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Famous journalists of the English speaking country: Benjamin Franklin

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Інститут журналістики Київського національного університету

ім. Т. Шевченка

Реферат

на тему:

“Famous journalist of

the English-speaking country.

Benjamin Franklin”

Виконала

студентка 1 курсу (ВСР)

група 1

Костюченко Аліна

2006 рік

Benjamin Franklin ( 1706-1790), was a jack-of-all-trades and master of
many. No other American, except possibly Thomas Jefferson, has done so
many things so well.

As statesman, Franklin stood in the front rank of the people who built
the United States. He was the only person who signed all four of these
key documents in American history : the Declaration of Independence, the
Treaty of Alliance with France, the Treaty of Peace with Great Britain,
and the Constitution of the United States.

Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston on jan. 17, 1706. He was the 15th
child and youngest son in a family of children. His parents, Josiah and
Abiah Franklin, were hard-working, God-fearing folk. His father made
soap and candles in his shop “at the sign of the Blue Ball” on Milk
Street.

Benjamin attended school in Boston for only two years. He proved himself
excellent in reading, fair in writing, and poor in arithmetic. Josiah
Franklin decided that he could not afford further education for his
youngest son. He kept Benjamin home after the age of 10 to help cut
wicks and melt tallow in the candle and soap shop.

Franklin schooling ended, but his education did not. He worked on his
own writing style, using a volume of the British journal The Spectator
as a model. The boy also taught himself the basic principles of algebra
and geometry, navigation, grammar, logic, and the natural and physical
sciences. He studied and partially mastered French, German, Italian,
Spanish, and Latin.

When the boy was 12, his father persuaded him to become an apprentice to
his older, brother james, a printer. James proved to be a good teacher,
and Benjamin a good pupil. He soon became a skilled printer. He wrote
several newspaper articles, signed them Mrs/ Silence Dogood, and slipped
them under the printshop door. James admired the articles, and printed
several of them. But he refused to print any more when he discovered
that Benjamin had written them. At 17, Franklin ran away to
Philadelphia, which was then the largest city in the American Colonies.

From 1723 to 1730, Franklin worked for various printers in Philadelphia
and in London, England, where he was sent to buy printing presses. He
became part owner of a print shop in 1728, when he was 22. Two years
later, he became sole owner of the business. He began publishing The
Pennsylvania Gazette, writing much of the material for this newspaper
himself. Franklin had a simple formula for business success. He believed
that successful people had to work just a little harder that any of
their competitors.

Later in 1730 Benjamin Franklin married Deborah Read. Deborah was not
nearly so well educated as her husband. Her letters to him have many
misspelled words.

Benjamin Franklin printing business prospered from the start. He
developed The Pennsylvania Gazette info one the most successful
newspapers in the colonies. He always watched carefully for new ideas.
Historians credit him as the first editor in America to publish a
newspaper cartoon, and to illustrate a news story with a map. Benjamin
Franklin published The Pennsylvania Gazette from 1729 until 1766.

But Franklin achieved even greater success with Poor Richard”s Almanac
that with his newspaper. He wrote and published the almanac for every
year from 1733 to 1758. In 1753 he became deputy postmaster general for
all the colonies. Franklin worked hard at this job, and introduced many
needed reforms. Benjamin Franklin also helped Canada establish its first
regular service.

Benjamin Franklin was public-spirited, and worked constantly to make
Philadelphia a better city. For example, he reformed the city police
when he saw that criminals were getting away without punishment. City
streets were unpaved, dirty, and dark, so he started a program to pave,
clean, and light them and other…

But it is not all! Benjamin Franklin was one of the first persons in the
world to experiment wits electricity. Franklin scientific work won high
honors. He was famous american statesman. He felt for uniting of all
americans colonies to make its one country. He help americans to win
Britain in 1755. Then he was an excellent diplomat and one of the
greatest builders of the USA.On May 6, 1775, about two weeks after the
Revolutionary War began, the people of Philadelphia chose him to serve
in the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Franklin seldom spoke at
the Congress, but became one of its active and influential members. He
submitted a proposed Plan of Union that contained ideas from his earlier
Albany Plan of Union.

Benjamin Franklin helped draft the Declaration of independence , and was
one of the documents signers.

Franklin returned to Philadelphia in 1785. For the next two years he
served as president of the executive council in Pennsylvania. In 1787,
Pennsylvania sent the 81-year-old Franklin to the Constitutional
Convention. The delegates met in Independence Hall and drafted the
Constitution of the USA.

Benjamin Franklin died on the night of April 17, 1790, at the age of 84.
Franklin led all the people of his time in his lifelong concern for the
happiness, well-being, and dignity of humanity.

Philadelphia has also revered the memory of its most famous citizen.

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