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Роль православия в становлении государственности в киевской Руси

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?AOA?AO

“?IEUe I?AAINEAAEss A NOAIIAEAIEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIINOE A EEAANEIE ?ONE”

IAeANNA-2000

IEAI :

1. Aaaaeaiea ………………………………….. 1

2. Enoiee i?aaineaaey. …………………………. 1

3. “Oioeaai e?auaiea” ?inia. ……………………. 4

4. I?aaineaaea – ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aeeaey Eeaaneie ?one.. . 8

5. Caeeth/aiea. ……………………………….. 10

6. Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u. …………….. 11

1.

Aeooiaiue e ii?aeueiue iaeee iaoeee – neea ethaiai ainoaea?noaa.
O?enoeainoai e yaeyaony oie neeie, eioi?ay iiiiaeao Oe?aeia a
aic?iaeaeaiee aeooiaiiai ninoiyiey aai ia?iaea.

Any enoi?ey oe?aeineiai ia?iaea ia?ac?uaii naycaia n o?enoeainoaii.
Iiiaea aaea Oe?aeia o?aieea aa?iinoue e ii/oaiea e I?aaineaaiie aa?a. E
yoa Aaeeeay aa?a a naith i/a?aaeue iiiiaaea eae naiiio ia?iaeo, oae
iiiaei aai eeaea?ai. Oae Aeaieea Aaeeoeeiio o?enoeainoai cia/eoaeueii
iiiiaei a ai?ueaa i?ioea iiiaiei-oaoa?neiai iaoanoaey; n i?oaeeai a
?oeao caueuae oe?aeineee ia?iae I?aaineaaea a aiaeu iieueneiai
aeaaeu/anoaa e eaoiee/aneie yeniainee.

I?aaineaaea anaaaea ieacuaaei ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
e ?acaeoea ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, iieeoeei-i?aaiauo eaeae, iauanoaaiiiai
no?iy. Ii yoe aeaa einoeoooa eiatho ?aciua caaea/e. Aeaaiay caaea/a
Oea?eae – caaioeoueny i aeooao aa?othueo, i ainieoaiee eo a aeooa Eenona
O?enoa, i i?eaeeaeaiee eo e O?enoo, i aaeeiaiee eo n O?enoii.
Ainoaea?noai aeieaeii caaioeoueny i ie?a e aeaaiiieo/ee a iauanoaa,
caueuaoue i?aaa e naiaiaeu a?aaeaeai, neaaeeoue ca oai, /oi au anai
ethaeyi auee iaania/aiu ?aaiua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, /oiau ana auee ?aaiu
ia?aae caeiiii, caaioeoueny i iaoa?eaeueiii aeaaininoiyiee a?aaeaeai.

Oea?eiaue e ainoaea?noai ioee/athony iauaiii naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.
Ainoaea?noai ia?aie/aii oa??eoi?eae, Oea?eiaue yaeyaony anaeaineie.
Oaeaea nouanoaoao ?acee/ea a niiniaao aeeyiey ia ianaeaiea. Ainoaea?noai
/anoi i?eiaiyao i?eioaeeoaeueiua ia?u, a Oea?eiaue ieeiaaea ia aeieaeia
i?eiaiyoue ianeeea, aeieaeia aeaenoaiaaoue oieueei iooai oaaaeaeaiey e
i?eia?a.

Iaeiaei, ia niio?y ia cia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey. Oea?eiaue e ainoaea?noai
ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee Oe?aeiu anaaaea nouanoaiaaee acieiinaycaiii.

2.

Eae n?aaeiaaaeiaia a?aeiycu/iia ainoaea?noai Aecaioee ia/aea naith
enoi?eth a 5 a. i. y., iinea ?acaeaeaiey ?eineie eiia?ee. Ainoi/iay
?eineay eiia?ey auea iacaaia aecaioeeneie oieueei a o?oaeao
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo aoiaienoia a 16 aaea, o. a. oaea iinea iaaeaiey
Eiinoaioeiiiiey e acyoey aai oo?eaie a 1453 aiaeo, iinea aeaaee naiie
eiia?ee. AEeoaee Eiinoaioeiiiiey eiaiiaaee naay ?iiayie, i?eaiieeaie
ae?aaia?eineie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.

Iainiiauaaee yoi oai, /oi ?eineay eiia?ey ia i?inoi en/acea, a
onooieea naia ianoi Aecaioee e i?aia?aciaaeanue a iineaaeithth.
Aecaioeeoeu iacuaaee naith ainoaea?noaaiiinoue “?iiaeneie”, o. a.
?eineie, oae eae yoi auea aaeeiay e iai?a?uaiay o?aaeeoeey
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.

Ia?eiae Aecaioeeneie eiia?ee eiioea 1O-na?aaeeiu XII aaea aue a?aiaiai
iaeaunoaai ?anoeaaoa eiia?ee e iieiiai aiieiuaiey oiai neiaeiaeoaai
aeooiaii-enoi?e/aneiai ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ia iieo/eei oneiaiia
iaicia/aiea “aecaioecia”. Yoio oa?iei oiio?aaeyeny eae i?aaeei, aeey
iaicia/aiey anae niaieoiiinoe iieeoe/aneeo, yoiia?aoe/aneeo,
eoeueoo?iuo, oea?eiaiuo iniaaiiinoae ainoi/iie a?aei-?eineie eiia?ee.

