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История Религии (том 1)

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Aeaenaiae? Iaiue

ENOI?Ess ?AEEAEE

A iieneao iooe, enoeiu, e aeecie

?aeiiaiaeiaaii Ieienoa?noaii iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a ea/anoaa iiniaey aeey nenoaiu aeiiieieoaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey o/aueony

Iineaa 2001

IIAUE NIAIANOIUE I?IAEO

Einoeoooa «Ioe?uoia iauanoai» e Ieienoa?noaa iauaai n?aaeiaai e
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ?O

«O/aaiay eeoa?aoo?a iiaiai iieieaiey»

I?iaeo iai?aaeai ia nicaeaiea o/aaiuo iaoa?eaeia, niioaaonoaothueo
eo/oei ia?acoeai ie?iaie o/aaiie eeoa?aoo?u eae n oi/ee c?aiey
niaea?aeaiey, iaoiaeeee, oae e oi?iu iiaea/e iaoa?eaea. Iiaua o/aaiua
iaoa?eaeu aoaeoo i?aaeaea anaai i?eaioe?iaaiu ia aoiaieoa?iua aeiiacee,
eeoeae e oeieu n oaeoaeaiiui eco/aieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeiaoia.

AAE 86.3 I 50 OAeE 27+29

Ninoaaeoaee:

nayuaiiee Aeaenaiae? Ai?enia, ?.E-Aeueaaoeiaa, A.ss’.Aiae?aaaa,
A.O.Naao?ia, A.E.Oaeiaa?a, I.A.Iaiue

?aaeaeoeeiiiay eieeaaey:

I.A.Aanaeianeay, A.E.Aeanaiei, A.E.Aeaieeaiei, IA.AEo?eineay,
A.E.Eiyaeeoeeee, A.A.Ieeieaaaneay

Iaeao e ioi?ieaiea:

A.I.Eociaoeia

Iaiue Aeaenaiae?

I 50 Enoi?ey ?aeeaee. A 2 ei. Ei. 1-y: A iieneao Iooe, Enoeiu e
AEecie: O/aa. iiniaea. — I.:

Ecaeaoaeueneay a?oiia «OI?OI-EIO?A-I», 2001. — 216 n.: ee.

Eieaa Aeaenaiae?a Iaiy «Enoi?ey ?aeeaee. A iieneao Iooe, Enoeiu e
AEecie» — yoi iiaanoaiaaiea i aeooiaiuo eneaieyo /aeiaa/anoaa. *eoaoaeue
iaeaeao a iae aiaaoue iaoa?eae i aeooiaiuo o?aaeeoeeyo Ae?aaiaai
Ainoiea, i ?aeeaee e oeeinioee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, i niauoeyo aeaeaeneie
enoi?ee ni a?aiai aaaeeiineiai ieaia aei i?eoiaea a ie? Eenona O?enoa.

Eieaa i?aaeiacia/aia aeey i?aiiaeaaaoaeae e o/aueony n?aaeiae oeieu,
aeiiacee, eeoeaaa, a oaeaea aeey anao, eoi eioa?anoaony enoi?eae
?aeeaee. Iia iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia eae naiinoiyoaeueiia o/aaiia
iiniaea e eae aeiiieieoaeueiue iaoa?eae i?e eco/aiee ae?oaeo
enoi?e/aneeo aeenoeeieei.

ISBN 5-86225-621-0 © Oiiae eiaie Aeaenaiae?a
Iaiy, 1997 © Ecaeaoaeueneee Aeii «OI?OI», 1997

IO ECAeAOAEUeNOAA

Oai?/aneia ianeaaeea Aeaenaiae?a Iaiy ii?aaeaao naiae iiiaia?aiiinoueth
e oe?ioie iao/iiai e?oaici?a. Eiaaea ieeaeuaaaoue acaeyaeii
i?iaeaeaiioth ei ?aaioo a iaeanoe aeaeeieiaee, ?aeeaeiaaaeaiey, enoi?ee
eoeueoo?u, eeoa?aoo?u, oi oaeeaeyaoueny a?iiaaeiiio iauaio aai o?oaea.
Aeaeiue aeayoaeue ?onneie I?aaineaaiie oea?eae, aeaeaeno, aiaineia,
i?iiiaaaeiee, ii ca naith iaaeieaoth aeeciue naeaeae noieueei, /oi auei
au ii neeai oieueei oeaeiio eieeaeoeao.

Aai aeoaieea oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ni/aoaeenue n aeoeaiie
i?iiiaaaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth. Ii aeee i?aaeaeueii ianuuaiiie
aeeciueth: neoaeee a o?aia, ienae eieae e noaouee, /eoae eaeoeee a
oeieao e aocao, aunooiae ii ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaieth. Ioaoe Aeaenaiae? aac
inoaoea ioaeaaae naay neoaeaieth Aiao e ethaeyi.

Aoaeouee ianou?ue ?iaeeeny a 1935 a. Oaea a ?aiiae thiinoe Aeaenaiae?
ynii iniciae, /oi noaiao nayuaiieeii. A oeieueiua e nooaeai/aneea aiaeu
ii aeaaeii iiiieiye e ?anoe?ye naie ?aeeaeiciua iiciaiey. Ia neaaeoao
caauaaoue, /oi ii?a aai thiinoe i?eoeanue ia ?acaoe aoaecia, eiaaea
ainoaea?noai e iauanoai ieacuaaee ia aa?othueo iaaa?iyoiia aeaaeaiea.
Nio?aieoue, caueoeoue aa?o a oaeeo oneiaeyo cia/eei niaa?oeoue
i?aanoaaiiue iiaeaea.

Oaeeaeoaeueiui aioo?aiiei aeaai?iaenoaii auea ioia/aia any
aeayoaeueiinoue Aeaenaiae?a Iaiy — ianou?y e o/aiiai. *aeiaae
yioeeeeiiaaee/aneeo ciaiee, ii aue ioe?uo aaeeeie I?aaaea. Aeaaiue o?oae
aai aeecie — na?ey eiea ii enoi?ee ?aeeaee, a oaeaea eieaa ia Eenona
O?enoa «Nui *aeiaa/aneee». A ieo ioaoe Aeaenaiae? i?ineaaeeaaao
aeooiaioth enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa, iienee niunea auoey. A naieo ?aaioao
ii iieacae, /oi yoe eneaiey anoue ia /oi eiia, eae ainoiaeaeaiea e
Enoeia, a Enoeia — yoi O?enoin.

E?oiiaeoee o/aiue-aeaeaeno, Aeaenaiae? Iaiue ia/oae iaienaoue o/aaiee ii
enoi?ee ?aeeaee. O?aae/aneay aeaaeue nayuaiiineoaeeoaey a 1990 a.
iiiaoaea inouanoaeaieth yoiai ieaia. A?aiaeeiciue caiunae ia aue
caaa?oai, ii inoaeenue eieae iooea Aeaenaiae?a, aai aanoeaiiue iao/iue
a?oea. ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth o/aaieea auea i?iaeieaeaia ae?ocueyie e
aeeceeie Aeaenaiae?a Iaiy.

I?aaeeaaaaiua aieiaieth /eoaoaeae o/aaiua iiniaey, iauaaeeiaiiua iauei
iacaaieai «Enoi?ey ?aeeaee», ninoaaeaiu ii iaoa?eaeai eiea, iaienaiiuo
iooeii Aeaenaiae?ii. Ninoaaeoaee ni/ee naiei aeieaii nio?aieoue aai
iaiiaoi?eioth eioiiaoeeth, eioi?ay oae iaiyoia anai, eiio auiaei
n/anouea neuoaoue yoiai iacao?yaeiiai /aeiaaea.

A ia?aie eieaa «A iieneao Iooe, Enoeiu e AEecie» enneaaeothony enoiee
?aeeaee, ?anneacuaaaony i ia?aiia/aeueiuo aa?iaaieyo — io
aeienoi?e/aneie ienoeee aei i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeeaii Aiaa. A eieaa
iiaanoaoaony i aicieeiiaaiee ae?aaiae ec?aeeueneie ?aeeaee, aeaaoae ie?o
inaiaiaeaeathuee iaiiue Naaoa e Enoeiu, i i?eoiaea Iannee a ie?, i Aai
caiiie aeecie e iiaaaea iaae nia?oueth. Iu iniciaai, /oi aeooiaiua
eneaiey /aeiaa/anoaa aiieioeeenue a ee/iinoe e o/aiee Eenona O?enoa, /oi
Aai ?iaeaeaiea ii naiui aeoaeiiui i?e/eiai noaei ia/aeii iiaie y?u — y?u
oi?aeanoaa Enoeiu.

Aoi?ay eieaa «Iooe o?enoeainoaa» ioaaouaaao I ouny/aeaoea ii ?.O. A iae
?anneacuaaaony i ?ani?ino?aiaiee o?enoeainoaa, i ienneiia?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe o/aieeia Eenona, i ia?aie o?enoeaineie eiia?ee, ia Iooeao
Oea?eae, i i?e/eiao aaeeeiai oea?eiaiiai ?aneiea, i e?auaiee ?one. Aaoi?
?ane?uaaao oaeio i?eiauaiey e Oea?eae ouny/ e ouny/ ethaeae /a?ac
ethaiaue, /oi naaiaeiy /?acau/aeii aaaeii aeey aeooiaiiai aic?iaeaeaiey
?innee.

Aeaenaiae? Iaiue ia eaeaaeece?oao o?enoeainoai, ii iieacuaaao ?aaeueioth
ea?oeio aeecie Oea?eae, ia ne?uaay aa ae?aiaoe/aneeo noi?ii:

ai?ueau iiaiee, ?aneiea, a?anae, aniuoae oaiaoecia. Auni/aeoay
i?aanoaaiiay iiceoeey aaoi?a iicaieyao iauaeoeaii inaauaoue ana yoe
aii?inu.

I. ENOIEE ?AEEAEE

Ou nicaeae ian aeey Naay,

e iyoaony na?aeoea iaoa,

aeieiea ia oniieieony a Oaaa.

Aaaonoei

AAAAeAIEA

A aeooiaiie aeecie /aeiaaea o?oaeii iaeoe oaeoi?, eioi?ue ea?ae au aieaa
aaaeioth ?ieue, /ai ?aeeaey. A iieneao Aiaa /aeiaa/anoai enoiaeeei
iaiaei aei?ia, i?ieaey iooue io ie?iio?eoeathuae ienoeee aei
aiaiio?eoeathuaai iaoa?eaeecia. E eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea iooue yoio aue
i?ieaeai, ianooieea, au?aaeaynue aeaeaeneei ycueii, «iieiioa a?ai?i».
Ie? iiaeioae e Ioe?iaaieth aaee/aeoae oaeiu, e /aeiaaeo aue oeacai iooue
e niaa?oaiiie aeecie.

Iaeiaei /aeiaaeo auea aeaia naiaiaea auai?a — i?eiyoue Aaaiaaeea eee
ioaa?aiooue aai. Naiaiaea inoaeanue iai?eeiniiaaiiie; aa caeiaii auei
enoi?e/aneia oie/eaeaiea Eenona Iaca?yieia, Aai e?anoiay nia?oue e
ianeuoaiiia a naiae ia?aaeienaeueiinoe o/aiea, i?eiyoue eioi?ia auei
iaaiciiaeii aac iiaeaeaa aa?u.

Ouaoii ethaee i?eeaaaee e o?enoeainoao i?eau/iua ei ia?ee: iaeie
o?aaiaaee ciaiaiee, ae?oaea — oeeinioneeo aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ii Oea?eiaue
onoaie aiinoiea Iaaea ioaa/aea: «Iu i?iiiaaaeoai O?enoa ?aniyoiai, aeey
eoaeaaa — niaeaci, a aeey yeeeiia — aacoiea» (1 Ei? 1:23).

Ia /aeiaa/aneie, a Aiaeanoaaiiie aanoueth aioei Aaaiaaeea a enoi?eth
/aeiaa/anoaa. Iiei?ea iiiaeo, aeey eiuo iii inoaeinue niaeaciii eee
aacoieai. Iaeioi?ua, i?eiya aai, iioii ionooieeenue. Ii eaeoe ie?o auei,
a nouiinoe, oaea iaeoaea. Inoaaaeinue eeoue niiaa e niiaa a?iaeeoue a
iioaieao caaeoaeaeaiee, eioi?ua oaeaeaee /aeiaa/aneee aeoo a
aeio?enoeaineea a?aiaia. Iooiae io O?enoa ia aeaea icia/ae aica?ao e
Aoaeaea eee Eiioooeeth, Ca?aoono?a eee Ieaoiio, Aeaiie?eoo eee Yieeo?o.

?en.1

Nioai?aiea naaoa. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Iienoeia i?aa aue Yeeeaceano, eiaaea aiai?ee: «Iao ie/aai iiaiai iiae
nieioeai» (Aeee 1:9). ?anniao?eaay ethaia ec o/aiee, aicieeoeo ca
aeaaaeoeaoue aaeia, iu oaaaeaeaainy, /oi ana iie naiaeyony e iiaoi?aieth
/aai-oi oaea i?ieaeaiiiai.

?aoeeaeeau aeiaaaiaaeueneiai niciaiey aua neeoeii /anoi aeatho i naaa
ciaoue e n?aaee o?enoeai. Iie i?iyaeythony e a io?aoaiiii
nie?eooaeecia1, e a aaoi?eoa?iie iaoa?ieiinoe, e a iaae/aneii
ia?yaeiaa?ee. Yoi aiieia iauynieii: aaaeue aeaa ouny/e eao — n?ie
ie/oiaeiue aeey oiai, /oiau i?aiaeieaoue «ycu/anoai» e inouanoaeoue oioy
au /anoue caaea/, iinoaaeaiiuo ie?o Aiai/aeiaaeii. A iie iienoeia
aaniethoiu e iaen/a?iaaiu. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi «caeaanea» Aaaiaaeey
oieueei ia/aea naia i?aia?acothuaa aeaenoaea.

* * *

Enoi?ey ia ciaao ie iaeiiai ia?iaea, eioi?ue aue au niaa?oaiii eeoai
aa?u. Aeaaea aoaenoia iaeuecy n/eoaoue ethaeueie ii-ianoiyuaio
iaaa?othueie. Eaeaieiae/aneea ieou, eioi?ua i?eieiathony eie ia aa?o, —
yoi, ii nouanoao, ia?aeeoeiaaiiay ?aeeaey. A ?acoeueoaoa aicieeatho
«aa?iaaiey» aoaecia, iuoathueany i?eaianoe niune a aanniuneeoeo,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua i?eie?eoue /aeiaaea n oai, /oi ii ii naiae i?e?iaea ia
iiaeao i?eiyoue.

Anoue /oi-oi o?aae/aneia e oaeinoaaiiia a no?aieaiee aoaenoia oe?uoueny
io aacaeiu ?aaiiaeooiie Anaeaiiie, io ionoiai oieiaeiiai iaaa. Ooo ia
i?inoi no?ao e o?aaiaa, ii iainiciaiiia oyaioaiea e oiio, /oi aeiaiaoeea
iaoa?eaeecia io?eoeaao, a eiaiii e Niuneo, Oeaee, ?acoiiiio Ia/aeo ie?a.

Aeoo /aeiaaea aaeaie no?aieeny e e?anioa, aeia?o e /aio-oi Aunoaio,
aeinoieiiio iieeiiaiey. Iiaeii ee aeaeaoue a yoii eeoue ionoie
naiiiaiai? Ia anoanoaaiiaa ee i?eciaoue, /oi iiaeiaii oiio, eae oaei
naycaii n iaoa?eaeueiui ie?ii i?e?iaeu, oae e aeoo oyaioaao e iac?eiie
?aaeueiinoe? E ?acaa ia iieacaoaeueii, /oi, eiaaea /aeiaae
ioai?a/eaaaony io yoie ?aaeueiinoe, aianoi iaa aicieeatho noaaa?ey e
naeoey?iua2 «eoeueou»? Eiuie neiaaie, anee /aeiaae ooiaeeo io Aiaa, ii
iaecaaaeii i?eoiaeeo e eaeieai.

Ieioi, eiaaea ionootho o?aiu, iaeiaei aua ooaea, eiaaea o?aiu iieiu, ii
ionootho na?aeoea. Aiaoiaa eniieiaiea ia?yaeia — aeaeaei ia anaaaea
iieacaoaeue aeaaiiieo/ey aa?u, e, iai?ioea, neaaay iinauaaiinoue o?aiia
ioithaeue ia aeieacuaaao aa oiaaeea. E oiio aea aiaoiea oi?iu oea?eiaiie
aeecie anaaaea iaiyeenue a i?ioeii, aoaeoo iaiyoueny iie e a
aeaeueiaeoai.

Aeaaea iioa?ya Aiaa, ethaee no?anoii euoo aaniethoiiai- E oieueei
?aeeaey inoaaony iaeaieaa ee/iinoiie ec anao oi?i /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiyoiio eiaiii a iae aeoo, caoa?yiiue a eaae?eioao
oeeaeeecaoeee, aiiaue e aiiaue ia?aoaao aeey naay i?i/ioth iniiao e
aioo?aiithth naiaiaeo. Ee/iinoue, o. a. aunoaa i?iyaeaiea /aeiaa/aneiai,
anaaaea aoaeao iaoiaeeoue iieio a Nayouia.

Ciaiaieoue oecee Iaen Ai?i, aiai?y i i?iianoe, a eioi?oth eaoeony
oeeaeeecaoeey, iiae/a?eeaae, /oi eeoue ?aeeaeiciua eaeae iiaoo aa?iooue
caei?iauea iauanoao. «A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, — ienae ii, — oieueei iaeei
no?ao auioaeaeaao ethaeae nio?aiyoue ie?. Iaeiaei oaeia iieiaeaiea
iaonoie/eai e aeieaeii auoue caiaiaii /ai-oi eo/oei. Iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe
eneaoue aaea-oi aeaeaei i?eioeei, eioi?ue iia au noaoue aieaa i?i/iie
iniiaie aeey ono?ienoaa iaoeo aeae… A iaoae /anoe ie?a yoio i?eioeei
niaea?aeeony a o?enoeaineie aeieo?eia».

Ethaee, aiai?yuea i «aeaaee ?aeeaee», eeai aeeci?oee, eeai iaia?aiii
cae?uaatho aeaca ia aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, eeai, iaeiiaoe, yaeythony
aea?oaaie aeaceioi?iaoeee.

Naaiaeiy, eae ieeiaaea, aeooaeueii cao/ao neiaa aiinoiea Iaaea,
neacaiiua aeaa ouny/e eao iacaae:

«Ian ii/eoatho oia?oeie, ii aio, iu aeeau» (2 Ei? 6:9).

__________________________________________________

1 Nie?eooaeeci (io aiae. spirit — aeoo) — oeeinioneia aicc?aiea,
ooaa?aeaeathuaa i?eiao aeooiaiiai ia/aea ie?icaeaiey i?e aoi?e/iinoe,
«iaioaeiinoe» aai iaoa?eaeueiiai ia/aea. Ia yaeyaony o/aieai
o?enoeaineie Oea?eae.

2 Naeoey?iue — naaoneee, ia ioiinyueeny ie e noa?a ?aeeaeiciie aeecie,
ie e oea?eiaiui no?oeoo?ai; iai?eia?, naeoey?iia ainoaea?noaaiiia
ono?ienoai iiae?acoiaaaao, /oi ?aeeaeiciua aicc?aiey yaeythony /anoiui
aeaeii ethaeae, a ia eo a?aaeaeaineie iaycaiiinoueth-

I?E?IAeA AA?U

Auoea e aa?a

*oi aea oaeia aa?a? O/aiua e aiaineiau ii?aaeaeyee aa ii-?aciiio e ii?ie
i/aiue i?ioeai?a/eai. ?aeeaeth naycuaaee n /oanoaii i?aanoaaiiiai aeieaa
(Eaio), n /oanoaii caaeneiinoe (iaiaoeeee aiaineia Oeaea?iaoa?);
aiaeeeneee iuneeoaeue ?annae ii?aaeaeye aa eae no?ao ia?aae iaaaaeiiui e
o. ae.

?en.2

*aoaa?oue aeaiue oai?aiey. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

Iu, eiia/ii, ia aoaeai inoaiaaeeaaoueny caeanue ia iiaiee
«i?inaaoeoaeae», aoaeoi ?aeeaey anoue i?iaeoeo iaia?aiiiai iaiaia. Io
yoiai acaeyaea aeaaii ioeacaeenue e naie aoaenou. Caoi ai?acaei oii?iaa
aea?aeaeenue iie ca ae?oaoth eiioeaioeeth XVIII a., niaeanii eioi?ie
?aeeaey — yoi ieiae iaaaaeanoaa ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea, ia ciaaoaai
caeiiia i?e?iaeu. Iiaeiaiua ooaa?aeaeaiey aua ano?a/athony aeiaieueii
/anoi a aioe?aeeaeiciie eeoa?aoo?a. Iaeiaei aa?a aeeaao e oiaaea, eiaaea
ciaiey /aeiaaea i i?e?iaea noaiiayony iieiaa; aa eniiaaaeotho ethaee,
noiyuea ia naiii aunieii o?iaia eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

Ia iniaaiiinoe aa?iaaiee oiai eee eiiai ia?iaea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
aeeytho enoi?e/aneea, aaia?aoe/aneea e yoie/aneea oaeoi?u. Ii ?aeeaey
i?aaaee?oao iaae ieie: yoei iauyniyaony oa ii?aceoaeueiay aeooiaiay
iauiinoue, eioi?ay ia?aaeei aicieeaao o ia?iaeia, ?acaeaeaiiuo
ineoieiae/aneeie, ?aniauie e enoi?e/aneeie aa?uea?aie. E iaiai?io, aeaa
ia?iaea iiaoo ninoaaeyoue ?aniaia, yeiiiie/aneia, enoi?e/aneia e
aaia?aoe/aneia aaeeinoai, a ii naiaio ?aeeaeiciiio niciaieth nouanoaaiii
?acee/aoueny. «Aeaaiua aa?uea?u iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie, — ieoao aiaeeeneee
oeeinio e enoi?ee E?enoioa? Aeaonii, — ia ?ana, ycue eee aaia?aoey, ii
?acee/ea aeooa: yeeeiu e aa?aa?u, eoaeae e iaeoaeae, ionoeueiaia e
eiaeoenou, o?enoeaia e ycu/ieee. Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo nouanoaotho ?aciua
eiioeaioeee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ?aciay ii?aeue e ?aciua ynoaoe/aneea
ii?iu, neiaii, ?aciue aioo?aiiee ie?. A iniiaa eaaeaeie oeeaeeecaoeee
eaaeao aeaa aeooiaiuo oaeoi?a: enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoayny iauiinoue iunee
e aeaenoaey e aiacaiiia ica?aiea i?i?iea eee iuneeoaey.

Ii anee eioaeeaeooaeueiua e aeooiaiua eciaiaiey i?eiinyo iuooeiua
?acoeueoaou a iaoa?eaeueiie aeecie ia?iaeia, oi /enoi aiaoiyy
iaoa?eaeueiay ia?aiaia aeaao ie/oiaeiue iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo, eiaaea
iia ia eiaao ei?iy a eoeueoo?a e ineoieiaee. Oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi
aeeyiea nia?aiaiiie iaoa?eaeueiie oeeaeeecaoeee ia i?eieoeaiua ia?iaeu
iau/ii ia aaaeao e eoeueoo?iiio i?ia?anno. Iaiai?io, anee iii ia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony i?ioeannii aeooiaiie anneieeyoeee, iii ?ac?ooeo
eoeueoo?o, eioi?oth caaiaaaei».

Io?ua eoeueoo?u io aa ?aeeaeiciuo iniia ia iiaeao inoaoueny aac ?ieiauo
iineaaenoaee. Iiaeeeiiue eoeueoo?iue ?anoeaao iaiuneei aac eioaineaiie
aeooiaiie aeecie.

*ai auea au enoi?ey Ec?aeey aac Aeaeee e /ai aac Aeaeee auea au
aa?iiaeneay oeeaeeecaoeey? *ai auea au caiaaeiay eoeueoo?a aac
eaoiee/anoaa, eiaeeeneay — aac aa ?aeeaee, ?onneay — aac i?aaineaaey,
a?aaneay — aac eneaia? E?eceniua e oiaaeie/aneea yaeaiey a eoeueoo?a,
eae i?aaeei, auaatho naycaiu n ineaaeaieai ?aeeaeiciiai eiioeuena, /oi
i?eaiaeeo oai?/anoai e aeaa?aaeaoeee e iia?oaaieth.

Aieueoeinoai ii?aaeaeaiee ?aeeaee aiai?eo ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii i
ineoieiae/aneeo i?aaeiinueeao aa?u, ii ian eioa?anoao naia aa nouiinoue.

?en.3

Aia nicaeaao Aaeaia.

O. Aeaee.

Eeethno?aoeey e Eieaa Auoey. 1795 a.

?aeeaey anoue i?aeiieaiea Auoey a niciaiee ethaeae, ii aanue aii?in a
oii, eae iiieiaoue naii yoi Auoea. Iaoa?eaeeci naiaeeo aai e ia?acoiiie
i?e?iaea, ?aeeaey aea aeaeeo a aai iniiaa nie?iaaiioth Aiaeanoaaiioth
Nouiinoue e iniciaao naay eae ioaao ia i?iyaeaiea yoie
Nouiinoe.

Iaoa?eaeueiia auoea i/aaeaeii aeey ian — ii eae iu iiaeai ociaoue i
Auoee Aiaeanoaaiiii? Iu ia aeaeei e ia neuoei Aunoaai Auoey, ioeoaea aea
iai ecaanoii, /oi iii ?aaeueii?

Aa?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaeia ninoiyiea /aeiaaea, eiaaea ii oaaaeaeai a
nouanoaiaaiee /aai-eeai, ia iniiauaaynue i?e yoii ia eaeeo-eeai aiaoieo
oaeoe/aneeo e oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneeo aeieacaoaeuenoaao, o. a. eiooeoeaii.

Ia ii?iaa iineaaeiae oaeiu

Iiciaaay i?e?iaeo, /aeiaae ai iiiaii iie?aaony ia eiooeoeeth; iia oai
aieaa aaaeia a noa?a, ioiinyuaeny e naiie nouiinoe auoey. Aaeeeee
eaoiee/aneee iuneeoaeue Oiia Aeaeiao aiai?ee, /oi anee au iooue /aeiaaea
e Aiao i?ioiaeee oieueei /a?ac oeeinioneia, aano?aeoiia iuoeaiea, oi
aa?a inoaeanue au oaeaeii ie/oiaeiaeoaai iaiueoeinoaa. Ia aeaea aea iu
aeaeei, /oi ?aeeaeiciinoue i?enoua e iaa?aiioiiio eiaeeeneiio
e?anoueyieio, e aa?iiaeneiio o/aiiio, aeinoeaoaio aa?oeiu nia?aiaiiuo
ciaiee. E i?ienoiaeeo yoi eiaiii iioiio, /oi aeooiaiia iiciaiea anoue
ieiae aeeaie eiooeoeee.

?aeeaeiciue iiuo iiaeii a naiuo iaueo /a?oao ii?aaeaeeoue eae
ia?aaeeaaiea, naycaiiia n /oanoaii ?aaeueiiai i?enoonoaey a iaoae aeecie
iaeiaai Aunoaai Ia/aea, eioi?ia iai?aaeyao e aeaeaao iniuneaiiui iaoa
nouanoaiaaiea. Yoi iuouaiea aeaaony /a?ac iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
«aeaeaiea»,eniieiaiiia oaeie aea aioo?aiiae aeinoiaa?iinoe, eaeoth eiaao
aeaeaiea nianoaaiiiai «ss». E, oieueei i?ioiaey /a?ac eioaeeaeooaeueiia
iniuneaiea, yoio iiuo e?enoaeeecoaony a iiiyoey e neiaieu.

Ieioei, auaeathueeny oeeinio yeeeienoe/aneiai ie?a, oae aiai?ee ia yoii:
«Eiaaea iu aeaeei Aiaa, oi aeaeei aai ia ?acoiii, a /ai-oi aieaa aunoei,
/ai ?acoi».

?aeeaeiciia ia?aaeeaaiea iaeuecy naanoe ie e eaeie ae?oaie noa?a
/aeiaa/aneiai aeooa. Oi/iaa anaai aai iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae /oanoai
aeaaiaiaaiey. Yeiooaei aiai?ee, /oi «naiia i?ae?aniia /oanoai naycaii n
ia?aaeeaaieai Oaeinoaaiiiai… *aeiaae, eioi?iio yoi iuouaiea /oaeaei,
eioi?ue iioa?ye niiniaiinoue oaeeaeyoueny e aeaaiaiaaoue, — ia?oa.
Ciaiea i oii, /oi anoue nie?uoay ?aaeueiinoue, eioi?ay ioe?uaaaony iai
eae aunoay Ioae?inoue e aeenoathuay E?anioa, — yoi ciaiea e yoi iuouaiea
anoue yae?i enoeiiie ?aeeaeiciinoe».

Naiia aaaeiia ninoieo a oii, /oi /aeiaae /a?ac naay e a naaa ioe?uaaao
eiia, ioee/iia io i?e?iaeu auoea. E /ai eioaineaiaa e niaa?oaiiaa
i?ioeann /aeiaa/aneiai naiiiiciaiey, oai aieaa aeinoiaa?iui noaiiaeony
yoio iaaeaeeiue ie?. «Iiaeiyoueny e Aiao, — aiai?ee o?aioeocneee oeeinio
Aaa?eyeue Ia?naeue, — yoi cia/eo aieoe a naieo naay, aieaa oiai, a
aeoaeio naieo naay, — e naay aea naieo i?aacieoe».

Iaoa aeooiaiia «ss» — ieii a ie? anaeaineiai Aeooa. Eae aa?iiiey
/aeiaaea n i?e?iaeie yaeyaony iniiaie aai aeecie ia caiea, oae Aaeeiaiea
n Aunoei ii?aaeaeyao aai aeooiaiia nouanoaiaaiea. Ai?e Aa?anii aeaeae a
ienoe/aneii iiuoa ia oieueei i?i?ua e Aiaeanoaaiiiio Aaeeinoao, ii e
caeia aeaeueiaeoaai noaiiaeaiey /aeiaa/anoaa.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea Anaeaiiie anaaaea aieiiaaei ethaeae, iniaaiii ethaeae
iaoee. AEai AEae ?onni aua aeaanoe eao iacaae ienae: «Oi iooaaony e
oa?yaony a yoie aaneiia/iinoe ioiioaiee, ec eioi?uo ie iaeii ia
caiooaeinue e ia iioa?yeinue a ianna. Neieueei ioaeii aano?aeiuo
i?aaeiieiaeaiee, /oiau auaiaeeoue anth yoo aa?iiieth ec neaiiai
iaoaiecia iaoa?ee, neo/aeii i?eaiaeeiie a aeaeaeaiea! Iai?anii oa,
eioi?ua io?eoeatho aaeeinoai caiunea, iaia?oaeeaathuaainy a ioiioaieyo
anao /anoae yoiai aaeeeiai oeaeiai, i?ee?uaatho naie iaeaiinoe
aano?aeoeeyie, eii?aeeiaoeeyie, iaueie i?eioeeiaie, anyeeie
yiaeaiaoe/aneeie oa?ieiaie; neieueei au iie ie noa?aeenue, y ia iiao
iinoe/ue nenoaio nouanoa, iiae/eiaiiuo noieue iacuaeaiiio ii?yaeeo. ss
ia a neeao aa?eoue… /oiau neaiay neo/aeiinoue iiaea i?iecaanoe
?acoiiua nouanoaa, /oiau iaiuneyuaa iiaei i?iecaanoe nouanoaa,
iaea?aiiua iuoeaieai».

Ecaanoii e i?eciaiea Yeiooaeia: «Iiy ?aeeaey — yoi aeoaiei
i?i/oanoaiaaiiay oaa?aiiinoue a nouanoaiaaiee Aunoaai ?acoia, eioi?ue
ioe?uaaaony iai a aeinooiiii iiciaieth ie?a».

Iaoa?eaeenou noaayo ia aai ianoi ia/oi, iacuaaaiia eie «iaoa?eae». Ii
anee yoie «iaoa?ee» i?enou ?acoi, oi yoi oaea ia iaoa?ey…

Oaoie/aneea ioe?uoey e iao/iua oai?ee XIX a. ia ia?auo ii?ao, eacaeinue,
iiaee neoaeeoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai iaoa?eaeecia. Oai ia iaiaa ii
iaeciaiii inoaaaeny oaeaeii iiioey?ecaoi?ia, a oaeaea oeeinioia, ieioi
ciaeiiuo n iaoeie, eee o/aiuo, ieioi ciaaoeo oeeinioeth. A XX a. iiae
aeeyieai ioe?uoee a iaeanoe oeceee e aeieiaee iaoa?eaeeci auioaeaeai aue
naeaeaoue onooieo: «iaoa?eae» auei iauyaeaii ana, /oi eiaao iauaeoeaioth
?aaeueiinoue.

Ii aeaaiue aioo?aiiee «ia?a» iaoa?eaeecia inoaeny iaeciaiiui. Yoei
ia?aii auei ai-aiio?eoeaiea. Ia ia?aii ieaia ieacuaaeenue ia iao/iua e
oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu, a yiioeeiiaeueiue iaoin aiaiai?/anoaa.

O Ia?ena i?ioano i?ioea ?aeeaee aeeeoiaaeny aai iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaie,
oae eae ii ioiaeaeanoaeye ?aeeaeth n ?aaeoeeae. Oaeei aea aeoaiei
yiioeeiiaeueiui, aeaeaeei io anyeie «iao/iinoe» aue e aoaeci Eaieia.

«Iao/iia ie?iaicc?aiea», ia eioi?ia nnueathony aoaenou, naii ii naaa
aanueia nii?iia yaeaiea. Iao aeieacaoaeuenoa, /oi ana auoea iiaeaeaaony
aiaeeco iaoee. Ei?ie ie?iaicc?aiey anaaaea ooiaeyo aeoaaea iao/iiai
o?iaiy — a aa?o, a oi eee eiia oaaaeaeaiea.

Oaia?ue oaea ieeoi ia euao a Nayuaiiii Ienaiee ioaaoia ia aii?inu oeiee
eee aaieiaee, a o?enoeainoai ia noaaeo naay a caaeneiinoue io
iai?anoaiii iaiythueony iao/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee. *aeiaae ia?auaeny e Aiao
e oiaaea, eiaaea n/eoae Caieth ieineie, e oiaaea, eiaaea n/eoae aa
ieaiaoie, iaoiaeyuaeny a oeaio?a ie?a, e oiaaea, eiaaea iinoaaee ia yoi
oeaio?aeueiia ianoi Nieioea…

Aeaaiue nii? iaoa?eaeecia e ?aeeaee eaaeeo ca i?aaeaeaie
yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey e ioiineony e i?iaeaia aicieeiiaaiey
ie?icaeaiey. Iaoa?eaeenou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi Anaeaiiay aaneiia/ia ai
a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa. Ii eaeie iao/iue iiuo iiaeao i?iieeiooue a
aani?aaeaeueiia e aacia/aeueiia? Iiaeii ee niaeaneoueny n ooaa?aeaeaieai
iaoa?eaeenoia, /oi oai?/aneia Ia/aei, iaoiaeyuaany aia i?ino?ainoaa, ia
iiaei nicaeaoue aaneiia/ioth Anaeaiioth?

Ni a?aiai N?aaeiaaaeiauey aiaineiau auneacuaatho iiaiea, /oi Anaeaiiay
iiaea e ia eiaoue «ia/aea» ai a?aiaie, eai nai oai?/aneee aeo ii
i?e?iaea naiae yaeyaony aiaa?aiaiiui.

*ai aieueoa ?acaeaaaony anoanoaiciaiea, oai yniaa noaiiaeony, /oi
iiciaiea naieo iniia ie?a eaaeeo ca i?aaeaeaie iaoee. Iiyoiio ia
i?eoiaeeony oaeeaeyoueny oiio, /oi aeey aieueoeinoaa iiaeeeiiuo oai?oeia
iaoee, aeey anao, eoi niaeaenoaiaae aa aeaeaeaieth aia?aae, eaeay
nicaeaiey ie?a Aiaii auea iieia aeoaieiai niunea e aeeciaiiiai cia/aiey.

?en.4

Nioeeneee niai? a Eeaaa. XI a.

E aunoae ?aaeueiinoe /aeiaaea i?eiauatho e aioo?aiiee aeooiaiue iiuo, e
iooe ?acoia, e ?acaeoea iaoee.

«Iiaeaeoe, naiui iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii niaianoeiinoe iaoee
e ?aeeaee, — ienae Iaen Ieaie, — yaeyaony oio enoi?e/aneee oaeo, /oi
eiaiii aaee/aeoea anoanoaieniuoaoaee anao a?aiai, oaeea ethaee, eae
Eaiea?, Iuethoii, Eaeaieoe, auee i?iieeioou aeoaieie ?aeeaeiciinoueth».

Ea?e Eeiiae, nicaeaoaeue aeieiae/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee, aiai?ee, /oi a
iiiaiia?acee ie?a aeeauo nouanoa aeaeeo neeo Oai?oea. Eiiiiinia iacuaae
aa?o e ciaiea «aei/a?ueie iaeiiai Iooea». Ianeaeue, Iuethoii, Oa?aaeae
auee aiaineiaaie. Ianoa? cayaeye, /oi ii iieeony a naiae eaai?aoi?ee, a
O. Ayeii n/eoae, /oi «iaeua ciaiey oaeaeytho io Aiaa, aieueoea — e Iaio
i?eaeeaeatho».

*aeiaae ia?aae Aiaii

Aiaeanoaaiiay ?aaeueiinoue inoaaony nie?iaaiiie e ia iiaeaaeyao /aeiaaea
iaiaoiaeeiie i/aaeaeiinoueth, e yoi nio?aiyao iaoo naiaiaeo ia?aae
Aiaii. Iinoeaeaiea Aai niaa?oaaony iinoaiaiii, a no?iaii niioaaonoaee n
aioiaiinoueth /aeiaaea e ienoe/aneie Ano?a/a. Aia eae au nie?uo io
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aini?eyoey. Oaa ca oaaii aoiaeeo Ii a niciaiea
ethaeae /a?ac i?e?iaeo, ethaiaue, /oanoai oaeiu e ia?aaeeaaiea
Nayuaiiiai. N yoei naycaii e enoi?e/aneia iiiaiia?acea ?aeeaee, eioi?ia
io?aaeaao ?acee/iua oacu e o?iaie Aiaiiiciaiey.

Oai ia iaiaa, o ian anoue i?aai aiai?eoue i aaeeinoaa ?aeeaee. Iii
naycaii e n aaeeinoaii /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu, e n ?iaenoaaiiinoueth
ia?aaeeaaiee, eioi?ua aucuaatho /oanoai Aunoaai e iuneue i Iai. Ionoue
ca/anooth aa?a caoaiiyaony yaieciii, ei?unoueth, i?eieoeaiui no?aoii —
aa iiaeeeiiia yae?i, aeaaiaiaaiea, ?iaeieo iaaeaeo niaie e ycu/ieea, e
iineaaeiaaoaey aunoeo ie?iauo ?aeeaee. Aeaaea aoaeno a eaeea-oi iiiaiou
naiae aeecie ieacuaaaony i?e/anoiui e yoiio /oanoao e eniuouaaao
aeecinoue «iaaaaeiiiai Aiaa» (ni. Aeayi 17:22-23).

Aeey oiai /oiau nii?eeiniooueny n Aiaeanoaaiiui, iaiaoiaeeia iniaay
aioo?aiiyy aeooiaiay e i?aanoaaiiay iiaeaioiaea. «Aeooa ieeiaaea ia
oaeaeeo e?aniou, anee iia naia i?aaeaea ia noaiao i?ae?aniie, — ienae
Ieioei, — e eaaeaeue /aeiaae, aeaeathuee oaeaeaoue i?ae?aniia e
aiaeanoaaiiia, aeieaeai ia/aoue n oiai, /oiau naiiio naeaeaoueny
i?ae?aniui e aiaeanoaaiiui». Aaeeeea nayoua iioiio e auee
«aiaiaeaeoeaie», /oi eo aeooe auee aeaenoaeoaeueii eino?oiaioii
aiaiiiciaiey. E oaeeie eino?oiaioaie yaeyeenue ieeeeiiu /enouo na?aeaoe,
ene?aiia ethayueo Enoeio. ?acee/ea a aiaiiiciaiee ?aeeaeiciuo aaieaa,
oaeeo, eae O?aioeene Annecneee, Oa?aca Aaeeueneay, Iae-noa? Yeoa?o,
Na?aoei Na?ianeee e iioeineea noa?oeu, e iaueiiaaiiuo ethaeae
caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: ia?aua anai naiei nouanoaii i?eiauaeenue
Aiaeanoaaiiie aeecie e naie noaiiaeeenue aa iineoaeyie, aeey aoi?uo aea
ano?a/a n Aiaii auea iiaeiaia iaiiaaiiie aniuoea iieiee, aneaae eioi?ie
ianooiaao i?ae. Niciaiea ia?auo ainoiaeeo ia oaeea nooiaie nica?oeaiey,
aaea aanneeueiu /aeiaa/aneea neiaa e iunee. Iiyoiio-oi, eiaaea iie
iuoathony iiaaaeaoue iai i iinoeaiooii, iie n o?oaeii au?aaeatho eeoue
ouny/ioth /anoue oiai, /oi ia?aaeeee.

?en.5

Neiaaiaa «Neaaa Ec?aeey» a Ea?onaeeia

Ano?a/a n Aiaii i?ienoiaeeo a aeecie eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, e ?aeeaeiciue
iiuo anoue iiuo oieaa?naeueiue, ana/aeiaa/aneee. ?acieoea ninoieo eeoue
a oii, e eaeiio ?acoeueoaoo i?eaiaeeo yoa ano?a/a, aioia ee e iae
/aeiaae eee i?ioiaeeo ieii iaa. I?ecua Iac?eiiai /anoi aini?eieiaaony
/aeiaaeii neaicue i?ecio i?aae?annoaeeia e iaaeiaa?ey ei anaio, /oi
auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu iianaaeiaaiiai. Eiiaaea yoio i?ecua ?acaeaaony a
aeooa ayeie, ia?aie/aiiie, i?eeiaaiiie e i?eieoeaiui eioa?anai e oeaeyi;
a iaieo neo/ayo ii iienoeia inoaaony «aeanii aiiethuaai a ionouia» (ni.
Io 3:3; Ie 1:3; Ee 3:4; Ei 1:23), eai aeooa, ia ioaaoeaoay ia
Aiaeanoaaiiue i?ecua, anoue aeooiaiay ionouiy.

«ss aeee, — aiai?eo Eaa Oienoie a naiae “Eniiaaaee”, — oieueei oiaaea,
eiaaea aa?ee a Aiaa. Eae auei i?aaeaea, oae e oaia?ue: noieo iia ciaoue
i Aiaa, e y aeeao; noieo iia caauoue, ia aa?eoue a Iaai, e y oie?ath».
Ia?aai?io a niciaiee aa?othuaai /aeiaaea, niaa?oeaoeeny aeaaiaea?y aai
ano?a/a n Aa/iinoueth, io?aaeaaony ia anai aai nouanoaa e ia aai
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?i?ie Enaey eee Aoaeaea, Iooaiiaae eee Naaiia?iea, Aon
eee Ethoa? e ae?oaea aeooiaiua aiaeaee ?aaeeeaeueii eciaiyee oo
nioeeaeueioth n?aaeo, a eioi?ie aeeee, e yoe eciaiaiey ia?aaeeee aaea.

?en.6

Niai? Iio?-Aeai a ?aeina

Enoi?ey anao a?aiai e ia?iaeia, aiai?eo Iaen Ieaie, aanueia
oaaaeeoaeueii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi ec iaiin?aaenoaaiiie,
iacaiooiaiiie aa?u, eioi?oth ?aeeaey aiooaao naiei iineaaeiaaoaeyi,
aeeaouei aeayoaeueiie aeeciueth, enoiaeeee naiua neeueiua noeioeu e
cia/eoaeueiua oai?/aneea aeinoeaeaiey, i?e/ai a iaeanoe nioeeaeueiie ia
iaiueoa, /ai a iaeanoe eneonnoaa e iaoee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaaiciiaeii
ia?aioeaieoue aaeioiiaeythuoth ?ieue aa?u a aeecie aaeeeeo iuneeoaeae,
iiyoia, ooaeiaeieeia, o/aiuo e ?aoi?iaoi?ia.

Aa?othuee ia cae?uaaao aeaca ia ie?iaia cei, ii i?e yoii ii ioeacuaaaony
i?eciaoue aai iaiiaaaeeiui. Ii iiaeao niaei neacaoue neiaaie Aeueaa?oa
Oaaeoea?a: «Iia ciaiea ianneienoe/ii, iiy aa?a — iioeienoe/ia».
Aeaaiaea?y yoiio iaoa i?inoay /aeiaa/aneay aeeciue, ianiio?y ie ia /oi,
naa?eaao e?aneaie aa/iinoe.

Neiai «?aeeaey» i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai aeaaiea religare, /oi cia/eo
«naycuaaoue». Iia anoue neea, naycothuay ie?u, iino iaaeaeo oaa?iui
aeooii e Aeooii Aiaeanoaaiiui. Oe?aieaiiue yoie naycueth, /aeiaae
ieacuaaaony aeoeaiui nio/anoieeii ie?iaiai niceaeaiey. Aia ia ii?aaiuaao
/aeiaaea, ia neiauaaao aai aieth, a, iai?ioea, aeaao aio iieioth
naiaiaeo, aeeth/athuoth e aiciiaeiinoue ioaa?aiooue Aai, eneaoue naieo
iooae.

A aaeeiaiee n Aiaii /aeiaae ia?aoaao iieiioo auoey, a ia aeaeeoth
iiei?iinoue. «Eiaaea /aeiaae, — caia/aao enoi?ee ?aeeaee Iooi
Ioeaeaea-?a?, — a naiaiaeiii iiaeiiaaiee ioaeaao naay Aiao, ii ia aieony
iioa?youe /a?ac yoi naith /aeiaa/aneoth naiaiaeo e naia aeinoieinoai, a,
iaiai?io, aa?eo, /oi oieueei a nithca n Aiaii ii iiaeao iienoeia noaoue
naiaiaeiui io oyaiou ie?a, io oeneia i?e?iaeu aia ian e io aua ooaeoaai
eaa i?e?iaeu aioo?e ian… Iiaeiiaaiea Aiao anoue naiaiaea, — neacae
oaea Naiaea».

AEeciue a aa?a iaioaeaeeia io ai?ueau ca oi?aeanoai aeia?a, ai?ueau ca
ana naaoeia e i?ae?aniia; iia aeieaeia auoue ia ianneaiui iaeeaeaieai
«iaiiu iaaaniie», a ioaeanoaaiiui i?ioeainoiyieai ceo. ?aeeaey anoue
iiaeeeiiia iniiaaiea i?aanoaaiiie aeecie. A i?e?iaea iu ia iaoiaeei
iniia aeey yoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia. Ii ino?ioiiiio caia/aieth aeieiaa
Oiiana Aaenee, e i?anooiiee, e aeia?iaeaoaeueiue /aeiaae iaeeiaeiai
neaaeotho i?e?iaea, i?e/ai ia?aue — a aieueoae noaiaie. Iiaoo
aic?aceoue, /oi i?aanoaaiiinoue aeeeooaony aeieaii ia?aae iauanoaii. Ii
aaaeue naii niciaiea yoiai aeieaa anoue, a naith i/a?aaeue, ia /oi eiia,
eae i?aanoaaiiia oaaaeaeaiea, a oi a?aiy eae eiaiii io?eoeaiea
iniuneaiiinoe auoey, io?eoeaiea Aiaa anoue iooue e oi?aeanoao
aaca?aie/iiai yaiecia e acaeiiie ai?ueau.

*anoi e io/eoaeueii ethaee noaayo aii?in: ii/aio a ie?a oae iiiai cea?
Eae niaianoeoue Ioe?iaaiea i ananeeee Oai?oea e aeaainoe Aiaeeae ni
ceii, oea?yuei ia caiea? Aieue e aeaaeue, iinoeaathuea ethaia aeeaia
nouanoai, iaeeaaeuaatho no?aoioth ia/aoue ia anth iaoo aeeciue. Nia?oue
caoeanouaaao aeeciue, oain — i?aaieciaaiiinoue. Ie? niceaeaiey iinoiyiii
iiae?uaaaony neeaie ?ac?ooaiey.

O?enoeainoai niaeanii n oai, /oi auoea a naiii naaa ianao /a?ou
ianiaa?oainoaa, /oi ein-iiaaiac iaioaeaeei io ai?ueau iiey?iuo ia/ae. Ii
Aeaeey, aiai?y i ie?a eae i oai?aiee Aiaa, ?anniao?eaaao Anaeaiioth a
ieaia aeeiaie/aneii, a ia?niaeoeaa aa niaa?oainoaiaaiey. Aaooee Caaao
ciaao i neeao Oaina, ii ii ia iaiaeanoaeyao eo, a aeaeeo a ieo eeoue
oaa?iia ia/aei, eioi?ia i?ioeaeony caiuneai Oai?oea. Aia, niaeanii
Aeaeee, ia iiaeao auoue enoi/ieeii cea. Iii anoue ia?ooaiea oaa?ueth
aiaeanoaaiiuo i?aaeia/a?oaiee, a ia i?inoi «i?iiaaeeaiea ia iooe e
niaa?oainoao», eae aiai?ee Yo?aei Eanneia.

Ia?acu /oaeiaeua Oaina e Naoaiu, eioi?ua iu iaoiaeei a Ienaiee,
icia/atho, /oi eaoano?ioa niaa?oeeanue a ie?a aeooiaiii. Eiaiii oai
aiciee i/aa aeaiiie/aneiai «naiaaieey», iyoaae i?ioea aa?iiiee, eioi?ue
ioicaaeny ia anae i?e?iaea. «Any oaa?ue, — aiai?eo aiinoie Iaaae, —
niaieoiii noaiaao e io/eony aeiiuia…» (?ei 8:22). «…Iioiio /oi
oaa?ue iiei?eeanue noaoa ia aeia?iaieueii, ii ii aiea iiei?eaoaai aa»
(?ei 8:20). Yoe neiaa oeacuaatho ia caaeneiinoue iuiaoiaai ninoiyiey
i?e?iaeu io anaeaineiai A?aoiiaaeaiey. Ia yaeyaony ee e naii iaia?aoeiia
i?e?iaeiia a?aiy n aai aeanoieie iaoiieeiinoueth naiaai ?iaea iaaeoaii
ie?icaeaiey? Aaaeue Aiieaeeinen i?aaeneacuaaao, /oi a a?yaeouai Oea?noaa
a?aiaie ia aoaeao (Ioe? 10:6).

?en.7

Ia/aoue a Noaiaoea

Iiaeiaiia i?aaenoaaeaiea iiaeao iieacaoueny io?eoeaieai Aiaeanoaaiiiai
Anaiiaouanoaa. Ii o?enoeainoai o/eo, /oi ethaie aeo Aiaa ii ioiioaieth e
ie?o anoue Aai naiiia?aie/aiea eee, eae aiai?eee Iooeu Oea?eae,
«eaiicen» («oiaeaiea») Aaniethoiiai. Eiaiii «eaiicen» inoaaeyao ianoi
oaa?iie naiaiaea, eioi?ay ia iicaieyao eneaceoue ia?ac naiaai
Nicaeaoaey.

«Aac?aeeaeiciia niciaiea, — aiai?eo I.Aa?aeyaa, — iuneaiii iai?aaeyao
aeaei Aiaeea e oaanoaao, /oi iiaei au eo/oa naeaeaoue, /oi Aiao
neaaeiaaei au ianeeuenoaaiii nicaeaoue einiin, nioai?eoue ethaeae,
ianiiniaiuo ei ceo, n?aco i?eaanoe auoea a oi niaa?oaiiia ninoiyiea, i?e
eioi?ii ia auei au no?aaeaiey e nia?oe, a ethaeae i?eaeaeaei au aeia?i.
Yoio ?aoeeiiaeueiue ieai oai?aiey oeaeeeii i?aauaaao a noa?a
/aeiaa/aneie ia?aie/aiiinoe e ia aicauoaaony aei niciaiey niunea auoey,
oae eae niune yoio naycai n e??aoeeiiaeueiie oaeiie naiaiaeu a?aoa.
Ianeeuenoaaiiia, i?eioaeeoaeueiia, aiaoiaa ono?aiaiea cea ec ie?a,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue e iaecaaaeiinoue aeia?a — aio /oi ieii/aoaeueii
i?ioeai?a/eo aeinoieinoao anyeiai eeoea e niaa?oainoao auoey, aio ieai,
ia niioaaonoaothuee caiuneo Nouanoaa, aaniethoiiai ai anao Naieo
niaa?oainoaao. Oai?aoe ia nicaeae iaiaoiaeeii e ianeeuenoaaiii
niaa?oaiiiai e aeia?iai einiina, oae eae oaeie einiin ia aue au ie
niaa?oaiiui, ie aeia?ui a naiae iniiaa. Iniiaa niaa?oainoaa e aeia?a — a
naiaiaeiie ethaae e Aiao, a naiaiaeiii niaaeeiaiee n Aiaii, a yoio
oa?aeoa? anyeiai niaa?oainoaa e aeia?a, anyeiai auoey aeaeaao
iaecaaaeiie ie?iaoth o?aaaaeeth. Ii ieaio oai?aiey einiin aeai eae
caaea/a, eae eaeay, eioi?oth aeieaeia oai?/anee inouanoaeoue naiaiaea
oaa?iie aeooe».

Oai?aiea anoue i?aiaeieaiea Oaina Eiainii1, eioi?ia ono?aieaii a
A?yaeouaa. Eoae, ai?ueaa — caeii ie?ioai?aiey, aeeaeaeoeea noaiiaeaiey
oaa?e.

____________________________________________________________

‘ Eiain (a?a/. «neiai»): 1) oa?iei ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee,
icia/athuee ia?aiia/aeueii aaeeinoai neiaa e niunea; 2) a o?enoeainoaa —
iaicia/aiea Eenona O?enoa eae aoi?iai Eeoea O?ieoeu; o?enoeaineia
iiiyoea Eiaina ainoiaeeo e ia?aie o?aca Aaaiaaeey io Eiaiia — «A ia/aea
auei Neiai».

*AEIAAE AI ANAEAIIIE

Oai?aiea, yaiethoeey, /aeiaae

A i?aaenoaaeaiee iiiaeo ae?aaieo ia?iaeia Oai?aoe — yoi ianoa?, eioi?ue
naieie ?oeaie ecaioiaeyao iaiaoiaeeioth aeey aeecie ooaa?ue. Ia
iaeioi?uo aaeiaoneeo ?aeueaoao iiaeii aeaeaoue ecia?aaeaiea aiaa Oioia,
aeaeathuaai /aeiaaea i?e iiiiue aii/a?iiai e?oaa. A Eiaeee e A?aoeee
n/eoaeinue, /oi ie? ?iaeeeny ec iaae? Aiaeanoaa.

Oieueei aeaeaeneia o/aiea i?ioeaiiinoaaeei ycu/anoao e iaioaecio1 anao
iooaieia eaeath oai?aiey eae aeoa Aiaeanoaaiiie Aiee, ?acoia e Ethaae.
Yoio aeo anoue caaii, naycothuaa Aanietho ni anai oaa?iui. Niaeanii
Ienaieth, niceaeaoaeueiay iiuue neiaa Aiaeey, aucaaa oaa?ue ec iaauoey,
iinoiyiii ieoaao aa e iiaeaea?aeeaaao aa nouanoaiaaiea.

Aeaeey ?enoao einiiaaiac2 eae ainoiaeaeaiea io iecoaai e aunoaio, io
iai?aaie/aneiai e aunieii?aaieciaaiiiio nouanoao — e /aeiaaeo. Yoi
iiieiaiea enoieia Anaeaiiie iaeaeaeinue, anoanoaaiii, a oi?io,
niioaaonoaothuoth o?iaith ciaiee e oeio iuoeaiey oie aeaeaeie yiioe,
eiaaea ienaeanue Eieaa Auoey. Iaeiaei aeaei caeanue ia oieueei a yiioa.
Nayuaiiue aaoi? aiai?eo i oaeia, eioi?ay a neeo naiae i?e?iaeu eo/oa
anaai iiaeao auoue au?aaeaia neiaiee/anee. «A ia/aea nioai?ee Aia iaai e
caieth» — yoe neiaa Ienaiey ia anoue eiinoaoaoeey iao/iiai oaeoa, yoi
ycue Ieoa a auni/aeoai e nayuaiiii cia/aiee yoiai neiaa. Ea?oeia, ia?ac,
neiaie, caiaiythuea aano?aeoeeth, — niinia, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey au?aaeaiey
iaiinoeaeeiiai e i?enouee ycueo anao ?aeeaee.

Eiooeoeaiua i?ic?aiey, iaea/aiiua a ieo, ia?aaeei iia?aaeatho ?acaeoea
iaoee. Eiaiii a Aeaeee, a ioee/ea io a?a/aneeo, aaaeeiineeo, eiaeeeneeo
ienaiee, iu aia?aua iaoiaeei iiiyoea i ie?a eae ia Enoi?ee, Noaiiaeaiee,
I?ioeanna. Ieou e oeeinioneea nenoaiu ae?aaiinoe, ii nouanoao, noiyee
aia i?ioeiai e aoaeouaai; aeey ieo Anaeaiiay aianoa n aiaaie, ethaeueie
e iecoeie nouanoaaie i?aauaaea a aaneiia/iinoe e?oaiai?ioia e oeeeeia.
Aeaeaeneei aea i?i?ieai ia?aui ioe?ueanue aioo?aiiyy ono?aieaiiinoue
ie?a e niaa?oainoao.

A XIX a. iiyaeeanue oai?ey Aea?aeia. I?ioeaieee ?aeeaeiciie aa?u n
ainoi?aii oaa?iaaee a aea?aeieci e n iaeanoi/aieai ia?ooeeenue ia
aeaeaeneea «aeie oai?aiey». Aea?aeieci noae aeoiaeii, eioi?ui ioaaee
aeaai/anoeauo ethaeae.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo iiiyaoeo iiaeeeiii ?aeeaeiciia cia/aiea yaiethoeeiiiie
eaeae aue ia eoi eiie, eae aeaae *a?eueca Aea?aeia — iiyo e iaoo?aeeno
Y?aci Aea?aei. «Ie?, — ienae ii a naiae “Ciiiiiee”, — ?acaeaaeny…
ia?aciauaaeny iinoaiaiii ec iaaieueoiai ia/aea, oaaee/eaaeny aeaaiaea?y
aeayoaeueiinoe i?enoueo aio nee… Eaeay yoi aicauoaiiay iuneue i
aaca?aie/iie iiue aaeeeiai Ciae/aai, I?e/eiu anao i?e/ei, Iooea anao
iooeia. Nouanoaa nouanoa! Aaaeue anee au caoioaee n?aaieaaoue
aaneiia/iinoue, oi aeieaeiu auee au i?eciaoue, /oi aieueoa aaneiia/iie
neeu ioaeii aeey nicaeaiey i?e/ei aeaenoaey, /ai aeey nicaeaiey naieo
oieueei aeaenoaee». A yoeo neiaao caeeth/aia naiay nooue o?enoeaineiai
iiaeoiaea e yaiethoeee. Niaeanii Aeaeee, naii nouanoaiaaiea ie?a caaeneo
io Oai?oea e iinoaiaiii ieoaaony aai niceaeaoaeueiie iiuueth. Ionthaea —
iiiyoea i «i?iaeieaeathuainy oai?aiee».

Yaiethoeey o?enoeaineiai niciaiey — yoi ia i?inoi aeaeaeaiea aia?aae, ii
e aica?auaiea oaa?e ia iooe, i?aaeia/a?oaiiua Oai?oeii, eai ?acaeoea
iai?aaeaii ia nicaeaiea /aeiaaea, /uea i?ecaaiea — iaeooioai?eoue ie? e
naeaeaoue aai ioe?uoui aeey iiauo oai?/aneeo aeayiee Aiaa. Oaeia niune
?acaeoey n oi/ee c?aiey aa?u; iaoea aea eeoue eco/aao oi?iu e yoaiu
noaiiaeaiey i?e?iaeu; iia aua aeaeaea io oiai, /oiau iiciaoue ana
caeiiiia?iinoe yaiethoeee.

Iinea aicieeiiaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo no?oeoo? aoi?ui /oaeii i?e?iaeu noaea
aeeciue, eioi?oth Y?aei O?aaeeiaa? iacuaaao «naiui i?ae?aniui oaaeaa?ii,
eiaaea-eeai aeinoeaiooui ii eeiee Ainiiaeiae eaaioiaie iaoaieee».

O?aoueei /oaeii yaeeny /aeiaae. Yoi auei aua aieaa /oaeaniui
ia?aai?ioii, /ai aicieeiiaaiea aeecie. Aia?aua a enoi?ee ieaiaou oa
Neea, eioi?ay aeaeaeao ie?aie, — einie/aneee ?acoi, ne?uoue ca ie?ii
yaeaiee, — ioia?aceeanue a ee/iinoiii, oaa?iii nouanoaa. Aei neo ii?
ie?icaeaiea — e ia?oaia e aeeaia — oieueei neaii-aanniciaoaeueii
neaaeiaaei ii iooe yaiethoeee, ii n iiyaeaieai /aeiaaea Anaeaiiay a aai
eeoea noaea iaeaaeaoaeueieoeae aeooa, ?acoia, oai?/aneiai aea?a, ae
ioe?ueny iooue auni/aeoaai ainoiaeaeaiey.

Aio?iiiaaiac3 aue oieeaeueiui yaeaieai, e ana nia?aiaiiia /aeiaa/anoai
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeei aeae. Iaeiaei aaeaa ee aiciiaeii onoaiiaeoue,
eaeei ia?acii i?iecioae yoio ea/anoaaiiue nea/ie. Ii-aeaeeiiio,
yaiethoeey ineoeee ia iiaeao caiieieoue i?iaae iaaeaeo ?acoiii aunoaai
aeeaioiiai e ee/iinoiui eioaeeaeoii /aeiaaea. Yoio oaa, ii aa?iiio
caia/aieth Iuea?a Oaey?a aea Oa?aeaia, «aeieaeai aue niaa?oeoueny
n?aco». ?acoiaaony, ?acaeoea oinoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?eiaoia
iiaeaioiaeei n?aaeo e oneiaey aeey yoiai ia?aai?ioa. Ii aeoo,
naiiniciaiea ee/iinoe eae oaeiaua — /oaei a ie?a i?e?iaeu, e eiaiii iie
aeaeatho /aeiaaea /aeiaaeii.

Iaoea iiaeao iuoaoueny ainnoaiiaeoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiua nooiaie a
?acaeoee iicaa — ii ia aieaa oiai. Nai aea iica aue eeoue iaiaoiaeeiui
eino?oiaioii, niiniaiui oeiaeoue oii/aeoea aea?aoeee iaiaoa?eaeueiiai
ieaia auoey, noaoue i?oaeeai aeooa.

A oio iiiaio, eiaaea a nouanoaa, ia?aooai oi?io /aeiaaea, aia?aua
aniuoioe naao niciaiey, eiaaea ii noae ee/iinoueth, i?iecioei
niaaeeiaiea aeaoo ie?iauo noa?: i?e?iaeu e aeooa. «I?ao caiiie» (eae
iacuaaao Aeaeey ineoioece/aneia anoanoai /aeiaaea) naeaeaeny iineoaeai
«aeooe aeeaie» (Auo 2:7).

____________________________________________________________

‘ Iaioaeci (a?a/. «anaaiaeea») — aicc?aiea, oa?aeoa?iia aeey iaeioi?uo
oeeinioneeo nenoai e ienoe/aneeo oa/aiee, ioiaeaeanoaeaiea Aiaa n
«i?e?iaeie», i?e eioi?ii Aia ii nooe ia yaeyaony ee/iinoiui.

2 Einiiaaiac (a?a/. «?iaeaeaiea, i?ienoiaeaeaiea ie?a») — aicieeiiaaiea
Anaeaiiie e i?aaenoaaeaiea i iai a ?aeeaeiciuo nenoaiao e iao/iuo
oai?eyo; o?enoeaineee einiiaaiac iie?aaony ia ia/aeueiua aeaau Eieae
Auoey, oae iacuaaaiue «Oanoiaeiaa». Aii?aee ?ani?ino?aiaiiiio
caaeoaeaeaieth Oanoiaeiaa ieeae ia anooiaao a i?ioeai?a/ea n iao/iuie
oai?eyie oioy au iioiio, /oi iienuaaao i?ioeannu nioai?aiey ie?a n
iiceoeee, iaiiaeaeanoiuo no?iai iao/iiio iuoeaieth.

3 Aio?iiiaaiac (a?a/. «i?ienoiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea») — niaieoiiinoue
?aeeaeiciuo eee iao/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i aicieeiiaaiee /aeiaa/anoaa, a
oaeaea nai i?ioeann yoiai aicieeiiaaiey.

Ia?ac e iiaeiaea

«E nioai?ee Aia /aeiaaea ii ia?aco naiaio, ii ia?aco Aiaeeth» (Auo
1:27). Aeaeey anaaaea aiai?eo i Aiaa eae i Ia/aea iaaeaeeiii. Oaia
/aeiaa/aneiai aiaiiiaeiaey ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia i?eaeaeaea aieiaiea
aiaineiaia, oeeinioia e o/aiuo ?acee/iuo oeie, enneaaeiaaoaeae
Nayuaiiiai Ienaiey.

Oioy ia anae i?aaieciaaiiie iaoa?ee iiaeii aeaeaoue ioia/aoie aa
?acoiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, ?acoi a i?e?iaea — yoi, nei?aa, iacaaa?oaiiay
«i?ia?aiia», ii aaceee, «aeeooocai», ?aniueai. Oieueei ia /aeiaa/aneii
o?iaia ii noaiiaeony iiaeeeiiui «ia?acii e iiaeiaeai» naiaai Oai?oea.
Anaeaineee Aiaeanoaaiiue ?acoi — Eiain, — i?iyaeythuee naay a yaiethoeee
ie?a, aieaa anaai ioia?aaeai a ee/iinoiii ?acoia e niciaoaeueiie aiea
/aeiaaea.

Aiaeanoai ioe?uaaaony ethaeyi eae Neea, i?aauoathuay iaoaie/aneoth
i?e/eiiinoue: eae aunoay Naiaiaea e aunoaa Oai?/anoai. E oi e ae?oaia
i?enoua /aeiaaeo.

Aia, ioe?uaathueeny eae aaniethoiia Niaa?oainoai, i?eiauaao /aeiaaea e
i?ioeanno aa/iiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey. ?acoiaaony, yoio i?ioeann ia iiaeao
ia?aie/eaaoueny iaeui io?aceii a?aiaiiiai auoey; aannia?oea /aeiaa/aneie
ee/iinoe anoue caeia aa aiaioiiaeiaeaiey.

O?enoeaineay aio?iiieiaey i?eciaao a /aeiaaea o?e o?iaiy, eioi?ua
niioaaonoaotho o?ai iniiaiui aniaeoai iiciaiey e o?ienoaaiiie no?oeoo?a
?aaeueiinoe. Ia?aue, iaeaieaa naycaiiue n aiaoiae i?e?iaeie o?iaaiue —
oaei; aoi?ie, iia?aie/iue — aeooa, eee ineoeea; o?aoee, naiue aeoaieee
—aeoo. Aeoo ia?acoao /aeiaa/aneia «ss» e oa aunoea naienoaa /aeiaaea, a
eioi?uo io?aaeai «ia?ac e iiaeiaea Aiaeea». Ia?aua aeaa ecia?aiey —
iauea o /aeiaaea e ae?oaeo aeeauo nouanoa. Aeooii aea iaeaaeaao eeoue ii
iaeei n?aaee anao ecaanoiuo iai oai?aiee. Oaei e ineoeea eco/athony
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuie iaoiaeaie (oaei, ai anyeii neo/aa, anaoeaei); aeoo
aea ?ane?uaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii a i?ioeanna eiooeoeaiiai iinoeaeaiey e
naiiiiciaiey.

Ia?aui naienoaii aeooa yaeyaony oi, /oi ii ?aaeecoaony /a?ac «ss», /a?ac
ee/iinoue, aeeaouoth ai acaeiinayce n ae?oaeie ee/iinoyie. O?enoeaineia
o/aiea i?eciaao aaneiia/ioth oeaiiinoue eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe,
ii i?e yoii n/eoaao iaiaoiaeeiui aaeeiaiea /aeiaa/aneeo ee/iinoae,
ia?acothueo a naiae niaieoiiinoe aunoaa aeooiaiia Oeaeia. A o?enoeainoaa
yoi iacuaaaony «niai?iinoueth», o. a. oaeei ninoiyieai Oeaeiai, a
eioi?ii ana /anoe nio?aiytho naith eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue e oeaiiinoue, ia
ieaaee?othony.

Ae?oaei naienoaii aeooa yaeyaony niciathuee naay ?acoi. Eiaiii ii
niiniaai aini?eieiaoue e iniuneeaaoue iauea caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey
i?e?iaeu e iauanoaa, i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiua nayce auoey, niune
i?ienoiaeyueo a ie?a i?ioeannia. Niciaoaeueiay, ?acoiiay aeoeaiinoue
ianoieueei ioee/aao ethaeae io i?e?iaeu, /oi aeey iaicia/aiey
/aeiaa/anoaa i?eiaiyaony oa?iei «iiinoa?a»1.

O?aouea naienoai aeooa — naiaiaea. Oieueei /aeiaae iiaeao auoue
«oicyeiii naieo iinooieia» e ianoe ca ieo ioaaonoaaiiinoue. AEeaioiia ia
auae?aao — auae?aao eeoue /aeiaae. Oieueei aeey iaai nouanoaoao
i?aanoaaiiay ioeaiea iinooieia.

?acoiaaony, ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi neea aieaaie yia?aee /aeiaaea e
ioiineoaeueiay naiaiaea aai io i?e?iaeiuo oaeoi?ia oanii naycaiu n
o?iaiai aai aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey. *aeiaae niiniaai ?aaeeciaaoue naith
iioaioeeaeueioth naiaiaeo oieueei aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoeth, oi?aaeiaieyi,
ainieoaieth a naaa aunoeo aeooiaiuo caaeaoeia. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa ii eae
au io?aeaaony io naiaai aea?a. Oiaaea ii aeaenoaeoaeueii anaoeaei
iiaeiaaeaao iiae aeaenoaea ieciaiiuo einoeieoia e iauanoaaiiuo oneiaee.
Ii ieacuaaaony ianiiniaiui i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue /oi-eeai ie naiae
aeieiae/aneie i?e?iaea, ie naiaio ie?oaeaieth. Aaaeue ?acoi — yoi oaeaea
iioaioeeaeueiay niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea, e anee ii ia iiaeaa?aaaony
ainieoaieth, oi iioaioeey inoaaony a ca/aoea. I?eia?ii yoiai iiaoo
neoaeeoue aeaoe, eioi?uo anea?ieeaaee aeeaioiua. Ianeieueei oaeeo
neo/aaa ecaanoii e eco/aii. Auynieeinue, /oi aaeeeee aea? ?acoia o ieo
iiaeiaai ca?io, eioi?ia a?ineee a ii/ao, eeoaiioth aeaae e ieoaoaeueiuo
aauanoa.

Eoae, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia noaiiaeaiea, ?acaeoea /aeiaaea anoue
iaycaoaeueiia oneiaea aeey auyaeaiey aai aunoae i?e?iaeu. Iaeia ec
iniiaiuo iniaaiiinoae /aeiaaea caeeth/aaony eiaiii a i?aiaeieaiee /enoi
aeieiae/aneeo ?oaaaeae. Ia yoi oeacuaatho cai?inu ethaeae, eioi?ua
iaaaaeiiu aeeaioiui. I?e?iaea /aeiaaea oaeiaa, /oi eciaeeea caiiuo aeaa
ia oaeiaeaoai?yao aai aeaeaiee e ia naea?aeeaaao no?anoae. *aeiaae euao
a aeecie iieiiou e niaa?oainoaa, eioi?uo ia iiaeao aio aeaoue iaeii
eeoue i?e?iaeiia auoea. E aeaei ooo nianai ia a iauanoaa e ia a
«iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaieyo». O /aeiaaea, eioi?ue oaea iiciae naiaiaeo,
iiyaeythony aunoea, naa?oi?e?iaeiua eioa?anu e aea/aiey. A yoii — caeia
aai aaneiia/iiai ?acaeoey.

AEaeaiea ia?anoe naiaiaeo ianoieueei neeueii a /aeiaa/anoaa, /oi aeaaea
ia?enenou, neeiiiua e aeaoa?ieiecio2, a?acyo i «i?uaeea ec oea?noaa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe a oea?noai naiaiaeu». Iaei oiai, Ia?en ooaa?aeaeae, /oi
yoi oea?noai «eaaeeo ii oo noi?iio noa?u nianoaaiii iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa». Oai ia iaiaa ii i?iaeieaeae n/eoaoue «aacenii» naiaiaeu
nioeeaeueiia e yeiiiie/aneia ia?aono?ienoai. Iao niiiaiey, iienee
iioeiaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo nenoai iiaoo neoaeeoue aeaeo iiaeeeiiie
naiaiaeu, ii iiuo iieacae, /oi aac i?eciaiey i?aa ee/iinoe e aeooiaiuo
iniiaaiee yoeo i?aa eaeay inaiaiaeaeaiey i?aa?auaaony a naith
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue: a aeeeoao, ianeeea, ?aanoai.

Iiaeiaiay aeaa?aaeaoeey naycaia aua e n oai, /oi a /aeiaaea ia?yaeo n
iio?aaiinoueth a naiaiaea aeeaao aiyciue aa. Aac i?eaioaoeee ia Aa/iia
naiaiaea iiaeao ioaaoue e aucuaaoue oineo ii ?aanoao. «*aeiaae ia?a/ai
ia naiaiaeo», — aiai?ee AEai-Iieue Na?o?, e a yoeo neiaao iuouaaony
ne?uoue oaean. Ii iiaeeeiiay aa?a ia no?aoeony naiaiaeu. Iia niciaao
anth o?oaeiinoue yoiai aea?a e ?aaeinoii eaeao aio iaano?a/o. Ionoue
aeaaea eiua i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aeeaee i?aa?auatho aa naio a othoioth
eeaoeo, aaea eca?auaaony aa?a. «Eiioi?oaaaeueiue aoaeci e
eiioi?oaaaeueiay aa?a, — ii neiaai Y. Ioiuea, — ano?a/athony a iaeiii
aieioa. Aeey oiai, eoi aa?ai Aaaiaaeeth, inoaaony anaaaea aeeaui caaao
aiinoiea Iaaea: “E naiaiaea i?ecaaiu au, a?aouey” (Aae 5:13)».

?en.8

Aeaaiaauaiea. Eeiia. XIV a.

?aaeecaoeeae aeooiaiiai ia/aea aunooiaao e no?aieaiea e oai?/anoao,
iaioaeaeeiiio io enoi?ee /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u. I. Aa?aeyaa a eieaa
«Niune oai?/anoaa» n/eoaao oai?/anoai aeaaiie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie
/aeiaaea, «iicaieythuae aio i?i?uaaoueny /a?ac yoio ie? e ie?o eiiio».

