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Фонетика как отрасль языкознания

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E????ay ??? ? y????eth ? ??:

O???a ?e ???ue y?e???y

I?i

1. O???a ?e ??a (I??? ???ey e ???u ????)

2. E?????ey c??a ?? a ?????e ? ? ?????? ??????e

3. E??e???y ???o ??? ? ? ???ey???i ?????yi

4. E??e???y ????o ??? ? ???o ???eyoe?

5. E?????ey ????o ??? ? ??o ?????y e ????o ???

6. ??ue ???a ?? a ????????

7. N??e ?????

1. O???a ?e ??a

O?a??? – ??? y????ey, ??ath?e ??e ?? e ???? ???? y?? (??e, ??????ey,
??????? ????ey ??? a ???th ???o).

I??? ???? – ??ay nay? ??o ???, ????? e ????? ??th. O???a ????o ? ???
y???th ???th, ? e ?????oth ???o ??ai ???a: ??? ????????i ????, a ??a
?????oth ??????? ???? y??? e ???y?a ? ???ey? y?ea. O???a ??????o ????
y??ey ?e y???u y???e ???u, ???? ?y ????ey ?? e ?????e a ?????oth ???oth
??o, ?c ?? ???a ?????.

O? ???a ????:

1) ???i-???????e (a???y???e). E???? ?? ?? n ??e ??ey ?i ???ey: E?? ???
?? ???otho a ?i ??????; A??? ?e ???? ????a ?y?e. A?y?? ? ?? ??? e o. ae.

2) ?????? (?????). ??????? ?oe ?e ????a ???a e ????o ?i ????? ???????:
???o (???), ?? (????o), ??????.

3) ??????? ??? (???????). E?/?o ???e ??? a y??, ????o ????.

I???a ?????? ???u e ????:

A? ???u ???? ?eyony ? ????? e ???????a.

N????a ???u — ???u, ???a ??i ???? a ??? ??: ??e, ?i?, ?????? ??a (?????a
????u, ??), ?????? ??u (????).

O?????y ??a — ???e ??, ????eyth?e ??e e?????i-????a ?e??i, ????? n ??o
??? ???e.

N???a (???e ??) — ???e ?i????e ??u, ???????y ??? ????ae e ???? ????i.
I?? ??o ???e ? ?y???? (?e ????), ???? o???a ? ??ue e????i.

O?????a ??i (?????y ????a) — ??ue ??u, ?????ay ??i ????i ????i.

N?a — ????ay ???a ???e ???e.

C?e — ?????y ?????ay ???a.

N??????? ???u (??????a ????) — ???u, ?o?? ????ath?y ? ?????: ?????? ???u
(?i), ??i???a (????) e ?????? (?? ?e ??????).

O???a — ????a a ?? ?????? ???u a ?y? ????? ??? ?e ??? ??????e (y???)
??a.

O? — ???i-?????? ???e ??, ???eyth??y ????? ???u ???i? ???a.

O?i — ???? ??, ???y ???ey?ny ?????i ????? ???, ??????o ? ???o ???e.

Ae?????ue — ??y ???ey ???? ??.

???? ????

O??e? ???y ? ??th, ???o??oth, ?????oth e ?????oth.

I?ay ???? ??????o ???????, ?????a ?y ????i ??y ?? ???? y??a. I?ay ????
????o ???ea ???? ???? ???? e ??????a ?i a ??? y??o ?e ?????e ??? ??,
??????o ??????? ????y ??? a ???i ???, ??????o ??????th ???, ?????a ??? e
?????o ?????? ??? – ??i, ??????o ??a ???? ???ey ????i i??a ? ?o?, ??e e
??a ???a ???u.

N?????ay ???? ????ey? ???? ??e y?? n ???e y???. N????a?a ??? e ???i y??a
a ??oth ???ue ??i ?y ??, ??u ???ue e ???ue ?????e ??? y??. Ii ??a
??????a i???? ?? e ? ??????? ???i y??. E??a ????a ?????o y??a ???? ?????
a ??ue ? ???e.

E?????y ???? ?????? ???? y?? ? ??y??e ???? ?????i ???a ???e (??? ? ???e
?y??ey i??i ?????i y?? — ?i ????y ? ?ay??).

