in Belarus (1905 – 1914 gg)
One of the most influential trends in Russia’s socio-political movement
of the early XX century was a conservative-protective or
right-monarchist. The ideological foundations of Russia’s conservatives
had been laid earlier, but the institutionalization of the supporters of
“escort” of traditional institutions comes at a time when Russia seized
the revolutionary elements. The answer to the radicalization of society
was to consolidate the social forces, spoke in support of autocratic
power. Across the country, have appeared numerous reactionary
organization. Among them are emerged in St. Petersburg society to
actively fight against the revolution and anarchy, the Society of
Russian patriots in Moscow, Russian Brotherhood in Kiev, the Patriotic
Society in Tiflis, the tsarist-popular Russian society in Kazan, the
Union “white flag” in Nizhny Novgorod and Dozens of other monarchist
organizations, who called the people to fight the revolution.
The most significant pravomonarhicheskimi associations, which
researchers often refer to political parties were “Russian assembly”,
“Russian Monarchist Party, the Union of Russian people” and “Union of
Russian People. Their software and statutory positions were practically
identical. The main aim, they saw “the development of Russian national
identity and a strong association of the Russian people of all classes
and conditions of work for the common benefit of our dear motherland –
Russia one and indivisible” [1, pp.35]. Ideologues of conservatism
advocated own way of development of Russia, against the extension of
Russia’s ground of liberal Western values and democracy. They defended
the then existing political, socio-economic, religious, spiritual and
domestic foundations of Russia’s life. Into the sacred preservation of
Orthodoxy, autocracy, and unlimited Russian national championships, they
saw the benefit of Russia.
In 1906 – 1908 gg. pravomonarhicheskoe movement becomes the most massive
socio-political trend. More than 200 towns and villages of Russia empire
acted monarchist organization. However, statistics on the Black Hundreds
in different sources differ. It is estimated that the Police Department,
at that time there were about 410 thousand people. Modern scholar Yu
Kir’yanov put the figure at 399.5 thousand people [2, pp.31]. Themselves
as Black Hundreds numbers in its ranks a greater number of like-minded
people – up to three million people, given as active participants in the
movement, and passive – those who shared the ideology of the movement,
as well as those who served in close to the Black Hundreds of local
associations, such as Orthodox Brotherhood, the Society horugvonostsev,
temperance societies, etc. These differences relate to the fact that
virtually all the then Party of Russia had the vague criteria for
It should also be noted most vsesoslovny character pravomonarhicheskogo
movement that set him apart from parties and organizations of liberal
and radical left orientation. It was attended by workers and peasants,
artisans and tradesmen, merchants and intellectuals, clergy and nobles,
servants. In this leadership role in the movement played by the
representatives of the Russian Orthodox clergy and the Russian national
Main Vserossiiskoi pravomonarhicheskoy organization (the party) was the
“Union of Russian People” (NRC), formed in St. Petersburg on Nov.8, 1905
His department acted in most provinces of Russia empire. The most active
they have been represented in Belarus and Ukraine, where much was the
influence of anti-Russian forces: there were more than half of all
members of the NRC. For example, in Belarus NRC offices operated in 36
towns and numbered in its ranks about 29.5 thousand members [3, pp.41].
Thus, in the Vilna province acted 2 organizations (1000), Vitebsk – 9
(10071), Grodno – 3 (900), Minsk 15 (4420), Mogilev – 20 (11652) [4,
In addition to offices of the Union of Russian People in Belarus
operated ideological kinship NRC organizations such as Society
“Peasant”, founded in late 1905, and emerged in 1906, “Russian suburban
Union”, which was later reorganized as the “Russian margins of society.”
In 1908, a split society, “peasant” emerged “The Belarusian society”,
which included representatives of the intelligentsia, civil servants and
peasants. Around the same time in Minsk, has become one organization
operate more right-wing “Orthodox Brotherhood, and in Grodno and Vitebsk
were working party branches” of the right order.” In 1910, in Grodno was
created “Russian National Union of Grodno province” [5, pp.270 – 271].