A i?ioeanna oai?/anoaa /aeiaae i?eiauaaony e ie?iaiio aeooiaiiio auoeth,
e ooo n iaiau/aeiie neeie i?iyaeyaony aai aiaiiiaeiaiay nouiinoue. Oae,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, ?aaioay iaae naieie o?aneaie, aeaeae a yoii o?oaea
nayuaiiiaeaenoaea, eioi?ui ?oeiaiaeeo Aeoo Aiaeee. Ii neiaai Oeiaa?a,
ooaeiaeieee yaeythony «i?aaiaie Aiaa», iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo Ii Nai
ioe?uaaao Naith Nouiinoue; Ieoeeaae/ a naiai oai?/anoaa /oanoaiaae
«neeo, ia io ethaeae eaeouoth». Aaooiaai naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae, /oi a
iiiaiou iocueaeueiuo ica?aiee «Nai Aia aiai?ee iaae aai ooii». A. E.
Oienoie iinayoee Aiaeanoaaiiie i?e?iaea oai?/aneiai aaeioiiaaiey
noeoioai?aiea: «Ouaoii, ooaeiaeiee, ou iieoue, /oi oai?aiee naieo ou
nicaeaoaeue…»

Oeaiiinoue iiaeeeiii ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey caeeth/aaony
i?aaeaea anaai a oii, /oi aai aaoi? nicaeaao iaeee iiaue, naie
nianoaaiiue ie?. E?anee e oi?iu, caoee e neiaa noaiiayony ycueii aeooa.

Ia neo/aeii oai?/anoai aeey o?enoeainoaa eiaao cia/aiea einie/aneia: a
iai /aeiaae eae au i?iaeieaeaao Aiaeanoaaiiia aeaei niceaeaiey. Yoi oaea
ia «Caiey» eee «Aiaea» n eo oaiiie noeoeeiie aeeciueth, a niciaoaeueiia
nouanoai, oai?yuaa naie «aoi?ie einiin» e oai naiui nio/anoaothuaa a
oai?/anoaa Aiaa.

Eiaiii iiyoiio niceaeaoaeueiue i?ioeann ioe?uo aani?aaeaeueiiio
niaa?oainoaiaaieth. Eiaiii iiyoiio eaaeaeue ianoa?, caeii/ea naie o?oae,
eniuouaaao iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue, eioi?ay iiaoaeaeaao aai e iiaui
oai?/aneei iieneai.

Ana iaoa caiiia oai?/anoai anoue ?aaeinoue, ia?aieaoaiiay n aeoaieie
oineie ii niaa?oainoao e eaeaaeo. Iu iuouaai a naaa ia?iiiua
aiciiaeiinoe, inouanoaeoue eioi?ua iieiinoueth iai ia aeaii. Ai?eciio e
ono?aieaiey aaca?aie/iu, a /aeiaa/aneay aeeciue ei?ioea, eae iaiiaaiea.
Yoi eanaaony ia oieueei oai?/anoaa, ii e naiaiaeu, e ?acoia.

Ioeoaea aea oaeia ianiioaaonoaea? ssaeyaony ee iii iaono?aieiie
o?aaaaeeae aeooa? Anee au iaoa oyaioaiea e enoeia, aeia?o e oai?/anoao
eiaei eeoue i?ec?a/ioth iniiao, iii ia aeaaeaei au /aeiaaeii n oaeie
neeie. Iineieueeo yoe ii?uau aeiaeaiu a ian, iie aeieaeiu eiaoue
aiciiaeiinoue aeey ?aaeecaoeee. Oieueei a ia?niaeoeaa aaneiia/iiai
?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe, aeaeaei ca i?aaeaeaie iuiaoieo oneiaee
aa auoey, ia?aoaao iia iiaeeeiiue i?inoi?. Oieueei oiaaea ?acoi,
niaanoue, naiaiaea, oai?/anoai i?eaiaeyo /aeiaaea e aa?oeiai iiaeeeiiiai
aiaioiiaeiaeaiey. Eiuie neiaaie, aii?in i aiciiaeiinoyo /aeiaaea anoue
aii?in i aai aannia?oee

____________________________________________________________________.

1 Iiinoa?a (a?a/. «noa?a ?acoia») — /aeiaa/anoai eae ?acoiiue eiiiiiaio
aeinoa?u («noa?u aeecie»); yoi iiiyoea aaae nayuaiiee e oeeinio Iuea?
Oaey? aea Oa?aeai a 1927 a.

2 Aeaoa?ieieci (io eao. «ii?aaeaeaiiinoue») — oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey ia
iauaeoeaiie caeiiiia?iie acaeiinayce e i?e/eiiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe anao
yaeaiee.

*aeiaae: nia?oue e aannia?oea

Ai ana a?aiaia ethaeyi auei naienoaaiii niciaiea ia?ac?ooeiinoe aeooa.
Yoi niciaiea oaeia aea ae?aaiaa, eae e nai /aeiaae. ?eooaeueiua
iia?aaaiey o ioioieeia eaiaiiiai aaea aiai?yo i ia/aeueiuo oacao aa?u a
aannia?oea. A a iaoe aeie o oaeiai «ia?aiauoiiai» (a niunea ioiioaiey e
oeeaeeecaoeee) ia?iaea, eae, iai?eia?, aooiaiu, i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aannia?oee eiaao aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiua /a?ou. Niaeanii eo ?aeeaee, iinea
eii/eiu aeoo oia?oaai aua iaeioi?ia a?aiy aeeaao o aai iiaeeu e iiaeao
a?aiy io a?aiaie iiyaeyoueny e ?acaiaa?eaaoue n ?iaenoaaiieeaie
ia?oaaoea, inoaaaynue iaaeaeeiui. Oaeie iiaeoiae, i?e anae eaaeouaeny
i?eieoeaiinoe, oaea niaea?aeeo iniiau o/aiey i aannia?oee, oa?aeoa?iiai
aeey aieueoeinoaa ie?iauo ?aeeaee.

Iianaianoiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea aa?u a oi, /oi nia?oue ia anoue iieiia
oie/oiaeaiea ee/iinoe, — oaeo, caneoaeeaathuee aieiaiey. Ii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ii/oe a?iaeaeaiiii /oanoaa aannia?oey «ss», ionoue
aeaaea ia anaaaea ynii niciaaaaiii. Eiiaaea aai iuoathony naycaoue n
einoeieoii naiinio?aiaiey, e, ?acoiaaony, eaeay-oi naycue caeanue
aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaoao. Iaeiaei iuneue i aannia?oee — ia i?inoi
aeieiae/aneee oaiiiai. I?aaeaea anaai iia — i?iyaeaiea aeooa, eiooeoeaii
iuouathuaai naith oeaeinoioth i?e?iaeo.

Iaeiei ec ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo aeiaiaeia, iai?aaeaiiuo i?ioea eaeae
aannia?oey, yaeyaony oi, /oi aa?a a aannia?oea, a iioonoi?iiiaa
ineaaeyao aieth /aeiaaea, ioaeaeaao aai io caiiuo caaea/. A
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie yoio aeiaiae ii?iaeaeai eca?auaieyie oie eaeae,
eioi?oth ii inia?eaaao. Aaaeue ia neo/aeii e Aaooee Caaao, e Aaaiaaeea
noieue neoii aiai?yo i iinia?oee: /aeiaae aeieaeai a yoii ie?a
inouanoaeyoue naia i?ecaaiea, a ia ianneaii iaeeaeaoue caa?iaiie aeecie.
Ai?eciio aannia?oey oieueei aeaeaao ia?niaeoeao aieaa oe?ieie e o?oae —
aieaa iniuneaiiui. Iaeiaei iaaa?ii iiiyoia o/aiea i aa/iie aeecie iiaeao
iiaei?aaoue oai?/aneoth aeoeaiinoue ethaeae ia Caiea.

Iau/ii iaoa?eaeenou naycuaatho aa?o a aannia?oea n o?iaiai iaoee i?ioeuo
yiio. O ethaeae, aeeaoeo ouny/e eao oiio iacaae, n/eoatho iie, aa?a a
aannia?oea aicieeea a ?acoeueoaoa iaiiieiaiey caeiiia i?e?iaeu e
iauanoaa. Ethaee ia ciaee aeieiae/aneeo i?e/ei nia?oe, ia iiaee iao/ii
enoieeiaaoue /aeiaa/aneia niciaiea. Iaeiaei iaynii, ii/aio a yoii neo/aa
?acaeoea ciaiee ia i?eaaei e ii?iaa?aeaieth eaeae aannia?oey. Aaaeue
o?oaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi oaeea aa caueoieee, eae Aeaeicao Oiinii,
ioe?uaoee yeaeo?ii, eee Y?aei O?aaeeiaa?, nicaeaoaeue aieiiaie iaoaieee,
ciaee caeiiu i?e?iaeu ooaea, iaiueoa, /ai iaua?iue /aeiaae eee ae?aaiee
aaeioyiei.

Iiiaea e?oiiaeoea i?aaenoaaeoaee /aeiaa/aneie iunee ?acaeaeyee e
oeeinionee iainiiauaaee o/aiea i aannia?oee.

Aeaaeue oaea ioe?uaaao niciaieth iooue e ia?aoiaeo a ae?oaoth oi?io
nouanoaiaaiey. Iaoa?eaeenou iau/ii aiai?yo, /oi ni nia?oueth niciaiea
«oaanaao», ii yoi ia aieaa /ai ieioay iaoaoi?a. Aaaeue e a /enoi
oece/aneii ieaia auoey «oaanaiea» ioithaeue ia icia/aao aiieaeeyoeee1, a
eeoue ia?aoiae iaeiie oi?iu iaoa?ee eee yia?aee a ae?oaoth.

Iineieueeo aeoo, eae iu aeaeei, niiniaai ieacuaaoue ia?iiiia
aicaeaenoaea ia aeeciue oaea, oi aiieia aiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue aai eae
neeo, eniieuecothuoth oeaio?aeueioth ia?aioth nenoaio a ea/anoaa naiaai
eino?oiaioa. Iica a aeaiiii neo/aa ieaaeaony /ai-oi ioaeaeaiii
iaiiieiathuei o?ainoi?iaoi? eee eiiaeainaoi?.

?en.9

Aiaiiaoa?ue Aeaaeeie?neay. Eeiia. O?aaiaio. Ia/aei XII a

Eiaaea i?eaiiee eee yeaeo?e/aneay onoaiiaea auoiaeyo ec no?iy, yoi aiana
ia icia/aao, /oi ?aaeeiaieiu eee yeaeo?iyia?aey «enia?eeenue»,
«en/acee». Ia/oi iiaeiaiia i?ienoiaeeo, ii-aeaeeiiio, a niioiioaiee
iicaa e aeooa. ?acoiaaony, nia?oue e ?aceiaeaiea iicaa ia?ooatho aai
eiioaeo n aeooii. Ii cia/eo ee yoi, /oi aeoo aieueoa ia nouanoaoao?
Iiaeao ee aeieacaoue yoi «iie/aiea iiaee»?

Aaeeiue i?aaieci aeinoa?u ?anoao, iaeieaaay nia?oue, ii iaeia ca ae?oaie
ioie?atho e niaiythony aai eeaoee. Eiia aannia?oea — a iiinoa?a. Aeey
iaa /anoe noieue aea aaaeiu, eae e oeaeia. Iia aunooiaao ia eae aaceeeay
ianna, a eae aaeeinoai iuneyueo eiaeeaeaeia.

Nia?oue ianoeaaao aeeaioiia e aeaeaao aai naiae aea?oaie, e a /aeiaaea
aeaiao oieueei aeeaioiia ia/aei. Aeoo aea aai, aiai?y neiaaie Oaey?a aea
Oa?aeaia, «oneieuecaao e aunaiaiaeaeaaony». Oi, /oi aeoo ieacuaaaony a
ninoiyiee ia?aaeeoue ?aniaae oaea, anoue caeiiiia?iinoue e aaaeiaeoee
oaa einiina ia iooe e naa?oi?e?iaeiui ie?ai.

Ii anee aannia?oea — ianoieueei aaaeiia aeey yaiethoeee naienoai aeooa,
anee iii oae aeaeaiii aeey /aeiaaea, oi ii/aio iaoe i?aaenoaaeaiey i
noaeueaa ee/iinoe iinea nia?oe noieue iayniu e aaaeiu niaea?aeaieai? Ia
yoi nouanoaoao aeaa ioaaoa. Ii iiaieth iaeieo, /aeiaa/anoao aua
noaeaeaii eiaaea-ieaoaeue aeoaaea i?iieeiooue a yoe oaeiu; iie eeoue
iaei enneaaeiaaiu, ii a i?eioeeia — ?aoeeiiaeueii iiciaaaaiu. Niaeanii
ae?oaie, aieaa aa?iyoiie oi/ea c?aiey, caeanue i?ioiaeeo ?oaaae, eioi?ue
iu ia iiaeai i?aiaeieaoue, iaoiaeynue ii yoo noi?iio auoey. Eae
iaaiciiaeii yia?eiio iiiyoue anth neiaeiinoue e iiiaia?aiiinoue
/aeiaa/aneie aeecie, oae e a iaoai ia?aie/aiiii auoee o?oaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue eiua ie?u eia/a, eae a aeaea neiaieia. E ana aea ?acaeoea
ee/iinoe aua caeanue, a caiiie aeecie, i?eaeeaeaao aa e nica?oeaieth
naa?o/oanoaaiiiai ie?a. Ii?aceoaeueiua aceaou /aeiaa/aneie iunee oaea
yaeythony i?aae/oanoaeai e ia?aaeeaaieai aannia?oey. Yoi eae au eo/
naaoa, eioi?ue inaauaao e iooue ioaeaeueiie aeooe, e enoi?eth anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa. Aii?aee oai, eoi n/eoaao nia?oue /aeiaaea eiioeii aai
aeecie, aeoo a naiii naiai auoee ioe?uaaao ia?niaeoeao aa/iinoe.
Iaeaiueeee io?acie, eioi?ue i?aaenoieo /aeiaaeo i?ieoe ii caiea,
?acaeaeaaaony a aacia?iinoue, eiaaea ii iuouaao naia aannia?oea e
aaeeiaiea ni Anaeaiiie e Aiaii. Ii o?oaeeony, ciay, /oi ana i?ae?aniia e
iiaeeeiiia, aicieeoaa a yoii ie?a, aeinoeaaao a a?yaeouai auni/aeoaai
?anoeaaoa.

Iinia?oea iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ionoui aacaeaenoaeai,
oiieoaeueiie e iaeiiia?aciie «i?iaoeeie a ?aeneeo naaeao» — iii yaeony
i?ioeannii iai?a?uaiiai noaiiaeaiey e ainoiaeaeaiey e aa/iiio
niaa?oainoao.

«Oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi iu i?iaeieaeaai aeeoue aa/ii, — aiai?ee A?oa, —
auoaeaao o iaiy ec naiiai iiiyoey aeayoaeueiinoe. E anee y, ia ciay
onoaee, aoaeo aeayoaeai aei naiiai eiioea, oi i?e?iaea, eiaaea
oaia?aoiyy iiy oi?ia oaea ia niiaeao auaea?aeaoue oyaeanoe iiaai aeooa,
iaycaia aoaeao oeacaoue iia iiaoth oi?io nouanoaiaaiey. Ionoue aea Aa/ii
AEeaie ia ioeaaeao iai a iiauo aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe, aiaeiae/iie oai, a
eioi?uo iu oaea eniuoaee naay. A anee Ii ii-iooeianee aea?oao iai
ainiiieiaiea iai anai ni?aaaaeeeaii e oi?ioai, e /aio iu no?aieeenue e
/oi oaea nicaeaee, oiaaea e iu, eiia/ii, i/aiue auno?i ooaaoeiny ca
coaoeu ie?iaie oanoa?ie».

Yoe neiaa aaeeeiai iiyoa e iuneeoaey iaiiieiatho iai i oii, /oi
iinia?oea oanii naycaii ni anae caiiie aeeciueth, iiaeiaii oiio, eae
ianeaaenoaaiiinoue e oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey a oaea iaoa?e aeeytho ia
?iaeaeaiea e aeeciue /aeiaaea. Caiiia nouanoaiaaiea aeaii iai ia
neo/aeii e ia aanoeaeueii. Oi?ie?oy naie aeoo ia iooyo aeecie, iu
aioiaei aai e aa/iinoe. E yoa iiaeaioiaea aeieaeia au?aaeaoueny a iaoae
aeayoaeueiinoe ia caiea. Aua oeeiniou Eiaeee e A?aoeee iiiyee, /oi e?iia
oece/aneeo caeiiia nouanoaotho e caeiiu aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiua e /oi iie
aeaenoaotho n ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth. Eaaeaeue ianao a
iinia?oea oi, /oi ii oaioiaee nai naaa caeanue. Naiy n /a?aioi/eiie
ieeiaaea ia aeano caei?iaiai ?anoaiey. Cei e aeooiaiay oaiainoue ia
caiea yoii iociaoony a iaoai cai?aaeaeueiii auoee. Iiyoiio i?ecaaiea
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea — oaea caeanue no?aieoueny e «nianaieth naie aeooe»,
o.a. e i?eiauaieth e Aiaeanoaaiiie AEecie. A yoii iu aeieaeiu aeaeaoue
ia yaieci, a anoanoaaiioth, caeiaeaiioth a /aeiaaea iio?aaiinoue. Yaieci
aea, iai?ioea, anoue i?aiyonoaea e yoiio i?eiauaieth.

Ii Aeaeey ioe?uaaao iai e ia/oi aieueoaa. Neiaie Ae?aaa AEecie, eioi?ue
iiyaeyaony ia ia?auo aa no?aieoeao, icia/aao iioaioeeaeueiia aannia?oea
anaai /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaa, a aianoa n iei e anae i?e?iaeu. *aeiaae,
niaeanii Ienaieth, anoue aeooiaii-oaeaniia aaeeinoai. Iiyoiio aai ?ieue
a ie?icaeaiee ia iiaeao ia?aie/eoueny nio?aiaieai e niaa?oainoaiaaieai
iaeiiai aeooa n?aaee iauaai ?aceiaeaiey iaoa?ee. Iac?eiay yia?aey,
eioi?ie ii iaaeaeai, a caiiie aeecie aua ia ?aaeecoao anao naieo
aiciiaeiinoae.

*a?ac naia oaei /aeiaae neeo n i?e?iaeiui einiinii. Yaiethoeey aeinoa?u
— yoi iiaaa io nia?oe, enoi?ey aea /aeiaaea — yoi iooue e aine?anaieth e
iaeooioai?aieth iaoa?ee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?ac?ooeiinoue aeooa anoue
eeoue yoai, a ia aa?oeia i?ia?anna. Yoo iuneue n ia?aaeienaeueiie
?aceinoueth au?acee I. Aa?aeyaa: «Aa?a a anoanoaaiiia aannia?oea naia ii
naaa aanieiaeia e aacio?aaeia, aeey yoie aa?u ia iiaeao auoue ieeaeie
caaea/e aeecie, e naiia eo/oaa iinei?aa oia?aoue, nia?oueth ioaeaeeoue
aeooo io oaea, oeoe io ie?a. Oai?ey anoanoaaiiiai aannia?oey aaaeao e
aiieiaee naiioaeenoaa. Ii aaeeeay caaea/a aeecie i?aaenoieo a oii
neo/aa, anee aannia?oea iiaeao auoue eeoue ?acoeueoaoii ie?iaiai
nianaiey, anee iiy eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay noaeueaa caaeneo io noaeueau ie?a e
/aeiaa/anoaa, anee aeey nianaiey iiaai aeieaeii auoue oaioiaaii
aine?anaiea ieioe».

Oioy a yoeo neiaao, i/aaeaeii, anoue nii?iua iiiaiou, iie ni?aaaaeeeai
oeacuaatho ia aieaa aunieia i?ecaaiea /aeiaaea, /ai i?inoi auoiae ca
i?aaeaeu iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a. I?aiaeieaoue neeie aeooa einiinoue
iaoa?ee, i?aia?aceoue aa, aicaanoe /a?ac naay ia aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue
?acaeoey — a yoii einie/aneay caaea/a iiinoa?u, a aaiaoe aa ono?aieaiee
— iiaaaea iaae oaeaniie nia?oueth a i?e?iaea. *aeiaa/anoai aeieaeii auei
iaeoe iooue e aannia?oeth, noaoue a ie?icaeaiee «ia?aaioeai ec ia?oauo».

Ii yoiai ia i?iecioei. Ecaaaaao ?aniaaea eeoue aeoo; nia?oue aea
ii-i?aaeiaio nio?aiyao naith aeanoue iaae iiinoa?ie, ?ac?ooay oaei
/aeiaaea eae ethaoth ae?oaoth no?oeoo?o.

*oi aea caoi?iiceei aeaeaeaiea e ?ieiaui ia?acii iiaeeyei ia aeooiaioth
aeeciue e enoi?eth ie?a? O?enoeainoai iacuaaao yoo eaoano?ioo
ia?ai?iaeiui a?aoii, eee iia?aaeaeaiiinoueth /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu.

____________________________________________________________________

1) Aiieaeeyoeey (aoea. «i?aa?auaiea a ie/oi») — oie/oiaeaiea.

Ia?aae eeoeii Nouaai

Aicauoay /aeiaaea eae «aeaaeueo oaa?e» (ni. Auo 1:26—28), Aeaeey oai ia
iaiaa aeaeaea io aai eaeaaeecaoeee. Iia iaeeiaeiai io?eoeaao eae
i?e?aaieaaiea aai e aeeaioiiio, oae e eaeaaoiaienoe/aneia aai
iaiaeanoaeaiea. I/aaeaeioth aeaienoaaiiinoue i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea,
au?aaeaiioth a iiyoe/aneie oi?ioea: «ss — oea?ue, y — ?aa, y — /a?aue, y
— Aia», Aeaeey naycuaaao n iniaiai ?iaea aeooiaiie aieaciueth, iinoeaoae
/aeiaa/anoai ia ca?a aai nouanoaiaaiey. Eiaiii iia ineaaeea e /anoe/ii
ia?aeeciaaea neeu, ecia/aeueii caeiaeaiiua a iiinoa?o, ioaeaeeea ethaeae
io Aiaa, iinoaaeea eo a ioiioaiey a?aaeaeu n i?e?iaeie e naieie niaie.
Aa?iiie/iue oiae ?acaeoey /aeiaaea aue ia?ooai, /ai e iauyniyaony iiiaia
a aai enoi?ee e nia?aiaiiii ninoiyiee.

Ie?iaua aieiu, oiinyuea aeanyoee ieeeeiiia aeeciae, ianniaua oaeenoaa
ie?iiai ianaeaiey, oioaeeoa?iua ?aaeeiu, au?anoathuea ec iiauo aniuoae
noaaeiuo einoeieoia, iaauaaeia icaa?aiea e iaiaaenoue nineiaiay e
iaoeeiiaeueiay. Aniiieiathony neiaa Otho/aaa: «Ia ieioue, a aeoo
?anoeeeny a iaoe aeie». Ieaeeenou i?ioeiai aaea aeoieeenue iaae
Aiieaeeinenii, iacuaay aai «i?iecaaaeaieai noianoaaeoaai». Iiaee ee iie
i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi yiioo, eioi?oth iie oae aeaeaee, i?eaeaony
iienuaaoue oa?ieiaie yoie i?iaeae/aneie eieae?

A naiae aeecie /aeiaae, niciaao ii yoi eee iao, anaaaea noieo ia?aae
auai?ii. «Niaeaneeenue au iu, — ieoao N. O?aie, — /oiau Aia n naiiai
ia/aea nicaeae ian oaeeie, /oiau iu aaoiiaoe/anee, naie niaie, aac
?aciuoeaiey e nianoaaiiiai naiaiaeiiai ?aoaiey, eae yoa ?aea, eniieiyee
aai aaeaiey? E aue ee au oiaaea inouanoaeai niune iaoae aeecie? Ii anee
au iu aaoiiaoe/anee oai?eee aeia?i e ii i?e?iaea auee au ?acoiiu, anee
au ana aie?oa ian naii niaie e n iieiie i?eioaeeoaeueiie i/aaeaeiinoueth
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i Aiaa, i ?acoia e aeia?a, oi ana n?aco noaei au
aaniethoii aanniuneaiiui, eai “niune” anoue ?acoiiia inouanoaeaiea
aeecie, a ia oiae caaaaeaiiuo /ania. Niune anoue iiaeeeiiia iaia?oaeaiea
e oaeiaeaoai?aiea oaeiuo aeoaei iaoaai “ss”, a iaoa “ss” iaiuneeii aac
naiaiaeu, eai naiaiaea, niiioaiiinoue, o?aaoao aiciiaeiinoe iaoae
nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeau, a iineaaeiyy i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi ia ana eaeao
aeaaeei, “naii niaie”, /oi anoue ioaeaea a oai?/anoaa, a aeooiaiie iiue,
a i?aiaeieaiee i?aa?aae. Oea?noai Aiaeea, eioi?ia iieo/aeinue au
“aea?ii” e auei au ?ac iaanaaaea i?aaeii?aaeaeaii, nianai ia auei au
aeey ian Oea?noaeai Aiaeeei, eai iu aeieaeiu auoue naiaiaeiuie
nio/anoieeaie Aiaeanoaaiiie neaau, nuiaie Aiaeee-ie, a oiaaea iu auee au
ia oi /oi ?aaaie, a ia?oaui aeioeeii eaeiai-oi iaiaoiaeeiiai iaoaiecia».

Iieuecoynue aeaiiie aio naiaiaeie, /aeiaae ia oieueei eciaiee naiaio
i?ecaaieth, ii ieacae aio niciaoaeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea. Aeaeey
ecia?aaeaao yoi a aeaea iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia ieiaeu «ae?aaa iiciaiey
aeia?a e cea» (Auo 2:17), a iioeaii ia?ooaiey cai?aoa iacuaaao aeaeaiea
ethaeae «auoue, eae aiae» (Auo 3:5). Yoi neiaiee/aneia ecia?aaeaiea
aa/ii aeeaie /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee e, aiciiaeii, a aunoae noaiaie — iaoae
nia?aiaiiie enoi?ee. Ioiaaeaiea, i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea naiae aiee aiea
Oai?oea ia naeaeaei ethaeae aiaaie, a, iai?ioea, iiaei?aaei eo
ia?aicaeaiiua neeu, ioaeaeea eo io Ae?aaa AEecie. Caeii ?aniaaea e
nia?oe ianoea e iiei?ee /aeiaaea.

No?anoe, «aiey e aeanoe» oa?catho aeoo /aeiaaea, eioi?ue no?aieony e
eiaeiiio naiiooaa?aeaeaieth — eae au aiiaue ?acua?uaaaony ae?aia
ia?ai/aeiaaea. E ia io?aaeaaony ee i?aaeie?iia a?aoiiaaeaiea a iaoae
ai?aeaeeaie ia/oa nicaeaoue ie? ii naiaio ieaio e caiuneo? Ia anoue ee
«ea?aiacianeee aoio» — oaa?aiiinoue, /oi iu nioai?eee au Anaeaiioth
eo/oa, /ai Aia, — eeoue neaaia yoi i?aaeie?iiai Aoioa? Ia cao/eo ee a
iaoeo oiao, eae e a ia?aua aeie, ciaeiue oaiio: «Aoaeaoa, eae aiae»?
Ae?aai iiciaaony ii ieiaeo, ioaoe eaee — ii naiaio aicaeaenoaeth ia
ethaeae…

Any enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa noaea aica?aoii e oo?a/aiiie /enoioa, ii i?e
aeoeaiii o/anoee nianoaaiiuo nee. I?aaeaea oea ai?ueaa oaina e ii?yaeea,
aeecie e nia?oe, oaia?ue — ai?ueaa iaaeaeo aeia?ii e ceii. O/aiea i
a?aoiiaaeaiee ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi a?ao i?aiooeaa — yoi i?ioioei a?aoa aeey
anao aaeia.

Oai ia iaiaa, eae a einiiaaiaca neeu Oaina ia a ninoiyiee auee i?a?aaoue
i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey, oae e /aeiaae ia oeaeeeii iiei?eeny aeaiiiecio e
ceo. Eca?auaiea iooae ia i?eaaei e aai ieii/aoaeueiie aeaaee. A iai
nio?aieeny caei?iaue ei?aiue, aeaaeaea niaa?oainoaa e iiciaiey,
no?aieaiea e aeia?o, oinea ii Aiao. A yoie iaiieiie oo?aoa
ia?aiia/aeueiuo aea?ia e caeeth/ai caeia aeaeueiaeoaai iinooiaoaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey Aaeaiiaa ?iaea.

Aea, iienoeia aeeciue iaoa — «thaeieue iea/a» e ie? «eaaeeo ai cea» (1
Ei 5:19), ii aeaaea e a yoii ianiaa?oaiiii e nei?aiii ie?a inouanoaeyao
Naith niceaeaoaeueioth oeaeue Aiaeanoaaiiue Eiain. Naii no?aaeaiea, naia
aeenaa?iiiey aucuaatho a /aeiaaea i?ioano, iiaoaeaeatho eneaoue iooe eo
i?aiaeieaiey. A ai?ueaa e i?aiaeieaiee eoaony /aeiaa/aneee aeoo.

O?enoeainoai ia n/eoaao no?aaeaiea aeia?ii. O?enoin ooaoae no?aaeaeoueo
e enoeaeye aieyueo. Ii ia oaeinoaaiiuo iooyo I?iiunea aeaaea cei iiaeao
iaa?iooueny aeia?ii. Iaaea?ii iiiaea iuneeoaee aiai?yo, /oi oieueei a
«iia?aie/iuo neooaoeeyo», ia?aae eeoeii nia?oe, io/ayiey e no?aoa
auyaeyaony iiaeeeiiay /aeiaa/aneay nouiinoue. Aaee/aeoea iiaaaeu aeooa
?iaeaeaiu auee a ai?ieea no?aaeaiee. Ia yoii iooe Aia ia inoaaeyao
/aeiaaea iaeeiieei, oe?aieyao aai, ica?yy aai o?oae e ai?ueao naaoii
Ioe?iaaiey. E iaeiiaoe, oai?yuee Eiain Nai aoiaeeo a ie?iaie i?ioeann,
niaaeeiyynue n Aaeaiii /a?ac Aiieiuaiea. Ii no?aaeaeao e oie?aao aianoa
n iei, /oiau i?eaanoe aai e ianoaeueiie iiaaaea.

«Ioaeaeoanue — ss iiaaaeee ie?», — aiai?eo O?enoin (Ei 16:33). «Iiaaaea,
iiaaaeeaoay ie?, — aa?a iaoa!» — aineeeoeaao Oea?eiaue onoaie aiinoiea
Eiaiia, i?ic?aaaaoaai Oea?noai Aiaeea (1 Ei 5:4).

II. IAAECI E AAeEIIAIAEEA

?aeeaeiciue iooue /aeiaa/anoaa aei yiioe aaeeeeo O/eoaeae

AeIENOI?E*ANEEE IE?

Ca?iaeaeaiea ?aeeaee

Eoi ia caia/ae oie oaeeaeoaeueiie ia?aiaiu, eioi?ay i?ienoiaeeo a
i?e?iaea n ianooieaieai ii/e?

Yoa ia?aiaia iniaaiii /oanoaoaony a eaoiai eano. Aeiai aai iaeaoaao
iiiaiaieinia uaaaoaiea ioeoe; eaaeee aaoa? ?acaeaeaaao aaoae aa?ac,
ioe?uaaao aaciaea/ioth neiaao, nieia/iua aeeee i?ineaeuecuaatho neaicue
caeaiue noi?ae eenoueaa, ea?atho n?aaee ioa. Iieyiu iaiiieiatho oaieee
oeoiai e aaee/anoaaiiiai o?aia. ss?eea iyoia aaai/ae e oeaaoia,
no?aeioaiea eocia/eeia, a?iiao iaaeoieoeu — ana yoi neeaaaony a
?aaeinoioth neioiieth aeecie, eioi?ay caoaaouaaao eaaeaeiai e iaaieueii
canoaaeyao aeuoaoue iieiie a?oaeueth…

?en.10

AEa?oaii?eiioaiea Aa?aaia. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

Nianai eia/a auaeyaeeo oio aea ean ii/ueth. Aea?aauey i?eia?aoatho
ceiaauea e oaioanoe/aneea i/a?oaiey, aieina ii/iuo ioeoe iioiaee ia
aeaeiaiua noiiu, eaaeaeue oi?io ioaaao e canoaaeyao ianoi?aaeeaaoueny,
ana i?iieeiooi oaeiie oa?icie e a?aaeaeaaiinoueth, a ia?oaaiiue naao
eoiu i?eaeaao ii?ie yoie ea?oeia iooaiie, aeeceee e aeaeaieth a?aaea eee
eioia?a. I?e?iaea, oaeay aa?iiie/iay e ae?oaeaethaiay i?e naaoa nieioea,
aiacaiii eae au iiaeieiaaony i?ioea /aeiaaea, aioiaay inoeoue,
oiiaeiaeyynue ae?aaiaio /oaeiaeuo, n eioi?iai niyou /a?u caeeyoey.

Yoio eiio?ano iia au noaoue neiaieii oie ia?aiaiu, eioi?ay i?iecioea a
ie?iiuouaiee iaoeo aeaeaeeo i?aaeeia, ia ca?a /aeiaa/anoaa. A?aoa
ie?iaie oaeiu cae?ueenue ia?aae ieie, eo iieeioei yniiaeaeaiea e
aeooiaiay aeanoue iaae oea?noaii i?e?iaeu. Iie i/ooeeenue iaeie a
ia?iiiii a?aaeaeaaiii ie?iaii eano, ia?a/aiiua ia oyaeaeoth ai?ueao e
eniuoaiey.

?en.11

Noeaia aea?oaii?eiioaiey. ?eineee ?aeueao. I a.

Aaee/ea e e?anioa enoi?ee /aeiaa/aneeo iieneia oo?a/aiiiai Aiaa
caeeth/athony a oii, /oi /aeiaae iinoiyiii eniuouaae
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue, ieeiaaea (ionoue e aanniciaoaeueii) ia caauaae
oie «?aeneie no?aiu», eioi?oth iieeioe. Aia?aua iniciaa naay a ie?a, ii
«aeaeae Aiaa eeoeii e eeoeo» (Auo 32:30). Oaia?ue yoa
iaiin?aaenoaaiiinoue iauaiey ia?ooeeanue. Aeooiaiay eaoano?ioa
aicaeaeaea noaio iaaeaeo ethaeueie e Iaaii. Ii /aeiaae ia oo?aoee naiaai
aiaiiiaeiaey, ia oo?aoee niiniaiinoe oioy au a neaaie noaiaie iiciaaaoue
Aiaa. Ia ?aiieo yoaiao a ia?aiauoiii aiaiiiciaiee aua ynii aeeei
iuouaiea Aiaeanoaaiiiai Aaeeinoaa. O iiiaeo i?eieoeaiuo ieaiai,
nio?aieaoeo auo naieo aeaeaeeo i?aaeeia, nio?aieeenue e neaaeu
aaeeiiaiaeey.

Ii yoi ia auei oaea ia?aiia/aeueiia eeoeac?aiea Aaeeiiai. ?aeeaey —
ainnoaiiaeaiea nayce iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e Aiaii — ia/eiaaony a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa iinea A?aoiiaaeaiey. Aeaeey ia neo/aeii a enoiea anyeiai
i?iyaeaiey ?aeeaeiciiai /oanoaa, o. a. eoeueoa, noaaeo
aea?oaii?eiioaiea. A iai io?aceeinue ionoue niooiia, ii neeueiia
no?aieaiea /aeiaaea caaeaaeeoue naie a?ao e ainnoaiiaeoue aaeeinoai n
Aiaii. AEa?oaoy Iac?eiiio /anoue naiae ieue, eioi?ay aeiauaaeanue n
oaeei o?oaeii, ethaee eae au cayaeyee i naiae aioiaiinoe neaaeiaaoue
aaeaieyi Aunoae Aiee.

Ii ia?anoe i?aaeithth aa?iiieth auei o?oaeiaa, /ai iioa?youe aa.
Iinoaiaiii a niciaiee ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea Aia noaiiaeony aeaeaeei e
aacee/iui. A iianaaeiaaiie aeecie ethaee ana aieueoa e aieueoa aieiaiey
oaeaeytho i?e?iaeiiio ie?o.

A ie?a aeaiiiia e aeooia

A iuoeaiee ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea aeeaao /oanoai ?iaenoaa anao aeeauo
nouanoa.

Eaeay a?aonoaa /aeiaaea e aeeaioiiai iaoea naia au?aaeaiea a oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ieoao, niaeanii eioi?ui i?aaeee ethaeae eiaee niaoaiiua
/aeiaaei-caa?eiua /a?ou. Eiaeaeoeu aa?yo, /oi yoe nouanoaa iiaee eaaei
iaiyoue naie iaeee. A aiaeeca iiaeiaiuo eaaaiae i?i/ii onoaiiaeeinue
iiiyoea «aeeaioiua-ethaee».

Yoa aa?a ieacaea ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia iauanoaaiiue oeeaae ae?aaieo. Iia
iauyniyao aicieeiiaaiea oaeiai naiaia?aciiai yaeaiey, eae oi-oaieci.
Oioai — yoi, eae i?aaeei, aeeaioiia, eioi?ia n/eoaaony i?aaeeii e
iie?iaeoaeai aeaiiiai ieaiaie.

Enoi/iee oioaiecia — aa?a a aeooiaiia aaeeinoai n i?e?iaeie. Ii eiae
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ?acee/iuo /anoyo naaoa. Neaaeu aai
iaia?oaeeaathony ia oieueei o i?eieoeaiuo ieaiai Acee, Ao?eee e Aia?eee,
ii e o oeeaeeeciaaiiuo ia?iaeia; iai?eia?, cai?ao ia oaeenoai ei?ia a
Eiaeee — ioaieinie naaeie noa?eiu, eiaaea yoe aeeaioiua auee nayuaiiuie
oioaiaie1.

Ia?aiauoiue /aeiaae iianthaeo aeaeae nie?uooth iaeooaaeaiiinoue: e a
noaieao aea?aaueaa, e a eaniuo aeeaioiuo, e a aaaa iaeaeia. Aeey iaai
acaeiiaeaenoaea aauae a ie?a — yoi ia oieueei acaeiiaeaenoaea aeaeeiiai,
ii a oi aea a?aiy — e aieaa anaai — acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeeiiai. A
aeo?/auai ?o/uea, a ieaiaie eino?a iaeoaee aeooe, a?aaeaeaaiua eee
aeia?ua, a eiiaaea e iaeo?aeueiua.

?en.12

Noeaia aea?oaii?eiioaiey. ?inienue na?eioaaa. E?eo. Eiiaoe XV a. aei
?.O.

?en.13

Oea?ue Na?aii II, ianouee aea?oaaiiiai eiceaiea.

VIII a. aei ?.O.

Caeanue — ei?ie oiai no?aiiiai ia ia?aue acaeyae aa?iaaiey, eioi?ia a
iaoea iieo/eei iacaaiea oaoeoecia. Oaoeoe, o. a. nayuaiiua i?aaeiaou,
nii?iaiaeaeatho anth aeeciue ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea. Yoi iiaeao auoue e
eaiaiue, e coa aeeaioiiai, e aeaaea /a?ai ?iaenoaaiieea. A ieo iaeoatho
aeooe, e /aeiaae, iaeaaeathuee oaoeoai, ca?o/aaony eo iiaeaea?aeeie.
Iaeiaei, eae e oioaieci, aa?a a oaoeoe ia eaeay-oi iniaay ?aeeaey, eae
aeoiaee iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee.

Oi, /oi iaiaeooaaeaiiiio i?aaeiaoo i?eaeaaony nae?aeueiia2 cia/aiea,
auoaeaao ec iauae aa?u a iaeooaaeaiiinoue ie?a. I/aiue /anoi oaoeoeci
naycai n aa?ie a oioaiu. Eiiaaea eaeie-ieaoaeue oaoeo i?eia?aoaao
cia/aiea oaeeniaia. Ii i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao neea neeo, a?aaeiiiniiio
aeeyieth — naia, caueoiia. Aa?a a cia/aiea oaeeo aioeaoia i?ioiaeeo
/a?ac ana aaea /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee.

Iinoaiaiii oaoeoe i?eia?aoatho /aeiaaeiiiaeiaiue iaeee. A ieo
i?iniao?eaathony /aeiaa/aneea /a?ou i?aaeea eee aeooa. Oaeea oeao?ee
iniaaiii /anoi ano?a/athony o ao?eeaineeo ia?iaeia. Yoi i?ioioeiu
aoaeoueo eaeieia. Ii iiiuoee onoaiiaeoue eiioaeo n aeooiaiui ie?ii ia
ia?aie/eaaeenue oaeeniaiaie, oaoeoaie eee oioaiiuie ecia?aaeaieyie.
Nouanoaiaae e ienoe/aneee niinia iauaiey n aeooaie, eioi?ue e ninoaaeyao
aeaaiue, iai?aoiaeyuee eioa?an a ia?aiauoiie ?aeeaee.

?en.14

*aeiaae-?uaa.

?aeueao ec Oaeeue Oaeaoa. Ieiei 900 a. aei ?.O.

N oa/aieai aaeia aeooiaiay eiooeoeey o ia?aiauoiuo ethaeae ineaaaaaea. E
iiyoiio ec eo n?aaeu noaee auaeaeyoueny ethaee, iaeaaeathuea iniaie
ienoe/aneie e ieeoeueoiie3 iaea?aiiinoueth.

Ia ieo auea aiceiaeaia ienney iin?aaeieeia iaaeaeo /aeiaa/aneei ?iaeii e
ie?oaeathuei aai ie?ii aeaiiiia e aeooia.

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1 Oioai (io eiaeaeneiai neiaa «iaeaeeaaa», iaicia/athuaai «aai ?iae») —
a iaeioi?uo ycu/aneeo nenoaiao i?aaenoaaeaiea ia iauai i?aaeea ieaiaie
eee ?iaea: aeeaioiii, ?anoaiee, ?aaea — yaeaiee i?e?iaeu eee
iaiaeooaaeaiiii i?aaeiaoa.

2 Nae?aeueiue (io eao. sacrum — nayuaiiia) — ioiinyueeny e noa?a
aicauoaiiiai, aiaeanoaaiiiai a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue iauaeaiiiio,
«naaoneiio», «ie?neiio».

3 Ieeoeueoiue — ioiinyueeny e ieeoeueoecio, «oaeiiio o/aieth», yeiau
aeathuaio «iinayuaiiui» aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeyoue aeooaie, aeaiiiaie e
einie/aneeie neeaie.

Aeienoi?e/aneea ienoeee

Anyeay ?aeeaey neeaaeuaaaony ec o?ao iniiaiuo yeaiaioia: ie?iaicc?aiey,
aeeciaiiuo ii?iaoeaia e ienoe/aneiai /oanoaa, eioi?ia iaoiaeeo aiaoiaa
au?aaeaiea a eoeueoa.

?acoiaaony, neiai «eoeueo» iu caeanue aeieaeiu iiieiaoue i/aiue oe?iei.
Aeaaea a oao ?aeeaeyo, aaea aiaoiea eo au?aaeaiey naaaeaiu e ieieioio,
ana aea eaeie-oi «eoeueo» nouanoaoao. *aeiaaeo naienoaaiii naycuaaoue
naie aioo?aiiea ia?aaeeaaiey n eaeeie-oi aeaenoaeyie, ai /oi-oi eo
«iaeaeaoue». Ionthaea e neiai «ia?yae» (io «iaea/ue», «ia?yaeeoue»). A
iauaiee iaaeaeo niaie ethaee ieeiaaea ia iiaoo ecaaaeaoue oioy au naiie
i?inoie oi?iu ia?yaea. Ii ia?yae iiiiaaao ia oieueei /aeiaa/aneei
eiioaeoai, ii e iaoae ono?aieaiiinoe e Aunoaio.

No?aiynue ia?anoe ooa?yiioth iieiioo iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai nica?oeaiey
Aiaa, ethaee iuoaeenue aa?iooueny e i?aaeiaio ninoiyieth i?e iiiiue
ieynie, ?eoie/iie iocuee, ianniauo ?aaeaiee. Yoi auea iiiuoea eae au
i?enooiii iaeaaeaoue e?aiinoueth aeooa.

?en.15

Noeien ec Aooeee. Ia/aei VI a. aei ?.O.

Ethaee e?oaeeeenue a oaeo oaea?ai ia?aiauoiuo aa?aaaiia; ana iauaeaiiia
ia?anoaaaei nouanoaiaaoue, eacaeinue, /oi aeooa eaoeo aeaeaei e
inaiaiaeaeaaony io aiaooueo ioo. Ii nouanoao, yoi auea iiiuoea
iaoaie/aneei iooai ia?anoe aeooiaioth naiaiaeo e iiaouanoai. Ii a yoie
iiiuoea o?iaaoaeueia oa neea iaooiieiie aeaaeaeu aunoaai, eioi?ay ia
aeaaaea /aeiaaeo iia?yciooue a iieoaeeaioiii ninoiyiee. Iiaeaeoe,
iaiaeaiey1 ennooieaiiuo oaioeaa a iaoe aeie — yoi oiaea ionoue
o?iaeeeaia, ii io?aaeaiea aeooiaiie iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe e no?aieaiey
au?aaoueny ca i?aaeaeu iauaeaiiinoe.

O aieueoeinoaa aea «aeeeeo» ia?iaeia iu canoaai neaaeothuoth noaaeeth
?acaeoey — oaiaieci. Caeanue ia ia?aia ianoi aunooiatho eca?aiieee, oa,
eoi iuoaaony i?ieiaeeoue iooue e naa?o/aeiaa/aneei neeai.

Yenoaoe/aneea ninoiyiey o?aina aeaeatho oaiaia iaaeeoiii2 e
yniiaeaeoeai, niieaiaiieee i?eaaaatho e iaio aeey ?ac?aoaiey ?acee/iuo
aeeoaeneeo aii?inia. Ii aacioeai/ii oeacuaaao, aaea iaeoe a oaeaa
i?iiaaoaai ieaiy, eoaea ioaeii ioi?aaeoueny, /oiau eiaoue oniao a ioioa.

Oaiaieci — ia i?inoia noaaa?ea, a iaeia ec ae?aaieo iiiuoie /aeiaaea
i?i?aaoueny e iioa?yiiiio Yaeaio. Ii /aua anaai yoe iiiuoee i?eaiaeeee
aai ia neieueceee iooue ieeoeueoecia, e, no?aiynue iaeaaeaoue ie?ii
iaoeo aeooia, ii nai ieacuaaeny a eo aeanoe.

________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________

1 Iaiaeaiey — yieaeaiey, ioaaouaathuay aanue caiiie oa? eeai
cia/eoaeueioth aai /anoue.

2 Iaaeeoi (io eao. medium — «na?aaeeia, i?iiaaeooie, iin?aaeiee»): 1) a
eiaeea — o?aoee /eai i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey, ioiioaiea, niaaeeiythuaa aeaa
ae?oaeo aai /eaia; yoi iiiyoea cae?aieaii e a ae?oaeo iaoeao, iai?eia? a
naieioeea, iaoea i caoeiauo nenoaiao; 2) a ycu/aneeo iaae/aneeo
i?aaenoaaeaieyo (aeeth/ay nie?eoeci) — /aeiaae eee i?aaeiao,
iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai i?e iaae/aneii ?eooaea aeinoeaaaony iauaiea n
iioonoi?iiiei ie?ii.

Iaae/aneia ie?inica?oeaiea

Aeey ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea ia nouanoaiaaei ?aceie a?aieoeu iaaeaeo
naa?ouanoanoaaiiui e anoanoaaiiui. Ie? aue aaeei, e neeu aeaeeiua
ia?aieaoaeenue a iai ia?ac?uaii n iaaeaeeiuie. Iiaeaeoe, aeeea?e auee
eia a /ai ioae?aa ian. Iiiaea ec ian aei neo ii? n/eoatho, /oi, anee
oo?ii acioei nieioea, — yoi anoanoaaiii, ii anee ieacuaaaony aiciiaeiui
onoaiiaeoue eiioaeo n niciaieai oia?oaai /aeiaaea, — yoi oaea ia/oi
naa?ouanoanoaaiiia. Iaaeaeo oai a iieiii niunea neiaa naa?ouanoanoaaiiui
a ie?a ie/aai iacaaoue iaeuecy. Iaeiiio ieaio auoey naienoaaiiu iaeie
caeiiu, ae?oaiio — ae?oaea. Oeceee iieacaee iai, /oi iee?iie? neeueii
ioee/aaony io iae?iie?a e iaaaie?a1. Eaaei i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi e
ae?oaea ecia?aiey Anaeaiiie, o?ainoece/aneea2 e aeooiaiua, aoaeoo eiaoue
naie iniaua /a?ou. Eiaaea noieeiiaaiea yoeo ieaiia noaiiaeony yaiui,
i?ienoiaeeo oi, /oi iacuaatho /oaeii.

?en.16

O?ai yaoa?ia. Oeaio?aeueiay Aia?eea. *e/ai-Eoea. X-XW aa.

?en.17

Aia Nieioea.

Oeaio?aeueiay Aia?eea. Oeeaeue.

II-IX aa.

Ii ian eioa?anoao a ae?aaiae iaaee ia noieueei niioiioaiea ieaiia auoey
e caeiiia ie?a, neieueei noauaeoeaiua, aioo?aiiea iioeau, eioi?ua
?oeiaiaeeee aeienoi?e/aneei iaaii.

A iaaecia ne?uoi i?enoonoaoao oa aeooiaiay oaiaeaioeey, eioi?ay
ei?aieony a ia?ai?iaeiii a?aoa /aeiaa/anoaa: iinoaaeoue naay a oeaio?a
ie?icaeaiey e canoaaeoue neoaeeoue naaa aai neeu.

Eiaiii iiyoiio iaaeci yaii iinthnoi?iiai. Aunoei aeaaii aeey iaai
yaeythony aeaaa caiiua. I?aaeae aeaeaiee iaaa — i?ioeaaoaiea caeanue, ia
caiea. E anee a iaae/aneia ie?inica?oeaiea e aoiaeeo aa?a a aannia?oea,
oi iia iineo eneeth/eoaeueii a?oai-/oanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?.

Iaa i/aiue /anoi i?ioeainoieo nayuaiieeo. Yoi iiiyoii. Aioo?aiiyy
iai?aaeaiiinoue iaaecia e ?aeeaee — i?ioeaiiieiaeia. AE?aoe — i?aaeaea
anaai iin?aaeiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie e aeooiaiui ie?ii. Ii ia?auaaony e
Aiaeanoao n iieeoaie.

Aeey iaaa aea ?aaeinoe ienoe/aneiai aiaiia?auaiey — ionoie caoe. Ii euao
oieueei aeinoeaeaiey iiaouanoaa a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie — ia ioioa, a
caieaaeaeee, a ai?ueaa n a?aaaie. Yoio aioaaiieci inoaaaeny aeaaea
oiaaea, eiaaea iaaey noaea ia?aieaoaoueny n ?aeeaeae.

Iaaeci aeaeao io Iaaa oieueei aea?ia, I?e?iaeo (aeeth/ay iac?eiua neeu)
ii oi/ao ii?aaioeoue, a /aeiaa/aneii iauanoaa ii aioea?yao ianeeea.
Ieaiy e aeanoue noaiiayony iaae aeooii. *aeiaae neeaaaony n ?iaeii,
iiaeiaaeay iiae aeiiic «eieeaeoeaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee».

Ia?iaeu, ia aea?cioaoea a oa/aiea ouny/ eao eciaieoue oioy au ia eioo
onoaiiaeaoeany eaiiiu, — aea?oau «eieeaeoeaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee» iaaecia,
eioi?ua ia?aeeciaaee oai?/aneoth aeoeaiinoue e ?aeeaeiciue aaiee
/aeiaaea, eai oieueei a niciaiee ee/iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe e aeooiaiie
naiaiaeu iaoiaeeo ii naia aunoaa i?ecaaiea eae ia?ac e iiaeiaea Oai?oea
Anaeaiiie.

_______________________________________________________________________

1 Iee?iie? — ie? aoiiia e yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe; iae?iie? — «aeaeeiue»
iaie oece/aneee ie?; iaaaie? — ie? einie/aneeo iauaeoia, caacae,
aaeaeoee.

2 O?ainoece/aneea ecia?aiey Anaeaiiie — auoiaeyuea ca i?aaeaeu,
eco/aaiua eiiieaenii iaoe, aace?othueony ia oeceea.

?en.18

Aia iaiy. Ninoae. Oeaio?aeueiay Aia?eea. *eiaeue. X-XVI aa.

IA?AUA OeEAEEECAOeEE

Io iaaia e iaiaeanoaeaiiui oea?yi

Aaeiao a IV—III ouny/aeaoeyo aei ?.O.

Iaae/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey iaeaaeatho eieinnaeueiie neeie. E anee o/anoue
oo aeanoue, eaeoth eiae iaaeci iaae aeooaie ethaeae, oi ii?aceoaeueiay
onoie/eainoue ia?aiauoiiai ie?a noaiiaeony ia oaeie oae caaaaei/iie.

Aa?iyoii, a yoio aeieaee ia?eiae /aeiaae /oanoaiaae naay aeeaea e
i?e?iaeiiio ie?o, /ai a iineaaeothuea aaea. Ii, eieoe?oy a naieo
ia?yaeao aeeciue i?e?iaeu e oai naiui eae au o/anoaoy a aa i?ioeannao,
ii i?aaenoiye i?e?iaeiiio ie?o ia eae /aeiaae, a, nei?aa, eae /anoue
yoiai ie?a.

Ii aio ieiei oanoe ouny/ eao iacaae niaa?oaaony ii/oe aiacaiiue ia?aeii.
Ae?aiethuea neeu aeooa naeaeaee ia?aoth iiiuoeo inaiaiaeeoueny.

N aiaoiae noi?iiu yoiio ia?aeiio, aa?iyoii, niaeaenoaiaaee ianniaua
ia?anaeaiey ieaiai. Ia?anaeaioeu, eioi?ua auee /aua anaai e
caaiaaaoaeyie, iieeaeay iaaeeoua caiee, ieacuaaeenue a iiauo i?e?iaeiuo
oneiaeyo, noaeeeaaynue n iaaaaeiiuie ia?iaeaie e aa?iaaieyie. A yoi
anaaaea aiineo naaaeoth no?oth a niciaiea ethaeae. Oi, /oi eniieii aaeia
iie n/eoaee iacuaeaiui e i?i/iui, ieacuaaeinue a iiaie ianoaiiaea
i?ec?a/iui e i?aoiaeyuei.

Eiaiii a ?acoeueoaoa ieaiaiiuo iea?aoeee, nei?aa anaai, e ?iaeeeenue
ia?aua aaeeeea oeeaeeecaoeee. Ai iaea aeienoi?e/aneie ii/e aniuoeaatho
o?e naaoi/a: eoeueoo?iua oeaio?u, aicieeoea ia aa?aaao Ieea, Aao?aoa e
Eiaea.

Iu iiaeai ninoaaeoue naaa aeiaieueii yniia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeecie a
Aaeioa, Aeao?a/uea, Eiaeee, ianoao ae?aaiaeoeo inaaeeuo oeeaeeecaoeee,
eeoue n III ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O.

?en.19

Aiei-i?ae. Ninoae. Oeaio?aeueiay Aia?eea. *eiaeue. X-XVI aa.

?en.20

Aieueoie Noeien oa?aiia Oao?a a Aeca.

Ia?aay iieiaeia III ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O.

Caeanue aia?aua ?iaeeeny ai?iae — neiieaiea aeeeeu, eae au a no?aoa
aeioueony ae?oa e ae?oao, iau/ii iaianaiiuo noaiie. Ai?iae — aeaoeeeia e
o?aae/aneia aeaoeua aeaienoaaiiie enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa — noieo o aa
enoieia. «Ai?iaeneay ?aaiethoeey» anoue ?oaaae enoi?e/aneiai e
aeienoi?e/aneiai ie?ia.

Anee a iaua?a, oaeaoa, iaeaoea ec oeo? /aeiaae aua aeee n?aaee
ie?oaeathuae aai i?e?iaeu, oi ca noaiaie ai?iaea ii aia?aua nicaeae naie
nianoaaiiue ie?. Ai?iae iiiia /aeiaaeo iiciaoue naiiai naay. Ii
niinianoaiaae aunaiaiaeaeaieth Ee/iinoe. Ii — i?ieeyoea enoi?ee, e ii
aea aa aeaaineiaaiea. Noaiu ioi?aaee /aeiaaea io ie?a, ii aeaee aio
aiciiaeiinoue ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue ia yoio ie?. A ai?iaea /aeiaae aue
iiaeaaeai iiiioiiiinoueth nicaeaiiiai ei naiei io?aaaeieea, ii a ai?iaea
aea ?ane?ueinue aioo?aiiaa aiaaonoai aai aeooa. Nie?ao e aiinoie Iaaae,
Oaenie? e Aeinoiaaneee — aeaoe ai?iaea.

?en.21

E?ueaoua noeienu. Iaiii ec aeai?oea a Nocao. VI a. aei ?.O.

Iaeiaei «ai?iaeneay ?aaiethoeey» ia i?eaaea aua e «?aaiethoeee aeooa».
Ai a?aiaia iniiaaiey ai?iaeia e aaeeeeo ia?anaeaiee a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
i?aaenoaaeaieyo iiiaia, aa?iyoii, auei ia?ooaii. Ii eiaaea aeeciue a
ai?iaeao aioea a onoie/eaia ?onei, noa?ua oaiaeaioeee niiaa acyee aa?o.
Yoi iniaaiii iaaeyaeii iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ia i?eia?a ae?aaiaai Aaeioa.

Aaeiao — ?oaaae iaaeaeo Ao?eeie n aa oaoeoaie e eieaeoiaie e
N?aaeecaiiiii?ueai, i/aaii aaeeeeo aeooiaiuo aeaeaeaiee. E ianaeaiea
Aaeioa oaeaea neiaeeeinue ec iaeoaoaeae aeaoo eiioeiaioia. Inaaeaay
aeieeio Ieea, aaeioyia cao?aoeee ia?iiiua oneeey ia oi, /oiau
i?eniiniaeoue yoe caaiei/aiiua, iacaei?iaua ianoa aeey iaeoaiey.
Ii?aceoaeueia iaen/a?iaaiay yia?aey aaeioyi e eo ninaaeae ooia?ia a
ai?ueaa n i?e?iaeie. Iie iiaaaeaeaee aa oai, aaea eiie ?ac aeaaea
/aeiaae iaoeo aeiae iioneaao ?oee.

Iaeiiai ia niiaee iiaaaeeoue aaeioyia: ianeaaeey ia?aiauoiuo iiiyoee e
aa?iaaiee.

Aaeioyiei, ie?oaeaiiue ie?ii oaeinoaaiiuo nouanoa, eioi?ua niio?aee ia
iaai aeacaie eioae, nia, aa?aiia, e?ieiaeeeia, eneae niiniau iiei?eoue
yoe nouanoaa, eniieueciaaoue nie?iaaiiua neeu a naieo oeaeyo. Ethaee,
iieiinoueth iaeaaeaaoea anaie oiieinoyie /a?iaeaenoaa, i?eia?aoaee iaae
ia?iaeii ia?iiioth aeanoue.

Aeooiaiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee Aaeioa — ae?aoeu — ia oieueei ia niiaee
inaiaiaeeoue aai ?aeeaeth io iiiaiaiaeey e iaaee, ii inayoeee iacuaeaiue
nioeeaeueiue no?ie eae nae?aeueiia onoaiiaeaiea. Aeanoue a Aaeioa
anaaaea i?eciaaaeanue aiaeanoaaiiie, oae eae n/eoaeinue, /oi iia aaea
naia i?ienoiaeaeaiea io naa?o/aeiaa/aneeo nouanoa.

Iieaaatho, /oi aaeeeee noeien a Aeca anoue neiaiee/aneia ecia?aaeaiea
nuia Nieioea — aiaeanoaaiiiai oea?y. Anee yoi oae, oi yoi iaeei ec
iaeaieaa au?aceoaeueiuo neiaieia eana?neiai naiiaea?aeaaey. Ethaee naie
i?eiyee yoo aiaeanoaaiioth aeanoue. Ionoue aeeianoee ii?ie naa?aaeenue,
ii iai?eeiniiaaiiui inoaaaeinue aa?iaaiea a oi, /oi /aeiaae, noiyuee ia
aa?oeia nioeeaeueiie ie?aieaeu, iaeaaeaao eeth/ii io n/anouey naieo
iiaeaeaiiuo. Ia oieueei aeanoue oa?aiia auea eae au /anoueth
einie/aneiai ono?iaiey, ii e aanue nioeeaeueiue oeeaae Aaeioa eae au
iieo/ee aunooth naieoeeth. Nineiaiay ea?a?oey noaiiaeony iacuaeaiie. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee o?ao ouny/ eao nio?aiyaony eiina?aaoeaiue oeeaae a
iieeoe/aneie, nioeeaeueiie e ?aeeaeiciie aeecie.

Aaeiaoneay ?aeeaey nio?aieeanue iaanaaaea eae no?aiiia niaoaiea
aicauoaiiuo i?ic?aiee e naiiai i?eieoeaiiai ycu/anoaa. Ana iiiuoee
i?aiaeieaoue ycu/anoai a Aaeioa iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea. A ia
naaa?i-ainoiea, iaaeaeo Oea?ii e Aao?aoii (a Ianiiioaiee), ca?iaeeeanue
ae?oaay aaeeeay oeeaeeecaoeey.

Caiey Naiiaa?neay

Ainoaea?noaa Aeao?a/uey

iaaeaeo IV e II ouny/aeaoeyie aei ?.O.

Aeaeey aiai?eo i «caiea Naiiaa?neie», eee, i?aaeeueiaa, «caiea Oeiaa?»,
eae i ianoa, aaea neiaeeeanue ia?aay oeeaeeecaoeey. Caeanue, niaeanii
Ienaieth, aue iino?iai ai?iae Aaaeeii (ni. Auo 10:10). Ia i?ioyaeaiee
iiiaeo aaeia neiai «Oeiaa?» ?iaii ie/aai ia aiai?eei ethaeyi, /eoaaoei
Aeaeeth, oi/ii oae aea, eae iacaaiey naiiaa?neeo ai?iaeia: O?, Y?ao,
Aeeaae. E eeoue noi eao iacaae auynieeinue, /oi aeaeaeneay «caiey
Oeiaa?» aeaenoaeoaeueii iiaeao auoue iacaaia eieuaaeueth nia?aiaiiie
oeeaeeecaoeee. Ec iaeu o?eaeoeaoeaaeiaiai caaaaiey aunooieee ia?iaeu,
eioi?ua iaeoaee ia aa?aaao Aao?aoa, a iaeanoe, iacuaaaoaeny Ooia?ii.
Iaeiei ec yoeo ia?iaeia auee ooia?u, i?eoaaeoea, eae i?aaeiieaaatho, ni
noi?iiu Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa, a ae?oaei — naieou-aeeaaeoeu,
ianoooe-ei/aaieee, canaeeaoea naaa?ioth /anoue aeieeiu ia ianeieueei
aaeia iicaea ooia?ia. E 2000 a. aei ?.O. iaa yoe ia?iaeiinoe
ieii/aoaeueii neeeenue a iaeii oeaeia. E oioy oeaio?aeeciaaiiia
ainoaea?noai aicieeei a Ooia?a iicaea, /ai a Aaeioa, a oii, /oi eanaaony
aeeyiey ia aeaeueiaeooth enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa, ia?aainoai ooia?ia a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia iiaeeaaeeo niiiaieth.

?en.22

Noaooy e?ueaoiai aiaeanoaa Aooo?a. VIII a. aei ?.O.

?en.23

THaeiineaiaeeiaaneea ianeaeueiua eoeueoiaua ecia?aaeaiey yiioe a?iicu

?en.24

*aeiaae-yaoa?.

?en.

?inienue ninoaea. Oeeaeue. XV a. aei ?.O. – II a. ii ?.O. O?aaiaio

Ooia?u e aeeaaeoeu /a?ac naieo i?aaiieeia aaaeeiiyi ia?aaeaee a?aeai,
aa?ayi e ae?oaei ia?iaeai iniiau naiae iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eoeueoo?u,
iiiyoey i Anaeaiiie e iaeioi?ua ?aeeaeiciua i?aaenoaaeaiey.

Nia?aiaiiua iacaaiey aeiae iaaeaee e aeaeaiea e?oaa ia a?aaeonu,
a?a/aneea eaaaiaeu e aeaeaeneay neiaieeea — ana yoi ainoiaeeo e
ae?aaiaio Naiiaa?o.

Aaeiao oi?ioi caueuaee ionouie e ii?a. Naiiaa?, iai?ioea, aue ioe?uo
aeey iaiaaeaiey noaiiuo ei/aaieeia e aieinoaaiiuo ai?oeaa. Iiyoiio
«ai?iaeneay ?aaiethoeey» a Ianiiioaiee iineea iniaaiii eioaineaiue
oa?aeoa?. Ai?iaea i?eoaeueoeaa n?aco iinea naiaai aicieeiiaaiey
i?aa?auaeenue a aiaiiua e?aiinoe.

Eaaeaeue ai?iae n ie?oaeathuae aai iaeaiueeie iaeanoueth aue oaeoe/anee
iacaaeneiui e eiae nianoaaiiuo ianoiuo aiaia, eioi?ua n/eoaeenue aai
ianoiyueie oicyaaaie. Aiae aeeee a o?aiao eee ia aa?oeia ceeeo?aoa —
nooiai/aoie aaoie.

Eae iiieiae aeeoaeue Naiiaa?a iieiaeaiea e ?ieue /aeiaaea ai Anaeaiiie?

Ia ia?aii ianoa noiyee aiae. *aeiaae aue nicaeai aeey oiai, /oiau naieie
aea?oaii?eiioaieyie neoaeeoue ei. Ii — iecoaa nouanoai, aani?aaiue ?aa,
o/anoue eioi?iai ii?aaeaeaia ?ac e iaanaaaea. *aeiaae iuouae naay
yoaia?iui nouanoaii, eioi?ia iaiaaeieai i?eoiaeeo a ie? e iioii
iaanaaaea en/acaao a i?a/iie I?aeniiaeiae. Aicieeaei aeoaieia
i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo aeooiaiui iaeeeii ia?iaea, iaea?aiiiai,
o?oaeiethaeaiai, oai?/aneiai, e aai iiiyoeai i iacia/aiee /aeiaaea.

Ie ooia?i-aeeaaeoeu, ie aaaeeiiyia ia niiaee ?ac?aoeoue yoi o?aae/aneia
i?ioeai?a/ea. Aaeeeay ae?aaiyy eoeueoo?a, ianiio?y ia ana naie
oaoie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey, a eoiaa i?eoea e aeoaieiio iaenoeaeeiiio
ianneiecio.

Ia yoii noi?a/iii oiia y?ei auaeaeythony ia?aua i?inaaou a ie?
Aiaeanoaaiiiai Ioe?iaaiey, i?iaoaeaeathuayny aeaaeaea Aiaa, aeeaie
iieeoau, ia iioiaeae ia iaaeth caeeyoee. Eae au ie eiaiiaaeny aia, e
eioi?iio i?inoe?ae ?oee /aeiaae: Yieeeue, Oaiao eee Nei, — yoi aue aia
enoeiiue.

?en.25

Eaeie. Iaaa?oea ooaiaea?oa

«Ieeina?aeiue, ieeinoeaue Ioaoe, a ?oeao eioi?iai aeeciue anae caiee, —
ia/a?oaii ia iaeiie oaaee/ea ec O?a, — Aeaaeuea, Aiaeanoai Oaia, eae
aeaeaeia iaai, eae oe?ieia ii?a… Oaia neiai aucuaaao e aeecie i?aaaeo
e ni?aaaaeeeainoue, a ethaee ia/eiatho aiai?eoue enoeio».

*a?ac yoo ee/ioth ?aeeaeiciinoue /aeiaae iaoiaeee auoiae ec oea?noaa
aeaiiiia e caeiiia, eieaeoiia e oea?ae, ?ac?ooaiey e nia?oe,
aanniuneeoeu e io/ayiey. Ii a oeaeii Ianiiioaiey, iiaeiaii Aaeioo,
ieacaeanue ia a ninoiyiee i?aiaeieaoue a?aiy noa?iai ycu/anoaa.
I?iaeanee aaeeiiaiaeey oae e inoaeenue caeanue oieueei i?iaeaneaie.

AINOIE E CAIAAe AI AOI?II OUNss*AEAOEE AeI ?.O.

Ianoooaneea ia?iaeu. A?uee a Eiaeee

Ieiei 2000-1700 aa. aei ?.O.

Ia ca?a aoi?iai ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O. aanue oeeaeeeciaaiiue ie? i?eoae a
niyoaiea. I?aeu ianoooaneeo ia?iaeia iiyaeeenue ia a?aieoeao ainoaea?noa
noa?ie eoeueoo?u.

Ec a?aaeeneeo ionouiue oeuioee ei/aaieee-aii?eou, iaaiaeieaoea
Aeao?a/uea; a Iaeie Acee iiyaeythony oaoou; aoaeoeu aoi?aathony n naaa?a
ia Aaeeaineee iieoino?ia; o ii?iaa Eiaeee iiyaeythony neioiaiae/aneea
ieaiaia a?ueaa.

Yoa yieaeaiey iaoanoaee ia iiaea i?ieoe aanneaaeii aeey /aeiaa/anoaa.
Iia aeoaiei iio?ynea noa?ua oeeaeeecaoeee e noa?ue no?ie iuoeaiey.
Aeioiea caieiooua a oceii ie?ea i?eau/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, /anoi
nouanoaiaaaoea a ecieyoeee, ia?iaeu aiacaiii ieacaeenue ae?oa ia?aae
ae?oaii.

Ieiei 2000 a. aei ?.O., ai a?aiy anaiauaai ia?anaeaiey ia?iaeia, a?uee
nionoeeenue n E?aineiai ieineiai?uey e aeaeioeenue ia tha a iieneao
iiauo caiaeue aeey naieo noaae. Iie ciaee, /oi ca o?aaoaie e
ineaieoaeueiuie ieeaie Aeiaeaaa iaoiaeeony /oaeaniay no?aia, iioiaeay ia
aieoaaiue naae. Ii ooaea aae o?oaeiue iooue /a?ac ouaeuey e ai?iua
ia?aaaeu. I?iaeaeaaynue e caaaoiie oeaee ni naieie noaaeaie, iiaiceaie e
eioaaeueie, a?uee ieacaeenue a na?aeoea auni/aeoeo a ie?a Aeiaeaeneeo
ai?, a oea?noaa aa/iuo niaaia, iaaaeia e oo/.

A?uee oe?aieeenue a Eaoie?a, iioii i?iaeaeioeenue ia tha, a Iaiaeaeaa,
e, iaeiiaoe, iinea iiiaieaoiae e aeanoieie ai?ueau noaee iieiiaeanoiuie
oicyaaaie Naaa?iie Eiaeee, ii?aaioea ei?aiiuo aeeoaeae, /anoe/ii aea
eno?aaea eo eee iooaniea ia tha.

E n/anoueth, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a?oaieiaey ia ?aniieaaaao eaeeie-eeai
naeaeaoaeuenoaaie i aeecie a?ueaa, neaaeu eo eoeueoo?u ia iioa?yiu. I
ieo ?anneacuaaao ae?aaiee nai?iee aeiiia, iacuaaaiue ?ea-Aaaea.

?en.26

Noaooy ooia?eeneiai aiaa Aa-O.

Na?aaeeia III ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O.

?en.27

Aia Nieioea. Ea?iaeeoe/aneay eanoieoea. II—IX aa. O?aaiaio

A?uee auee ia?iaeii iocueaeueiui, ethaeee iaiea. A eaaeaeii ?iaeo eee
ieaiaie iaaoeu e neaceoaee iieueciaaeenue aieueoie ethaiaueth. Yoe
ia?iaeiua iiyou — ?eoe — neaaaee ?aeeaeiciua aeiiu, neacaiey, iio/aiey.
?eoe auee ia i?inoi iiyoaie. Iie niciaaaee naay i?i?ieaie e
yniiaeaeoeaie, na?aeoeai eioi?uo ioe?uaaaony aunoaa ciaiea («aaaea»1 —
aaaeaiea, ciaiea).

Aeiiu ?ea-Aaaeu ?acii?iaeiu, a ii?ie aeaaea i?ioeai?a/eau. Iaiaeeaeaiiua
aeooiaiua aceaou, ieaiaiiua ii?uau e Aiao e i?aaaea /a?aaeothony n
i?eieoeaiui /a?iaeaenoaii, a?oaie /oanoaaiiinoueth e y?ei au?aaeaiiui
iiiaiaiaeeai. A ?ea-Aaaea oiiieiaaony aieaa o?ao ouny/ aiaia, e iiiaei
ec ieo i?eienuaathony naienoaa Aa?oiaiiai Ia/aea. Eaaeaeue ec aiaia
iii/a?aaeii eae au noaiiaeony Aiaii.

Yoi no?aiiia niaoaiea aeaoo ?aeeaeiciuo iiaeoiaeia iauyniyaony oai, /oi
aaaee/aneea aeiiu auee caienaiu a yiioo ?aceiaeaiey e oiaaeea
aaeeiiaiaeey. Eo iiaeii n?aaieoue n i?ae?aniui o?aiii, i?aa?auaiiui
?oeie ineaa?ieoaey a aeeeie aeii. Oi ooo, oi oai iu iaoiaeei neaaeu
aueiai aaeeeieaiey, ecyuiua eaieoaee, inoaoee eaiee, ooeaeaaoea eieiiiu.
Ana yoi eeoue /anoe o?aia, naiiai aai oaea iao. Oi/ii oae aea a
?ea-Aaaea iu iaia?oaeeaaai inoaoee ia?aiia/aeueiie aa?u a Aaeeiiai Aiaa.

Ii oioy Aia ana aieueoa e aieueoa oneieuecaao io niciaiey i?eaa?aeaioea
aaaee/aneie ?aeeaee, yoi ia icia/aao oaanaiey a iai aeeaiai ?aeeaeiciiai
/oanoaa.

N o?iaaoaeueiui aeiaa?eai ia?auaaony ?eoe e Aiao e nie?ooaiii eaaony a
i?eno?anoee e aeio, e aca?oiui ea?ai, a neeiiiinoe e ianeeeth e
?aniouaiiinoe.

Eae iiiai, eacaeinue au, iaauatho yoe ii?uau! ?aaeinoiia i?aae/oanoaea
ioaaouaaao ian. Ia caeanue ee iu iiaeai ia/aoue no?ainoaea ii oie
aei?iaa, eioi?ay iiaaaeao ian /a?ac oa?iee e caacaeai? Ii
oi?aeanoaiaaoue ?aii. Aio aia?aaee iay/ao no?aiiua oaie. Aei?iao
i?aa?aaeaeatho, eeaay aieiaaie e a?eianie/ay, i?e/oaeeeaua oeao?u
aeooia. Eae ca/a?iaaiiue niio?eo ia ieo /aeiaae… A aeacao o iaai
oaiiaao. Ii ia iaoiaeeo a naaa yia?aee, /oiau ?aoeoaeueii iooieeiooue
yoe aeaeouea, caai?aaeeaathuea eeee: iie ie?oaeatho aai… Ii a naoyo…
Ii naeeny n iooe.