I?????y ???? ??????o ???? ??e ?????i y?? ? ?????? y?? (?? ??i ?????? ??e
?????? y??).

2. E?????ey ??? ?? a ?????e ? ? ?????? ??????e

A???y???y ??????y ??? ?? ??a ??, ?i ????ny ????i ?????ey, ?c ?a ? ???? a
??????? ????. I??i ?a ??e?i ????a. I????, ?i ??i ???ue ??a ??e?th e
y???oth ?????oeeth ???, ?? ???? ? ? ?????ie ???u. Y? e ?? ???i, ??a a
?????? ?????yo ?y??? ???u ?y ???a ?????? ??????e ???, o. a. ? ????, —
??????.

Ia ??a ???a ??a e ???? ?????ay ??????y. A ?e ???????i ????ny ???? (????,
?????n?a) ????????? ??? ?? ? ???o ????: ??? — ???a ??e, ??ea — ???? e o.
ae.

*? ? ??a ??? ??a?

A? ??e ?ey?y ? ?? e ??. C?? n ???????, ??????? e???ey? — ??. C??,
???ath?a a ?????a ?y? ???????o ????e, ???th?y ???. A ?? ???a ??e ???th?y
n ???? ????o ?y?e. O?u ???th?y ?e ??????e ?e?-?? ??y??? a ???e ?a. A???
— ???a ??e, ??? ????a — ???a. Ni??? ????a — ???a ? ??? ?e??th ??, ???a
??? — ???a n ???? ??.

Any?e ???e ?? ?? ???o ? ??? ???o ????e, o. a. ??a?? ?????? ???u (?
???tho ?????e). A?e ? ???i ? ???a ? a??????e ?e ???u y?o ???? a ???, a ?
?????? ?e — ???ey ??????e a ????o, ? ????y ??? y?? ??a.

I? ????o ????yo ?/?? ???a ???ue ?a ????ey? ??e ?e ? ???o ?????? ?????a —
?a “????a” ? ??i?? ???? ??o. Ia ???a ???? n?? ???ey ??e ???u: ??i, ?i
????? ????u ? ???u 500 Aoe e 1000 Aoe.

N??? ??, ???y a ???o ?????a n ??e ????e ???????e, ??????y: a ?i ???ath?y
???u, ???ath?a n ??????, e ?ny?y ??? ??i?. N??? ??a ?????o ??e ?ae

3. E?????ey ???o ??? ? ? ???ey???i ?????yi

A??? ??????th?y ? ??oth?i ???? ???ey???i ????i:

1. ?yae, o.a. a ?????e ? ??, ??y ??ue y?? ??????ny ?e ??????. I? ???a
???? ??e y?? ???oth?y ???? ???a (e, y), ???e – ???a (u), ??? – ??? ???a
(i, o).

2. I??i, o.a. a ?????e ? ??, ?e ??? ???iy? ??? y??, ???y ?????? ???e
????? ???. ??e?ath?y ???a ????, ?e, ??a ???y, ???a (a) e ????, ? ?? o??
(e, o).

3. E?????y o.a. a ?????e ? ??, ??????ny ? ???ey?y ??? ?????i ?oy??o ???
?a ?e ?o.

????th?y ????? (???, ???????a), ??., [?], [?] e ?????? ???a, ??., [i],
[?].

4. I??e??y o.a. a ?????e ? ??, ???a ??ay ????a, ???yy ??a ???a ????ue
?????? ??c ?o e ?n, ?e ?o. I??? (???????) ???a, ??., [o], [a], ????y?y n
??? “???i” ???i.

5. Ae???. A ?y? y??a (?a., ?i., ?o., ???????e, ???e, ?????, ???e) ?e
????? ?e a??? ???ey?e ???a ???tho ??, ?a? ???o ???????yth?y ? ??????
?????ey, o.a. ???ath?y, ??., ???a ???a: [a], [i], [?], [?] e ??? ???a:
[a:], [ i:], [?:], [u:].

6. Ae?????ey

Ai ??? y??o ???a ?ey?y ? ????? e ????. I???? – y? ??e?y??? e ?????e
????? ???e.

