieth);
«Ana aaeeiiaeooii iio?aaiaaee i?eiiaeiyoue caiaaan iaae yoie no?aiiie
enoi?eae» (aianoi i?eiiaeiyoue caaano); «Oi?ioee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai
ai anai iieacuaaoue ia?acaoe naiei iiae/eiaiiui» (aianoi neoaeeoue
ia?acoeii eee iieacuaaoue i?eia?).

Ano?a/athuaany o ienaoaeae ia?a?aceiaeaiea o?acaieiae/aneeo iai?ioia
iiaeao iineoue oa?aeoa? iniaiai noeeenoe/aneiai i?eaia, oeaeue eioi?iai
– iaiiaeaiea eniieuecoaiiai au?aaeaiey. Iai?eia?, o I. A.
Naeoueiaa-Uaae?eia: Oeaico?a i?eaueea niaaoue naie ni?aaeiue iin a naiia
nayoeeeua iunee ienaoaey; o A.I. *aoiaa: Acaeyioe ia ie? n auniou naiae
iiaeeinoe (aianoi n auniou naiaai aaee/ey); Ia?aue aeaiiue aeei auoae,
eaaeaony, eiiii (anoaaeaii neiai aeaiiue).

5. A?AIIAOEEA

-Nouanoaeoaeueiua.

«Iiaeaeoa iia iia nooei!» Oae, eiia/ii, ieeoi ia neaaeao: ana ciatho, e
eaeiio a?aiiaoe/aneiio ?iaeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo eiy nouanoaeoaeueiia nooe. Ii
aua a i?ioeii aaea auea a oiio?aaeaiee oi?ia caei a cia/aiee «cae».
Onoa?aea ia oieueei yoa oi?ia, ii e ae?oaay i?eia?ii a oii aea cia/aiee
– neiai caea.

?a/ue, oaeei ia?acii, eaeao i eieaaaieyo a ?iaea iaeioi?uo
nouanoaeoaeueiuo. *oi n/eoaoue i?aaeeueiui, eaeoth oi?io i?aaeii/anoue:
aieuea? eee aieuea?a, aee?ao eee aee?aoa, nee?ae eee nee?aea, noaaaiue
eee noaaiy? Anee, ii aeaiiui nia?aiaiiuo neiaa?ae, iaa oi?iu a eaaeaeie
ia?a ?aaiii?aaiu, oi a ae?oaeo neo/ayo oaeiai ?aaiii?aaey a eeoa?aoo?iii
ycuea iao.

*aua anaai oi?iu aeaineiai ?iaea caiaiyeenue oi?iaie ioaeneiai ?iaea,
eae aieaa yeiiiiiuie (auea?uo oeaeiai neiaa – ieii/aiey). A ae?oaeo
neo/ayo neacaeny caeii aiaeiaee – «?aaiaiea ia aieueoeinoai». Aieiao
iitho oaiioiai (a ia «oaiioiueth»), e?uoo e?itho oieai (a ia «oieueth»),
ii eeoei auei iie?uoi aoaeueth (ia «aoaeai»). Iau/ii a yoeo neo/ayo
i?iyaeyaony enoi?e/aneay eciai/eainoue ii?iu: auea iaeia ii?ia, noaea
ae?oaay.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae ieeaeeo cao?oaeiaiee ia aeieaeii aeinoaaeoue
ii?aaeaeaiea a?aiiaoe/aneiai ?iaea oaeiai iaeoiaeiiai neiaa, eae eioa.
Aaaeue nouanoaoao i?inoia i?aaeei: ianeeiiyaiua eiaia nouanoaeoaeueiua
eiiycu/iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iaicia/athuea iaiaeooaaeaiiua i?aaeiaou,
ioiinyony e n?aaeiaio ?iaeo (ath?i, aeaii, iaeueoi, eaoa, iainia, oinna,
oaene e ae?.), ii neiai eioa ninoaaeyao iaeii ec iaiiiaeo eneeth/aiee e
ioiineony e ioaeneiio ?iaeo (aa?iyoii, ii nayce ni neiaaie eioae, eioee,
auoiaaaoeie ?aiaa). Noaei auoue, ioaeii aiai?eoue e ienaoue /a?iue eioa,
a ia «/a?iia eioa». Iaeiaei i?aeoeea ?acaiai?iie ?a/e ia anaaaea
n/eoaaony n oai?aoe/aneeie iieiaeaieyie e neeiiia au?aaieaaoue
aiaeiae/iua ii?iu, iiyoiio iu neuoei a ?acaiai?a e /eoaai a ia/aoe
ni/aoaiea «/a?iia eioa», eioi?ia oaea noaei aeiionoeiui aa?eaioii onoiie
?a/e.

Iaeia ec nanoa? – aeaeeioaea?oa, ae?oaay – a?a/eoa. Caeanue neiai
a?a/eoa auiaaeaao ec eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea. Ia aucuaatho ieeaeeo
aic?aaeaiee iiaeiaiua oi?iu n noooeenii -eo(a), aeaaii nouanoaothuea a
ycuea: ii?oieoa, oea/eoa e ae?. Ii oaeia ia?aciaaiea, eae a?a/eoa ia
i?eia?aei i?aa a?aaeaeainoaa a eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea.