_________________________________________________________________

1 Cia/aiea neiaa «aaaea» iiiyoii ?onneiio /eoaoaeth, iineieueeo oae
iacuaaaiua eiaeia?eeneea ycuee ?iaenoaaiiu neaayineei (iie aianoa
aoiaeyo a eiaeiaa?iiaeneoth naiueth ycueia).

?en.28

Aieiaa eaeiea n ino?iaa Aii?ain. Eeeeaaeu. 2500-2000 aei ?.O.

Ethaee, noeoee e aiae

Eiaeey, 1700-1500 aa. aei ?.O.

Ia?aiia/aeueii a?uee oniaoii i?iaeaeaaeenue ia tha, niaoay ia naiai iooe
oocaiiua ieaiaia «aeanueth», ii oie/oiaeeoue eo a?uee ia iiaee oioy au
ec-ca /eneaiiiai i?aainoiaenoaa oocaioeaa. Iinoaiaiii inaaeay a
caaiaaaiiie no?aia, iie niaoeaaeenue n ae?aaeaeaie e ae?oaeie
eiaeeeneeie ieaiaiaie, ia?aieiay eo iau/ae, aicc?aiey, o?aaeeoeee.

Anee noaeeoue ii iaeioi?ui iaiaeai a ?ea-Aaaea, a?aiaia, eiaaea a?uee
oaeiaeaoai?yeenue i?inouie aeoa?yie iiae ioe?uoui iaaii, ooee a i?ioeia.
Ia caaiaaaiiie caiea au?inee ia?aua eieiiiaaeu eiaei-a?eeneeo o?aiia, e
ia?iae neeiieeny ia?aae ia?auie ecaayieyie aiaeanoa.

?en.29

Ceeeo?ao a O?a. Eiiaoe III ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O.

?aeeaeiciua aicc?aiey aace?othony ia ciaiee i?e/eiii-iaae/aneie nayce
iaaeaeo aauaie; iieiinoueth e no?iai niaethaeay neiaeioth
oea?aiiieaeueioth nenoaio, iiaeii oi?aaeyoue noeoeyie e aiaaie, eae
naieie neoaaie. Iaiaiiay aea?oaa iiaeao aucaaoue iieieth e a?ii,
aiceeyiea iieiea — aeiaeaeue.

Yoa eeethci?iay aeanoue iaae ie?ii iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeo e iieiiio
ii?aaiuaieth /aeiaaea. Iaae/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey neiauaatho aai niciaiea
e iinoaiaiii aanyo a iai iiaeeeiii ?aeeaeicioth iuneue. E n/anoueth,
eiaei-a?eeneay eoeueoo?a ia caaeioioeanue iiae aiaoii iaaecia, a noaea
iacaiaoii i?ieeaaeuaaoue naaa aei?iao. A aaaee/aneee ia?eiae yoa aei?iaa
?acaeaeeeanue ia aeaa iai?aaeaiey. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiia
?aeeaeiciia /oanoai ia?aoeeinue e einie/aneie ienoeea auoey, iaiy,
aeecie. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, auoiae ec ooieea ethaee ia/aee eneaoue /a?ac
oeeinioneia iuoeaiea.

?en.30

Iieeoaa iiae iaeueiie. ?inienue a?iaieoeu Aiiiiaooa a Oeaao. XIV-XIII
aa. aei ?.O.

?en.31

Noaooyoee ae?aoea Aiaioioaia e aai aeaiu ?aiiae. Aoi?ay iieiaeia XV a.
aei ?.O.

«Eaeiio aiao aiciano y iieueao?» — ni?aoeaaao ?eoe. Ioeoaea e aeey /aai
iiyaeeny ie?? Ieeoi yoiai ia ciaao. Auoue iiaeao, /aeiaae eeoue ea?ooea
iaaaaeiiuo nee, e aio noaeaeaii aiaaee ouaoii ?acaaaeuaaoue ie?iaoth
caaaaeeo, neaey o aani?aaeaeueiiai ieaaia Enoeiu…

Aaeeeay anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneay caneoaa ae?aaiaeiaeeeneeo iuneeoaeae a
oii, /oi iie i?aiaeieaee yoio e?ecen e aea?cioee, ia inoaiaaeeaaynue ia
iieaei?iaa, anooieoue a o?ai Aa/iiai e Aaconeiaiiai, a o?ai Aaniethoa.

Ii ia ia yoii iooe noaeaeaii auei ia?anoe /aeiaa/anoao oo?a/aiiia
aaeeiaiea Caiee e Iaaa. Ia io ycu/aneiai einiecia, ia io ienoeeia,
iiaeiyaoeony aei aa?oeiu Naa?oauoey, oei nianaiea. Ia caeanue, a Eiaeee,
a oai, ia Caiaaea, ia nouea o?ao iaoa?eeia iacaiaoii iiaeaioaaeeaaeinue
aaee/aeoaa ioe?iaaiea a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa.

Ia/aei Aaooiai Caaaoa. Aa?aai

Aeao?a/uea — Oaiaai,

ie. 1850-1800 aa. aei ?.O.

Aiein Aeooa ii?ie auaaao naiui oeoei aieinii, e naiua iacaiaoiua niauoey
ia?aaeei ieacuaathony aai aaee/aeoeie aeayieyie.

A oi naiia a?aiy eiaaea i?aeu a?ueaa n aiyie i?iaeaeaaeenue ii
eiaeeeneie caiea, a ia Aao?aoa aii?eou iieiaeeee ia/aei Aaaeeiio, oieia
ianoooia a iano?uo iaeaaeaeao, iiaeaiiyy iaaoe e eic, aeaeaaeanue ii
aei?iaai Ne?ee. Ec Naaa?iie Ianiiioaiee, aaea iaeoaei ieaiy a?aiaaa,
ianoooe iai?aaeyeenue /a?ac ionouiiua iaeanoe ia caiaae, a caieth
Oaiaaineoth. Yoeo ethaeae aicaeaaeye aiaeaeue Aa?aai. Eo auei iaiiiaei
aieueoa o?aonio /aeiaae (Auo 14:14), e ooiae eo aaeaa ee aue caia/ai.

Iaaeaeo oai yoi aiaoia iai?eiaoiia niauoea ioe?uaaei iiaoth aeaao a
enoi?ee anaie?iiai Aiaieneaiey. Aa?aai e aai ethaee — iiaua aa?ie iaoae
iiaanoe, eioi?ua aaeaa ee naie aeiaaaeuaathony i oii, eaeia aoaeouaa
iaeeaeaao eo ia?iae.

A iaeiii ae?aaiai oaenoa Aa?aai iacaai «oaea?e». Aiciiaeii, iaeiaiiaaiea
«aa?ae» (ea?e), eioi?ia noaee i?eeaaaoue e Aa?aaiiao ieaiaie,
oo?aoeaoaio naith i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e a?aiayi, naycaii n iaeiaiiaaieai
ei/aaieeia — «oaae?e» (i ieo oiiieiatho aeieoiaiou Aaeioa, Iaeanoeiu,
Ianiiioaiee). Aeieia aue eo iooue, i?aaeaea /ai ia?aae ieie cacaeaiaee
aeiia?aaeieee e ai?iua eoaa caiee Oaiaaineie. Caeanue eo aeaeaee
iianiinoe e o?oaeiinoe, a?iaey/ay aeeciue «oaae?e», ia?a/aiiuo
neeoaoueny n?aaee /oaeeo e, auoue iiaeao, a?aaeaeaaiuo ieaiai.

I?eoaeueoeai i?eaeaaaea ioaeanoaa eo aa?a a iniaia iaaaniia
iie?iaeoaeuenoai. Yoa aa?a ia auea oai?eae, oeeinioneei oiic?eoaeueiui
eniiaaaeaieai iiiioaecia1. Iia naiaeeeanue e aa?iinoe naiaio Aiao
eca?aiieeia Yeiaeia, aaeeiiai aa/iiai Oai?oea ie?a. Ni noi?iiu iiaei
iieacaoueny, /oi yoi i?inoi ?aeeaey a?oiiu ethaeae — eeaia eee ieaiaie.
Ii a yoie aa?iinoe Aa?aaia e iao?ea?oia2 Iaeiiio oaea niaea?aeaeinue
ca?ii ?aeeaee Aaeeiiai.

?aeeaey Aa?aaia i?eiyea oi?io Nithca (aa?eo), eee Caaaoa, n Aiaii.
Niaeanii Aeaeee, Aia iaauae, /oi i?eaeao a?aiy, eiaaea iioiiee Aa?aaia
oaea ia aoaeoo ecaiaiieeaie a /oaeii e?ath, — noaa ia?iaeii, iie iieo/ao
ai aeaaeaiea caieth Oaiaaineoth.

Ii iaaoiaaiea yoi ia iineei oceiieaiaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, iiaeiaiiai iiiaei
ycu/aneei i?i?eoeaieyi. Aaee/ea e neaaa eca?aiiuo Aiaii ethaeae
naycuaaeenue n aeaaii anao ieaiai e ia?iaeia. «E aeaaineiayony a oaaa
ana ieaiaia caiiua» (Auo 12:3) — oaeiai auei iaeii ec naiuo
ii?aceoaeueiuo i?i?i/anoa ae?aaiaai ie?a.

Iaaeaeeiua ieoe i?ioyaeaathony io oao?ia Oaiaaia e aa?aaai Ei?aeaia,
aaea ainaiiaaeoeaoue aaeia nionoy i?icao/ao neiaa: «Aa?othuee a Nuia
eiaao aeeciue aa/ioth» (Ei 3:36).

Oae n?aaee noia?ae iiiaiaiaeey aicieeea oa oi/ea a enoi?ee ie?a, eioi?ay
aeieaeia auea ?anoe, ?anoe?youeny e i?aa?aoeoueny a eiioea eiioeia a
ia?iae Caaaoa, a ia?iae Aiaeee, a aaooicaaaoiiai i?aaeoa/o Oea?eae.

Iiaeaeoe, ie/oi oae y?ei ia neiaieece?oao oi iaiieieaaeiia iniiaaiea, ia
eioi?ii ooaa?aeeeanue aaooicaaaoiay ?aeeaey, eae ?anneac i
aea?oaii?eiioaiee Aa?aaia.

Iaeiaaeaeu, iiaanoaoao Eieaa Auoey (Auo. 22), Aia ia?aoeeny e naiaio
eca?aiieeo: «Aicueie nuia naiaai aaeeinoaaiiiai, Enaaea, eioi?iai ou
ethaeoue, e iieaee a caieth Ii?ea e oai i?eiane aai ai ananiaeaeaiea ia
iaeiie ec ai?».

Aa?aai ia iieieaaaeny. Ii iioae ia yoo aea?oao n oaeie aea
oaa?aeinoueth, n eaeie niio?ae a aeaca nia?oe ai a?aiy naieo aiaiiuo
iioiaeia. Ii neeoeii aa?ee naiaio Aiao, /oiau i?iyaeoue iaeiaeooea.

E aio eaeoo iie e ianoo aea?oaii?eiioaiey, ioaoe e nui. «Ioaoe iie, —
ni?aoeaaao Enaae, — aio iaiiue e ae?iaa, a aaea aea yaiaiie aeey
ananiaeaeaiey?» «Aia oniio?eo Naaa yaiaiea aeey ananiaeaeaiey, nui iie»,
— ioaa/aao Aa?aai. «E oee iie aianoa e i?eoee ia ianoi, i eioi?ii neacae
aio Aia, — iiaanoaoao Aeaeey. — E ono?iee Aa?aai aea?oaaiiee, ?aceiaeee
ae?iaa e, naycaa nuia naiaai Enaaea, iieiaeee aai ia aea?oaaiiee iiaa?o
ae?ia». E oieueei nia?aeny iao?ea?o iaianoe ?ieiaie oaea?, eae oneuoae
aiein Aiaeee: «Ia iiaeieiae ?oeo ia io?iea e ia aeaeae iaae iei ie/aai,
eai oaia?ue y ciath, /oi ou aieoueny Aiaa e ia iiaeaeae nuia naiaai
aaeeinoaaiiiai aeey Iaiy».

A enoi?ee aea?oaii?eiioaiey Aa?aaia iu aeieaeiu aeaeaoue ioia?aaeaiea
oie ai?y/ae i?aaeaiiinoe Aiao e aa?a, eioi?ay auea i?enoua Aa?aaio e aai
ethaeyi, i?aaeaiiinoe, ia no?aoeaoaeny ieeaeeo aea?oa.

A noieeiiaaiee n eniieeineei noeienii i?e?iaeu ia?iae-aiaieneaoaeue
noiae ionoiyoue iacaaeneiinoue aeooa. sscu/anoai Ainoiea e Caiaaea
aini?eieiaei ie? eae ia/oi iaiiaeaeaeiia e noaoe/iia; iaaeci caiueae aai
a aa/iii e?oaiai?ioa oeeeeia. A ?aeeaee aea iioiieia Aa?aaia aioo?aiiyy
no?oeoo?a ie?icaeaiey ?ane?uaaeanue eae Noaiiaeaiea, Aeeiaieea e
?acaeoea.

_____________________________________________________________________

1 Iiiioaeci — aaeeiiaiaeea, n?. iieeoaeci — iiiaiaiaeea.

2 Iao?ea?oaie a aeaeaenoeea iacuaatho Aa?aaia, Enaaea e Eaeiaa —
i?aiooeaa aa?iuo.

Nuiu Ec?aeey

Oaiaai — Aaeiao, ie. 1750—1680 aa. aei ?.O.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo aieaa eee iaiaa aeinoiaa?iuo niauoee ?aiiaaa?aeneie
enoi?ee aue aoi?ie «enoiae», eee iiaia ia?anaeaiea ec Ianiiioaiee. Iiaay
a?aiaeneay aieia aeaeioeanue n naaa?a ieiei 1750 a. aei ?.O. Iao?ea?oii
yoiai eeaia aue Eaeia, iineaoee oaeaea eiy Ec?aeey. I?aaeaiea n/eoaao
Eaeiaa iioiieii Aa?aaia, ianeaaeieeii aai iaaoiaaiee. Ai anyeii neo/aa,
ii i?eieiaao Aa?aaiiao aa?o e i?e anooieaiee a Oaiaai i?eeacuaaao
cae?uoue eaeieia, eioi?uo aai ?iae iinoiyiii aicee n niaie. Eaeia
oyaioaao e ianoai, aaea iaeiaaea aeee e i?eiinee aea?oau Aiao Aa?aai; ii
aeeaao a Neoaia e Aaoeea.

Eaeia aicaeaaeye nithc ?iaeia, eee eieai1, eioi?ua eiaiiaaee naay
Aaia-En?ayeu, o. a. Nuiu Ec?aeey.

Ii aieueoae /anoe nouanoaiaaiea Aaia-En?ayey auei ie?iui, ?acia?aiiui.
Iianaaeiaaiay aeeciue eo auea ia?ac?uaii naycaia n iaoeaaiaenoaii. ?aaee
naieo noaae iie inoaaaeenue ei/aaieeaie; iaoeu auee aeaaiui aiaaonoaii:
iie ei?ieee e iaeaaaee, eo aeaaaee a i?eaeaiia, i?eiineee a iiaea?ie
ae?ocueyi. E?aneaue yaiaiie aac ii?iea n/eoaeny naiie eo/oae aea?oaie
Iaao.

A?aiy io a?aiaie ana ieaiy ia/eiaei aeeeoaeueiue ia?aoiae a iieneao
iiauo ianoaeu.

Iocuea e iaiea auee iinoiyiiuie niooieeaie aa?aeneeo ianoooia. *aeiaae
iae i Aiaa, i naiai Iac?eiii Iooea, i Aai ieeina?aeee e ni?aaaaeeeainoe,
i oii, /oi oieueei Aio aeieaeiu i?eiaaeeaaeaoue ana iieeoau ie?a.

Ieiei 1700 a. aei ?.O. Oaiaai iaeaneeny aiaauie eeeeaie. Iie/eua
aii?oaeaiiuo aei coaia aii?eoia iiyaeeenue a aai i?aaeaeao. Aceaoia
iaiee Aaeiao, aiaaoay ieiaei?iaeiay no?aia. Eo no?aieoaeueiue iaoene ia
ano?aoee ieeaeiai nii?ioeaeaiey. Aiaaua a?aaneea neaeoiu, iaaaaeiiua aei
yoiai a?aiaie aeeoaeyi Aaeioa, ianee a?iciuo anaaeieeia ii caiea
oa?aiiia. Ni nooeii eaoeeenue eaaeea eieanieoeu, a?acaynue a
?anoa?yaoeany io?yaeu aaeioyi, iueaee aea?aaie, ?ooeeenue noaiu ae?aaieo
o?aiia; ioaeiieaiiua aaeioyia ace?aee ia ana yoi ni no?aoii e
iaaeioiaieai. I?eoae eiiaoe eo naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. Iaaaaeiiia ieaiy
ai?aeuo e iaoiieeiuo a?aaia onoaiiaeei naith aeanoue iaae no?aiie.
Aaeioyia iacuaaee eo Oa-eao-Oanoo — «eiicaiiua oea?e», ioeoaea i?iecioei
iicaeiaeoaa iacaaiea «aeenu», eee «aeeninu».

Oaiaai iinea oiai, eae /a?ac iaai i?ioee aeenu, noae iaaaciianiui ianoii
aeey ie?iuo ianoooia. Ieeoi ia iia auoue oaa?ai a caao?aoiai aeia.
Iiiaeanoai naeaiee auei noa?oi n eeoea caiee, iinaau auaeaeaiu, ianoaeua
auoiioaiu eiiuoaie aeenneeo eiiae. A aeiaa?oaiea anaai ia/aeanue
neeueiay canooa. Nuiu Ec?aeey ieacaeenue ia?aae oa?icie aieiaea.

O ieo inoaaaeny iineaaeiee auoiae: aeaeiooueny ii iooe, i?ieiaeaiiiio
aeenaie, e eneaoue i?ethoa a Aaeioa, eae aeaeae yoi a aieiaeiua aiaeu
Aa?aai.

?en. 32

Ia?anaeaiea Ec?aeey a Aaeiao. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

A no?aia oa?aiiia ecaeaaia nouanoaiaaei iaueiiaaiea naeeoue ia a?aieoeao
«ie?iuo aa?aa?ia», oa?iaaoeo aaaenoaey ia naiae ?iaeeia. Yoi aeaeaeinue
aaea nionoy e aeey io?aiu ?oaaaeae ?eineie eiia?ee. Aeey aeenneeo oea?ae
oaeea ia?anaeaiey auee iniaaiii aeaeaoaeueiu, oae eae iie i?aaeii/eoaee
iie?aoueny ia naieo niieaiaiieeia ec Acee.

Niaeanii i?aaeaieyi, nai iao?ea?o Eaeia aicaeaaeye ia?anaeaiea a «Caieth
Ieoe?aei», eae iacuaaee aa?ae Aaeiao. Ec?aeeueoyiai auea i?aaeinoaaeaia
aeey aeeoaeuenoaa iaeanoue Aioai, eee Aanai, ia ainoiea ieeueneie
Aeaeueou, eioi?ay neaaeeanue naieie iaoe?iuie eoaaie; oai iau/ii ianee
noaaea, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea aeai?oeiaiio oicyenoao. *anoue oea?neiai neioa
auea ia?aaeaia a aaaeaiea i?eoaeueoeaa, e iie, oaeei ia?acii, auee
i?eiyou ia ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao.

Oaeay ieeinoue ii ioiioaieth e /oaeacaioeai eiaea, niaeanii Aeaeee, e
iaeioi?ua iniaua i?e/eiu. A yoe aiaeu ia?aui ieieno?ii oa?aiia aue
ec?aeeueoyiei ii eiaie Eineo.

Ii i?aaeaieth, Eineo aue i?iaeai naieie a?aoueyie iaeanoeineei eoioeai e
iinea ?yaea ae?aiaoe/aneeo ia?eiaoee iiiae ei aeai?o, aaea aue aicianai
ia naioth aa?oeio nioeeaeueiie eanoieoeu. Yoa aieiaie?oaeeoaeueiay
ea?uea?a /aeiaaea ec ia?iaea, aea aaeiaaaie /oaeacaioea, aa?iyoii, auea
oa?aeoa?ia aeey yiioe ainiiaenoaa aceaoneie aeeianoee.

Eiaaea canooa e aieiae i?eaaee ec?aeeueoyi e a?aieoeai Aaeioa, Eineo
naeaeae ana, /oiau iie iiaee iinaeeoueny ia ianoaeuao oa?aiia.

Iu eaaei iiaeai i?aaenoaaeoue naaa yoio ?oaaaeiue iiiaio a enoi?ee
Ec?aeey.

*oaeeie, aaccaueoiuie, caa?ioaiiuie a aieueoii a?aaeaeaaiii ie?a
aeieaeiu auee /oanoaiaaoue naay ec?aeeueoyia, aia?aua anooiay ia
aaeiaoneoth caieth. Ii iie aa?eee, /oi aeaaineiaaiea Aiaa, Aiaa eo
iooeia, i?aauaaao ia ieo, /oi iac?eiue Aeoo iaa?aaaao e aaaeao eo. Yoo
aa?o iie naycuaaee n Aa?aaiii, i?aaeaiey i eioi?ii ia?aaeaaaeenue ec
iieieaiey a iieieaiea.

?en. 33

Iieeiiaiea oa?aiia Yoiaoiia Nieioeo. ?aeueao ec o?aia a Aoaoaoiia.
Ia/aei XIV a. aei ?.O.

Caacaeiuie ii/aie, neaey o aoiaeia a naie oao?u, iie neooaee ?anneacu ia
Aa?aaia e aai nuiiaueyo, ia eo aieineeo iiaeaeaao, no?ainoaeyo, ia eo
ethaae, niia?ie/anoaa e ae?oaeaa. Oi auee a?aiaia, eiaaea iaaiaeeoaee
/anoi iinauaee ethaeae, eiaaea iiaeii auei aeaeaoue eanoieoeo, ii
eioi?ie iie nioneaeenue ia caieth.

__________________________________________________________________

‘ A ae?aaiaaa?aeneii ?iaeiaii no?ia auaeaeyeenue: «aao-aa» — naiuey,
«ieo-iaoa» — ?iae, eeai e, iaeiiaoe, «na-aao» — a?oiia eeaiia, eee
eieaii.

Aiaeanoaaiiia Nieioea.

«A?aoee ec Aoaoaoiia»

Aaeiao, ie. 1580-1406 aa. aei ?.O.

Ana aaeeeea aea?aeaau, nicaeaiiua eeoue neeie i?oaeey, ?aii eee iicaeii
ieacuaathony iai?i/iuie e ?aniaaeathony. Yoa o/anoue aeaeaea e oea?noai
aee-nia. Iii iinoaiaiii neaaaei e oa?yei eiio?ieue iaae caaiaaaiiuie
iaeanoyie. Iieoiacaaeneiua oea?e Oeaaeaeu — THaeiiai Aaeioa —
eniiaeaieue niae?aee neeu aeey oiai, /oiau aunooieoue i?ioea aeenia.

Oaia?ue o aaeioyi, eae e o aeenia, auee aiaaua eieanieoeu. Aaeioyia
iieiinoueth onaieee aiaiioth oaeoeeo aeenia, e a 1578 a. aei ?.O. ia
aceaoia aeaeioeinue oaea aiooeoaeueiia aienei, iiiai/eneaiiia e
aeenoeeieeie?iaaiiia. Iiae aai oaea?aie aeenu iieeioee naith noieeoeo e
ionooieee ia ainoie. Iiaaaea ie?ueeea aaeioyi: ianoae eo /a?aae,
aeenneia aeaaeu/anoai i?eaaei e aaeiaoneie yeniainee.

Iinea oii?iie o?aoeaoiae inaaeu aue acyo Oa?ooai — iineaaeiyy e?aiinoue
aeenia. N?aaee oieiia e aeieei Ne?ee iiyaeythony aiaaua eieanieoeu
oa?aiiia, ?aoueony ia naaa?.

Aaeiao noaiiaeony eiia?eae, a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeyo iiiai/eneaiiua
ia?iaeu Ao?eee e Acee. Iianthaeo auee iinoaaeaiu aaeiaoneea i?aaeoaee e
aa?iua Aaeioo oocaiiua oea?e. Iaeaeoaa nii?ioeaeaiea i?eaiaeeei e
aeanoieeie ?ani?aaai. Oae ai?ueaa Aaeioa ca iaoeeiiaeueioth naiaiaeo
i?aa?aoeeanue a ii?aaiuaiea ia?iaeia.

N aicauoaieai Oea aic?inei cia/aiea oe-aaineiai aiaaA-iiia. Yoio ianoiue
aia aue ioiaeaeanoaeai ae?aoeaie n aiaii ?a, o. a. aicaaaeai a ?aia
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaeanoaa. Oeaaineea ae?aoeu noaee ieacuaaoue
iuooeiia aeeyiea ia iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue.

Ainiiaenoai iaoeeiiaeueiie ?aeeaee eacaeinue aac?acaeaeueiui. Any no?aia
— io oa?aiia aei iineaaeiaai e?anoueyieia eee ?aaa — auea i?iieeiooa aa
aeooii. E ieeoi ia iia iaeeaeaoue, /oi ia/aei iyoaaeo i?ioea
aiaa-o?eoioaoi?a aoaeao iieiaeaii a oea?neii aeai?oea, a aeiia
«aicethaeaiiiai nuia Aiiia».

Enoi?ey Aaeioa ia ciaao aieaa i?ioeai?a/eaie e neiaeiie oeao?u, /ai
oea?ue-?aoi?iaoi? Aiaioioai IV (1424-1406 aa. aei ?.O.) Ia aoaeao
i?aoaaee/aieai neacaoue, /oi Aiaioioai aue /aeiaaeii aiaaoi iaea?aiiui,
anee ia aaieaeueiui. Ieeoi ec ioae?uo ae?aoeia e yniiaeaeoeaa Aaeioa ia
aea?cioe n oaeie ?aoeoaeueiinoueth ainnoaoue i?ioea iiiaiaiaeey e
iaae/aneeo aa?iaaiee. A yiioo e?iaaauo aiei e oie/oiaeaiey iiei?aiiuo
ia?iaeia ii i?iaicaeanee ?aaainoai anao ieaiai e no?ai ia?aae Aiaii.

Oa?aii oaeaeee io naay anao i?eaa?aeaioeaa noa?uo eoeueoia; oaia?ue aai
ie?oaeaee ia ae?aoeu e a?enoie?aou, a oieueei aaeeiiiuoeaiieee. Ii
iuouae naay i?i?ieii Nieioea, i?iiiaaaeieeii iiaie enoeiiie ?aeeaee,
aa?oiaiui ae?aoeii aunoaai aaeeiiai Aiaa, aeeaui aiieiuaieai eioi?iai
yaeyaony nieia/iue aeene — aoii. AEaia oea?y, Iaoa?oeoe, i/aaeaeii,
oeaeeeii ?acaeaeyea aai acaeyaeu.

?en. 34

Aieiaa oea?eoeu Iaoa?oeoe. Ia?aay iieiaeia XIV a. aei ?.O.

?en. 35

Aieiaa Yoiaoiia. Ia/aei XIV a. aei ?.O.

A ciae iieiiai ?ac?uaa n i?ioeui oea?ue eciaiyao e naia eiy. Ioiuia ii
aoaeao ia Aiaioioaiii, aYoiaoiiii, /oi cia/eo «Oaiaeiue Nieioeo». Ii
i?eeacuaaao iianthaeo eno?aaeyoue nayuaiiua neiaieu e iaaeiene.
Auneaaeeaatho ia oieueei eiy Aiiia, ii e neiai «aiae». Cai?auathony ana
caa?iiiaeiaiua e /aeiaaeiiiaeiaiua eaeieu, cae?uaathony o?aiu aiaia.
Noieeoea Aaeioa ia?aiineony ec Oea a ai?iae, aicieeathuee ia ionoii
ianoa ii caiuneo oea?y-?aoi?iaoi?a, — Aoaoaoii, «Iaaineeii Nieioea».

Oaea/aiiue naieie i?aia?aciaaieyie, i?aneaaeoaiue iaeieie e oaie aea
iuneyie, oea?ue, aiciiaeii, ieioi neaaeee ca niauoeyie. Aa?iyoii, e a
ethaeyo ii ?acae?aeny iaaeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi. Aai iinoaiaiii ie?oaeeee
eaeeaua ie/oiaeanoaa, oeo?ua aunei/ee, eioi?ua iaia?aaie ainoaaeyee
«o/aiea oea?y», ona?aenoaiaaee a neoaeaiee iiaiio aiaeanoao e oai
i?eia?aoaee aeiaa?ea oa?aiia.

Oia? Yoiaoii iieiaeui, ia ainaiiaaeoeaoii aiaeo naiaai oea?noaiaaiey.
Ia?aae nia?oueth ii, aa?iyoii, iniciae iaoaea/o naiaai aeaea. O iaai ia
auei ie nuiiaae, ie yiooceanoia-i?iaeieaeaoaeae.

?en. 36

Eiinneee aeai?aoe. Ieaeiee y?on naaoiaiai eieiaeoea. E?eo. XVI a. aei
?.O.

?en. 37

Aiaeiy ni ciayie.

Ec nie?iaeuieoeu Eiinneiai aeai?oea. E?eo.

1700-1600 aa. aei ?.O.

O?aaaaeey Yoiaoiia caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi, ioeacaaoenue io iaae/aneeo
aa?iaaiee, ii ia ioeacaeny io eo ieiaea — iaiaeanoaeaiey aeanoe. Ii
iieaaae, /oi aeinoaoi/ii iaeiiai aai neiaa, /oiau «enoeia»
ainoi?aeanoaiaaea. Ii i?iiiaaaeue aa?u, eiaaea iia aaaeaony n o?iia, ia
iiaeao iaeoe ianoiyuaai ioeeeea a na?aeoeao. Iaa?aaeu e oa?icu
aiaeanoaaiiiai aeanoeoaey — aio e /aio naiaeeeanue oaeay i?iiiaaaeue. E
ana aea Yoiaoii ia iiaeao ia auoue iai aeecie eae /aeiaae, ioaaaeeaoeeny
iinyaiooue ia ie? aiaia, /aeiaae, iuooeaoee aeeaia aeuoaiea Aaeeiiai.

Oaeia Eaae?eioa

Ino?ia E?eo, ie. 1600-1400 aa. aei ?.O.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n iiyaeaieai ia enoi?e/aneii ai?eciioa a?ueaa e
naieoe/aneeo ieaiai ia naaa?a Aaeeaineiai iieoino?iaa ia/aeinue
ia?anaeaiea aoaeoeaa — i?aaeeia a?a/aneiai ia?iaea. Eo ia?aaeaeaeaiea ia
tha aeeeeinue ianeieueei aaeia. Aio i?aaeoanoaiaaei onoaiiaeaiea a
thaeiie /anoe iieoino?iaa aeanoe e?eoyi. Eoeueoo?a E?eoa ieacaea
aiineaaenoaee ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ca?iaeaeaaoothny a?a/aneoth eoeueoo?o,
e iiyoiio, i?aaeaea /ai aiai?eoue i a?aeao, iu aeieaeiu inoaiiaeoueny ia
eo i?aaeoanoaaiieeao, e?eoyiao1.

Ino?ia E?eo i?aaenoaaeye niaie eae au iino iaaeaeo Aa?iiie e Aceae.

Oaea ieiei 2000 a. aei ?.O. ia E?eoa aicieeee ia?aua ainoaea?noaa. Iie
auee eciee?iaaiu ae?oa io ae?oaa ai?aie, e eeoue /a?ac ianeieueei
aeanyoeeaoee i?iecioei eo iauaaeeiaiea.

A naieo i?aaeaieyo a?aee ?anneacuaaee, /oi E?eo iauaaeeieeny a i?aaeaiea
aeanoieiai oea?y Ieiina.

Oea?e aeeianoee Ieiina ia aiyeenue caaiaaaoaeae e ia no?ieee i?eii?neeo
oe?aieaiee. A?iciue oeio a aaaaiyo ino?iaa aue nai ii naaa iaaeaaeiie
noaiie. Aea e nai Eaae?eio aue ia ooaea ethaie e?aiinoe. Aia?aua yoi
i?e/oaeeeaia nii?oaeaiea auei iino?iaii ieiei 2000 a. aei ?.O. Eao /a?ac
aeaanoe aai ?ac?ooeei caieao?ynaiea, ii iii auei niiaa ainnoaiiaeaii. Ia
iaeiie ec o?anie yoiai aeai?oea iu aeaeei e naiiai oea?y. Aai oeao?a
auaeaeyaony ia aaa?yiii oiia. Yoi aoeaoe/anee neiaeaiiue iieiaeie
/aeiaae aac ai?iaeu, n aeeeiiuie, ii/oe aei iiyna, aieienouie aieinaie.
*oi ii aeaeaao? Eaeie iiiaio aai oea?noaaiiie aeecie oioae caia/aoeaoue
ooaeiaeiee? Oea?ue nooiaao n?aaee aunieeo, iioiaeeo ia naoa?iue o?inoiee
?anoaiee, iaae eioi?uie eaoatho aaai/ee. Iaeia ?oea aai i?eaeaoa e
a?oaee, ae?oaay ioaaaeaia aeaeaei iacaae. *oi yoi? Oea?ue ia iieaauo
?aaioao? Ii aaea aea oiaaea eina eee ei?ceia n ca?iii? Eo iao. Ia?aae
iaie neiaiee/aneia aeaenoai.

Aeanoaeei E?eoa ia naao e ia aeiao. Ii eieoe?oao o?oae naieie
aeaeaeaieyie. Ii iauaio iiaieth o/aiuo, yoi ecia?aaeaiea iaae/aneiai
?eooaea. Iiaeiaii ao?eeaineei eieaeoiai e oa?aiiai Aaeioa, yoio
oea?ue-ae?aoe, aeeaouee n?aaee ?ineioe a Eaae?eioa, ie?oaeaiiue a?ieae
iineooiuo ?aaia, ia ei?ioeia a?aiy eae au i?aa?auaaony a e?anoueyieia.
Ii niaa?oaao eieaeianeie ia?yae, eioi?ue i?eianao ieiaei?iaeea caiea.

*aeiaae anaaaea eneae c?eiiai aiieiuaiey aunoeo nee. Yoa aeaaeaea
ii?iaeeea oea?ae-aiaia Aaeioa e Aeeaaea, iia ie?oaeeea aieoaaiui i?aieii
e aeeianoeth Ieiina; ionthaea eaeao i?yiay eeiey /a?ac nia?oaineeo
oea?ae e «aaeeeiio ia?ainayuaiieeo», eae eiaiiaaeny ?eineee eiia?aoi?.
Yoe i?aaenoaaeaiey aeeee e a n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iia. Aeinoaoi/ii
aniiiieoue, /oi o?aioeocneee ei?ieue eiae «ianeaaenoaaiiue aea?
enoeaeaiey». Yoa eeiey oyiaony aei iaoaai a?aiaie, oioy e i?aoa?iaaaao
nouanoaaiiua aiaoiea eciaiaiey. Neaiay aa?a ia?iaeia a aaiee naieo
aiaeaeae, aeoaieia e anaiauaa oaaaeaeaiea, /oi iie aeaeyo ana e aaaeoo
iauanoai e i?ioeaaoaieth, — yoi ia/aeueiia yaeaiea XX noieaoey ooiaeeo
naieie ei?iyie a oa ioaeaeaiiua a?aiaia, eiaaea ethaee aa?eee, /oi io
aiee oea?ae-ae?aoeia caaenyo ieiaei?iaeea caiee e aeaaiiieo/ea ia?iaea.

?en. 38

Aieiaa i?i?eoeaoaey.

Noaooy ainoi/iiai o?iioiia o?aia Caana. Ieeiiey. 460 a. aei ?.O.
Aeaoaeue

Ieiei 1400 a. aei ?.O. aoaeoeu aoi?aeenue ia E?eo e ia?aciaaee oai
ainoaea?noai n oeaio?ii a Ieeaineie e?aiinoe, ii yoi ia icia/aei aeaaee
ieiinneie eoeueoo?u. Ia ?acaaeeiao ieiinneie oeeaeeecaoeee ?anoeaaea
eoeueoo?a ae?aaiae Yeeaaeu.

____________________________________________________________

1 Iaoeie onoaiiaeaii, /oi e?eoi-ieeaineay eoeueoo?a, i eioi?ie caeanue
eaeao ?a/ue, auea a?oae/aneie a?a/aneie eoeueoo?ie.

?en. 39

Nia?aiea aiaia

(Aa?a, Aa?ian, Aoeia, Caan, Aaieiaae, Ao?iaeeoa, A?an).

?inienue eeeeea. Oa?eaeiey.

Ieiei 510 a. aei ?.O.

Oo?i Yeeaaeu. Ieeiieeoeu.

A?aoeey aei 1400 a. aei ?.O.

A?a/aneea ieaiaia ia?anaeeeenue ia Aaeeaiu ieiei 2000 a. aei ?.O., a y?o
aaeeeeo naieoe/aneeo e eiaeiaa?iiaeneeo iea?aoeee. I?eoee iie ec oao
caiaeue, aaea iaeoaee i?aaeee a?ueaa, e?aioeaa, oaooia, aeaoiy iooyie:
/a?ac naaa?iua ai?iua aei?iae e /a?ac ino?iaa Yaaeneiai ii?y aoi?aeenue
yeeeiu ia Iaeiiiiian e a Oannaeeth. Oioy aei ian ii/oe ia aeioei
eaaaiae, naycaiiuo n yoei a?aiaiai, i/aaeaeii, /oi nia/aea oocaioeu
ieacaee a?aeai io/ayiiia nii?ioeaeaiea. Eoi aea auee yoe oocaioeu? *oi
iie ia i?eiaaeeaaeaee e yeeeineei ieaiaiai, — yoi, eaaeaony, iiieiaee e
naie a?aee, iacuaaaoea eo iaeanaaie.

Ia iooe a?a/aneeo ia?anaeaioeaa auei aeaa noa?eiiuo nayoeeeua:
aeaeueoeeneia e aeiaeiineia. A Aeiaeiia, o ia?iiiiai noieaoiaai aeoaa,
caeeeiaoaee aii?ioaee eaeia-oi ae?aaiaa iaeanaeeneia aiaeanoai. Oaeano
eenoueaa e iio?aneeaaiea aaoaae neoaeeee ioaaoii, eioi?ue enoieeiauaaee
caeeeiaoaee. A?aee ia oie/oiaeeee yoiai nayoeeeua.

I?aeoe a Aeaeueoao aue iinayuai Aiaeia-Iaoa?e. Ii iaoiaeeeny a ?oeao
i?i?eoeaoaeueieoe, eioi?ua, i?eoiaey a ninoiyiea ennooieaiey, i?i?aeaee
aieth aiaeanoaa.

Oioy yeeeiu iiae/eieee naaa iaeanaia e ae?oaea ianoiua ieaiaia, iie
aeieaia a?aiy auee aanneeueiu ia?aae ieiinneie aea?aeaaie, aeanoeoaee
eioi?ie auee oicyaaaie ii?ae, a yeeeiu anaaaea eniuouaaee ia?aae ii?neie
noeoeae noaaa?iue no?ao.

Ii, ianiio?y ia yoi, aoaeoeu a eiioea eiioeia ana-oaee noaee
ii?aieaaaoaeyie. E i?aaeaea anaai iaianee oaea? aiaiiiio iiaouanoao
ieiinneie aea?aeaau. Ieiei 1400 a. aei ?.O. a?a/aneea ei?aaee
iieacaeenue o aa?aaia E?eoa. Aeaaeu/anoao Eaae?eioa i?eoae eiiaoe.
Ioiuia E?eo, a naith i/a?aaeue, noae iaeiie ec a?a/aneeo i?iaeioeee.

Aoaeoeu naeaeaee a?aiaeeicioth iiiuoeo ia oieueei iieeoe/anee
ainoi?aeanoaiaaoue iaae anae Yaaeaeie, ii e aeooiaii inaiaiaeeoueny io
e?eoi-iaeanae/aneiai aeeyiey. Aoaeneea oea?e auee ia” eieaeoiaie, eae ia
E?eoa, a ieaiaiiuie aiaeaeyie, aeaeeaoeie aeanoue iaae eeaiaie n
aiaia/aeueieeaie e noa?aeoeiaie.

?en. 40

Iae.

Cieioay iiiaoa. Iaioeeaiae. 350-320 aa. aei ?.O.

Aiaeanoaa ioaeaeueiuo eeaiia e ianoiinoae — ieeiieeoeu, anaaaea
iuneeeenue eae niaa?oaiii iainiaeaiiua nouanoaa. Iie ie/ai ia iaiiieiaee
eiaeeeneee iaioaii1, eioi?ue aue, nei?aa, iiiaeie eeeaie Aaeeiiai.
Caeanue neacaeenue iniaaiiinoe a?a/aneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai iuoeaiey; iii
ai?acaei eaa/a aini?eieiaei eiie?aoiia, eciee?iaaiiia, /ai iauaa e
aaeeiia. Auoue iiaeao, ecaanoioth ?ieue ea?aei caeanue i?e?iaeiia
ie?oaeaiea. Naieo oi?ie?iaae naia aiaiiiciaiea ia oiia iie/aeeaie
ionouie, eiaeeaoe — a oea?noaa o?iieeia, aaea ana nieaoaeinue a aaeeioth
iiiaieeeoth e iiiaiaieinoth noeoeth. Ai?eciio aea a?aea aue anaaaea
ia?aie/ai ai?iuie o?aaoaie; any aai no?aia auea iioiaea ia naoue
eciee?iaaiiuo ie?eia, io?acaiiuo ae?oa io ae?oaa oieiaie, neaeaie,
caeeaaie. Iiyoiio aoaaoe aue neeiiai ii/eoaoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
ianoiia aiaeanoai, a aiaeanoai ninaaea eacaeinue aio oaeei aea
iacaaeneiui, eae e aai ?iaeiay aeieeia, io?acaiiay io ae?oaeo.

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‘ Iaioaii (a?a/. «iiiaiaiaeea») — ana aiae, ii/eoaaiua a eaeie-eeai
ycu/aneie ?aeeaee.

Ai?ueaa aiaia e oeoaiia

A?aoeey iaaeaeo 1400-1200 aa. aei ?.O.

Iiyaeaiea Caana e ieeiieeneeo aiaia ia auei i?inoie caiaiie i?e?iaeiuo,
ooiie/aneeo1 aiaeanoa aiaeanoaaie ieaiaiiuie. Iiaue iaioaii ciaiaiiaae
aaaeiaeoee yoai a?a/aneie ?aeeaeiciie enoi?ee. ?acoi a ia?aca
niaa?oaiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaa caneye n?aaee eeoayueony oo/
ia?aiauoiie ii/e. Aia eaco?iiai neyiey, aia, iiaeiaiue iieiee,
i?iiecuaathuae i?ae, yaeyaony a eeoea «i?iiuneeoaey Caana». Yoi
?iaeaeaiea iiaiai, aieaa i?inaaoeaiiiai «ae?aaiaai» ?aeeaeiciiai
niciaiey caia/aoeaeinue a ciaiaieoii ieoa i Oeoaiiiaoee — ai?ueaa aiaia
e oeoaiia. A niciaiee aoaeoeaa niaa?oeeny ia?aoiae io ooiie/aneiai,
i?e?iaeii-noeoeeiiai e ?acoiiiio, /aeiaa/ii-aa?iiie/iiio aiaiiiieiaieth.

?en. 41

Aieiaa Caana. Io?eeieue. IV a. aei ?.O.

Aaee/aeoaa anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea Caaniaie ?aeeaee
caeeth/aeinue, i?aaeaea anaai, a i?iaicaeaoaiee i?eiaoa naaoa, ?acoia e
aa?iiiee iaae oueiie, e??aoeeiiaeueiinoueth e oainii. A yoii ioiioaiee
iia i?yiay i?aaeoanoaaiieoea o/aiey i Eiaina eae ?acoiiii oai?/aneii
ia/aea ai Anaeaiiie. Ii aei iiyaeaiey yoiai o/aiey auei aua aeaeaei.
Eiaecio a a?a/aneii niciaiee i?aaeoanoaiaae aio?iiiii?oeci2. A
ieeiieeoeao /aeiaa/aneia ia/aei auei eaeaaeece?iaaii e aicaaaeaii a
einie/aneee i?eioeei. Yoi auei ia?iiiui oaaii aia?aae, ii iaeiia?aiaiii
oaeei e aieueooth iianiinoue. Oaaaeuaay a Aiaeanoaaiiii ?acoiiia ia/aei,
aoaeoeu i?eaianee a iaai ana iiiaiia?acea /enoi /aeiaa/aneie
ia?aie/aiiinoe e /enoi /aeiaa/aneeo neaainoae.

Eo aeeaie, iiaeaeaeiue oi, neeiiiue e thii?o e nicaeaieth e?ani/iuo
ea?oei, ia iia oaea?aeaoueny io eneooaiey ?eniaaoue aeeciue aiaia ii
ia?aco aaniieieiie e ?acaoeueiie aeecie naieo ?acaieieeia – aiaaou?ae.

Iniaaiii na?ueaciui iaaeinoaoeii Caaniaa iaioaiia auei ionoonoaea yniuo
yoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia. N aeoaieie ia?aiauoiie ae?aaiinoe yoeea oea ?oea
ia ?oeo n ?aeeaeae. I?aanoaaiiue aea eaeaae ieeiieeoeaa aue ianoieueei
oaoie, /oi oaea /a?ac ianeieueei iieieaiee aucuaae i?ioanou e ianiaoee o
naieo a?aeia.

?en. 42

Ninia ia aeoa?a Caana. Ia?aai

A no?aiao Ainoiea ?aeeaeiciua ioe?iaaiey enoiaeeee anaaaea ec n?aaeu
aeooiaiie yeeou. Yaaeneee aea ie? aeieaia a?aiy aeee eeoue ianniaui
?aeeaeiciui niciaieai. Aeoo iaaee i?iiecae aioe/ioth ?aeeaeth e ia?aaeee
naieo ieeiieeoeaa.

A ieeaineoth yiioo i?ienoiaeeo iacaiaoiue iiai?io e iaae/aneiio
iiieiaieth iieeoau e aea?oau. Ia/eiaao ?acaeaaoueny einoeooo ae?a/anoaa.
I?aaaea, a A?aoeee ae?aoeu ieeiaaea ia ninoaaeyee iiaouanoaaiiie
ei?ii?aoeee, eae, iai?eia?, a Aaeioa. Ii cia/aiea eo iinoaiaiii
aic?anoaei. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie yeeeineeo ae?aoeia auei oi, /oi
iie ii/oe anaaaea inoaaaeenue «neoaeeoaeyie eoeueoa» a naiii oceii
niunea yoiai neiaa. Anee aaeiaoneia aeooiaainoai auei n?aaeie, a eioi?ie
eoeueoeae?iaaeenue aiaineianeay iuneue, iaaeeoeeia, iaoaiaoeea, anee
ec?aeeueneia aeooiaainoai ai?ieinue ca i?aanoaaiiia ainieoaiea ia?iaea,
oi a?a/aneea ae?aoeu auee ii i?aeiouanoao ono?ieoaeyie
aea?oaii?eiioaiee.

Ieaaea ia auei oae ?acaeoi eneonnoai i?aaeneacaiey, eae a aioe/iii ie?a.
I?aeoeu e aaaeaoaee auee iaeciaiiuie niooieeaie aeecie e oea?ae, e
e?anoueyi, e aieiia, e oi?aiaoeaa. Eeth/ e oieeiaaieth oaeinoaaiiie aiee
aiaia aeaeaee e a niao, e a iieaoa ioeoe.

Iaaeci, eae i?aaeei, iinthnoi?iiai. Yoi ie?iaicc?aiea aeaeaao
iaeaieueoee oii? ia yoie aeecie, n/eoaao aunoei aeaaii aiaaonoai,
caei?iauea, aeaaiiieo/ea. Oaeia iaoaienoe/aneia ie?iiiieiaiea — aioeiiae
aeooiaiiai, ienoe/aneiai; iii aeoaiei iaoa?eaeenoe/ii a naiai
iinoeaeaiee oeaiiinoae auoey. E anee a iaeioi?uo eoeueoo?ao, i?iieeioouo
iaae/aneeie yeaiaioaie, eae, iai?eia?, a aaeiaoneie, e nouanoaiaaea
aeeaay aa?a a caa?iaiue ie?, oi ii ?eniaaeny oi/iie eiieae ie?a caiiiai.

________________________________________________________________________

1 Ooiie/aneea (io a?a/. iacaaiey caiee) aiaeanoaa — aiae iaaa, caiee,
ii?y e o. ae., iau/ii n/eoathueany a ycu/anoaa iaeaieaa ae?aaieie,
«ia?ae/iuie» aiaeanoaaie.

2 Aio?iiiii?oeci (io a?a/. «aio?iiin» — /aeiaae e «ii?oy» — oi?ia) —
oiiaeiaeaiea /aeiaaeo.

Ia?iae Caaaoa

«Aeii ?aanoaa». Iienae

Aaeiao, ie. 1300-1230 aa. aei ?.O.

Ia enoi?eth neeoeii /anoi niio?yo eae ia anoanoaaiii-i?e?iaeiia yaeaiea
e iiyoiio aeoiatho, /oi a iae ii?aaeaeaiiua i?e/eiu iaecaaaeii aeieaeiu
i?iecaiaeeoue niioaaonoaothuea neaaenoaey. Iaeiaei anee a ie?a
oece/aneeo yaeaiee iu aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaai aeaei n oaeeie iacuaeaiuie
caeiiiia?iinoyie, oi a enoi?ee eiiaaea iiaeao i?iecieoe ia/oi niaa?oaiii
iai?aaeaeaeaiiia, i?ioeai?a/auaa anaio, eiaaoaio ianoi aei neo ii?.
Iaaeyaeiui i?eia?ii oiio iiaoo neoaeeoue noaeueau ?aeeaee Aaeeiiaiaeey.

Ii/oe /aou?a noieaoey iaeoaee ieaiaia Aaia-En?ayey ia caaiei/aiiuo eoaao
Aanaia. Ia iieyo Aanaia a?iaeeee ianiaoiua noaaea, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea
Aieueoiio Aeiio1. Ec?aeeueoyia auee iaycaiu neaaeeoue ca ieie,
ia?aaiiyoue eo ia iiaua ianoaeua, aeieeaaeuaaoue aaeiaoneei /eiiaieeai
ia eo ninoiyiee e /eneaiiinoe, i?aaieciauaaoue iinoaaee neioa aeey
ioaeae aeai?a. Oae auei i?e aee-nao. Auoue iiaeao, yoi iieiaeaiea
nio?aieeinue e i?e iiaie aeeianoee.

Oaa?aaee ee aeeoaee Aanaia naia aaeeinoaaiiia aeooiaiia ianeaaeea —
ae?aaithth aa?o i?aaeeia? Oi, /oi i?aaeaiey ia Aa?aaia e iao?ea?oao
aeioee aei neaaeothueo iieieaiee, iiaeao neoaeeoue einaaiiui
aeieacaoaeuenoaii oiai, /oi ec?aeeueoyia ia oo?aoeee iaiyoe i
?aeeaeiciii Ioe?iaaiee, aeaiiii eo i?aiooeo.

Iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou ycu/anoaa ana aea i?iieeee a eo ?aeeaeth. Io?aiyy
naie noaaea, ec?aeeueoyia aiyeenue a?aaea, eioi?ue iiaee i?eianoe aeooe
ionouie. A eo i?aaenoaaeaiee yoe no?aoiua nouanoaa, ceiaiua e
inoeoaeueiua, ne?uaaeenue ca aieioaie e ianueaee aieacie e nia?oue. Iie
?eniaaeenue aiia?aaeaieth ec?aeeueoyi a aeaea naoe?iiiaeiaiuo aeaiiiia;
eo oea?ai aue eiceieeeee aia Acacae2. *oiau oaa?a/ue naay io yoeo
?iaaouo i?ec?aeia, ianoooe ona?aeii caaeaa?eaaee eo, i?eiiny aea?oau e
ia?aaeaeaynue caeeeiaieyie.

*anoue ec?aeeueoyi noaea ia?aoiaeeoue e inaaeeiio ia?aco aeecie.
Aa?iyoii, o ieo iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea e ienueiaiiinoue.

?en. 43

Ai?a Neiae

Eae au ie auee aeaeaee ec?aeeueoyia io aaeiaoneeo aeae, iieiaeaiea a
no?aia ia iiaei ia einiooueny eo. Anei?a iinea iieeoe/aneiai oiaaeea,
naycaiiiai n «a?aoeeii ec Aoaoaoiia», ia/aeny iiaue, e iineaaeiee,
iiaeuai Aaeioa. Niiaa aienea oa?aiia aeaeioeenue a Iaeanoeio. Ia/aeenue
oneeaiiua no?ieoaeueiua ?aaiou. Ianoooia Aanaia i?eaiaee ia no?ieee e
canoaaeee oanaoue eaiie, aeaeaoue ee?ie/e e oaneaoue oyaeanoe. Oae
eii/eeny niieieiue ia?eiae aeecie Aaia-En?ayey, e nuiu aai ieacaeenue a
«Aeiia ?aanoaa».

A ia?iaeiie iaiyoe yoa ii?a caia/aoeaeanue eae aiaoouee eioia?. Iniaaiii
oyaeaei i?eoeinue ec?aeeueoyiai, eiaaea ia i?anoie anooiee ?ainan II
(1301-1334 aa. aei ?.O.).

?ainan aue ?iaeii ec Ieaeiaai Aaeioa, Aeaeueoa auea iinoiyiiie aai
?aceaeaioeeae, e ii ?aoee iino?ieoue oai aieueoie oe?aieaiiue ai?iae.

Anee i?aaeoaee, iao/aiiua ai?ueeei iiuoii ainnoaiee e aanii?yaeeia,
no?aieeenue naeaeaoue aeey oocaioeaa ?aaioo ia noieue ecio?eoaeueiie, oi
aeey ?aaia e eii?iaeoeaa, eaeeie auee ec?aeeueoyia, iiuaaeu ia auei.

?en. 44

Noaooy oa?aiia ?ainana II. XIII a. aei ?.O.

Naiaiaeiua ianoooe, ec?aeeueoyia ia i?eaueee e iiaeiaaieueiiio o?oaeo a
ai?iaeao. Ecaanoii, n eaeie auno?ioie oatho iaaieueoea ia?iaeu, eiaaea
iaoiieeiua caeiiu «oeeaeeeciaaiiiai ie?a» a?oai aoi?aathony a eo
aeeciue. N oaeanii noaee aeiaaaeuaaoueny ec?aeeueneea ?aau, /oi
iaiineeueiay aa?ueia, iaeiaeaiiay ia ieo oa?aiiii, noaaeo eiia/iie
oeaeueth enei?aiaiea eo ieaiaie. Oae iaanaaaea ia?ooeeinue aaciyoaaeiia
nouanoaiaaiea iinaeaioeaa Aanaia. I?eoaniaiey iau/ii neoaeao niei/aieth
aiieiuo. Iiae aeeyieai aeanoieiai oaiaoaiey o ec?aeeueoyi i?inioeinue
iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiniciaiea. Iie aniiiieee, /oi iie eeoue i?eoaeueoeu a
aaeiaoneie caiea, /oi eo i?aaeee iaeiaaea i?eoee nthaea n Ainoiea.
Oaia?ue iie n oineie aeyaeaee ooaea, aaea ca O?inoieeiaui ii?ai e
Ai?ueeeie ica?aie aeeee eo naiaiaeiua a?aouey. Ii aaea iiaeii auei iaeoe
nianaiea? A Oaiaaia? Ii iaoiaeeeny a ?oeao aaeiaoneeo noaaeaiieeia.
Aeaeueoa ia naaa?, e oaooai? Ii n ieie oa?aii caeeth/ee aeiaiai?,
niaeanii eioi?iio oaooneee oea?ue iaycaeny auaeaaaoue Aaeioo anao
aaaeaoeia. Inoaaaeny oieueei Neiaeneee iieoino?ia, aai aeeeea e no?iaua
ai?u, aai aacaiaeiua ionouie. Ii io iaeiie iunee i ieo iaeoaoaeae
aeaaeiie Aeaeueou ioaaouaae oaean.

Iaeiaaeaeu n?aaee ec?aeeueoyi ?ani?ino?aieeny neoo i iaecaanoiuo
aaeoaoi?ao, eioi?ua iiyaeyeenue oi ia no?ieeao, oi n?aaee iinaeaioeaa
Aanaia, i?ecuaay ia?iae iieeiooue «Aeii ?aanoaa» e eaeoe a ionouith
iieeiieoueny Aiao Aa?aaia, Aiao iooeia. Ethaee yoe i?eiaaeeaaeaee e
eaaeoai — ec?aeeueneiio ieaiaie, oanii naycaiiiio n aaeioyiaie; o iiiaeo
ec ieo auee aaeiaoneea eiaia. Aaeiaoneei auei e eiy eo aiaeaey Iano, eee
Iienay, eioi?ue aeaaea aiaoia aue iioiae ia aaeioyieia.

Oae iiyaeyaony ia enoi?e/aneie a?aia /aeiaae, n eiaiai eioi?iai naycaii
i?ienoiaeaeaiea aaooicaaaoiie ?aeeaee.

Enoi?ey Iienay auea caienaia aia?aua eeoue a O a. aei ?.O. I?aaeaea iia
eacaeanue enoi?eeai oeaeeeii nioeaiiie ec eaaaiae, ii a iineaaenoaee
noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi a iniiaiuo /a?oao ana ?anneacaiiia i iai Aeaeeae
auaea?aeeaaao y?eee naao enoi?e/aneie e?eoeee.

?en. 45

Eieinnu ?ainana II. Aao-Neiaae. XIV a. aei ?.O.

Ii naiaio ainieoaieth Iienae aue naycai n Aaeioii. O?oaeii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oiau i?aaeaiea eciuneeei yoo aeaoaeue. Aeaeey aiai?eo,
/oi, aoaeo/e auoiaeoeai ec aaeiaoneie n?aaeu, aoaeouee aiaeaeue Ec?aeey
ia caaue, iaeiaei, naiaai aceaoneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Eiaaea ii oaeaeae,
eae ia no?ieea aaeiaoneee iaaece?aoaeue ecaeaaao ec?aeeueoyieia, ii a
ii?uaa aiaaa oaee io/eoaey. A ?acoeueoaoa aio i?eoeinue aaaeaoue, e ii,
ia?aeaey a?aieoeo (/oi auei ia oae i?inoi a oa a?aiaia), ne?ueny a
aaeeinoaaiiii iaeiaeinooiiii ianoa — a Neiaeneie ionouia.

A naieo neeoaieyo ii ionouia ii noieeioeny n aa?aeneeie ieaiaiaie
iaaeeaieoyi. Yoi auee ei/aaieee-neioiaiaeu, eiiaaea aiaeeaoea eoia/aneea
ea?aaaiu a Aaeiao e Iaeanoeio. Iie iaeoaee aeec nayuaiiie ai?u Neiae, ia
thaa iieoino?iaa. Iienae aue ?aaeooii i?eiyo aaaeoeiaie; eo oaeo, ae?aoe
?aaoee-Eioi? (Eao?i), i?ethoee aaaeaoea, e Iienae aeonee anth i?aeanoue
aaciyoaaeiie aeecie naiaiaeiuo neioiaiaeia. Ii aeaieeny ia aei/a?e oaeoa
e ian aai noaaea ia neeiiao Oi?aaneeo ai?. E eiaiii oai a iai niaa?oeeny
oaeinoaaiiue ia?aai?io, i?aa?aoeaoee aai a aiaeaey e i?i?iea.

?en. 46

Aei/ue oa?aiia ia?aae ieaaeaioeai Iienaai. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

?en. 47

Iienae canooiaaony ca naiaai niieaiaiieea. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

?en. 48

Ec?aeeueoyia ia?aae Neiaai. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Aeey ian iaanaaaea inoaiaony oaeiie, /oi ia?aaeee aaeiaoneee aaaeaoe
n?aaee aaciieaey Oi?aaneeo ai?, ii iu ciaai, /oi ioiuia ii noaiiaeony
aa?iui neoaeeoaeai Aiaa Iac?eiiai, Aiaa — Aeanoeoaey /aeiaa/aneeo
noaeaa. Aiaa, aiceiaeeaoaai caaaaei/ioth enoi?e/aneoth ienneth ia iaai,
Iienay, e ia aai ia?iae. Yoi oio Aia, eioi?iio iieeeenue ethaee a
iacaiaiyoiua a?aiaia. Aa?o a Iaai nayoi o?aieee i?aaeee Ec?aeey. Ii —
Aia, ioe?uaoeeny Aa?aaio, Aia i?aiooeaa. Ii i?aauaaao auoa auoey e
aeecie. Ii — Nouee, eiy Aai ssaaa.

Aeaeey ?anneacuaaao, /oi Iienae iaeiaaeaeu caa?ae aeaeaei a ai?u e
ieacaeny a eaeii-oi ae?aaiai nayoeeeua. Oai ec iaae? oa?iiaieea,
ioaa/aiiiai iaaeaeaiiui iaiiaeythuei iaiai, ii oneuoae aiein Aiaeee,
i?ecuaaaoee aai ia neoaeaiea. Niouaiiue e enioaaiiue, Iienae iuoaeny
oeeiieoueny, ii aiein aeanoii o?aaiaae, /oiau ii oae eae aanoiee Iaaa e
naiaio oaiaoaiiiio ia?iaeo e ecaaaee aai io ?aanoaa. Ii aeieaeai
i?eaanoe aa?aaa nthaea, e nayoie ai?a, e ssaaa aeano ei ai aeaaeaiea
no?aio, oaeouoth iieieii e iaaeii.

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1 Aieueoie Aeii — a ae?aaiai Aaeioa oae iacuaaeny ia oieueei aeai?aoe
oa?aiia, ii e ana aai eiouanoai.

2 Acacae — n?. Acacaeei a «Ianoa?a e Ia?aa?eoa» I. Aoeaaeiaa,
iacuaaaiiai aaoi?ii aeaiiiii-oaeeoeae aacaiaeiie ionouie.

Iooue e Neiath

Aaeiao — Neiae, ie. 1230 a. aei ?.O.

Ieiei 1230 a. aei ?.O., a o?aouea eaoi oea?noaiaaiey nuia ?ainana II,
oa?aiia Ia?iaioaoa, Iienae iiyaeeny n?aaee ec?aeeueneeo ?aaia. Ii
caaiai?ee i Aiaa aa?aaa, i Oii, Eiio iieeiiyeenue Aa?aai e aai i?aaeee,
eiaaea auee naiaiaeiu, i oii, /oi Aia iaauae inaiaiaeeoue eo ec «Aeiia
?aanoaa» e i?eaanoe a caieth, aaea iaeiaaea iaeoaee eo iooeu. Ii
i?ecuaae ia?iae iieeiooue Aaeiao e ioi?aaeoueny a ionouith «ia o?e aeiy
iooe», /oiau oai niaa?oeoue aaeeeia aea?oaii?eiioaiea ssaaa, Aiao
Ec?aeey.

N ia?auo aea oaaia ii aue ano?a/ai iaaeiaa?/eai e aeaaea a?aaeaeaaii.
Aieiaiey, aucaaiiua aai i?iiiaaaeyie, canoaaeee aaeioyi oneeeoue iaaeci?
e i?eaaaeoue ?aaio.

Oii?iay ai?ueaa, eioi?oth aanno?aoiue eaaeo aae n aaeiaoneeie aeanoyie,
ie?oaeaia iiyoe/aneeie i?aaeaieyie: iaeiaei ec ieo iiaeii caeeth/eoue,
/oi ia ia?auo ii?ao ii i?aoniae aeiaieueii iaei. Ii aio naia noaeueaa
i?eoea ia iiiiuue Ec?aeeth. A no?aia aniuoioea yieaeaiey, eioi?ay
ieii/aoaeueii ?anno?ieea ii?yaeie e iineoaeeea iiaiaeii e aia?oee.

?en. 49

Iienae nioneaaony n ai?u Neiae. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Iienae aeae neaiae e enoiaeo. Iiniaoii niaa?oea o?aaeeoeeiiiue ia?yae,
ec?aeeueoyia ni naieie noaaeaie, a oaeaea ?aciiieaiaiiua ?aau,
?aaioaaoea aianoa n ieie, aeaeioeenue ec ie?anoiinoae ?ainana e Noeeioa.
Iienae ia iiaae eo i?yii ia ainoie, iioiio /oi oai, ia «oeeenoeineie
aei?iaa», ?aniieaaaeenue oeaie aaeiaoneeo oi?oeoeeaoeee. Ai a?aiy naieo
no?ainoaee ii oi?ioi eco/ee ?aeii e, i?ioiaey /a?ac ionouiiua ianoiinoe,
oiaei ecaaaae iia?aie/iuo iinoia. Iaeiiaoe aaaeaoeu ?aneeioee eaaa?ue
iaaeaeaei io e?aiinoe Yoai. Aeaeueoa iooue aue cae?uo. Aaeeinoaaiiui
nianaieai auei niyoueny n ianoa e oaeoaeoueny a ionouith e aa?aaai
O?inoieeiaiai ii?y. Aaanoai i?iaeieaeaeinue anth ii/ue.

Eiaaea Ia?iaioao ociae, /oi Ec?aeeue e ae?oaea aa?aeneea ieaiaia
ne?ueenue ia ainoiea, ii, ia oa?yy ie aeiy, iiaiae eieanieoeu e aa?aaai
O?inoieeiaiai ii?y. I ianoiiieiaeaiee Ec?aeey aio, i/aaeaeii, aeiianee
ec Yoaia. Oaia?ue ionouiy «caia?ea» aa?aaa. N iaeiie noi?iiu auee
iai?ioiaeeiua eaiuoiaua oiie, n ae?oaie — iaaeaeaaeenue eieanieoeu
oa?aiia.

?acaeaeenue e?eee oaeana… «?acaa iaei auei a?iaia a Aaeioa, /oi ou
i?eaae ian oie?aoue a ionouith?» — a?inaee aaaeaoeu oi?aee Iienath. Ii
aiaeaeue aa?ee a oi, /oi Iaai nianao aai ia?iae aeaaea e a yoio
io/ayiiue iiiaio. «Ia aieoanue, oaeaeeoa nianaiea ssaaa», — aineeeeioe
ii e, ia iaaeey aieaa ie ieioou, iiaae ec?aeeueoyi /a?ac oiie.

Iaace?ay ia oi, /oi iaae oiiyie nia?aeenue oo/e e iaaeaeaaeny ianoiyuee
o?aaai, aaeioyia i?iaeieaeaee iiaiith. Aiciiaeii, iie e oniaee au
ianoeaiooue /anoue aaaeaoeia, ii n eaaeaeui oaaii ei auei ana o?oaeiaa e
o?oaeiaa i?iae?aoueny a naonoeaoainy i?aea. Oyaeaeua eieanieoeu
cano?aaaee a ayceii eea, a?ica aooaaaea, aaoa? ia?aiaieeny e oaia?ue
aiae aieiu ia i?aneaaeiaaoaeae. Oieueei oiaaea iiiyee aaeioyia, eaeay
iianiinoue ei oa?iaeaao, e iiniaoii iiaa?ioee ia?aoii. Ii aiaea ianoeaea
eo.

Ec?aeeueoyia, eioi?ua oai a?aiaiai oaea noiyee ia nooie aicauoaiiinoe,
iaaethaeaee ca io/ayiiuie iiiuoeaie anaaeieeia e ia aa?eee naiei aeacai.
I?iecioei ia/oi oaeia, /aai ia aeaeaee ie aa?ae, ie aaeioyia. Anaai /an
iacaae ec?aeeueoyia auee ia aieinie io aeaaee. I?aneaaeiaaoaee
aaniiuaaeii ?ani?aaeeenue au n ieie; ii aio oaia?ue ssaaa nian Naie
ia?iae e inoaiiaee a?iciiai a?aaa. Yoi ianiiiaiii auei /oaei, oioy
aiaoia aeaenoaiaaee iau/iua noeoeeiua neeu.

Eiaao ee i?aai nia?aiaiiue /aeiaae niio?aoue nauniea ia yoo oaa?aiiinoue
aaaeaoeia a iniaii iie?iaeoaeuenoaa iaaa? Enoi?ey iaaieueoiai ieaiaie,
/oaeii ooeaeaaoaai n?aaee i?aa?aoiinoae noaeueau e noaaoaai iineoaeai
Aaeeiiaiaeey n?aaee ycu/aneeo ia?iaeia, iienoeia ecoieoaeueia. Aeey oao,
eoi io?eoeaao aioo?aiiee niune a noaeueaao ia?iaeia, caeanue — eeoue
eaeia-oi iaiau/aeii n/anoeeaia noa/aiea ianoiyoaeuenoa. Ii o?enoeainoai
ioeaieaaao aaooicaaaoioth enoi?eth n eiie oi/ee c?aiey e i?eciaao a iae
i?iyaeaiea oiai iac?eiiai ?acoia, Eioi?ue iai?aaeyao oiae ie?icaeaiey,
/aeiaa/aneoth enoi?eth e noaeueao ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe.

Ana aeaeueiaeoaa iooaoanoaea Ec?aeey n?aaee aacaiaeiuo aeieei e ai?
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue no?aoaie e iaiaeeaeaiiuie ?aaeinoyie.

?en. 50

Aeoa?ue

Ia a?aieoea ionouie Nei, o i?aaeai?ee Oi?eaneiai o?aaoa, ea?aaai anooiee
a ionouiioth ianoiinoue e aeieaia a?aiy i?iaeieaeae iooue, ia ano?a/ay
ie eieiaeoea, ie ?o/uey. Iooieeia io/eea aeaaeaea. ?iiio iaaeiaieuenoaa
ia?aoae a ioe?uoia aiciouaiea. Auei iaiiaaiea, eiaaea a Iienay aaeaa ia
iieaoaee eaiie. Yoi aue e?eoe/aneee iiiaio: aeanoue iaae acaoioiaaaoaeny
oieiie oneieuecaea ec ?oe aiaeaey.

A yoo o?oaeioth ieiooo Aia aiiaue i?eoae ia iiiiuue Naiaio eca?aiieeo.
Iienae i?eeacae aeieaeoue ecaanoeiaoth neaeo oanoaie, e, eiaaea iinea
aeieaeo oneeee ia?aciaaeanue aiaaeeia, ii neeueii oaea?ee naiei iinioii
e a ia?aciaaaoaany ioaa?noea oeuioea eeth/aaay aiaea. ?acaeaeenue
?aaeinoiua aicaeanu. Iooieee auee nianaiu.

Ana yoe ia ia?aue acaeyae iacia/eoaeueiua niauoey nua?aee eieinnaeueioth
?ieue a noaeueaa nuiia Ec?aeey, iai?a?uaii i?aauaaaoeo iaaeaeo no?aoii e
iaaeaaeaeie.

Aeanyoue caiiaaaeae

Neiae, 1230-1200 aa. aei ?.O.

Eaeiaa aea auea eiia/iay oeaeue Iienay? Ii ?aoee aeieoe aei oao naiuo
iano, aaea ian noaaea ai a?aiy aaanoaa, aaea i?icao/ae aeey iaai aiein
Aiaeee. Ii oioae oai, o nayoie ai?u, aaeioiooue a Ec?aeeue iiaue aeoo,
aaeioiooue aa?o, yia?aeth, niaeinoue. Ii oioae i?eaanoe e iiaeiiaeeth
Neiay naieo niieaiaiieeia, eae au aiai?y: «Aiaea! Aio ethaee, eioi?uo Ou
i?ecaae iaiy nianoe. ss i?eaae eo e Oaaa».

*a?ac ianeieueei aeiae iinea inoaiiaee o Neiay aiaeaeue aaeae
aioiaeoueny e aaeeeiio iiiaioo: ethaee caeeth/aee oi?aeanoaaiiue nithc n
Aiaii. Yoi auei ia/oi ianeuoaiiia, eai a niciaiee ainoi/iuo ia?iaeia
/aeiaae aue niaa?oaiiui ie/oiaeanoaii ii n?aaiaieth n Aiaeanoaii, e
caeeth/aiea iaaeaeo ieie nithca auei au iaaa?iyoiie aea?cinoueth.

Ii caeanue Nai Aeaaeuea aeecie onoaie Naiaai i?i?iea iauyaeyao oneiaey
yoiai ii?aceoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a: «Anee au aoaeaoa neooaoueny aeana Iiaai
e niaethaeaoue caaao Iie, oi aoaeaoa Iiei oaeaeii ec anao ia?iaeia, eai
Iiy any caiey, a au aoaeaoa o Iaiy oea?noaii nayuaiieeia e ia?iaeii
nayoui» (Eno 19:5—6).

Oae ?iaeaeaaony ia?iae Caaaoa, ia?iae Aiaeee; ec naiaie Aa?aaiiaa
auoiaeyo ia?aua, aua neaaua ?inoee Aaooicaaaoiie Oea?eae,
i?a?iaeeoaeueieoeu Oea?eae Anaeaineie. Ioiuia enoi?ey ?aeeaee aoaeao
oaea ia oieueei enoi?eae oinee, oiieaiey e iieneia, ii iia noaiao
enoi?eae Caaaoa, aeeaeiaa iaaeaeo Oai?oeii e /aeiaaeii.

Aeaeaeneia i?aaeaiea ?enoao aaee/anoaaiioth ea?oeio caeeth/aiey yoiai
nayuaiiiai Caaaoa.

Ia?iae iieeioe eaaa?ue e iiaenooiee e naiie iiaeioaa ai?u. Ana a o?aiaoa
ono?aieee aci?u ia aa aa?oeio, iaae eioi?ie iiaenee iai?iieoeaaiua oo/e.
A?aiy io a?aiaie n?aaee ieo aniuoeaaee iieiee, e oaea?u a?iia
ioaeaaaeenue n?aaee ?annaeei o?oaiuie caoeaie…

Iaaeaeo oai Iienae ioaeaeeeny io ia?iaea e noae iiaeieiaoueny ana auoa e
auoa e neiaeneie aa?oeia. Aio ii oaea ne?ueny n?aaee ooania, ooiaey
ooaea, aaea iaenoianoaoao a?ica e ao?y, aaea aonoie noi?ae ie?oaeaao
aiaeanoaaiioth Oaeio.

Ii aio Iienae niiaa a eaaa?a Ec?aeey. A oi?aeanoaaiiie oeoeia
i?iaicaeaoaao ii Aiaeee Caaao e e?iieo ia?iae aea?oaaiiie e?iaueth a
ciae caeeth/aiey Nithca.

Caiiaaaee, ia/a?oaiiua ia aeaoo eaiaiiuo ieeoao — ne?eaeaeyo, aeaneee:

1. ss — ssaaa, Aia oaie, eioi?ue auaae oaay ec caiee Ieoe?aei, ec Aeiia
?aanoaa. Ou ia aeieaeai eiaoue ae?oaeo aiaia i?aae Eeoeii Iiei.

2. Ou ia aeieaeai aeaeaoue naaa ieeaeiai ecia?aaeaiey aiaeanoaa.

3. Ou ia aeieaeai oiio?aaeyoue iiiai?anio eiy ssaaa, Aiaa oaiaai.

4. Iiiie aeaiue noaaiou, /oiau i?acaeiiaaoue aai.

5. Ii/eoae iooea e iaoue.

6. Ou ia aeieaeai oaeaaoue.

7. Ou ia aeieaeai ?aniooie/aoue.

8. Ou ia aeieaeai e?anoue.

9. Ou ia aeieaeai aeaaaoue eiaeiiai naeaeaoaeuenoaa ia aeeaeiaai naiaai.

10. Ia aeaeae aeiia aeeaeiaai oaiaai, ie aeaiu aai, ie/aai, /oi o
aeeaeiaai oaiaai (n?. Eno 20:1-17).

?en. 51

Neeiey a ionouia.