Ae??? – ???e ???e ??, ??iy?e ? ?? ???, ?????? a ?? ??. Y? ??? ?? ??, o
???ai ???ey?y ????ny ??a, ?i ????a?ny. I?i y??? ???? ??? ???a ???i
y???a. Ae???e ??tho ?? ??a – ???y?a e ???y?a.

O ???y?? ???? ??? y??? ???e, a ??? ??aa. O?? ???? ????? ?y ?a. e ?i.
yc.: time [ai], Zeit [ai]. O ???y?? ???? ??? y??? ??? ???i. O?? ????
???u ?y ??????, ????? e ??uey??? y??a: pied [je], bueno [we], chiaro
[ja]. A ?n. yc. ???aia ?o.

4. E?????ey ????o ??? ? ???o ???ey?e

E?????ey ????o ??e?y ? ????????? ??o ????a ?o?i. A ?????i ???i y?? ????a
??e ?ey?y ? ????? ????????i ????i (?????? e ???ey???i):

1) ? ???th ??? e ??;

2) ? ??o ?????y;

3) ? ???o ?????y;

4) ? ???th ?e ????eth ??????e (“?y??ey”, ? ?o. palatum – ??).

Ii ???ey???i ????i ????e yaeyth?y n??a ?????y e ??i ?????ey.

1. Ii ??o ?????y ??, ? ??, ??a ??? ?? ???atho ???a a ??????, ??e ?ey?y ?
??? e y???.a) A??a ????a, ?e ???o ???? ????ny ?e ??? ?a ?e ??? ?? e ???o
??a. A ???i y?? ??? ?ey?y ? ??i-??? ([a], [i], [i], [a’], [i’], [i’]) e
??i-??? ([a], [a’], [o], [o’]).

I? ?????e ??? ??? ???? ???i y?y?ny ??yy ??, a ????i – ?e ??iyy ??
(??i-??? ??e), ?e a??? ?? (??i-??? ??e).

a) A ?????e ? ??, ??y ?n? y?? ???o ????, y??? ????a ?ey?y ? ???ay???,
???y??? e ??ay???.

A ???i y?? e ???ay??? ??ny?y [ae], [o], [i], [c], [n], [e] e ????o?th?a
? iy?? ??e [ae’], [o’], [i’], [c’], [n’], [e’], a ??a [oe], [/’], [o], [
o?’ ], [ ae?’ ].

A ???a ???ay??? ??eyth?y:

1) ???: [o], [o’], [ae], [ae’], [n], [n’], [c], [c’], [oe], [i], [i’],
[e], [e’];

2) ??i-???: [o], [ o??’ ], [ae], [ ae?’ ], [?], [?’], [/’].

ss??? ??e ???eytho ?????i ?? ????o ???: ???ay??? ???th?y ?e ???e ????
??e ??? y??; n??ay??? – ?e ???e ???e ??e ??? y??; ??ay??? – ?e ???e ???
??e ??? yc?a.

E ???y???o ??o ????y ??? [j].

C??y??? ??e – y? [a], [e], [o], [a’], [e’], [o’].

2. Ii ???o ?????y ?? ????a ?ey?y ?:

A) A???a (???a), ?e ?????? ???o ????o ??? ???? ???a ?/e, n ??e ???????
????e ???e. Y? [a], [i], [ae], [o], [a], [e] e ?????oth?a ? iy?? ????
[a’], [i’], [ae’], [o’], [a’], [e’].

A) U??? (?????a), ?e ?????? ???o ??? ?? ??ath?y ? ???oueth, a ????? ??
????ny ??, ??c ???th ???? ???. U??? ????a ??a ???tho ????? (? ????ai
spiro – ??). A ???i y?? y? – [a], [a’], [o], [o’], [c], [c’], [n], [n’],
[ae], [ ae?’ ], [o], [ o?’ ], [o].

A) A???? ?e ?????? y?o ?a??? i??u ?? ??ath?y, ???y ????, ???y ??i ?????y
????, a ????? ?? ????ny ??. I? y?i ???? e ??? ?????. Y? ??e [/’] e [oe].

A) Ae???a ????a, ?e ???oth?a, ?e ?????e ???o ???ua ??? ?/e ???otho. A
???i y?? y? ??e [?] e [?’].