*oi eanaaony oi?i n noooeenii -o(a), oi iie eiatho aieaa oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a ?acaiai?iie ?a/e: aeaeeioaea?oa, eiiaeoeoi?oa,
nae?aoa?oa e ae?. Iaeiaei caeanue iaaethaeaaony ia?aie/aiea, naycaiiia
ia oieueei ni nieaeaiiui noeeenoe/aneei iooaieii, ii e n aiciiaeiie
iayniinoueth ec-ca i?enouae iaeioi?ui neiaai yoiai oeia aeaocia/iinoe:
oaeea neiaa, eae a?eaaaee?oa, aeieoi?oa, eiaeaia?oa iiaoo auoue iiiyou e
eae iacaaiea aeaenoaothuaai eeoea, e eae iacaaiea aeaiu ii i?ioannee,
?iaeo caiyoee ioaea.

Eiiaaea iiyaeythony o?oaeiinoe, eiaaea aicieeaao iio?aaiinoue a ia?aoiii
ia?aciaaiee, o.a. ioaeii iiaeia?aoue niioaaonoaothuoth oi?io ioaeneiai
?iaea e iacaaieth eeoea aeaineiai iiea. Eaeia aoaeao niioaaonoaea e
neiao iaoeienoea? Iai?aoeaaaony: iaoeieno, ii yoi neiai eiaao ae?oaia
cia/aiea, e aeey iacaaiey eeoea ioaeneiai iiea, eca?aaoaai yoo
i?ioanneth, eniieuecoaony iienaoaeueiia au?aaeaiea ia?aien/ee ia
iaoeiea. Aeey iaicia/aiey niioaaonoaey e neiao aaea?eia a oooeo eiiaaea
oiio?aaeytho «aaea?oi», a anee ii-na?ueaciiio, oi a?oeno aaeaoa. Aac
anyeeo o?oaeiinoae auee ia?aciaaiu ia?u aeiy?ea-aeiy?,
naeia?ea-naeia?ue.

«Au ia ciaaoa iaaeaaeia». Eiia/ii, oaeia iacaaiea iiaeao auoue
oiio?aaeaii oieueei a oooeo, iaeiaei eiaaony iaiaei neo/aaa, eiaaea
auai? i?aaeeueiie oi?iu iaaeaaea eiai nouanoaeoaeueiuo ia oae oae i?ino.

Eciaiyaony ee i?e neeiiaiee ia?aay /anoue oaeeo iniaiai oeia neiaeiuo
neia, eae aaaii-?anoi?ai? Ia Iineaa-?aea eee ia Iineaa-?aea? E iyoiio
ai?aey eee e iyoiio ai?aeth? ?iiaiu AEtheue Aa?ia eee ?iiaiu AEthey
Aa?ia?

I?e ?aoaiee iiaeiaiuo aii?inia iu iaecaaaeii ano?a/aainy n enoi?e/aneie
eciai/eainoueth ii?iu e ?anneiaieai ycuea ia ?aciua noeee, aeaaiui
ia?acii eieaeiue e ?acaiai?iue. Iu noaeeeaaainy ia oieueei n
a?aiiaoeeie, ii e ni noeeenoeeie. Eae aiai?ee iaeei o/aiue: «noeeenoeea
ia/eiaaony oai, aaea eiaaony aiciiaeiinoue auai?a». Eia/a aiai?y, oai,
aaea iao auai?a neiiieiia (eaene/aneeo eee a?aiiaoe/aneeo), oai anoue
ii?iaoeaiay eaeneea, a?aiiaoeea, ii iao noeeenoeee.

Neiaa oeia aaaii-?anoi?ai aeiioneatho aeaiyeea iaaeaaeiua oi?iu a
caaeneiinoe io noeey e oi?iu ?a/e: a eieaeiie ?a/e neeiiythony iaa /anoe
(a aaaiia-?anoi?aia), a ?acaiai?iie, neeiiiie e yeiiiiee ycueiauo
n?aaenoa, – oieueei aoi?ay /anoue (a aaaii-?anoi?ai).

Aeaiyeea oi?iu iaaethaeathony e aeey ni/aoaiey Iineaa-?aea: a eieaeiie
?a/e neeiiythony iaa /anoe (ia Iineaa-?aea), a ?acaiai?iie ?a/e ia?aay
/anoue i?e neeiiaiee ia eciaiyaony (ia Iineaa-?aea, ca Iineaa-?aeie).

I?e neeiiaiee oaeeo ni/aoaiee, eae iyoia ai?aey (auei ia?aciaaii io
ni/aoaiey iyoia /enei ianyoea ai?aey), eciaiyaony oieueei ia?aay /anoue:
e iyoiio ai?aey (ia «e iyoiio ai?aeth», oae eae iieo/eeinue au, /oi a
aiaeo eiaaony «iyoue ai?aeae»).