Iiaeaeue

Eaeea i?inoua ia ia?aue acaeyae neiaa! Ii anee iai iie eaaeoony /ai-oi
naii niaie ?acoiathueiny, oi aeey ae?aaiaai ie?a iie cao/aee iaauaaeui
ioe?iaaieai. Aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue, eaeea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e
aiaeanoaii oea?eee a Aaeioa, Aaaeeiia, A?aoeee, /oiau iiiyoue,
ianeieueei iaiaueiiaaiiuie aeieaeiu auee i?aaenoaaeyoueny nia?aiaiieeai
nayuaiiua caeiiu, ia/a?oaiiua ia ne?eaeaeyo. Yoe aeaa iaac?a/iuo, a?oai
ioanaiiuo eaiiy eiaee iaecia?eii aieueoaa cia/aiea aeey aeooiaiie
enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa, /ai ouny/e eneonii oe?aoaiiuo anne?eeneeo e
aaeiaoneeo iaiyoieeia.

Aaee/aeoay caneoaa Iienay ia?aae /aeiaa/anoaii caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
ii iniaeeeny i?iaicaeaneoue oo?a/aiiue Caeii, ioe?uoue caauoua iooe e
Aiao, ia ono?aoeaoenue i?ioeaiaeaenoaey e iaiiieiaiey. Ii aiai?ee,
ia?auaynue ia oieueei e Ec?aeeth, a ei anaio ie?o, e aoaeouei aaeai.

Iienae iiiye, /oi aai ethaeyi iaiaoiaeei aiaoiee ciae i?enoonoaey
Aiaeanoaa. Ei ioaeai aue neiaie Aiaa, eioi?ue au oae ia?aae ieie e
anaeye a ieo aiae?inoue (Eno 32:23).

Aeaeey i?yii aiai?eo, /oi iuneue i nicaeaiee yoiai neiaiea auea aiooaia
i?i?ieo nauoa (Eno 25).

Eoae, a iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue aiaeaeue i?eeacuaaao ecaioiaeoue
nayuaiiue Eia/aa Caaaoa. Aai ia?aiinyo a iniaue oaoa?, eee Neeieth,
eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaaony aia eaaa?y.

Aiaoia Eia/aa auaeyaeae aeiaieueii ne?iiii: yoi aue yuee, neiei/aiiue ec
aea?aayiiuo aeinie, aeeeiie iaiiiaei aieueoa iao?a. Nia?oaee ii aue iaeo
iaoaeeii, iaae aai e?uoeie i?inoe?aee e?ueuey ea?oau, eee oa?oaeiu, —
oaioanoe/aneea nouanoaa n eueaeiui oaeii, eeeii /aeiaaea e e?ueueyie
i?ea. Iie neeiiyee naie aieiau iaae Eia/aaii, a eo e?ueuey neoaeeee
i?anoieii, ia eioi?ii iac?eii ainnaaeae Aia Ec?aeeaa. Aa?iyoii, ea?oau
auee ecia?aaeaieai aeooia ao?e, eioi?ay a ec?aeeueneie iiycee iau/ii
nii?iaiaeaeaea Aiaiyaeaiey.

Eiaaea ia?iae nieiaeny n eaaa?y eee aunooiae a n?aaeaiea, eaaeou oee
aia?aaee e ianee Eia/aa ia oanoao, i?iaeaouo a aai aieiaua eieueoea.

Iaeiiaoe ianooieei a?aiy iieeiooue Neiae. Oaia?ue ia?aae Ec?aeeai noiyea
iiaay oeaeue: caoaao oa??eoi?ee a no?aia, aaea a ae?aaiinoe iaeoae
Aa?aai. Oaai? ei/aaieeia i?aa?aoeeny a aiaiiue eaaa?ue.

Iienae naeaeae ?aoeoaeueiue oaa. Ii iineae ?acaaae/eeia ia ainoie, /oiau
ociaoue, iiaeii ee ?ann/eouaaoue ia oniao aoi?aeaiey. ?acaaae/eee
aa?ioeenue, iany ?ineioiua ieiaeu Caiee Iaaoiaaiiie1. Ei/aaieee n
ainoeuaieai niio?aee ia ia?iiiua aeiia?aaeiua eenoe, ia a?aiaou e
niieau. Ii ?acaaae/eee iaaiai?eee oaeeo no?aoia i aeeoaeyo Iaeanoeiu, ia
eo neea e niaeinoe, ia eo iai?enooiiuo e?aiinoyo, /oi ei/aaieeia
ioaaoeea iaieea, ia?aoaaeoay a iiaue iyoaae i?ioea Iienay.

Iaeiiaoe, iinea aeieaeo neeoaiee, ieiei 1200 a. aei ?.O., Iienae ?aoee,
/oi ii?a ia/aoue ianooieaiea ia naaa?.

Inoaaaeinue ia?ana/ue yoio naa?eathuee e ecaeeenoue ?oaaae — Ei?aeai, ca
eioi?ui ia/eiaaony aeaeaiiue Oaiaai! Ii caeanue caaana enoi?ee
iioneaaony e ne?uaaao io ian iiao/oth oeao?o Iienay…

Caaaaei/iua oaie aeoatho iaae iiaeeie i?i?iea. Ii oia? ia io aieacie e
ia io noa?inoe. Ianoi aai iia?aaaiey inoaeinue iaecaanoiui.

____________________________________________________________

1 Iaaoiaaiiay Caiey (io neiaa «iaao») — caiey, iaauaiiay Aiaii.

Caiey Iaaoiaaiiay

Oaiaai, ie. 1200—1125 aa. aei ?.O.

Anei?a iinea nia?oe Iienay ec?aeeueoyia ii/oanoaiaaee, /oi iie oaea ia
iiaoo aieueoa aeeoue a Caei?aeaiuea. Eieaia oanieee ae?oa ae?oaa; oceay
iieina caiee, ia?aie/aiiay n iaeiie noi?iiu a?aaeeneeie noaiyie, a n
ae?oaie — Ia?oaui ii?ai e Ei?aeaiii, ia iiaea i?iei?ieoue iannu
ei/aaieeia e eo neio. Ia iaauae ee Iienae i?eaanoe naie ia?iae a no?aio,
«oaeouoth iieieii e iaaeii»? Ia ioaeai ee Oaiaai Naiei ssaaa ai
aeaaeaiea Ec?aeeth? Oaia?ue i?eoei a?aiy, e ioaeii auei ?aoaoueny.

Iinea nia?oe Ia?iaioaoa Aaeiao ioaaoeea aia?oey. Aeanoue Aaeioa a
Oaiaaia ii/oe ia iuouaeanue; ianoiia ianaeaiea auei ineaaeaii ?acaei?aie
e aieiaie. Iiiaio aue naiui aeaaii?eyoiui aeey iioiaea ec?aeeueoyi ia
caiaae.

Oaiaiae auee aeeceeie ?iaee/aie aa?aaa e oeieeeeoeaa. Iie, i/aaeaeii,
oae aea, eae e ec?aeeueoyia, i?eoee iaeiaaea ec ionouie, ii a Iaeanoeia
aeeee oaea aieaa ouny/e eao.

?aneiiee iieacaee, /oi Oaiaai aue a ioiioaiee eneonnoaa e ?aeeaee
oeie/iie no?aiie neie?aoecia1. Caeanue ia auei iaoeeiiaeueiuo aiaia, a
ii/eoaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii aiae ninaaeae. N?aaee ?acaaeei iaeaeaiu
oeao?ee Ai?a, Oaoi? e ae?oaeo aaeiaoneeo aiaia, a oaeaea ecia?aaeaiey
aaaeeiineie Eooa?.

Eiooa, nui Ioia, eioi?ue noae ai aeaaa ec?aeeueoyi iinea nia?oe Iienay,
aeoaiei aa?ee a oi, /oi iaaoiaaiea naoaeaony e /oi no?aiieee ia?aooo
iaeiiaoe aeaeaiiia i?enoaieua. Ia?iae ?acaeaeye yoo oaa?aiiinoue. Oioy
aaoi?eoao iiaiai aiaeaey aue ian?aaiei n aaoi?eoaoii Iienay, oai ia
iaiaa Eiooa aue i?eciai aieueoeinoaii eieai.

Aeaaiui i?aiyonoaeai, eioi?ia ioaeii auei i?aiaeieaoue ia iooe a
Caiaaeioth Iaeanoeio, yaeyeny Ea?eoii. Aai oeeeeiie/aneea noaiu
aicauoaeenue n?aaee iaeueiiauo ?iu a aeaoo /anao iooe io Ei?aeaia. Ia
auei ieeaeie iaaeaaeaeu ieiiaaoue aai aac aiy.

?en. 52

?ac?ooaiea noai Ea?eoiia. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Eiooa eieaaaeny iaaeieai; a iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue ii aai neaiaeo aue
iiaeiyo Eia/aa, naa?ioou iaeaoee, e ec?aeeueoyia aeaeioeenue ia caiaae e
aa?aaai Ei?aeaia.

Aei neo ii? inoaaony caaaaeeie, eae iia ianoue noieue iaaeaaeii
oe?aieaiiue ai?iae. A Aeaeee nio?aieeinue iiyoe/aneia neacaiea i oii,
eae noaiu aai ?ooioee io caoeia ec?aeeueneeo o?oa. Aiciiaeii, caeanue,
oae aea eae e ia Ei?aeaia, i?iecioei caieao?ynaiea, ioe?uaoaa aiacaiii
a?aoue a noaia. Eaaei i?aaenoaaeoue naaa oi aia/aoeaiea, eioi?ia
aeieaeai aue i?iecaanoe iiaecaiiue oie/ie, ?aneieiaoee noaio eae ?ac a
iiiaio i?eaeeaeaiey Ec?aeey.

Niauoey ?acai?a/eaaeenue auno?i, o?eoioaeueiue ia?o Eia/aaa
i?iaeieaeaeny.

______________________________________________________________________

1 Neie?aoeci — a iaoea, eneonnoaa e ?aeeaee nenoaia, niaaeeiythuay a
naaa /a?ou ?acee/iuo ae?oaeo nenoai, o. a. niaoaiiay, i?iecaiaeiay.

Aia Ec?aeeaa e ycu/anoai

Iaeanoeia, 1125-1025 aa. aei ?.O.

Eoae, iaaoiaaiea, aeaiiia Aa?aaio, eniieieeinue. Caiey, eioi?ie oae
aeieai aeaaeaee aaeioyia e oaoou, oaia?ue noaea caieae Ec?aeey. Ii
aeaaiua o?oaeiinoe auee aia?aaee. Niaaeeieaoenue n oaiaiayie oaeoe/anee
a iaeei ia?iae, ec?aeeueoyia — a/a?aoiea ei/aaieee — aieae-iaaieae noaee
aini?eieiaoue oeeaeeecaoeeth oocaioeaa, a aianoa n iae e eo aa?iaaiey.
Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeiaii a?ueyi a Eiaeee, iiaaaeeoaee aaeaa ia ieacaeenue
a iieiaeaiee iiaaaeaeaiiuo.

Niaianoiay aeeciue ec?aeeueoyi e oaiaiaaa auno?i i?eaaea e
?ani?ino?aiaieth ycu/anoaa n?aaee ia?iaea ssaaa. Oae aicieeei
aeaiaaa?ea, noieue naienoaaiiia ia?iaeai ieceie eoeueoo?u, aini?eiyaoei
aunieoth ?aeeaeth.

?en. 53

Aeoaa ec?aeeueoyi n oeeenoeieyiaie. I. A?aeaaeue. 1562 a.

Iaecaanoii, eae au iioea aeooiaiay enoi?ey Ec?aeey, anee au ia iiaia
iio?ynaiea, eioi?ia aneieuoioei ana eieaia.

Iiyaeeenue aua iaeie i?aoaiaeaiou ia caieth, «oaeouoth iieieii e
iaaeii», e ia yoio ?ac ia n?aaieiua ie n eai ec iaeoaoaeae Oaiaaia ii
neea. Yoi auee oeeenoeieyia.

Oeeenoeieyia auee aieinoaaiiui e yia?ae/iui ieaiaiai, oaea oi?ioi
inaieaoei ia?aaioeo aeaeaca. Iie caieiaeenue ii?neei i?iiuneii e
ie?aonoaii. Ieiei 1080 a. aei ?.O. iie ia/aee ?aoeoaeueiia ianooieaiea
ia ainoie, oaniy eae ec?aeeueneea, oae e oaeaeaeneea ieaiaia.

Eoi iia inoaiiaeoue yoo aieio? Aii?oaeaiiua /ai iiiaei e?anoueyia
?acaaaaeenue, aaeaa caneuoaa a?ioio aiaauo eieanieoe e caaeaeaa
oe?aoaiiua ia?ueyie oeaiu. Oeeenoeieyia iaeiaeeee aeaiueth ii/oe aanue
Oaiaai, e iiei?aiiui inoaaaeinue eeoue aanoe ia?oecaineoth aieio,
iaiaeeaeaiii iaiaaeay ia oeeenoeineea io?yaeu eee iiaeaeeaay eo iinaau.

Ainiiaenoai oeeenoeieyi noaei o i?i/iui e eacaeinue ieii/aoaeueiui. Ii
ai?iaeai auee ?annoaaeaiu a?aaeaneea aa?ieciiu, e iianthaeo oicyeie/aee
nai?ueee aeaie. Ia?aaeeaaaoee aeoaieee aeooiaiue e?ecen Ec?aeeue
ieacaeny oaia?ue eeoaiiui e iieeoe/aneie iacaaeneiinoe.

Ana yoe niauoey iineoaeeee eae au aiaoiei oie/eii, niinianoaiaaaoei
aicieeiiaaieth iiaiai ?aeeaeiciiai aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ia iineei aeiaieueii
no?aiiua oi?iu, ii aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio Ec?aeeue auoae ec ninoiyiey
oiaaeea e aeooiaiiai oie?aiey.

Iineaaeiaaoaeae yoiai aeaeaeaiey iacuaaee Aaia-oa-Iaaeei, «Nuiaie
i?i?i/aneeie». Neiai «iaae» icia/aei aanoieea Aiaeueae aiee. Ii anee
?aiueoa yniiaeaeoeu e i?i?eoeaoaee aunooiaee eae iaeeiieea iineaioeu
Iaaa, oi oaia?ue iiaua i?i?iee niae?aeenue oieiaie ia aiaineoaeaiey,
oiaeeee ii aei?iaai no?aiu, ?aniaaay aiaaua inaeiu e i?ecuaay ia?iae e
aa?iinoe Aiao iooeia.

Iu i/aiue iaei ciaai i aeayoaeueiinoe Nuiia i?i?i/aneeo e i ethaeyo,
eioi?ua aicaeaaeyee eo aeaeaeaiea, i?aaeaiea naycuaaao n ieie oeao?o
iineaaeiaai e?oiiiai aa?aeneiai aiaeaey yiioe Noaeae — Naioeea. A iaeiii
ianoa Aeaeey aeaaea i?yii ecia?aaeaao aai ?oeiaiaeeoaeai iaueiu i?i?ieia
(1 Oea? 19:20).

Naioee, ianiiiaiii, n/eoae naiae aeaaiie caaea/ae aeooiaiia niei/aiea
ec?aeeueoyi.

Niaeanii i?aaeaieth, yniiaeaeaoe aeiaeeny aeaaea iauaia?iaeiiai
?aneayiey e eeyoau iieii/eoue n ycu/aneeie aiaaie. Eaeieu auee
aua?ioaiu, e n oiai a?aiaie «Nuiu Ec?aeeaau noaee neoaeeoue iaeiiio
ssaaa» (1 Oea? 7:4). Ii ?aeeaeiciue Caaao ieacaeny neeoeii neaaui
iauaaeeiythuei ia/aeii aeey ec?aeeueneeo eieai. Aicieeea ioaeaea a
«neeueiie ?oea», a naaoneie aeanoe. Noa?aeoeiu iiaeiyee ia?aae Naioeeii
aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eca?aoue oea?y. E ie. 1025 a. aei ?.O. ii eo
ianoiyieth Naioee aua?ae i?aaeoaey Ec?aeeth.

?en. 54

Naioee aeaaineiaeyao Naoea. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Oaie?aoe/aneia oea?noai.

Neiineee caaao

Iaeanoeia, 1020-950 aa. aei ?.O.

Any Aeaeey i?iieeiooa aeooii i?ioanoa i?ioea aaoie?aoee. Io a?aiai
Iienay iieeoe/aneei eaeaaeii ?aeeaeiciuo o/eoaeae Ec?aeey inoaaaeny
naiaiaeiue nithc aa?iuo, aeey eioi?uo aaeeinoaaiiui aaoi?eoaoii yaeyaony
Caeii Aiaeee. Yoi auea oaie?aoey1, ii ia a niunea i?aaeaiey
aeooiaainoaa, a a niunea iiaeeeiiiai Aiaiaeanoey. A oaie?aoe/aneii
i?aaeaiee, iniiaaiiii Iienaai, oaea iaoiaeeeenue ca?iaeuoe ?aeeaeiciie
iaueiu, Aaooicaaaoiie Oea?eae e iaeiia?aiaiii oaeiai iauanoaa, eioi?ia
iino?iaii ia ia i?iecaiea iiia?oa, a ia eiinoeoooeee e caeiia, eai
caiiaaaee ssaaa auee ?aaii iaycaoaeueiu eae aeey i?inouo e?anoueyi e
ai?iaeai, oae e aeey i?aaeaiaeeoaeae, aiaeaeae, oea?ae. A yoii ioiioaiee
Aeaeey ?acei i?ioeainoieo ii/oe anaio Ae?aaiaio Ainoieo: a Aaooii Caaaoa
iiia?oey i?eaieaony eeoue eae oa?ieiia cei, eae ianiaa?oaiiia
onoaiiaeaiea, ii?iaeaeaiiia a?aoaie e neaainoueth ethaeae.

Iaeiaei iieeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea, oa?ica oeeenoeineiai iaoanoaey — ana
yoi, ianiiiaiii, iiaeeyei ia Naioeea e i?eie?eei aai a eiioea eiioeia n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eca?aoue oea?y. Ii ii oioae, /oiau eaiaeeaeao aue
auaeaeioo ei naiei. Iaeiaaeaeu, eiaaea e iaio ca niaaoii i?eoae iieiaeie
e?anoueyiei Naoe ec eieaia Aaieaieiiaa, ii i?eiye ?aoaiea iinoaaeoue
eiaiii aai «i?aaeoaeai ia?iaea» (1 Oea? 9:16).

Eca?aiea Naoea iieo/eei iauaa i?eciaiea. Iaeiaei Naioee, eae iiaanoaoao
Aeaeey, i?aaeoi?aaeee anao ec?aeeueoyi, /oi iie iiaoo iaaeayoueny ia
aeaaiiieo/ea oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee aoaeoo ii-i?aaeiaio aeaeaoue a
ssaaa naiaai Aunoaai Oea?y e /oeoue Aai Caaao. «Anee aea au aoaeaoa
aeaeaoue cei, oi e au, e oea?ue aao iiaeaiaoa» (1 Oea? 12:25). Eiuie
neiaaie, oea?ue aue o?aaiai ia?aae Aiaii ni anaie aai iiaeaeaiiuie.

?en. 55

Iiiacaiea Nieiiiia ia oea?noai. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

Iniaia ianoi a aaooicaaaoiie ?aeeaee i?eiaaeeaaeeo Aeaaeaeo, cyoth
Naoea, eioi?iio noaeaeaii auei niaieoue aai ia o?iia e niaa?oeoue
ia?aai?io ai anae enoi?ee Ec?aeey, oioy ii ia aue ie i?i?ieii, ie
o/eoaeai aa?u. Ii — iniiaaoaeue Ea?onaeeia eae aeooiaiiai oeaio?a
Ec?aeey, aaeeeee ?aeeaeiciue iiyo-inaeiiia-aaoe, aai eiy naycaii n
ca?iaeaeaieai aeaeaeneiai ianneaiecia, ninoaaeythuaai naioth nooue
Nayuaiiie enoi?ee.

Naoe — ia?aue «i?aaeoaeue ia?iaea Aiaeey» — iiaea ia iiea aeoau.
Ia?iaeiia nia?aiea a Oaa?iia ieiei 1000 a. aei ?.O. i?iaicaeaneei oea?ai
iaae anaie eieaiaie o?eaeoeaoeeaoiaai Aeaaeaea.

Ae?oaeeia Aeaaeaea oaea eiaea aieueoie aiaaie iiuo. Eiaaea oeeenoeieyia
iiyaeeenue ia ?aaieia ?aoaeineie, aieiu Aeaaeaea noiaee iaianoue ia ieo
n ouea e iaianoe oyaeaeia ii?aaeaiea. Aei naiiai Aaca?a i?aneaaeiaaee
ec?aeeueoyia iai?eyoaey. Yoa iiaaaea iieiaeeea eiiaoe caaeneiinoe
Ec?aeey. Aiineaaenoaee ianeieueei eaiiaiee Aeaaeaea ia caiaaea
iieiinoueth iaanneeeee oeeenoeieyi e i?eioaeeee eo caeeth/eoue ie?.

Aiaiiua oniaoe Aeaaeaea i?eaaee e nicaeaieth eiia?ee, iauaaeeieaoae ia
oieueei ?iaenoaaiiua aa?ayi ia?iaeu — aiiieoyi, eaeoiaaa e iiaaeoia, ii
e iaeanoe a?aiaaa-ne?eeoeaa. Naaa?iua ninaaee — oeieeeeoeu anooieee n
Aeaaeaeii a ae?oaeanoaaiiue nithc.

Ii naiui aieueoei aeinoeaeaieai Aeaaeaea auei nicaeaiea iauaec?aeeueneie
noieeoeu. Oea?ue ia?aoee naie aci? ia iiuiue caiie Neii, aicauoaaoeeny
iaae iioieii Eaae?iineei ia aunieie neaea. Caiie aue iacaai «A?aae
Aeaaeaea», a ie?oaeaaoaio aai ai?iaeo auei aica?auaii ae?aaiaa iacaaiea
Ea?onaeei.

Ana yoe aiaeu Eia/aa iaoiaeeeny ia o?aiaiee a /anoiuo ?oeao. Aeaaeae
?aoaao oi?aeanoaaiii ia?aianoe aai a iiaoth noieeoeo e oai naiui
naeaeaoue Neii Nayoui A?aaeii.

Ieiei 995 a. aei ?.O. i?iecioei oi?aeanoaaiiia ia?aianaiea «O?iia ssaaa»
a Ea?onaeei. Aine?aoay o?aaeeoeeth ei/aaie yiioe, Aeaaeae ia aian Eia/aa
a aeii, ii iinoaaee aai iiae naiueth iioiaeiiai oao?a.

Ia?aianaiea Eia/aaa Caaaoa ia ai?o Neii yaeeinue niauoeai
eneeth/eoaeueiie aaaeiinoe. Aue iniiaai aeooiaiue oeaio? aaooicaaaoiie
?aeeaee, eioi?iio ni a?aiaiai noaeaeaii aoaeao ea?aoue ia?iiioth ?ieue.
Ea?onaeei noaiao Nayoui A?aaeii ia?iaea Aiaeey, a aiineaaenoaee —
Oea?eae. E oioy Ea?onaeei nouanoaiaae oaea ca iyouenio eao aei Aeaaeaea,
ii naeaeae aai oai, /ai ii noae, oieueei Aeaaeae, ia?aiany a iaai Eia/aa
Caaaoa.

A iaeiii ae?aaiai oaenoa, i?eienuaaaiii Aeaaeaeo, Aia caeeth/aao n
«i?aaeaiaeeoaeai ia?iaea» Caaao. Io aiaeaey o?aaoaony i?aaaaeiinoue e
no?ao Aiaeee, e oiaaea Aia eniieieo iaaoiaaiea, aiai?yuaa ia eaeaaeueiii
oea?a ?iaea Aeaaeaea, eioi?ue noaiao iniiaaoaeai Oea?noaa Aiaeey ia
caiea. A oa/aiea aaeia yoa aa?a a A?yaeouaai Oea?y e Oea?noai aoaeao ana
aieaa e aieaa i?inaaoeyoueny e iaeooioai?youeny. Eiaaea /a?ac aeanyoue
aaeia Eenon Iaca?yiei yaeony n?aaee ethaeae, ii aoaeao iacaai
Iiiacaiieeii, Ianneae, nuiii Aeaaeaea.

A 961 a. aei ?.O. Aeaaeae oia? — nioae a iiaeeo iaeei ec naiuo
iaea?aiiuo e auaeathueony ethaeae Ec?aeey. Ai iiiaii i?eiaaeeaaea ie?o
noaaa?ee e e?iaiie ianoe, ie?o oceiio e ia?aie/aiiiio, ii aian naie
aeeaae a nicaeaiea ia?iaea Aiaeey, aeaa aio Nayoie A?aae.

Nui Aeaaeaea Nieiiii aue iaei iioiae ia iooea. Au?inoee a ?ineioe e ia
ecaaaeaaoee aeecie, ii anooiee ia i?anoie, eiaaea aio aua ia auei
aeaaaeoeaoe eao. Ii ia ciae ie aiei, ie o?oaeiinoae, ie iianiinoae.
Iaoue eiaea ia iaai aieueoia aeeyiea, e ii i/aiue n/eoaeny n iae.
I/aaeaeii, i?eneooeaaeny ii e e aieino i?i?iea Iaoaia, eioi?ue
niinianoaiaae aai anooieaieth ia o?ii. E, aa?iyoii, eeoue iinea nia?oe
Iaoaia ii ?aoeeny inouanoaeoue ia/oo iooea: iino?ieoue a Ea?onaeeia o?ai
ssaaa.

O?ai no?ieeny ianeieueei eao e aue inayuai a 950 a. aei ?.O. Ii
ioee/aeny aeaai?iaeiie i?i noioie oi?i, aue neiaeai ec oanaiuo eaiiae,
aioo?e iaoeo oeaiiui aea?aaii, ia eioi?ia auea iaeiaeaia iicieioa.

?en. 56

Nieiiii no?ieo O?ai. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a.

?en. 57

O?ai Nieiiiia e aai ie?anoiinoe.

Iiaeaeue

Eae c?eiay, caiiay iaeoaeue Aiaeey o?ai i?aaenoaaeye niaie Anaeaiioth.
Cieioua naaoeeueieee auee caacaeaie, aeaa iaaeiuo noieaa n oci?iuie
eaieoaeyie neiaieece?iaaee neeo i?iec?anoaiey; ea?iecu auee oe?aoaiu
?aeueaoaie oeaaoia, ieiaeia, aeeaioiuo, oa?oaeiia (o.a. aeooia noeoee).

Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi ana yoe iiae?iaiinoe o?aiiaiai ono?ienoaa auee
iaaayiu oeieeeeneei e aaeiaoneei eneonnoaii. Ii naiie caia/aoaeueiie
iniaaiiinoueth Nieiiiiiaa o?aia auee ia yoe caeinoaiaaiiua oe?aoaiey, a
oi, /oi ii aue oieeaeueiui o?aiii, a eioi?ii ionoonoaiaaei ecia?aaeaiea
Aiaeanoaa.

O?ai aue iino?iai ia ai?a Ii?ea, ?yaeii n Neiineie ai?ie. Ia?aiin
Eia/aaa a Aeii Aiaeee aue i?aa?auai Nieiiiiii a iauaia?iaeiue i?acaeiee.

I?aaeaiea iiaanoaoao, /oi ai a?aiy inayuaiey Aeii Ainiiaeaiue iaiieieeny
aeenoathuei iaeaeii a ciae Aiaii?enoonoaey.

____________________________________________________________

1 Oaie?aoey — oi?ia i?aaeaiey, i?e eioi?ie aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo
nayuaiiineoaeeoaeyi aaeeiie (ainoaea?noaaiiie) ?aeeaee; aaoie?aoey —
i?aaeaiea, inouanoaeyaiia iaeiei /aeiaaeii.

Nayuaiiay enoi?ey

Ec?aeeueneia oea?noai, 950—930 aa. aei ?.O.

Oea?noaiaaiea Nieiiiia auei a?aiaiai ?anoeaaoa eeoa?aoo?u. Yoio ?anoeaao
aue y?eei naeaeaoaeuenoaii iiaie nooiaie a oinoaaiiie e aeooiaiie
enoi?ee ia?iaea. Eiaiii a yoe aiaeu e auee aia?aua eceiaeaiu iniiau aa?u
ia?iaea Aiaeey, aai iiieiaiey /aeiaaea, ie?a e Aiaa.

N oiai a?aiaie, eiaaea Aia ioe?ueny Ec?aeeth a niauoeyo Enoiaea,
no?ainoaiaaiee e caaiaaaiey, eiaiii niauoey enoi?ee a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
noaiiayony naeaeaoaeuenoaii Aiaeanoaaiiiai I?iiunea. Iiyoiio e neiaie
aa?u Ec?aeey iieo/aao oi?io enoi?e/aneiai iiaanoaiaaiey, nia/aea
onoiiai, a a oea?noaiaaiea Nieiiiia — ienueiaiiiai. Iaecaanoii, eae
iacuaaeanue yoa ia?aay Nayuaiiay enoi?ey e eoi aue aa aiaiaaeioiiaaiiue
aaoi?. A aeaeaeneie iaoea aai i?eiyoi iacuaaoue «yaaenoii», oae eae ii
i?aaeii/eoaao oiio?aaeyoue eiy Aiaeea ssaaa e n/eoaao, /oi aai ciaee aua
aei Iienay.

ssaaenoe/aneee Auoiienaoaeue1 aue iaeiei ec aiinoieia Aaooiai Caaaoa.
Ia?auaynue e naiei nia?aiaiieeai, ii ian ei aicauoaiioth enoeio, ii
aiai?ee n ieie ia ycuea, iiiyoiii naiui oe?ieei e?oaai. N?aaee no?aieoe,
iaienaiiuo /aeiaa/aneie ?oeie, aaeaa ee iiaeii aaea-ieaoaeue aua
ano?aoeoue oaeia ecoieoaeueiia ni/aoaiea ia?iaeiie oi?iu n aeoaieei
aeooiaiui niuneii. I?aau iiyoiio oa, eoi iacuaaao Auoea eieaie e aeey
ieaaeaioeaa, e aeey ioae?aoeia.

Nayuaiiay enoi?ey aeey yaaenoa — yoi ae?aia, ?acua?uaathuayny iaaeaeo
iaaii e caieae, iaaeaeo Aiaii e /aeiaaeii. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao i?eiao
/aeiaaea a Oai?aiee. Aia nia/aea oai?eo /aeiaaea, a iioii nicaeaao aeey
iaai ?aeneee naae Yaeai e anao aeeaioiuo.

*aeiaae ieacuaaaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, /anoueth caiee, a n ae?oaie —
iniaui aeooiaiui oai?aieai Aiaeeei. Yoi aeaoaaeeinoai auoey /aeiaaea
Auoiienaoaeue iiae/a?eeaaao ia ?ac. Ia eae ?aa e ia aeey i?acaeiinoe
iinaeyaony /aeiaae a Yaeaia, a aeey oiai, /oiau aicaeaeuaaoue e o?aieoue
aai. Iin?aaee Yaeaia aicauoathony Ae?aai AEecie e caaaaei/iia Ae?aai
Iiciaiey aeia?a e cea.

?en. 58

A?aoiiaaeaiea. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

Aeey yaaenoa Ae?aai AEecie — i?aaeaea anaai enoi/iee aannia?oey. Aia ia
cae?uaaao /aeiaaeo iooue iaio e oai naiui i?iaeieaeaao naia iniaia
iiia/eoaeuenoai i /aeiaaea. Ii cai?auaao aio eeoue aeooaoue ieiaeu
Ae?aaa Iiciaiey, i?aaeoi?aaeaeay, /oi yoi a?iceo /aeiaaeo aeaaeueth.

Nicaeaa aeeaioiuo «ec caiee», o. a. ec oiai aea aauanoaa, /oi e
/aeiaaea, ssaaa i?eaiaeeo eo e iaio, /oiau «aeaeaoue, eae ii iaciaao eo»
(Auo 2:19). Ia?a/aiea eiaie a eaeneeiia Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea icia/aei
i?iyaeaiea aeanoe. Oea?e-iiaaaeeoaee iau/ii aeaaaee iiei?aiiui oea?yi
iiaua eiaia. Oaeei ia?acii, caeanue ynii ooaa?aeaeaaony oea?noaaiiay
aeanoue /aeiaaea iaae ie?ii. E ia oieueei aeanoue. Iniio?aa anao
aeeaioiuo, /aeiaae ia iaoae naaa «iiiiuieea, iiaeiaiiai aio» (Auo 2:20).
I?iua iaaiciiaeii auei au?aceoue oieeaeueiinoue /aeiaaea a i?e?iaea.

*aeiaaeo iiaeao auoue ?aaai oieueei /aeiaae. E iiyoiio ssaaa nicaeaao
aio «iiiiuieea» ec iaai naiiai. «Aio yoi einoue io einoae iieo e ieioue
io ieioe iiae» (Auo 2:23), — aiai?eo /aeiaae, eiaaea aeaeeo aeaio.
?anneac caaa?oatho neiaa yaaenoa, eioi?uie inayuathony ethaiaue e a?ae:
«Inoaaeo /aeiaae iooea naiaai e iaoue naith e i?eeaieony e aeaia naiae;
e aoaeoo aeaa iaeia ieioue» (Auo 2:24).

Ia?aay aeaiueia, ii au?aaeaieth yaaenoa, «iaoue anao aeeaoueo» (Auo
3:20). Yoa e?aoeay oi?ioea ii?iaa?aaao ana niiiaiey ioiineoaeueii
aaeeinoaa /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea.

ssaaeno ?aoeoaeueii ia i?eieiaao iuneue i oii, /oi cei nicaeaii Aiaii.
Iai?ioea, a oai?aiee ana i?ae?anii e aa?iiie/ii, oioy e ia ieii/aii.
Caiey iaiaaeaia e ionouiia, ii iia aeaeao /aeiaaea-oai?oea, e ia iae
iiyaeyaony Yaeai, ia/aei ie?iaiai oeaaoaiey. *aeiaae ia oieueei
ainiiaeei i?e?iaeu, ie?oaeathuae aai, ii e ainiiaeei iaae naiae
nianoaaiiie i?e?iaeie. Aai ieioneay, noeoeeii-/oanoaaiiay aeeciue
i?ioaeaao anoanoaaiii e aa?iiie/ii. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iaaioa
ia?auo ethaeae, eioi?ui ia/aai auei nouaeeoueny. Ae?aai AEecie, io
eioi?iai /aeiaae aua ia aeonee, iaeeaeaei aai. E anee aniiiieoue i
iiiaia?aiiii cia/aiee yoiai neiaiea, oi iiaeii aeoiaoue, /oi iii iaauaei
ia oieueei aa/ioth aeeciue, ii e i?eiauaiea e aunoae ioae?inoe.

Inaiaiiue Aiaeanoaaiiui aeaaineiaaieai, i?ecaaiiue auoue aeaaeueie ie?a,
/aeiaae, niaeanii Aeaeee, iieo/aao i?aaeinoa?aaeaiea io ssaaa. Aio
oa?iaeaao aeaaeue, anee ii aeoneo io Ae?aaa Iiciaiey aeia?a e cea. Yoa
caiiaaaeue anoue eae au i?iaiue eaiaiue aeey eniuoaiey i?aaeaiiinoe
/aeiaaea aiea Oai?oea.

Aia — i?aaeiao caaenoe, Aia-niia?iee, Aia eae ia/oi /oaeaeia — aio /oi
?iaeaeaaony a iii?a/aiiii a?aoii niciaiee /aeiaaea e oieeaao aai ia
i?anooieaiea caiiaaaee. Oi, /oi yoio iaaeeii a ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e Aiao
i?iecioae a naiii ia/aea nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea, iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaaeci,
ia?aceoe?othuee ia ?aeeaee oaea a naiua ?aiiea yiioe i?aaeunoi?ee.

ssaaeno ciaao, /oi /aeiaae iioae ia i?anooieaiea iiae aicaeaenoaeai
a?aaeaeaaiuo nee. Ii eoi iie, yoe neeu? Neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi yaaeno
ia iia iaeoe aeey ieo aieaa iiaeoiaeyuae ianee, /ai ianea ciay.

Ciae niaeaciyao Aao ia?ooeoue cai?ao. Eo aanaaea ia?aaeaia n oaeie
iaiiae?aaeaaiie aeeainoueth, n oaeei oiieei ciaieai /aeiaa/aneie
ineoieiaee, /oi inoaaony ia aaea oeie/iui ia?acii niaeacia e iaaeaiey.
Ciae canoaaeyao aeaiueio oniiieoueny a enoeiiinoe oiai, /oi neacae
Oai?aoe, e iia aeaeaao auai?, aeiaa?yy aieueoa ciath, /ai Aiao…

Ioiuia Yaeaineee naae cae?uo aeey ethaeae. Oa?oaei e iaiaiiue ia/
io?aiytho aeinooi e Ae?aao AEecie (Auo 3:24). Oa?oaeiu auee
ieeoeaoai?aieai ao?e, e noaooe eo noaaeeenue eae no?aaee aeai?oeia e
nayoeeeu. Oi/ii oae aea e «ieaiaiiue ia/» iaicia/aao aoiinoa?iue iaiiue,
io?aiythuee cai?aoiua noa?u. Yoe ae?aaiaainoi/iua ia?acu aeieaeiu
icia/aoue, /oi /aeiaae aue eeoai aiaiiauaiey e aa/iie aeecie.

Ia?aaeei i?aaenoaaeytho aeaei oae, aoaeoi a?ao ia?ae /aeiaaea ia o?oae.
Ia naiii aeaea, eae iu aeaeaee, /aeiaae aua a Yaeaia aae aeoeaioth
niceaeaoaeueioth aeeciue. Ii ioiaaeaiea io Aiaa iaeiaeeei i?ieeyoea ia
caieth, e o?oae ec ?aaeinoiiai i?aa?aoeeny a io/eoaeueiue e oyainoiue.
I?e?iaea aii?oaeaaony i?ioea /aeiaaea, e ii i?eioaeaeai aeiauaaoue naaa
i?iieoaiea «a iioa eeoea» aei oao ii?, iiea ia aica?aoeony a caieth, ec
eioi?ie aue acyo (Auo 3:17—19).

Aneaae ca ia?aie o?aaaaeeae Nayuaiiay enoi?ey aiai?eo i aoi?ie: i
a?aoioaeenoaa. Anee ia?aue aoio aue iai?aaeai i?yii i?ioea Aiaa, oi
oaia?ue /aeiaae eaeao i?ioea /aeiaaea.

Ii e a yoii i?anooieaiee iaia?oaeeaaaony eneaaeaiea ?aeeaeiciiai
niciaiey. Eiaaea Eaei e Aaaeue i?eianee aea?oau, ssaaa aeaaineeiiii
i?eiye aea? Aaaey, a Eaeiiai i?eiioaiea ioaa?a. Eaeio auei aeinaaeii, «e
iiieeei eeoea aai» (Auo 4:5). (I?e/eia i?aaeii/oaiey Aaaey ia oeacaia,
ii iia, ianiiiaiii, niaea?aeaeanue a ooa?yiiie /anoe ?anneaca.)
Ioaa/aiiue ceiaie Eaei ?aoeeny oaeoue a?aoa, eioi?ue yeiau iioeoee o
iaai aeaaineiaaiea. Aaaeue aea?oaii?eiineoaeae auei oieueei aeaia, e ni
nia?oueth Aaaey Eaei iia ?ann/eouaaoue ia iniaia aieiaiea ni noi?iiu
Aiaa. Naii aea oaeenoai ii iaaeayeny ne?uoue io ssaaa. Oaeei ia?acii,
Eaeiia a?ao ei?aieeny a iaeaiii oaaaeaeaiee, /oi iaaaniua aea?u iiaeii
iieo/eoue iooai ianeeey e iaiaia. Yoi oaaaeaeaiea, noieue oa?aeoa?iia
aeey iaaecia, yaaeno ?ac?ooaao oai, /oi iieacuaaao Anaaaaeaiea Aiaa,
Eioi?ue i?iieeaao a aeoaeiu /aeiaa/aneiai na?aeoea e aeaeeo enoeiiua
iioeau iinooieia. ssaaa aua aei a?aoioaeenoaa i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao Eaeia,
/oi «o aeaa?ae a?ao eaaeeo» e iaaei «ainiiaenoaiaaoue» iaae iei (Auo
4:7). Iiyoiio a ioiioaiee e Aiao /aeiaae aeieaeai ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny
oieueei ene?aiiinoueth e /enoina?aea/eai.

?en. 59

AEa?oaaiiee i?i?iea Eeee ia ai?a Ea?iee

A oanoie aeaaa Auoey yaaeno aiai?eo i a?a/iii nithca ethaeae ni
naa?o/aeiaa/aneeie nouanoaaie. Caia/aoaeueiie /a?oie neacaiey yaeyaony
oi, /oi caeanue ethaee aeaenoaotho oaea niaa?oaiii iacaaeneii io Aiaa.
Anee aua Eaei eeoeii e eeoeo aiai?eo n ssaaa, oi «nuiu aiaia», aeaiueiu
e eo iioiiee eniieeiu aeaenoaotho oaea aiieia aaoiiiiii, oae, aoaeoi au
Aiaa ia nouanoaoao. ?anoeaiea caoaaouaaao /aeiaa/aneee ?iae, e cei
oi?aeanoaoao.

Iaeiaei Auoiienaoaeue iieacuaaao, /oi a ie?a oea?eo caeii aicaeayiey. Ca
i?anooieaieai neaaeoao iaeacaiea: Aaeai eeoaaony Ae?aaa AEecie; Eaei
ecaiiyaony a aanieiaeioth ionouith; eniieeiu e aanue ?aca?auaiiue ?iae
/aeiaa/aneee oaeaea ia iiaoo ecaaaeaoue aiciacaeey.

Aeaeaeneee aaoi? aiai?eo i eaoano?ioa, aeiiouaiiie Iaaii ca /aeiaa/aneea
i?anooieaiey. Iie e aai naiuey nianathony ia aeaaiaea?y i?eoioe eee
eiieo?aioeee aiaia, — ii eca?ai eae aaeeinoaaiiue i?aaaaeiee n?aaee
?aca?aoeaoaainy ethaeneiai ?iaea.

Aue ee iioii anaie?iui? Oa, eoi euao a Aeaeee oaeoia aaieiae/aneeo,
aoaeoo ?aci/a?iaaiu; caeanue iiyoe/aneay iaiei/ea neacaiey caneiiyao
aiaoiea aeaoaee. E oiio aea iiiyoea «ie?» auei aeey ae?aaieo aanueia
ia?aie/aiiui, iii ia oei aeaeueoa N?aaeecaiiiai ii?y e Aeao?a/uey. I?e
yoii iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi Aeaeey /anoi oiio?aaeyao neiai «caiey» e
aeaaea «any caiey» aeey iaicia/aiey oieueei eeoue iaeiie eieaeueiie
ianoiinoe.

?en. 60

Eeey ia ai?a Oi?ea. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

Iioiiee Iiy a aeaeaeneii iiaanoaiaaiee noaee ?iaeiia/aeueieeaie o?ao
iniiaiuo ycueiai-ieaiaiiuo a?oii ae?aaiinoe: naieoia, yoaoeaeia e
oaieoia2. Yoeie ieaiaiaie aeey aaoi?a Eieae Auoey ia?aie/eaaeinue
/aeiaa/anoai.

Neacaiea i nuiao Iiy caaa?oaaony iineaaeiei aeoii aiaiai?/aneie ae?aiu:
no?ieoaeuenoaii ai?iaea Aaaeeiia e nii?oaeaieai Aaoie. Iia ieacuaaaony
iaaeaoniuneaiiui neiaieii eiia?ee, iiae/eieaoeo naaa ethaeae iooai
ianeeey. Niei/aieth /aeiaa/anoaa a Aiaa e /a?ac Aiaa no?ieoaee
«Aaaeeiia» i?ioeaiiinoaaeytho aaeeiaiea aiaoiaa, ia /enoi /aeiaa/aneie
iniiaa, e aeey yoiai aicaeaeaatho naith eniieeineoth Aaoith. Ni a?aiai
aaaeeiiyi, oa?aiiia e anne?eeoeaa, ia?nia, iaeaaeiioeaa e ?eieyi aieioue
aei eiioea iaoaai noieaoey aunyony ia aei?iaa enoi?ee iaeiiee yoeo
iaaeino?iaiiuo eiia?neeo aaoai.

Aaoiy-eiia?ey anoue neiaie iiiuoee «ono?ieoueny aac Aiaa ia caiea».
Aiiaue e aiiaue oeiii/oo no?ieoaee, aiiaue e aiiaue icaai/aiu ?aoaieai
caaea/e «ono?iaiey» iauanoaa (/oiau iai ia ?annayoueny ii eeoeo caiee),
ii aiiaue e aiiaue noiaeeo Ainiiaeue «iiniio?aoue ai?iae e

?en. 61

ssaeaiea Aiaaea Eeee I?i?ieo. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Aaoith» (Auo 11:4—5), e iaeciaiii ieiaeu aeaiiie/aneie ai?aeuie ?ooaony,
oi/ii naeaeaiiua ec ianea.

Ii eiaiii oiaaea, eiaaea caaa?oaaony ?anneac i Aaoia, Auoiienaoaeue
aia?aua aiai?eo i aiciiaeiinoe nianaiey /aeiaa/anoaa. Ia ?annoaeaeay eae
aiaineia e ia aea?cay aiai?eoue i nie?iaaiiii, ii eeoue eniiaaaeoao
aa?o.

ssaaeno e aai aaeeiiiuoeaiieee ioaa?aee ycu/aneea eiioeaioeee i
e?oaiai?ioa e oeeeee/iinoe, ?ac?ooeee ieo i noaoe/iie Anaeaiiie e
oaeaeaee ie? e /aeiaa/anoai eae enoi?eth, ae?aio, noaiiaeaiea, eae
i?aethaeeth e Oea?noao Aiaeeth. Yoi o/aiea aoaeao oaeoaeyoueny e
iaeooioai?youeny aaeeeeie aeaeaeneeie i?i?ieaie.

____________________________________________________________

1 Auoiienaoaeue — caeanue: aaoi? Eieae Auoey.

2 Nia?aiaiiay iaoea ?acee/aao ieaiaiiia (yoie/aneia) ?iaenoai e ycueiaia
?iaenoai; i?e ieaiaiiuo eiioaeoao (ie?iuo eee aiaiiuo) iaeii ieaiy
ca/anooth i?eieiaei ycue ae?oaiai, niaoeaaynue n iei.

Ai?ueaa ca aa?o. I?i?ie e oea?ue

Ec?aeeue e Eoaeay, 930—850 aa. aei ?.O.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu oea?noaiaaiey Nieiiiia Naaa?iua iaeanoe noaee i/aaii
iai?anoaiiuo aieiaiee. Iaeii ec naiuo cia/eoaeueiuo ainnoaiee auei
aaeioiiaeaii i?i?ieii Aoeae ec Neeiia, iiaoaeeaoei e iyoaaeo yo?aeieoa
Ea?iaiaia.

Oa?aii, eioi?ue ninoiye a nithca n Nieiiiiii, oia?, e oaia?ue
oea?noaiaae Nonaeei I (935— 914 aa. aei ?.O.). Nioou a aa?aeneii
oea?noaa aiooaee aio iaaeaaeaeu ia oniao.

Ia/aeanue oeaiue a?aoioaeenoaaiiuo aiei. Iaeanoeia niiaa noaea aeiau/ae
ninaaeae. Aaeeinoao Ec?aeeueneiai oea?noaa aue iieiaeai eiiaoe. Nonaeei
I ia oionoee neo/ay aiaoaoueny a ai?ueao Naaa?a e THaa. Aa?iyoii,
i?ecaaiiue ia iiiiuue Ea?iaiaiii, ii aoi?any a Iaeanoeio, acye aiaaoue
aueoi o eoaeaeneiai oea?y ?iaiaia, a iioii i?ioae eae iiaaaeeoaeue e ii
caieyi naiaai iaaeaaiaai nithcieea. Ainiieueciaaeenue ineaaeaieai
Ec?aeey e ne?eeoeu Aeaianea.

Ea?iaiai I (922—901 aa. aei ?.O.) ieacaeny ai aeaaa naaa?iiai
Yo?aeineiai, eee Ec?aeeueneiai, oea?noaa, ii ?acia?ai ai?acaei
aieueoaai, /ai Eoaeay, e aaea nin?aaeioi/eaaeinue iniiaiia e?anoueyineia
ianaeaiea.

Onooiea ycu/aneei einoeieoai oieiu, Ea?iaiai iecaae yaaeci ia o?iaaiue
i?eieoeaiie caieaaeaeue/aneie ?aeeaee. Aea?aayiiue aue, iie?uoue
eenoiaui cieioii, i?aa?aoeeny a ianoiyuaai eaeiea, eioi?iio ieacuaaeenue
aiaeaneea ii/anoe.

?en. 62

Eeey aine?aoaao nuia aaeiau. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Iaeiaei, n eaeie au auno?ioie ie ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ycu/aneay yieaeaiey,
iiiiceoeey nic?aea ia iaiaa auno?i. Aiiaue iiyaeeenue iaueiu i?i?ieia,
eiaiiaaaoeany, eae e anoa?ue. Nuiaie i?i?i/aneeie. N?aaee ieo aue Eeey
Oanaeoyiei.

Ii i?eoae n Ainoiea, n a?aieoe ionouie. Aeae aai ii?aaeae n ia?aiai
acaeyaea: nioaeia eeoei, ia?aieaiiia einiaoie a?eaie aiein, i?inoay
ianoooaneay aeanyieoea; aeaeaeaiey aai no?aieoaeueiu, ii ?acie,
eiioeueneaai, aanue a ii?uaa, eae au a iaia e ao?a.

Aai eiy icia/aao «Iie Aia — ssaaa». A yoeo neiaao — e?aaei caaaaei/iiai
no?aiieea, aeueoa e iiaaa1 aai o/aiey.

Eeey i?iecaae ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea ia nia?aiaiieeia, auoue iiaeao, naiia
aieueoia iinea Iienay. Aai ie?oaeae i?aie eaaaiae e oaei. Ia?iae niio?ae
ia iaai n eaeei-oi noaaa?iui no?aoii. Noieaoey nionoy ii i?iaeieaeae
naia no?ainoaea ii caiea. Aiai?eee, /oi ii yaeony iiiacaoue ia oea?noai
Ianneth. Aa?ae inoaaeyee aeey iaai i?eai? ca o?aiacie; ii ace?aao ia ie?
n aecaioeeneeo o?anie e ?onneeo eeii.

Eeey nio?aieeny a iaiyoe ethaeae eae canooiiee aiieiuo ia?aae neeueiuie
ie?a naai, eae i?i?ie oieaeaiiuo e inei?aeaiiuo. Yoi naeaeaei aai eiy
aannia?oiui.

Eeey aue eae au aoi?ui Iienaai Ec?aeeueneie ?aeeaeiciie enoi?ee. A
?aoeoaeueiue iiiaio, eiaaea oa?ica ycu/anoaa auea naiie na?ueaciie, ii
iaian ii iaio nie?ooeoaeueiue oaea?.

Eniieeineay oeao?a Eeee noieo, eae iaye, ia nouea aeaoo yiio. Ii aue
no?iaui aieiii, auniei iiaeiyaoei ciaiy Iienay, e naiae ai?ueaie
?an/enoee iooue aaeeeei aa?aeneei i?i?ieai.

Ii ie Eeeth, ie i?i?ieia, eioi?ua i?eoee aio ia niaio /a?ac noieaoea,
iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eae eciee?iaaiiua yaeaiey. A oi a?aiy oaea ana
/aeiaa/anoai eae au i?inuiaeinue iinea iaae/aneiai nia, aioiaynue
inaiaiaeeoueny io aeanoe aeaiiiia, oyaioaaoae iaae ie?ii. Aaoi?u
Oiaieoaae e Aoaeaea, Eai-oecu e Ca?aoono?a, Aiaenaai? e Nie?ao
iaeiia?aiaiii n Aiinii e Enaeae aioiaeeenue ioe?uoue ie?o iiaua iooe
Aiaiiiciaiey.

____________________________________________________________

1 Aeueoa e iiaaa — ia?aay e iineaaeiyy aoeau a?a/aneiai aeoaaeoa.
Au?aaeaiea oiio?aaeyaony eae iaicia/aiea ia/aea e eiioea, n?. neiaa
Aiieaeeinena: «ss aniue Aeueoa e Iiaaa, ia/aei e eiiaoe, aiai?eo
Ainiiaeue» (Ioe? 1:8); «ss aniue Aeueoa e Iiaaa, Ia?aue e Iineaaeiee»
(Ioe? 1:10).

III. O A?AO IIE*AIEss

Aeooiaiay aeeciue Eeoay e Eiaeee

a na?aaeeia ia?aiai ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O.

EEOAENEAss OEEINIOEss

Ia aa?aaao Ooaioy Eeoae, VIII-VI aa. aei ?.O.

Aunieee aeaeoieeoeue noa?ee n aeeeiiie ai?iaeie, aonouie /a?iuie a?iayie
e aieui oeoeiaaoui /a?aiii. Oaeei caia/aoeaee aai eeoaeneea ooaeiaeieee.
Ia?aaeei aai ecia?aaeaee neaeyuei ia auea, eioi?ue oiinee aai a aeaeaeea
iaaaaeiiua e?ay. Ii i?aaeaieth, iineaaeiei, eoi aeaeae noa?eea, aue
ia/aeueiee iia?aie/iie canoaau, iieo/eaoee io iaai ia iaiyoue
oaeeaeoaeueioth eieao «I iooe e aeia?iaeaoaee».
?annoaaoenue n iei, ioae?aoe ioi?aaeeny eoaea-oi aeaeaei ia Caiaae.
Oeao?a aai ?anoayea, iiaeiaii i?ec?aeo, n?aaee ai?iuo i?ioiaeia. N yoiai
aeiy ieeoi i iai aieueoa ia neuoae.

?en. 63

O?ai Iaaa. Iaeei. 1420 a.

Ii aue ecaanoai anai iiae i?icaeuai Eai-oeyu, /oi cia/eo «Noa?ia aeeoy»
eee «Noa?ue ioae?aoe». A?aiaiai aai ?iaeaeaiey iiiaea n/eoaee 604 a. aei
?.O.

Naia o/aiea oeeinio eceiaeee a «Aeai aey oeceia» — eieaa «I iooe e
aeia?iaeaoaee».

Eai-oecu ?iaeeeny a no?aia, naii iacaaiea eioi?ie oaea aeaaii noaei
neiiieiii anaai eiina?aaoeaiiai, ?ooeiiiai, iaiiaeaeaeiiai.

A eeoaeneie ?aeeaee, eae e a aieueoeinoaa ycu/aneeo eoeueoia,
nio?aieeenue neaaeu ia?aiia/aeueiiai aaeeiiaiaeey. Eeoaeoeu ciaee i
iaeiai Aa?oiaiii ia/aea, eioi?ia iacuaaee Oyiue (Iaai) eee Oai-Aee
(Ainiiaeue). Oa?aeoa?ii, iaeiaei, /oi yoi Aunoaa ia/aei ii/eoaeinue
i?aiooeai ia?iaea, eae au aeaaie ia?iiiie naiuee eeoaeoeaa. Iiyoiio e
iaio iiaeiaaei ioiineoueny n oaeei aea, anee ia n aieueoei, oaaaeaieai,
eae e aaio1 aeaaa ?iaea eee noa?oaio a naiuea. Yoi «ii/oeoaeueiia»
ioiioaiea au?aaeaeinue, a /anoiinoe, a aea?oaii?eiioaieyo Iaao. Oea?ue,
aoaeo/e iioiieii Aa?oiaiiai Oea?y Iaaa, aue iaeiia?aiaiii e aa?oiaiui
ae?aoeii. Aai i?eaeeaeaiiua e aeaau ?iaeia oaeaea eiaee ae?a/aneea
iieiiii/ey e niaa?oaee ?eooaeu, iinayuaiiua aiaai e aeooai. Iiyoiio ia
auei iaiaoiaeeiinoe a iniaii nayuaiie/aneii nineiaee.

N VIII a. aei ?.O. a Eeoaa ianoaei ianiieieiia a?aiy; noa?eiiua ianie
iieiu aeaeia ia iao?yaeeoeu e iaaeaeioniaeoeu. Niia?ie/anoai
oaiaeaeueiuo eiycae, aeanoieinoue e i?iecaie, ?ino i?anooiiinoe, a?iciua
noeoeeiua aaaenoaey — oaeiau auee /a?ou yiioe.

E oiaaea-oi iiyaeyaony «Noa?ue ioae?aoe» Eai-oecu e aac iacieeeainoe
noaoeeauo «o/aiuo», aac ooia, eae au oaiioii ia ooi anaio ie?o niiauaao
ioe?uaoothny aio oaeio aauae.

«Anoue auoea, — aiai?eo ii, — eioi?ia nouanoaoao ?aiueoa, iaaeaee iaai e
caiey. Iii iaaeaeaeeii, aanoaeanii, naiiauoii e ia ciaao ia?aai?ioa. Iii
eaeao, niaa?oay aaneiia/iue e?oa, e ia ciaao i?aaeaea. Iii iaeii oieueei
iiaeao auoue iaoa?ueth iaaa e caiee. ss ia ciath aai eiaie, ii ethaee
iacuaatho aai Aeai».

Aeai aoeaaeueii icia/aao «Iooue», ii a eeoaeneii ycuea iii iaeaaeaao
oaeei aea iiiaia?aiiui niuneii, eae a?a/aneee oa?iei «Eiain». Ei
iaicia/aee i?aaeei e ii?yaeie, niune e caeii, aunooth aeooiaioth
Nouiinoue e aeeciue, i?iiecaiioth yoie Nouiinoueth.

Iineieueeo Aeai — aeooiaiia ia/aei, aai iaaiciiaeii iinoe/ue ie c?aieai,
ie neooii, ie inycaieai. Ana aeaeeiia auoea aaneiia/ii ieaea aai.
Iiyoiio oeeinio iniaeeaaaony iacaaoue Aeai Iaauoeai. Iii ia nouanoaoao
oae, eae nouanoaotho ai?u, aea?aauey, ethaee. Aai ?aaeueiinoue
i?aainoiaeeo ?aaeueiinoue caiiiai e /oanoaaiiiai.

«Niio?th ia iaai e ia aeaeo, a iioiio iacuaath aai Iaaeaeeiui. Neooath
aai e ia neuoo, iiyoiio iacuaath aai Ianeuoeiui. Iuoathnue noaaoeoue aai
e ia aeinoeaath, iiyoiio iacuaath aai Iaeue/aeoei… Iii aaneiia/ii e ia
iiaeao auoue iacaaii. Iii niiaa aica?auaaony a Iaauoea. E aio iacuaatho
aai oi?iie aac oi?iu, ia?acii aac nouanoaa… A ie?a ana aaue
?iaeaeathony a auoee, a auoea ?iaeaeaaony a Iaauoee».

Ioae?aoe nica?oeaao Aeai, ia auoiaey ec aeiia: «ia auaeyaeuaay ec ieia,
ii aeaeeo anoanoaaiiia Aeai». Oneiaeai «aeinoeaeaiey Aeai» yaeyaony
naiioaeoaeaiea e aeooiaiia i/euaiea. «Eoi naiaiaeai io no?anoae, aeaeeo
aai /oaeanioth oaeio»; oio, eoi aeinoeaaao nica?oeaiey Aiaeanoaa,
neeaaaony n Iei aiaaeeii, ia?aoay aa/iue iieie. «*aeiaae n Aeai —
oiaeaeanoaai Aeai», ii eae au iieieony a eiia auoey, ianeaaeaeaynue
iaec?a/aiiie oeoeiie e iuouay, eae a aai aeooo aeeaaaony naia Aa/iinoue.

?en. 64

Eai-oecu oacaeaao ia Caiaae. Noaooyoea

Ethaee oa?cathony ae/iinoueth, caaenoueth, /anoiethaeai. I?aaeoaee
oaiaoatho ia?iae, niia?ie/atho ae?oa n ae?oaii, iiaeieiatho aienea,
/oiau caoaaoeoue /oaeea caiee. Oeeinio ia?auaaony e oea?yi e
iieeiaiaeoeai, e?e/auei i naieo o?eoioao: «I?ineaaeyoue naay iiaaaeie —
yoi cia/eo ?aaeiaaoueny oaeenoao ethaeae… Anee oaeaatho iiiaeo
ethaeae, oi ia yoii ioaeii ai?ueei ieaeaoue».

Aiiaua any /aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaaeyaony Eai-oecu
aanieiaeiie noaoie. Ethaee oi?iiyony, eiiioaony, iyooony, a Aeai
i?aauaaao a aiaeanoaaiiie aaciyoaaeiinoe. Ia aeaeaaynue, iii aeaeaeaony,
ia aeaeay, iii oai?eo.

*aeiaa/aneea ciaiey, iaoeo e i?inaauaiea, iau/ae e nioeeaeueiua ii?iu
oeeaeeecaoeee — ana yoi Eai-oecu aaciaiai?i/ii ioiaoaao.

?anneacuaaee, /oi iaeioi?ua iineaaeiaaoaee Eai-oecu ooiaeeee a ai?u e
aeeee oai, iia?oaeaiiua a nica?oeaiea e aaciieaea. Iie ainnaaeaee
iaiiaeaeaeii n?aaee neae iiiaea aiaeu; eeoea eo iiuaae aeiaeaeue, aaoa?
?an/anuaae aieinu, eo ?oee iieieeenue ia a?oaee, iaaeoua o?aaaie e
oeaaoaie, ?anooueie i?yii ia eo oaea.

Aiai?yo, /oi Eiioooeee, anth naith aeeciue iinayoeaoee i?iiaaaiaea
ae?aaieo ia?yaeia, iinaoee iaeiaaeaeu Noa?iai ioae?aoea, e oio oaaaeaeae
ecoieaiiiai Eiioooeey a oii, /oi ana aai iiiuoee oniaa?oainoaiaaoue
iauanoai iooai eneonnoaaiiie ?aaeaiaioaoeee ia?a/aiu ia aanieiaeea. Aeey
oiai /oiau aeinoe/ue niaa?oainoaa, ioaeii aicauneoueny iaae anai
a?aiaiiui e niieieii ieuoue ii oa/aieth aaeeeie ?aee AEecie. «Aieoaue
aaeue ia iioiio, /oi ii eaaeaeue aeaiue eoiaaony».

Auoue iiaeao, iaeaieaa i?yiuie aeooiaiuie ianeaaeieeaie «Aeai aey
oeceia» yaeeenue ethaee eneonnoaa. A aoiinoa?a oia?aiiinoe e cae?aaiai
niunea eeoaeneea iiyou oiaee, na?inea ana ioou, naa?a/ue nayuaiiia
aacoiea, eioi?ia caaauae ei Eai-oecu. Iie aieiaee aieino Aeai e
ioaeaaaeenue aai aatheathuaio oaiioo. A ooaeiaeieee eneaee a e?anioa
i?e?iaeu oie nayuaiiie «anoanoaaiiinoe», eioi?ay aica?auaea eo a eiii
Oeaeiai. N eaeei-oi iienoeia ?aeeaeiciui aeaaiaiaaieai eeoaeneea
aeeaiienoeu ecia?aaeaee i?e?iaeo: i?e/oaeeeaua neaeu, iiaaae aaiaoea,
iano?uo aaai/ae, cieiouo ?uaie e ioeoe.

Aeey aa?iiaeoea, eioi?ue oioae au iaeoe iooue e iiieiaieth naiiai
oeaiiiai, /oi anoue a aeooa eeoaeneie eoeueoo?u, yoe ecoieoaeueiua
oaaeaa?u iiaoo iineoaeeoue ia?aie nooiaiueth. Caeanue, eae ieaaea a
Eeoaa, iu iaia?oaeeaaai oa iaua/aeiaa/aneea aeooiaiua ei?ie, eioi?ua
yaeythony caeiaii naeeaeaiey anao ia?iaeia.

______________________________________________________

1 Aai — eiyaeaneee oeooe a Ae?aaiai Eeoaa.

Ii caaaoai i?aaeeia

Eeoae, 551-479 aa. aei ?.O.

Eiy Eiioooeee — eaoeiece?iaaiiay oi?ia eeoaeneiai eiaie Eoi-oecu, o. a.
o/eoaeue Eoi. Ii ?iaeeeny a eiyaeanoaa Eo ieiei 551 a. aei ?.O. Naiuey
aai i?eiaaeeaaeaea e noa?eiiiio a?enoie?aoe/aneiio ?iaeo, e oiio a?aiaie
ii/oe ?aci?eaoaiony.

Eiioooeee a aeooa anaaaea aue neoaeeeui /aeiaaeii, /anoiui /eiiaieeii,
aai iinoiyiii caaioeee iaii?yaeee a no?aia. Iiae aeeyieai oiai, /oi ii
aeaeae ia neoaeaa, e oiai, /oi ii iaoae a noa?uo eieaao, o iaai
neiaeeeinue oaaaeaeaiea, /oi ia?iae aeaaii naeeny n aei?iae e /oi
oieueei aica?ao e ae?aaiaio oeeaaeo aeecie iiaeao nianoe aai.

Eiioooeee ia caaeaaaeny aii?inaie i niunea aeecie, i Aiaa e aannia?oee.
Aai ia aieiiaaee oaeiu i?e?iaeu e o?aae/iinoue /aeiaa/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey. Aeaaiui aeey iaai auei iaeoe iooue e niieieiiio
i?ioeaaoaieth iauanoaa.

Ia aii?in, nouanoaoao ee aannia?oea, Eiioooeee oeeii/eai ioaa/ae: «Iu ia
ciaai, /oi oaeia aeeciue, iiaeai ee iu ciaoue, /oi oaeia nia?oue?»

Eiioooeee n/eoae, /oi /aeiaae aeieaeai iao/eoueny aac anyeeo iaeacaiee
neaaeiaaoue i?aaeeai aoiaiiinoe e yoeeaoa. Aoiaiiinoue e yoeeao
oi?i/atho naiueth; a naith i/a?aaeue, yoi nicaeaao ie? a ainoaea?noaa, a
ainoaea?noai, a eioi?ii ana aeaaiiieo/ii, i?eianao /aeiaaeo n/anoeeaoth
aeeciue.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia?aae iaie ia?aay a enoi?ee iiiuoea iino?iaiey
aaoiiiiiie ii?aee, eioi?ay ia naycaia n ?aeeaeae e Ioe?iaaieai. Caeanue
iaia?oaeeaaaony aoeeeaniaa iyoa eiioooeeaineiai o/aiey. Aunooiay i?ioea
oao, eoi aeaeae no?ieoue iauanoai oieueei ia ianeeee e no?aoa iaeacaiey,
Eiioooeee caoioae ooaa?aeeoue aai ia /enoi yoe/aneeo i?eioeeiao, iaaeaeo
oai naie yoe i?eioeeiu ieacuaaeenue o Eiioooeey aac iii?u. Ii aa?ee a
oi, /oi /aeiaae ii i?e?iaea aieueoa neeiiai e aeia?o, /ai ei ceo, e
iaaeayeny ia yooaeoeaiinoue i?aanoaaiiie i?iiiaaaee.

A oi a?aiy eae Eai-oecu i?iiiaaaeiaae «iaaeayiea» e ia?aiauoioth
i?inoioo, Eiioooeee ianoaeaae ia iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeoeaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa
a oiae niauoee.

Eiioooeee iinoiyiii oeacuaae ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aanoaaiiiai aaoi?eoaoa
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. «I?aaeaiea anoue eni?aaeaiea, — aiai?ee ii eiycth. —
Anee au aoaeaoa iieacuaaoue i?eia? ni?aaaaeeeainoe, oi eoi iniaeeony
iinooiaoue iani?aaaaeeeai?.. Anee au ia aoaeaoa ae/iu, ethaee ia noaioo
ai?iaaoue».

Ii eae iai?aaeoue i?aaeoaeuenoai ii iooe iniciaiey aai i?aanoaaiiiai
aeieaa? O Eiioooeey e ia yoi aue aioia ioaao. I?aaeoaeue aeieaeai eiaoue
aicea naay o/aiiai, eioi?ue ?oeiaiaeee au aai iinooieaie, aue au aieinii
aai niaanoe e aethnoeoaeai o?aaeeoeee. Oaeoth ?ieue niaaoieea Eiioooeee,
anoanoaaiii, i?aaeiacia/ae naaa.

?en. 65

*aou?aoeeeee Oeaeeeiaai. V a.

Iinoaiaiii Eiioooeeth i?eoeinue oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi eiycuey iaiueoa
anaai eioa?anothony aai ianoaaeaieyie. N oao ii? ii ieii/aoaeueii
«iiciae aaeaiea Iaaa»: ionoue aio ia noaeaeaii auoue ieieno?ii, ii
iaeaeao ae?oaie niinia neoaeeoue ia?iaeo.

Ia/aeenue aiaeu neeoaiee. Eiioooeey iianthaeo nii?iaiaeaeaea aieueoay
oieia o/aieeia, eioi?ua aeaeeee n iei oyaiou ei/aaie aeecie.

O/aieee iioi?iieee Eiioooeey ni anae no?iainoueth ae?aaiaai
iia?aaaeueiiai ?eooaea. Aiineaaenoaee iaae aai iiaeeie aue aicaeaeaioo
o?ai, aaea iiiaea iieieaiey i?eiineee aea?oau ia?aae aai iiieiaeueiie
aeineie1.

Eiioooeeaineee eaeaae — ia i?inoi yecioe/aneay oeeinioey, a ia?aay
iiiuoea noi?ioee?iaaoue o/aiea i oii, /oi eiia/iay oeaeue /aeiaaea —
/enoi caiiay, /oi i?aanoaaiiinoue iiaeao auoue oe?aieaia iacaaeneii io
?aeeaee, /oi ana aunoea cai?inu aeooa iiaoo auoue ono?aiaiu ec niciaiey,
a o?aae/iinoue aeecie i?aiaeieaia nicaeaieai aa?iiie/iiai iauanoaa.
Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi yoa aeieo?eia — iaua/aeiaa/aneee niaeaci, a ia
i?inoi eeoaeneia ecia?aoaiea.

Eeoae, oaeei ia?acii, auaeaeioe aeaa e?aeia i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo ?aoaiey
i?iaeaiu aeecie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, Eai-oecu aicaanoee ie?o i oaeia
Aunoaai Auoey e i?ecaae e ienoe/aneiio nica?oeaieth. A n ae?oaie —
Eiioooeee iauyaee aunoae oeaiiinoueth caiiia nouanoaiaaiea e oaeaeae
nianaiea a onoie/eaii iauanoaaiiii ?aaeeia.

_________________________________________________________________

1 Iiieiaeueiay aeinea — a eeoaeneie eoeueoo?a iaiyoieeii oniioaio
neoaeeea noaea n aai aeeciaiienaieai, aeeth/athuei ainoaaeaiea
oa?aeoa?a, ciaiee e aeayiee.

EIAeEss IO A?AOIAIECIA AeI AOAeAeU

«Oaeiia o/aiea»

Eiaeey, ie. 800-600 aa. aei ?.O.

A oo yiioo, eiaaea a Ec?aeea i?i?ie Eeey ai?ieny n Aaaeii1 a a Eiiee
Aiia? ainiaaae O?iyineoth aieio, a eanao Eiaeee, ie?oaeathueo ai?iaea e
naeaiey, iiyaeythony oieiu no?aiiuo iaeoaoaeae; ii/oe iaiaaeaiiua,
i?ee?uoua eeoue aeeeiiuie einiaie niooaiiuo aiein, n enooaeaeuie
eeoeaie, — iiaua ianaeueieee aeaeoiaeae iiaoo iieacaoueny eaniuie
aeooaie, ii?iaeaeaieyie aeeeiaeiiuo o?iie/aneeo /au. Eiaeeeoeu iacuaatho
yoeo ionouiieeia ioie.

A Eiaeee e oiio a?aiaie aioea?eeinue naiia a?oaia eaeieiiieeiinoai: iaae
aeoa?yie noaee aicaeaeaaoue ono?aoathueo eoie?ia, oai?oeaie eioi?uo
?oeiaiaeeei aieaciaiiia aiia?aaeaiea.

Anee a yiioo ?ea-Aaaeu e?iaaaua aea?oau auee ?aaeee, oi oaia?ue
/aeiaaeo, eioi?ue aea?ee aiaai iaaiaeiuo ei?ia, a?iceee aaeii. Aiciiny
aea?oao ia aeoa?ue, /aeiaae ia?auaeny e aiaeanoao ni neiaaie: «Anee ou
aeaoue iia — y aeai oaaa, anee ou iaa?aaeeoue iaiy — y iaa?aaeo oaay», e
oaeei ia?acii ii caeeth/ae «eiio?aeo» n iioonoi?iiieie neeaie.

Yoi auea aieaciue, naienoaaiiay, eae iu aeaeaee, anai ae?aaiei ?aeeaeyi.
Ii a iaeieo neo/ayo ia?oayuee iaaeci iia?aaae ?iaeiee aeooa iiae
ie?aieaeie ia?yaeia, a ae?oaeo aea — aeaaeaea enoeiu aiiaue i?i?uaaeanue
/a?ac ana ianeiaiey. Yoa aeaaeaea e i?eaaea a aeaeoiaee iieiaeuo
eiaeeeneeo iooaeueieeia.

E oaeaoai iooaeueieeia aaneiia/iie aa?aieoeae oaeee o/aieee, e caeanue,
aaeaee io no?anoae e ooia, a neaci/iii oea?noaa o?iie/aneeo /au, «ao?o»2
aaee aeieaea aanaaeu n thiuie aiaieneaoaeyie.

A /ai nouiinoue ioae?inoe ioie, ?aaee eioi?ie o/aieee inoaaeytho
naaoneoth aeeciue e aa oaeiaieuenoaey?

Iu ieeiaaea ia ociaee au ia yoii, anee au eiaeeeneea ao?o ia nio?aieee
caienae naieo aanaae, ?aciuoeaiee, i?eo/, ienoe/aneeo iiyi. Iie auee
aiineaaenoaee aeeth/aiu a aaaeu iiae iauei iacaaieai «Oiaieoaaeu».

I?aoaiaeoy ia iiciaiea anao oaei i?e?iaeu e /aeiaaea, aaoi?u Oiaieoaae
neeoeii i?aiaa?aaaee ?acoiii. Neieue au ie auea aeoaiea neea eiooeoeee,
iia anaaaea ioaeaeaaony a iiiiue ?acoia eae ia/aea e?enoaeeecothuaai e
aeiiieiythuaai oi, /oi ioe?uoi nica?oeaieai.

No?aieoeu Oiaieoaae iano?yo aii?inaie, eo ianiaoiia /enei, iaeie
ii?iaeaeatho ae?oaea. Ii?ie eaaeaony, /oi yoi aiein naiiai /aeiaa/anoaa,
aii?ioathuaai e eniuoothuaai, aeey eioi?iai aanue ie? — caaaaeea.