Aaaeiaeoae iniaaiiinoueth aecaioecia auea auniei?acaeoay
ainoaea?noaaiiinoue, eioi?ay no?ieeanue ia eaeae aaniethoiie
aaoi?eoa?iinoe. A ?aeeaeiciie aeecie aecaioeci oa?aeoa?eciaaeny
oaniaeoei nithcii ainoaea?noaa e oea?eae. Eiia?aoi?u ec aeeianoee
Iaeaaeiineeo, Eiiieiia e Iaeaieiaia, iaeaaeaee aieueoei aaaaaeii
aiaineiaaoeeeo iiciaiee, oi?ioi ?acae?aeenue a ?aeeaeicii-oeeinianeeo
i?iaeaiao. Oi?iaeueii aecaioeeneay oea?eiaue ii naiei caeiiai e eaiiiai
auea naiaiaeiie e iacaaeneiie, i?aai oea?eae ia naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ia
io?eoeaeinue eiia?aoi?aie e caeiiaie eiia?ee.

Iniaaiiinoyie aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u auaeaeyaony I?aaineaaiay oi?ia
aecaioeeneiai o?enoeainoaa, yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi aei ?acaeaeaiey
o?enoeaineie oea?eae ia caiaaeioth e ainoi/ioth a iaae?ao
?aeeaeicii-iauanoaaiiie aeecie aecaioeeneie eiia?ee ?iaeeeenue e
iieo/eee ?acaeoea, auee noi?ioee?iaaiu iniiaiua i?eioeeiu e iieiaeaiey
I?aaineaaiiai o/aiey.

N aoi?ie iieiaeiu 9 aaea a Aecaioee ianooiee ia?eiae iieeoe/aneie e
?aeeaeiciie noaaeeecaoeee. Aecaioeeneee eiia?aoi? Aaneeee 1 aunooiee ca
aieaa oaniua nayce n no?aiaie neaayineiai ?aaeiia. Ai a?aiy aai
i?aaeaiey ioiineony ienneiia?neay aeayoaeueiinoue nieoineeo a?aoueaa
Ee?eeea e Iaoiaeey.

I/aiue oaniuie auee aiaoia iieeoe/aneea eiioaeou Aecaioee n Aieaa?eae. E
eiioeo 8-ia/aea 9 aaea, iiuue Aieaa?neiai oea?noaa ianeieueei aic?inea,
/oi noaea i?aaenoaaeyoue ?aaeueioth oa?ico Aecaioee. Iioiaeu
aecaioeeneeo eiia?aoi?ia Eiinoaioeia 6 e Ieeeoi?a 1 ia Aieaa?eth oniaoa
ia i?eianee, a iioiae 811 aiaea caeii/eeny ?aca?iiii aecaioeeneiai
aienea, e aeaaeueth eiia?aoi?a. A 812 aiaeo aieaa?neee oai E?oi ?acaee
aienea eiia?aoi?a Ieoaeea 1 iiae Aiaeeaiiiieai, e iiaenooiee e noaiai
Eiinoaioeiiiiey.3

?ani?ino?aiyoueny a Aieaa?ee o?enoeainoai ia/aei eiaiii ai a?aiy
i?aaeaiey E?oia. Ioeoeeaeueiue noaoon o?enoeainoai iieo/eei a Aieaa?ee
iinea e?auaiey eiycy Ai?ena e aai aeeaeaeoaai ie?oaeaiey, /oi eiaei
ianoi i?eaeeceoaeueii a 846-865 aiaeao.

Enoi?e/aneea enoi/ieee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i cia/eoaeueiie aeoeaecaoeee
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe Eeaaneie ?one a ia/aea 10 aaea, /oi ia
iiaei ia i?eaanoe e oaniui iieeoe/aneei, yeiiiie/aneei e ?aeeaeiciui
eiioaeoai n o?enoeaineeie Aecaioeae e Aieaa?eae.

Eeaaneay ?onue auea aiaea/aia a eiioaeou n Aecaioeae ii aeaieiie
i?e/eia. Ia?aay – iieiaeia, e?aiiouaa ainoaea?noai n ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiie
no?oeoo?ie nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee niaa?oaei aiaiiua iaaaae ia
aiaaoiai ninaaea. Aoi?ia- Eeaaneay ?onue auea aiaea/aia Aecaioeae a aa
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue a ea/anoaa ninaaea e ia?oia?a.

?onnei-aecaioeeneea eiioaeou noaee i?iyaeyoueny iinea ioeoeeaeueiiai
i?eiyoey o?enoeainoaa a ea/anoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee Eeaaneie ?one.
Oaea a 989 aiaeo, eeaaneee eiycue Aeaaeeie? iinueaao a iiiiuue
Eiinoaioeiiiieth aiaiiue io?yae. A 1016 aiaeo, eiia?aoi? Aaneeee 2 iinea
?aca?iia aieaa? i?aaeinoaaee o?aoueth /anoue nithciie ?one.