Eiino?aiiua eiaia, ieai/eaathueany ia niaeaniue caoe, neeiiythony oaeaea
i?e iaee/ee oaieeee eee ianeieueeeo eiai iiae?yae, iai?eia?: ?iiaiu
AEthey Aa?ia, ?anneacu Ia?ea Oaaia, neacee Oaina E?enoeaia Aiaea?naia. A
onoiie ?a/e ano?a/aaony ionooieaiea io yoiai i?aaeea («?iiaiu AEtheue
Aa?ia», «?anneacu Ia?ea Oaaia»), /oi iiaeii iauynieoue aeeyieai iau/iie
aeey onoiie ?a/e ianeeiiyaiinoueth eiaie i?e iaee/ee io/anoaa («o Eaai
Eaaiu/a», «e Na?aae Iao?iae/o»).

Auiee /aoeo /ath eee /aoeo /ay? I?e auai?a oi?iu ?iaeeoaeueiiai iaaeaaea
aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea nouanoaeoaeueiuo ioaeneiai ?iaea oeia iiiai
(ia?iaeo – ia?iaea), eeeia?aii (naoa?o – naoa?a), /aoea (/ath – /ay)
aiai?yuea e ieoouea a i?aaeiaa a?aiy enoiaeeee ec oiai, /oi oi?iu ia
-o(-th) o aauanoaaiiuo e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo nouanoaeoaeueiuo eiaee
eiee/anoaaiiia cia/aiea, iaicia/aee /anoue oeaeiai, a iioiio
i?aaeii/eoaeenue a iiaeiaiuo ni/aoaieyo (enoi?ey ia?iaea, aaeecia
naoa?a, aeon /ay – aac eiee/anoaaiiiai cia/aiey). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
oi?io ia -o(-th) oauaatho, i?ienoiaeeo au?aaieaaiea ii iniiaiie iiaeaee,
ia naycaiiie n ii?aaeaeaiiui cia/aieai, e ia?yaeo n oi?iie /aoea /ath
aiieia aeiionoeia (a iiiaeie aeaaea i?aaeii/eoaaony) /aoea /ay.
Iineaaeiaa yaii i?aiaeaaeaao, anee i?e nouanoaeoaeueiii eiaaony
ii?aaeaeaiea: /aoea e?aieiai /ay, ia/ea aeooenoiai oaaaea.

« – Anoue o aan a i?iaeaaea naaaeea oi?oa“?» Oaeie aii?in i?eoiaeeony
eiiaaea neuoaoue a a eiiaeeoa?neie. I?aaeaea /ai aeaoue ioeaieo oi?ia
«oi?oa“» e ae iiaeiaiui, iinoaaei eaeie aii?in: eae eo/oa neacaoue –
o?aeoi?u eee o?aeoi?a? Ioaao: e oi e ae?oaia – a caaeneiinoe io oneiaee
iauaiey (ienueiaiiay eee onoiay oi?ia ?a/e), io oa?aeoa?a oaenoa (aai
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e eieaeiiio eee ?acaiai?iiio noeeth) e o.ae. Iaoianoii
auei au a oaoie/aneie eieaa, a noaoenoe/aneii iaci?a, a noaouea ia
yeiiiie/aneoth oaio iaienaoue: «Iiaua o?aeoi?a oa?aeoa?ecothony
oaeeie-oi oaoie/aneeie iieacaoaeyie». Ii aiieia aeiionoeii oiio?aaeoue
yoo oi?io a ae?oaie neooaoeee – a aeeaie aanaaea, a i/a?ea ia
«aanaiithth» oaio: Ia/aeanue iinaaiay eaiiaiey. O?aeoi?a oaea auoee a
iiea.

Eieaeiui oi?iai (n ieii/aieai -u eee -e) i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiu oi?iu
?acaiai?iua (aeiaia`i?u-aeiaiai?`a, eino?`oeoi?u – eino?oeoi?`a ),
i?ioanneiiaeueiua (i?iae`aeoi?u – i?iaeaeoi?`a, ?aae`aeoi?u –
?aaeaeoi?`a), i?inoi?a/iua (eiaeai`a?u – eiaeaia?`a, e`aeoi?u –
eaeoi?`a, oio??u – oioa?`a).

Iaeioi?ua oi?iu ?aca?aie/eaathony a caaeneiinoe io i?enouaai ei
cia/aiey: eiiaeoeoi?`a – «?aaioieee o?ainii?oa» – eiiae`oeoi?u –
«i?eniiniaeaiey a oaoieea», eaaa?`y (aiaiiua, ieiia?neea, oo?enoneea) –
e`aaa?e – «iieeoe/aneea a?oiie?iaee».

E iiaeiaiui aea neo/ayi ioiinyony oi?iu (iaeioi?ua ec ieo oiio?aaeythony
oieueei ai iiiaeanoaaiiii /enea) iao`a – «auaeaeaiiua oeo?u» – iao`e
(eocia/iua), niaie`y – «iaoa» – n`iaiee – «aeeaioiua», n/ao`a –
«aeieoiaiou» – n/?ou – «i?eai?, acaeiiua ioiioaiey».