Ca anaie aii?inaie Oiaieoaae e?iaony iaeei, eioi?ue e o?aaiaeeo aieaa
anaai: anoue ee niune a /aeiaa/aneii nouanoaiaaiee? Eae naycai oeaiiue n
Iaoeaiiui, n Aa/iinoueth? Aaaeue oieueei /a?ac yoo naycue /aeiaae
i?eiauaaony e iiaeeeiiie aeecie.

Ca i?aaeaeaie anaai oaa?iiai e ia?aie/aiiiai ienoe/aneiio ieo ioe?ueanue
?aaeueiinoue, eioi?oth Eai-oecu iacuaae Aeai, Aoaeaea — Ie?aaiie,
eaaaaeenou3 — Yinioii, o?enoeaia — Aiaeanoaaiiie Nouiinoueth,
Aiaeanoaii.

Ia /ai ceaeaeaony ie?icaeaiea? — noaayo aii?in Oiaieoaaeu. E iie aea
aeatho ioaao: oieueei ia A?aoiaia4, oioy Anaeaiiay e ia niciaao yoiai.
Aneao Oaeaeaeaea iauyniee yoi naiaio nuio, i?eaaaay e n?aaiaieth n
aea?aaii. «Eae yoe niee ia ciatho ?acee/ee e ia aiai?yo: y nie yoiai
aea?aaa, y — nie oiai aea?aaa, oi/ii oae aea, aei?iaie iie, ana yoe
oai?aiey, aoiaey ai nia a Nouaa, iienoeia ia ciatho yoiai e ia aiai?yo:
iu aoiaeei a Nouaa». Aanniciaoaeueiia ninoiyiea, o?ain — aio /oi
i?eaiaeeo ie? e /aeiaaea e eo iiaeeeiiiio enoieo, e iaiiaeaeaeiie
aiaeanoaaiiie Noanoaioeee.

A oai?aiee Oiaieoaaeu aeaeyo ia /oi eiia, eae ?iaeaeaiea, yiaiaoeeth,
eceeyiea ie?a ec iaae? Aaniethoa.

«Eae iaoe auioneaao ec naay e aae?aao a naay iaooeio, eae ?anoaiea
aicieeaao ia caiea, eae aieinu aicieeatho ia aieiaa /aeiaaea, oae ec
Iai?aoiaeyuaai aicieeaao ana a yoii ie?a».

Oai naiui ca/a?eeaaaony a?aiue, eioi?ay ioaeaeyao Aanietho io oaa?e, iie
ieacuaathony ii naiae i?e?iaea oiaeaeanoaaiiuie.

?en. 66

E?eoia, iiaeieiathuee ai?o Aiaa?aeoai. Ieieaoth?a. XVIII a.

Ooo iu aeaeei ei?aiiia ioee/ea a?aoiaiecia io aeaeaeneiai Ioe?iaaiey,
ooaa?aeaeathuaai /oaei oai?/aneiai aeoa eae iniiao ioiioaiee Aiaa e
ie?a. Neiai Oai?oea aucaaei Anaeaiioth ec iaauoey. Ie? ia anoue
Aiaeanoai, e eiaiii iiyoiio iaaeaeo Ianicaeaiiui e oaa?ueth aiciiaeiu
ano?a/a, nithc, aeeaeia. A a?aoiaiecia oaeiio ioiioaieth iao ianoa, eai
ana anoue Aia.

Ie? nicaeai ?acoiii e Ethaiaueth, iiyoiio ii iaaeaeai naiaiaeie. E
aeaaea oiaaea, eiaaea, iieuecoynue yoie naiaiaeie, ii oaeaeyaony io Aiaa
e iaauoeth, ii i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny a noa?a Ethaae. «Oae aicethaee
Aia ie?, /oi ioaeae Nuia Naiaai Aaeeii?iaeiiai…» (Ei 3:16). Aunoay
ethaiaue ieacuaaao naia oai?/aneia aicaeaenoaea e ia iaaeoee ie?.

Ia oae iiieiaee iniiao ie?ioai?aiey yniiaeaeoeu Eiaeee. Iiueyiaiiua
nayuaiiui i?aeii yenoaca, aaeeiiaeaeu i?eeinioaoenue e ienoe/aneie /aoa,
iie ieacaeenue ia a neeao iinoe/ue enoeiiia iacia/aiea c?eiiai ie?a. Ii
oo?aoee aeey ieo anyeoth oeaiiinoue.

*aeiaae aeieaeai iaanaaaea ioa?ineoue ana, /oi naycuaaao aai n ie?ii,
aii?oaeeoueny iaoiaeaie nica?oeaoaeueiie eiae, iiaeieiaynue ii nooiaiyi
yenoaca.

Io?aoaiiiio /oaeaeu ia oieueei ia?yaeu, ii e ana, /ai aeeaoo ethaee:
iaiaaenoue e ethaiaue, aeia?i e cei. Ii aaneiia/ii aeaeae io neaauo e
iaaaaeanoaaiiuo, ii — naa?o/aeiaae.

Anoanoaaiii iiyoiio, /oi a?aoiaineay ?aeeaey ia auoea ca i?aaeaeu
iooaeueie/aneeo neeoia.

______________________________________________________________________

1 Aaae — ycu/aneia aiaeanoai; /anoi aaaeai i?eiineee /aeiaa/aneea
aea?oau; ia Eeee e ae?aoeao Aaaea ni. 3 Oea? 18.

2 Ao?o — o/eoaeue, ianoaaiee a eiaeeeneie ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneie
o?aaeeoeee.

3 Eaaaaeenou — i?eaa?aeaioeu iaeiiai ec oa/aiee aaooicaaaoiie
ienoe/aneie oeeinioee.

4 A?aoiai — oae a eiaeoecia iaicia/aaony ia?aiaeaeaeouaa ia/aei,
ia?aiiniiaa anyeiai auoey.

I?iaicaanoea E?eoiu. Aoaaaaaae-Aeoa

Eiaeey, ie. 600 a. aei ?.O.

Iinoiyiiue aiao iauaeaiiinoe aeaaeo ia niciaiea /aeiaaea; aieueoeinoai
ec ian cia/eoaeueioth /anoue naiae aeecie ia iiaeao au?aaoueny ec-iiae
aa eaa. *oanoai iauaeaiiinoe anoue aaee/aeoay eiaeue, caoiaaathuay iaoa
niciaiea. Yoa na?ay io?aaa eneaaeaao iiaeeeiioth ea?oeio ie?a,
i?iieoaiiue ath /aeiaae oo?a/eaaao /oanoai oaeiu, /oanoai /oaeaniiai, ii
ia?anoaao iuouaoue aeuoaiea Aa/iinoe, ii caauaaao /oi iia aaea-oi
?yaeii. Iu oae aea eaaei iia?oaeaainy a noaoiue iioie iauaeaiiinoe, eae
caauaaai, /oi caiey iaoa anoue eeoue ieaiaoa, i?iiinyuayny a eaaeyiie
ionoioa Anaeaiiie. Eoi ciaao, ia yaeeinue ee /oanoai iauaeaiiinoe eae au
caueoiie ?aaeoeeae neaaathuaai aeooa ia?aae iiao/ei iaoeneii aunoae
?aaeueiinoe auoey? Auoue iiaeao, iu oaea ianiiniaiu iinoiyiii auiineoue
aa naao? E aio iaoe aeooiaiua aeaca cae?ueenue, iaoa eiooeoeey
i?eooieeanue, en/acee eeee e aeeaua aeooiaiua neeu, na?ay iaeaia
iionoeeanue ia ana; aioea?eeanue iauaeaiiinoue… ii a?aiy io a?aiaie
aeoo, i?inuiaynue, aeaeaao io/ayiiua iiiuoee inaiaiaeeoueny io eaeeaie
eeethcee iauaeaiiinoe, aa?iooue naaa oo?a/aiiia ie?iiuouaiea, a eioi?ii
aiiaue caaiai?yo ia?oaua aaue, a eioi?ii ana cacao/eo, cao?aiauao,
ia?aoao oaeinoaaiiue e iiiaicia/eoaeueiue niune. Eae aniuoee iieiee, yoe
aica?aou aeooiaiiai aeaeaiey inaauatho iao oiueue iooue. Anee au nia?oue
canoaea ian a oaeoth ieiooo, eae ie/oiaeia auea au iia oiaaea, eae
aacaieaciaiii auei au aa aeaei! A ieioou aeooiaiiai i?inaaoeaiey iu aa
ia aieiny. Ii eoi iiaeao iioaaeeoueny, /oi yoi i?inaaoeaiea niioonoaoao
aio anaaaea? Aeaaea aaee/aeoeo nayouo iii iieeaeaei.

E aio ai i?aea iaaeaeo aeaoiy ica?aieyie iacaiiuo naaoia iu noa?aainy
oaea?aeaoueny io iaaeaiey, i?iaeieaeaoue naie iooue, i?ecuaay ia iiiiuue
anth neeo ?acoia e aiee.

Ioaaoii ia yoio aiieue aeooe, ia yoi no?aieaiea e Aiao yaeeinue a Eiaeee
iiaia ?aeeaeiciia oa/aiea, naycaiiia n eiaiai E?eoiu Aanoaeaau. A?aiy
aai aeecie ioiinyo iau/ii e VI a. aei ?.O. Ieeaeeo caienae io iaai ia
inoaeinue. Iaiyoieeii o/aiey E?eoiu yaeyaony Aoaaaaaae-Aeoa, o.a.
«Ianiue Ainiiaeiy» — iaeii ec aaee/aeoeo i?iecaaaeaiee ?aeeaeiciie
iiycee anao a?aiai e ia?iaeia.

A /ai aea ioee/ea e?eoiaecia io a?aoiaiecia? Iii caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi, niaeanii E?eoia, e niaa?oainoao aaaeao ia oieueei ienoe/aneay
io?aoaiiinoue, ii e aoaeoe — ethaiaue, aeaaiaiaaiea, aa?a.

Anyeee, eoi n aeiaa?/eaui na?aeoeai i?eaaaaao e Aiao, ia iiaeaiao, eai
au ii ie aue.

«Euouea o Iaiy e?iaa,

Oioy au iie auee aeo?iiai eiia:

AEaiueiu, aaeouee, aeaaea ooae?u1.

Eaeoo iooai auni/aeoei».

Aio iienoeia aiein Aiaeee! Ethaiaue /aeiaaea ia ouaoia, iieeoaa aai ia
aanniuneaiia, oiiaaiea aai ia eiaeii.

?en. 67

E?eoia, iiaeieiathuee ai?o. ?aeueao. XII a.

?en. 68

Aieiaa Aoaeaeu. Oaeeaiae. XV— XVI aa.

Aicauoaiii o/aiea Aeou i aa?a nianathuae, i ee/iii ethayuai Aiaa,
aeaai?iaeai i?ecua aa e aeaenoaeth e aanei?unoeth, o?iaaoaeueiie
oaieioie aeuoao aa no?iee, eiaaea iia eanaaony yoeo i?aaeiaoia, no?iee,
eiiaaea iacuaaaiua «eiaeeeneei aaaiaaeeai». Ii ana yoi ia aeieaeii
caneiieoue oiai oaeoa, /oi yoi — eeoue ioaeaeueiua iaiiueee ai i?aea
ycu/aneie ii/e. E ieaaea yoa oueia ia i?aaenoaao n oaeie neeie, eae a
naiie Aeoa!

?yaeii n ia?acii aunoaai aeaaiai Aiaa iu aeaeei a iae aiiaue Naa?onouaa
Ia/aei, eioi?ia ecaa/ii a?auaao ie?, eae ia aii/a?iii e?oaa. A
aanoeaeueiie einie/aneie ea?a, a e?oaiai?ioa Anaeaiiay oi ?iaeaeaaony ec
Iie/aiey, oi aiiaue en/acaao a iai. Iai?aoiaeyuee aaa?aaao eceeaoeeny ec
iaai ie? a eieani ea?iu, e ai?a oiio, eoi ainnoaao i?ioea aiaeanoaaiiiai
e?oaeaiey. ?aaee /aai e aeey /aai niaa?oaaony yoi e?oaeaiea? Iao eiioea,
niunea e oeaee o auoey. Ie/aai eciaieoue iaaiciiaeii.

O/aiea Aeou ia iineoaeeei ia/aeii aeooiaiiai ia?aai?ioa a Eiaeee. Ionoue
e nae/an iu ainoeuaainy iiiaeie aa no?ieaie — ia neaaeoao
ia?aioeaieaaoue aa iieiaeeoaeueiie ?iee a ?aeeaeiciie enoi?ee. Ethaee
iaioae?yuae e i?inoina?aea/iie aa?u ia i?eoee /a?ac E?eoio e
aaeeiiaiaeeth. Ieoieiaey, eae e i?aaeaea, i?iaeieaeaea a?iiicaeeoue
iiino?ia e iaiieiyoue o?aiu aacia?aciuie eoie?aie. Oae iinoaiaiii
neeaaeuaaeny eiaeoeci — yeeaeoe/aneay ?aeeaey nia?aiaiiie Eiaeee, a
eioi?ie aaciaaeaaeii ia?aiaoaiu eaeae aaeeeeo ienoeeia e iiyoia n
eca?auaiiui ia?iaeiui noaaa?eai.

______________________________________________________________________

1 Aaeouee e ooae?u — ieceea eanou e eo i?aaenoaaeoaee a neiaeiie
nioeeaeueiie nenoaia Eiaeee.

AEECIUe E I?IIIAAAeUe AOAeAeU AAOOAIU

Oaeeeneee iooaeueiee

Naaa?i-Ainoi/iay Eiaeey, ie. 530 a. aei ?.O.

Ia?iae aeaeae a iooaeueieeao iineoaeae aeooiaiie aeecie e ioae?inoe. E
eiaiii iioiio, /oi iooaeueieee auee eneaoaeyie enoeiiie aeecie,
ioaa?aaaoeie aeeciue eiaeioth, e i?eoae e iei thiioa, eioi?iai iie noaee
iacuaaoue «Oaeey-ioie», eee «Oaeeeneee iooaeueiee». Aai eiy auei
Neaeaeoa?oa, a oaieeueiia i?icaeua Aaooaia. Ii ?iaeeeny ieiei 563 a. aei
?.O. aeec Aeiaeaaa, ia a?aieoea Iaiaea. A Eoiaeie, iaiiaeaeaeo io
ai?iaea Eaieeaaanoo, e aeiiuia nio?aieeny iaiyoiee n iaaeienueth:
«Caeanue ?iaeeeny Aicauoaiiue».

?en. 69

Neaeyuee Aoaeaea. 110 a.

?en. 70

Aieiaa Aoaeaeu. VI a.

Ioaoe Neaeaeoa?ou Ooaeaeoiaeaia aue ?aaeaeie iieocaaeneiiai eiyaeanoaa.
Iaoue Neaeaeoa?ou oia?ea /a?ac ianeieueei aeiae iinea aai ?iaeaeaiey.
?aaeaea, aacoiii ethaeaoee aa, ia?aian ana naia /oanoai ia nuia. Aai
?aii noae o?aaiaeeoue oa?aeoa? ?aaaiea. Aua iaeue/eeii Neaeaeoa?oa
ethaee i?aaeaaaoueny niooiui a?acai e ia/oai; ioaeuoay a oaie
aea?aaueaa, ii iia?oaeaeny a aeoaieea nica?oeaiey, ia?aaeeaay iiiaiou
iaiaueiiaaiiuo i?inaaoeaiee. Yoe neaaeinoiua iaiiaaiey a?acaeenue a aai
iaiyoue ia anth aeeciue. Aiae, aeaneo i?aaeaiea, iac?eii ie?oaeaee
Aicauoaiiiai e aiooaee aio ethaiaue e ienoe/aneie aeecie.

Ooaeaeoiaeaia ?aoee ethaui niiniaii ioaea/ue nuia io aai iuneae e
iano?iaiee. Aeey yoiai ii ia aeaeae n?aaenoa. «Aeey iaiy, — aniiieiae
aiineaaenoaee Aoaeaea, — ai aeai?oea ?iaeeoaey iiaai auee ono?iaiu
i?oaeu, aaea oeaaee a eciaeeee aiaeyiua eeeee, aiaeyiua ?icu e aaeua
eioinu; aeaaiaiiiua iaeaaeaeu ec oiieie oeaie iinee y; ec oiieie oeaie
aue oth?aai iie e aa?oiaa e ieaeiaa ieaouea; aeiai e ii/ueth inaiyee
iaiy aaeui ciioii ec iianaiey, eae au i?ioeaaea, eee ciie, eee iueeiea,
eee eaiey ?inu ia einioeenue iaiy. E auei o iaiy o?e aeai?oea: iaeei
aeey ceiiaai aeeouey, ae?oaie aeey eaoiaai e o?aoee aeey aeiaeaeeeaie
iiaiaeu aiaea».

A oao ?aaeeeo neo/ayo, eiaaea oea?aae/ iieeaeae naie naaeu e aeai?oeu,
ii i?eeacaieth Ooae-aeoiaeaiu n aai iooe i?iaiiyee anao ieueo e
aieueiuo. Ethaee aeieaeiu auee iaeaaaoueny a eo/oea iaeaaeaeu e n
?aaeinoiuie eeoeaie i?eaaonoaiaaoue Neaeaeoa?oo.

Ii aiciiaeii ee ni?yoaoue aeeciue io thiioe, eioi?ue n ?aiieo eao
caaeoiuaaaony iaae aa oaeiaie, iiaeii ee ne?uoue io iaai oo ia/aeueioth
enoeio, /oi ana aie?oa iieii no?aaeaiey? Naieie oneeeyie Ooaeaeoiaeaia
naeaeae oieueei aua iaaeiaa e oycaeiaa aeooo nuia. Eaaaiaea
?anneacuaaao, /oi iaeiaaeaeu oea?aae/, aoeyy ni naiei aicieoeae *aiiie,
iaiaeeaeaiii oaeaeae ae?yoeiai noa?eea e, ii?aaeaiiue aai aeaeii, noae
?anni?aoeaaoue neoao i noa?inoe. Ii aue iio?ynai, eiaaea ociae, /oi yoi
iauee oaeae anao ethaeae.

Oea?aae/a ioaaoeei ioa?auaiea ei anaio, ie/oi ia iiaei aica?aoeoue
aaciyoaaeiiai aeaonoaa. Ie?, aeeciue ieacaeenue iai?eaieaiuie. Yoi auei
ainnoaiea i?ioea naiuo iniia ie?icaeaiey, iyoaae iaaeunoi?e/aneiai
cia/aiey.

«E aio, — ?anneacuaae Aoaeaea, — aua a ?anoeaaoa nee, aua
aeanoyua-oaiiiaieinui, aua n?aaee ianeaaeaeaiee n/anoeeaie thiinoe, aua
a ia?aoth ii?o ioaeanoaaiiiai aic?anoa, aii?aee aeaeaieth iieo iea/oueo
e noaiathueo ?iaeeoaeae, ia?eaoe aieiao e ai?iaeo, iieeioe y ?iaeiie
aeii naie ?aaee aani?ethoiinoe e noae no?aiieeii, acuneothuei aeaaa
enoeiiiai ia ian?aaiaiiii iooe aunoaai ie?a».

A oi a?aiy aio oae o?eaeoeaoue aiae.

Eco/ea oeeinioneea nenoaiu e iiiya, /oi iie ia iiaoo iiii/ue ?ac?aoeoue
io/eaoea aai i?iaeaiu, Aaooaia caoioae ia?aoeoueny e eiaai-i?aeoeeai.

?en. 71

Noaooy Aoaeaeu. Iaua?a THiueaai. Eeoae. V a.

Oeaeue aiae ii aeee n?aaee ieo, iaaethaeay eo naa?o/aeiaa/aneea
iiaeaeae, aaaey n ieie aanaaeu, ?aciuoeyy ia eo oaeeaeoaeueiii iooe.
Eia-/oi i/aiue iii?aaeeinue aio. Iaeiiai ia iia ii iiiyoue: ii/aio
iiiaea iooaeueieee, ecio?yy naith ieioue, no?aiyony ia e aunoae naiaiaea
io no?aaeaiee, a e eo/oaio aic?iaeaeaieth a aoaeouai eee e a?aiaiiiio
aeaaeainoao n?aaee naaoeuo iaaiaeeoaeae. Yoe oeaee eacaeenue aio
iaaeinoieiuie.

Iieeioa naieo ianoaaieeia-eiaia, Aaooaia oaaeeieeny a aeaeoiaeyo, /oiau
naiiio aanno?aoii ?eiooueny ii iooe naiienoycaiey.

Aeey eciaaeaiiiai a?enoie?aoe/aneiai thiioe yoi auei iiaeeeiiui
aa?ieciii. Ii ii ?aoee, /oi ia inoaiiaeony ie ia?aae eaeeie eniuoaieyie
?aaee oiai, /oiau aeinoeaiooue i?inaaoeaiey e iiciaoue enoeiiue iooue
nianaiey. Oanoue aeieaeo eao ii a?iaeee a /aua, ii/oe ie/aai ia ae,
eeoei aai noaei no?aoii, iii ii/a?iaei e iaaa?iyoii enooaeaei, eiaea
nii?ueeanue, aieinu auiaee, ii noae iioiae ia aeeaie neaeao.

?en. 72

Iaua?iue o?ai THiueaai. Eeoae. V a.

E aio a iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue, eiaaea iinea iiiai/aniaie
iaiiaeaeaeiinoe Aaooaia iuoaeny iiaeiyoueny, iiae, e oaeano
iaaethaeaaoeo yoo noeaio ae?ocae, ioeacaeenue aai aea?aeaoue, e ii
caia?oai naaeeeny ia caieth. Ana ?aoeee, /oi yoi eiiaoe, ii iiaeaeaeiee
aue i?inoi a aeoaieii iaii?iea io enoiuaiey.

Ioiuia Aaooaia ?aoee ioeacaoueny io aanieiaeiiai naiienoycaiey.

N/anoeeaue neo/ae iiiia aio. Aei/ue iaeiiai ianoooa, naeaeeaoenue iaae
aneaoii1, i?eianea aio ?eniaie iioeaaee. Aaooaia i?eiye aa iiaeayiea e
aia?aua ca aeieaia a?aiy ooieee naie aieiae. N yoiai iiiaioa ii
iaanaaaea ioeacaeny io e?aeiinoae aneaoecia e i?eciaaae iieaciuie eeoue
oia?aiiua aai oi?iu.

Aanue aeaiue ii ioaeuoae a oaie oeaaooueo aea?aaueaa ia aa?aao ?aee, a
eiaaea nieioea neeiieeinue e caiaaeo, ono?iee naaa eiaea n?aaee ei?iae
ia?iiiiai aaiueyia e inoaeny oai ia ii/ue.

?en. 73

Aoaeaea, oaai/aiiue ei?iiie XI a.

E ooo i?iecioei naiia cia/eoaeueiia niauoea a aeecie Aaooaiu. ?acaeoiuey
e ioee, eneaiey e naiiio?a/aiey, aanue aai aioo?aiiee iiuo, /?acau/aeii
eciu?eaoee e ooii/eaoee aeooo, — ana yoi eae au nia?aeinue aiaaeeii e
aeaei ieiae. ssaeeinue aeieaiaeaeaiiia «i?inaaoeaiea». Aiacaiii Aaooaia
n iaiaueiiaaiiie yniinoueth oaeaeae anth naith aeeciue e ii/oanoaiaae
anaiauoth naycue iaaeaeo /aeiaa/anoaii e iac?eiui ie?ii. Any Anaeaiiay
eae au i?aaenoaea ia?aae aai aci?ii. E anthaeo ii aeaeae
auno?ioa/iinoue, oaeo/anoue, ieaaea ia auei iieiy, ana oiineeinue a
iaaaaeiioth aeaeue, ana a ie?a auei noeaieaii, iaeii i?ienoiaeeei io
ae?oaiai. Oaeinoaaiiue naa?o/aeiaa/aneee ii?ua oie/oiaeae e aiiaue
aic?iaeaeae nouanoaa. Aio ii, io/eoaeue ie?a! Aio ii, «no?ieoaeue
aeiia»! Yoi O?eoia — aeaaeaea aeecie, aeaaeaea auoey. Yoi iia aiciouaao
ie?iaie iieie. Neaeaeoa?-oa eacaeinue, /oi ii eae au i?enoonoaoao i?e
oii, eae O?eoia aiiaue e aiiaue aaaeao e auoeth ooaaeoaa io iaai.
Oaia?ue ii ciaao, n eai ioaeii ai?ioueny, /oiau ia?anoe ecaaaeaiea io
yoiai no?aoiiai ie?a, iieiiai iea/a, aiee, nei?ae. Ioiuia ii noae
Aoaeaeie — I?inaaoeaiiui.

N yoiai iiiaioa e aei iineaaeieo aeiae Aaooaiu iu aoaeai ano?a/aoueny n
oaeeaeoaeueiui aicaeaenoaeai aai ia aeooe ethaeae. Naiua iaaa?iyoiua
i?eoycaiey, naiua ai?aeaeeaua yieoaou ii ioiioaieth e naaa,
i?iaicaeaoaiea naiae nayoinoe e niaa?oainoaa — ana yoi ia oieueei ia
aucuaaei aiciouaiey o aieueoeinoaa aai neooaoaeae, a, iai?ioea,
iaeaaeaei aeey ieo iniaui i/a?iaaieai e i?eoyaaoaeueiinoueth.

?en. 74

Aoaeaea, i?ieciinyuee i?iiiaaaeue. VIII a.

Iaeiaaeaeu Aoaeaeo ni?ineee, eaeiaa iinia?oiay o/anoue iaeiiai aaeeeiai
iiaeaeaeieea. Ii ioaaoee eeoue, /oi aeey /aeiaaea, eioi?ue ecaeee a naaa
oyaioaiea e ineoioece/aneiio auoeth (iaia-?oia), iao ie ?iaeaeaiey, ie
nia?oe. Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaiue oii? Aoaeaea aeaeaao ia oi, /oi oaea
caeanue, i?e aeecie, /aeiaae iiaeao ia?anoe ninoiyiea aanno?anoey,
iieiy, i?inaaoeaiey, o. a. noaoue i?e/anoiui ie?aaia.

Iiaeai ee iu neacaoue n aeinoiaa?iinoueth, /oi iiieiae nai Aoaeaea iiae
neiaii «ie?aaia»?

Aoaeaea n?aaieaaao ie?aaio n «ie?ii e ioae?inoueth», a aai o/aieee
n/eoaee aaee/aeoae caneoaie o/eoaey yoi iaeaaeaiea no?anoyie e ia?aoaiea
«aeeaiiai aannia?oey».

Eoae, aaeeinoaaiiay aeinoieiay /aeiaaea oeaeue — yoi inaiaiaeaeaiea,
naiaiaea io anaai, e a oii /enea io naiiai naay. Aeey yoie oeaee Aoaeaea
i?aaeeaaaao «ainueia?e/ioth nenoaio».

*oi aea caeeth/aii a «ainueia?e/iie aei?iaa», eioi?oth i?aaeeaaaao
Aoaeaea? Yoi:

1. I?aaeeueiua acaeyaeu, o. a. acaeyaeu, iniiaaiiua ia «aeaai?iaeiuo
enoeiao».

2. I?aaeeueiay ?aoeiinoue, o. a. aioiaiinoue e iiaeaeao ai eiy enoeiu.

3. I?aaeeueiay ?a/ue, o. a. ?a/ue aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiay, ene?aiiyy,
i?aaaeeaay.

4. I?aaeeueiia iiaaaeaiea, o. a. iai?e/eiaiea cea.

5. I?aaeeueiue, o. a. ie?iue, /anoiue, /enoue, ia?ac aeecie.

6. I?aaeeueiia oneeea, o. a. naiiainieoaiea e naiiiaeaaeaiea.

7. I?aaeeueiia aieiaiea, o. a. aeoeaiay aaeeoaeueiinoue niciaiey.

8. I?aaeeueiia nin?aaeioi/aiea, o. a. aa?iua iaoiaeu nica?oeaiey e
iaaeeoaoeee.

Iaeaaeaiea yoeie i?eioeeiaie ?anniao?eaaeinue Aoaeaeie eae iaeee ?yae
iinoaiaiii ainoiaeyueo nooiaiae.

Ia aa?oeia eanoieoeu, aaaeouae e ie?aaia, iu iaoiaeei aunoaa
i?inaaoeaiea, ninoiyiea naiaiaeoe (naiaaeoe), eiaaea ana /aeiaa/aneia
en/acaao a /aeiaaea, eiaaea oaanaao aai niciaiea, eiaaea ioeaiaiaaaao
aai oaei, eiaaea iaae /aeiaaeii ia aeanoiu ieeaeea caeiiu, eai ii
iia?oaeaaony a iaiinoeaeeiia «aacaao?ea» ie?aaiu. Oeaeue aeinoeaiooa:
eii/ai iioie, iiaan aa/ii o?aiauouee iaiiue.

E ooo-oi iaia?oaeeaaaony ai anae naiae aaniiuaaeiinoe eaaeaiyuaa aeooo
«ioe?uoea» aoaeaeecia: /aeiaae iaeeiie, iaau?aceii iaeeiie a yoie
aeecie. Ana ionoi e aanniuneaiii. Iao Aiaa iaae iaie, «a iaaa iao iooe»,
iaeiio iieeoueny, ia ia eiai iaaeayoueny, ieeoi ia aieueao nee a
neaaathuaai /aeiaaea, eioi?ue eaeao ii naiae oaiiie noaca. Iaioeoaea
aeaeaoue iiiiue. *aeiaae, niane naay nai! Ia ionoay ee yoi o?aca? Iiaeii
ee auoyiooue naiiai naay ca aieinu?

Nianaiea e ia?aoaiea ie?aaiu Aoaeaea iaauae oieueei aneaoai, iieeioaoei
naie aeii e inaiaiaeeaoeiny io anao i?eaycaiiinoae. E?iia iiaeaeaa
ee/iiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey, iiiaoe iaycaiu auee caieiaoueny oneeaiiie
i?iiaaaiaeie eaeae o/eoaey. E, ?acoiaaony, ano?a/ay eioa?an e
ni/oanoaea, iie ia iiaee anao aaanoe a i?aeai. Iiyoiio aicieeea i?iaeaia
aoaeaeenoia-ie?yi.

Aoaeaea ?aoee yoo i?iaeaio aeiaieueii i?inoi. Enoeiiuie aai
iineaaeiaaoaeyie inoaaaeenue iiiaoe, a «oianaee» — ie?yia, i?eiyaoea aai
o/aiea, — ieacuaaeenue, oae neacaoue, ia iieiaeaiee «iaeaoaiiuo»2,
aioiayueony e iinayuaieth. A ioee/ea io iiiaoia ie?yiai aeaaaeny i?inoie
yoe/aneee eiaeaen Iai/a Oeea (Iyoue caiiaaaeae), naiaeeaoeeny e
neaaeothuaio:

1. Aicaea?aeeaaeny io oaeenoaa.

2. Aicaea?aeeaaeny io ai?ianoaa.

3. Aicaea?aeeaaeny io aeoaea.

4. Aicaea?aeeaaeny io eaee.

5. Aicaea?aeeaaeny io aicaoaeaeathueo iaieoeia.

Iiieii yoeo caiiaaaeae, iioiaeeo ia oa, eioi?ua i?iaicaeanee Iienae ia
ainaiue aaeia ?aiueoa, «oianaee» aeieaeiu auee aethnoe aa?iinoue
Aoaeaea, aai o/aieth e i?aeaio.

Aa?iyoii, ethaiaue e ii?yoiinoe auea i?eaeoa Aaooaia n aeaonoaa, iiyoiio
ii ainnoae i?ioea iaueiiaaiey aneaoia naiaai a?aiaie oiaeeoue aa/ii
a?yciuie. Iooaoanoaaiieeia e a iaoe aeie ioaaao aeae yoeo aeeeeo oeao?,
n iia aei aieiau iie?uouo iaieii, ei?iaueei iiiaoii e a?ycueth. A
aoaeaeeeneii aea i?aeaia no?iai neaaeeee ca ee/iie aeaeaiie iiiaoia, e
iiiauaiey, a eioi?uo iie aeeee, iinoiyiii niaea?aeaeenue a ia?acoeiaii
ii?yaeea e /enoioa.

Yoe aeaaiono?iaiiua eieiiee, aaea ethaee aeeee, i?aaeaaaynue
?aciuoeaieyi, nica?oeaieyi e iio/eoaeueiui aanaaeai, i?eaeaeaee anao
onoaeuo e oaiaoaiiuo. Aoaeaeeeneea iiianou?e iiiaei eacaeenue
iaaoiaaiiie caieae, a eioi?ie iiaeii auei iaeiiaoe ia?anoe ie? e
naiaiaeo.

Ia iineaaeieo /anao aeecie Aaooaiu eaaeeo ia/aoue iai?aiaeieeiie
o?aae/iinoe. Ii oie?aao ia eae Nie?ao, aa?yuee a aannia?oea, ia eae
io/aiee, ne?aieythuee e?iaueth naia o/aiea e oi?aeanoaothuee iaae ceii,
a eae /aeiaae, i?eciaaoee ie?iaia cei e iiae/eieaoeeny aio. Ana
i?aoiaeyua, ana oa/ao! Eueoa a yoii ooaoaiea! Aio eoia…

?en. 75

Aoaeaea a?a/othuee. Ei?ay. Eeiiinoan. XVIII a. O?aaiaio.

Yia?ae/iay ienneiia?neay aeayoaeueiinoue iiiaoia i?eaiaeeea e aoaeaeecio
iiiai iiaiia?auaiiuo. Ia?iae ana aieueoa oyioeny e yoie iiaie ?aeeaee,
eioi?ay iaauaea nianaiea iacaaeneii io eanou, ia ioyaiuaea ecauoeii
ia?yaeia, i?iiiaaaeiaaea aeia?ioo e e?ioinoue.

Aaooaia no?aieeny ?acaai/aoue i?aoiaeyuoth aeeciue, i?aaenoaaeoue aa eae
oea?noai no?aaeaiee, nia?oe e o?iaenoaa. Ii aai iineaaeiaaoaee iinayoyo
naay caaioai i ethaeyo e eo aeaaa ia caiea. Iie noaioo o?oaeeoueny iaae
nicaeaieai aoaeaeeeneie eoeueoo?u.

Ioaa?aioa Aiaa-Oai?oea, Aoaeaea i?eciae i?e?iaeo e /aeiaaea aanoeaeueiui
eieia?auaieai i?ec?aeia, iaeueeaieai «aeoa?i»3, ianeii/aaiui, ieeiio ia
ioaeiui iioieii. E ii aue i?aa, eai, anee iao Aiaa AEeaiai, Anaeaiiay
caneoaeeaaao oie/oiaeaiey, aeeciue e niciathuea naay ee/iinoe aeieaeiu
en/aciooue iaanaaaea. Yoi aeey ieo eo/oee oaeae.

Oaeiaa aeaaiay i?e/eia, ii/aio ?aeeaey noieue aicauoaiiay, eae
eiaeeeneay, ia iiaea noaoue i?aaeaeaa?eai e Aaaiaaeeth.

E ana aea aeeciue e i?iiiaaaeue Aaooaiu auee iaeiei ec aaee/aeoeo
niauoee a enoi?ee aeooa.

Cia/aiea I?inaaoeaiiiai ioithaeue ia en/a?iuaaaony i?aanoaaiiui eee
oeeinioneei niaea?aeaieai aai o/aiey. Aaee/ea Aoaeaeu e aai
i?aaeoanoaaiieeia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iie i?iaicaeaneee nianaiea
aeaaiie oeaeueth ?aeeaee. Ioae?aoe, i?iieeiooue nino?aaeaieai ei anaio
ie?o, ii iienoeia aeinoiei ethaae e aeaaiaea?iinoe /aeiaa/anoaa, oioy e
ia aue a neeao nianoe aai. Ai?i/ai, eoi ec ethaeae niia au niaa?oeoue
yoi?

______________________________________________________________________

1 Aneao — /aeiaae, io?aoeaoeeny io anaai, /oi n/eoaaony i?eyoiui, ?aaee
aeinoeaeaiey aeooiaiiai niaa?oainoaa.

2 Iaeaoaiiua — a o?enoeaineie oea?eae oa, eoi aioiaeony e e?auaieth,
n/eoaaony o/aieeii, ii ia iieiii?aaiui /eaiii iaueiu. Ii i?aaeeai, iie
ia aeieaeiu i?enoonoaiaaoue i?e Aaoa?enoee.

3 Aeoa?iu — ia?ae/iua yeaiaiou auoey e niciaiey; eo ni/aoaiey nicaeatho
aeeciue. Oeaeue aoaeaeecia — en/aciiaaiea aeoa?i a ie?aaia, ia?aoiae
auoey a iaauoea.

IV. AeEIIEN, EIAIN, NOAeUeAA

?aeeaey e oeeinioey Ae?aaiae A?aoeee

Ae?AAIAA?A*ANEAss ?AEEAEss

I/aeiaa/aiiua aiae

A?aoeey, X—V aa. aei ?.O.

Iuneeoaee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee nicaeaee naiaia?acioth ea?oeio ie?icaeaiey e
ii?aaeaeeee oa?aeoa? iua aeey naiaai a?aiaie anaiauea caeiiiia?iinoe
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Yeeeienoe/aneee ie? noae ia?aui iieai
aeayoaeueiinoe aiinoieia, eiaaea iie ia?aoeeenue n i?iiiaaaeueth e
ycu/ieeai. Auoaaeoaa ec aeaeaeneie no?aiu Neiai Aiaeea auei i?eiyoi
ethaeueie aioe/iiai iauanoaa, e ia yoie ii/aa aic?anoaea Anaeaineay
Oea?eiaue. Io/aieee e aiieiaaou, o/eoaee e Iooeu Oea?eae a aieueoeinoaa
naiai auee nuiaie a?aei-?eineiai ie?a. Iooeu Oea?eae aiai?eee, /oi Aia
ioe?uaae ethaeyi enoeio iinoaiaiii, e aeaaiua aeinoeaeaiey aioe/iinoe a
yoii iai?aaeaiee — yoi ae?aaiaa?a/aneay oeeinioey e aeaaeaea iiauo
eaeaaeia, aucaaiiay iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoueth ycu/aneeie aa?iaaieyie.

*oi aea i?aaenoaaeyea niaie ae?aaiaa?a/aneay ?aeeaey e ii/aio a
niciaiee ethaeae, ii/eoaaoeo Caana, Aoeio e ae?oaeo ieeiieeoeaa,
aicieeei no?aieaiea e /aio-oi iiaiio?

?en. 76

Aiia?. IV a. aei ?.O.

Naiua ae?aaiea eoeueou o anao ia?iaeia ie?a auee naycaiu n ii/eoaieai
Aiaeie-I?a?iaeeoaeueieoeu, a oaeaea noeoeeiuo nee i?e?iaeu. A enoi?ee
aieueoeinoaa ae?aaieo ?aeeaee anoue eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiue ia?aeiiiue
iiiaio, eiaaea /aeiaae, aia?aua iniciaa nayuaiiue oa?aeoa? ie?iaiai
ii?yaeea, aa?iiiee e ?acoia, i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao eo e??aoeeiiaeueiui neeai
oaina. Yoio iiiaio caia/aoeai a ieoao i ai?ueaa aiaia. I?ioea noeoeeiuo
aeaiiiia ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa aunooiatho aiaeanoaa /aeiaaeiiiaeiaiua,
niceaeathuea no?ieioth ea?a?oe/aneoth nenoaio ie?a. A i?aaenoaaeaiee
yeeeiia aiae-iiaaaeeoaee iinaeeeenue ia Ieeiia, eioi?ue noae oaea ia
noieueei ai?ie, neieueei iaeiae iaaaniie iaeanoueth. Iaeoaoaee Ieeiia
iuneeeenue eae nouanoaa, ai anai, e?iia aannia?oey, noiaeiua n
ethaeueie. Ieou e?ani/ii ?enotho eo aeeciue n?aaee aiei e niia?ie/anoaa,
eio?ea e ie?ia, ethaae e iaiaaenoe. Iiaaaea ieeiieeoeaa iaae oaiiuie
neeaie Iaoa?e-Caiee io?aceea ai?aeia naiiniciaiea /aeiaaea-ai?oea,
/aeiaaea-aeayoaey e ono?ieoaey aeecie, ociaaoaai i naiai i?aainoiaenoaa
iaae i?e?iaeie. O?eoio /aeiaaeiiiaeiaiuo aiaia a i?eieoeaiie oi?ia
cayaeye i aa?a a aunooth cia/eiinoue aeooiaiiai ia/aea.

?en. 77

A?oaieaea. Ainoi/iue o?ec Ia?oaiiia. 447-432 aa. aei ?.O. O?aaiaio

?en. 78

Aiia?. Iiiaoa ec Oeina. IV a. aei ?.O.

Iaeiaei iiaaaea Ieeiia, eae aeaneo neacaiea, ia auea iieiie: n?acea
oeoaiia e /oaeiaeu, aiae ia ?aoeeenue iinyaiooue ia naio Aiaeith-Iaoue.
Aa?oiaiay aeanoue inoaeanue ca iae. E iaae anai i?iaeieaeaea oyaioaoue
iaecauaiay Noaeueaa, eioi?oth iaaiciiaeii auei ie iinoe/ue, ie
iaeieaoue, ie oiieeoue. Iia i?aaenoaaaea ana oie aea
Aiaeiae-I?a?iaeeoaeueieoeae. Eiaiii caeanue ei?aiue oiai
oaoaeenoe/aneiai1 /oanoaa, ec eioi?iai ?iaeeeanue aioe/iay o?aaaaeey,
ainiaaoay ouaoiue iiaaeeiie /aeiaaea n Iaaaaeiiui.

«Eeeaaea» e «Iaeennay» Aiia?a auee aeey a?aeia ianoiyuae
yioeeeeiiaaeeae, ioeoaea iiiaea iieieaiey yeeeiia /a?iaee naie
?aeeaeiciua iiiyoey. Aeaaiay oaiaeaioeey aiia?ianeie ?aeeaee —
i/aeiaa/aiea aiaia — iaoiaeeea aeeaaeoee ioeeee n?aaee aeeoaeae
a?a/aneeo ai?iaeia-iieenia.

Iaeiaei iinoaiaiiia i?aiaeieaiea eoeueoa /aeiaa/aneiai ia/aea a
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie ?aeeaee iicaieyao ae iiaeiyoueny iaae i?inoui
aio?iiiii?oeciii. Aannia?oea, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiia aieoaaiui iaieoeii, e
iaiai?eiay neea ieeiieeneeo aaeeeaiia yaeyeenue eeoue /enoi aiaoieie
i?eciaeaie, ioee/athueie aiaia io ethaeae.

I?ioeann naeeaeaiey iaaeaeo aeaoiy ie?aie — Ieeiiii e ?iaeii nia?oiuo —
i?ineaaeeaaaony e a ?aeeaeiciii eneonnoaa A?aoeee VII—V aa. aei ?.O.

Iiyaeaoeany a ia/aea yoiai ia?eiaea o?aiu nii?oaeaeenue ii ia?aco aeeeeu
e iau/ii ioee/aeenue ia i/aiue aieueoeie ?acia?aie. No?iy eo, a?aee
oioaee i?aaeinoaaeoue Caano eee Iinaeaeiio «aeii» a i?aaeaeao naiaai
ai?iaea. Aicaiaey iaeoaeeua aeey aiaia, a?aee iaaeayeenue naeaeaoue
aannia?oiuo naieie nia?aaeaeaiaie, iie?iaeoaeyie iieena. Aeey a?aea
anaeaiea aiaa a o?ai auei iaeiei ec n?aaenoa i/aeiaa/aiey aai, ii/oe
ianeeuenoaaiiiai oaea?aeaiey aiaa a iieena. Auaaee aeaaea neo/ae, eiaaea
noaooe aiaia i?eeiauaaee oeaiyie, /oiau iiiaoaoue ei iieeiooue aeeeeua.

Yoa aea oaiaeaioeey e noe?aieth a?aieoe aiaeanoaaiiiai e /aeiaa/aneiai
iaiaoeeanue e a eoeueoiauo ecia?aaeaieyo. Anee io noa?uo i?eieoeaiuo
eaeieia aayei /ai-oi caaaaei/iui, naa?ouanoanoaaiiui, oi a aeaeueiaeoai
iu aeaeei ia?acu ana aieaa caiiua, iiiyoiua, /aeiaa/iua.

Aiaeanoai, ecaayiiia ec eaiiy, iaaeaeaiiia i?ae?aniui caiiui eeeii,
aeeaouaa a nianoaaiiii aeiia, iuneeeinue a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eae
ae?oa, caueoiee e ninaae a?aea. Ieeii e ai?iae ieacaeenue ?yaeii; aaaeue
iaaea?ii ieou iinoiyiii aiai?eee i ethaae e a?aeao iaaeaeo aannia?oiuie
e ethaeueie.

Neeoeii caiiua aiae ieacuaaeenue nouanoaaie ii/oe oiai aea ii?yaeea, /oi
e nia?oiua. Iaaeaeo oai ethaee ia iiaoo aeieai aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny
eaeaaeii, eioi?ue ia aicauoaaony iaae eo o?iaiai. Oi, ia?aae /ai /aeiaae
iiaeao neeiieoueny, ia oieaeay naiaai aeinoieinoaa, aeieaeii
i?aainoiaeeoue aai, a yoiai iaeuecy auei neacaoue i aiia?ianeeo aiaao.
Iiyoiio anoanoaaiii, /oi aci? iuneyueo a?aeia ana /aua no?aieeny
i?iieeiooue a oaeinoaaiiua iaaana iaae Ieeiiii.

Ii /oi iie iiaee iaeoe oai? Ec iiyi Aiia?a ei auei ecaanoii, /oi aiae
aanneeueiu ia?aae ?aoaieai Noaeueau, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iia i?aaeo
ie?ii. Anaeaiiay, oaeei ia?acii, yaeyao niaie eae au nenoaio anaiauae
caaeneiinoe. ?aa iiae/eiai /aeiaaeo-ainiiaeeio, /aeiaae — ea?ooea aiaia,
aiae iiaeaeanoiu Noaeueaa. Oaeae /aeiaaea — ?aanoai ia oieueei
oece/aneia, ii e aeooiaiia. *aeiaae eae ?aa i?aaenoieo aiaai ia n
/oanoaii nie?aiey, a nei?aa eae iaaieueiee. Nie?aiea ?iaeaeaaony ec aa?u
a aeaainoue aunoeo nee, iaaeaeo oai ieeaeeo i?eciaeia aeaainoe Iie?u2 o
Aiia?a iaeuecy auei iaeoe. Aa i?aaeia/a?oaiey — eeoue i?eoioue, ia
eiathuay oeaee e niunea, eioi?ay i?aa?auaao ie? e aeaenoaey /aeiaaea a
aano?ae.

?en. 79

Aeeiien. ?inienue aioi?u. Ieiei 500 a. aei ?.O.

Ca e?ani/iuie ea?oeiaie aiia?ianeiai yiina iiaeii ?acee/eoue ne?uooth
iuneue ia ia?a/aiiinoe ethaeae e ia?iaeia. Iai?iia O?ie aaniieacia — aa
ae?aaee i?aaeii?aaeaeai; Aoeeean ciaao i iaecaaaeiinoe naiae ?aiiae
aeaaee, Iaeennae — ia o/anoe naieo oiaa?euae. E /oi oaeeaeoaeueiiai,
anee o iaaoea, i?ineaaeythuaai iiao/eo aeoycae, aiacaiii i?i?uaaaony
nei?aiia aineeeoeaiea:

«Iaae nouanoaaie caiiuie, eioi?ua aeuoao e oiaeyo,

Enoeiii a oeaeie Anaeaiiie ian/anoiaa iao /aeiaaea!..»

Aeaaea iiyo Aiae?aiio, noyaeaaoee neaao naieie ea?eauie noeoaie,
iaiaeeaeaiii eae au i?iaiaa?eaaaony:

«Oia?aoue au iia! Ia aeaeo ieeaeiai

ss ae?oaiai ecaaaeaiuey io no?aaeaiee».

?en. 80

Aa?ia aiaa Aeeiiena. V a. aei ?.O.

Oae a?aee i?eoee e iunee i oii, /oi caiiay aeeciue — yoi aeieeia nei?ae.

Aaeioyiai e eiaeeeoeai auee /oaeaeu iiaeiaiua i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaaiaea?y
aa?a a aannia?oea. Aiia?ianeay aea ?aeeaey, aiai?y i no?aoiie
I?aeniiaeiae, iaeeaeaaoae ethaeae iinea nia?oe, aiooaea ei eeoue oineo e
oaean. Ia?aae eeoeii nia?oe /aeiaae ia?anoaaae auoue aeoeaiui /eaiii
iauanoaa, ieacuaaeny aaniiiiuiui o e?ay i?iianoe.

______________________________________________________________________

1 Oaoaeenoe/aneee, i?ee. io nou. «oaoaeeci» (eao. «noaeueaa», «?ie») —
neaiay iiei?iinoue ianoiyoaeuenoaai, no?ao ia?aae nianoaaiiie
aeoeaiinoueth, eioi?ay yeiau eeai iai?ania (noaeueaa ?aoeea eia/a), eeai
iiaeao i?iaiaaeoue aeooia e aeaiiiia.

2 Iie?a — aoea. «o/anoue», «aeiey», eioi?oth ethaee iieo/atho i?e
?iaeaeaiee; aiaeiy noaeueau o ae?aaieo a?aeia.

Aeeiien

Aa?iiaeneay A?aoeey, ie. 650—550 aa. aei ?.O.

Ae?aaiea a?aee ethaeee iiaoi?youe: «Ia?a, ia?a ai anai». Ii ia yaeyeinue
ee yoi /anoia ia?auaiea e «ia?a» ?acoeueoaoii oiai, /oi iie iuouaee a
aeoaeiao naiae aeooe neeu, niaa?oaiii i?ioeaiiieiaeiua ?acoio e
ii?yaeeo?

Yiioa, i eioi?ie iu ?anneacuaaai, auea a?aiaiai aeooiaiiai a?iaeaiey e
ca?iaeaeaiey aeooiaiie iunee. O a?aeia yoio ia?eiae (VII—VI aa. aei
?.O.) iciaiaiiaaeny oyaie e ienoe/aneei eoeueoai. *aeiaae,
iooaoanoaiaaaoee oiaaea ii Yeeaaea, ia iia ia caiaoeoue, /oi iianthaeo
i?ienoiaeeo ia/oi no?aiiia e iaiiiyoiia. Ai?iua eana noaee a?aiaiaie
iaeaoaoueny iaieai e e?eeaie: oi auee oieiu aeaiuei, eioi?ua iineeenue
n?aaee aea?aaueaa n ?aniouaiiuie aieinaie, iaeaoua a caa?eiua oeo?u, n
aaieaie ec iethua ia aieiaao; a ?oeao o ieo auee oe?nu — iaeee, iaaeoua
oiaeai; iie i?aaeaaaeenue ennooieaiiui ieyneai iiae caoee ia?aiauoiiai
i?eano?a: aecaeaee oeaeou, caaiaee eeoaa?u, iiaeieiaeny aeo?iaiyuee aeui
io naeeaaaiuo eiiiiee e niieu.

?en. 81

Aeeiien a eaaeuea. ?inienue eeeeea. O?aaiaio. Ieiei 530 a. aei ?.O

Ii/ueth eieaaethueeny naao oaeaeia inaauae oaioanoe/aneea ea?oeiu
oaaaoa. Iieoaieua aeaaooee n inoaeeaiaeui acaeyaeii ?aaee coaaie iyni
o?aiauoueo aeeaioiuo. Ia yoeo aeeeeo eaniuo i?acaeianoaao aeaiueiu,
neeoeii aeieai aeeaoea acaia?oe e ii?aaiuaiiua ai?iaeii, a?aee ?aaaio:
ianeieueei no?iau auee e iei iauanoaaiiua caeiiu, ianoieueei aaeee aue
yiooceaci eo ?aciocaeaiiuo ?aaeaiee. Aaeaa ?acaeaaaeny i?ecuaiue eee/,
eae iie ia?anoaaaee auoue iaoa?yie, aei/a?ueie, aeaiaie; iie iieeaeaee
naie i/aae e i?yeee e n yoiai iaiiaaiey anaoeaei i?aaeaaaeenue i?aeyi a
/anoue Aeeiiena (Aaeoa).

Aeeiieneci iieacae, /oi iiae iie?iaii cae?aaiai niunea e oii?yaei/aiiie
a?aaeaeaineie ?aeeaee eeieioaei ieaiy, aioiaia a ethaie iiiaio
au?aaoueny ia?oaeo. Ethaee aa?eee, /oi ieynee aaeoaiie i?eianoo
ieiaei?iaeea iieyi e aeiia?aaeieeai. A aeie ?aaeaiee neoaeeoaeueieoeu
iiaouanoaaiiiai aiaa iieueciaaeenue iie?iaeoaeuenoaii e oaaaeaieai.

?en. 82

Aeeiien n naoe?aie e iaiaaeaie. ?inienue e?aoa?a. O?aaiaio. Ieiei 440 a.
aei ?.O.

?en. 83

Oaai n oe?nii. I a.

I?eaa?aeaioeu Aeeiiena /oanoaiaaee naay niiaa, iiaeiaii naiei aeaeaeei
i?aaeeai, aeaoueie ia ai?iaeneie iaueiu, a Iaoa?e-Caiee. Aeeiieneci
i?iiiaaaeiaae neeyiea n i?e?iaeie, a eioi?ii /aeiaae anaoeaei ae
ioaeaaony. Eiaaea ieynea n?aaee eania e aeieei iiae caoee iocuee
i?eaiaeeea o/anoieeia aaeoaiaeee a ninoiyiea ennooieaiey, iie eoiaeenue
a aieiao einie/aneiai ainoi?aa, eo na?aeoea aeeenue a eaae n oeaeui
ie?ii. Oiaaea oiieoaeueiui eacaeny aanue ie? n aai aeia?ii e ceii,
e?anioie e o?iaenoaii.

«N/anoeea, anee i?eiauai ou

I?aee Iaoa?e Eeaaeu;

Anee oe?nii iio?ynay,

Iethua caeaiueth oaai/ai,

A ie?a neoaeeoue Aeeiieno».

Ana, /oi aeaeeo, neuoeo, inycaao e iaiiyao /aeiaae, — i?iyaeaiey
Aeeiiena. Caiao aieie e niiiiai i?oaea, eaaeyiua aao?u e iaanneeeaathuee
ciie, iaaeiua oeaaou e ioa?aoeoaeueiue iaoe -— ai anai caeeth/aii
aiaeanoaaiiia. ?acoi ia iiaeao nie?eoueny n yoei, ii inoaeaeaao e
iaeia?yao, ni?oe?oao e auae?aao. Ii /aai noiyo aai noaeaeaiey, eiaaea
«nayuaiiia aacoiea Aaeoa», aucaaiiia iiueyiythuei oaioeai iiae aieoaui
iaaii eee ii/ueth i?e naaoa caacae e iaiae, — i?eie?yao ni anai!
En/acaao ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeeciueth e nia?oueth. *aeiaae oaea ia
/oanoaoao naay ioi?aaiiui io Anaeaiiie, ii ioiaeaeanoaeeny n iae, a
cia/eo — n Aeeiienii.

Caeanue iu aeaeei eneaaeaiiua i?iyaeaiey aeaaeaeu Aiaeanoaaiiiai,
iaeno?aaeiie a /aeiaaea. E /ai iaiueoa niiniaiu eaeae aaea ooieeoue aa,
oai neeueiaa iiaeao ieacaoueny ac?ua. Eiaaea aeooa ia iaoiaeeo iiaeeeiii
aunieiai i?ecaaiey, aa ii?uau iiaoo i?eieiaoue naiua ono?aoathuea e
o?iaeeeaua oi?iu.

Ienoeea Aeeiiena ?iaeeeanue ec no?aieaiey iaeoe a i?e?iaea aa/ioth
aeeciue e nianaiea. Ii a eiioea eiioeia iia eeoue iecaiaeeea /aeiaaea
aei o?iaiy aeeaioiiai. Ai?i/ai, e yoi ia nianai aa?ii. Iieiiai
aica?auaiey e aanneiaaniui aeey /aeiaaea auoue ia iiaeao. Oi, /oi
anoanoaaiii aeey caa?y, o ethaeae ia?aaeei noaiiaeony aieaciueth,
aacoinoaii e eca?auaieai. Ei ia aeaii aaciaeacaiii io?aeaoueny io
?acoia, io niaanoe, io aeooa. *aeiaaeo ioe?uo iaeei aaeeinoaaiiue iooue
— iooue e ainoiaeaeaieth. Iiiuoea aea nionoeoueny aiec, e /enoi
o?aaiyaeiiio niiniao auoey, ianao eeoue eeethci?iia inaiaiaeaeaiea.

I?oeee

Aoeiu, ie. VI a. aei ?.O.

Aei ian aeioee nicaeaiiua a V a. aei ?.O. «I?oaaau aeiiu», a eioi?uo
niaea?aeeony iiaia ?aeeaeiciia o/aiea, iiiuoaaoaany niaaeeieoue a naaa
aa?iiieth e noeoeth, oaeaeaoue aa?oiaiia Aaeeinoai. Iie ainoiaeyo e
ieoe/aneiio aa?ith — I?oath, iieeiiieeo Aiieeiia. I iai aiai?eee, /oi io
iaoa?e naiae, iocu Eaeeeiiu, ii iieo/ee aieoaaiue aea?: «Aai ea?a e
iaiea iiei?yee noeoee. Eiaaea ii iooaoanoaiaae n a?aiiaaoaie, aieiu e
aaoa? nie?yeenue, ca/a?iaaiiua aeeaiie iocueie».

Ia I?oaa ?anneacuaaee, /oi, iuoaynue aa?iooue ia caieth naith aeaio
Ya?eaeeeo, iiaeaooth io oeona ciae, ii nioneaeny a I?aeniiaeithth. E
aeaaea oai aai ee?a oai?eea /oaeana: /oaeiaeua cae?uaaee naie ianoe,
oniieaeaaeenue ceiaiua Y?eiee, nai aeanoeoaeue Aeaea aue iiei?ai I?oaai.
Ii niaeaneeny ioaeaoue aio Ya?eaeeeo, ii n oai oneiaeai, /oiau iaaaoe
oae aia?aaee, ia iaeyaeuaaynue ia iaa. Iaeiaei I?oae ia iia i?aiaeieaoue
iaieuaa /oanoa e iaa?ioeny, Ya?eaeeea auea oaea/aia a aacaeio, ia yoio
?ac iaanaaaea.

Aacooaoiue, neeoaeny iaaaoe ii caiea, ia iaoiaey iieiy. Ii anei?a e aai
naiiai ianoeaea aeaaeue. Ai O?aeee ii ano?aoee oieio aacoinoaothueo
aaeoaiie, eioi?ua a i?eiaaeea ennooieaiey ?anoa?caee I?oay. Eaeeeiia ni
neacaie nia?aea ie?iaaaeaiiua eonee oaea e iia?aaea ia aa?oeia ai?u
Iaiaay. Eeoue aieiaa iaaoea aianoa n aai ia?aceo/iie ee?ie oiaea a ii?a,
e aieiu auianee aa ia ino?ia Eanain. Oai, a ?annaeeia neae, iia ec?aeaea
i?i?i/anoaa.

O/aiea i?oeeia enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi a ie?a anoue aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
ia/aea — Aiieeii e Aeeiien. Iaeei ieeoeaoai?yao aaeeinoai e no?ieiinoue,
ae?oaie — iiiaiia?acea e ?acae?iaeaiiinoue. Ii a oi aea a?aiy a i?oecia
i?enoonoaoao e eaeay aa?oiaiiai Aaeeinoaa, oioy iia eiaao aua ycu/aneee
oa?aeoa?. Yoi iaiaeanoaeaiiay noeoey, i?aaeaa/iia ie?iaia eiii. A
iaeioi?uo oaenoao iii eiaioaony O?iiinii, A?aiaiai. O?iiin ii?iaeee
naaoeue Yoe? iaaa e eeiei/ouee Oain. Ec ieo ?iaeeeinue einie/aneia
yeoei, eioi?ia niaea?aeaei a naaa ana ca?iaeuoe Anaeaiiie: aiaia,
oeoaiia e ethaeae. Yoio ia?ac oa?aeoa?ai aeey ae?aaiaai iieeoaecia,
ooaa?aeaeathuaai, /oi ie? ia nioai?yaony, a ?iaeaeaaony nai.

?en. 84

I?oae o o?aeeeoeaa. ?inienue e?aoa?a. O?aaiaio. Ieiei 450 a. aei ?.O.

Eiaaea aeaaioneia yeoei ?aneieieinue, i?iaeieaeaao i?oe/aneia neacaiea,
ec iaai auoae neythuee I?ioiaiiin — Ia?ai?iaeiue — aia, iauaiethuee
niaith ana i?e?iaeiia iiiaiia?acea.

A ai?ueaa aiaia e oeoaiia Caan iiaeioee Ia?ai?iaeiiai e noae
aaeeinoaaiiui ie?iaui Aiaeanoaii. Ii anooiaao a nithc n I?aeniiaeiae, e
io aa oea?eoeu ?iaeaeaao nuoaAeeiiena-Caa?ay. Yoi ia iiaue aia, a
ae?oaay eiinoanue Caana, aai iiuue, «iaeiaeaeythuay neea»; ionthaea
oi?ioea i?oeeia: «E Caan, e Aeae, e Nieioea, e Aeeiien — aaeeiu».

Ieo iiaanoaoao, /oi iaeiaaeaeu oeoaiu iiie/eeenue i?ioea Aeeiiena,
eioi?ue iuoaeny oneieueciooue io ieo, i?eieiay ?acee/iua iaeeee. Eiaaea
ii iaa?ioeny aueii, a?aae ianoeaee aai, ?anoa?caee e niae?aee.
Iao?iiooui inoaeinue eeoue na?aeoea — iineoaeue Aeeiieniaie nouiinoe.
I?eiyoia a eiii Caana, iii aic?iaeeeinue a iiaii iaeeea, a iaaaniua
a?iiu niaeeee iyoaaeieeia.

Ec inoaaoaainy iaiea, a eioi?ii aiaeaneay i?e?iaea auea ia?aiaoaia n
oeoaie/aneie, aiciee /aeiaa/aneee ?iae. Yoi icia/aao, /oi /aeiaae eneiie
aue nouanoaii aeaienoaaiiui.

Caeanue, ianiiiaiii, io?aceeny iiuo ?aeeaee Aeeiiena. A iiiaio
nayuaiiiai aacoiey /aeiaaea iiaenoa?aaaei ae?aiaaoaa a iai «oeoaiiai»
ia/aei. Eiaiii iii i?eaiaeeei ethaeae e icaa?aieth e e iiaaaea ieioneeo
aeaeaiee. Aeaaeainoai /aeiaaea — a e?ueaoii ia?aiee aeooa, aai
ian/anouea — a iiae/eiaiiinoe ieioe.

Oae a a?a/aneii niciaiee niaa?oaaony ia?aai?io, e acaeyae ia i?e?iaeo
/aeiaaea i?eaeeaeaaony e eiaeeeneei aicc?aieyi. Anee a aiia?ianeea
a?aiaia aaaeiaeoei n/eoaeinue oaei, a aeooo iuneeee /ai-oi oua?aiui,
iaoaa?aeui e neaaui, oi oaia?ue eiaiii iia i?iaicaeaoaaony aunoei
ia/aeii.

?en. 85

I?oae, ea?athuee ia ee?a. Iicaeea. III a.

Oaei — yoi a?iaieoea, n/eoaee i?oeee. Aeooa iiaeaaeaia ei e aea/eo a aai
oaniuo a?aieoeao aeaeeia nouanoaiaaiea. Aeaaea e a nia?oe ia
inaiaiaeaeaaony iia io oeneia oeoaiiaie i?e?iaeu. Yoa ieciaiiay i?e?iaea
canoaaeyao aeooo aiiaue aica?auaoueny ia caieth, e iao eiioea
no?aaeaieyi aeooa — Aeeiieniaie ene?u.

Iiaeiaii i?i/ei ieoai i no?aaeaeouai aiaeanoaa, i?oeci caeeth/ae a naaa
iaeii ec aaeeeeo i?ic?aiee aeio?enoeaineiai ie?a. Ieo i nia?oe e
aine?anaiee aiaa — yoi i?iaeoeey ia ?aeeaeth i?e?iaeiuo oeeeeia, e
iaeiia?aiaiii yoi niooiay aeiaaaeea i oii, /oi ie?, oaeaeeaoeeny io
Aiaa, ia inoaaeai Ei ia iooe no?aaeaiey, /oi Aiaeanoai nino?aaeaeao
oai?aieth, nienoiaeeo e iaio, /oiau i?eiyoue aai ioee e auaanoe e
enoeiiie aeecie.

I?oeee o/eee, /oi /aeiaae nai aeieaeai eaeoe iaano?a/o
Aeeiieno-nianeoaeth. Yoiio neoaeeee ienoa?ee, aea?aeaaoeany a
no?iaeaeoae oaeia. O/anoaoy a ieo, iinayuaiiue noaiiaeeny aeeaea e
Aeeiieno. A aeecie i?oeee no?aieeenue ?acaeaaoue a naaa ia/aea aeia?a,
ai?ioueny n oeoaie/aneei ia/aeii. Yoiio neoaeeee ia?aie/aiey a ieua,
iniaua i?eioeeiu aneacu — oae iacuaaaiay «i?oe/aneay aeeciue».

?en. 86

Ieoaai?.

Na?aaeeia V a. aei ?.O.

Ieoaai?

THaeiay Eoaeey, 540-500 aa. aei ?.O.

I?eia?ii a oi a?aiy, a eiioea VI a. aei ?.O., iiyaeeny ia?aue
?aeeaeiciue iuneeoaeue Yeeaaeu, naiaai ?iaea i?i?ie — Ieoaai? (580—500
aa. aei ?.O.).

A ai?iaea E?ioiia (ia thaa Eoaeee) ii noae eceaaaoue naia o/aiea e
iniiaae Nithc, eee a?aonoai. Ia Ieoaai?a niio?aee eae ia /oaeioai?oea.
Iaeaoue a aaeua iaeaaeaeu, ii ii?aaeae anao «aaaeiinoueth aeaea». I iai
?anneacuaaee, /oi ii i?iieeae a caa?iaiue ie?, aanaaeiaae n aeooaie.
O/aiea Ieoaai?a auei ia?auaii e iinayuaiiui e o?aieeinue a oaeia. Ii ana
aea iniiaiua aai iunee aeioee aei ian.

Ieoaai? o/ee, /oi aeooa aannia?oia, ii ia?aoiaeeo ec oaea a oaei, ana a
ie?a iiaoi?yaony /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie.

Oeaio?ii aai o/aiey auei iiiyoea aa?iiiee, iaaayiiia eoeueoii Aiieeiia,
aiaa eneonnoa, naaoa e ni?acia?iinoe. Aeaoaaeeinoai Aiieeiia e Aeeiiena
yaeyaony iniiaiui i?eioeeiii einiina. Yoei neiaii (io a?a/. neiaa ni
cia/aieai «ono?aeaaoue», «oe?aoaoue») aia?aua iacaae Anaeaiioth Ieoaai?.

Aa?oiaiui aiaeanoaii oeeinio ii/eoae iaeia iaiaiiia Aaeeinoai,
i?aauaathuaa a naiii n?aaeioi/ee einiina; yoi ieaiaiiia Oeaeia ia?acoao
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue ie?ia, ninoiyiee e ea/anoa. Cia/aiea Ieoaai?a
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ia ianoi eai?eca, i?iecaiea e iaonoie/eainoe,
eioi?ua oniao?eaaea a ie?a ieeiieeneay ?aeeaey, ii iinoaaee eaeath
caeiiiia?iinoe. Ieoaai? n/eoae, /oi ?acoi /aeiaaea iiaeao iinoe/ue yoo
caeiiiia?iinoue, /oi /aeiaa/aneee aeoo iniiaai ia oao aea caeiiao, /oi e
einiin. Aunoee ii?yaeie, ne?uoue io aci?ia iaaaaeae, niiniaia ioe?uoue
/aeiaaeo iocuea. Ieoaai? o/ee naieo iineaaeiaaoaeae aieiaoue «aa?iiiee
noa?».

Iaeei ec ieoaai?aeoeaa aiai?ee, /oi anoue «aiaeanoaaiiia ciaiea»,
i?eiauathuaa /aeiaaea e anaeaineie aa?iiiee. Yoi ciaiea iiaeao auoue
au?aaeaii oieueei ia ycuea iaoaiaoeee. Iia ?anniao?eaaeanue eae ea?ean
einiia?aoee, eae iooue e auaaaeaieth aaeeiie oi?ioeu ie?a, eioi?ay
oiaeaeanoaaiia n iocueaeueiie aa?iiieae.

Ieoaai? oeacuaae e ia aiciiaeiinoue iano?ieee aeooe-eino?oiaioa a oienii
n iaaaniie neioiieae. Ei yaeyeny iniaue oeeaae aeecie, eioi?ue o?aaiaae
i?inaaoeaiiinoe, aa?iiie/iinoe e ia?u a iinooieao, /oanoaao e iuneyo.
Ieoaai?aaoe aeieaeai aue ainieouaaoue a naaa oeaeiioae?ea,
naea?aeaiiinoue, ie?iethaea, oaaaeaiea e ae?aaiei o/aieyi, no?iai
neaaeeoue ca niaie, caaeyaeuaay a naith aeooo, i?iaa?yy niaanoue.
*aeiaaeo neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi aai aannia?oiay aeooa anoue a?aia
i?ioeaiai?noaa a?aaeaeothueo nee. Eo ioaeii i?eaanoe a ?aaiiaanea. Oiai,
eoi ia niia ia?ano?ieoue naith aeooo ii i?eioeeiai aa?iiie/iinoe, ia
ieioao aiciacaeea. Eeoue niaa?oaiiay aeeciue iiaeao i?eianoe aeooa
aeaaeainoai a yoie aeecie e a aoaeoueo aiieiuaieyo.

Ia?aciaaiiue Ieoaai?ii nithc i?aaenoaaeye niaie ianoiyuee ?aeeaeiciue
i?aeai ni naiae ia?yaeiinoueth, ea?a?oeae, o/aieai aeey iinayuaiiuo;
/eaiia aai naycuaaee no?iaay aeenoeeieeia e iineooaiea. Iniaia cia/aiea
i?eaeaaaeinue ?acaeoeth iocueaeueiie eoeueoo?u e iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee,
oaeoaeaiiui ?aciuoeaieyi-iaaeeoaoeeyi.

Eaeae Ieoaai?a i Aaeeiii, i aa?iiiee, aa/iuo iniiaao ie?icaeaiey, i
aannia?oee aeooa ieacaee ieiaeioai?iia aicaeaenoaea ia ?acaeoea aioe/iie
oeeinioee e iaoee. Ia iaeaaeay noieue iiao/ei ?aeeaeiciui aea?ii, eae
Eiaeey eee Ec?aeeue, A?aoeey ana aea noiaea caaiaaaoue aeey ie?a aaeeeea
aeooiaiua nie?iaeua a noa?a iiciaiey e ?aeeaeiciie iunee.

A?A*ANEAss O?AAAAeEss

Ynoee

Aoeiu, 525-456 aa. aei ?.O.

N ia/aea V a. aei ?.O. i naiuo o?oaeiuo aeeciaiiuo i?iaeaiao caaiai?ee
a?a/aneee oaao?. Ii noae e o?aiii, e o?eaoiie, e eieaie. Nicaeaoaeai
a?a/aneie o?aaaaeee aue Ynoee (525—456 aa. aei ?.O.).

A oeaio?a oai?/anoaa Ynoeea noieo o?eeiaey i I?iiaoaa — oeoaia,
aea?cioaoai iioeoeoue o Caana iaiiue aeey ethaeae. Ae?aaiee ieo
iineoaeee Ynoeeo eaiaie aeey aiieiuaiey naieo naiuo nie?iaaiiuo aeoi.

Caaycea ae?aiu — ia?aay /anoue o?eeiaee, aei ian ia aeioea. Aoi?ay aa
/anoue, o?aaaaeey «I?eeiaaiiue I?iiaoae», ia/eiaaony n oiai, /oi Caan,
ia aeanoiue oaeoue I?iiaoay, i?eaiai?ee aai e aa/iie iuoea.

Aacaeooiua eniieieoaee oea?neie aiee — Aeanoue e Neea — i?eaiaeyo
aaeeeaia e neaea: Aaoano, oioy anai na?aeoeai nino?aaeaeao aio, ia a
ninoiyiee ineooaoueny Caana. Ino?ia eacaea i?iicaao a?oaeue I?iiaoay,
?oee aai iae?aiei i?eoyaeaathony oeaiyie e eaiiyi; e ae?oao ethaeae, eae
au ?aniyoiio iaae ooiyuei ii?ai, inoaaony eeoue aeaeaoue, eiaaea i?ae
Caana nionoeony oa?caoue aai.

Iiea a?ioi/oo oaea?u iieioa, iiea iaea/e niaa?oatho naia aeaei, I?iiaoae
o?aieo iie/aiea. Ii aaeaa iie ooiaeyo, eae oeoai ?ac?aaeaaony a?iieeie
aiieyie e oei?aie. Ii ciaao aanue ie? a naeaeaoaee, acuaaao e
Iaoa?e-Caiea, e Yoe?o, e auno?ie?ueui aao?ai, ?aeai e aieiai: «Niio?eoa,
/oi iuia, aia, oa?ieth y io aiaia!»

Ia cia no?aaeaeueoea ioeeeeaaony oi? ii?neeo Ieaaieae, iie oaiaa?eaatho
I?iiaoay iiae/eieoueny. A aeia?iaeooiue Ieaai aiai?eo: «Ia eacue ou ia
?iaeii, ia caauaae, /oi i?aaeo ieeiio ia iiaeio/aoiue oea?ue».

Ii ia oaeia I?iiaoae, ii ciaao, /oi oa?ieo ca aeia?ia aeaei e ia
niae?aaony io?aeaoueny io iaai. Ii i?aaeaeaeae naith o/anoue, ii oai ia
iaiaa iioae ia iaa ai eiy /aeiaaeiethaey. Ii oaa?ae, eae neaea, i
eioi?oth o iia aai ouaoii auethony aieiu. Ia oaiai?u Aa?iana, eioi?iai
Caan iinueaao auaaaeaoue ecaanoioth eeoue I?iiaoath oaeio aoaeouaai,
oeoai ioaa/aao:

«Ia aeoiae, /oi ec no?aoa ia?aae Caanii

ss noaio aaaie, aoaeo oiieyoue,

Eae aeaiueia, caeaiuaay ?oee,

*oia oio, eiai y iaiaaeaeo, niye

N iaiy ieiau. Ia auaaoue oiio!»

?en. 87

Aioe/iua oaao?aeueiua ianee

?en. 88

Ynoee.

460-450 aa. aei ?.O.

Noaeueao Ieeiia, i eioi?ie iiaaaeaea Caiey I?iiaoath, ii ia ioe?iao
naiaio io/eoaeth.

A o?aaaaeee ana eae au nin?aaeioi/aii ia oii, /oiau iieacaoue oea?y
aiaia inoeoaeueiui oe?aiii. I?iiaoae e?e/eo, /oi ii iaiaaeaeeo anao
aiaia, /oi o Caana «ni?aaaaeeeainoueth neoaeeo i?iecaie», /oi ?ani?aaa
iaae canooiieeii ethaeae — anaie?iue iici? aeaaeuee Ieeiia.