Iaoaea/iay aieia n Aecaioeae, i eioi?ie eaoiienaoe oiiieiaao iiae 6551
(1043) aiaea, i?eaaea e oiio, /oi i?e nuia eiycy Aeaaeeie?a – ss?ineaaa
n 1019 aiaea eeaaneei ieo?iiieeoii aia?aua aue iinoaaeai

?onneee nayuaiiee Eeea?eii. Aai aeayoaeueiinoue eae eeaaneiai
ieo?iiieeoa aeeeeanue iaaeieai (1051-1054), iinea iaai ia
ieo?iiiee/ueae eaoaae?a aiiaue auea ainnoaiiaeaia a?a/aneay ea?a?oey
(aoi?ie ?onneee ieo?iiieeo Eeeiaio Niieyoe/ iiyaeeny eeoue a 12 aaea).

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea Eeaaneie ?one ieacaea Aieaa?ey.
E?auaiea Aieaa?ee” i?aaeoanoaiaaei i?eiyoeth o?enoeainoaa eae
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee ?onueth e ii yoiio ninaaeiaa neaayineia
ainoaea?noai iiaei neoaeeoue iaaeyaeiui i?eia?ii, eeethno?e?othuei
iineaaenoaey yoiai aaaeiiai e ioaaonouaiiiia oaaa. I?e yoii ?acaeoea
ae?aaiaaieaa?neie ienueiaiiinoe iniiaaiiie ia ae?aaianeaayineie acaoea –
ee?eeeeoea, iiaeii n/eoaoue aaaeiaeoae iniiaie iauiinoe aeaoo ia?iaeia.
Oaeea iaiyoieee aieaa?neie ienueiaiiinoe eae “Neacaiea i ienueiaiao”
/a?ii?ecoea O?aa?a, “Oanoiaeiaa” Eiaiia Yeca?oa Aieaa?neiai, ioia/atho
ianiiiaiiue oaeo cia/eiinoe eoeueoo?u aeey eoeueoo?u Eeaaneie ?one
iaiyoieeia aieaa?neie ienueiaiiinoe eiaaoea oiaeaeaiey a Eeaaneie ?one,
a iicaea a Iineianeii ainoaea?noaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiie i?e/eiie ia?auaiey Eeaaneie ?one e eoeueoo?a
Aecaioee auei oi, /oi Aecaioeeneay eiia?ey 11-10 aaeia, auea ia?aaeiaie
no?aiie n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ie?a, niiniaiie aeaoue aunieea ia?acoeu
eoeueoo?u e ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, Aecaioey e Aieaa?ey nua?aee aaaeioth ?ieue a
o?enoeaiecaoeee e eoeueoo?iii ?acaeoee Eeaaneie ?one: ia?aay eae
enoi/iee auniei?acaeoie o?enoeaiece?iaaiiie a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u, aoi?ay
eae naycuaathuaa caaii, iniai yooaeoeaiia aeaaiaea?y neaayineie ycueiaie
iauiinoe.

3.

Aiai?y i aeooiaiii niunea e cia/aiee i?eiyoey Eeaaneie ?onueth
I?aaineaaey a ea/anoaa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee iaeuecy ia ia?aoeoueny e
ia?aiio ianniaiio e?auaieth neiayii-?inia, naycaiiiio n eiaiai nayoeoaey
Oioey, Iao?ea?oa Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai e iieo/eaoaio iacaaiea “Oioeaai
e?auaiea ?one”.

A ethia 860 aiaea, oea?noaiaaaoee a Aecaioee eiia?aoi? Ieoaee 3
ioi?aaeeny a iioiae i?ioea na?aoeei, o noai Eiinoaioeiiiiey aiacaiii
iiyaeeenue ei?aaee “nae?aiiai aa?aa?neiai ia?iaea ?in”. Ia ano?aoea
nii?ioeaeaiey, ?inu aunaaeeeenue ia aa?aa caeeaa Cieioie ?ia e noaee
iionoioaoue ie?anoiinoe, ia/aee inaaei/iua ?aaiou iiae noaiaie ai?iaea.
Iieiaeaiea aecaioeeneie noieeoeu auei e?eoe/aneei. Eiia?aoi? Ieoaee
ecaauaiiue eiinoaioeiiiieueneei aia?oii i neo/eaoainy. Ia aei ioeaiee
?acia?u iianiinoe, e aica?aoeeny a noieeoeo aac aienea. 18 ethey 860
aiaea, Aeaaeaiiue iao?ea?o Oioee iaieaey ai aeaaa e?anoiiai oiaea noaiu
inaaeaeaiiiai ai?iaea i?eaeeceeny e ii?th e iionoee a aieiu e?ae ?ecu
Aiaeueae Iaoa?e, acyoie a Aeaoa?ineie oea?eae. Iiaeiyeanue ao?y. Oeio
?inia noae oa?iaoue aaaenoaea, iiiaea eaaeuee auee ?acaeou i neaeu,
iiiaea ii?ieeioeenue e iioiioee. Yoi aaeeeia /oaei canoaaeei ?inia
niyoue inaaeo n ai?iaea e ionooieoue. Iinea /aai ?inu i?eneaee a
Eiinoaioeiiiieue iinieuenoai n i?aaeeiaeaieai caeeth/eoue n eiia?eae ie?
e nithc n i?inueaie “naeaeaoue eo o/anoieeaie a nayoii e?auaiee”, /oi
auei e eniieiaii.