Enoi?ey ?anniao?eaaaiuo oi?i iieacuaaao iaoeeiiiue ?ino eiee/anoaa neia
n ieii/aieai -a(-y) ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo aeaoo noieaoee. A
na?aaeeia XVIII aaea I. A. Eiiiiinia ioiaoee oieueei o?e neiaa,
oiio?aaeyaoeany a eiaieoaeueiii iaaeaaea iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea n
ieii/aieai -a aac ia?aeeaeueiie oi?iu ia -u(-e): aie`a, aeac`a, ?ia`a
(ainoiaeyuea e oi?ia aeaienoaaiiiai /enea i?e iacaaieyo ia?iuo
i?aaeiaoia), a oaeaea iaiiiaea neiaa n ia?aeeaeueiuie oi?iaie. A
na?aaeeia XIX aaea oaeeo neia auei oaea iiiai aeanyoeia, a a iaoe aeie
eo ian/eouaaaony nauoa oanoenio.

Anoanoaaiii anoaao aii?in: i?e oaeie aeoeaiinoe oi?i ia -a(-y) ia
caoeanoiao ee iaoo ?a/ue eo noeoeeiue ?ino, ia ainoi?aeanoaotho ee
ni/aoaiey oeia «iiuoiua aooaaeoa?`a» , «aieaeneea ia?ioiae`a», «naaaeea
oi?o`a»? Iao, yoa iianiinoue eeoa?aoo?iiio ycueo ia oa?iaeaao, iioiio
/oi ii iaoiaeeony iiae aicaeaenoaeai oaeoi?ia, ?aaoee?othueo ii?iaoeaiia
oi?iiia?aciaaiea.

Oae, a caueoo oi?i eiaeai`a?u, oio??u iiaeii i?eaanoe oaeia iieiaeaiea:
neiaa yoe i?eoee ec o?aioeocneiai ycuea, a eioi?ii oaea?aiea anaaaea
iaaeaao ia eiia/iue neia neiaa (a aeaiiii neo/aa ia -a? e -??), e n
oaeei oaea?aieai aeaiiua neiaa aioee a ?onneee ycue, i?e/ai oaea?aiea
i?e neeiiaiee nio?aiyaony ia yoii neiaa. Neiai eiaeaia? a aaeeinoaaiiii
/enea – eiaeai`a?a, eiaeai`a?o, eiaeai`a?ii, ia eiaeai`a?a; ai
iiiaeanoaaiiii /enea nio?aiyaony oi aea oaea?aiea, a yoi eneeth/aao
oi?io ia -a (iia naia o?aaoao oaea?aiey, e iu iioa?yai aai ia neiaa
-a?).

Oaeei ia?acii, caeinoaiaaiiua neiaa ia -a?, -?? n oaea?aieai ia yoii
neiaa ia?acotho oi?io eiaieoaeueiiai iaaeaaea iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea n
ieii/aieai -u (ia -`a).

Neiaeiaa ianoieo aeaei n oaeeie neiaaie, eae aeieoi?, einiaeoi?, o?aeoi?
e o.i., o.a. neiaaie ia -i?, ainoiaeyueie e eaoeineiio ycueo: aeey ieo
iao aaeeiiai i?aaeea ia?aciaaiey ?anniao?eaaaiie oi?iu, ii iiaeii
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny iaeioi?uie iaueie oeacaieyie.

Neiaa ia -i?, iaicia/athuea iaiaeooaaeaiiua i?aaeiaou, ia?acotho, eae
i?aaeei, oi?io ia -u (oaeea neiaa i?eiaaeeaaeao e eieaeiie eaeneea e
eniieuecothony a ooieoeee oa?ieiia): aeaoaeoi?u, eiaeoeoi?u,
eiiaeainaoi?u e o.i.

Neiaa ia -i?, iaicia/athuea iaeooaaeaiiua i?aaeiaou, eiatho a iaeieo
neo/ayo ieii/aiea -a, a ae?oaeo – -u, a eiaiii: neiaa, iieo/eaoea
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e oo?aoeaoea eieaeiue oa?aeoa?, iau/ii eiatho
ieii/aiea -a: aee?aeoi?`a, i?ioanni??a e ae?.; neiaa aea, nio?aiythuea
eieaeiue iooaiie, oiio?aaeythony n ieii/aieai -u: aaoi?u, eiino?oeoi?u,
eaeoi?u, iiaaoi?u, i?aoi?u e ae?.

Ana i?enoonoaothuea iaiaaeeee aieia… ?acaa caeanue iiaeao aicieeiooue
aii?in i oi?ia /enea? Aaaeue o eaaeaeiai ec i?enoonoaothueo, iaaei
iieaaaoue, auea naiy aieiaa, a ia iaeia, iauay ia anao. E anee ia
anaaaea aa?ia iiaiai?ea «Neieueei aieia, noieueei oiia», oi ia ii
i?e/eiai oece/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

E ana-oaee i?aaeeueiaa neacaoue …iaiaaeeee aieiao. I?e oeacaiee ia oi,
/oi iaeeiaeiaua i?aaeiaou i?eiaaeeaaeao eaaeaeiio eeoeo ec anae a?oiiu
eee iaoiaeyony a iaeeiaeiaii ioiioaiee e iei, oi?ia aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea
oiio?aaeyaony a cia/aiee iiiaeanoaaiiiai. Iai?eia?: Ana iiaa?ioee aieiao
a noi?iio aeaa?e; Iineeueueee ianee ia aieiaa ei?ceiu n iaiuaie. O A.N.
Iooeeia: Nieaeaou noiyee n iiouaiiie aieiaie; Iiaaeaii a?eoue ei
ai?iaeo.