In general, all pravomonarhicheskie organizations of Belarus, despite
some differences, stood on the positions of “zapadnorusizma”, believing
that the Belarusians, together with the Great Russians and Little
Russians are part of a three-pronged Russian people. Not recognizing the
existence of a separate independent nation of Belarus, the ideologues
Black Hundreds, at the same time pointed out some cultural specifics of
the Belarusian people and the political, ethno-cultural and spiritual
development associated with the strengthening of Belarusian Russian
nation, which was supposed to be a dominant empire in Russia, the
dominant position. The main threat to this in the western provinces, in
their opinion, acted Polish element, whose influence is strongly felt in
all spheres of public life. In this regard, in an open letter to members
of the State Duma and the Russian society is one of the most active
members of the right movement in Belarus DV Skrynchenko noted: “This is
not left” tuteyshego “no nobility, no petty gentry or merchant class,
which would not be okatolicheny and opolyacheny. There are only a few
newly arrived Russian landowners.russian is really just “pop da slave.
And opolyachennye the local nobles, headed by fanatical priests,
hurrying to finish here what they had done the old aristocratic Poland,
ie okatolichit and opolyachit peasantry ” [6, pp.4]. As the principal
means of combating the growing influence of the Polish-Catholic, he sees
the policies aimed at ensuring that “the Belarusian people to return to
his Russian Orthodox… consciousness. Such a policy is in its essence,
according Skrynchenko, there is no Russification, and depolonizatsiya.
“For its part, say – goes on to say in his message – that local people
return to it from time immemorial Russian national consciousness is not
the policy of” Russification “. Do not use this bugbear to our side:
this term is offensive to the local Russian population – the
Belarusians. Here in ancient something more fundamental Russia than, for
example, in Penza, and she is covered by the Polish lacquer. And the
whole question of “Russification” here boils down to in order to clear
the Polish lacquer ” [6, pp.7]. Among the measures designed to
strengthen Russian influence in Belarus, DV Skrynchenko calls to
establish knowledge of the history of the local region, the publication
of relevant literature, the appointment to all positions in the local
civil and military administration solely those of the Orthodox religion,
the establishment of special protivokatolicheskih missionaries. Also
offered throughout the province to introduce compulsory education in the
Russian Orthodox-national basis [6, pp.14 – 15].
Pravomonarhicheskie association took an active part in the elections to
the State Duma. And the creation of some of them as time and was due to
conduct of election campaigns. For example, the “Russian suburban Union,
which advocated a” united and indivisible Russia, “the elimination of
the economic impact of the Polish landowners and the Jewish bourgeoisie
and demanded to prohibit participation in the elections of Poles and
Jews, with the support of government agencies and the Orthodox Church
held in the Duma II 15 Deputies. In elections to the Duma, III and IV of
the right in the Belarusian provinces received an absolute majority of
seats. Thus, in the last Duma, 30 of the 36 deputies from Belarus were
in the right block [6, pp.292].
Thus pravomonarhicheskoe movement was an important factor in social life
of Belarus in the period. Activities of right-wing parties, unions and
other companies contributed to the formation of the local population
all-Russian identity and the consolidation of the forces working on the
one hand, against the revolution, on the other hand, the imposition of
Belarusian foreign to the Polish influence.
1. Klykov, V. Union of Russian People in the struggle for Russia / V.
Klykov. – Moscow: Russian Journal, 2005.
2. Kiryanov, YI Number and composition of the extreme right-wing parties
in Russia (1905 – 1917 gg): Trends and causes of changes / YI Kiryanov.
// National History. – 1999. – № 5. – S.29 – 43.
3. Bondarenko, KM Russian and Belarusian monarchists in the beginning of
XX century. / KM Bondarenko, DS Lavrinovic. – Mogilev, 2003.
4. Suvalova, EN The history of social movements and political parties:
Textbook. manual / EN Suvalova. – Minsk, 2005.
5. Tile, VN Participation of the Orthodox clergy in the diocese of
Grodno elections IV Gosudarstvennuyui Duma / VN Tile / Заходні рэгіен
Belarus eyes have appeared гісторыкаў i краязнаўцаў: ZB. Sci. Art. –
Grodno: GrDU, 2006.
6. Skrynchenko, DV The tragedy of the Belarusian people / DV
Skrynchenko. – Minsk, 1908.
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