I iioiaea ia Eiinoaioeiiiieue niiauaao e eaoiienue “Iiaanoue a?aiaiiuo
eao”. Aaeeinoaaiiui ioee/eai yaeyaony oieueei oeacaiea. *oi iioiae
aicaeaaeyee eeaaneea eiycuey Ineieueae e Aee?. I e?auaiee. Eioi?ia
i?eianee ?inu iinea iiianaiiiai eie io ao?e aeaenoaey, a eaoiiene ia
aiai?eony. Iaeioi?ua a?a/aneea enoi/ieee ia?aaeatho enoi?eth
iaoanoaey ?inia e eo e?auaiey ianeieueei ii- eiiio. Enoi/iee iieo/eaoee
iacaaiea “aiiiei Aaiaeo?e”, a eioi?ii oiiieiaaony ninoaaeoaeue
neaayineie ienueiaiiinoe Ee?eee, eioi?ue aue iineai eiia?aoi?ii aianoa n
aieneiiii e ?inai, /oi au ii eo i?inueaa e?anoeoue e i?eaanoe e
aeaai/anoeth yoio ia?iae. . Yoio enoi/iee ioiineo e?auaiea ?inia e
oea?noaiaaieth Aaneeey Iaeaaeiineiai, iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ?a/ue
eaeao i eaeii-oi ae?oaii e?auaiee ?inia, ia naycaiiiai n
aeayoaeueiinoueth iao?ea?oa Oioey. Aua iaeiei aaaeiui naeaeaoaeuenoaii
niaa?oeaoaainy ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 9 aaea e?auaiey ?inia yaeyaony
oiiieiaiea a nienea aia?oee Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai iao?ea?oaoa ?ineie
ieo?iiieee, eioi?ay noieo a yoii nienea ia iaeiii ec iineaaeiai ianoa,
/oi aiai?eo i iaaeaaiai a?aiaie aa aicieeiiaaiey. Iiiaea aaoi?u
n/eoatho. *oi iia i?inouanoaiaaea aei eiioea 10 aaea.

Enoi?ey “Oioeaaa e?auaiey” aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy auea i?aaeiaoii ino?ie
iieaieee, eiathueany ienueiaiiua enoi/ieee ia niaea?aeao iaeiicia/iiai
ioaaoa ia aii?inu: eoi auee oiiieiaaiua a ieo ?inu, eo yoie/aneay
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue, aaea auea eo ?iaeeia e oae aeaeaa. Nouanoaiaaei ia
yoii iiiaeanoai oai?ee, iai?eia? “ii?iaiineay oai?ey”, noi?iiieeaie
eioi?ie auee Aaea?, Oeaoea?, eioi?ua n/eoaee, /oi ?inaie auee ii?iaiu
i?eoaaeoea ec Oaaoeee, eee “oai?ey Oiooa?aeaineie ?one”, noi?iiieee
Aieoaeineee e Iaoei, eioi?ua ianoaeaaee ia oii, /oi yoi auee neaayia.

Ia?aui, ia?aoeaoei aieiaiea ia aiciiaeioth naycue enoi?ee e?auaiey ?inia
e aeooiaii-i?inaaoeoaeueneie iennee nayouo ?aaiiaiinoieueiuo Ee?eeea e
Iaoiaeey n?aaee neaayineeo ia?iaeia aue Eaiaineee, eioi?ue i?eoae e
auaiaeo, /oi ciaiaieoay oaca?neay ienney nayouo a?aoueaa auea a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ?onneie ienneae. Ii aai iiaieth, Ee?eee e Iaoiaeee
iiauaaee a 861 aiaeo a Eeaaa, e iiae aicaeaenoaeai eo i?iiiaaaee
eeaaneea ?inu, eioi?ua aua iaaeaaii inaaeaeaee Eiinoaioeiiiieue i?eiyee
e?auaiea. Oi/eo c?aiey Eaiaineiai ?acaeaeee A. A. Ea?oaoia. Iaee/ea
nayce iaaeaeo iioiaeaie ?inia ia Eiinoaioeiiiieue, oaca?neie ienneae
Eiinoaioeia Oeeiniaa e e?auaieai ?inia, oiiiyioouo a Ie?oaeiii iineaiee
iao?ea?oa Oioey 867 aiaea, ioia/aao aeaaeaiee A. A. ?uaaeia.