Ae) N??i-????a ????a, ?e ?????? ???o ??? ?? ????th ??ath?y, ? ? ???ath?y
????, ?e ?e a??o ???? ??c ?n ?e ?o. Y? ??e [e], [e’], [i], [i’], [i],
[i’].

3. A????? ????o ??? ???? y?? ????????u ?? ??o ? ???? ?????-iy???: [a] –
[a’], [i] – [i’], e ?

5. E?????ey ????o ??? ? ??o ?????y e ????o ???

I?? ?????y ????o ??? ????y?ny ? ??, ?a a ???ey??? ??? ?e ?????? y?? ??a
????ny ???? ?

?? ?????y ????e ??e. Aeey ?????y ???? a ??? ??? ???ey???i ???? ????th?y
?????e ?i ????o ???a -y?? e a?. I? ???th?y ????e ????. Y? ?e ??yy ??, ?e
??y-?? ??ue y?? (??yy, ??iyy, ???yy). Ii ????o ??? ?? ?a ????a ??e ?ey?y
? ??ua e y???.

I??, ???e ???ny ?????i ?e ?????? ??a, ????ny ????i. Y? ?e ??iyy ??, ?e
???a ??, ?e ??y-??? ??ue ?? (??yy, ??iyy, ???yy). Ii ????? ??? ?? ?a
????a ??e ?ey?y ? ???, ??i-???, ???-??? e ??a-???. Iiy??, i???yy ??i
????iey ????, ??o ??ny ? ??, a ?a ????e??e: ? ????o ??? e ? ?????, ????,
[i] – ??i- (???? ??i – ??yy ??) ??? (????e ??i – ??iyy ??) ??.

E?e, ? ??, ??e ???? ??i ????o a ?????e ??a, ???a ????a ??e ?ey?y ? ???
[i], [i’], [a], [a’], [i], [i’], [o], [o’], [a], [a’] e y??? [o], [o’],
[n], [n’], [c], [c’], [oe], [e], [e’], [i], [i’], [o], [o’:] [ae],
[ae’:], [?], [?’], [j], [e], [e’], [a], [a’], [o], [o’]. Y? ???y a???
????th?y a ???i yc?a ?y ???????ey.

ss??? ??e ????eyth?y ?a ? o? ??? a ?????e ? ??, ??y ??ue y?? (??? ?????
e ?????) ???? ???i ????o a ?????? ??a: y???, ???ay??? – [o], [o’], [n],
[n’], [c], [c’], [oe], [e], [e’], [i], [i’], y???, ???y??? – [j] e y???,
??ay??? -[e], [e’], [a], [a’], [o], [o’]. Y? ???y ??a? ????th?y a ???i
y?? ?y ??e?????y.

E ??????? ??a ? ????o i?a? ???y?ny ?i ??????? ? ????? ???, e ???i, ?e ?a
?? ???i, ??ny?y ??iyy ??, ?? e ??. O? ??eyth?y ??oth?a ??? c??a:

??i-??? ??e [i], [i’], [a], [a’], [i], [i’];

??i-??? ??e [o], [o’], [a], [a’];

y???, ???ay???, ??ua ??e [o], [o’], [n], [n’], [c], [c’], [oe], [e],
[e’],[i], [i’];

y???, ???ay???, ??i-??? ??e [o], [o’:] [ae], [ae’:], [?], [?’], [/’];

y???, ???y???, ?????? ??[j];

y???, ??ay???, ?????? ??e [e], [e’], [a], [a’], [o], [o’].

E?????ey ???o ???i? ??? ? ??o ?????y ??o ?? ?????? a ?????i ?? ?e.

????a ? ??o ???a?ey ??o ??? ???eyth?th ????????ue?th ?? ??a, ??a ?a ???
???????e ??? ???atho. I????, ??e [n] e [o] ????, ???, ???a, ? ??? –
y???, ???ay???, ???, a ??? – y???, ??ay???, ?????e. E? ??e [n] e [o]
????, ???, ???a, ? i?aue – y???, ???ay???, ???, a ??? – y???, ???ay???,
??i-??ie. A????y ??, ?i ?e ? ?????? ??? ?????? ??y??ey, ?????? ?????
???? ???ey?e a ??? i??o ???ey???i ???, ? ??i ne?? ???o a ? ???? e ? ??i
?????? ?e ?????, ?i???, ??a ?i e ?i.