A caeeth/aiea o?aaaaeee Caan eniieiyao naith oa?ico — e neaea n
eacieiui, n?aaee aiy e aeanea iieiee, i?iaaeeaaaony a Oa?oa?.

Neiiaoee c?eoaey auee, eiia/ii, ia noi?iia I?iiaoay. A /oi aea Caan?
Iiaeao, aiaeanoai — ia o?aieoaeue ie?a e i?iiuneeoaeue, a no?aoiue
iaea/? Aaaeue iaeioi?ua ia?iaeu naueeenue n oaeie iuneueth, i /ai,
iai?eia?, naeaeaoaeuenoaoao eoeueo Iieioa.

Ii Ynoee ia aeaeaao oaeiai auaiaea. Ii aiai?eo: anee Caan oaeia, oi
i?ioea iaai iaaei ainnoaoue ai eiy aeia?a e naiaiaeu. Ynoee acuaaao e
aieueiiethaeth e ioaeanoao a?aeia, e eo /oanoao /aeiaa/aneiai
aeinoieinoaa, i?ieciineo i?eaiai? aeaniioecio e iienoeia aiaeanoaaiiui
i?aieii ie?oaeaao oiai, eoi ioaeaao naay ca ethaeae, ai eiy eo nianaiey.
Ia neo/aeii, /oi a neaea I?iiaoay eiiaaea oniao?eaaee aioe/iue i?iia?ac
E?anoa O?enoiaa.

O?aouey (iuia oo?a/aiiay) /anoue o?eeiaee — «Inaiaiaeaeaiiue I?iiaoae» —
iinayuaia i?eie?aieth aiaia. Caan nio?aiee naie o?ii, ii eeoue iioiio,
/oi ioeacaeny io cea, eciaiee naio naith i?e?iaeo. Oae ?aoeea Noaeueaa,
e yoi oaea ia i?inoi neaiia oa/aiea niauoee, a oi?aeanoai I?aaaeu:
Noaeueaa o?aaoao oiai aea, /oi e i?aanoaaiiia /oanoai /aeiaaea. O Ynoeea
iia ia?anoaao auoue a?aaeaeaaiui ia/aeii, a yaeyaony i?eioeeiii
i?aanoaaiiiai Ie?iii?yaeea. Aa?oiaiue aia a aaeeiaiee n Iie?ie
ieeoeaoai?yao I?iaeaeaiea. Yoiio i?iaeaeaieth Ynoee inoaaeyao i?aaeiaa
eiy — Caan. Ii ia oioae aaiaeeoue iiaoth ?aeeaeth, ii no?aieeny
iaiiaeoue noa?oth. Aai eniiaaaeaiea aa?u naiaeeony e oiio, /oi ia
oe?aiey oaiiuo e ceuo nee ainiiaenoaoao ai Anaeaiiie, ii aiaeanoaaiiay
I?aaaea.

Nioiee

Aoeiu, V a. aei ?.O.

Ieaaeoee nia?aiaiiee Ynoeea, ae?oaie aaeeeee o?aaee — Nioiee (497—406
aa. aei ?.O.) aeee a yiioo ?anoeaaoa Aoei i?e Ia?eeea e a iineaaeothuea
aiaeu Iaeiiiiianneie aieiu e yieaeaiee. Aua iaaeaaii eacaeinue, /oi
naiaiaeiay aeeciue a naiaiaeiii oeeaeeeciaaiiii iauanoaa aaaeao e
ieii/aoaeueiiio o?eoioo /aeiaaea, e nianaieth io anao ie?iauo cie. Ii
i?eoei iaiiiyoiia e a?iciia ian/anouea, aaniiuaaeii oie/oiaeay ana ieaiu
e ia/ou. Oie?aao io /oiu a ?anoeaaoa nee Ia?eee, ia inouanoaea e
iieiaeiu naieo caiuneia.

Nioiee ia iiaeao, eae Ynoee, aa?eoue a I?iaeaeaiea, Ni?aaaaeeeainoue e
a?aaeaeaineea eaeaaeu — ana yoi ?ooioei ia?aae eeoeii iaaaaeiiuo nee.
Iiae iaiin?aaenoaaiiui aia/aoeaieai nia?oe Ia?eeea Nioiee ieoao ae?aio
«Oea?ue Yaeei».

O?aaaaeey aine?aoaao iaeii ec ae?aaieo oeaai-neeo neacaiee. A Oeaao
nae?ainoaoao ii?. Io/ayaoeany ethaee i?eoiaeyo e naiaio oea?th Yaeeio,
i?iny nianoe eo; aaaeue Yaeei — aaeeeee aa?ie e caueoiee ia?iaea, aai
eca?aee iiia?oii iinea oiai, eae ii iiaaaeee e?iaiaeaaeiiai Noeiena,
?acaaaeaa aai caaaaeee.

Yaeei iinueaao aii?ineoue i?aeoea e iieo/aao ioaao, /oi aaaenoaea iaaeae
aeeaouee a Oeaao oaeeoea i?aaeiaai oea?y. Eay. Ii eoi yoio /aeiaae?
Yaeei eeyiaony, /oi ?acuuao aai e oaa?aiii aa?aony ca aeaei; ii aucuaaao
noa?iai i?i?eoeaoaey-neaioea Oe?aney e oiieyao aai ioe?uoue eiy
i?anooiieea. E aio ooo-oi ia/eiaao iaaeaeaaoueny iaioa?aoeiia…

?en. 89

Nioiee.

Va.aei?.O.

?en. 90

Ia?eee.

Ieiei 440 a. aei ?.O

.

Nioiee iano?aeaaao c?eoaey ia iaeeaeaiea iiaee?aaeuaathuaeny aaaeu. Oi,
/oi nthaeao aio ecaanoai, ia oiaeyao iai?yaeaiey. Iai?ioea.
I?aaeoaaaeuaay ?acayceo, c?eoaeue eniuouaaao aieiaiea io eaaeaeie
neo/aeii ia?iiaiiie o?acu, eaaeaeiai iaiaea. Eaaeaony — aio neiai, iaeei
oaa, e ana inoaiaony a oaeia, ii iao — yoi anaai eeoue ei?ioeay
ia?aaeuoea, e ?ie niiaa i?iaeieaeaao naia ianooieaiea.

Oe?anee eieaaeaony, ii ia oi/ao ioe?uaaoue eiy oaeeoeu, oea?ue
ianoaeaaao, i?eoiaey a ?acae?aaeaiea, a caoai e a y?inoue. Oiaaea i?i?ie
inoi?iaeii iaiaeaao, /oi a naiii Yaeeia anoue «eia-/oi, aeinoieiia
oei?a». Ii aeanoeoaeue aeoo ei anai i?aaeinoa?aaeaieyi: ii iaionooiii
o?aaoao ioaaoa e iaeiiaoe iieo/aao aai:

«Canoaaeth aea oaay

ss i?eaiai? naie nianoaaiiue eniieieoue:

Aaae io ian: ia aiai?e ie n eai —

Ou e?iaueth caieth ineaa?iee, ou i?ieeyo!»

Yaeei ii?aaeai, ii ie ia naeoiaeo ia niiiaaaaony, /oi i?i?ie eaeao. Yoi
caaiai?! Oiaaea Oe?anee oaeaeyaony, anaia?iaeii iauyaea, /oi Yaeei —
oaeeoea naiaai iooea e ioae naiae iaoa?e. Ianoi?iaeaiiue oea?ue
inoaiaaeeaaao neaioea:

?en. 91

?acaaeeiu a?a/aneiai oi?oia

«Yaeei. Neiaa oaie caaaaei/iu.

Oe?anee. Oiaaoue ou oeo?ua caaaaeee ?ac?aoaoue.

Yaeei. Iaae n/anoueai ee Yaeeia ou niaaoueny?

Oe?anee. Oi n/anoea oaay iiaoaeo».

Aiaa oea?y ia?auaaony ia a?aoa aeaiu, E?aiioa: yoi aai i?ienee, ii oi/ao
caaeaaeaoue i?anoieii. Ii a aeaei aiaoeaaaony oea?eoea Eieanoa. Iia
niaaony iaae i?i?i/anoaii: aaaeue Eath auei i?aaeneacaii, /oi ii iaaeao
io ?oee nuia, e iiyoiio ii i?eeacae a?ineoue ?aaaiea a eano naycaiiui.
Oaeo aea Eae aue aiana ia nuiii, a ?acaieieeii ia ia?ae?anoea aei?ia.
Iiaeii ee iinea yoiai aa?eoue i?aeoeai?

Oiiieiaiea i ia?ae?anoea canoaaeyao Yaeeia acae?iaiooue; ii ia/eiaao
oi?iieeai ?anni?aoeaaoue, eae auaeyaeae Eae, eae niaa?oeeinue oaeenoai.
E eaaeaeue ioaao iaiieiyao aai oaeanii. Iaaa?iyoiay aeiaaaeea
cae?aaeuaaaony aio a aeooo. No?ao iaeaaeaaaao e oea?eoeae.

Yaeei aaeeo iaeoe iineaaeiaai naeaeaoaey — noa?iai neoao Eay, eioi?iio
i?eeacaee oia?oaeoue ieaaeaioea-oea?aae/a. A nai oai a?aiaiai
?anneacuaaao Eieanoa, eae aei i?eauoey a Oeau ii ano?aoee ia ia?ae?anoea
aea?ceiai noa?eea ia eieanieoea, eioi?ue ia oioae onooieoue aio aei?iao.
Noa?ee oeanoioe Yaeeia ieaoueth, a oio a i?enooia y?inoe iiaa?a iaaeaoea
iacaiue e aac o?oaea ?ani?aaeeny n aai ?aaaie. *oi, anee yoio oaeoue
noa?ee e Eae — iaeii eeoei? Ii ana aea Yaeei i?iaeieaeaao aua
iaaeayoueny. Auoue iiaeao, yoi — ioeaea, niaiaaeaiea? Ii aioia
ooaaoeoueny ca ethaoth aiciiaeiinoue. Eieanoa ooaoaao aai, iaiiieiay,
/oi nui aa e Eay iiaea aua a ieaaeai/anoaa.

Oaia?ue aeaeoo noa?iai ianoooa. A oai a?aiaiai ?a/eoaoea oi?a cao/eo eae
iia?aaaeueiay ianiue:

«Ai?aeinoue ?iaeaeaao oe?aiia,

E iiiaeo, ianuoea aacoiueai,

Auoa, ana auoa aaaeao eo

E ia?uao a i?iianoue».

C?eoaeue oaea aioia e eaoano?ioa. Ia?aae iei Yaeei — ia/oueeny,
no?aaeathuee, no?anoii aeaeathuee aeieacaoue naaa naith iaaeiiaiinoue.
Iaaeaeo oai ii oaea ia?a/ai.

Ia iaiiaaiea oo/e ?annaeaathony. Ec Ei?eioa i?eauaaao aanoiee, eioi?ue
niiauaao, /oi oia? Iieea — ioaoe Yaeeia. A ian/anoiii oea?a aiiaue
iaeeaaao iaaeaaeaea. Ii iauyniyao aiioeo, /oi aaaeae ec Ei?eioa, iioiio
/oi aio auei i?aaeneacaii, /oi ii oaueao iooea e aeaieony ia iaoa?e. Ii
?ac oea?ue Iieea oia? naiae nia?oueth, oi aiyoueny ia/aai. I?aaaea, aua
aeeaa iaoue… Ii ooo aanoiee, aeoiay ooaoeoue oea?y, ioe?uaaao aio
oaeio: Yaeei ia ?iaeiie nui ei?eioneie /aou — ii aue iaeaeai ?aaaieii a
eano e onuiiaeai Iieeaii… Io iaaeaaeae ia inoaaony ii/oe ie/aai.
Ieii/aoaeueii oie/oiaeeo eo noa?ue ianooo, aioiaue oaea i?aaenoaoue
ia?aae Yaeeiii.

Iai?anii Eieanoa oiieyao ioaea i?ae?aoeoue ?anni?inu; a ineaieaiee ii
eae au caauaaao ia iianiinoe, eioi?ay e?iaony a i?eciaiee i/aaeaeoea. Ii
iaaeiaiii cayaeyao, /oi ia nouaeeony ieceiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey:

«Ii ciath: a oii, /oi y aeeoy Noaeueau,

Anai ?aaeinoe aea?yuae, iao iici?a.

Noaeueaa iia iaoue e a?aiy iia ioaoe:

Iie Yaeeia naeaeaee aaeeeei

Ec iaeiai. ss ?iaeeeny io ieo

E ia aithnue ociaoue iia ?iaeaeaiuea!»

Oau! Yoi iineaaeiea neiaa Yaeeia-oea?y, aieueoa ii ia aoaeao aiai?eoue
eae aeanoue eiathuee. Nae/an ii ociaao, eaeay «iaoue» aio Noaeueaa, e
?iaeeony iiaue Yaeei: Yaeei-i?anooiiee, Yaeei-/aeiaae, eneaea/aiiue
Noaeueaie.

Oa?icaie au?aaii i?eciaiea o ianoooa. Aea, ii, Yaeei, aue nuiii Eay, oai
naiui, eioi?iai oio ?aoeeny oia?oaeoue, aiynue eniieiaiey i?i?i/anoaa.

«Ai?a, ai?a! ss i?ieeyo!» — e?e/eo iaacoiaaoee oea?ue. Ii Noaeueaa
aioiaeo aua iaeei oaea?: Eieanoa iiaaneeanue ai aeai?oea. N aiieai
a?uaaaony Yaeei a niaeueith aeaiu-iaoa?e e canoaaeeaie aa iiyna
aueaeuaaao naaa aeaca: ii ia oi/ao aieueoa aeaeaoue ie ethaeae, ie
nieioea, ii i?ineo oaanoe aai, ni?yoaoue.

«Ii/ue aani?aaeaeueiay,

Iaioa?aoeiay! Oueia ianeacaiiay,

Nia?oe iiaeiaiay!

Aua a iae y?/a ia?acu e?iaaaua,

Aua neeueiaa aieue ainiiieiaiuey!»

Aiieeii ioiinoee ca i?aiaa?aaeaiea e aai i?i?i/anoao. I, ca/ai ia aue
Yaeei oaeo ?aaaieii? Ca/ai /oaeay aeaeinoue nianea aai? Ii — nui, ii — e
ioae, aeaoe aai — aai a?aouey. «Iao, iao! Iaeuecy ia yoii aiai?eoue…
Ec ethaeae ia auian au ieeoi iieo no?aaeaiee».

Aanue yoio eioia? iooeaoaeenoaa e e?iainiaoaiey onoaoaeyaony aeey iaai
iuneueth i neaa?ia, aeaeouae ca niaie i?ieeyoea. Ii ii nai eaciee naay.

A iineaaeieo noeaiao o?aaaaeee ia?aae c?eoaeai oaea ia ai?aeue e
aniueue/eaue aeanoaeei, a niaaaiiue neaiaoe, iia?oaeaiiue a oeooth
nei?aue. Ii ooiaeeo ec ai?iaea eae ca/oieaiiue. A oi? aiai?eo i ouaoa
/aeiaa/aneiai n/anouey, i iai?i/iinoe ae?aaey nia?oiuo, i anaaeanoee
Noaeueau, eioi?oth ia iiaeao i?aiaeieaoue ieeoi, aeaaea iiaaaeeoaeue
Noeiena.

Niiaa Iie?a au?anoaao iaae ie?ii eae ianea Ai?aiiu1. Iia — ia aunoay
aeaaay Aiey, iia — eeoue iaoiieeiue ii?yaeie aauae, ia?aae eioi?ui
/aeiaae aanneeai. Oaeiaa, niaeanii Nioieeo, i?aaaea aeecie. O Nioieea
Iie?a iaiueoa anaai iioiaea ia iaaaniue I?iiunae. Iia i?inoi aeaenoaoao
eae caeii i?e/eiiuo naycae, ?aaiiaeooiue e ie?o /aeiaaea. Niaa?oeeinue
i?anooieaiea — ia aaaeii, niciaoaeueii eee iaaieueii; iii — ?aaeueiue
oaeo e aea/ao ca niaie noieue aea ?aaeueiua iineaaenoaey. Caeanue
enoi/iee aioe/iiai «no?aoa noaeueau», iaiuie naeaeaoaeyie eioi?iai
inoaeenue ianee a?a/aneiai oaao?a. Eiiaoeueneaiua a?eianu yoeo a?aaeiauo
eeeia aiai?yo i anaiiaeiuathuai oaeana /aeiaaea, iiaeaaeaiiiai
Iaaaaeiiui.

Ii, ?enoy ai?ueao Yaeeia n ?ieii, Nioiee ia iia noaoue ia noi?iio
Noaeueau. Iiyoiio ii?aaeaiea Yaeeia ii ecia?acee, aeoaiei ni/oanoaoy
aa?ith.

No?aaeaiea aeaeaao ian/anoiiai oea?y i?ae?aniui, c?eoaee iea/oo aianoa n
iei. Oaooi iiaaaeaeaao Yaeeia eeoue aiaoia. Aioo?aiia aea ii inoaaony
naiaiaeiui; nei?ae e ioee i/euatho aai. Ii au?aceoaeue aeooiaiiai
ia/aea, i?aanoaaiiie aiee /aeiaaea. C?eoaeue aeaeeo aai aeooiaioth neeo
e iuouaao aai iaaeiiaiinoue, oioy a o?aaaaeee ia yoii ia neacaii ii/oe
ie neiaa. E oaeei ia?acii Yaeei iaeiia?aiaiii ieacuaaaony e aea?oaie, e
iiaaaeeoaeai Noaeueau.

________________________________________________________________________

1 Ai?aiiu — a a?a/. ieoieiaee o?e nano?u, /oaeiaeua, iaeoathuea ia e?ath
naaoa; iaeio ec ieo — Iaaeoco — iaacaeaaee Ia?nae. Acaeyae Ai?aii
i?aa?auaao ethaeae a eaiie.

Ae?AAIAA?A*ANEAss OEEINIOEss

Aicieeiiaaiea oeeinioee Iaeay Acey, 650—540 aa. aei ?.O.

Oi?ie?iaaiea oeeinioee eae naiinoiyoaeueiie iaeanoe ciaiee iicaieeei
iuneeoaeyi ae?aaiaai ie?a iiciaaaoue caeiiu auoey /aeiaaea, ?acaeoey
i?e?iaeu e Aunoaai ia/aea iacaaeneii io ?aeeaeiciiai ioe?iaaiey.
I?aaeaea anaai ?acaeaeaiea iaoee e aa?u iicaieeei ei ?acaeaaoueny, ia
i?aiyonoaoy ae?oa ae?oao. Yiie?e/aneia ciaiea, eco/aiea i?e?iaeu e
ioaea/aiiay iuneue o?aaotho naieo «i?aaee ea?u», e aoi?aeaiea
?aeeaeiciuo aeieo?ei a yoo iaeanoue neiauaaei iaoeo. ?aeeaey aea ia
caaeneo io iaoee, e yiaineiaoeey iaoee e oeeinioee io iiaee aiaineianeeo
oai?ee ioe?uaaao iiaua aiciiaeiinoe eae aeey ciaiey, oae e aeey aa?u.

I?e yoii ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi iaoea e iaoaoeceea ia auaatho
aaniethoii aaoiiiiiuie. *aeiaae, iinoeaathuee enoeio, — ia
aiinaieiae/aneee1 iaoaieci: a naieo oneeeyo ?ac?aoeoue ie?iaua caaaaeee
ii /anoi enoiaeeo ec eiooeoeee. Iao/iia ciaiea ?acaeaaaony ii
oi?iaeueii-eiae/aneei caeiiai, iinooeaoii aai — niciaao yoi /aeiaae eee
iao — yaeythony iaeea iaaeieacoaiua ooaa?aeaeaiey, eioi?ua ii i?eieiaao
eae i/aaeaeiua aeey naay. Eiuie neiaaie, ioi?aaiie ioieo iaoee naycai n
aa?ie.

?acaeaeaiea aeaoo aeaeia iiciaiey ?aaeueiinoe ai iiiaii iiiiaei
oyniaieth eo a?aieoe e i?e?iaeu. Ii ?oaaaee ia?ooaeenue, e aicieeaee
eiioeeeou. Oaieiae iuoaeenue iaaycaoue iaoea naie oai?ee, a
i?aaenoaaeoaee anoanoaiciaiey e oeeinioee, caauaay ia ai?ei?iinoe2
iao/iuo iinueie, iaii?aaaeaiii iaaeaeyee ?acoi anaiiaouanoaii, aeaey a
iai aaeeinoaaiiue i?aai iiciaiey aeey anao ecia?aiee auoey.

Oaeie «?aoeeiiaeeci» aeaenoaeoaeueii iiaeii iacaaoue «ia?ai?iaeiui
a?aoii» iuoeaiey. Aai ioeaea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ii iauyaee ?acoi
aunoei noaeueae, eaii?e?iaae ana ieanou ?aaeueiinoe, e?iia yiie?e/aneiai
e oiiiinoeaaaiiai. ?aoeeiiaeeci ?annaeae aeeaie iiciathuee noauaeo —
/aeiaaea, noaeay aai aiciiaeiinoe. *aeiaae ciae, ianeieueei «iao/iay»
ea?oeia ie?a caaeneo io /aai-oi eiiai, iaaeaee iaaethaeaiea e eiaeea, a
eiaiii — io aioo?aiiae onoaiiaee, i?eaioe?a iuneeoaey, aai aeaeaiey
?aaeueiinoe — aa?u.

Iinea anaai neacaiiiai, auoue iiaeao, iieaaeaony no?aiiui ooaa?aeaeaiea,
/oi aeaaiie oeaeueth a?a/aneie oeeinioee auei eneaiea Aiaa. Ii a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e Iaio eae e ia?ae/iie ?aaeueiinoe auee ia?auaiu
aci?u aaee/aeoeo oiia aioe/iinoe. Ae?aaiaa?a/aneea iuneeoaee aeieaeiu
auee caiyoue ianoi ae?aoeia e i?i?ieia, aicauneoueny iaae ia?iaeiuie
aa?iaaieyie. Ia/aa n io?eoeaiey /anoiuo /a?o ycu/anoaa, yeeeineea
ioae?aoeu a iieneao oeaeueiiai ie?inica?oeaiey no?aieeenue au?aaioaoue
eaeath aunoaai Aaeeinoaa. Aie?oa yoiai a?auaeenue e aioe/iay iaoea, e
oeeinioey. N naiuo ia?auo oaaia iie ioeacaeenue io neoaeaiey oieueei
i?aeoe/aneei ioaeaeai, a iinoaaeee ia ia?aia ianoi aanei?unoioth
aeaaeaeo enoeiu.

Oaa?aiiinoue a nouanoaiaaiee aaeeiiai aa?oiaiiai I?eioeeia aeey anae
Anaeaiiie yaeeanue noa?aeiaaie eeieae a?a/aneie oeeinioee. Aniiiiei ii
aiaeiaee, n eaeie ai?ueaie ooaa?aeaeaeny iiiioaeci a Ec?aeea, aniiiiei,
/oi eaeay iiiaiaiaeey inoaaaeanue ainiiaenoaothuae a aieueoeinoaa noa?uo
oeeaeeecaoeee, e oiaaea iu niiaeai ioeaieoue iiaeaea a?a/aneeo oeeinioia
e iiiyoue o?oaeiinoe, eioi?ua noiyee ia eo iooe. Eiooeoeey Aaeeinoaa ia
eiaea aeey ieo oie aeinoiaa?iinoe, eaeoth aeaao Ioe?iaaiea, e oai
iai?yaeaiiaa aeieaeiu auee auoue oneeey eioaeeaeoa, no?ieaoaai naia
iac?eiia caeaiea.

Ec anae aiaaoaeoae a?a/aneie oeeinioee iu inoaiiaeiny oieueei ia o/aiee
o?ao iuneeoaeae: Aa?aeeeoa, Nie?aoa e Ieaoiia.

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1 Aiinaieiaey — iaoea i iiciaiee.

2 Ai?ei?iinoue — aiciiaeiinoue aaaaeaiey iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneeo iinueie
aac aeieacaoaeuenoa; ai?ei?iua iinueee a no?iai iao/iie oai?ee aeieaeiu
iieo/eoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea.

?en. 92

Aa?aeeeo. V a. aei ?.O.

Aa?aeeeo.

Yoan, 540-470 aa. aei ?.O.

Aa?aeeeo (ie. 554—483 aa. aei ?.O.) enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi nouanoaoao
aaeeiue caeii, ia eioi?ii iniiaaia any Anaeaiiay. Auoea anoue
einie/aneee i?ioeann. «Ana oa/ao», iao ie/aai iinoiyiiiai: aeeciue
niaiyaony nia?oueth, aiae?noaiaaiea — niii, ?anoeaao — oayaeaieai,
oieiae — aea?ie. Oi iioneaynue, oi iiaeieiaynue, i?iiinyony aieiu auoey,
a eaaeaeue iea ana anooiaao a iiaoth oaco eee oi?io nouanoaiaaiey.
«Iaeuecy a oo aea ?aeo aieoe aeaaaeaeu».

Aeey Aa?aeeeoa i?ioeai?a/ea yaeyeinue iaeiei ec ei?aiiuo naienoa
ie?icaeaiey. «Ai?ueaa — ioaoe anaio e oea?ue». «Ai?ueaa anaiaua… ana
?iaeaeaaony /a?ac ?ani?th». Ii oai?/aneay neea «?ani?e» ia i?inoi a
i?ioeainoiyiee e i?ioeaiai?noaa iiethnia, a a eo niaaeeiaiee.
«?anoiaeyuaany n naiei niaie i?eoiaeeo a niaeanea,
naiiainnoaiaaeeaathuothny aa?iiieth eoea e ee?u». Oae /a?ac
aeaienoaaiiinoue ia?acoaony aaeeinoai, eioi?ia a i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey
niiaa iiey?ecoaony aeey iiaiai neioaca. «Ec anaai aicieeaao aaeeiia, e
ec aaeeiiai — ana», — ooaa?aeaeae Aa?aeeeo. «Yoio einiin, oio aea naiue
aeey anao, ia nicaeae ieeoi ec aiaia, ie ec ethaeae, ii ii anaaaea aue,
anoue e aoaeao aa/ii aeeaui iaiai, caeiiiia?ii ?acai?athueiny e
caeiiiia?ii iiaanathuei». Iaiiue o Aa?aeeeoa — ia i?inoi i?eioeei
aaeeinoaa, i?inooiathuee ca aeaeeiie ea?oeiie ie?iaiai i?ioeanna, ii
«?acoiai» ii naiae i?e?iaea; yoi aa?oiaiia Aiaeanoai (ia niaiaaeathuaa n
ieoieiae/aneei Caanii) e «noaeey» ie?a. Yoio anaeaineee caeii Aa?aeeeo
aia?aua iacaae Eiainii, /oi cia/eo: neiai, iuneue, caeii, ?acoi. Eiain o
Aa?aeeeoa — yoi ia/aei, ii?aaeaeythuaa ana i?ioeannu auno?ioa/iiai ie?a,
?aoeeiiaeueiay aai nouiinoue, noiaeiay n oai, /oi /aeiaae iniciaao a
naaa eae ?acoi. Ii aiaeiaee n /aeiaa/aneei iuoeaieai Eiain ie?a
i?iyaeyao naay eae «caiunae, ono?ieaoee ana». Enoi/ieeii Eiaina, ii
o/aieth Aa?aeeeoa, ianiiiaiii, yaeyaony anaeaineee Iaiiue.

Aeey Aa?aeeeoa Aiaeanoai ia anoue aeeaia ee/iinoiia ia/aei, ii, nei?aa,
Neea, iaioaeaeeiay io naiiai einiina. Ii iieaaae, /oi /a?ac
ii?aaeaeaiiua, i/aiue aieueoea i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie einiin aica?auaaony a
ecia/aeueiia iaiaiiia ninoiyiea e iioii ?iaeaeaaony ec Iaiy…
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, enoi?ee iao, aia?aaee iaeuecy aeaeaoue iiauo nooiaiae e
niaa?oainoao. Ninoiyiea Anaeaiiie, niceaeaaiie ai?thueieny neeaie,
ninoiyiea /aeiaa/anoaa, iia?oaeaiiiai a «?ani?th», i?aaenoaaeyeinue
Aa?aeeeoo aa/iui.

Eae aea niaeaniaaoue yoo ea?oeio aanniuneaiii eeiyuae Anaeaiiie n aunoei
?acoiii, n Eiainii? Ioaao Aa?aeeeo aeaao ?aoeoaeueiue e aanueia no?iaue:
«Aeey Aiaa ana i?ae?anii, oi?ioi e ni?aaaaeeeai, a ethaee iaeii i?eiyee
ca ni?aaaaeeeaia, a ae?oaia — ca iani?aaaaeeeaia». Yoi icia/aao, /oi
Aiaeanoaaiiia auoea aeeaao naiae aeeciueth, /oi iii ia naycaii n
/aeiaaeii, ia n/eoaaony n iei. Ethaee — eeoue no?aaeaoaeueiua nouanoaa,
ii?iaeaeaiiua einie/aneie «ea?ie a oaoee». Aa?oiaiue Iaiiue «io?aoai io
anaai», iaoiaeeony ii oo noi?iio /aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae.

Aa?aeeeo iuoaeny iino?ieoue oaieiaeth, ia ioaeaeyy Aiaeanoaaiiiai io
i?e?iaeu, aeooa io iaoa?ee. Anoanoaaiii iiyoiio, /oi /a?ou i?e?iaeiiai
ie?a: aiaii?aeueiay caeiiiia?iinoue e aeaoa?ieieci — auee ia?aianaiu ei
e ia aunooth ?aaeueiinoue.

Nie?ao.

Aoeiu, aoi?ay iieiaeia V a. aei ?.O.

A ioee/ea io Aa?aeeeoa Nie?ao (ie. 470—399 aa. aei ?.O.) eneae enoeio ia
a i?e?iaea, a a /aeiaaea. *oi oaeia nai /aeiaae? Aeey /aai ii aeeaao e
eae ii aeieaeai aeeoue? Nouanoaoao ee enoeia, eee iia — ie?aae? Aio
aii?inu, eioi?ua ?aii noaee caieiaoue Nie?aoa. Ii eneae aaeeeiai,
i?ae?aniiai e enoeiiiai, ii aiai?ee oae i?inoi, i?eaaaae e oaeei
iauaeaiiui i?eia?ai e n?aaiaieyi! Ii o/ee ethaeae aeia?o, ii aaniiuaaeii
ecaeaaaeny iaae ieie. Yoa aeaoeeeinoue Nie?aoa iiiaeo naeaaea n oieeo, a
aaaeue eiaiii a iae iiaeii aeaeaoue eeth/ e iiieiaieth ee/iinoe
oeeinioa. Ia canoaaeyei ee aai iaaeaaaoue ee/eio i?inoa/ea, ea?aoue
eiiaaeeth, ii/oe th?iaenoaiaaoue eaeia-oi iniaia oeaeiioae?ea e
ne?uoiinoue? Auoue iiaeao, e?iiey e iaoaiiay aiai?eeainoue iiiiaaee aio
iaa?aaaoue oaeiue iaiiue aeooe? Ia neo/aeii Nie?ao, n aeaeo aaciaeaeiue
aiai?oi, ieacaeny ianoiyuei «aiciooeoaeai niieienoaey» Aoei.

Yoi auei a?aiy e?ecena aoeineie aeaiie?aoee, anaiauaai ?aaiiaeooey e
aunieei eaeaaeai, iii?aiey i?aa /aeiaaea. E aio ia aoeineeo ieiuaaeyo
noae iiyaeyoueny ei?aianoue /aeiaae n ioaeneui aeeaioii; eacaeinue au,
aai eo?iinia eeoei n aeacaie iaaueaoa e oienouie aoaaie iiaei aucuaaoue
oieueei aeaeinoue e ianiaoeo o a?aeia, aieueoia cia/aiea i?eaeaaaaoeo
aiaoiae i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe. Ii aai ia?iiiue eia eae au aiai?ee i iiao/ai
oia. Nie?ao ia?aaeei ia?auaeny e ia?aiio ano?a/iiio e ianeieueeeie
aii?inaie aoyaeaae niaanaaeieea a aeeneonneth. Aai iaia?a aanoe nii?
?aniieaaaea e caeio?eaiauaaea, ii, eacaeinue, aioia aue aeaoue nii?ueeo
iieiaeeoue naay ia eiiaoee. Iaeiaei a eoiaa Nie?ao i?eaiaeee a
caiaoaoaeuenoai ethaiai ino?ineiaa.

Ia?aui aeaeii oeeinio iiiuoaeny eciaee/aoue naiioaa?aiiue aeiaiaoeci e
ia/ae n ene?aiiaai i?eciaiey: «ss ciath, /oi ie/aai ia ciath». ?aaee
naiae iennee Nie?ao i?aiaa?aaae anaie aeeciaiiuie oaeianoaaie, noaa
/ai-oi a?iaea ieuainoaothuaai iiaeaeaeieea. Ii ii ia aue aneaoii, aai
naiiio?a/aiea auei iieneii naiaiaeu: ii ioai?a/eaaeny io anaai, /oi
ii?aaiuaao e naycuaaao.

Ia o?iioiia Aeaeueoeeneiai o?aia auea iaaeienue: «Iiciae naiiai naay».
A?aee iiieiaee niune yoiai aoi?ecia oae: «Iiciae, /oi ou oieueei
/aeiaae». Nie?ao aea aeiaeee a iaai eiia niaea?aeaiea: /aeiaaeo ioaeii
ia/eiaoue enneaaeiaaiea auoey n naay. A naiii aeaea, eaeie oiee aaaeaoue
i i?ino?ainoaa, aoiiao e aeaeaeaieyo caacae, anee oaiy nianoaaiiay
aeeciue aeey oaay ana aua caaaaeea? Eneaoue aa ?ac?aoaiey neaaeoao ia a
einiina, a a iaae?ao /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa. E oeaeue yoa auea aeey iaai ia
ioaea/aiiie, ii eiie?aoii-aeeciaiiie; ii niciaaae aa eae iiene /aeiaaeii
aunoaai aeaaa. Ethaee, ii aai iiaieth, neeoeii iaei oeaiyo nie?iaeua,
eioi?ui aeaaeatho, — iie ia ciatho naiae aeooe e eeoue iiyoiio
ieacaeenue aaniiiiuiuie e neaiuie a ie?a aauae. Ionthaea — e «oaean
?iea», e aaciaaeaaeiinoue.

?en. 93

Nie?ao. Noaooyoea

Eaeiaa oeaeue oaiae aeecie? — ni?aoeaae Nie?ao. — A /ai aeaeeoue ou aa
iacia/aiea e /oi n/eoaaoue n/anoueai? Oaie ae?ocuey aeaaeaeoo aiaaonoaa,
neaau, oaeiaieuenoaee? Ii i?iaa?ue oi?ioaiueei — yoi ee oeaeue,
aeinoieiay /aeiaaea? E eae eaaei ana yoi oo?aoeoue!

Aanaaeoy n iieiaeaaeueth, ioae?aoe oaa ca oaaii ?acaai/eaae oiaey/ea
eaeaaeu e iieacuaae eo iaiai/eainoue. Naiei noaeueyi ii iioii neaaeao:
«Aaaeue y oieueei e aeaeath, /oi oiaeo e oaaaeaeath eaaeaeiai ec aan, e
iieiaeiai, e noa?iai, caaioeoueny i?aaeaea anaai ia i oaea e ia i
aeaiueaao, a i aeooa, /oiau iia auea eae iiaeii eo/oa».

I?aoiaeyuea aeaaa ia iiaoo ninoaaeyoue iiaeeeiiiai n/anouey, ii yoi ia
cia/eo, /oi enoeiiia aeia?i iaia?oaeeoue iaaiciiaeii. Iii oiaeaeanoaaiii
aunoae ioae?inoe, eioi?ay aeaeaao aeeciue /aeiaaea niaa?oaiiie. Au,
aiai?eo Nie?ao, aeoaeaeaaoa eeoue iioiio, /oi ia ioe?uee iniia
aeia?iaeaoaee, caeiaeaiiuo a ian. Ia?aoeoanue e naaa, e naiaio ?acoio, e
ii iao/eo aan ioaeanoao, iieaaeao aai iaiaoiaeeiinoue aicaea?aeaiey,
oia?aiiinoe, i?aaaeeainoe. Au iieiaoa, /oi ii ioiioaieth e ethaeyi
neaaeoao auoue ni?aaaaeeeauie, a ii ioiioaieth e aunoei neeai —
aeaaiaiaaeiuie.

Eoae, Nie?ao aa?eo a aeaaie niune /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey. Ii eeoue
aiai?eo, /oi yoio niune ia eaaeeo ia iiaa?oiinoe, a aeai eae caaea/a.
Eino?oiaioii aa ?aoaiey neoaeeo o oeeinioa aeeaeaeoeea — iiaaeeiie
aeiaiaeia.

Aio ii inoaiaaeeaaao i?eaeyioaoaainy aio /aeiaaea e caaeaao aii?in. Ii
aieiaoaeai, na?ueacai, ii?ie i?eeeaeuaaaony iaeaiui, ni?aoeaaao,
aic?aaeaao, ooi/iyao.

«A /oi, ae?oa, ou iiieiaaoue iiae oaeei-oi neiaii? A ia aoaeao ee
ioeaeie oieeiaaoue aai oae?» Aai iiiiiaio ciaao, /oi oaeia aeaai e
ioae?inoue. Ionoue aea nei?ae i?inaaoeo ii aaaeiiai Nie?aoa! — E ana
aeaeueoa e aeaeueoa oaeaeaao ii nii?ueea. «Aea, aea, yoi oae», —
auioaeaeai niaeaoaoueny oio. Ii ioae?aoe ia aeiaieuenoaoaony /anoiie
iiaaaeie, ii i?iaeieaeaao: «Aeaaae-ea ?anniio?ei yoio aii?in
ouaoaeueiaa. Ou neaaeeoue ca iiie? Neaaee aieiaoaeueii!»

E aueaony, ?acaa?ouaaaony ieoue a?aoiaioia, ii?aaeaeaiee, auaiaeia.
Niaanaaeieeo noaiiaeony ia ii naaa, ii oae i?eaue e oaaeiiiui neiaai,
/oi ieeiaaea iniaaiii ia aieeae a eo cia/aiea. Aeiaiaey iuneue
niaanaaeieea aei aano?aea, Nie?ao iieacuaae, /oi oio ?iaeee «iocu?ue», a
ia ianoiyuaa aeeoy, e oaeaeae aai e aeaeueiaeoaio aiaeeco, iiiiaay
«i?iecaanoe ia naao enoeio». Iiyoiio naie iaoiae Nie?ao iacuaaao
iaaaoeeie — aeooiaiui aeooa?noaii; oaeei ia?acii ii iiaoaeaeaao
niaanaaeieea naiiai ioe?uaaoue enoeio. *aeiaae aeieaeai iaeoe a naaa e
aunaiaiaeeoue /enooth iuneue, «iia o?aaoao yniie i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiie
nayce e iainiiaaiiinoe caeeth/aiee». Oaeei ia?acii Nie?ao ?ac?aaaouaae
ia/aea eiaeoeoeaiiai1 niiniaa iiciaiey.

Ianiio?y ia aa?o a aiciiaeiinoue iiciaiey enoeiu n iiiiuueth ?acoia, ia
e?iieth, Nie?ao iaaeaoniuneaiii iiae/a?eeaae, /oi iaoiae aai eiaao
a?aieoeu e ia i?aoaiaeoao caiaieoue ienoe/aneia iiciaiea. *aeiaaeo aeai
?acoi, yoi aai aeinoiyiea, a aunoaa ioe?uaaaony eiui iooai. Nai aea ii
«niaao io aiaia noaaee auoa anao /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee». A iai aeeea
aa?a a aunoaa Aeaai. Nie?ao iiieiae aai eae iaaaniue I?iiunae. E
ioithaeue ia aeeaeaeoeea ioe?uea Nie?aoo yoio aniaeo aa?oiaiie Nouiinoe;
enoi/iee aai aeaeaiey ioaeii eneaoue a ee/iii aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiii
iiuoa ioae?aoea.

?aeeaeiciay eiooeoeey Nie?aoa ninoaaeyao aeooo anae aai oeeinioee.
Iineieueeo Aia anoue Aeia?i, ia?aciaaiiue ei ie? i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
?aaeinoe, aa?iiiee, aeey aeaaa. Io?aaeaiea a /aeiaaea aeooiaiiai
Aiaeanoaaiiiai i?eioeeia iicaieyao ethaeyi auoue ?acoiiuie e oai?/aneeie
nouanoaaie. A aiae — yoi oa oaeiua neeu, eioi?ua aeeytho ia aeeciue
/aeiaaea. Ii ana iie iiae/eiaiu aaeeiiio aiaeanoaaiiiio Aeaao. Iai?anii
ethaee iaaeathony iiaeeoieoue eo aea?aie, ia io?aeaynue io cea. Aiae —
iiiiuieee /aeiaaea, ii iie iiaoo niaeaenoaiaaoue aio oieueei a aeia?a,
eai oieueei iii anoue aunoay oeaeue aiaia e ethaeae.

Ec anaai yoiai aeaeii, /oi Nie?aoiai «aiaineiaea» noieo aeeaea e
aeaeaeneiio o/aieth, /ai ana, /aai aeinoeaea aioe/iay iuneue aei
Nie?aoa. Nie?ao iieacae, /oi aa?a e ?acoi niaianoeiu, /oi ?aeeaey ia
anoue ia/oi e??aoeeiiaeueiia, iaeiaei i?eia? naiie aai ee/iinoe
iieacuaaao, /oi ie aa?a, ie i?aanoaaiiinoue ia no?iyony iaeiie eeoue
eiaeeie. Oaeinoaaiiia iaayiea enoiaeeei io oiai Nie?aoa, eioi?ue /anaie
iia noiyoue, iia?oaeaiiue a nica?oeaiea, eioi?ue i?aae/oanoaiaae
aoaeouaa, neuoae aiein «aeaeiiieiia» (eaeiai-oi aiaeanoaaiiiai nouanoaa
a naaa), — aa?ee a ?aaeueiinoue aiaeanoaaiiiai Aeia?a. E iniaaiii io
oiai Nie?aoa, eioi?ue iioae ia nia?oue ?aaee enoeiu.

_______________________________________________________________

1 Eiaeoeoeaiue niinia iiciaiey aaaeao io oaeoia (/anoiai) e aeiioaca,
iaiauathuae yoe oaeou.

Nia?oue ioae?aoea

Aoeiu, 399 a. aei ?.O.

Nie?ao i?eaeaae neooaoaeyi oiaiea e?eoe/anee iuneeoue. Ca yoi ii aue
iauyaeai iianiui nia?aoeoaeai, aiooathuei thiioai iaoaaaeaiea e
ioa/anoaaiiui iau/ayi e aa?a, i?aiaa?aaeaiea e aaoi?eoaoai.

A aiaeu, eiaaea Aoeiu iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea a Iaeiiiiianneie aieia, /oi
i?eaaei e oneeaieth aioo?aiieo aanii?yaeeia, Nie?ao ieacaeny «eiceii
ioiouaiey», ia eii iiaeii auei ni?aaoue iaeiieaoaany iaaeiaieuenoai.
Iaoeenue ethaee, eioi?ua iiaeaee ia iaai aeaeiao a noae ca oi, /oi ii
«ii?oeo iieiaeaaeue, ia i?eciaao aiaia». Ae?ocuey niaaoiaaee Nie?aoo
ninoaaeoue «aiieiaeth» — caueoeoaeueioth ?a/ue ia noaea, ii oeeinio
ioeacaeny. «Anee y aoaeo i?aaeai eacie iani?aaaaeeeai, — aiai?ee Nie?ao,
— oi yoi aoaeao iici?ii aeey oao, eoi i?aaeano iaiy eacie». Ionoue ii ia
niia iiei?eoue iaaaaeanoai e iaiaaenoue neeith naiaai ?acoia, a aai
?anii?yaeaiee inoaaony nithcieoea naa?o/aeiaa/aneay — aai nia?oue,
nia?oue ioae?aoea e /anoiiai /aeiaaea.

Ia noaea Nie?ao cayaee: «Anee au oaia?ue, eiaaea iaiy Aia iinoaaee a
no?ie, iaycaa, eae y iieaaath, aeeoue, caieiaynue oeeinioeae e eniuooy
naiiai naay e ethaeae, y au aae?oa enioaaeny nia?oe eee aua
/aai-ieaoaeue e iieeioe no?ie, yoi aue au oaeaniue i?inooiie». Nie?ao
n?aaiee naay n iaiaeii, iiaeaiiythuei oo/iiai e iaeaieaoaainy eiiy. E
anee aoeiyia, ?anna?aeeaoenue ia iaai, eae ethaee, aiacaiii ?acaoaeaiiua
ioi nia, oauetho aai, oi iie anth inoaeueioth aeeciue i?iaaaeoo a
niy/ea. Ii i?i?i/eo naiei noaeueyi, /oi eo iinoeaiao ea?a iino?aoiaa oie
nia?oe, e eioi?ie iie i?eaiai?eee oeeinioa: aa/iue iici? eae aeooeoaeyi
naiaiaeu e ?acoia. Ioaeanoaaiiia e iacaaeneiia iiaaaeaiea Nie?aoa ia
noaea aucaaei iceiaeaiea oieiu, e aai i?eaiai?eee e nia?oe.

?en. 94

Nie?ao

A iineaaeiea /anu Nie?ao aae n o/aieeaie i?eau/ioth ae?oaeaneoth
aanaaeo. Ii ia inoaeaeae naieo iaea/ae, a aeaeae eo. Ianiiiaiii, aa?a a
I?iaeaeaiea ia iieeaeaea Nie?aoa, e a yoe i?aaenia?oiua ieioou iia
ainoi?aeanoaiaaea iaae anoanoaaiiui /aeiaa/aneei no?aoii nia?oe. Ii nai
niaa?oee iiiaaiea, /oiau ecaaaeoue io oeiiio oao, eoi aoaeao aai
oi?iieoue. Ia eciaieaoenue a eeoea, ia ae?iaioa, i?eiye ii /aoo n
oeeeooie e ni neiaaie iieeoau i oii, /oiau «ia?anaeaiea» a eiie ie?
niaa?oeeinue aeaaiiieo/ii, iaoi?iieeai inooee eoaie.

Oae caeii/ee naie aeieaee aeeciaiiue iooue yoio oaeeaeoaeueiue /aeiaae,
iaooiieiue eneaoaeue enoeiu. Ii oaa?iaae a ?acoi, ii n oeuaeie
ano?aoeoue nia?oue iiiiaei aio aeiaa?ea e aeaainoe Aunoaai ia/aea.
I?eieiay yae, ii ia ciae, /oi iaeeaeaao aai ca a?iaii, ii aei eiioea
i?aaeaeny iaaaniie aiea. Yoi e auei enoi/ieeii aai ioaeanoaa e niieieiie
?aaeinoe, eioi?ua oae ii?aceee o/aieeia. Ia neo/aeii Iooeu Oea?eae
iacuaaee Nie?aoa «o?enoeaieiii aei O?enoa».

Ieaoii. Iiene enoeiu.

Aoeiu, Iaaa?u, Aaeiao, Neoeeeey,

399-387 aa. aei ?.O.

O/aiee Nie?aoa Ieaoii (427—347 aa. aei ?.O.), iio?ynaiiue nia?oueth
o/eoaey, i?iaeieaeee aai aeaei — iiene enoeiu. Ii ieoao «nie?aoe/aneea»
aeeaeiae, no?aiynue ainnicaeaoue aeeaie, oai?/aneee i?ioeann iieneia.

«Oai?aiey oeeinioia cia/eoaeueii iicaeiaeoeo aeaaii oaea iiaeaeoaee e
aunioee, niae eo ia?yaeiue oai? e noiyo ia?aae niciaieai iaieaiiua eo
noaiu, eae ia?ceua aea?aauey ceiie. Ii aeeau e aoaeoo aeeoue
i?ao?aiaoiua Aeeaeiae Ieaoiia. E iao oaeiai /aeiaaea, eioi?ue oioy au
iaeii a?aiy aeecie naiae ia aue ieaoiieeii. Eoi aaaeue ia eniuouaae, eae
?anooo e?ueuey aeooe?» — ienae i. I. Oei?aineee1. O?oaeii ia?a/eneeoue
anao iuneeoaeae io A?enoioaey e Iooeia Oea?eae aieioue aei iaoeo aeiae,
eioi?ua oae eee eia/a ia eniuoaee au ia naaa aeeyiea Ieaoiia.
O?enoeaineea oeeiniou ?anniao?eaaee o/aiea Ieaoiia eae i?ieia e Iiaiio
Caaaoo.

Ieaoiiiai o/aiea i aunoai Aiaeanoaa, aeooiaiii ie?a e aannia?oee aeooa
ianiiiaiii niinianoaiaaei iniuneaieth Aaaiaaeey aioe/iui ie?ii e iiiiaei
oi?ie?iaaieth o?enoeaineie oeeinioee; iaeiaei «eaeaaeeci» oaee a naaa
oa?ico eca?auaiey o?enoeainoaa oai, /oi aiinee a iaai eaeae, aeoaiei aio
/oaeaeua. Ec ieo iiaeii iacaaoue o?e iniiaiua: ioaea/aiiue nie?eooaeeci,
?iaenoaaiiue eiaeeeneiio, iaioaenoe/aneia oa/aiea e ionoonoaea aeooa
naiaiaeu, aac eioi?iai o?enoeainoai iaiuneeii.

Ieaoii aue /aeiaaeii aeayoaeueiui. Iinea aeaaee Nie?aoa ii aaeao a
Iaaa?u e ciaiaieoui oeeinioai, eco/aao iaoaiaoeeo, ieoaai?aeneoth
oainioeth2, ae?aaithth i?oe/aneoth ioae?inoue, iinauaao Aaeiao. Ii ia
oieueei iai?yaeaiii euao enoeio — ii no?aieony i?aoai?eoue aa a aeeciue
e aeey yoiai aaeao ia ino?ia Neoeeeeth, a Ne?aeocu, /oiau iiiuoaoueny
iino?ieoue eaeaaeueiia ainoaea?noai.

Ii, ia iaeaey iiaeaea?aeee o i?aaeoaey Ne?aeoc e iioa?iaa iaoaea/o a
naieo caiuneao, Ieaoii aica?aoeeny a Aoeiu. Ai a?aiy iooaoanoaey aai
i?iaeaee a ?aanoai, ii eoi-oi, aueoiea Ieaoiia, nian aai.

Ieaoii i?eoae e auaiaeo, /oi eiioeeeo iaaeaeo iiai?ieeaie i?aaaeu e
ethaeueie, aeeaoueie eeoue ii naiei i?eoioyi, iaecaaaeai. Cia/eo, «oio
ie?, a eioi?ii i?aaaaeiee aeieaeai oia?aoue ca i?aaaeo, — ia anoue
ianoiyuee ie?. Nouanoaoao ae?oaie ie?, aaea i?aaaea aeeaao», — ienae Ae.
Nieiaueaa3 a enneaaeiaaiee i Ieaoiia. Ioeacuaaynue i?eciaoue oain
aeaeeiiai auoey a ea/anoaa iineaaeiae enoeiu, Ieaoii anai naiei
nouanoaii oyioeny e oiio iac?eiiio ie?o, a eioi?ii i?aae/oanoaiaae naith
iaaanioth io/ecio.

Ieaoiio auei ieiei ni?iea eao, eiaaea e iaio i?eoea neaaa. Ii noaiiaeony
ciaiaieoui ia anth Yeeaaeo, e iaio aaeoo o/aieee. Iaaeaeaei io Aoei
o/aieee Ieaoiia i?eia?aee iaaieueoia eiaiea n ?iuae, iinayuaiiie aa?ith
Aeaaeaio. Oai oeeinio aanaaeiaae n o/aieeaie, ?aaioae. N oao ii? yoio
i?etho iunee — Aeaaeaiey — iiiai aaeia aoaeao i?eoyaeaaoue naiuo
?aciiia?aciuo eneaoaeae ioae?inoe: ec iaa aueaeoo A?enoioaeue e Caiii,
Ieooa?o e Eeeiaio Aeaenaiae?eeneee, Aaneeee Aaeeeee e A?eai?ee Aiaineia.

_______________________________________________________________

1 Ioaoe Iaaae Oei?aineee (1882—1943) — nayuaiiee, ?aeeaeiciue oeeinio,
o/aiue, iaeei ec auaeathueony iuneeoaeae XX a. Iiaea a caeeth/aiee.

2 Oainioey (a?a/. «aiaeanoaaiiay ioae?inoue») ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aunoay
Enoeia ?ane?uaaaony oieueei iniai iinayuaiiui, iiaeaioiaeaiiui e yoiio
oeeinioneeie caiyoeyie ethaeyi. Nai i?eioeei oainioee i?ioeai?a/eo
iniiaiiio niuneo Aaaiaaeey, ioe?uaathuaai Aiaa anai ethaeyi.

3 A. N. Nieiaueaa (1853—1900) — auaeathueeny ?aeeaeiciue iuneeoaeue,
oeeinio, iiyo e ioaeeoeeno.

Eaeay aeaoo ie?ia

Aoeiu, 387-370 aa. aei ?.O.

Eaeeo au oai ie eanaeny Ieaoii, iniiaiia, /oi iaeciaiii aeaeei aai, —
yoi nouanoaiaaiea aa/iie aeooiaiie ?aaeueiinoe. Iuneue Ieaoiia
?iaeeeanue ec no?anoiiai i?ioanoa i?ioea aeo?iie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe;
au?aaoueny ec oueiu a ie? eo/aca?iie Enoeiu auei aeey iaai aii?inii
aeecie e nia?oe. A io/eoaeueiii e?ecena iai?yaeaiea aai aeooa aeinoeaei
oie e?aeiae /a?ou, aaea a?oaue iie?ia aauae aeaao o?aueio e ioe?uaaaony
aeinoiaa?iinoue aunoaai ieaia auoey.

Nouiinoue naiaai o/aiey Ieaoii, ia?aaeei ia?auaaoeeny e ia?aciiio
«ieoieiae/aneiio» ycueo, ia?aaeae a oaeie ea?oeia. Ethaee eae au
iaoiaeyony a oaiiie iaua?a, ai anth aeeeio eioi?ie oyiaony oe?ieee
i?inaao. N iaeuo eao o ieo ia iiaao e ia oaa ieiau, oae /oi iie ia iiaoo
aeaeiooueny n ianoa e aeaeyo oieueei oi, /oi o ieo ia?aae aeacaie. A oae
eae iie ia?auaiu nieiie e naaoo, oi e aeaeyo eeoue oaie io i?aaeiaoia,
iiiaaeathueo iaaeaeo enoi/ieeii naaoa, ai?yuei a auoeia, e eo oaiiie
iaua?ie. Oaeia iao aeaeeiue ie?. Ethaee, i?eaycaiiua e /oanoaaiiui
i?aaenoaaeaieyi, i?eieiatho oaiue ca iiaeeeiioth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, e,
inaiaiaeeaoenue io ieia, ia n?aco iiaoo inaieoueny n iuneueth, /oi anoue
aunoee, iaaeinooiiue iuouaieyi ie?, e oieueei iinoaiaiii ieacuaathony a
ninoiyiee iiciaaaoue aai.

A iiciaoue aunooth ?aaeueiinoue /aeiaae niiniaai iioiio, /oi ii ia
en/a?iuaaaony oaeii; a aai aeooa anoue iaeay oi/ea — aeoo, eee, eae aai
iacuaaao Ieaoii, «oi», eioi?ue yaeyaony ia?ana-/aieai aeaoo ie?ia.
*aeiaae a naiae caiiie aeecie i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeiia?aiaiii aeaoi
ecia?aieyi. «Aeooa» eeoue ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie naycaia n oeaiiui oaeii,
a naia iia, a ioee/ea io oaea, iiaeiaia «aiaeanoaaiiiio, aannia?oiiio,
oiiiinoeaaaiiio». Iia anoue aeaaainoaothuaa ia/aei a /aeiaaea e i?ecaaia
oi?aaeyoue oaeii. Iinea aea ?aceoee n oaeii aeooa ooiaeeo a iiaeiaiia ae
naiie ianoi, aiaeanoaaiiia, aannia?oiia, ?acoiiia, e, aeinoeaioa aai,
ia?aoaao aeaaeainoai e ai?aaeue iaaaee iinaeyaony n?aaee aiaia. Caoai ii
i?e/eia no?aieaiey e aeecie aeooa i?aoa?iaaaao iiaua aiieiuaiey
(iaoaiineoic) e eeoaaony naiae ?iee a iauaiee n aiaeanoaaiiui.
Ecaaaeaoue «e?oaa ?iaeaeaiee» iiiiaaao oeeinioey, eeoue iaeia iia
niiniaia «inaiaiaeeoue» aeooo, iia aeaeaao aeeciue ioae?aoea aicauoaiiie
e o/eo ia aiyoueny nia?oe. Niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea iiciaaaoue aunoaa anoue
i?eiiieiaiea (aiaiianen) oiai, /oi aeooa auianea ec cai?aaeaeueiuo noa?.
A /anoiinoe, ii Ieaoiio, e iuneue i aiaeanoaaiiii Aaeeinoaa yaeyaony
eiaiii i?eiiieiaieai oiai, /oi «iaeiaaea aeaeaea iaoa aeooa, eiaaea iia
niioonoaiaaea Aiao, nauniea aeyaeaea ia oi, /oi iu oaia?ue iacuaaai
auoeai, e iiaeieiaeanue aei iiaeeeiiiai auoey».

?en. 95

Ieaoii. IV a. aei ?.O.

Ieaoii aiai?eo, /oi eaaeaeiio oece/aneiio yaeaieth a ie?a niioaaonoaoao
eaeie-eeai ec iaoeo i?aaiia /oanoa. Cia/eo, e ?acoio aeieaeiu
niioaaonoaiaaoue ?aaeueiua oiiiinoeaaaiua iauaeou — yeaeinu. Iie
iinoeaathony ia ?annoaeeii, a iniaui oinoaaiiui c?aieai, ia?auaiiui e
iac?eiie ?aaeueiinoe iaiin?aaenoaaiii, eiooeoeaii.

Nie?ao aiai?eo i Aiaeanoaa eae i aunoai Aeaaa e e?anioa. ?aciuoeyy ia
yoii, Ieaoii eaeao ii oiio aea iooe. Oio, eoi oi/ao iinoeaiooue E?anioo
e Aeia?i a eo iineaaeiae aeoaeia, oi anoue iinoeaiooue Aiaa, aeieaeai
iai?yaaoue naia «oinoaaiiia c?aiea», iiaeieiaoueny aaunue, «ia i?eaeaeay
a oiaea ?aciuoeaiey ie c?aiey, ie eiiai eaeiai /oanoaa». E, eeoue
inaiaiaeea naie aeoo io oeaiiiai, ?acoi iiaeao iiciaoue, /oi anoue
enoeiiay E?anioa a aa/iie nouiinoe, naia a naaa. «Iiciaaaaiua aaue iiaoo
iiciaaaoueny eeoue aeaaiaea?y Aeaao; iii aea aeaao ei auoea e
nouanoaiaaiea, iii — ca i?aaeaeaie nouanoaiaaiey, i?aauoay aai
aeinoieinoaii e neeie». Caeanue oaeeaeoaeueiui ia?acii noiaeyony iooe
oiic?aiey e ienoeee; enoiaeiie oi/eie aeey Ieaoiia neoaeee ia oieueei
eioaeeaeo, ii e ienoe/aneia aeaeaiea naa?o/oanoaaiiiai ie?a.

Oio aeaiue, eiaaea Ieaoii aia?aua i?iaicaeanee, /oi aeaeeiia auoea
oei?aiaii a Iaaeaeeiii, noae aaeeeei a enoi?ee /aeiaa/aneie iunee. Yoi
ioe?uoea ii?aaeaeeei iniiaiua iooe caiaaeiie oeeinioee.

Iaeiaei i?e enoieeiaaiee nayce aeooa e iaoa?ee o Ieaoiia aicieeee
o?oaeiinoe. Anee aeooa ia caiea — ecaiaiieoea, a oaei aeey iaa oieueei
iaoca e io iaai i?ienoiaeyo ana iuneeiua aeaeu cea, oi aunoay oeaeue
ioae?aoea — aioiaeoue naay e nia?oe, e iiiaioo, eiaaea ii iaeiiaoe
ecaaaeony io iinoueiai a?aiaie. A aei oiai ii iiaeao iaoiaeeoue n/anouea
a «ainiiieiaieyo» i ano?a/ao n ai?iei1 ie?ii.

Iao?oaeii iiiyoue, eaeei i?aiyonoaeai noae «eaeaaeeci» aeey i?eiyoey
Aiieiuaiey e Aine?anaiey. O/aiea Oea?eae i Aiai/aeiaa/anoaa, i
oaeinoaao, inayuathueo iaoa?eth, e i a?yaeouai aannia?oee oeaeinoiiai
/aeiaaea aeieaeii auei eacaoueny «eaeaaeenoai» oieaeaieai /enoiai aeooa,
niaa?oaiiiai a naiae aanieioiinoe.

________________________________________________________________________

1 Ai?iee — aunoee.

Ainoaea?noai.

Aoeiu — Ne?aeocu, 370—354 aa. aei ?.O.

Ieaoii aa?ee, /oi a noa?a yeaeinia anoue iaeee aunoee a?oaoei
Ainoaea?noaa. Yoio «Eaeaaeueiue Iieen» iuneeeny ei a aeaea neaaeaiiiai
i?aaiecia, ana /anoe eioi?iai naycaiu e neoaeao ae?oa ae?oao.

Ieaoii n/eoaao, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?yaeie anoue aiieiuaiea
ii?aeueiiai ninoiyiey a?aaeaeai. A naie i?aanoaaiiua i?eioeeiu ei?aiyony
a oii aa/iii Aeia?a, eioi?ia aeieaeii ii?aaeaeyoue aeeciue eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea. Ionthaea auaiae, /oi nioeeaeueiia ia?aono?ienoai iaioaeaeeii
io aioo?aiiaai i?aia?aciaaiey ethaeae. Yoi auea aeoaieay eaeay,
aa?iinoue eioi?ie o?oaeii inia?eaaoue. Anee io?eoeaoue iauaeoeaiia
cia/aiea ni?aaaaeeeainoe, oi iaiiiyoii, iai?eia?, ii/aio ieioi
ia?aaainoai e oaiaoaiea, — aaaeue ai?ueeea aeey iaeieo, iie aiieia
ono?aeaatho ae?oaeo. Iiyoiio ioeac io aaeeiie i?aaaeu iau/ii i?eaiaeeo
eeoue e niaia oi?i iani?aaaaeeeainoe .

?en. 96

O?ai Iinaeaeiia

?en. 97

Aoeia. ?inienue aioi?u. O?aaiaio. 490-480 aa. aei ?.O.

Yoe iunee Ieaoii ?acaee a naiae eieaa «Ainoaea?noai». Oeeinio
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iauanoai neeaaeuaaaony ia neo/aeii, a iioiio /oi
ethaee ioaeaeathony ae?oa a ae?oaa. O?oae anoue ia/oi naycuaathuaa
ethaeae. Iineieueeo iniiau ni?aaaaeeeainoe ioaeii eneaoue a ie?a
aeooiaiii, oi aeey oi?aaeaiey ai?iaeii aieaa anaai iiaeoiaeeo /aeiaae,
i?eiauaiiue e enoeiiie ioae?inoe. Cia/eo, oi?aaeyoue ainoaea?noaii
aeieaeiu oeeiniou, iiciaaoea ie? yeaeinia. Ae?oaea ethaee aoaeoo
io?aiyoue ainoaea?noai, o?aouee — o?oaeeoueny.

Iniaia cia/aiea i?eaeaao oeeinio ainieoaieth, oeaeue eioi?iai —
canoaaeoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae eaaeaeiai eeanna ciaoue naia ianoi. Aeaoe
n?aco iinea ?iaeaeaiey ioae?athony o iaoa?e e ioaeathony ia ainieoaiea
ainoaea?noao. *eoaoue ei aeatho oieueei no?iai i?iaa?aiiua eieae. Ethaee
aeaaeatho anai niiaua. Ioiaiyaony naiuey, aieiu anooiatho ai a?aiaiiua
a?aee ii oeacaieth i?aaeoaeae. Ethaee ainieouaathony oae, /oiau ia
ciaoue ee/iuo iio?aaiinoae e anaaaea auoue aioiauie aea?oaiaaoue anai
aeey ioa/anoaa. Iiyou, eioi?ua ia ioaa/atho aeooo ainoaea?noaa,
ecaiiythony. ?aaee aeaaa ethaeae no?aaee aoaeoo ci?ei iaaethaeaoue ca
oai, /oi aaeyo a?aaeaeaia, ai /oi iaeaaathony, eae ?acaeaeathony.

?en. 98

Ieea Naiio?aeeeneay. Ieiei 790 a. aei ?.O.

Caaioynue i «ia?iaea», Ieaoii, ii-aeaeeiiio, niaa?oaiii ia i?eieiaao a
?an/ao ee/iinoue. Ii aeanoii eiiaao noa?ia, aeeeooao, naa?aaao, eai
ethaee aeey iaai — iaoaea/ii iinoaaeaiiua oeao?u ia oaoiaoiie aeinea,
eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii ?aniieiaeeoue a i?aaeeueiii ii?yaeea. Oeeinioo
aaaeia ia eaaeaeay ec ieo, a iauay noaia, eioi?oth ii /a?oeo n
?aoeoaeueiinoueth iieeiaiaeoea. Ieaoii oaa?ai, /oi aaeaa oieueei aoaeao
onoaiiaeai i?aaeeiaeaiiue ei ii?yaeie, eae a ainoaea?noaa aioea?eony
n/anouea. Iaae oai, eaeie oeaiie iii aoaeao eoieaii, ii ia
caaeoiuaaaony.

Iaeiei neiaii, Ieaoii nicaeae i?iaeo «cae?uoiai» aaoi?eoa?iiai
ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyao aeey anao a?aaeaeai oeaee, eioa?anu,
aeonu e aeaaea iiaeo. Ooieoeee aeanoe ?anoe?aiu Ieaoiiii aei
aaneiia/iinoe: ii i?enaaeaaao ae i?aai ?anii?yaeaoueny e a
yeiiiie/aneie, e a eoeueoo?iie, e a ?aeeaeiciie noa?ao. Oaeia i?a/iue
eoia iiiuoee ia?anoe aa?iiieth aac naiaiaeu.

Naiaiaea o?aaoao io /aeiaaea iiaeaeaa, oai?/anoaa, ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
caeanue aea ana ynii, ana ?aoaii, ia ana aii?inu ca?aiaa aioia ioaao.
Ioaeaoueny oaeiio aaciyoaaeiiio nouanoaiaaieth auei noa?ui eneooaieai
/aeiaa/anoaa. Ia ?ac, oyaioynue naiae naiaiaeie, ethaee auee aioiau
i?iiaiyoue aa ia «/a/aae/ioth iioeaaeo»1.

Iniaaiii ino?i «aiyciue naiaiaeu», iaoiaiea e iaaeaeaiea ath
iieueciaaoueny neacuaathony a ia?aoiaeiua yiioe, eiaaea /aeiaae
na?anuaaao ieiau, a iioii ia ciaao, /oi aeaeaoue aeaeueoa; oiaaea ii
aioia ?aaee iieiy e ii?yaeea niiaa aa?iooueny e ?aanoao.

Ieaoii niaa?oee iiiuoeo i?aoai?eoue naie eaeaaeu a aeeciue. Iia
ieacaeanue iaoaea/iie, e yoi auei aeaaii, iioiio /oi a neo/aa oniaoa
Ieaoii ieacaeny au a /enea enoi?e/aneeo i?anooiieeia. Iioiio /oi aeia?i
aac naiaiaeu iaecaaaeii iai?a/eaaaony ceii.

____________________________________________________________

1 Ca /a/aae/ioth iioeaaeo Enaa, nui Enaaea, i?iiaiye naia ia?ai?iaenoai
ieaaeoaio a?aoo Eaeiao, eioi?ue e iieo/ee aianoi iaai aeaaineiaaiea
iooea (Auo 25).

Eiain e Oain.

Aoeiu, 354-347 aa. aei ?.O.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu Ieaoii iuoaaony iiiyoue, /oi niaie i?aaenoaaeytho
neeu Aeia?a e Cea a ono?ienoaa Anaeaiiie. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ie?
nioai?ai Aeaieo?aii (Nicaeaoaeai). Aa?oiaiue ?acoi, eee Eiain, oai?eo
oeaeinoiue ie? ii ia?aco yeaeinia, a a eiia/iii n/aoa — ii ia?aco
niaa?oainoaa. Einiin nioai?ai eae «aaeeiia aeaeeiia aeeaia nouanoai»,
iaeaaeathuaa ?acoiii e aeooie. Anaeaineay aeooa auea nicaeaia ia?aie e
iineoaeeea iauaaeeiythuae iniiaie aeey einiina. Oaeei ia?acii,
ie?ioai?aiea anoue i?ioeann aeoeaiinoe Eiaina a oea?noaa aa/iiai Oaina,
ii /a?ou ianiaa?oainoaa inoathony iaecaaaeiuie a iaoai «iaeeo/oai ec
ie?ia». Nicaeaiea Anaeaiiie caeii/aii, ii iieiinoueth ecaiaoue ec iaa
oaioe/aneia ia/aei ia iiae neeo e naiiio Aeaieo?ao, eai iii naycaii n
aeanoueth Aiaiea — Iaiaoiaeeiinoe… *aeiaaeo ia inoaaony ie/aai eiiai,
eae i?eie?eoueny n oaeoii ianiaa?oainoaa. Iyoaae i?ioea cea,
aiieaeeioe/aneay iaaeaaeaea — ana yoi ieacuaaaony /oaeaeui Ieaoiio,
ianeaaeieeo iaae/aneiai ie?inica?oeaiey.

Aaee/ea Ieaoiia caeeth/aeinue a i?ic?aiee aunoaai aeooiaiiai ie?a, aaea
/aeiaae iaoiaeeo naith iaaanioth ?iaeeio. Ii e?iia nieia/iiai naaoa
Eiaina a aai niciaiea i?iieeaao e iaiai/eaue eoiiue naao aeeiiene/aneiai
aeoaeecia; iicaaee aea anaai a?icii naa?eatho caacaeu ii/iiai iaaa —
Noaeueaa e Iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

V. AANOIEEE OeA?NOAA AIAEEss1

Aeaeaeneea i?i?iee io Aiina aei yiioe ?anoaa?aoeee, VIII-IV aa. aei ?.O.

AAAAeAIEA

A Aeaeee ie? i?aaenoaao ia?aae iaie eae iacaaa?oaiiay e «ioe?uoay
nenoaia», eioi?ay ?acaeaaaony ii ainoiaeyuae eeiee. I?i?iee ia?auie
ioeaieee oiae a?aiaie e iiiyee, /oi caiiua niauoey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
enoi?eth ai?ueau Nouaai ca Naia oai?aiea. Eiia/iay oeaeue yoie ai?ueau —
iieiia oi?aeanoai Aiaeanoaaiiiai Aeia?a. Ia?aiia/aeueii i?i?iee n/eoaee
caeiaii iiaaaeu ono?aiaiea any/aneie iai?aaaeu ec ie?a, ii iinoaiaiii
iie iniuneeee aoaeouaa Oea?noai Aiaeea eae i?eie?aiea Oai?oea e
/aeiaaea, aaeeiaiea eo a aunoae aa?iiiee. Iie aeaeaee a /aeiaaea
aeoeaiiai niiaeaeaeieea Ai-aeey. Neoaeaiea aunoae Aiea o?aaiaaei io
i?i?ieia aeayoaeueiiai o/anoey a aeecie ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. E i?aaeaea
anaai iie aunooiaee eae iai?eie?eiua a?aae caaeoaeaeaiee eo
nia?aiaiieeia.

?en. 99

I?i?ie Aiin. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

I?i?iee niaa?oatho oieeaeueioth ?aeeaeicioth ?aaiethoeeth, aacaeaeinoii
iecaa?aay i?eau/iuo ycu/aneeo eoie?ia. Iie ieeiaaea ia aeaeatho eoeueoa
ec «ioa/anoaaiiie noa?eiu» eae oaeiaie. Oii?iiio oyaioaieth ec?aeeueoyi
e ycu/anoao iie i?ioeaiiinoaaeytho aa?o a Aaeeiiai, iaae/aneiio
iiieiaieth aiaineoaeaiey — ?aeeaeth aeooa, iaoeeiiaeueiie ocinoe —
oieaa?naeeci.

I?i?iee iauyaeee naay i?iaeieaeaoaeyie ?aeeaeiciiai o/aiey Iienay,
eioi?ia ana aea ieacaeinue ia a neeao iiaaaeeoue a?oaue iaoo?aeeci e
e?anoueyineea noaaa?ey ec?aeeueoyi. Aeey oiai /oiau i?iiiaaaeue Iienay
auea oneuoaia e i?eiyoa ai anae Iaeanoeia, iaiaoiaeeii auei iiaia
aeooiaiia aic?iaeaeaiea ia?iaea. Ia/aei yoiio i?ioeanno auei iieiaeaii
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?i?iea Aiina.

_________________________________________________

1 A yoie aeaaa oeeoaou ec eiea i?i?ieia aeaiu a iiaii ia?aaiaea.

?en. 100

I?i?ie

AeI IEAIA

Ianooo Aiin

Naaa?iia Ec?aeeueneia oea?noai,

760-755 aa. aei ?.O.

Ec?aeeueneee i?i?ie Aiin, ia?aue ec i?i?ieia a enoi?ee Aaooiai Caaaoa,
ieoao ia ia?aaiaioa eieao, a eioi?ie eceaaaao naie ciaiaiaoaeueiua
aeaeaiey e aauea i?aaeneacaiey.

Ii ioaeaeueiui aeioaaeoei aei ian naaaeaieyi iiiuoaainy i?aaenoaaeoue
naaa aeeciue Aiina aei aai i?ecaaiey. Ii aue ?iaeii ec Oaeie,
iaaieueoiai ai?iaeea a Eoaeaa, iaoiaeeaoaainy a ianeieueeeo eeeiiao?ao
io Aeoeaaia. Ai?iaeie yoio ?aniieaaaeny ia naiii ainoiea ianaeaiiie
/anoe no?aiu. «Aeaeaa, — aiai?ee aeaaeaiiue Ea?iiei, aeeaoee a oao
ianoao, — iao ie iaeiiai naeaiey… Ia yoie nooie ian/aiie caiea nianai
ia ?iaeeony ieeaeeo ieiaeia. Iiyoiio any iia iaiieiaia ianoooaie, oae
/oi aanieiaeea caiee aiciaa?aaeaeaaony iaeeeai neioa».

Ii anee Aiin e aue a iieiii niunea neiaa /aeiaaeii ec ia?iaea, aaaeiui
ianoooii, oi iu ioeaeenue au, i?aaeiieiaeea, /oi ii aue iaaaaeanoaai.
Iai?ioea, yoio i?inoiethaeei iaeaaeae oe?ieei e?oaici?ii, aue aeiaieueii
a?aiioai, ouaoaeueii eco/ae Ienaiea e oi?ioi ciae aeeciue ie?oaeaaoeo
aai ethaeae.

Iaeiaaeaeu, ieiei 760 a. aei ?.O., n iei i?iecioei ia/oi, /oi auioaeeei
aai aiacaiii inoaaeoue oeooth aeeciue a ai?ao e iiyaeoueny a ooiiuo
ai?iaeao Yo?aeia. Aiin ooae ec eoaeaeneie caiee ia naaa?.