Aeaeueiaeooth enoi?e/aneoth noaeueao e?auaiiie ?one ii/oe ia aiciiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue, oae eae enoi?e/aneea naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia yoii ii/oe ia
nio?aieeenue. Iaeiaei ecaanoii, /oi ieiei 889 aiaea ?ineay ieo?iiieey
aua ia nouanoaiaaea. Iiaeao auoue aa e eiae a aeaeo iaia Eiaii 8.
Eioi?ue a naiae aoeea 972 aiaea naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae, /oi o 6 ?onneeo.
Eae e o aieaa?, aiaineoaeaiea niaa?oaaony ia ?onneii ycuea.
Oioy, aiciiaeii, ?a/ue oea i ?onneeo, i?eiyaoeo o?enoeainoai i?e eiyaeia
Ieueaa. Iaaei i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea, /oi ?inu e?anoeaoeany a 60 aiaeao 9
aaea, auee a aieueoeinoaa naiai ae?oaeeiieeaie, i?iaiaeeaoeie aeeciue a
aiaauo iioiaeao. Ii yoiio o?oaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi ia?aay ?onneay
iaueia iiaea auoue noaaeeueiie e aeieaiaa/iie. E ana aea “Oioeaai
e?auaiea” auei niauoeai. Ia oieueei iieo/eaoei oe?ieoth ecaanoiinoue ia
?one, ii e i?i/ii aioaaeoei a enoi?e/aneoth iaiyoue ia?iaea. Ieo?iiieeo
Iaea?ee (Aoeaaeia) ioia/ae: “A i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aaeia o ian
aaeeiiaeooii auea iiaoi?yaiay aanoue, /oi ia?aue ?ac ?onue e?anoeeanue
i?e iao?ea?oa Oioee e /oi io Oioey e iai aue i?eneai ia?aue aieneii.
Iaei oiai: eiy Oioey eae ia?aiai ianaaeeoaey nayoie aa?u a iaoai
ioa/anoaa, aei oiai a?acaeanue a iaiyoue ia?iaea, /oi aeaaea ana
iineaaeothuea e?auaiey. Auaoea i?e nayoie Ieueaa e nayoii Aeaaeeie?a.
Iaueiiaaiii auee i?eienuaaaiu o ian, ?acoiaaony, ii ioeaea, oiio aea
naiiio Oioeth”.

Iaeiaei niaea?aeaueany a eaoiienyo (Eaoiienue iiaai?iaeneeo aeaaeue,
Ieeiiianeay eaoiienue) e Oea?eiaiii onoaaa eiycy Aeaaeeie?a oeacaiee, i
oii, /oi ii, Aeaaeeie? io iao?ea?oa Oioey acye “ia?aiai ieo?iiieeoa
Eeaao”. Iiaoo auoue ?anniao?eaaaiu eae aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi
oiiiyiooue a?oea?ae i?eiaaeeaaeae e ea?a?oee, o/?aaeaeaiiie nayoui
Oioeai a 9 aaea.

O?oaeii ?ac?aoaaiui inoaaony aii?in, ii/aio ?onneea eaoiiene naycuaatho
iioiae 860 aiaea n eiaiaie Ineieueaea e Aee?a, oiaaea eae a?a/aneea
enoi/ieee. Niiauathuea ia yoii iioiaea e i e?auaiee ?inia,
iineaaeiaaaoei iinea iaai, ie neiaa ia aiai?yo ia yoeo eiycueyo. A
aiaineiaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a yoio oaeo ?anniao?eaaaony eae einaaiiia
aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi “Oioeaai” e?auaiea i?iecioei ia a Eeaaa, a
I?eaciauea. Auneacaii i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi iinea ao?e /anoue
?aca?inaiiiai oeioa ?inia ai aeaaa n eiycueyie iiaea. Iiaeiyaoenue ii
Aeiai?o aica?aoeoueny a Eeaa. Oiaaea eae ae?oaay /anoue ei?aaeae
iino?aaeaaoeo io ao?e, iiaa?ioea a noi?iio eieiiee ia *a?iiii?neii
iiaa?aaeuea a I?eaciauea, /oiau oai ono?aieoue iia?aaeaeaiey e
iiiieieoue eiiaiaeo. Eiaiii yoa /anoue eiiaiaeu iai?aaeea iinieuenoai a
Eiinoaioeiiiieue. Aiciiaeii yoei iauyniyaony, /oi eeaaneay eaoiienue
oiae/eaaao i “Oioeaaii e?auaiee” e oi, /oi aecaioeeneea o?iienou.
Ciathuea i e?auaiee ?inia. Ia ciatho eiai eiycae, aicaeaaeaoeo iioiae.
Aieueooth ?ieue a aeecie Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu nua?ae Oioeaaneee
?aiannain. Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee. I?inaaoeoaeueneee ?aiannain 9 a. ,
iieiaeeaoee ia/aei i?inaauaieth neaayineiai ie?a. A /enea aai
i?eaa?aeaioea – nai iao?ea?o Oioee e nieoineea a?aouey Ee?eee e
Iaoiaeee. Oneeeyie nayouo a?aoueaa e eo o/aieeia ia neaayineee ycue auei
ia?aaaaeaii i?aeoe/anee ana, /oi iaoiaeeeinue a a?naiaea aiaineiaey,
oeeinioee, eiaeee, aneaoeee, anaiauae enoi?ee. Nicaeaiiue eieaeiue oiiae
noae iniiaie. Ia eioi?ie ?acaeaaeanue ae?aaia?onneay o?enoeaineay
eoeueoo?a.