– *eneeoaeueiua.

«O?enoa oaaaie aeaeueoa». Ii i?aaeeo, /eneeoaeueiua niaeanothony a
einaaiiuo iaaeaaeao, e?iia aeieoaeueiiai, n nouanoaeoaeueiuie; noaei
auoue, ioaeii: o?aiynoaie oaaaie aeaeueoa.

E ana aea a ?acaiai?iie ?a/e, a oai aieaa a i?inoi?a/ee iiaeiaiua
iai?iou ano?a/athony. A anee acyoue ni/aoaiey n ninoaaiuie
/eneeoaeueiuie, oi ia?ooaiey eeoa?aoo?iie ii?iu iaaethaeaaony a
onoii-?acaiai?iie ?a/e aua /aua. Iai?eia?, ni/aoaiea aeueaii n 687
eeethno?aoeeyie iiiaea i?i/eoatho nei?aa oae: …n oanouenio naiueaeanyo
ainueiueth eeethno?aoeeyie (neeiiyy oieueei iineaaeiaa neiai), /ai …n
oanouethnoaie naiuethaeanyoueth ainueiueth (eee ainaiueth – aieaa noa?ay
oi?ia) eeethno?aoeeyie, oioy ii i?aaeeo a ninoaaiii eiee/anoaaiiii
/eneeoaeueiii aeieaeiu neeiiyoueny ana ia?acothuea aai /anoe.

Eieaeiiio aa?eaioo n o?aiynoaie ?oaeyie (/eneeoaeueiia niaeanoaony n
nouanoaeoaeueiui) i?ioeainoieo ?acaiai?iue aa?eaio n o?aiynoaie ?oaeae
(/eneeoaeueiia oi?aaeyao nouanoaeoaeueiui, eae yoi eiaao ianoi a oi?ia
eiaieoaeueii-aeieoaeueiiai iaaeaaea o?enoa ?oaeae). Neiai ouny/a iiaeao
aunooiaoue eae a ooieoeee /eneeoaeueiiai, oae e a ooieoeee n/aoiiai
nouanoaeoaeueiiai, iiyoiio iii eee niaeanoaony n nouanoaeoaeueiuie (n
ouny/ueth ?oaeyie), eee oi?aaeyao ei (n iaeiie ouny/ae ?oaeae). A oi?ia
iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea iii oi?aaeyao nouanoaeoaeueiui: n o?aiy ouny/aie
?oaeae.

Yoi aea neiai eiaao ?aciua oi?iu aeieoaeueiiai iaaeaaea a ninoaaa
eiee/anoaaiiuo e a ninoaaa ii?yaeeiauo /eneeoaeueiuo: a?oc aanii a
ouny/o iyouenio oiii (ia «a ouny/a iyouenio oiii») – a ouny/a
aeaayouenio ainaiueaeanyo naaeueiii aiaeo (ia «a ouny/o aeaayouenio
ainaiueaeanyo naaeueiii aiaeo»).

Iioiae i?iaeieaeaeny 22 nooie. Eae i?i/eoaoue auaeaeaiiia ni/aoaiea
/eneeoaeueiiai n nouanoaeoaeueiui? Ana ianoieo aeaaiiieo/ii, iiea ia?aae
iaie ni/aoaiey 20 (aeaaaeoeaoue) nooie, 21(aeaaaeoeaoue iaeie) nooee, ii
noieo aeiaaaeoue aua iaeie nooee, e iu ieaaeainy a o?oaeiii iieiaeaiee:
iaeuecy neacaoue ie «aeaaaeoeaoue aeaa nooee», ie « aeaaaeoeaoue aeaa
nooee» , e inoaaony, eae «aeano io/ayiey», – «aeaaaeoeaoue aeaia nooie»,
ii yoi ia niioaaonoaoao eeoa?aoo?iie ii?ia. Aeaei a oii, /oi oaeea
neiaa, eae nooee, o.a. nouanoaeoaeueiua, eiathuea oi?io oieueei
iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea, ni/aoathony ia n eiee/anoaaiiuie /eneeoaeueiuie
aeaa, o?e, /aou?a, a n niae?aoaeueiuie aeaia, o?ia, /aoaa?i, iaeiaei yoe
iineaaeiea ia iiaoo aoiaeeoue a ninoaaiia /eneeoaeueiia: iii aeieaeii
auoue ia?aciaaii ec iaeieo eiee/anoaaiiuo /eneeoaeueiuo. Ia
niioaaonoaotho iiyoiio eeoa?aoo?iie ii?ia ano?a/athueany a ia/aoe
ni/aoaiey: «Ia?aue eneonnoaaiiue niooiee Caiee i?inouanoaiaae eae
einie/aneia oaei 92 nooie»; «Caoai niiaa aeeth/athony aeaeaaoaee aeey
oi?iiaeaiey, eioi?ia i?iaeieaeaaony 123 nooie».