Nai Aiin aiai?eo i iio?ynoai aai aeooaaiii ia?aai?ioa eae i aeaaiii
niauoee naiae aeecie. A iaeii iaiiaaiea, neiaii aniuoee iieiee, ica?ee
aai iaiau/aeii y?eee naao: eae ao?y, eae aoaeyuaa ieaiy iiaea?a i?eoei e
iaio neiai Ainiiaeia.

«ss ia i?i?ie e ia Nui I?i?i/aneee», — aiai?ee Aiin. Ii ia o/eeny o
i?i?eoeaoaeae, ia i?eieiae iinayuaiey io ethaeae.

I?i?ieii aai naeaeae oieueei Aia. A yoii i?iyaeeanue iaeia ec
nouanoaaiiuo /a?o aeaeaeneiai Ioe?iaaiey, eioi?ay noaiiaeony iniaaiii
yniie i?e n?aaiaiee n ae?oaeie ?aeeaeyie.

?en. 101

Caaana

Eiaaea /aeiaae caaeoiuaaeny i iaiiiyoiuo aio yaeaieyo i?e?iaeu eee eneae
iiiiue a naieo caiiuo aeaeao, ii ecaeaaia ia?auae naie aci?u e
Aiaeanoao. Iinauaiea i?aeoeia e aneaoe/aneea iiaeaeae, oeeinioneea
eneaiey e niaa?oaiea ?eooaeueiuo oea?aiiiee — ana yoi a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue aiai?eei i caaioao ethaeae, eo o?oaeiinoyo, iaaeioiaieyo e
ono?aieaieyo. N/eoaeinue, /oi aeaaineeiiiinoue aiaia iieoiaaony
aea?oaaie, e yoi auei, a nouiinoe, aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iiaei i?eaea/ue eo
aieiaiea e ethaeyi.

Niaa?oaiii eiie ?aeeaeiciue ie? ?ane?uaaaony a Aeaeee.

ssaaa — iac?eiue e niceaeathuee ie?u, ie ia iaiiaaiea ia inoaaony
?aaiiaeooiui e Naiaio oai?aieth, iniaaiii aea e /aeiaaeo, a eioi?ii
caia/aoeai Aai ia?ac. Ia/aei aeeaeiaa n /aeiaaeii anaaaea i?eiaaeeaaeeo
Aiao.

Aiaeanoaaiiia Ioe?iaaiea cao/eo eae aiein Ee/iinoe, Eioi?ay iiaeao
anooiaoue a eiioaeo n /aeiaaeii, ii oai ia iaiaa aaneiia/ii i?aainoiaeeo
an? /aeiaa/aneia.

«Ii anoue Oio, Eoi nicaeae I?eii e Ieayaeu,

Eoi i?aa?auaao oueio a oo?i

e aeaiue — a iai?iaeyaeioth ii/ue…

No?ieo Ii a iaaanao /a?oiae Naie,

e naiaeu Naie ooaa?aeaeaao ia caiea;

Nicuaaao aiaeu ii?neea

e ?aceeaaao eo ii eeoeo caiee.

ssaaa — eiy Aio!»

(Ai 5:8; 9:6)

Aiin aeaaea ecaaaaao iacuaaoue Nouaai Aiaii Ec?aeeaaui. Yoi eiy
ia?aie/eaaei au Aai ?aieaie iaoeeiiaeueiie aa?u. Aiin i?aaeii/eoaao
eiaiiaaoue Aai Naaaioii, Aiaii Aieinoa, /oi icia/aei «Aeanoeoaeue
caacaeiuo ie?ia», «Ainiiaeue Anaeaiiie».

Oi, /oi Aia «aicaauaao /aeiaaeo Naie caiuneu», icia/aei aiaea/aiea
ethaeae a i?ioeann anaie?iiai niceaeaiey. ssaaa aeanoaoao iaae ie?ii e
ioe?uaaao ethaeyi Naith aieth /a?ac i?i?ieia. Aiin ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi Ii
«ia aeaeaao ie/aai, ia ioe?ua Naiae oaeiu neoaeeoaeyi Naiei, i?i?ieai»
(Ai 3:7). *a?ac i?i?ieia Oai?aoe inaiaiaeaeaao ie? io neaiiou e
ioe?uaaao ethaeyi aiciiaeiinoue o/anoaiaaoue a eniieiaiee Aiaeanoaaiiuo
ieaiia.

A Aaoaea Aiin niae?aao oieiu neooaoaeae, aucuaaao iaieeo n?aaee
aeooiaainoaa, i?eaiaeeo a niyoaiea aanue ai?iae.

*oi aea iiaei aucaaoue ?aceia i?ioeaiaeaenoaea aeanoeoaeae i?iiiaaaee
Aiina? Oa?icu i?ioea oea?neiai aeiia? Ianiiiaiii. Ii yoiai iaei. Oaeea
oa?icu aiiaua ia?aaeei i?ieciineeenue i?i?ieaie. Naiia aieueoia
iaaiaeiaaiea, aeaeeii, aucaaei i?i?i/anoai i aeaaee Ec?aeey.

Ia?auaiey Aiina e ia?iaeai iieiu ai?a/e e aiaaa. A /ai aea Ainiiaeue
iaaeiyao /a?ac iaai ycu/ieeia? Ioithaeue ia a oii, /oi iie eniiaaaeotho
eiaeiua ?aeeaee. Eo a?ao caeeth/aaony i?aaeaea anaai a iii?aiee
/aeiaa/iinoe. Ionoue iie caaeoaeaeathony ioiineoaeueii Aiaa, ii iie
aeieaeiu ?acee/aoue aeia?i e cei. Yoi oi, /oi aiinoie Iaaae iaciaao
caeiiii niaanoe o ycu/ieeia.

I?i?ie iaiiieiaao i ?acia, o/eiaiiie a caoaa/aiiuo ai?iaeao, i aeanoieii
ia?auaiee n ieaiiuie, ia ecaeaaaoaeuenoaao iaae aaccaueoiuie aeaiueiaie
e aeaoueie. Ana yoi ia inoaiaony aac aiciacaeey: Aia — Noaeey ie?a, e
ana ethaee ioaaonoaaiiu ia?aae Iei.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue icia/aea aunieia aeinoieinoai e i?e/anoiinoue e
caiuneai e aeaeai Oai?oea. I?anooieaiey ia?iaeia anoue ia i?inoi
ia?ooaiea caiiiai ii?yaeea, ii i?aaeaea anaai i?ioeaeaiea aiea Aiaeeae
ioiineoaeueii ie?a e /aeiaaea.

ETHAeE ?AAIU IA?AAe EEOeII AIAEEEI — aio aeaaiaanoea eoaeaeneiai ianoooa
Aiina. *oiau iniciaoue anth iiaecio e niaeinoue aai i?iiiaaaee, noieo
aniiiieoue, /oi a oa a?aiaia aaeioyia e eiaeeeoeu iacuaaee
eiiieaiaiieeia «nuiaie aeueyaiea», a a?aee n/eoaee aa?aa?ia
«i?e?iaeaeaiiuie ?aaaie». Ii /oi aiai?eoue i ae?aaiinoe, eiaaea e
nae/an, /a?ac aeaaaeoeaoue ainaiue aaeia iinea Aiina, iaiaaenoue,
i?ac?aiea e io/oaeaeaiiinoue i?iaeieaeatho ii?ie ?acaeaeyoue ia?iaeu.

O Aiina iu ia iaoiaeei aua i?iiiaaaee ie?iaie ?aeeaee, ii aai
oieaa?naeeci yaeeny aaaeiui oaaii a iai?aaeaiee e iae. Ii n/eoae, /oi
Ec?aeeue ia iioiio noae ia?iaeii Aiaeeei, /oi ii eo/oa ae?oaeo, ii
iioiio, /oi aio auei i?aaeiacia/aii i?eiyoue Ioe?iaaiea, auoue aai
ninoaeii e iineoaeai.

Yoi ia eiaao ie/aai iauaai n aoeueaa?iui iaoeeiiaeueiui ianneaieciii,
eai ii naiae oece/aneie i?e?iaea ec?aeeueoyia ie/ai ia ioee/aeenue io
yoeiiia e oeeenoeieyi. Ai?ueeia ?aci/a?iaaiea aeaeao oao, eoi aiai?eo:
«iu eo/oa ae?oaeo», «iu iniaua». I?aaaea Aiaeey iaeeoeai?eyoia.

Naiiai Aiina iiaia aeaeaiea ie?a iio?ynei aei aeoaeiu aeooe. Auoue
iiaeao, e nai ii eiaaea-oi ia aue naiaiaeai io iauai?eiyouo eeethcee. E
n oai aieueoae neeie noae ii oaia?ue i?iiiaaaeiaaoue i iaecaaaeiinoe
Noaea Ainiiaeiy. Aaaeeiineea iiyou i?ineaaeyee aiaaou?ae, aaeiaoneea —
aiaia, oa?aiiia e aeaiuei, Aiia? ainiaaae aeiaeanoue naieo aa?iaa e eo
i?oaeea; Aiina aea — aaeeeiai iiyoa Ainoiea — aaeioiiaeyao iuneue i
Aiaeanoaaiiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe. I?aaaea — aai aaeeinoaaiiay oea?/oea e
aa?ieiy.

«A yoi neaa?iia a?aiy, — aiai?eo Aiin, — aeaai?acoiiua iiiaeeeaatho». Ii
i?ae?anii niciaaae, eaeoth iaiaaenoue aicaoaeaeatho aai ?a/e, ii
iie/aoue ia iia aeaaea ia?aae eeoeii iaaeiaiee e oa?ic.

Aiaoiyy iaaiaeiinoue ie ia eioo ia ii?aaaeuaaea ec?aeeueoyi a aeacao
i?i?iea. ?aeeaey, a eioi?ie iiae?acoiaaathony naeaeee ethaeae n
aiaeanoaaie e auiiaaoaeuenoaa, anoue inei?aeaiea Iaaa. Ethaee aeieaeiu
iaanaaaea ?annoaoueny n iaaeaaeaeie, aoaeoi io Aiaa iiaeii ioeoieoueny.

«Iaiaaeaeo ss, i?ace?ath i?acaeieee aaoe,

ia i?eaieth eaaeaeaiee ia oi?aeanoaao aaoeo!

Anee i?eianaoa Iia ananiaeaeaiey e aea?u aaoe,

ss ioaa?aio eo e ia acaeyio ia aea?oaaiiuo oaeueoeia.

Oaeaee io Iaiy ooi ianai oaieo, caoeai a?ou oaiae ss ia noaio aieiaoue;

Ii ionoue, eae aiaea, iioa/ao i?aainoaeea

e ni?aaaaeeeainoue, eae iiao/ee iioie».

(Ai 5:21-24)

Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee iuoaeenue oieeiaaoue neoaeaiea Aiina eae
nicaeaiea naiaai, ?iaea «yoe/aneie ?aeeaee» e aeaeaee a iai eeoue
nioeeaeueiiai ?aoi?iaoi?a, ai?iaoaainy n oaiaoaoaeyie n iiiiuueth
?aeeaeiciie o?acaieiaee. Ii oaeea iiiuoee eeoaiu anyeiai iniiaaiey.

Aiin — aiaiaeaeaoe, aeey eioi?iai neoaeaiea i?aaaea anoue i?aaeaea anaai
eniieiaiea Aiaeueeo aaeaiee. Ii ciaao iaaeie?iue naa?o/aeiaa/aneee
enoi/iee aeia?a, e aeey iaai Aia e i?aaaea aaeeiu. A i?iiiaaaee Aiina
nioeeaeueiue i?ioano anoue ia iniiaiia, a aoi?e/iia, i?iecaiaeiia io
aa?u.

A niciaiee ae?aaieo iuneue i a?aoa /aua anaai neeaaeanue n ia?ooaieai
onoaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee. Aeey Aiina aea a?ao anoue cei, aianaiiia a
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo Aiaii e /aeiaaeii.

Ia i?inoi «niaanoue», ia i?inoi «aoiaiiinoue» iaiaoiaeeiu /aeiaaeo, ii
aeeaia iiciaiea Aiaa, neuoaiea Aai neiaa. E a oi aea a?aiy i?eiyoea
iaaaniiai Neiaa iaaiciiaeii aac eniieiaiey caiiaaaeae.

«Aeiia ec oanaiuo eaiiae au iino?ieee,

ii aeeoue a ieo ia aoaeaoa!

Aeiia?aaeieee i?ae?aniua ?acaaee,

ii aeia io ieo ieoue ia aoaeaoa,

Eai ciath ss, eaeiai iiiaeanoai

i?anooieaiee aaoeo

e eae oyaeee a?aoe aaoe».

(Ai 5:11)

Aiin i?aaeaeaeae, /oi Ec?aeeue aoaeao ecaiai ni naiae caiee, eioi?ie ii
ieacaeny iaaeinoiei.

A?yae ee ii iia ciaoue iiae?iaiinoe niauoee, i?ienoiaeeaoeo aeaeaei ia
naaa?a, ia aa?aaao Oea?a. Oai aieaa ainoeuaao aai enoi?e/aneia
i?i?i/anoai. Aiaiiue iyoaae i?eaae ia i?anoie Anne?ee Oeaeaoiaeana?a III
(745—727 aa. aei ?.O.). Aai ?oeaie auea nicaeaia iaaeaeaiiay aeinaea
aiaiiay iaoeia, iiae/eiaiiay no?iaie aeenoeeieeia e niaea?aeaaoayny ia
n?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaa.

Oaeay a?iey auea i?aeoe/anee iaiiaaaeeiie, e iinea ii/oe noieaoiaai
ia?a?uaa ia/aeanue iiaay na?ey iioiaeia. Oeaeaoiaeana? a yoi a?aiy aaae
aua iaeii iiaoanoai: ii iiiye, /oi i?aaeiyy iieeoeea aceiaiey aeaie
i?eiineo iaei iieuecu, e i?aaei?eiye oaea ianoiyuoth ieeoiaoeeth
caaiaaaiiuo caiaeue, oaiaey ec ieo ianoiuo aeeoaeae e iinaeyy oai
/oaeacaioeaa. Oaeie ia?aoaniaeie ianaeaiey oea?ue oioae eneeth/eoue
aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo i/aaia nii?ioeaeaiey.
Ioi?aaiiua io ?iaeeiu ethaee auno?i anneieee?iaaeenue e i?aa?auaeenue
i?inoi a «iiaeaeaiiuo oea?y».

Iaaeaeae aue aeaiue, eiaaea oaeay o/anoue aeieaeia auea ia?ooeoueny ia
Ec?aeeue.

Ioe?iaaiea ethaae Aiaeeae.

I?i?ie Iney

Naia?ey, ie. 750—740 aa. aei ?.O.

A naieo i?i?i/anoaao Aiin aue ia iaeeiie: a Yo?aeia iiyaeeny
i?iiiaaaeiee, aiai?eaoee i aeeceie aeaaee Ec?aeey. Oi aue Iney, ieaaeoee
nia?aiaiiee Aiina. Aa?iyoii, ii aeee a Naia-?ee e i?iiiaaaeiaae a iaeiii
ec aa nayoeeeu; anoue iniiaaiey iieaaaoue, /oi ii aue nayuaiieeii.
?aeeaeiciia ninoiyiea ia?iaea e aiaineoaeaaiay i?aeoeea auee aio oi?ioi
ecaanoiu. Ii ec oiai, /oi Iney aiai?eo i i?i?ieao e nayuaiieeao, iiaeii
caeeth/eoue, /oi ii i?eiaaeeaaeae e oai ethaeyi, eioi?ua iniciaee
aeooiaiue e?ecen Ec?aeey e ia aeaeaee ie?eoueny n canoiai e
au?iaeaeaieai aa?u.

Iney niio?ae ia Neiae eae ia aa?iue i?eaioe? a ?aeeaeiciie aeecie
ia?iaea. Ii i?iaa?ye Iienaaauie caiiaaaeyie niauoey naiaai a?aiaie e
aeieaeai aue i?eeoe e oaeei aea ia/aeueiui auaiaeai, /oi e Aiin. Iaeiaei
Iney ia noae eeoue i?aaeneacaoaeai i?a/iiai eiioea, ia aue ii iioiae e
ia iaaeiaiiiai ioae?aoea, eioi?ue, iiaeiaii Aa?aeeeoo, aanno?anoii
noaeeo i ethaeneeo aacoinoaao n auniou naiaai i?aainoiaenoaa.

Iney a?aiaiaie aioia e?e/aoue io oa?cathuae aai nei?ae; ii ioaa/ai
ai?ai, aiciouaieai, no?anoiie oineie ii aa?iiiee e ie?o.

Eaeea-oi ia nianai yniua aeey ian niauoey a aeecie Inee iiaeaioiaeee aai
aeooo e aini?eyoeth iiauo aeoaei aiaiiiciaiey.

*oi aea i?iecioei n Ineae? Ii ?anneacuaaao i naiae aeecie aeiaieueii
naea/eai: a iaeiii ianoa aiai?eo, /oi aeaieeny ia «aeoaeieoea», a
ae?oaii — i naiae ethaae e iaaa?iie aeaiueia. A?yae ee ia?aae iaie
aeeaai?ey. Ii-aeaeeiiio, e «aeoae-ieoea», e «iaaa?iay aeaia» Inee —
iaeii e oi aea ?aaeueiia eeoei.

?en. 102

Nayoaeue

Aeey Nie?aoa iaoaea/iue a?ae aaeaa ee iia auoue o?aaaaeeae; e aeaei
caeanue ia noieueei a ee/iii oa?aeoa?a oeeinioa, neieueei a oii, /oi
a?ae, eae i?aaeei, ia aeaeae io aeaiueiu aeooiaiie aeecinoe e iiieiaiey.

Iaaeaeo oai a Ec?aeea aeaiueiu ia auee aaciieaiuie ?aauiyie. AEaiu
iaeioi?uo i?i?ieia ?acaeaeyee ni naieie ioaeueyie eo neoaeaiea. Iiyoiio
iao ie/aai no?aiiiai a oii, /oi Iney eneae a naiae aeaia ni/oanoaey e
aeooiaiie aeecinoe. Ii aianoi yoiai ii iaoae eaaeiiuneea, ?aaiiaeooea e
a?oainoue. Eaaeaony, /oi ia eaeia-oi a?aiy iaaeaeo ioaeai e aeaiie
i?iecioae iieiue ?ac?ua. Niaeanii iau/ath, Iney iia ia?aoeoueny e noaeo,
no?iai ea?aaoaio iaaa?iuo aeai, ii ethaiaue ia iicaieeea aio naeaeaoue
yoi; iai?ioea, iia a eiioea eiioeia acyea aa?o iaae ai?a/ueth eciaiu, e
Iney aa?ioe aeaio a aeii. Naaoeue yieeia Eieae i?i?iea Inee aiai?eo i
oii, /oi neeueiia e /enoia /oanoai iiaaaeeei iinea anao eniuoaiee.

I?aanoaaiiua no?aaeaiey, /a?ac eioi?ua i?ioae Iney, noaee oai iiuoii
aeey aeooe, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai ?ane?ueny i?i?i/aneee aea?.

Aeey Inee ?aeeaey — ia noieueei aeiea eee iaycaiiinoue, neieueei
i?aaeaea anaai ethaiaue e Aiao. O iaai, ia?aiai a Nayuaiiii Ienaiee,
a?ae, ethaiaue ioaea e aeaiu noaiiayony neiaieii nithca Aiaa n
/aeiaaeii. A a?aea anoue e aeiea, e iaycaiiinoe, ii nouiinoue aai — a
oaeinoaaiiii aaeeiaiee aeaoo nouanoa. Oaeiaa e aa?a. A aa iniiaa eaaeao
ia o?aaiaaiey, a ethaiaue: aeiaa?ea, i?eaycaiiinoue, ia?ac?uaiua ocu.
Caeanue Iney i?aaeainoeoee oaea aiinoiea Iaaea e Eiaiia Aiaineiaa.

O?aaaaeey Ec?aeey — a aai eciaia ethaae Aiaeeae.

Ii ia oieueei i?yiia ioiaaeaiea a ycu/anoai ninoaaeyao a aeacao Inee
eciaio ia?iaeo Aiaeey. Ii aeaeeo aa a eneaaeaiee naiiai ii/eoaiey ssaaa.
A yoii ii oeaeeeii aaeeiiaeooai n Aiinii, i?iiiaaaeieeii ?aeeaee Aeooa.

«Naeaeaee naaa eeouo eoie?ia, — e?iie/anee aiai?eo i?i?ie, — ec naiaai
na?aa?a, ii naiei iiiyoeyi, ecaeaeea ooaeiaeieea. Aiai?yo ei: i?eiineoa
aea?oao! *aeiaae, oeaeoe oaeueoeia!» (In 13:2).

Aiciacaeea aioiaeony ?oeaie naieo a?aoieeia, eioi?ua, «iinaya aaoa?,
iiaeioo ao?th» (In 8:7). Aua yniaa, /ai o Aiina, o Inee au?aaeaia iuneue
i oii, /oi a naiii ionooiie/anoaa io Aiaa oaea caeiaeaia ea?a. Ia
Aia-inoeoaeue yaeony n ae/ii aeey aicaeayiey, a nai a?ao ia?ooeo aai ia
i?anooiieea. Aia eeoue nicaeae oaeia iieiaeaiea aauae a ie?a, i?e
eioi?ii iaeacaiea ca a?ao iaioa?aoeii.

Ii a oio naiue iiiaio, eiaaea i?eaiai? eaaeaony oaea aioia, n?aaee
oi?aeia, naoiaaiee e ceiaaueo i?aaeneacaiee iaiaeeaeaiii cao/eo aiein
Aiaeee. E yoi oaea ia aiein iai?aeeiiiiai Noaeee, a neiaa, eniieiaiiua
aaneiia/iie aeaeinoe e nino?aaeaiey.

«Eae i?aaeai ss oaay, Yo?aei?

Io?aeonue ee io oaay, Ec?aeeue?..

Iiaa?ioeinue ai Iia na?aeoea Iia,

?acai?aeanue ai Iia aeaeinoue Iiy».

(In 11:8)

I?i?ieo, ethaiaue eioi?iai i?aiaeieaea ana ioee eciaiu, yaeeanue
iaoaaneiay ethaiaue Aiaeey. Ii — aicethaeaiiue. Ii — anai?iuathuee:

«Ii oycaee — e Ii aea enoeaeeo,

Ii ?aiee — Ii aea e ia?aayaeao ?aiu».

(In 6:1)

Ioaa?aiooue e i?aaeaiiue ethaeueie. Aia no?aaeaao. Aio iaiinoeaeeiay
oaeia, ioe?uaoayny i?i?ieo Inee. Yoi no?aaeaiea — aieue ia?acaeaeaiiie
ethaae, iii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i nie?iaaiiuo ocao, naycothueo oai?aiea e
Oai?oea.

Iu ioaeiu Aio! Ia /oaei ee? A neeao ee iu iiiyoue yoo iuneue?

«Aiaeanoai ia no?aaeaao, no?aaeaiea anoue i?eciae ianiaa?oainoaa», —
aiai?yo a niouaiee oeeiniou. Iao, ioaa/aao ei i?i?ie, anoue
Aiaeanoaaiiia no?aaeaiea. Aia no?aaeaeao ec-ca iaoaai ianiaa?oainoaa.

Ia?aae eeoeii no?anoae Ainiiaeieo i?aia?aaeaaony /aeiaae. Oaea ia /a?ae
iu, iiie?aaiua iiaaie, ia caauoue ino?iaie ie?a, a aeaoe Aiaeee, eioi?uo
Iaec?a/aiiue aea?aeeo ia ?oeao, eioi?uo II n aieueth i?iaiaeeo /a?ac
eniuoaiey, /oiau ia?aoeoue e ?aneayieth. Oaeeie oaeaeae ethaeae Iney.
Anee Aiin a?inaao a?aoieeia a aacaeio oaeana, oi Iney aiciineo eathueony
e a?aoai Iaaa.

«ss — Aia, a ia /aeiaae!» — aiai?eo ssaaa (In 1:9). Yoi cao/eo, eae
oaea? a?iia. Ii i?e yoii Iaiinoeaeeiue e Aa/iue, Ii iieii eaeie-oi
aeoai/aeoae aeeaie /aeiaa/iinoe. Ii anoue I?aaaea, e iiyoiio — Noaeey,
ii Ii aea nino?aaeaao a?aoieeai. Ii aea inoaiaaeeaaao no?aeu aiaaa; Aai
ethaiaue neeueiaa caeiia aicaeayiey.

I?i?ie ia oieueei yniiaeaeaoe ethaae, ii e i?iaicaanoiee naiaiaeu,
eioi?ay ?ane?uaaaony a oii, /oi Anaiiaouee aeaeao ia?auaiey ethaeae
Naieo.

A yiioo a?a/aneie oe?aiee, iniiaaiey ?eia e anne?eeneeo iaoanoaee, a
ioaeanea e?iaaaiai caeaoa Ec?aeey Iney, iineaaeiee i?i?ie Naaa?- y iiai
oea?noaa, aiai?eo i Aiaa, eioi?ue anoue Ethaiaue e aeaeao io /aeiaaea
ioaaoiie ethaae. E eiaaea Nui *aeiaa/aneee aieaeao iiae e?iau
ioaa?aeaiiuo, i?ace?aaiuo e a?aoiuo, ii iaiiiieo caeiiieeai, ee/eaoeiny
naiei aeaai/anoeai, yoe aaeeeea neiaa Inee: «Ieeina?aeey oi/o ss, a ia
aea?oau…» (In 6:6; n?. Io 9:13; 12:7).

?en. 103

I?i?ie Enaey. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Enaey e «aaaeiyee Ainiiaeie»

Ea?onaeei, 742—735 aa. aei ?.O.

Noiea aeuia iaae O?aiii, coa/aoua noaiu, iiiynuaathuea e?aiinoue ia
oieia; e?ooua auaeaeaiiua nieioeai neeiiu; aieienoay oeaiue ai? caiueaao
aeieeio. Oaeei aue Ea?onaeei ca ainaiue aaeia aei ?iaeaeanoaa O?enoiaa.
E oiio a?aiaie ii ia?aaeee aeieaoth enoi?eth, a aia?aaee aai iaeeaeaea
oaeeaeoaeueiay noaeueaa. Caeanue ia?anaeoony iooe iiiaeo ia?iaeia e
eoeueoo?; a oa/aiea o?ao ouny/aeaoee aai aoaeoo inia?eaaoue ae?oa o
ae?oaa ethaee o?ao iaoa?eeia; e aai nayouiyi noaioo i?eoiaeeoue
eniiaaaeothuea o?e ie?iaua ?aeeaee.

Ai?iae Aeaaeaea e O?enoa, ai?iae Iaaoiaaiey e Aaaiaaeey, Ea?onaeei io
naiuo naieo enoieia naycai ni Nayuaiiie enoi?eae.

A aoiinoa?a yoiai eaaaiaea?iiai ai?iaea e au?in ia?aue aaeeeee i?i?ie,
i?iiiaaaeiaaaoee a Eoaeaa, — Enaey. Eae Nie?ao — aeaoeua Aoei, oae e
Enaey iaioaeaeei io Ea?onaeeia, aeoo eioi?iai iuouaaony ai anao aai
i?iiiaaaeyo, a aai o/aiee i nayoinoe Aiaeeae, ia Inoaoea Ec?aeey e i
Iannee.

A aeia?aoee Enaee io?aaeaia a eaeii-oi niunea enoi?ey aai ?iaeiiai
ai?iaea a oo yiioo. Enaey aue i?ecaai ia neoaeaiea, eiaaea aio auei
ieiei o?eaeoeaoe eao, e n oao ii? ia i?ioyaeaiee ii/oe iieoaaea ii
inoaaaeny aeooiaiui iooeii Ea?onaeeia, niaaoieeii oea?ae, iaiiaeeoiiie
niaanoueth iaoeee.

Enaey ii i?aao aeieaeai auoue i?eciai iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo ienaoaeae
Ec?aeey. Aai iiiieiae aeuoao ia?iiiie yie/aneie neeie.

Eiaaea iu ia?auaainy e Eieaa i?i?iea Enaee a aa nia?aiaiiii aeaea, oi
aeieaeiu iiiieoue, /oi yoi nai?iee ?a/ae, ninoaaeaiiue aai o/aieeaie. Ia
ana a yoii nai?ieea i?eiaaeeaaeeo naiiio i?i?ieo, /anoue iaienaia aai
iineaaeiaaoaeyie. Aeey oiai /oiau auaeaeeoue iiaeeeiiua i?iiiaaaee Enaee
e ?aniieiaeeoue eo a o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea, iio?aaiaaeanue ?aaioa
ianeieueeeo iieieaiee aiaineiaia. Aeey ninoaaeoaeae ae?aaiae aioieiaee
aaaeii auei i?aaeaea anaai nio?aieoue o/aiea i?i?iea e aai oeieu.
Iaaeaeo oai eeoa?aoo?iue aiaeec eieae iiiia ainnoaiiaeoue
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?a/ae a nayce n yoaiaie aeooiaiiai ?acaeoey e
aeia?aoeae Enaee.

Enaey ?iaeeeny a Ea?onaeeia ieiei 765 a. aei ?.O. e, ii i?aaeaieth,
i?eiaaeeaaeae e oea?neiio ?iaeo. Aeaaea anee yoi eaaaiaea, ai anyeii
neo/aa, ii, ianiiiaiii, aue ec a?enoie?aoe/aneie naiuee, e oa ?ieue,
eioi?oth ii ea?ae a ai?iaea, oeacuaaao ia aai ciaoiia i?ienoiaeaeaiea,

Iieiaeinoue Enaee niaiaea n aiaeaie n?aaieoaeueiiai aeaaiiieo/ey no?aiu.
Iaeiaei ia a yoii aeaeae ii ciae aeaaiaieaiey Aiaeey. ?acaeaeyy iauoth
aa?o a eca?aiiinoue Neiia, ii ia naycuaae aa n oaiaaineeie eaaaiaeaie e
ia?iaeiuie iiaa?ey-ie. O?ai a aai aeacao aue ianoii iniaiai Aiaiyaeaiey,
ianoii, aaea Ainiiaeue ioe?uaaaony ethaeyi.

Iaeiaaeaeu, eiaaea Enaey iieeeny a O?aia, eae au ca?ieoea ?aci?aaea
oueio, e ioe?ueinue aio, /oi Nouee caeanue, /oi Ii aienoeio iaeoaao
n?aaee Naiaai ia?iaea, eaeao ?yaeii n /aeiaaeii.

*oi yoi auei? Eiooeoeaiia /oanoai Anaauoiaai? «Aiaeanoaaiiay oaeia
?aceeoa ai anai» — eoi a ieioou i?inaaoeaiey oioy au ?ac, oioy au a
neaaie noaiaie ia iuooee yoiai?

N Enaeae aea i?iecioei ae?oaia. I?i?ie ia?aaeee Aiaii?enoonoaea ia eae
o?aiaoiia eanaiea iac?eiiai, ii eae ?aaeueioth, yaioth ii/oe aei aiee
aeecinoue Eiiai, aeecinoue, aucuaathuoth ienoe/aneee oaean. Yoi auei
/oi-oi i/aiue iiuiia e aianoa n oai i/aiue ee/iia, i?iiecuaathuaa, eae
i?enoaeueiue acaeyae, iiaeeeiiia iaia?oaeaiea Aiaa ?yaeii n niaie. Ii,
ssaaa, oanoaothuee iaae Neiaai e ii?ai, i?aauoa iaeaeia, aao?ia e
caacae, iaiinoeaeeiui ia?acii i?aauaaao a yoii no?iaii nayoeeeua n?aaee
eaiiaae e ciei/aiuo oa?oaeiia, iaeoaao a yoii Aeiia e ia yoie ai?a, a
yoii nayoii a?aaea.

«ss aeaeae, — aiai?eo Enaey, — Ainiiaea, neaeyuaai ia i?anoiea aunieii e
aicianaiiii, e e?ay ?ec Aai iaiieiyee o?ai».

(En 6:1)

«Ai?a iia, y iiaea! — i?iianeinue oiaaea a niciaiee Enaee, — eai y —
/aeiaae n ia/enouie onoaie e n?aaee ia?iaea n ia/enouie onoaie aeeao, a
aeaca iie aeaeaee Oea?y ssaaa Aieinoa…» (En 6:5). N aeaoneeo eao aai
o/eee, /oi nica?oeaiea Nouaai iiaeiaii aoiaeaeaieth a iaiiue.

Ii aio /a?ac iaeaea eo?aiee e Enaea i?eeaoae iaeei ec na?aoeiia. A aai
?oeao oaeue io aea?oaaiieea, eioi?ui ii einioeny ono i?i?iea, e ana
nouanoai Enaee i?iiecae i/enoeoaeueiue iaiiue.

«Eiai iioeth ss? Eoi iieaeao aeey Ian?» — i?icao/ae a aeoaeia aiein.
Enaey ia eieaaaeny: «Aio y, iioee iaiy!» (En 6:8).

E oiaaea ii oneuoae no?aoiua neiaa i ia?iaea neaiii e aeooii, ia?iaea n
/a?noaui na?aeoeai, eioi?ue ioaa?ioeny io Aiaa. I?i?ie aeieaeai
aicaauaoue neaioeai aieth ssaaa, ii ana aoaeao ouaoii, eai iie ia noaioo
neooaoue. E ana aea Enaey iaycai aiai?eoue. «Aeieiea, Ainiiaee?» —
iia/aeeeny Enaey. Ioaao cao/ae eae i?eaiai?:

«Iiea ai?iaea ia aoaeoo ?ac?ooaiu e iionoatho,

aeiia inoaioony aac aeeoaeae.

E caiey ia ia?aoeony a ionouith,

iiea ia oaeaeeo ssaaa ionthaea ethaeae

e any no?aia noaiao aacethaeiie…»

(En 6:11)

Oioy a?aoiaiue /aeiaae e ia a neeao nica?oeaoue Aiaa, ii Enaey,
i/euaiiue, oaea n nuiiaiei aea?ciiaaieai aiai?eo: «Aio y, iioee iaiy!»
I?i?ie ia oiiao a Aiaa, ii e ia eaaeeo ia?aae iei ?ani?inoa?oue ieoe, ii
i?aaenoieo Aio e noaiiaeony nio/anoieeii Aai aeayiee.

ssaeaiea a O?aia auei ioe?iaaieai nayoinoe Aiaeeae. Aia nayo — aio
aeueoa e iiaaa i?iaicaanoey Enaee, aai neiaiea aa?u.

A Oiaieoaaeao e o Ieaoiia iu oiaea iaoiaeei iuneue i oii, /oi Aiaeanoai
a naiae nouiinoe ia iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaii ieeaeei caiiui iiiyoeai. O
Enaee yoa ianiecia?eiinoue Aiaa e ie?a au?aaeaia a neiaa «eaaeio»,
«nayoinoue». Ii i?e yoii Nouee ia ia?anoae auoue aeey i?i?iea Aiaii
AEeaui. Ii anoue Ee/iinoue, aeaenoaothuay a ie?a, oioy Eee Aai e ia?ac
Aai aeaenoaee niaa?oaiii eiua, iaaeaee o ethaeae. *aeiaae iiaeao ciaoue
eeoue Aai aieth, ii naiiai Aai iiciaoue ii ia a ninoiyiee. E anee
aiciiaeai nithc iaaeaeo Oai?oeii e oai?aieai, oi oieueei iioiio, /oi Aia
nai euao aai, ia/eiay aeeaeia n /aeiaaeii. O/aiea i «nayoinoe»
iaiiieiaei i oii, /oi oaeia Aiaeey «anaoeaei eiay». Iii i?aaeinoa?aaaei
ethaeae io nicaeaiey aiia?aaeaaiiai Aiaa ii naiaio ia?aco e iiaeiaeth.

?aaeinoue, ?iaeaeaiiay iinauaieai Aiaeeei, ii?a/aeanue aeey Enaee
niciaieai ianiioaaonoaey ia?iaea eaeaaeo «nayoinoe». A i?eiaiaiee e
ethaeyi «eaaeio», «nayoinoue» icia/aea «iinayuaiiinoue Aiao». Ia?iae
ssaaa aeieaeai aue i?eiaaeeaaeaoue Aio oeaeeeii e neaaeiaaoue Aai
iooyie. Ii /oi aea?

«Aeiia?aaeiee ssaaa Naaaioa — yoi aeii Ec?aeeaa,

e ioaee eoaeaeneea — ethaeiia ianaaeaeaiea Aai.

Ii aeaeae i?aainoaeey, a caeanue — e?iaii?ieeoea,

Ii aeaeae i?aaaaeiinoe, a caeanue — aiieue».

(En 5:7)

?en. 104

Aeaeaiea i?i?iea Enaee i ?ac?ooaiee Aaaeeiia.

A. Aei?a A?aath?a

Anee iu n?aaiei i?iiiaaaeue Enaee n ?a/aie Aiina, oi n?aco a?ineony a
aeaca eo nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea. Aeey Aiina Aeaiue ssaaa — yoi eeoue
oueia, ?ac?ooeoaeueiue aeo?ue, Enaey aea oniao?eaaao a iai e ia/oi
ae?oaia. Iaaoiaaiey Aiaeee ia ioiaiythony oeaeeeii: n?aaee anaiauaai
?aceiaeaiey e iaaeaeaathuaeny aaaeu aeieaeai nio?aieoueny nayoie Inoaoie
Ec?aeeaa. Eiaiii a iai e inouanoaeony ana oi, /oi i?aaeneacaii iaeiaaea
ia?iaeo Aiaeeth. ssae?ii aic?iaeaeaiey ia?iaea Aiaeey noaioo ethaee,
aa?iua «nayoinoe», ethaee, iinayoeaoea naay iaaaniiio Oea?th.

A oa aiaeu ana aieaa yanoaaiii aeaaaei i naaa ciaoue ?aeeaeiciia
iai?aaeaiea, ecaanoiia iiae iacaaieai «yaeiiei ssaaa», «aaaeiyee
Ainiiaeie». Eiaiii a ieo iia aeaeaoue i?i?ie oio nayoie Inoaoie, eioi?ue
aoaeao nianai ai a?aiy anao enoi?e/aneeo iioiiia.

Ianoooaneee eaeaae n aai i?inoioie e naiaiaeie ioaa?aae oco?iaoeeth
aeanoe e iaiaauaiea. Oaiaoaoaeue, aa?iionooiiee e «iiaee?aoaeue aaaeiuo»
ia?aaeei aue i?aaenoaaeai a iaeiii eeoea.

Iaeiaei aaaeiinoue, ii?iaeaeaiioth i?acaeiinoueth, Aeaeey
iaaeaoniuneaiii inoaeaeaea (I?eo/ 28:19). Iaeiouee, eniieiaiiue ceiau,
caaenoe e ae/iinoe, ia iia auoue i?e/eneai e «aaaeiyeai Ainiiaeiei»,
eioi?ua ia n/eoaee naith aaaeiinoue i?ieeyoeai, a ii-naiaio aeaaea
ai?aeeeenue ath.

Iiai?ieee enoeiiiai aeaai/anoey a?oiie?iaaeenue ia?aaeei aie?oa O?aia.
Yoi auee e «aaaeiyee Ainiiaeie», e ethaee, eioi?ua iacuaaee naay
«aiaaei». Neiai yoi aoeaaeueii ia?aaiaeeony oiaea eae «ieuea», ii ii
niuneo icia/aao «e?ioeea» e «nie?aiiua».

Niune neia «e?ioinoue» e «nie?aiea» neeueii eciaieeny io iai?aaeeueiiai
oiio?aaeaiey e eiaeiuo annioeeaoeee; nie?aiea eaaei ioiaeaeanoaeyaony
oaia?ue n oaiaeaneie aeaeiinoueth, ieceiiieeiinoaii, oieceoaeueiie
iiei?iinoueth. Iaaeaeo oai nie?aiea a aeaeaeneie aaooicaaaoiie e
o?enoeaineie o?aaeeoeeyo eo/oa anaai iiaeao auoue iiiyoi eae aeooiaiay
o?acainoue e aeia?ioa, i?ioeaiiieiaeiua iiueyiaieth ai?aeuiae.

«E?ioeea», eae e «aaaeiyee Ainiiaeie», auee caia/aoaeueiui yaeaieai a
aeooiaiie aeecie aeio?enoeaineiai ie?a. Aaaeue oi auei a?aiy iiaouanoaa
Anne?ee, a?aiy eciu?aiiie aeanoieinoe e i?aaieciaaiiuo ianniauo oaeenoa.
Anee a XX a. ooiia ianeeea e iii?aiea /aeiaa/iinoe i?eia?aoaao iaauaaeue
?aciao, oi /oanoai i?aanoaaiiiai aiciouaiey, eioi?ia aucuaatho ethaua
aeou aan/aeiaa/iinoe, ioee/aao iaoo yiioo io i?ioeuo aaeia.

?en. 105

Ainiiaeue ii?aaeaao Eaaeaoaia. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Eiia aeaei — yiioa i?i?ieia. Aiiaeu oao a?aiai n yie/aneei niieienoaeai
iiaanoaotho i aioniuo iaae?oaaoaeuenoaao iaae /aeiaaeii. Ii eiaiii a oi
a?aiy e i?iaoaeeeenue a ie?a neeu aeia?a. A yiioo Aaooiai Caaaoa e
niceaeaoaeyi Oea?noaa Aiaeey i?eiaaeeaaeaee aiaaei e yaei-iei, a eioi?uo
Enaey oniio?ae nayoie Inoaoie Ec?aeey.

Neiaa «aiaaei» e «yaeiiei» e a aaaiaaeueneea aeie aoaeoo iaicia/aoue
oao, eoi niciaoaeueii anooiee ia iooue aeia?a e ianoyaeaiey, e eiaiii
iiyoiio /a?ac ainaiue aaeia iinea Enaee a Naiae Iaai?iie i?iiiaaaee
O?enoin i?aaeaea anaai ia?aoeeny e «ieuei», «e?ioeei», aiieiui e euouei
i?aaaeu; e i Naaa Ii neaaeao: «iao/eoanue io Iaiy, eai ss e?ioie e
nie?ai na?aeoeai, e iaeaeaoa iieie aeooai aaoei» (Io 11:29).

Neiai i Iannee

Ea?onaeei e Naia?ey, 736—727 aa. aei ?.O.

Iuneue i nianaiee e iio?aaiinoue a iai iiaee iiyaeoueny oieueei ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia aeooiaiie enoi?ee, eiaaea ethaee i?eoee e
oaaaeaeaieth, /oi Anaeaiiay ia anoue eo/oee ec ie?ia. Eiaiii oiaaea
aicieeee o/aiey, i?aaeeaaaaoea, eaaeaeia ia naie eaae, niiniau
inaiaiaeeoueny io oaoaeueiie aeanoe cea: io no?aaeaiey, aanniuneeoeu e
nia?oe.

A Ec?aeea oiaea aeeea iuneue i nianaiee. Ii aeey aa?aeneeo i?i?ieia
nianaiea auei ia iieeoe/aneie ooiieae e ia ioeacii io ie?a, a icia/aei
aeeciue n Aiaii. Iie aiai?eee i nianaiee oieueei iioiio, /oi aa?eee a
i?eoanoaea naiiai Aiaa a ie?.

A?yaeouaa anaaaea auei iooaaiaeiie caacaeie aeey ethaeae Aaooiai Caaaoa.
I?i?ie Iaoai i?aae?ae aa/iia oea?noai Iannee ec aeiia Aeaaeaeiaa; ii oae
eae aa/iinoue i?enoua oieueei Aiao, yoi Oea?noai e yaeony Oea?noaii
Aiaeeei.

Eiai a oa a?aiaia ec?aeeueoyia iacuaaee ianneae? «Ianney», eee
i?aaeeueiaa «iaoeao» (ii-a?a/anee «O?enoin»), icia/aao «iiiacaiiee», oi
anoue /aeiaae, iinayuaiiue Aeooii Ainiiaeiei ia neoaeaiea. Oae eiaiiaaee
i?i?ieia, nayuaiieeia, ii aeaaiui ia?acii — oea?ae.

I?e niaa?oaiee ia?yaea iiiacaiey oiio?aaeyaony aeae, ianei ieeau. Eae
iaiiue aue neiaieii aeooiaiie iiue, a aiaea — ciaeii i/euaiey, oae aeae
ciaiaiiaae nio?aiaiea. Aeae, aiceeoue ia eca?aiieea, icia/ae iinoiyiiia
i?aauaaiea ia iai Aiaeanoaaiiiai iinayuaiey. Aai niaa?oaee ai a?aiy
oi?aeanoaaiiie ei?iiaoeee, iiyoiio a nouiinoe eaaeaeue ea?onaeeineee
iiia?o aue «ianneae». Iaeiaei i?i?i/anoai oeacuaaei ia Ianneth
iaiaueiiaaiiiai, Oiai, Eioi?ue iaeiaaea aioea?eony a ia?ooeiii Oea?noaa,
iaeanioth ssaaa.

«Eai ec Neiia aueaeao O/aiea e Neiai ssaaa — ec Ea?onaeeia.

E Ii aoaeao noaeeoue iaaeaeo ieaiaiaie, aiai?eoue ei iiiaei ia?iaeai;

E iie ia?aeotho ia/e naie ia ieoae e eiiuey naie ia na?iu.

Ia iiaeieiao ia/a ia?iae ia ia?iae, e ia aoaeao aieueoa o/eoueny aieia».

(En 2:3-4)

Yoe neiaa i «ia/a e i?aea» (ieoaa) ia?aaeei iiaoi?ytho e a iaoe aeie, n
oie eeoue ?acieoeae, /oi ia/aei i?i?i/anoaa iioneaaony. Iaaeaeo oai
aeaeaeneee iiyo ia ioaeaeye aeaeaiiue eiiaoe e?iaii?ieeoee io aeooiaiiai
aic?iaeaeaiey ie?a. I?i?i/anoai aiai?eo i oii, /oi cei iiaeao auoue
iiaaaeaeaii oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea ethaee i?eioo O/aiea e Neiai
Ainiiaeia.

Yoi auei iniaaiii iaiaoiaeeii a oa aeie, eai ia?eiae ioiineoaeueiiai
niieienoaey eii/eeny e Eoaeay anooieea a iieino aiei. Aeaa aaeeeea
aea?aeaau — Anne?ey e Aaeiao — aioiaeeenue e ?aoeoaeueiie noaaoea,
i?e/ai ia?aaan aue yaii ia anne?eeneie noi?iia. Ia?aae iaieie aa?aeneeie
oea?noaaie noiyea o?oaeiay caaea/a: ii?aaeaeeoue naith iiceoeeth,
i?aauaay iaaeaeo iieioii e iaeiaaeueiae.

Eiaiii a yoio e?eoe/aneee /an i?i?ie Enaey naeaeae iiiuoeo iiaeeyoue ia
oea?y Aoaca. A i?enoonoaee anao ie?oaeathueo ii oi?aeanoaaiii
i?iaicaeanee yaeaiea «ciaea io ssaaa», oeacuaathuaai ia
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue nayoiai a?aaea.

«Neooaeoa! Aeii Aeaaeaeia! Iaei Aai eniuouaaoue ethaeae, /oi au
eniuouaaaoa Aiaa iiaai? E ana aea aeano Nai Ainiiaeue aai ciae: aio
iaeay AEaia ca/iao, e ?iaeeo Nuia, e aeano aio eiy Yiiaioee (“N iaie
Aia”). Ianeii e iaaeii aoaeao ii ieoaoueny, iiea ia iao/eony ioaa?aaoue
ceia e ecae?aoue aeia?ia. Ii i?aaeaea /ai io?ie iao/eony ioaa?aaoue ceia
e ecae?aoue aeia?ia, aoaeao iionoioaia caiey…» (En 7:13-16).

I?i?ie o?aaiaae io oea?y iiaeaeaa ai eiy aa?u. Ii iiiiuue anne?eeoeaa
auea iinoaaeaia auoa iiiiue ssaaa. Oea?ue eoaeaeneee, ia oiiaay ia
Ainiiaea, aeiaa?eeny iiia?oo aaeeeie aea?aeaau.

Aieueoeinoai eoaeaeneeo oea?ae iaei iioiaeeei ia eaeaaeueiiai
Iiiacaiieea. ?iaeaeaiea ieaaeaioea, eioi?iai ia?aeoo «N iaie Aia»,
ciaiaiiaaei ia oieueei nianaiea Neiia io a?aaia, ii e ianooieaiea a
aoaeouai Oea?noaa Aiaeey.

Eoae, aaiaoe nianaiey — Aiaeea Oea?noai, aeanoeoaeue aai —
Ianney-O?enoin. Oaia yoa nia/aea aoiaeeo a Aaooee Caaao ?iaei e
iaoaa?aiii, ii iinoaiaiii neuoeony ana a?ii/a, caoaaouaaao ana aieueoaa
i?ino?ainoai e iaeiiaoe noaiiaeony aaaeouae a oiiaaiee Ec?aeey.
Ianney-Ee/iinoue… Iiiacaiiee, Eioi?ue ainnoaiiaeo ie? iaaeaeo Oai?oeii
e ethaeueie.

Naia?ey e Neii 715-688 aa. aei ?.O.

A 715 a. oia? oea?ue Aoac, e aai nui Acaeey, eioi?iio oiaaea auei oaea
ieiei aeaaaeoeaoe iyoe eao, ianeaaeiaae aio.

Iiaue oea?ue n ia?auo aeiae i?aaeaiey naycae iieeoeeo n eaeayie «ia?oee
?aoi?i». Anoue ana iniiaaiey n/eoaoue, /oi Enaey n?aco aea noae aeeceei
e oea?th /aeiaaeii e aaeioiiaee aai ia i?iaaaeaiea ?aeeaeiciuo
i?aia?aciaaiee.

Niaeanii Aeaeee, Acaeey a ia?aue aea aiae naiaai i?aaeaiey iauyaee i
anaia?iaeiii e oi?aeanoaaiiii i?acaeiiaaiee Ianoe a ai?iaea Aeaaeaea.
Aei neo ii? iia ia auea naycaia n Ea?onaeeiii. Naiuee a eaaeaeii ai?iaea
e naeaiee ono?aeaaee a yoio aeaiue nayuaiioth o?aiaco, onoaiiaeaiioth ni
a?aiai Enoiaea. N yoei oi?aeanoaii ecaeaaia niaaeeiyee i?acaeiee
Ii?aniieia, eiaaea auiaeaee i?aniue oeaa ia?aae oai?eie y/iaiy. Yoei
i?acaeieeai — ianoooaneiio e caieaaeaeue/aneiio — Acaeey oioae i?eaeaoue
oa?aeoa? Neiineiai oi?aeanoaa. Eae ainiiieiaiea ia ecaaaeaiee io ?aanoaa
Ianoa aeieaeia auea ioiuia noaoue aeiai i?ineaaeaiey naiaiaeu, aeiai
aeaaiaea?noaaiiuo iieeoa a Aeiia Ainiiaeiai. Iiae aeeyieai Enaee oea?ue
no?aieeny oaeaea i?iaoaeeoue a ia?iaea aeoo iieayiey. Iauyaeyy naith
aieth ia?aae nia?aieai nayuaiieeia, Acaeey neacae: «Iaae iooeaie iaoeie
oyaioae aiaa ssaaa, e aio oaia?ue y oi/o caeeth/eoue Caaao n Aiaii,
/oiau Ii ioa?aoee io ian Naie aiaa». Oaeei ia?acii, aica?auaiea e
/enoioa ae?aaiae aa?u noaei aeaaiui aeaaecii i?aia?aciaaiee.

Acaeey yia?ae/ii niaeaenoaiaae ?aeeaeiciiio i?inaauaieth. I?e iai aue
?anoe?ai ooao ienoeia, caiyaoeony i?eaaaeaieai a ii?yaeie nayuaiiuo
eiea. Ienoeu Ea?onaeeia, eiaiiaaaoeany «neoaaie Acaeee», nia?aee ?a/e
i?i?ieia, i?aaeneacuaaaoeo iaaeaiea Naia?ee, ninoaaeee iiaoth Nayuaiioth
enoi?eth, niaaeeiea aeaa aa aa?eaioa — naaa?iue e thaeiue. Iie auionoeee
nai?iee ec?a/aiee «Ioae?inoe». Yoio nai?iee, i?eienuaaaiue Nieiiiio,
ciaiaiiaae iiyaeaiea iiaiai aeai?a a aeaeaeneie eeoa?aoo?a. E ia
neo/aeii aiciee ii a aiaeu ie?a e ?acaeoey i?inaaoeoaeuenoaa. A Eieaa
I?eo/ae iu ia iaeaeai ie i?iiiaaaeie/aneiai iaoina, ie ao?iuo iaee/aiee,
ie io/eoaeueiuo ai?aiee aeooe. Any iia — caiiay, o?aaiiaaoaiiay,
niieieiay; a eieaa iaia/ai ia i?inoi i?aaeeueiue iooue aeecie, ii oaeie,
eioi?ue aue au a niaeanee n aieae Oai?oea. Iiyoiio yoeea I?eo/ae
niaiaaeaao n i?aanoaaiiui eaeaaeii i?i?ieia.

Ia aieaa aeaoo eao i?iaeieaeaeny niieieiue e ieiaeioai?iue ia?eiae.
Aeeyiea Enaee auei ia?aeeciaaii ethaeueie, ni?aaaoeie aeaei ?aoi?i.
Anne?eeoeu oaea aeanyoue eao ia o?aaiaeeee Iaeanoeio, e Enaey iuoaeny
ethaie oeaiie i?aaeioa?aoeoue o/anoea Eoaeae a aioiayuaeny aieia. Ii ii
aue iono?aiai, aai niaaoia ia ni?aoeaaee. A Ea?onaeeia iieiui oiaeii oea
iiaeaioiaea e aieia, eiiaoe eioi?ie ieacaeny iea/aaai: Acaeey e aai
nithcieee ia oieueei ia iaeieaee Anne?eth, ii iioa?iaee iieiia
ii?aaeaiea. No?aia auea ?aci?aia, ouny/e ethaeae oaiaiu ia /oaeaeio.
I?eoiaeeeinue i?eciaoue, /oi i?aa aue Enaey.

E eiaaea, aa?iyoii ieiei 688 a. aei ?.O., anne?eeneee oea?ue Neiaooa?ea
(Naiiaoe?ei) aoi?e/ii aoi?any a Eoaeath, Acaeee ?ann/eouaaoue auei ia ia
/oi. Ii eiaiii oiaaea, eiaaea en/acee ana caiiua oainu ia nianaiea, a
Enaea i?iecioea aiacaiiay ia?aiaia: ii noae aanoieeii iaaeaaeaeu e
ooaoeoaeai ia?iaea; ii aue ioiuia oaa?ai, ii ciae, /oi ia/anoeaiio a?aao
ia aeaii nie?ooeoue Inoaoie Ec?aeeaa.

?en. 106

Ii?aaeaiea Neiaooa?eaa ii iieeoaa Acaeee. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

Oaeia e aeiiuia ieoouaaao aeaeueiaeoea niauoey iioiaea Neiaooa?eaa. Iu
ciaai eeoue iaeii: eaeea-oi caaaaei/iua ianoiyoaeuenoaa ?ac?ooeee ana
ieaiu caaiaaaoaey.

I?e ?aneiieao Eaoeoa auea iaia?oaeaia ia?iiiay a?aoneay iiaeea. A iae
eaaeaee aanii?yaei/ii naaeaiiua inoaiee aieaa /ai iieooi?a ouny/
ethaeae.

I?aaenoaaeyaony iaeaieaa aa?iyoiui, /oi ia a?ieth Neiaooa?eaa ia?ooeeny
i?ioeaiee, ia?aae eioi?ui ii aue aanneeai, — yieaeaiey. Neiaooa?ea
aieueoa ia aica?auaeny a Eoaeath.

Nianaiea Ea?onaeeia iiaeiyei eae ieeiaaea aaoi?eoao Enaee. Aai oeiea
noaea iaeiie ec aeeyoaeueiaeoeo a ai?iaea. Eacaeinue, ana eniuoaiey
iicaaee e Ec?aeeue ieii/aoaeueii auoae ia aa?iue iooue. Ii i?ici?eeaue
i?i?ie ciae, /oi yoi ia oae.

?en. 107

Ii?aaeaiea aiene Neiaooa?eaa. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

?iaeo Aeaaeaeiao noaeaeaii ianoue e aic?iaeeoueny. Eeoue iaeue ia?oaie,
iaiae, inoaiaony io iaeiaaea iiuiiai noaiea. Yoi aoaeao i?aaeaeii
oieaeaiey ia?iaea e oea?neiai aeiia, ii a ei?iyo Aia ana aea inoaaeo
aeeciue, e a iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue ec iieoia?oaiai iiy aueaeao Iaoea?,
iieiaeay aanaiiyy ii?ineue.

Enaey, eae e i?aaeaea, ia iacuaaao Ianneth oea?ai, eai a aai i?eoanoaee
ieii/aoaeueii aoaeao yaeaii, /oi aaeeinoaaiiue Oea?ue — yoi Ainiiaeue.
Ana, /ai i?ineaaeony Iaoea?, i?eaeao iaiin?aaenoaaiii io ssaaa. E
ioae?inoue, e aiaiiiciaiea, e aeaai/anoea — ana yoi aeayiey Aeooa. E nai
Iiiacaiiee aoaeao aeaenoaiaaoue neeie aeooiaiie.

Caeeth/eoaeueiua noeoe aaee/anoaaiiiai aeiia, eaaaaeeiie ianie Enaee, ia
inoaaeytho niiiaiey a oii, /oi aeey i?i?iea ianneaineay y?a icia/aao
oaea ia i?inoi naiaiaeo e ni?aaaaeeeainoue. Iia i?eianao ie? ia oieueei
eae i?ae?auaiea aiei e ai?ueau, ii ie? a aai aeoai/aeoai, nayuaiiii
niunea.

Aeaeaeneia neiai «oaeii» (ie?) icia/aao iieiioo aeecie.

«E ieaaeaiaoe aoaeao ea?aoue o aiacaea aaaethee, e a ii?o anieaea aeeoy
aeiaeeo ?oeo.

Ia aoaeoo aieueoa oai?eoue cea e aan/anoey ia nayoie Ai?a Iiae,

Eai caiey iaiieieony iiciaieai ssaaa, eae ii?a iaiieiaii aiaeith».

(En 11:8-9)

Ia?aaeei iiaeii neuoaoue nienoiaeeoaeueiia caia/aiea, aoaeoi Enaey ni
naiae aa?ie a a?yaeouaa «a iaeaiie oi?ia» i?aaeainoeoee nia?aiaiiua
eaeae nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Enoi?ey aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u
aeieacuaaao, /oi yoe eaeae iaoiaeyony a i?yiie nayce n Aeaeeae.

I?i?iee, aeeaoea a yiioo aeooiaiuo e nioeeaeueiuo eaoaeeeciia, iaeaioia
aeaaee eo ioa/anoaa, ia?aae eeoeii oi?aeanoaothuae oe?aiee, oc?aee
Oea?noai Aiaeea. Eo i?iiiaaaeue auea aacoieai a aeacao ie?a, aeaaea
naieo i?i?ieia ii?aaeaea ioe?uaoayny ei oaeia.

sscu/aneay ?aaeoeey. Nie?iaaiiay Oi?a

Ieiaaey — Ea?onaeei, 687—640 aa. aei ?.O.

Aa?a, iino?iaiiay oieueei ia /oaea, ii nouanoao ia?anoaao auoue enoeiiie
aa?ie. Ciaiaiea eae au ianao iinyaaoaeuenoai ia naiaiaeo /aeiaaea e
i?eioaeeoaeueii iaaycuaaao aio nianaiea.

Iinea ooiaea anne?eeoeaa nia?aiaiieee Enaee, aa?iyoii, i?iieeeenue
iaaeaaeaeie, /oi ssaaa aeano iaeiiaoe iineaaeiee aie Anno?o. Ii nei?i ei
noaei ynii, /oi aiaae Ainiiaeaiue ia aeiaae ?ani?aao aei eiioea, nei?aa
iaiai?io: iaei oiai, /oi Neiaooa?ea ia ianeieueei eao ia?aaeee Acaeeth,
ii e oea?noaiaaiea aai nuia Ana?aaaeaeiia noaei aiiaaai iiaouanoaa
Ieiaaee.

A Eoaeaa aiciaeaaeaee noi?iiieee i?ianne-?eeneiai eo?na. Iaiaoeeny
aica?ao e iieeoeea Aoaca. A e?oaao eoaeaeneie ciaoe aieueoia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a oi a?aiy iieo/ee eoeueo ano?aeueiuo’ aiaia.

A Ea?onaeeia auno?i ?anieiaeeeenue anyeiai ?iaea caeeeiaoaee, iaae e
ciaoa?e. Ii naiui no?aoiui aue aica?ao e eoeueoo Iieioa. A aeieeia
Aaiiii (Aaaiia) o thai-caiaaeiie noaiu Ea?onaeeia auee iinoaaeaiu
aea?oaaiieee, ia eioi?uo ana /aua noaee niaa?oaoue /oaeiaeuiue ia?yae
aeaoioaeenoaa.

sscu/anoai ni?aaeyei naith iineaaeithth, ii naioth ao?ioth aaeoaiaeeth
ia Nayoie Caiea.

I?i?ie Enaey ia aeiaeee aei yoeo i?a/iuo aeiae ionooiie/anoaa.

Aianoa n ?aeeaeiciuie ?aoi?iaie auee ioaa?aioou e nioeeaeueiua
o?aaiaaiey i?i?ieia. Aaccaeiiea e i?iecaie aioea?eeenue a no?aia.

Oai a?aiaiai a Ea?onaeeia noaea aic?iaeaeaoueny ?aeeaeiciay iiiiceoeey.
A aeie aiiaiee oa, eoi inoaeny aa?iui Aiao, eneaee a i?aaeaieyo Iienaaaa
a?aiaie ?oeiaiaenoaa e iiaeaea?aeee.

Noi?ie?iaaaoayny a ao?iua e?eoe/aneea aiaeu e iaienaiiay io eeoea Iienay
Oi?a, eee Iyoeeieaeea (ia?aua iyoue eiea Aeaeee), i?iiecaia aeooii
ai?ueau. I aaeeinoaa Aiaeeai e aa?iinoe Oai?oeo a iae neacaii oae, eae
aiai?yo eeoue ia?aae eeoeii iianiinoe, oa?iaeathuae aa?a.

______________________________________________________

1 Ano?aeueiua aiae — ?acee/iua ieeoeaoai?aiey noeoeeiuo (einie/aneeo)
nee; iieeiiaiea ano?aeueiui aiaai anoue ia?ooaiea Caaaoa, eai
iieeiiyoueny neaaeoao ia oaa?yi (neieue au aicauoaiiu e iiaouanoaaiiu
iie ie auee), a Oai?oeo.

Aic?iaeaeaiea i?i?i/anoaa.

I?ecaaiea Ea?aiee

Ea?onaeei, 640—622 aa. aei ?.O.

Aeaei i?i?ieia, aeieaia a?aiy eacaaoaany iiaeaoei, a yoio o?aaiaeiue /an
ia/aei aic?iaeaeaoueny. Ia?aui aunooiee i?i?ie Nioiiey, ciaoiue
ea?ona-eeieyiei ec oeieu Enaee. Ai a?aiy aiaineoaeaiey a O?aia, aaea
iieaaaeinue neaaeoue Aiaa e oea?y, ii aicaanoee, /oi /aoa aaccaeiiee
ia?aiieiaia.

Yoi oa naiua neiaa, eioi?ua e aeiiuia iio?ynatho neooaoaeae eaoeineiai
aeiia «Aeaiue aiaaa»:

«Aeaiue oio anoue Aeaiue aiaaa,

Aeaiue nei?ae e oaniiou,

Aeaiue oaeana e iionoioaiey,

Aeaiue oueiu e i?aea,

Aeaiue oo/e e iaeu,

Aeaiue o?oau e aiaaiai eee/a

i?ioea e?aiinoae e aunieeo aaoai.

E noanith ss ethaeae,

e iie aoaeoo oiaeeoue, eae neaiua,

ca oi, /oi niaa?oeee i?ioea ssaaa».

(Nio 1:15)

Ineaaeaiea Ieiaaee e i?iiiaaaee Nioiiee i?iecaaee aeoaieia aia/aoeaiea
ia iieiaeiai oea?y Eineth. Eiaaea aio eniieieeinue oanoiaaeoeaoue eao,
ii aia?aua anaia?iaeii iauyaee, /oi ioaa?aaao eiicaiiua eoeueou e aoaeao
ioiuia neaaeiaaoue aa?a naiaai i?aiooea Aeaaeaea.

Ai?ueaa ca aeooiaiia aic?iaeaeaiea oea ?oea ia ?oeo n ai?ueaie ca
iacaaeneiinoue e iauaaeeiaiea no?aiu. Eacaeinue, ?annaao Ec?aeey,
eioi?iai oaea io/ayeenue aeaeaoue, iaeiiaoe ianooiaao.

Oieueei iaeei /aeiaae a Ea?onaeeia ia ?acaeaeye iauae ?aaeinoe e
iaaeaaeaeu. Yoi aue Ea?a-iey, nui Oeeeee, iieiaeie eaaeo ec Aiaoioa.

Iiaeiaii oiio eae o nia?oiiai iae?a Naaa?iiai oea?noaa Ec?aeey noiye
aaeeeee i?i?ie Iney, oae e oeao?a Ea?aiee nei?aiui neeoyoii
neiaieece?oao eiiaoe Eoaeaeneiai oea?noaa. Naeaeaoaeth aai iineaaeiaai
aceaoa a aiaeu Einee, i/aaeaeoeo Ea?onaeeineie o?aaaaeee, Ea?aiee,
noaeaeaii auei i?enoonoaiaaoue i?e aaiiee no?aiu e iieeiooue aa aianoa
ni naiei ia?iaeii. Oioy ii e ia iaeaaeae i?ecaaieai aiaeaey, eae Iienae
eee Eeey, ia aue aaeeeei iiyoii e iniiaaoaeai oeieu, eae Enaey, oai ia
iaiaa ii inoaaee iaecaeaaeeiue neaae a aaooicaaaoiii ?aeeaeiciii
niciaiee. Ia neo/aeii i aai aeecie e ee/iinoe Aeaeey aiai?eo aieueoa,
/ai i ae?oaeo i?i?ieao. Ii anee au iu caoioaee eneaoue o iaai eaeeo-oi
iiauo aeieo?ei, oi ian aeaeaei au ?aci/a?iaaiea: ii/oe ana, /aio o/ee
Ea?aiey, auei oaea neacaii aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie. Iaeiaei i?e
aieiaoaeueiii /oaiee aai eieae iao?oaeii oeiaeoue iaeio aaaeioth /a?oo,
eioi?ay iauyniyao oaeio aai aeeyiey: io aeaau e aeaaa a iae ana yniaa
au?eniauaaaony y?eay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue aaoi?a.

Ea?aiey — iineaiiee, nio?aiythuee ca niaie i?aai iniaiai iiaiey i oii,
/oi aio aaeaii aicaauaoue. Aeaeueoa ethaiai i?i?iea ionoieo Ea?aiey io
ainoi/iiai ienoeoeecia n aai ?anoai?aieai ee/iinoe a yenoaca.

Iu iaoiaeei a iai /aeiaaea, eioi?ue iiciae oaeio iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
aeeaie aanaaeu n Aiaii.

Iai?enooiiue Oea?ue Neaau, yaeaoeeny Enaea, a?iciue Noaeuey, aauaaoee
onoaie Aiina e Nioiiee, a noaeueaa Ea?aiee i?eaeeaeaaony e /aeiaaeo,
i?aiaeieaaay aeenoaioeeth, ioe?uaay Naie aeeaie Eee.

?iainoue e eieaaaiey iaeaaeaee Ea?aieae, eiaaea ii iiiye, eaeie o?oaeiue
iiaeaea aiceaaaaony ia iaai: ii ia iia ia ni/oanoaiaaoue ?aoaieth oea?y
Einee iieii/eoue n ycu/anoaii a no?aia, ii i?e yoii ynii aeaeae, neieue
iiaa?oiinoiui inoaaaeinue «ia?auaiea» iann.

?en. 108

I?i?ie Ea?aiey. Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. O?aaiaio ?iniene. 1511 a.

«Oaeeaeoaeueiia e no?aoiia aeaeaaony a yoie no?aia, — aiai?eo Ea?aiey, —
i?i?iee i?i?i/anoaotho eiaeue, nayuaiieee ainiiaenoaotho n eo iiiiuueth,
a ia?iae Iie ethaeo ana yoi» (Ea? 5:30—31).

Ea?aiey ia aue aeaiaaiaii e ia oiae euenoeoue ia?iaeo. Ai eiy Ec?aeey ii
ia/ae ai?ueao n naiei Ec?aeeai e ia caiae/eaae aai a?aoe, iioiio /oi
oioae nianoe aai. Iao?eiou aiciouaeenue aai ?a/aie, i?aaeii/eoay
neooaoue oao i?i?ieia, eioi?ua io eiaie ssaaa noeeee ei iiaua iiaaaeu.
Iaaeaeo oai Ea?aiey aieueoa, /ai eaeie-eeai ec i?i?ieia, ethaee naie
ian/anoiue ia?iae e iiiaino?aaeaeueioth caieth. Oaeay aea no?iaay
ethaiaue iicaieeea Aeaioa iacaaoue Eoaeeth ?aaie e aeiiii ?aca?aoa.

Iinea ?yaea iaoaea/ Ea?aiey iiiye, /oi aai i?ecuau aaniieaciu, e
aa?ioeny a ?iaeiie ai?iaeie aac anyeie iaaeaaeaeu ia iiaeeeiiia
aic?iaeaeaiea Ec?aeey. Ii anei?a a Ea?onaeeia i?iecioei niauoea,
eioi?ia, eacaeinue, iiaei iieieaaaoue aai ianneieci.

Ea?onaeeineay ?aoi?ia

Eoaeay e Ec?aeeue, 622—609 aa. aei ?.O.

Oea?th Einee oae aeaaaeoeaoue oanoie aiae, ii aue iieiae, niae,
yia?ae/ai e ii/oe inaiaiaeeeny io iiaee noa?uo naiiaieeia. I?e aeai?a
ia?aciaaeny oaniue e?oa iiai?ieeia ?aoi?i.

Oea?ue caiuneee inouanoaeoue eaieoaeueioth ?anoaa?aoeeth Ea?onaeeineiai
o?aia; ai a?aiy yoie ?anoaa?aoeee oai auea iaeaeaia eieaa Oi?u.

*a?ac ianeieueei aeiae iinea iaoiaeee aeaoaoae iauyaeee a Ea?onaeeia,
/oi oea?ue nicuaaao ia?iae a O?ai. Iiaeiyaoenue ia aicauoaiea, Einey
a?iiiaeanii iauyaee, /oi a O?aia iaeaeaia nayuaiiay eieaa Oi?u, a
eioi?ie Aia aicaauaao naie Caaao Ec?aeeth. Oea?ue aaeae iiaeaoue aio
naeoie e noae /eoaoue.

Yoi aue ciaiaiaoaeueiue /an a enoi?ee Ec?aeey. ?iaeaeaiiue ia eae
iaoeey, a eae iaueia aa?iuo, ia?iae Aiaeee aica?auaeny oaia?ue e naiaio
enoieo. Caeanue, ia?aae a?aoaie O?aia, iinea aeieaeo eao caaaaiey e
ionooiie/anoaa aiiaue iaicia/eeanue aai iniaay noaeueaa; caeanue ec
iaoeeiiaeueiiai ieaiaiiiai aaeeinoaa aicieeaei aaeeinoai eiia,
aeooiaiia, eioi?iai /ayee i?i?iee e eioi?ia oanoue aaeia nionoy aoaeao
ooaa?aeaeaii ia yoie naiie caiea e a yoii nayoii a?aaea.

Aei ian ia aeioee naaaeaiey i niauoeyo, eioi?uie auee iaiieiaiu
o?eiaaeoeaoue eao, i?ioaaeoea iaaeaeo iaoiaeeie Oi?u e nia?oueth Einee.
Ana yoi a?aiy oneeey ?aoi?iaoi?ia, aa?iyoii, ia ineaaaaaee. Aeoo
nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe, eioi?ui Oi?a auea i?iieeiooa, noaiiaeony
ioiuia eaeaaeii Eoaeaeneiai oea?noaa. Aia?aua a enoi?ee ainoaea?noai
i?eiyei noieue /aeiaa/iua caeiiu, caueuaaoea eioa?anu aaaeiaeoeo neiaa
ianaeaiey. Iaiiiiei, /oi a oii naiii aiaeo, eiaaea auea iaia?iaeiaaia
Oi?a, a Aoeiao aaaee caeiiu Ae?aeiioa1, ioee/aaoeany iaauaaeie
aeanoieinoueth, i eioi?uo naie a?aee aiai?eee, /oi iie iaienaiu ia
/a?ieeaie, a e?iaueth.

Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi yoe iiaoanoaa i?eaaee Ec?aeeue e auno?iio
?anoeaaoo. E ana aea Ea?aiey ia noae yiooceanoii eoaeaeneie ?aoi?iu.
Aa?iyoii, ii aiiaua iaauniei oeaiee aiaoiea ia?aiaiu a eoeueoa e
aaaaeaiea iiauo caeiiia. O?oaeiinoue aai iieiaeaiey caeeth/aeanue a oii,
/oi ii ia iia auoue i?ioeaieeii iiaiaaaaeaiee, ii, eae /aeiaae oiieee e
i?iieoeaoaeueiue, aeaeae eo neaaua noi?iiu e ia i/aiue aa?ee a eo
?acoeueoaou.

Aeey i?i?ieia naiui aeaaiui auei «aiaiiiciaiea» a oeaeii. Eo ?aeeaeiciue
eaeaae iiaeii, iiaeaeoe, n?aaieoue n aeaaecii aeaaeaiiiai Aaaonoeia:
«Ethae Aiaa e iinooiae eae ciaaoue». Eiuie neiaaie, ia?ac aeecie
aeieaeai eae au nai niaie auoaeaoue ec aa?u.

Ii aeaeaei ia aeey anyeiai /aeiaaea i?eaiaeai oaeie iooue, e ii?ie ii
iiaeao oaeoue a naaa aeaaea iianiinoue naiaai ?iaea ii?aeueiiai
?aeyoeaecia2. Iiyoiio nayuaiieeai iaiaoiaeeii auei nicaeaoue naith Oi?o;
iia auea caienaia, aa?iyoii, a yiioo Einee. Yoi oae iacuaaaiue «Caeii
Nayoinoe», ioaaouaathuee 17—26 aeaau eieae Eaaeo.

Oae aea, eae Eieaa Caaaoa e Aoi?icaeiiea, Caeii Nayoinoe i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ia/oi a?iaea ?anoe?aiiiai oieeiaaiey Iienaaaa Aeaeaeiaa. Aeaaiay
iuneue eiaeaena nicao/ia i?i?ieo Enaea:

ssaaa — nayo, Ii aaneiia/ii aicauoaaony iaae ie?ii. Ii iiyoiio e ana,
iinayuaiiia Aio: aea?oaa, ai?iae, ia?iae, — aeieaeii ioaeaeeoueny io
ie?a, noaoue nae?aeueiui, /enoui, aeinoieiui Aiaa. AEeay n?aaee ie?a,
ia?iae Aiaeee aeieaeai iuouaoue naay «nayoui», o.a. i?eiaaeeaaeauei Aiao
e ioai?iaeaiiui io ycu/aneiai ie?a.