E?auaiea neaayii-?inia a 60 aiaeao 9 a. . auei iaeiei ec caaiueaa
ia?ac?uaiie oeaie niauoee. Ciaiaiiaaaoeo ia/aei aaeeeie aeooiaiie e
enoi?e/aneie cia/eiinoe – i?eniaaeeiaiea neaayinoaa e i?aaineaaiiio
ie?o. I?eiyoea o?enoeainoaa Ineieueaeii e aai no?aieaiea ooaa?aeeoue
o?enoeainoai ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeae Eeaaneie ?one, i?eaaee e
iaaeaieth aeeianoee Eaeeiiae/ae e aieiyaeaieth aeeianoee ?th?eeiae/ae.

Anee eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ioeoeeaeueiie aeaoie i?eiyoey i?aaineaaey eae
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee n/eoaaony 988 aiae, oi ea?a?o Oioee, aeeaoee a
9 aaea, ia iia aiai?eoue i oao ?onao, eioi?ua a oi a?aiy a aieueoeinoaa
auee ycu/ieeaie. Ii anee eiaoue aaeaeo i?aaeiieiaeaiey Eaiaineiai i oii,
/oi ia?aui o?enoeaieiii ?one aue Eiinoaioei Oeeinio. Io eioi?iai ?onue
iieo/eea e neaayineoth ienueiaiiinoue, e neaayineia aiaineoaeaiea, oi
e?auaiea ia?auo ?onneeo iiaei i?iecieoe ai a?aiy oaca?neie iennee
Eiinoaioeia Oeeinioa, aua i?e aeecie iao?ea?oa Oioey.

I. A. Oei?aineee iacaae Ee?eeea ia?aio/eoaeai neaayi. *aeaiiua neiaa
yoe ia niaea?aeao ieeaeiai i?aoaaee/aiey. Eiia/ii, i?aaeaea anaai
iaiaoiaeeii iacaaoue neaayineee aeoaaeo. Eioi?ue e iiiuia a oiio?aaeaiee
o ?onneeo. Oe?aeioeaa, aaei?onia, aieaa?, na?aia e iaeaaeiioeaa. Ii
iiaeaeoe, aua aieueoae caneoaie Ee?eeea e Iaoiaeey iaaei ii i?aao
n/eoaoue nicaeaiea eie eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea. Oioy i?inaaoeoaee e
iie?aeenue ia ?iaeiie aeey ieo aiai? nieoineeo neaayi, ana aea iie
nicaeaee eeoa?aoo?iue ycue aeey anaai neaayineiai ie?a, eioi?ue a 9 a.
aue a ycueiaii ioiioaiee ia?acaeaeaiiui.

Auiieiea ia?aaiaeu n a?a/aneiai Ee?eee e Iaoiaeee, e eo o/aieee
iiaeeeth/eee iieiaeoth neaayineoth iaoeo e ia?iiiiio aeooiaiiio
aiaaonoao. Eeoa?aoo?iui ycueii Eeaaneie ?one, iicaea Iineianeiai
ainoaea?noaa iaaeieai noae ae?aaianeaayineee, a a iai /a?ac ia?aaiaeu,
iaoee io?aaeaiey o?enoeaineay eoeueoo?a e ia?aciaaiiinoue Aecaioee.

4.

Anoue naaaeaiey i iiyaeaiee o?enoeainoaa a n?aaea ainoi/iuo neaayi oaea
a eiioea 8 ia/aea 9 aaeia. A yoi a?aiy a Eeaaa no?ieony oea?eiaue Na.
Eeee – ia Iiaeiea, aeaeeii ia oii aea ianoa aaea iaoiaeeony Eeueeineay
oea?eiaue. E o?enoeainoao ia/eiaao neeiiyoueny eiyaeaneay aeanoue.
O?enoeaieiii aue eiycue Ineieueae, iaiaei eao i?aaeea ainoaea?noaii,
i?eiyaoay o?enoeainoai eiyaeiy Ieueaa. Anoue i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi aa
aioe ss?iiiee oiaea aue o?enoeaieiii. Ii i?aaee a Eeaaa a 972-980 aa.
aue i?aaeoanoaaiieeii Aeaaeeie?a Nayoineaaiae/a. Eeaaneay ?onue oaea
auea i?aae?aniieiaeaia e i?eiyoeth o?enoeainoaa.

Ioiioaiea Eeaaneie ?one n o?enoeaineei ie?ii iinoaiaiii i?eia?aoaee
aieaa iinoiyiiue e i?i/iue oa?aeoa?, /ai n ionoeueiaineei e
eoaeaenoneei. N ainoaea?noaaiiui ycu/anoaii auei iieii/aii. O?enoeainoai
noaei ?aeeaeae ia i?inoi eiycy eee aeaaea aa?oooee ainoaea?noaa, iii
noaei ioeoeeaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeae.