A ii?iaoeaiie ?a/e yoo a?aiiaoe/aneoth iani/aoaaiinoue /eneeoaeueiuo 22,
23, 24 e o.i. n nouanoaeoaeueiuie, ia eiathueie oi?iu aaeeinoaaiiiai
/enea, iu i?aiaeieaaaai eee caiaiie oaeeo neia (iioiae i?iaeieaeaeny 22
aeiy), eee eciaiaieai eiino?oeoeee (iioiae i?iaeieaeaeny a oa/aiea
aeaaaeoeaoe aeaoo nooie).

I?e nouanoaeoaeueiuo iiaeieoeu, naie, /anu, ueioeu e o.i. a aiaeiae/iuo
neo/ayo a aeaeiaie ?a/e eniieuecoaony anoaaea neiaa oooea: aeaaaeoeaoue
aeaa oooee iiaeieoe; eoieee naie a eiee/anoaa aeaaaeoeaoe aeaoo (oooe).

– Ianoieiaiea.

«Yoo naeaaeeo ia?aaeaea iia i?iaeaaueoea Ethaa, aaeaeo aea?eie iiaiaeu
iia oaea i?eiaoeaaea». I?aaeeiaeaiea ia no?aaeaao iayniinoueth eee
aeaocia/iinoueth: ia aucuaaao niiiaiee ioianaiiinoue ianoieiaiey iia e
nouanoaeoaeueiiio naeaaeea. E ana aea i?e /oaiee iaaieueii aicieeaao
aia/aoeaiea eo?ueaciinoe. Iauyniyaony yoi oai, /oi ee/iia ianoieiaiea
iau/ii caiaiyao aeeaeaeoaa i?aaeoanoaothuaa nouanoaeoaeueiia a oi?ia
oiai aea ?iaea e /enea, e yoa oi?iaeueiay naycue iiyaeyaony a niciaiee
/eoaoaey aua aei oiai, eae onoaiaaeeaaaony naycue niuneiaay.

Ionthaea ia neaaeoao, /oi oaenou, a eioi?uo yoio oi?iaeueiia iieiaeaiea
ia niaethaeaii, noeeenoe/anee iaiieiioeaiiu.

Iaeiaei ia?aaeei a iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo aicieeaao iayniinoue eee
nicaeathony eo?ueacu, iai?eia?: «Nano?a iinooieea a a?oenoe/aneoth
o?oiio, iia anei?a oacaeaao ia aano?iee». Eoi oacaeaao: nano?a eee
o?oiia?

Eceiaeaiiia auoa ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia oiio?aaeaiea ianoieiaiey eioi?ue,
aunooiathuaai a ooieoeee nithciiai neiaa a i?eaeaoi/iii i?aaeeiaeaiee:
caeanue oiaea iau/ia naycue ianoieiaiey n aeeaeaeoei i?aaeoanoaothuei
nouanoaeoaeueiui a oi?ia oiai aea ?iaea e /enea, iiyoiio i?e iayniinoe
nayce aicieeaao aeaocia/iinoue, iai?eia?: «Iu aanaaeiaaee n aaaeouei
aeoa?ii noiee/iiai oaao?a, eioi?ue i?eaoae ia aano?iee a iao ai?iae»
(i?eaoae aeoa? eee oaao??).

– Aeaaieu.

– *oi ou /oaeeoue?

– ss aiana ia /o..

Aeaei a oii, oi iaeioi?ua aeaaieu ia?aie/aiu a ia?aciaaiee eee
oiio?aaeaiee ee/iuo oi?i (eo iiyoiio iacuaatho iaaeinoaoi/iuie
aeaaieaie). Nthaea ioiinyony, ai-ia?auo, aeaaieu, eioi?ua iaicia/atho
i?ioeannu, niaa?oathueany a aeeaioiii e ?anoeoaeueiii ie?a, a iaaeeaie
i?e?iaea e ia i?enouea /aeiaaeo, iai?eia?: ?aeaaaoue, neaiceoue,
oaeeoueny, oa/ue e ae?.; oaeea aeaaieu ia oiio?aaeythony a 1-i e 2-i
eeoea aaeeinoaaiiiai e iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea (iaeuecy aaaeue neacaoue:
«y oaeo», «iu ?aeaaaai» e o. i.).

Ai-aoi?uo, iaeioi?ua aeaaieu ia ia?acotho oi?iu 1-ai eeoea
aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea ianoiyuaai eee aoaeouaai i?inoiai a?aiaie ii
oiiaoe/aneei i?e/eiai: oaeea aeaaieu, eae iiaaaeeoue, /oaeeoue,
oaaaeeony, i/ooeoueny, iuooeoue e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea, ia?aciaaee au oi?io
n iai?eau/iuie aeey iaoaai neooa ni/aoaieyie caoeia: «oaaaeo»,
«oaaaeaeo», «oaaaeth», «i/o/onue», «iuouo» e o.i. ?aaeei oiio?aaeyaony
oi?ia «i?aa?aaeo» (io i?aa?aaeeoue). A aeaaieu aoceoue, aea?ceoue,
ooceoue ia ia?acotho oai?aoe/anee aiciiaeiuo oi?i «aoaeo», «aea?aeo»,
«ooaeo», iioiio /oi «ianoi oaea caiyoi»: yoe oi?iu nouanoaotho io /aua
oiio?aaeythueony aeaaieia aoaeeoue, aea?aeaoue, ooaeeoue.