6. ??ue ???a ?? a ????????

???? ???o ???o ec ?? ???a: ?????? e ???????i. E ?????? ??? ????y ???? ??
n ?i ??e, ?????? ???, ???y?? ?oy? e y??e ???o??th?o ???. E ???????o ???
?/??i ???o; ????y ?y ?????? ?i?????o ???a ??, ??iy?y ? ???, ?y?e, ?? e
?y?e, a ??a ????/??o ?????o e ?????? ???, n ???th ???o ????ey?ny ?????
???e ????o ???a.

I??????e ???e ???o ???o ? ?? ???? ???a, ???a ???otho ????i.

1-e ??e – ???o, ???th?e ???a, a ???e ??? ???y ??? n ???e, ???? e ???e.

2-e ??e – ???o, ???th?e ??n. Ii ???o ? ???e n ??aey??ny a ?e ?????
?y??e.

3-e ??e — ?????a?y?e, ?e ???ey???e, ???o, ???e n??? ? ???, ???i?e, ???e
e ???e ???e.

I??e ??e ???????i ???? ?i??a ??? ?y ??? ??e ???a, ?i?e — ?y ?????y ???,
??? y?y?ny ?????i, ?th?i ??o ?? e ???o e ??i ???i ???th?i ?????a ??e ??e
??, ???a ???atho a ????? ?y????e ????o ???? ??? ???ey???? ????. E ????i
??ny?y ??yy ?eth?ue, y?e, ?? e iy?? ??.

I?iyy ?eth?ue ????ny e ?????y; iy?? ?? ?????y e ????ny, ??i ???i, ???ay
e ???ay ??iae a ???th ???ue; y?e e ?? ??o ????ue ??a ??????a ????y.
E???? ????y ???o ???a ??? ? ??e ?????a ???? e ???e a ????o ??yo
???ey???? ????, ??i??y ?? e ii??ey?ny ?o ?e ?? ???? ??a.

I???a ???e ??y? ???ey???? ????, ???th?? ???????th ??, y?yth?y ???, y?e,
??ay ????a e ?aeiyy ?eth?ue — ??? ????a, o. a. ??iyth?a ?? ????a a ????
??. A?o? ?????a ?ae ???ueth e ??? ????o a ????? (???ue, ???y ?? ???
????e). A y?? ? ????i ??oth?a ??e: ???? ?? (???yy ??ue), ??? (??iyy
??ue), ?ay (? ??i ????) e ??? (??yy ??ue, n????thuayny n ???????).

ss?e ??o ???e, ??thu?e ?i ??? ????i: ? ??o ??iyo?y e ??????y, ???ny ??i
e ???i, ???i e ????.

Iy?? ??, ?e ??ay ????a, ?a??ath??y ????i y???, ??o ??? ???? ???e e
y?y?ny ?????? ???? ??, ???th??ny o ???o ??a ?????. I??ay ????a ??o
?????ue ????ny e ?????y e ??i ???i ??ey? ??? ? ?????. I? ?i????e ?? ???,
??a i e i, ?a?y ????a ??yoa. A?e ??ay ????a ???-?? ?????? e ? i?iy?, ?
?? ????ny ???e (????), ?e ?e ?e ????e ??? ????a ???? ??u ???yo ???????i
??c ???th ???ue.

I?iyy ?eth?ue ????y ? ?????e y?y?ny ??? ??? ???i ???ey???? (???????????)
????, ?e ?e ?????? ???o ???eth ???o ??i?

??? (a, i, o, y, e, u).

A????? ??iy?a ????o ??? ???ey???? ???? ????ny ? ?????? ????a?ey e ????
?????? ???. Iiy?? ?y ????ey ?????e ???ey?e ?a ???, ???ath?a ???a a
?????e ??? ??, ??? ???? ????i e ??????.

7. N??e ?????

1. Ao?y A.A, A????, E.A., O???i O.E O???a ?????? ???? y?ea

2. Ai???a A.I N????? ???e ?????? y?e: O???a

3. *?? E? A???? ???? y?e: O???a. E???. A???

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