Naaaeaiey niiauaaiua eaoiienoeai a “Iiaanoe a?aiaiiuo eao”, i oii eae
eiycue Aeaaeeie? auae?ae aa?o aeey ?one e inoaiiaee naie auai? ia
o?enoeainoaa, io?aaeatho ?aaeueii i?ienoiaeyuea a Eeaaneie ?one a eiioea
10 a. niauoey.

I?aaineaaea, ia/aaoaa iainiaeyoueny a noaaoaa a 11 a. oaea enoi?e/aneie
?aaeueii eoeueoo?iiai aaeeiaiey Eeaaneie ?one n Aecaioeae, Aieaa?eae,
Na?aeae. E yoi eiaei aeey ?one aeaeaei eaeouea iineaaenoaey.

Aanueia neiaiee/ii, /oi ciaiaieoay Eeaai-Ia/a?neay Eaa?a, nua?aaoay
noieue aaaeioth ?ieue a aeooiaiie. Eoeueoo?iie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie
Eeaaneie ?one, aicieeea aie?oa iaua?u a eioi?ie aeee aoaeouee ieo?iiieeo
Eeea?eii, ia?aue ?in iacia/aiiue ia ieo?iiiee/ueth eaoaae?o. Ianeo/aeii.
Eiia/ii e oi. *oi iniiaaoaeue Eaa?u – i?ai. Aioiiee Ia/a?neee naycai
i?yiie o?aaeeoeeae n aeaaiui oeaio?ii eneoecia -Aoiiii.

Enoeiiia nie?aiea e i?aeeiiaiea ia?aae aieae Aiaeeath iiaoaeaeaei eiycae
iciaiaiiauaaoue iiaaaeu naie e n/anoeeaua niauoey ia nii?oaeaieai
iaiyoieeia neaau, a no?iaieai o?aiia. Aeaaeeie? Nayoie auo?iee o?ai
I?aia?aaeaiey a iaiyoue /oaeaniiai nianaiey 6 aaaonoa 995 aiaea io
ia/aiaaia. Eiycue Aiae?ae Aiaiethaneee aicaeaea ai Aeaaeeie?a oea?eiaue
ai eiy nayoiai Oaaei?a No?aoeeaoa a iaiyoue naiaai /oaeaniiai nianaiey a
1149 a. iiae Eooeeii, eiaaea ii i?inee nayoiai i iiiiue.

Oioaeinue au iniai neacaoue i ii/eoaiee ia ?one I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu.
Eai aa aiaeeoaeuenoai a aeecie e a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa ?one iienoeia
ia?iiii. N iiiaioa iniiaaiey ?onneie Ieo?iiieee eiycai Aeaaeeie?ii
eaoaae?aeueiua niai?u naycaiu n ii/eoaoaeuenoaii Aeaau Ia?ee – yoi
Oniaineea e Nioeeneea niai?u.

Nayoie Aeaaeeie? ia/ae ?ani?ino?aiyoue i?inaauaiea, i?eaiieee aai
i?iaeieaeeee yoi aeaei. Ec Aecaioee ?one noaee ecaanoiu aneaoe/aneea
i?iecaaaeaiey i?aaineaaiiai Ainoiea, niinianoaothuea i?inaauaieth anaai
ia?iaea. Iniiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie noaee o?enoeaineea caeiiu. A
iiauo noaeao ?ac?aoaee aeaea ii Iiiieaiiio e Ei?i/ae eieaa.

Ainiaaay eiycy ss?ineaaa, eaoiienaoe ieoao: “Aeaaeeie? aniaoae e oiya/ee
caieth, i?inaaoee aa nayoui e?auaieai; a ss?ineaa canaye neiaaie
eieaeiuie na?aeoea ethaeae; a iu iiaeeiaai, o/aiea i?eaiey eieaeiia”.

Aaeeeay caneoaa i?aaineaaey a aeaea nicaeaiey ae?aaia?onneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe ninoieo i?aaeaea anaai a oii, /oi iii iiaeiyei e
inayoeei a aeacao ia?iaea aaoi?eoao eiyaeaneie aeanoe. I?aaineaaea
onoaiiaeei acaeyae ia iiia?oa eae ia eca?aiieea e iiiacaiieea Aiaeey,
eioi?ue aeaaeaao oea?noaii “ieeinoueth Aiaeeae” e “iieeoaaie Oea?eae”,
i?aaeo ethaeueie ii aaeaieth Nayoiai Aeooa, i?inaauathuaai aai niaanoue
e iai?aaeythuaai aai aieth ia anaia?iaeiia aeaai.