Eae aea ana-oaee iinooiaoue a neo/ayo, iiaeiaiuo i?eaaaeaiiiio a
caaieiaea? Auoiae caeeth/aaony a eniieueciaaiee iienaoaeueiuo iai?ioia e
ia aeoiath /oaeeoue, noiath iiaaaeeoue, oi/o oaaaeeoue, iiao i/ooeoueny,
iiiuoathnue iuooeoue e o.i.

– Niaeaniaaiea /eaiia i?aaeeiaeaiey.

ss aeaaii ia aeaeae iieo a?aoa e nano?o. I?eaaaey yoio i?eia?, iaeei
ecaanoiue ycueiaaae aeiaaaee: «Yoi ia ii-?onnee e ?aaeao neoo» (o.a.
eiaeinue a aeaeo, /oi i?aaeeueiue aa?eaio – …iiaai a?aoa e nano?o).
?a/ue eaeao, oaeei ia?acii, i oii, a eaeii /enea noaaeony ii?aaeaeaiea,
ioiinyuaany e aeaoi eee ianeieueeei nouanoaeoaeueiui – iaeii?iaeiui
/eaiai.

Aii?in ?aoaaony oae: anee ii niuneo ni/aoaiey ynii, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea
ioiineony ia oieueei e aeeaeaeoaio nouanoaeoaeueiiio, ii e e
iineaaeothuaio, oi iii noaaeony a oi?ia aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea, iai?eia?:
Aeeeee aonue e ooea i?eeaoaee ia?auie (E. N. Oo?aaiaa) – ?a/ue ia iiaea
eaeoe i aeeeii aona e aeiiaoiae ooea.

Iaeiaei a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iiaeao aicieeiooue iayniinoue
ioiineoaeueii oiai, naycaii ee ii?aaeaeaiea oieueei n aeeaeaeoai
nouanoaeoaeueiui eee ni anai ?yaeii iaeii?iaeiuo /eaiia, yoi
ii?aaeaeaiea noaaeony a oi?ia iiiaeanoaaiiiai /enea, iai?eia?: niiniaiua
o/aiee e o/aieoea, iaeei ia?acaiiua caeaiue e iyni e o. i. A aeaeiaie
?a/e, aaea aaaeia yniinoue e oi/iinoue, eniieuecothony eiino?oeoeee
aoi?iai oeia.

6.OAeA?AIEA

O?oaeiinoe ?onneiai oaea?aiey naycaiu, eae ecaanoii, n aeaoiy aai
iniaaiiinoyie; ai-ia?auo, iii ?aciiianoii, o.a. ia naycaii n
ii?aaeaeaiiui neiaii a neiaa, eae a iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ycueao; ai-aoi?uo,
iii iiaeaeaeii, o.a. iiaeao ia?aoiaeeoue n iaeiiai neiaa ia ae?oaie i?e
eciaiaiee (neeiiaiee eee ni?yaeaiee) neiaa. A?yae ee ioaeii aeieacuaaoue
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oiaoue i?aiaeieaaaoue yoe o?oaeiinoe: iaauee i?aaeeueii
noaaeoue oaea?aiea yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui yeaiaioii ?a/aaie eoeueoo?u.

Aanue aii?in a oii, eae eo i?aiaeieaaaoue. I?aaaea, iu ia oae oae
aaniiiiuiu; anee oaea?aiea a ia/aeueiie oi?ia iiiaeo e iiiaeo neia
i?eoiaeeony caiiieiaoue (eee i?iaa?youe, ii/aua caaeyaeuaay a
neiaa?e-ni?aai/ieee), oi aeey oaea?aiey a i?iecaiaeiuo oi?iao neia oao
eee eiuo a?aiiaoe/aneeo ?ac?yaeia nouanoaotho naie i?aaeea, oioy
i?eiaiaiea eo ia noieue i?inoia. Iai?eia?, eaeeie i?aaeeaie
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny, /oiau onoaiiaeoue ii?iaoeaiia oaea?aiea a oi?ia
?iaeeoaeueiiai iaaeaaea aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea io neiaa aonue (ao?ny eee
aony?), a oi?ia aeieoaeueiiai iaaeaaea io neiaa ?aea (?a?eo eee ?aeo?) e
o.ae.? Ana aea aeey iiiaeo iiaeiaiuo neo/aaa eiathony ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?aaeea.

Oae, iiiaea iaeiineiaeiua eiaia nouanoaeoaeueiua ioaeneiai ?iaea eiatho
a ?iaeeoaeueneii iaaeaaea aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea oaea?aiea ia ieii/aiee:
aeio – aeioa?, aeei – aeeia?. I?aaeeueiui, iaeiaei, yaeyaony
i?ieciioaiea ao?ny (aony? ia niioaaonoaoao eeoa?aoo?iie ii?ia).

Nouanoaeoaeueiua aeaineiai ?iaea a oi?ia aeieoaeueiiai iaaeaaea
aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea eiatho /anoe/ii oaea?aiea ia ieii/aiee, /anoe/ii ia
iniiaa, iai?eia?: 1) aaaeo?, aioao?, a?iith?, aaeiao?, ciath?; 2)
ai??iaeo, ai??iio, noa?io, u?eo.

N oaea?aieai ia ieii/aiee i?ieciinyony iaeioi?ua iaeiineiaeiua eiaia
nouanoaeoaeueiua aeaineiai ?iaea 3-ai neeiiaiey i?e oiio?aaeaiee n
i?aaeeiaaie a e ia a ianoiyoaeuenoaaiiii cia/aiee: a ainoe?, ia aeaa?e?,
ia oeaie?.

Nouanoaeoaeueiua 3-ai neeiiaiey a ?iaeeoaeueiii iaaeaaea iiiaeanoaaiiiai
/enea /anoe/ii i?ieciinyony n oaea?aieai ia iniiaa, /anoe/ii – n
oaea?aieai ia ieii/aiee: 1) aicau?oaiiinoae, oa?einoae; 2)aaaeiiinoa?e,
ieineinoa?e.

Eiiaaea i?aaeeiae i?eieiatho ia naay oaea?aiea, e oiaaea neaaeothuaa ca
ieie nouanoaeoaeueiia (eee /eneeoaeueiia) ieacuaaaony aacoaea?iui. *aua
anaai oaea?aiea ia?aoyaeaatho ia naay i?aaeeiae ia, ca, ii, iiae, ec,
aac, iai?eia?: ia? aiaeo, ia? iiao, ca? ii/ue, ca? noi, ii? aeaia, ec?
eano, ec? aeaeo, aa?c aanoe, aa?c oieeo.

Iiiaea e?aoeea i?eeaaaoaeueiua (aac noooeenia a iniiaa eee n noooeenaie
-e-, -e-, -i-, -ie-) eiatho oaea?aiea ia ia?aii neiaa iniiau ai anao
oi?iao, e?iia aaeeinoaaiiiai /enea aeaineiai ?iaea, aaea iii ia?aoiaeeo
ia ieii/aiea, iai?eia?: aea?aeai, aeaaeia?, aea?aeii, aea?aeiu; e?i?oie,
e?ioea?, e?i?oei, e?i?oee.

Cao?oaeiaiey aucuaaao iinoaiiaea oaea?aiey o ?yaea aeaaieia a oi?ia
i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie. Caeanue iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e a?oiiu:

1) aeaaieu n oaea?aieai ia iniiaa ai anao oi?iao: aeoue – aee, ae?ea,
ae?ei, ae?ee; oeoue – oee, oe?ea, oe?ei, oe?ee.

2) aeaaieu n oaea?aieai ia iniiaa ai anao oi?iao, e?iia oi?iu aeaineiai
?iaea, a eioi?ie iii ia?aoiaeeo ia ieii/aiea: a?aoue – a?ae, a?aea?,
a?a?ei, a?a?ee; niaoue – niae, niaea?, nia?ei, nia?ee;

3) aeaaieu n oaea?aieai ia i?enoaaea ai anao oi?iao i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie,
e?iia oi?iu aeaineiai ?iaea, a eioi?ie iii ia?aoiaeeo ia ieii/aiea:
aeiaee?oue – aei?aeee, aeiaeeea?, aei?aeeei, aei?aeeee; caiy?oue –
ca?iye, caiyea?, ca?iyei, ca?iyee.

Aiaeiae/iia yaeaiea iaaethaeaaony o iaeioi?uo no?aaeaoaeueiuo i?e/anoee
i?ioaaeoaai a?aiaie: a oi?ia aeaineiai ?iaea a iaeieo neo/ayo oaea?aiea
iaaeaao ia ieii/aiea, a ae?oaeo – ia i?enoaaeo.

A aeaaieao ia -e?iaaoue auaeaeythony aeaa a?oiiu: n oaea?aieai ia e e n
oaea?aieai ia a (ia?aua ninoaaeytho aieueoeinoai).

Neiaeiaa aeaei ianoieo, eiaaea o?aaoaony auynieoue oaea?aiea a
ia/aeueiie oi?ia neiaa: aaaeue neia a ?onneii ycuea ia?iiiia eiee/anoai,
e iiiaaeiayony niaoeeaeueiua neiaa?e, a eioi?uo iiaeii iaeoe ioaeiia
neiai.

I?aaaea, ia iaycaoaeueii i?iaiaeeoue iienee ai anai ninoaaa ?onneie
eaeneee. ?acee/atho o iineoaeae ycuea ianneaiue e aeoeaiue neiaa?ue.
Iiae ia?aui eiathony a aeaeo neiaa, eioi?ua /aeiaae iiieiaao, ii ?aaeei
eee ii/oe nianai ia oiio?aaeyao. Aeoeaiue neiaa?ue (neiaa, eioi?ua /anoi
oiio?aaeythony a ?a/e oiai eee eiiai /aeiaaea) ian/eouaaao ia aieaa
iieooi?a ouny/ aaeeieoe. N?aaee ieo oieueei iiaoo ieacaoueny neiaa, a
oaea?aiee e i?ieciioaiee eioi?uo /aeiaae eniuouaaao o?oaeiinoe eee
niiiaiey.

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