Nayoie eiycue Aiae?ae Aiaiethaneee a?ae n niaie a iioiaeu /oaeioai?ioth
eeiio Aeaaeeie?neie Aiaeeae Iaoa?e e /anoiue e?ano. Neyiea io eeiiu e
e?anoa aeaeae ii 1 aaaonoa 1164 aiaea i?e ii?aaeaiee ainoi/iuo
aieaa?-iaaiiaoyi. A yoio aeaiue oi aea /oaei auei yaeaii aecaioeeneiio
eiia?aoi?o Iaioeeo, iiaaaeeaoaio na?aoeei. A iaiyoue yoiai /oaea
i?aaineaaiay Oea?eiaue i?acaeioao 1 aaaonoa Anaieeinoeaaeoaai
Niana.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iieeoe/aneia cia/aiea aeooiaieeia eeaaneeo eiycae.
Ieo?iiieeo Eeaaneee Eeea?eii yaeyeny iaeciaiiui iiiiuieeii ss?ineaaa
Ioae?iai. Niaaoieeii eeaaneeo eiycae yaeyeny I?aiiaeiaiue Oaiaeinee
Eeaai-Ia/a?neee. Ieo?iiieeo Ieeeoi? aue aeeaeaeoei nio?oaeieeii
Aeaaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa e ianoaaeye aai a aeaea oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaii: “
Ieoo ia iaiiieiaiea oaaa: eai aaeeeea aeanoe aaeeeiai iaiiieiaiey
o?aaotho”, ienae ieo?iiieeo Ieeeoi?. Ea?a?oe yaeyeenue i?eie?eoaeyie a
?ac?ooathueo ?onue nii?ao eiycae.

I?e yoii ea?a?oe ia no?aieeenue e naaoneie aeanoe. Eo caaea/ae auei
aeooiaiia i?inaauaiea e ianoaaeaiea ia iooue enoeiiue.

5.

Ii/oe ca 100 eao aei ioeoeeaeueiiai i?eiyoey Eeaaneie ?onueth
I?aaineaaey eae ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaee aeaa iiiaoa Ee?eee e Iaoiaeee –
aicai?aeenue aeaeaieai i?inaaoeoue naaoii Aiaeanoaaiiiai o/aiey ia?iaeu.
AEeaouea ia caiaaea io ?one – a ainoaea?noaa Aaeeeay Ii?aaey. Aeey yoiai
iie ninoaaeee neaayineoth acaoeo e ia?aaaee ia neaayineee ycue Aaaiaaeea
e Inaeou?ue. Ia?aaiae nayoiai Ienaiey, ninoaaeaiiue nayouie Ee?eeeii e
Iaoiaeeai, aeinoaeny ?onai e aieaa anaai niaeaenoaiaae ?ani?ino?aiaieth
n?aaee ieo o?enoeainoaa.

Aeaaiaea?y i?aaineaaeth ?onu iieo/eee ienueiaiiinoue e nicaeaee aaeeeoth
eoeueoo?o. I?ae?aoeeenue aieiu, ?onue i?i/ii iauaaeeieeanue aaeeiie
?aeeaeae, aaeeiie eoeueoo?ie aaeeiuie caeiiaie. Eeaaneay ?onue noaea
iiaouanoaaiiui neaayineei ainoaea?noaii e auno?i iaae?aea neeu.
Oe?aieyeanue a iieeoe/aneii, yeiiiie/aneii e eoeueoo?iii niunea.
Enoi?ey oea?eae iaioaeaeeia io enoi?ee ainoaea?noaa. A aeayoaeueiinoe
oaeeo eiycae eae eiyaeiy Ieueaa, eiycuey Aeaaeeie? 1, ss?ineaa Ioae?ue e
aua oeaeiai ?yaea eiycae Eeaaneie ?one, neeeinue aiaaeeii aeoaieay aa?a.
Aeooiaiinoue, naiiiiaea?oaiaaiea e iao?eioeci, ana oi, /oi a
iineaaenoaee noaei ooiaeaiaioii ainoaea?noaaiiinoe oe?aeineiai ia?iaea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u :

Aiaineiaea e aeooiaiinoue. (Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oea?eiaiie
iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. Iineaa. 11-18 iay 1987 a. -I., 1989.) Ai?enia I.
N. ?onneay oea?eiaue a iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaa 14-15 aa. -I.1986.

Eaiaineee a. E. Neaayineia aeeoea Ee?eeea, eae ?aeeaeicii-yoe/aneia
i?iecaaaeaiea e eae enoi?e/aneee enoi/iee. (AEo?i. Iei. Ia?. I?iaa.,
1904, yiaa?ue)

Iaea?ee (Aoeaaeia). Enoi?ey o?enoeainoaa a ?innee aei
?aaiiaiinoieueneiai eiycy Aeaaeeie?a. -NIA 1846. Iocu/aiei I. Enoi?ey
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa Oe?aeiu, /. 1 Iaeanna 1997

Ieeii (Eunaiei). “Oioeaai e?auaiea” neaayii-?inia e aai cia/aiea a
i?aaeenoi?ee e?auaiey ?one. (Aiaineianeea o?oaeu. -I. ,1989.

Iaiyoieee eeoa?aoo?u Ae?aaiae ?one. Aoi?ay iieiaeia 16a. Aui. 8.-I.,
1986.

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