Aeooiaiay iaueia ia niiaeao oe?aieyoueny e aic?anoaoue, anee ia noiaao a
/ai-oi iainiaeoueny io ie?a, a /ai-oi iaeoe naie iooue, naie ia?ac
aeecie. Aeey yoie oeaee nayuaiieee noa?aeenue ie?oaeeoue anth aeeciue
ec?aeeueoyi nenoaiie ii?i, eioi?ay aeaeaea au aa a ei?ia ioee/iie io
aeecie ycu/ieea.

Iaeaieaa no?iai Caeii noaeeo i o?ao aeaeao i?anooieaiee:
eaeieiiieeiinoaa, noaaa?eyo e a?aoao ieioe. Yoi aiieia iiiyoii e a ieaia
enoi?e/aneii, e ii nouanoao.

A oa aiaeu ie?iaua niauoey oiaea iiaee i?aaenoaaeyoueny eae ciae
aeecinoe ianneaineie y?u. Ieaeeeneee oea?ue a nithca n Aaaeeiiii ia/ae
eaiiaieth i?ioea Anne?ee. Ieeiaaea aua ia ia?ooeaaeny ia anne?eeoeaa
noieue nie?ooeoaeueiue oaea?. Iaiaaenoue e eiia?ee auea noieue aaeeea,
/oi iia a?yae ee iiaea ?ann/eouaaoue ia na?ueacioth iiaeaea?aeeo.

?en. 109

Iea/ Ea?aiee. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

Aeaaea ycu/ieee oniao?eaaee a noaeueaa Anne?ee ea?o ca aa i?anooieaiey.
Eaoa?nen enoi?e/aneiai aicaeayiey yaeeny eae au aeaaie aanoueth aeey
oao, eoi a io/eoaeueiii iaaeioiaiee niio?ae ia ?acaoe a?oaie neeu.

E?ao Anne?ee ioe?uaae ia?aae aaeiaoneei oa?aiiii aiciiaeiinoue
ainnoaiiaeoue eiio?ieue Aaeioa iaae ne?eeneeie iaeanoyie.

Inaiueth 609 a. aei ?.O. aaeiaoneay a?iey aunooieea ia naaa?. Eiaaea
oea?ue Einey iieo/ee niiauaiea i oii, /oi aaeioyia eaeoo ii aai caiea,
ii iaiaaeeaiii aaeae nia?aoue aienei, /oiau i?aa?aaeeoue iooue oa?aiio.

Yoi auea ioeaea: eoaeaeneee oea?ue ia ?ann/eoae naieo nee,
i?ioeaiiinoaaea eo ia?iiiie, oi?ioi iao/aiiie a?iee. E oiio aea enoiae
aeoau aue i?aae?aoai n naiiai ia/aea: i?e ia?auo aea auno?aeao
aaeiaoneeo eo/ieeia Einey, noiyaoee aia?aaee ia eieanieoea, aue oyaeaei
?aiai. Eeoaiiia naiaai aiaeaey eoaeaeneia aienei a aanii?yaeea
ionooieei. Enoaeathuee e?iaueth Einey aue aeinoaaeai a noieeoeo e anei?a
oia?. Any no?aia ioeaiaiaea a ai?a.

I?i?ie Ea?aiey iaienae o?ao?ioth yeaaeth ia nia?oue oea?y-?aoi?iaoi?a.
Ii ethaee Eineth, ii e oaeii enoiaeo aeaea aue aioia, eai ia aa?ee a
nei?ia i?iuaiea Ec?aeey, n/eoay, /oi oieueei ai?ueeay /aoa
?aci/a?iaaiee, ?ac?ua n iao?eioe/aneeie eeethceyie i?eianoo Ec?aeeth
enoeaeaiea io aeooiaiuo iaaeoaia.

_________________________________________________________

‘ ?onneia neiaini/aoaiea «ae?aeiiianeee caeii» (eee «ae?aeiiianeea
ia?u») nio?aiyao eiy yoiai caeiiiaeaoaey.

2 Ii?aeueiue ?aeyoeaeci — io?eoeaiea aaniethoiuo, iacuaeaiuo ii?aeueiuo
ii?i.

Ea?aiey i?ioea Ea?onaeeia

Eoaeay, 609-597 aa. aei ?.O.

A yoe aiaeu iao?eioeci, iaaci?oaeaiiue e?ooaieai iieeoe/aneeo iaaeaaeae,
noae au?iaeaeaoueny a aieaciaiiue iaoeeiiaeeci. Eae yoi ia?aaeei auaaao,
aaaenoaey iiaeia?aaaee iaoeeiiaeueiia /oanoai ia?iaea.

Eniiaeaieue noaee aic?iaeaeaoueny noa?ua ycu/aneea ia?yaeu. Eia-aaea
e?anoueyia aiiaue noa?aeenue oieeinoeaeoue aaaeia, iianaynue canooe, a
aeaiueiu iouneeaaee caa?ioaiiua aioeaou Anoa?ou.

?en. 110

I?i?ie Ea?aiey. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Ai?i/ai, yoi auee oaea, nei?aa, oaie i?ioeiai, eioi?ua ia iiaee
eciaieoue iauae ea?oeiu iaaiaeiinoe e niieienoaey. A no?aia oea?ee ie?.
Aaeiaoneia eai ia auei neeoeii oyaeaeui, iii ia?aie/eaaeinue aceiaieai
iiaeaoe.

E oiaaea-oi Ea?aiey aiiaue aue i?ecaai aunooieoue i?ioea Ea?onaeeia. Eae
e i?aaeaea, ia aac eieaaaiee ?aoeeny ii aiciaiiaeoue ai?ueao ni naiei
ia?iaeii. Aioo?aiiee aiein ia aeaaae aio iieiy, iiea ii ia niaeaneeny
eaeoe e aiai?eoue. Ea?aiey auioaeaeai aue neacaoue ethaeyi naiia
no?aoiia e iaiiiyoiia aeey ieo. Io aai neia ii/aa aeieaeia auea oeoe
ec-iiae iia ethaiai iaaiaeiiai eoaeay: i?i?ie iauyaee aieio aeaoi
iineaaeiei eoie?ai — eaeaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?aainoiaenoaa e neaiie aa?a
a ia?iaeioth nayouith. Iaeiei ec ia?auo n?aaee o/eoaeae /aeiaa/anoaa
Ea?aiey aicaanoee /enoi aeooiaioth ?aeeaeth, eioi?ay, i?eciaaay neiaieu,
o?aiu, ia?yaeu, ii nouanoao noieo auoa eo. I?i?ieo iaaei auei iieacaoue,
/oi noaiu O?aia e eaiie aeoa?y ia eiatho oeaiiinoe naie ii naaa. Ii
aioiaeeny ?acaayoue ieo i ia?ooeiinoe Aeiia ssaaa, /oiau iaiiiieoue i
aiaiiiciaiee, caneiiaiiii aiaoieie i?iyaeaieyie eoeueoa.

Iniaaiii inei?aeee neiaa Ea?aiee neoaeeoaeae o?aia. «Nia?oue aio!» —
e?e/aee iie; oieia ?inea, oa?iaeay i?i?ieo ?ani?aaie.

N yoiai a?aiaie nicaeaeinue no?aiiia ia ia?aue acaeyae iieiaeaiea:
caueoieeaie Ea?aiee noaee naaoneea ethaee, a i?i?iee e aeooiaainoai
i?aa?aoeeenue a aai nia?oiuo a?aaia.

I?a/iua iunee iinauaee Ea?aieth a yoe aeie, ii a eioi?ue ?ac
oaaaeaeaeny, /oi ana aai oneeey ?acaeaathony i aeoooth i?aa?aaeo.

Aunooiay i?ioea nayuaiieeia e aeanoue eioueo, Ea?aiey ia caiae/eaae e
a?aoia i?inoiai ia?iaea. A iai ii aeaeae enoi/iee iinoiyiiiai
aica?auaiey e ycu/anoao. Iiiaea ec «ethaeae caiee», eioi?ua aua iaaeaaii
naieie ?oeaie ?acaeaaee oaoeoe e aua?anuaaee aeiiaoieo aiaeeia, oaia?ue
io/eeenue noaaa?iui no?aoii e /oanoaii aeiu. Eiiaoa eee ethaia eiia
iaiau/iia yaeaiea ioaaee ethaeae.

A eiioea eiioeia Ea?aiey iano?iee i?ioea naay ana nineiaey, ii
aeaenoaiaaoue eia/a ii ia iia. «Nino?aaeaoaeueiaeoee ec anao i?i?ieia»,
eae iacuaae aai na. A?eai?ee Aiaineia, ii oioae au aeeoue a ie?a ni
anaie, iaeiaei Aia o?aaiaae io iaai eiiai. «Ai?a iia, iaoue iiy, —
aineeeoeae ii, — /oi ou ?iaeeea iaiy /aeiaaeii, nii?yuei ni anath
caieath. Ana i?ieeeiatho iaiy» (Ea? 15:10; n?. 20:14).

E aio, iaeiiaoe, Ea?aiey aunooiee n i?yiuie iaee/aieyie oea?y Eiaeeia.

«Ia aoaeoo iieaeeaaoue aai, aiai?y:

“I a?ao iie! I a?ao iie!”

Ia aoaeoo iieaeeaaoue aai:

“I ainoaea?ue! I aeaaeuea!”

Ineeiui iia?aaaieai aoaeao iia?aaai ii,

auoauao aai e a?inyo aeaeaei

ca ai?ioa Ea?onaeeineea».

(Ea? 22:18-19)

Eaaei aeiaaaeaoueny, a eaeoth y?inoue i?eaaei yoi i?i?i/anoai oea?y.
Auoue iiaeao, i?i?ieo oaeaeinue aia?aiy ne?uoueny, a aeaeueiaeoea
niauoey ioaeaeee aieiaiea Eiaeeia. Neiaii, Eiaeei ia ?aoeeny eacieoue
Ea?aieth, ii cai?aoee i?i?ieo aunooiaoue a O?aia n ?a/aie e aiiaua
iieeaeaoue naie aeii.

A yoi a?aiy ia oea?y ia?ooeeenue iiaua o?aaiae e caaiou. Eoaeay auea
neeoeii neaaa, /oiau i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iieioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, e
ioaeii auei ?aoaoue, e eaeie ec ai?thueony aaeeeeo aea?aeaa — Aaeioo eee
Aaaeeiio — i?eieiooue. Aaeiao iaoiaeeeny ia a?aie iieiiai ?aca?iia.

Aeey Eoaeae naiui anoanoaaiiui oaaii auei au anoaoue iiae yaeaeo
Aaaeeiia, e Ea?aiey iauyaee, /oi yoi aa aaeeinoaaiiue iooue e ie?o.

A yiaa?a 597 a. aei ?.O. ?aaoey?iua aienea oaeaeaaa noiyee oaea iiae
Ea?onaeeiii, e a eo noai i?eaue nai oea?ue Aaaeeiia Iaaooiaeiiini?.
Ea?aiey ianoie/eai i?ecuaae eoaeaeneiai oea?y nei?aa i?ineoue ie?a.

?en. 111

I?i?ie Eacaeeeeue. Eeiia. Eiiaoe XV a.

16 ia?oa ai?ioa Ea?onaeeia ioe?ueenue, e ec ieo auoea i?ioeanney,
ninoiyaoay ec oea?y, oea?eoeu e aunoeo naiiaieeia Eoaeae. Iaeaoua a
o?ao?iua iaeayiey, iie anooieee a oaeaeaeneee eaaa?ue. Iaaooiaeiiini?
i?eiye eo no?iai, eae eciaiieeia, ii ieeiai ia eaciee. Ii iiuaaeee
Eoaeaeneia oea?noai, iaeiaei ai ecaaaeaiea iyoaaea aaeae ia?anaeeoue a
Aaaeeiieth aieueoeinoai aiaia/aeueieeia, aa?iecii ai?iaea, no?ieoaeae,
i?oaeaeiuo ianoa?ia, a oaeaea ii/oe anth ciaoue e aiaaouo ethaeae. Oaeei
ia?acii Iaaooiaeiiini? iaaeayeny enei?aieoue i?iaaeiaoneoth ia?oeth.

Ea?aiey ciae, /oi n?aaee auneaiiuo auei iaiaei ethaeae, eioi?ua aa?eee
aio e ni/oanoaiaaee aai aeaeo, oaeeo, eae, iai?eia?, iieiaeie nayuaiiee
Eacaeeeeue. I?i?ieo oioaeinue eae-oi iiaeaea?aeaoue eo, oe?aieoue e
iai?aaeoue ia aa?iue iooue.

?en. 112

I?i?ie Eacaeeeeue. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Ea?aiey oaaaeaeae naieo niioa/anoaaiieeia ia io/aeaaoueny, aea?aeaoueny
noieei e ia no?ieoue eeethcee: ieai aoaeao aeieaei, eae /aeiaa/aneay
aeeciue, ii eii/eony eeoue /a?ac naiueaeanyo eao. Ana yoi a?aiy eoaeae
aeieaeiu aeeoue aa?ie a a?yaeouaa inaiaiaeaeaiea, i/euaoue naith aeooo
iieayieai e eneoiaoue aiaiionooiie/anoai. E eeoue iinea yoiai ssaaa
niiaa aa?iao ethaeae naieo.

Ea?aiey ieacaeny i?aa. Eiaiii ethaee, ninoaaeythuea ia?aoth ia?oeth
ia?anaeaioeaa, i?ioaaeoea /a?ac eniuoaiey e nio?aieaoea aa?o, caeiaeeee
ooiaeaiaio aic?iaeaeaiey Ec?aeey.

Iaaaniay eieanieoea. Eacaeeeeue

Aaaeeii, 597-590 aa. aei ?.O.

Ia?aae eoaeaeneeie iinaeaioeaie a Aaaeeiia noiyea o?oaeiay caaea/a:
inoaaaoueny aa?iuie naiae ?aeeaee, ia eiay ?aeeaeiciiai oeaio?a. Iie
ino?i ioaeaeaeenue a aiaeaea e aeooiaiii ?oeiaiaeeoaea. Oaeei
ianoaaieeii noae aeey ieo Eacaeeeeue.

Eeoaiiue O?aia nayuaiiee, /uey aeayoaeueiinoue a nnueea iiiaaiea
ia?aie/eaaeanue oaniuie ?aieaie iauei ia?anaeaioeaa, Eacaeeeeue, a
ioee/ea io Ea?aiee e Enaee, aue nei?aa niaanaaeieeii e ienaoaeai,
iaaeaee ia?iaeiui o?eaoiii.

*oi i?aaeaea anaai caaioeei Ea?aieth e ae?oaeo i?i?ieia, aeeaoeo a
Eoaeaa? Iie no?aieeenue i?aiaeieaoue inoaoee oaiaaineeo noaaa?ee e
nio?aieoue aiaoiee ie? ?aaee oaeoaeaiey oea?eiaiuo ?aoi?i. Aaaeeii a
aeacao Ea?aiee aue «ae/ii Aiaeeei», cayaeythuei i naaa eeoue a?oaie
neeie. Eacaeeeeue aea aeee aie i aie n yoei ia?iiiui oeaio?ii
oeeaeeecaoeee, eioi?ay oaea naia ii naaa o?aaiaaea iniuneaiey.

A iyoue aeaiue eaoiaai ianyoea oaiioca a 592 a. aei ?.O. iaeoaoaee
iinaeea Oaeue-Aaea oaeaeaee nayuaiieea Eacaeeeey, iio?ynaiiiai,
eciaieaoaainy a eeoea. Aeieaia a?aiy ii inoaaaeny iaiui. E noa?aeoeiai,
nia?aaoeiny e iaio oneuoaoue aieth Aiaeeth, ii ia?aoeeny n iiiiuueth
ciaeia. Ii aio iaeiaaeaeu aai onoa niiaa ioe?ueenue, e ii iiaaaeae
noa?aeoeiai i iaiaueiiaaiiuo aeaeaieyo, iinauaaoeo aai ana yoi a?aiy.

A Aaooii Caaaoa aei Eacaeeeey oieueei Iienae e Enaey auee i?e/anoiu e
nica?oeaieth Neaau Ainiiaeiae a aa iaia?aiineiii aeey nia?oiiai aaee/ee.
Ii anee oiaaea iia yaeyea naay ia Ai?a Aiaeeae e a Aeiia Aiaeeai, oi
oaia?ue iia i?aaenoaea i?i?ieo aeaeaieai eieanieoeu ia ?aaieiao
ycu/aneie Oaeaeae. Yoi aeieaeii auei icia/aoue, /oi aeey iaa iao
a?aieoe; ianouea aa oa?oaeiu ia?auaiu ei anai no?aiai naaoa, iia
aaniethoii naiaiaeia e ia i?eaycaia ie e eaeie caiea. I?aauaaiea aa ia
Neiia auei eeoue iniaie ieeinoueth Aiaeeae.

I ae?oaii aeaeaiee Eacaeeeeue ?anneacae anei?a iinea oiai, eae iii
iinaoeei aai (Eac 8—11). Ia?aae Eacaeeeeai au?inea iaiaiiay oeao?a,
eioi?ay iiaeiyea aai a aicaeoo. E aio ii oaea ia?aianai a Ea?onaeei, e
naaa?iui ai?ioai O?aia. Ii yoi aue ia aeaeeiue ai?iae, noieeoea Eoaeae,
a, nei?aa, Ea?onaeei nie?iaaiiue. «E aio oai — Neaaa Aiaa Ec?aeeaaa,
iiaeiaiay oie, eioi?oth y aeaeae ia ?aaieia». A iianthaeo, eae a
Aaaeeiia, aicauoaeenue eaeieu; a eaeii-oi no?aiiii nae?aoiii caea
aiaeaee ia?iaea eaaeeee o?aneai, ecia?aaeaaoei caa?iiiaeiaiuo aiaia
Ainoiea.

E oiaaea Neaaa Ainiiaeiy nioea n eieanieoeu e noaea o ii?iaa O?aia, a ii
ai?iaeo iioee aoaeoaee, ii?aaeay ionooiieeia. Iaeei ec ieo a?ae
?aneaeaiiua oaee ec Ia?eaau, iaaaniiai Eia/aaa, e i?eai?oiyie a?inae eo
ia ai?iae. Eiaaea ana auei eii/aii, oa?oaeiu i?inoa?ee naie e?ueuey,
ioaiu — eieana, iieiua aeeauo aeac, i?eoee a aeaeaeaiea.

Neaaa, oiineiay aeeaie eieanieoeae, iieeaeaea ineaa?iaiiia a?aoii ianoi.

?en. 113

I?i?ie Eacaeeeeue.

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. O?aaiaio ?iniene. 1511 a.

?en. 114

No?aoiua aeaeaiey i?i?iea Eacaeeeey. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Yoi auei no?aoiia c?aeeua: en/acaei oi, /oi ni a?aiai Iienay auei
oiiaaieai Ec?aeey, ?ac?uaaeny Caaao, cae?uaaeenue a?aoa, aeii inoaaaeny
iono. «Ainiiaee Aiaea, — aiciieeeny i?i?ie, — iaoaeaee Ou oi/aoue
eno?aaeoue Inoaoie Ec?aeeaa?» Aaaeue ia ana eciaieee, aaaeue iieayeenue
iiiaea!

Eoae, ioiuia iooue Ec?aeey, oeacaiiue /a?ac i?i?iea, — yoi iooue
no?ainoaothuae Oea?eae, eioi?ay neaaeoao ca iac?eiie eieanieoeae
Aiaeeae. Iia aeieaeia iniciaoue naia i?ioeia, aeieaeia iiiieoue, /oi io
iaa naiie caaeneo — auoue ee n Aiaii eee oaeaeeoueny io Iaai.

E Eacaeeeeue, e Ea?aiey — iaa, oaeei ia?acii, i?iieeeenue iuneueth, /oi
a?aiaiiui i/aaii Ec?aeey noaiiaeony Oaeaeay. Iie auee oaa?aiu, /oi aeie
Ea?onaeeia ni/oaiu. Niauoey a nei?ii a?aiaie ii?aaaeaee eo
i?aaeaeaeaiey.

E?ooaiea

Ea?onaeei, 588—587 aa. aei ?.O.

A yoio ia?eiae a?aiaiiie ia?aaeuoee, eiaaea iaeeaeeenue iaaeaaeaeu ia
aeaaiiieo/iia ieii/aiea aiiaue aniuoioaoaai i?ioeaiai?noaa Aaaeeiio, ia
?iaeeia Ea?aiee, a ai?iaeea Aiaoioa, ia/aeanue ?ani?iaeaaea caiaeueiuo
o/anoeia; aeaaeaeueoeu, aa?iyoii, oioaee iieeiooue iianiua ianoa.
?iaeiua i?aaeeiaeeee Ea?aiee aueoieoue /anoue caiee, eioi?oth ii iia
i?eia?anoe ii i?aao ?iaenoaa. Iieuecoynue oai, /oi a ie?anoiinoyo
Ea?onaeeia noaei niieieiaa, i?anoa?aeue i?i?ie ?aoee ioi?aaeoueny a
iooue. Iaeiaei a ai?ioao ii aue caaea?aeai no?aaeae. Ia/aeueiee ea?aoea,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoee e aiaiiie ia?oee, iaaeiee Ea?aieth a aeaeaiee ia?aeoe a
noai i?ioeaieea (a ai?iae i?ini/eeenue neooe, /oi niiaa i?eaeeaeathony
oaeaeae). Ii aue aeanoiei ecaeo e a?ioai a iiaeaae aeiia Eiiaoaia,
oea?neiai ienoea.

Iaecaanoii, neieueei aeiae i?iaue i?i?ie a caeeth/aiee, ii ca yoi a?aiy
iieiaeaiea a ai?iaea e?ooi eciaieeinue. Iinea ia?aiai aea noieeiiaaiey
oaeaeae auioaeeee ionooieoue aienei oa?aiia e niiaa aeiee?iaaee
Ea?onaeei. Ia yoio ?ac aeeoaeyi ai?iaea aeaeaoue iiiiue auei
iaioeoaea…

Iaae iiaecaiaeueai, aaea a nia?oiuo ioeao oiieeny i?i?ie, oaea
ia/eiaeanue aaiiey Ea?onaeeia. I?ioiaeeee ianyoeu, o inaaeaeaiiuo noaea
iuouaoueny iaoaaoea i?iaeiaieuenoaey; oaeaeae aioiaeeenue e
?aoeoaeueiiio ooo?io.

Eae-oi ii/ueth, aiciiaeii, ii niaaoo iaeiiai ec ae?ocae Ea?aiee, i?i?iea
i?eaaee ai aeai?aoe. «Iao ee neiaa io ssaaa?» — ni?inee aai oea?ue. Ii
ieii/aoaeueii oaaaeeeny, /oi i?aaeneacaiey Ea?aiee eniieiythony. Ociee
aue ecio?ai caoi/aieai, iaanneeai aeooaaiie ai?ueaie, ii, eiaaea io iaai
iio?aaiaaeinue naeaeaoaeuenoai, ii i?ecaae anth naith oaa?aeinoue e
neacae eeoue oi, /oi ciae eae enoeio: «Ou aoaeaoue i?aaeai a ?oee oea?y
aaaeeiineiai». Oea?ue i?eeacae inoaaeoue Ea?aieth a ea?aoeueiii
iiiauaiee i?e aeai?a. Ociee noae iieueciaaoueny ioiineoaeueiie naiaiaeie
e iinoaiaiii i?eoiaeee a naay.

E oiaaea-oi a aeooa i?i?iea i?iaoaeeeenue iiaua neeu e niaa?oeeny
ia?aeii. *aoaa?oue aaea aiai?ee ii oieueei i aacaeia, a eioi?oth iaaeaao
Eoaeay, oaia?ue aea, eiaaea noaei oaea aeaeii aeii yoie aacaeiu, i?i?ie
aia?aua caaiai?ee i nianaiee. Ii aeaaea iiaeoaa?aeee naie iaaeaaeaeu
ii?aaeaeaiiuie aeaenoaeyie. I?e iinauaiee ?iaenoaaiieeia, e ecoieaieth
anao, ii iiaeaeae caeeth/eoue oi?iaeueiue aeiaiai? i iieoiea caiee.

I?i?ie ai anaoneuoaiea iauyniee naie iinooiie: «Oae aiai?eo ssaaa
Naaaio, Aia Ec?ae-eaa: aeiia, e iiey, e aeiia?aaeieee niiaa aoaeoo
iieoiaoue a yoie caiea».

Aa?iyoii, e yoiio a?aiaie ioiineony e i?i?i/anoai Ea?aiee ia «Io?anee
Aeaaeaeiaie» — Iannee. «Aio ianooiyo aeie, — neacae ssaaa, — eiaaea ss
ainnoaiiaeth aeey Aeaaeaea i?aaaaeioth Io?aneue, e ii aioea?eony eae
oea?ue, e aoaeao iinooiaoue ioae?i, e aoaeao i?iecaiaeeoue noae e
i?aaaeo ia caiea. A aeie aai Eoaea nianaony, e Ec?aeeue aoaeao aeeoue
aaciianii» (Ea? 23:5—6).

Iiiai ianyoeaa noiyee oaeaeae iiae Ea?onaeeiii. Oea?ue ?aoeeny ia
iineaaeiaa n?aaenoai: iiae iie?iaii ii/e ni anae naiueae e inoaaoeiny
aa?ieciiii ii iacaiaoii auoae /a?ac ainoi/iua ai?ioa, iaoiaeeaoeany o
aeai?oeiaiai naaea. Iaeiaei aanooiii ieiiaaoue a?aaeaneea oeaie ei ia
oaeaeinue: aaanoai auei caia/aii, e ca ieie ono?aieeanue iiaiiy. Oaia?ue
Ea?onaeei noiye ioe?uoue aeey a?aaia. Aaaeeiineea aienea aeaeioeenue ii
oeeoeai ai?iaea…

15 aaaonoa 587 a. aei ?.O. oaeaeaeneea nieaeaou caeii/eee ?ac?ooaiea
ai?iaeneeo noai. Eaae?iaue aeai?aoe e ana e?oiiua caeaiey Ea?onaeeia
auee i?aaeaiu iaith. O?ai iiaeaa?any iieiiio ?aca?iio. Aeii ssaaa
nieaeaou iiaeiaeaee. A iaia iiaeaea e ae?aaiyy nayouiy Ec?aeey — Eia/aa.

E ia ?acaaeeiao aeeaao iaaeaaeaea

Eoaeay — Aaeiao. 587-580 aa. aei ?.O.

Aaaenoaea i?iaoaeeei ?aeeaeicioth niaanoue ethaeae: iie eayeenue a naieo
a?aoao, aeaaaee iaaou Aiao, nie?ooaeenue i oii, /oi neooaee aieina
eiaeiuo i?i?ieia, ia?ooaee onoaau Oi?u. A eieiiiu ieaiiuo ana ooiaeeee
iaeia ca ae?oaie.

Yoe ethaee, eeoeaoeany aeiia, auee iiaeaaeaiu e iceiaeaiu. O
aieueoeinoaa ec ieo ?iaeiua eeai iiaeaee, eeai auee oaiaiu. Iie
?aoeoaeueii ia iiaee iiiyoue, eae yoi iiaei neo/eoueny, /oi ssaaa
aeiionoee aeaaeue O?aia e Ea?onaeeia.

*a?ac ianeieueei aeiae eoaeae ?acaeee eaaa?ue ia aaeiaoneie oa??eoi?ee
aeec ai?iaea Oaoiy. Eae ?ac a yoii naiii ianoa oanoue aaeia iacaae
ono?iee ia?aoth noiyieo Iienae iinea Enoiaea. E aio i?aa?aoiinoe
noaeueau niiaa caa?ineee ceiiieo/iuo neeoaeueoeaa a caieth Ieoe?aei.

Ec?aeeue e aai ?aeeaey, eacaeinue, oee e naiaio anoanoaaiiiio eiioeo. Ia
oae ee, eee ii/oe oae, oaanaee ae?oaea ae?aaiea ia?iaeu e iiaeaaee
aiaeanoaa? Iaoanoaea caaiaaaoaeae, ?ooioaoea ai?iaea e o?aiu, ?aniaae
iaoeee… A a iaoae iiaanoe i i?i?ieao ia oaaoaao eae aoaeoi au eeoue
yieeiaa; oi?oo Ea?aiey e Eacaeeeeue, ?anoai?yony ecaiaiieee n?aaee
/oaeeo ieaiai, a neiaa e aeaea aeaeaeneeo i?iaeaeoeaa, iiaeiaii
iaiyoieeai Aaaeeiia, Aaeioa, Oeieeee, noaioo eeoue aeinoiyieai
iaaica?aoiiai i?ioeiai.

Ii neo/eeinue eiia, iaiaeeaeaiiia, ii-/aeiaa/anee o?oaeii iauynieiia.

Ecaiaiea e ieai ieacaeenue ia eiioeii aei?iae aeey Ec?aeey, a aa
iiai?ioii. Yoi aue ia oeiae enoi?ee ia?iaea Aiaeey, a ia/aei aa iiaie
aeaau. Ia neo/aeii Eacaeeeeue oc?ae Neaao Ainiiaeith, i?aauaathuoth aia
O?aia e A?aaea, ii oai, aaea a aeeaii na?aeoea naaoeo aeeaay aa?a.

A n?aaee eieiiiaae ycu/aneeo o?aiia, n?aaee eoaeaeneeo nieaeao e
aaeiaoneeo e?anoueyi, a aeaeueoa Ieea, ia ia?ae?anoea o?ao iaoa?eeia,
noa?ue i?i?ie Ea?aiey, i?ioaaeoee iaecia?eiua no?aaeaiey, eniieiyaony
?aaeinoueth A?yaeouaai. A?aiy en/acaao. Aaooee Caaao niueaaony n
Iiaui…

«Aio ianooiatho aeie, aiai?eo Ainiiaeue, eiaaea ss caeeth/o n Ec?aeeai e
Eoaeie IIAUE CAAAO. Ii aoaeao ia oaeei, eaeie ss caeeth/ae n eo
i?aiooeaie, eiaaea acye ss eo ca ?oeo, /oiau auaanoe eo ec caiee
Aaeiaoneie. Oioy iie ia?ooeee Iie Caaao, ss inoaaaeny a nithca n ieie,
aiai?eo Ainiiaeue. Ii aio Caaao, eioi?ue ss caeeth/o n Ec?aeeai iinea
oao aeiae, aiai?eo Ainiiaeue; ss aeiaeo Caeii Iie a ieo naieo e ia
na?aeoeao eo iaieoo aai; e noaio ss aeey ieo Aiaii, a iie aoaeoo Iiei
ia?iaeii. Ia ioaeii oaea aoaeao ei o/eoue ae?oa ae?oaa iiciaieth Aiaa:
ana iie io iaeiai aei aaeeeiai aoaeoo ciaoue Iaiy, aiai?eo Ainiiaeue,
eai i?iuo ss aaccaeiiey eo e ia aoaeo aniiieiaoue a?aoia eo» (Ea?
31:31-34).

IEAI E ?ANOAA?AOeEss

«Ia ?aeao aaaeeiineeo»

Oaeaeay, 580—575 aa. aei ?.O.

Ieiei 580 a. aei ?.O. Eoaeay i?aaenoaaeyea niaie i?a/iia c?aeeua: iia
iionoaea a aoeaaeueiii niunea yoiai neiaa. Inoaeenue a?ioaiiua iiey e
aeiia?aaeieee, n?aaee eioi?uo eeoue ec?aaeea iiaeii auei ano?aoeoue
oeaeeiu ieueo e ?aci?aiiuo e?anoueyi. Iaacethaeaaoea ai?iaea iioiaeeee
ia ia?iiiua naaeee aeoiai ee?ie/a.

N?aaee ecaiaiieeia a Aaaeeiia iaoeinue iaiaei oaeeo, eioi?ua a eiioea
eiioeia neeiieeenue ia?aae /oaeeie aeoa?yie. Iie ia?anoaee
i?eiaaeeaaeaoue e ia?iaeo ssaaa, ia aeaey a yoii ie iieuecu, ie niunea.
Aeayoaeueiinoue i?i?ieia iaiyao iai?aaeaiea. Anee i?aaeaea ei
i?eoiaeeeinue /aua anaai iaee/aoue, oi oaia?ue iie i?enooieee e aeaeo
a?a/aaaiey.

Eiaaea a Oaeaeath i?eoea aanoue ia inaaea Ea?onaeeia, Eacaeeeey iinoeaei
naiaeiia ai?a: aiacaiii caaieaea e neii/aeanue aai aeaia, eioi?oth ii
i/aiue ethaee e iacuaae «io?aaeith i/ae». Ia iioi?iiao i?i?ie ei
anaiauaio ecoieaieth, aii?aee iau/ath, naea?aeeaae neacu. Eiaaea aea aai
ni?ineee i i?e/eia yoiai, ii ioaaoee, /oi oi/ao aeaoue «ciae» Ec?aeeth,
i?ecuaay aai ioaeanoaaiii ano?aoeoue ian/anouea e nie?eoueny ia?aae
aunoei i?aaeia/a?oaieai. Eacaeeeeue i?eieiaao ia naay ianou?neoth ?ieue.

?en. 115

?ac?ooaiea Ea?onaeeia e ieaiaiea ec?aeeueoyi.

TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae.

A?aath?a

Niaianoiay iieeoaa e neooaiea i?iiiaaaee a aeaiue Ainiiaeaiue, noaaioo,
i?aa?aoeeenue a noa?aeaiue, aie?oa eioi?iai a?auaeanue aa?aieoea
iauaeaiiuo aeiae. Eiaaea iu iniciaai o?enoeaineee o?ai ia oieueei eae
nayouith, ii e eae ianoi a?aoneie ano?a/e, aaea cao/eo Neiai, oi ioaeii
iiiieoue, /oi ia/aei yoiai ainoiaeeo e Eacaeeeeth e iniiaaiiie ei
neiaaiaa, aaea a oa/aiea aaeia nin?aaeioi/eaaeanue aeooiaiay aeeciue
aeeanii?u (?annayiey).

Ieeaeay yiioa a enoi?ee Aaooiai Caaaoa ia ii?iaeeea noieue neeueiiai
iieayiiiai aeaeaeaiey, eae aiaeu ecaiaiey. Eo/oa anaai i iai iiaeii
noaeeoue ii ciaiaieoiio 50-io inaeio, caeeth/eoaeueiua no?iee eioi?iai
i?yii oeacuaatho ia ieai.

Aaoi? aai ynii niciaao, /oi nai /aeiaae ia niiniaai iieiinoueth
inaiaiaeeoueny io a?aoiaiinoe, e aeaeeo nianaiea a aeaaiaeaoiie neea
Aiaeeae. Eeoue iia iiaeao enei?aieoue a?iaeaeaiioth /aeiaa/aneoth
ia/enoioo e iiuoue na?aeoea. Caeanue neiai «na?aeoea» aia?aua iiyaeyaony
a Aaooii Caaaoa, oeacuaay ia a?yaeouaa /oaei aeooiaiiai i?inaaoeaiey:

«Iiieeoe iaiy. Aiaea, ii aaeeeie ieeinoe Oaiae,

e ii iiiaeanoao uaae?io Oaieo ecaeaaeue aaccaeiiey iie.

Aei eiioea niie n iaiy aaccaeiiey iie e io a?aoa iiaai i/enoe iaiy,

Eai aaccaeiiey iie y ciath e a?ao iie anaaaea i?aaei iiith.

I?aae Oiaie iaeiei nia?aoee y, e eoeaaia i?aae Oiaie nioai?ee y,

Oae /oi i?aa Ou a i?eaiai?a Naiai e ni?aaaaeeea a noaea Naiai…

Na?aeoea /enoia nicaeae ai iia. Aiaea, e aeoo i?aaue iaiiae ai iia.

Ia io?eiue iaiy io eeoea Oaiaai e Aeooa Oaiaai Nayoiai ia ioieie io
iaiy.

Aa?ie iia ?aaeinoue nianaiey Oaiaai e Aeooii Oaiei aeaaeu/iui ooaa?aee
iaiy.

Iao/o aaccaeiiiuo iooyi Oaiei, e ia/anoeaua e Oaaa ia?aoyony…».

(In 50:3-6,12-15)

Neoaeaiea Aiao inaeiiiaaaoe iiieiaao oae, eae i iai o/eee Iienae e
i?i?iee: aea?oaa anoue ciae nithca n Oai?oeii, ii iia eeoue aiaoiaa
i?iyaeaiea. Enoeiiay aea?oaa — yoa aa?a e /enoia na?aeoea:

«Ainiiaee! Ioaa?ce onoa iie, e onoa iie aicaanoyo oaaeo Oaaa,

Eai ia aeaeaaoue ou aea?oau — y au aeae aa — e ei ananiaeaeaieyi ia
aeaaiaieeoue,

AEa?oaa Aiao — nie?ooaiiue aeoo, na?aeoea nie?ooaiiiai e nie?aiiiai Aia
ia oie/eaeeo.

Iaiiae, Aiaea, ii ieeinoe Oaiae Neii, e aea aicaeaeaioony noaiu
Ea?onaeeineea;

Oiaaea oaiaeiu aoaeoo oaaa i?aaaaeiua aea?oau, aiciioaiey e
ananiaeaeaiey,

oiaaea aiceiaeao ia aeoa?ue Oaie oaeueoeia».

(In 50:17-21)

Aeaeaiea A?aaea Aiaeey Oaeaeay, 573 a. aei ?.O.

*aou?iaaeoeaoue eao i?ioei iinea niaeaeaiey O?aia e aeaaaeoeaoue iyoue —
iinea oaiaea ia?aie ia?oee ieaiiuo.

O?aaaaeey, ?acua?aaoayny a Eoaeaa, iinoaiaiii ooiaeeea a i?ioeia; aeey
aeaoae ia?anaeaioeaa aaeeinoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoueth auea ie?oaeaaoay eo
aeeciue. Ii anai /aeiaa/aneei ?an/aoai o?oaeii auei iaeeaeaoue
eaeeo-eeai ia?aiai, ii Eacaeeeeue iaonoaiii aiai?ee ia iaauaiiii
/oaeaniii inaiaiaeaeaiee Ec?aeey.

A aeie ia/aeueiiai aeaaaeoeaoeiyoeeaoey ieaia, a 573 a. aei ?.O., Aeoo
Aiaeee niiaa ia?aian i?i?iea a Ea?onaeei.

Iienaieth yoiai Iiaiai Ea?onaeeia e iinayuaiu iineaaeiea aeaau Eieae
Eacaeeeey. *eoathuee eo iaoaeeeaaaony ia ianno oeeo?, iiiai/eneaiiua
i?iia?u e oi/iua aeaoaee.

Yoi iaeiia?aiaiii e ieai, e i?iaeo, e oeaeay i?ia?aiia. A noaiaoe/aneii
/a?oaaea caoeo?iaai i?ecua i?i?iea, ia?auaiiue e ia?iaeo. Oae, iai?eia?,
ii i/a?/eaaao A?aae Aiaeee i?aaeeueiui eaaae?aoii. Yoi icia/aao
aa?iiie/aneia niaa?oainoai e a oi aea a?aiy e?anoiia?acioth
i?inoa?oinoue e /aou?ai no?aiai naaoa (neiaie anaeaineinoe).

Ii anee oae, ia i?aau ee oa, eoi n/eoaao Eacaeeeey
?aoi?iaoi?ii-ooiienoii, iiaeiaiui Ieaoiio?

Ooiienou iuoaeenue iaiaoeoue /a?ou niaa?oaiiiai iauanoaaiiiai no?iy a
?aieao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay eo ie?oaeaea. Eacaeeeeue aea iniiaiia
aieiaiea oaeaeyao ia noieueei nioeeaeueiiio no?ith, neieueei
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieiie ia?aiaiu i?eaioaoeee aeecie. Iu neuoei io iaai
i?ecua naeaeaoue aeooiaioth aeeciue oeaio?ii /aeiaa/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey.

A?aae Aiaeee niceaeaeaony oaea ia ia Neiia, a ia caiea, ?aniieiaeaiiie
iaaeaeo a?aieoeaie eieai, e iacuaaoueny ii aoaeao ia Ea?onaeeiii, ii
ssaaa-Oaiia, «Ainiiaeue caeanue». Yoi — caeeth/eoaeueiue aeei?ae eieae,
e a iai nin?aaeioi/aii naiia nouanoaaiiia a aeaeaiee i?i?iea.

A?aoa, a eioi?ua aioea Neaaa, iaaeooi cae?uaathony; oieueei oaeinoaaiiue
aiein ec aeoaeiu O?aia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aioo?e nayoeeeua
i?aauaaao aa/iue iaiiue Aiaeanoaa. Eacaeinue au, Aia caeanue, aeecei, ii
a oi aea a?aiy Ii aeaeae e no?aoai a Naiae iai?enooiiinoe. *aeiaae
ii-i?aaeiaio ia iiaeao, oaeaeaa Aai, inoaoueny aeeaui. Ia?aae iaie —
i?eciae iiaeeeiiiai iiieiaiey Eacaeeeeai i?e?iaeu Aiaeanoaaiiiai.

Anee aeaaea ia?aae c?aeeuai einie/aneie aacaeiu /aeiaae eniuouaaao
o?aiao, anee na?aeoea aai ii?ie naeeiaaony io nica?oeaiey aaneiia/iiai
ieaaia oai?aiey, oi /oi aea aeieaeai ii iuouaoue, i?eaeeceaoenue e oaeia
o?ainoeaiaeaioiiai?1 Naa?o/aeiaa/aneay iiuue, aaniethoiia naa?oauoea, —
ianiecia?eiay n oaa?ueth «nayoinoue». Ooo en/acatho ana aio?iiiii?oiua
eeee Aa/iiai e ?iaeaeaaony /oanoai nayuaiiiai oaeana, aeaaiaiaaiey,
niaoaiiiai ni no?aoii. Oai, eiio aeaeaeneee ia?ac Aiaa eaaeaony /a?an/o?
«i/aeiaa/aiiui», ioaeii ia?a/eoaoue oa no?aieoeu Aeaeee, aaea aiai?eony
i «nayoinoe» ssaaa.

Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycuaaao Neaao e ie?oaeathuee ie?,
— yoi «?aea aeecie», eioi?ay auoaeaao ec-iiae ii?iaa O?aia. Iia no?oeony
ii Nayoie Caiea, oe?ynue e oaeoaeyynue, aieioue aei naiiai Ia?oaiai
ii?y, aiaeu eioi?iai iia i/euaao io ai?a/e. Ia?ac aeeaie aiaeu (eioi?ue
iu niiaa ano?a/aai e a Aiieaeeinena) icia/aao iaennyeaaiue iioie
aeaaiaeaoiie neeu; iia ia oieueei iaiieiyao /aeiaaea, ii e iiuaaao ie?,
ecaiiyy ec iaai ai?a/ue a?aoa.

Ecia?aaeaiiay Eacaeeeeai Oea?eiaue iiaeao auoue iacaaia Anaeaineie, oioy
yae?ii aa e inoaaony Ec?aeeue. I?i?ie aiai?eo i oii, /oi aoiaeyuea a iaa
«aa?ei», eiiieaiaiieee, eiatho ?aaioth aeieth n eoaeayie (Eac 47:22—23).
E ia neo/aeii iiyoiio A?aae Aiaeee ioe?uo /aou?ai no?aiai naaoa.

Iinea 571 a. aei ?.O. iu aieueoa oaea ie/aai ia neuoei i Eacaeeeea.
Aa?iyoii, ii anei?a oia?. Ii ienney aai auea e oiio a?aiaie auiieiaia.
Eo/oea neeu a ecaiaiee oeaeeeii i?eiyee aai i?ia?aiio: iiuaoenue io
enoi?e/aneeo a?aoia, aiiaue nia?aoueny ia aic?iaeaeaiiie caiea,
aicaeaeaiooue o?ai e aioiaeoueny e aaeeeiio Aeith.

________________________________________________________________________
________

1 O?ainoeaiaeaioiue — cai?aaeaeueiue, auoiaeyuee ca ?aiee oece/aneiai
ie?a, i?aainoiaeyuee aai.

«Aaooicaaaoiue aaaiaaeeno»

Oaeaeay, 562—550 aa. aei ?.O.

Ooo iu i?eaeeaeaainy e naiiio oaeinoaaiiiio ianoo Aaooiai Caaaoa e a oi
aea a?aiy naiiio aicauoaiiiio, aaea aieaa anaai ii naycai n Aaaiaaeeai.

A oiueii caoeouea ieaia ?acaeaaony aiein iiaiai eca?aiieea Ainiiaeiy,
eioi?ue aicaauaao Ec?aeeth «iiaia e nie?iaaiiia» (En 48:6). Ie i?aaeaea,
ie iinea iaai a aeio?enoeaineii ie?a iu ia ano?aoei oaeie aeoaeiu
i?ic?aiey, neeu e naiaiaeu aeooa. Ii — aaee/aeoee o/eoaeue, aiaineia e
iiyo Ec?aeey.

Ii eoi aea ii, yoio /aeiaae? Eacaeinue au, a Aaooii Caaaoa i iai
aeieaeii auoue neacaii aieueoa eee oioy au ia iaiueoa, /ai i Enaea e
Ea?aiee.

Ii ooo, eae ie o?oaeii yoiio iiaa?eoue, iaia?oaeeaaaony ii?aceoaeueiue
oaeo: iai?iieoeaaiay caaana ne?uaaao eeoei i?i?iea, aeaaea eiy aai
inoaaony iai iaecaanoiui.

?en. 116

I?i?ie Enaey. TH. Ea?ieunoaeueae. A?aath?a

Aai i?iiiaaaee e aeiiu aeeth/aiu a Aeaeee a Eieao Enaee, e aeieaia a?aiy
eo i?eienuaaee ea?onaeeineiio i?i?ieo. Ii aeaaea e oiaaea, eiaaea
auynieeinue, /oi yoi — ioeaea, caaaaeea aacuiyiiiai i?iaeaeoea inoaeanue
ia?ac?aoaiiie. Oneiaii aai i?eiyoi oaia?ue iacuaaoue Enaeae Aoi?ui, eee
Aoi?ienaeae.

Auoue iiaeao, ii iinee oi aea eiy, /oi e i?i?ie VIII a. aei ?.O., a
aiineaaenoaee eo ioiaeaeanoaeee? Ii yoi i?aaeiieiaeaiea ia/ai
iiaeoaa?aeeoue.

Aiciiaeii, /oi i?i?ie iaia?aiii oe?ueny ca aaoi?eoaoiui eiaiai.

Nei?aa anaai, ia?aae iaie ia i?inoi inaaaeiiei, a naeaeaoaeuenoai
aeooiaiie i?aainoaaiiinoe, aeoaieie o/aie/aneie nayce.

Ec anao iaeiaiiaaiee Ec?aeey Aoi?ienaey i?aaeii/eoae neiai «yaaae»,
neoaeeoaeue, e yoi aiieia iiiyoii, eai aeey iaai ia?iae Aiaeee aue
i?aaeaea anaai iineaiieeii Aiaa a ie?a.

«Aeoo Aeaaeuee ssaaa ia iia,

eai Ii iiiacae iaiy.

Aeaaiaanoeoue e?ioeei iineae ii Iaiy,

enoeaeyoue nie?ooaiiuo na?aeoeai,

Iauyaeyoue ieaiieeai naiaiaeo

e inaiaiaeaeaiea — ocieeai,

Aicaauaoue aeaeaiiue aiae ssaaa

e Aeaiue aicaeayiey Aiaa iaoaai,

Ooaoaoue anao iia/aeaiiuo».

(En 61:1-2)

Aeey Enaee Aoi?iai «Ec?aeeue» — iiiyoea ia iaeiicia/iia. Anoue aeaa
neoaeeoaey Ainiiaeiy. Iaeei aeaenoaeoaeueii /anoi ioiaaeae io Aiaa, ii
nouanoaoao e ae?oaie Ec?aeeue: Ec?aeeue i?i?ieia e aiaiaeaeoeaa,
Ec?aeeue aa?iuo e noieeeo, Ec?aeeue «e?ioeeo» e «aaaeiyeia Ainiiaeieo».
Ii-oi e yaeony iiaeeeiiui Yaaae-ssaaa, eniieieoaeai ia caiea iaaaniie
aiee.

A eaeie-oi iiiaio ii ia/eiaao ?acee/aoue ai aeaaa eca?aiiiai ia?iaea
oaeinoaaiiia Eeoei, aiieiuathuaa a naaa aunoaa i?ecaaiea Ec?aeey. Oi —
aaeeeee I?i?ie, ia eioi?ii ii/eao aiaeanoaaiiia iiiacaiea.

Oaea Enaey Ea?onaeeineee niciaaae, /oi Ianney aeieaeai aeaenoaiaaoue
eia/a, iaaeaee caiiua oea?e, a iineaaeiaaoaeue aai aiai?eo ia yoii n
yniinoueth, ia inoaaeythuae ianoa niiiaieyi.

Ii Ianney, eae aai aeaeeo i?i?ie, noaiao ia i?inoi ianoaaieeii ia?iaeia.
Iaeieie iio/aieyie enoeaeeoue a?aoiaioth aieaciue iaaiciiaeii; aeey
yoiai ioaeai iniaue iiaeaea Neoae Ainiiaeiy. E?ioeee O/eoaeue aoaeao
Canooiieeii, Oiaeaoaai ca /aeiaa/anoai.

Ianney ?acaeaeeo o/anoue aiieiuo i?i?ieia, e Aai no?aaeaiey ca ethaeae
oaeinoaaiiui ia?acii i?eianoo ei nianaiea.

Eae yoi aoaeao? I?i?ie ia ciaao, ii ii aeaeeo ii/oe aii/eth *enoaeoaai
ec anao ia caiea. Eioi?ue ioaeaao Naay a ?oee ceuo nee eeoue caoai,
/oiau noaoue Eneoieoaeai a?aoieeia.

C?aeeua ii?oaaiiiai Neoae oaeanaao naiiai i?iaeaeoea. Ii noieo
iio?ynaiiue, aianoa n caiiuie oea?yie e ia?iaeaie ecoieyynue
aeia?iaieueiie aea?oaa:

«Ii aea acye ia Naay iaoe iaiiue e iiian iaoe aieacie;

Aeoiaee iu, /oi Ii ii?aaeai, iaeacai e oieaeai Aiaii,

a Ii ec?aiai aue ca a?aoe iaoe e io/ei ca aaccaeiiey iaoe».

(En 53:4-5)

Yoi ia ?anoa?yiiay, ie/aai ia iiieiathuay aea?oaa, a Io/aiee, naiaiaeii
e niciaoaeueii i?eiinyuee Naay ia caeeaiea:

«Ii i?eiye ia Naay ea?o aeey nianaiey iaoaai,

e ?aiaie Aai iu enoeaeeeenue.

Ana iu aeoaeaeaee, eae iaoeu, eaaeaeue naiath aei?iaie,

ii ssaaa aiceiaeee ia Iaai a?aoe iaoe.

Enoycoai aue Ii, ii a ioeao ia ioaa?c ono;

eae aaiaoe, aaaeiiue ia caeeaiea, e eae iaoea ia?aae no?eaoueie aa —

aacaeania, Oae e Ii ia ioaa?cae ono Naieo».

(En 53:5-7)

?en. 117

Aeoa?ue aiaa iaiy. E?ai

Caeanue ii?ia e a?aieoea Aaooiai Caaaoa.

Iiaue Caaao, aiai?y ia Eneoieaiee, ia?auaaony e ia?acai e ycueo
Aoi?ienaee. Aaaiaaeenou e aiinoie Iaaae i?eieiatho aai neiaieu Aaioea e
AEa?oau, eioi?ua ioiuia noaiiayony iaioaeaeeiu io iiiuoie au?aceoue
oaeio Nianaiey.

Iaeuecy iaieoe iie/aieai e oi, /oi aaiaoe a Aaooii Caaaoa aue aea?oaie,
i?eiineiie ethaeueie. Eiaiii n oaeei iaii?i/iui aaioeai n?aaieaaao
Aoi?ienaey Neoao I?aaeaa/iiai.

Ia i?aaenoaaeyai ee iu naaa a oaeii neo/aa Aiaa a aeaea aeaniioa,
o?aaothuaai e?iae aeey oiai, /oiau niuoue inei?aeaiea? Ae?aaiea e
n?aaeiaaaeiaua aiaineiau, aeaeaaoea a aea?oaaiiii ia?yaea eeoue
oieeinoeaeaiea, caaeaa?eaaiea, ii/oe /oi iiaeeoi a?iciiai Aiaeanoaa,
i?eoiaeeee ii?ie e /oaeiaeuiui e aano?aeiui oieeiaaieyi, a?iaea oiai,
/oi e?anoiay E?iaue auea aueoiii aeueyaieo ca /aeiaaea.

Ii anee oaeia niune Eneoieaiey, oi eae niaianoeoue aai n Ethaiaueth?

Aeaeey oeacuaaao ia aea?oao eae ia ae?aaiaeoaa i?iyaeaiea aeaai/anoey
(Auo 4:3).

N ioaeaeaiiaeoeo a?aiai e?iaue icia/aea aeey ethaeae i?eioeei aeecie.
?eooaeu n o/anoeai e?iae ciaiaiiaaee cae?aieaiea «e?iaiie», aeeciaiiie
nayce eo niaa?oeoaeae. Aeaaiui a aea?oaa aue ciae nii?e/anoey Aunoaio,
ni/aoaiey ethaeae n Iei e /a?ac Iaai — iaaeaeo niaie.

Aeooay ai a?aiy nayuaiiiaeaenoaey ieioue aeeaioiiai, ae?aaiea eneaee ana
oiai aea: ia?aoaiey aaeeinoaa n Aiaii, iuooeiiai ioiaeaeanoaeaiey n Iei.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaeay e?iaaaie aea?oau eiaea a iniiaa naiae ia noieueei
naeaeeo, neieueei aeaaeaeo iiaeeeiiiai aiaiiauaiey.

A naaoa yoiai noaiiaeony iiiyoiui, ii/aio aaee/aeoee i?i?ie Aaooiai
Caaaoa, a aneaae ca iei e Iiaue Caaao aei?iaeeee yoei neiaieii e
ia?auaeenue e iaio, eiaaea aiai?eee i nianaiee ie?a.

Neaaeoy Ea?aiee e Eacaeeeeth, i?i?ie Aoi?ienaey aeaeae a inaiaiaeaeaiee
Ec?aeey ciae i?eaeeaeaiey Oea?noaa Aiaeey. Enoiae ec Aaaeeiia eae au
neeaaeny a aai aeacao ni anaiauei nianaieai. Caeanue neacaeinue oi
nie?auaiea enoi?e/aneie ia?niaeoeau, eioi?ia auei noieue naienoaaiii
iiiaei i?iaeaeoeai. Ii e naia ioeaea i?i?iea eiaea cia/aiea aeey
nia?aiaiieeia. Aa?a a oi, /oi eneoieoaeueiia aeayiea Aiaa aeieaeii
niaa?oeoueny naaiaeiy aea, i?eaeaaaea neiaai Enaee Aoi?iai iniaoth neeo.

Anei?a iinea ia?auo aunooieaiee aei iaai aeioee aieiothuea aanoe n
ainoiea. Iaae ia?iaeaie e oea?noaaie iiaeieiaeanue oeao?a, a eioi?ie
Aoi?ienaey oaeaeae aa?oeoaey Aiaeeeo noaeaa.

Oi aue Eo?oo Aoiaieae, eee Ee? II Aaeeeee, ia?neaeneee oea?ue, ia?aae
eioi?ui iaeii ca ae?oaei neeiiyeenue ainoaea?noaa Acee. A ioee/ea io
i?aaeieo iiei?eoaeae ie?a, ii ia inoaaeye iinea naay niaeaeaiiuo
ai?iaeia, ia oaiiye ethaeae ia /oaeaeio, ia ?ac?ooae o?aiia. Iiiaea
i?eaaonoaiaaee Ee?a eae aeaeaiiiai inaiaiaeeoaey. Aai iiyaeaiea ianei
Ec?aeeth aeieaiaeaeaiioth naiaiaeo.

Auea e ae?oaay i?e/eia, ii eioi?ie niauoey a E?aia iiaee i?eaea/ue
aieiaiea i?i?iea. Iacaaeieai aei yoiai a ia?neaeneeo caieyo ca?iaeeeinue
iiaia ?aeeaeiciia o/aiea, nicao/iia aeaeaeneiio.

I?i?ie Aaanou e i?i?ie Aeaeee

E?ai e Oaeaeay, ie. 560—546 aa. aei ?.O.

A ?iaeaeanoaaineii iiaanoaiaaiee aaaiaaeenoa Iaooay anoue caaaaei/iia
ianoi: iaeea «aieoau n ainoiea» i?eiinyo naie aea?u aeoeaaineiio
Ieaaeaioeo.

A aaaiaaeueneii iiaeeeiieea neiai «aieoau» cao/eo eae «iaae», /oi iau/ii
icia/aao ethaeae, eneoniuo a /a?iaeaenoaa. Iaeiaei eaeea iiaoaeaeaiey
iiaee i?eaea/ue a Aeoeaai ycu/aneeo caeeeiaoaeae?

Iaaeaeo oai a aioe/iua a?aiaia neiai «iaa» eiaei aeiaieueii
ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea: oae eiaiiaaee ae?aoeia e?aineie ?aeeaee, eioi?ay
ei a?aiaie ?iaeaeanoaa O?enoiaa auea oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia ia oieueei ia
Ainoiea, ii e a naiie ?eineie eiia?ee.

I?eaeiaeueiinoue E?aia, eae e Ec?aeey, caeeth/aeanue a aai ?aeeaee.

Aauanoaaiiuo iaiyoieeia yoa ?aeeaey ii/oe ia inoaaeea. Aaeeinoaaiiui
naeaeaoaeuenoaii i iae, aeioaaeoei aei iaoaai a?aiaie, yaeyaony
nayuaiiay eieaa ia?nia, iaaieueoiai ieaiaie, aaaeaaoaai a Eiaeeth io
i?aneaaeiaaiee ionoeueiai. Io ieo-oi e iieo/eea Aa?iia «e?aineoth
aeaeeth» — Aaanoo. Iacaaiea yoi icia/aao oi aea naiia, /oi e Aaaeu,
«ciaiea», ii, ?acoiaaony, ?a/ue a iae eaeao ia i iaoea, a i ciaiee
aeooiaiii.

Ia?aia ciaeiinoai aa?iiaeoeaa n Aaanoie i?iecioei a XVIII a. I?ioiaeeee
aiaeu, iiyaeyeenue iiaua ia?aaiaeu Aaanou, ia aa iniiaa ninoaaeyeenue
neiaa?e, e noaiiaeeinue ynii, /oi iano?ioa yoie eieae yaeyaony, eae e a
Aaaeao, ?acoeueoaoii iaieanoiaaiey iiiaeo ?acii?iaeiuo neiaa.

Oioy cia/eoaeueiay /anoue Aaanou auea caienaia ia ?oaaaea yiio e aeaaea
a n?aaeiea aaea, ii a iae niaea?aeeony iaiaei oaeiai, /oi i?eoei ec
aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe. Yoe a?oae/aneea aa ieanou aaiaeyo a oaea ciaeiiue
iai ie?. Oai oeao?e?otho a?eeneea aiae iaaa, iaiy, caiee, nieioea, aiae:
Aao?a, Ieo?a, Oaiia, Ieia. Yoi ia eoi eiie, eae Ano?a, Ieo?a, Niia, ssia
a?ueaa. I/aaeaeii, ieou i ieo a Aaanoa yaeythony ioaieineaie oao a?aiai,
eiaaea i?aaeee e?aioeaa ninoaaeyee iaeii oeaeia n a?ueyie,
aeaeaathueieny ia Eiaeinoai. Aeaaea naii iacaaiea A?eaia (E?ai)
i?ienoiaeeo io neiaa «a?uey».

Eiaaea i?iecioei eo ?acaeaeaiea, oi/ii onoaiiaeoue iaaiciiaeii (nei?aa
anaai, aaea-oi a ia/aea II ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O.), ii ?aeeaeiciua
o?aaeeoeee aeieaia a?aiy iaiiieiaee i ?iaenoaa iaaeo aaoaae1. Iu ia
aoaeai iiae?iaii inoaiaaeeaaoueny ia yoeo ?aiieo oi?iao ycu/anoaa.

Ioiaoei aeaa iniaaiiinoe aa?u e?aioeaa, eai aiineaaenoaee ei noaeaeaii
aoaeao nua?aoue aaaeioth ?ieue.

Ia?aay /a?oa — iaiaiieeiinoai. Aai neaaeu a?oaieiae iaoiaeyo oaea a
ae?aaiaeoeo iinaeaieyo Oi?acia, iaeiiai ec i/aaia e?aineie eoeueoo?u.
Iaoaaneiue iaiiue aue o iaeoaoaeae E?aia e nii?aaeaeueiuo iaeanoae
noa?ui nayuaiiui neiaieii. *enoia ieaiy caiaiyei nae?aeueiua
ecia?aaeaiey e ciaiaiiaaei aa/iue naao Aiaeanoaaiiiai. Iaiiue ii/eoaeny
einie/aneie noeoeae, iiaeiaii oiio, eae o ae?oaeo ia?iaeia — aiaea.
Ae?aaiea aa?iaioeu, ?iaee/e a?ueaa, aa?eee a oi, /oi ie? iaeiaaea nai?eo
a iaia, /oiau aic?iaeeoueny e iiaie aeecie. Yoio ieo, caia/aoeaiiue a
aa?iaineie Yaeaea, o eiaeeeoeaa i?eiye oi?io aa?u a «eaeueiu», ia?iiiua
ia?eiaeu, iaaeaeo eioi?uie ie? iiaeiuaaony Aiaeanoaii.

Aoi?ay /a?oa — nio?aiaiea ia?yaeo n iaioaiiii eoeueoa aa?oiaiiai Aiaa. O
eiaei-a?ueaa Aai iacuaaee Ano?a-Aeueyooieoa?. Aiineaaenoaee
ioiaeaeanoaeaiiue n aiaii iaaa Aa?oiie (O?aiii, Ia?oiii), ii noae
eiaiiaaoueny «Ano?a Aeoaaaaaea», Ainiiaeue Anaaaaeouee.

A E?aia aai /oeee iiae eiaiai Iacaeu Aao?u (Aao?aiacaeu), /oi oaeaea
icia/aao Anaaaaeouee, eee Anaioae?ue, Ainiiaeue. Ii, eae e a Aaaeao,
ia?ac Ainiiaea Anaaaaeouaai o e?aioeaa aue caneiiai niiiii aiaia, a
aiaeie caiee e aiaeiuo i?ino?ainoa n/eoaeenue aai noi?oaaie.

Oaeia aue oii, ia eioi?ii a E?aia aicieeei iiuiia ?aeeaeiciia
aeaeaeaiea, i?aa?aoeaoaa noa?ua, ia neeoeii i?eaeiaeueiua aa?iaaiey a
iiaoth ?aeeaeth nianaiey. Aiineaaenoaee, i?aoa?iaaay ?aciua eciaiaiey e
ia?a?iaeaeaiey, iia noaea ainoaea?noaaiiui eoeueoii ia?nia, ieacaea
aeeyiea ia iicaeiee eoaeaeci e i?iieeea a ?aeeaeth ?eieyi. Ae a eiia/iii
n/aoa iaycaiu naiei aicieeiiaaieai aeueaeaienoai, aiaiieeuenoai,
iaaeeeeainoai2 e ?aeeaey ?onneeo «aieoaia». Ioaieinee aa iiaeii
ano?aoeoue a iiaaeoeo ieeoeueoiuo e oeeinioneeo nenoaiao.

I i?ienoiaeaeaiee yoie ?aeeaee aiai?yo Aaou — aeiiu. Oi?ia e ycue Aao
oeacuaatho ia eo ae?aaiaa i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Yoe inaeiu, ?iaenoaaiiua
aaaee/aneei e aeaeaeneei, ioia/aiu /a?oaie ee/iiai iiyoe/aneiai
oai?/anoaa.

Aaou aiai?yo iai i i?i?iea, eioi?ue aeanoii noo/eony a aeaa?e ycu/aneiai
o?aia, /oiau ecaiaoue ioooaea aiaia. Ii iacuaaao naay Ca?aoono?ie.

Aa?oiaiue ae?aoe ia?nia eiaiiaaeny Ca?aoo-no?aia, oi anoue Auni/aeoee
Ca?aoono?a, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, neiai yoi — ia ee/iia eiy, a nei?aa,
oeooe, eee ii/aoiia iaeiaiiaaiea, eae Aoaeaea eee O?enoin. Iiyoiio, anee
eaeie-eeai /aeiaae iacuaae naay Ca?aoono?ie, yoi aiana ia icia/aao, /oi
ii — eeoei auiuoeaiiia.

Aaanoa ciaao e ee/iia eiy naiaai i?i?iea. Iia iacuaaao aai Nieoaiie.

Eai aea aue Nieoaia? Nai ii ieaaea ia iacuaaao naay ae?aoeii, iaaii, eai
yoe caaiey ia?aaeaaaeenue oieueei ii ianeaaenoao, e iaae, iiaeiaii
ec?aeeueneei eaaeoai, ninoaaeyee caieiooue eeai. Ia i?eiaaeeaaea e iaaai
ii ?iaeaeaieth, Nieoaia aiai?ee i naaa eae i «iaio?aia», inaeiiiaaoea, e
eeoue a iaeiii ianoa (e oi yoi nii?ii) ii iacuaaao naay «eca?aiieeii».

Niaeanii eaaaiaea, Nieoaia aeaaaeoeaoe eao io ?iaeo ooae ec aeiia e
iinaeeeny a oaaeeiaiee ia oa??eoi?ee iuiaoiaai Aca?aaeaeaeaia.

A ioee/ea io a?aoiaiia e a?a/aneeo oeeinioia, aai aieiiaaee ia noieueei
ioaea/aiiua aii?inu, neieueei ia/oa ia onoaiiaeaiee ia caiea enoeiu,
ie?a e ni?aaaaeeeainoe. Yoa /a?oa ?iaeieo aai n i?i?ieaie Ec?aeey.

Ie?aeiu E?aia a aiaeu iieiaeinoe Nieoaiu auee iinoiyiii ioaa/aiu niooaie
e aieiaie. A iaeiie ec /anoae Aao iu neuoei aiein «Aeooe Auea»
(nouanoaa, neiaieece?othuaai ie?iuo e?anoueyi), eioi?ay aeaeoaony Iacaea
ia aaaeu, i?e/eiyaiua iaaaaaie a?aaia. «Aeooa Auea» aeaeao, /oi Iacaea
iioeao a ie? /aeiaaea, eioi?ue i?eianao ethaeyi ni?aaaaeeeaue ii?yaeie.

Aeey Nieoaiu aoaeoaee-iiiaaeu3 e ae?aaiea aiae, eioi?ui iie
iieeiiyeenue, ninoaaeee iaeio naoaieineoth ?aoue. Ii iacuaaao yoeo aiaia
noa?ui a?eeneei oa?ieiii «aeyau» (aiae), ii a aai onoao yoi oaea ia
aiae, a aeaiiie/aneea neeu.

Iinea aeanyoeeaoieo iieeoa, ?aciuoeaiee e aii?ioaiee Ca?aoono?a ioe?ue
aeey naay a eeoea ae?aaiaai Iacaeu Aao?u Aiaa, Oai?oea Anaeaiiie e
I?aaaeu.

Eoae — aaeeiue Aia? Cia/eo, iu iiaeai i?eciaoue a Ca?aoono?a a?aoa e
aaeeiiiuoeaiieea ec?aeeueneeo i?i?ieia, ycu/aneiai i?aaeoa/o O?enoa ia
e?aineie caiea? Ii nouanoao yoi aiieia aeiionoeii.

Oai ia iaiaa, iu ioeaeenue au, iinoaaea ciae ?aaainoaa iaaeaeo Aaoaie e
Aaooei Caaaoii. I?e anai ii?aceoaeueiii noiaenoaa iie nouanoaaiii
ioee/aeenue a ?yaea iniiaiiieaaathueo ioieoia.

Oioy i?i?iee Aeaeee e i?eciaaaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aanoaaiiie aeoeaiinoe
/aeiaaea, iaeiaei iie ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi enoeiiiai nianaiey iiaeii
iaeeaeaoue oieueei io Aiaa. Iiyoiio iie oae ianoaeaaee ia aanieiaeiinoe
iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e n/eoaee, /oi iaeuecy aiceaaaoue iaaeaaeaeu
ia «eiiae e eieanieoeu» (n?. In 19:8).

Nieoaia eneae iiaouanoaaiiiai iie?iaeoaey, eioi?ue noae au aai
iineaaeiaaoaeai. Ii aue oaa?ai, /oi aac oaeie iiaeaea?aeee ia aeiaueaony
oniaoa:

«ss ciath, i Iacaea, ii/aio y aanneeai!

Yoi iioiio, /oi o iaiy iaei noaae e iaei ethaeae.

ss ia?auath e Oaaa iith aeaeiao, auneooae aa, Aao?a:

Ieaaee iia iiiiuue, eioi?oth aeae au ae?oa naiaio ae?oao,

Iao/e iaiy I?aaaea e iaeaaeaieth Aeaaie Iuneueth».

(ssnia 46:2)4

Iaeiiaoe iaiaeeaeaiii i?eoae aieueoie oniao. Nai aeanoeoaeue Aaeo?u
Aeooania, eioi?iio iiae/eiyeenue Oi?aci, Niaaeeaia e ae?oaea ninaaeiea
caiee, oaa?iaae a ienneth Ca?aoono?u e i?eiye aai i?e naiai aeai?a.

Oaia?ue Nieoaia iia naiaiaeii aicaauaoue naia o/aiea. Ii iaeiie
i?iiiaaaee aio eacaeinue iaei. Ii aai iiaieth, n iieeiiieeaie aeyaia
ioaeii aanoe aieio n i?oaeeai a ?oeao. Iieeiiiee aeyaia — yoi ie/oiaeiue
«iaa?ee», «aeaoiiaia», «/aeiaae-ianaeiiia».

«Oio, eoi ioieiao o iaai aeanoue eee aeeciue, i Iacaea,

I?aoniaao ia iooe aeaaiai o/aiey».

(ssnia 46:4)

Aiineaaenoaee iaiaaenoue e iiiaiaiaeieeai e aeyaai auea i?iaicaeaoaia
ia?aui ioieoii neiaiea aa?u ca?aoono?ecia:

«I?ieeeiath aeyaia, eniiaaaeoth naay iieeiiieeii Iacaeu,
ca?aoono?eeoeai, a?aaii aeyaia, iineaaeiaaoaeai Aao?u».

«Ethaeae-ianaeiiuo» neaaeoao aaniiuaaeii eno?aaeyoue, ii iaaeaeo
aaeeiiaa?oeaie aeieaeii oea?eoue iieiia niaeanea. «Eeyoaaiii iaycothnue
auoue aa?iui iacaeaenoneie aa?a, i?ae?aoeoue aiaiiua iaaaae, neiaeeoue
i?oaeea, caeeth/aoue a?aee iaaeaeo naieie, auoue aa?iui i?aaaaeiie aa?a,
eioi?ay ec anao nouanoaothueo e aoaeoueo — aaee/aeoay, eo/oay e
naaoeaeoay, eioi?ay — io Aao?u e Ca?aoono?u» (ssnia 12:2,9).

Aeaeaeneea i?i?iee aiai?eee i ii?aeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ycu/ieeia
ia?aae Aiaii, aeiioneay oai naiui iaeioi?ue yeaiaio oaaaeaiey e eo
?aeeaeiciiio niciaieth. Ca?aoono?a aea, iai?ioea, aaniethoii iai?eie?ei.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iiiaaaee Ca?aoono?u aaee e ?aeeaeiciui aieiai.

Oaeiai ia?aia ioee/ea e?aineiai i?i?iea io i?i?ieia Aeaeee. Aoi?ia
naycaii n iiieiaieai Ca?aoono?ie i?iaeaiu cea.

A ciaiaieoie «Aaoa aeia?a e cea» oi?aeanoaaiii cao/ao neiaa o/eoaey,
eioi?ue ioe?uaaao aaeeiiaa?oeai ia/aeueiua i?eioeeiu auoey:

«Ecia/aea, eae aeeciaoeu, yaeee naay aeaa Aeooa,

Iaeei — aeia?ue, ae?oaie — ceie, a iunee, neiaa e aeaea;

E iaaeaeo ieie iaieie i?aaeeueii ecae?atho

Ioae?ua, ii ia aeoioeu.

E eiaaea yoe aeaa Aeooa ano?aoeeenue,

Oi onoaiiaeee aia/aea aeeciue e ia-aeeciue

E oi, /oi a eiioea eiioeia ooaeoaa auoea iacia/aaony ceui,

A neaaeothuaio I?aaaea — Aeaaay Iuneue».

(ssnia 30:2-4)

Oaeei ia?acii Ca?aoono?a, yoio no?anoiue ai?aoe i?ioea cea, eae au
ioaeaao aio iaaieueioth aeaiue, iauyaeyy aai ecia/aeueiui.

Ec yoeo neia yanoaoao, /oi a iaeiii ec aeeciaoeia, ii-aeaeeiiio,
neaaeoao aeaeaoue naiiai Iacaeo, eai eiaiii aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo oeooe
«iaea/aiiue a iaaanioth oaa?aeue» e iaeiaiiaaiea «Nayoaeoee Aeoo». Aai
ecaa/iue i?ioeaiee eiaioaony Ianeeeai, Eiaeueth. Aiineaaenoaee Ianeeea e
Eiaeue aoaeoo iauyaeaiu a ca?aoono?ecia eiinoanyie ceiai aeooa, eioi?iai
iaciaoo Aia?a eee Aia?a-Iaeiueth (a?a/. «A?eiai»), /oi icia/aao
«Aeoo-I?ioeaiee».

Neiai yoi ?iaenoaaiii «naoaia» (i?ioeaieeo) a Aeaeee. Ii anee naoaia —
yoi nouanoai, ioiaaoaa io Aiaa ai eiy naiiooaa?aeaeaiey, oi
Aia?a-Iaeiueth — aa/iue niia?iee Aiaa, ia/oi a?iaea aoi?iai, «ceiai»,
Oai?oea. A iaeiie ec aieaa iicaeieo aeaa «e?aineie aeaeee» aiai?eony,
/oi Iacaea nicaeae ana i?ae?aniua caiee aeey iaeoaiey ethaeae, a
Aia?a-Iaeiueth a i?ioeaiaan aio nioai?ee aieinoaaiiua ieaiaia,
eieaeoiia, noaaa?ey, ceiithth nooaeo e ae?oaea aaaenoaey.

Ii eae aea niaeaniaaoue yoi n iiiioaeciii Nieoaiu? Ii/aio, aoaeo/e
iieeiiieeii aaeeiiai Aiaa, ii oniio?ae a ceii ia/aea iaeee
naiiaeiaeathuee, naiinouee i?eioeei?

Aeoaeeci (aeaiaaiaeea) ia aue nicaeaieai naiiai Nieoaiu. Nei?aa anaai,
ii yaeeny o i?i?iea onooieie ae?aaiae o?aaeeoeee.

Ea?oeia Anaeaiiie eae a?aiu ai?ueau, a eioi?ie niceaeaaony ie?iaay
no?oeoo?a, auea aaeeeei ioe?uoeai /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa, iiaeeeiiui
i?iieeiiaaieai a nooue nioai?aiiuo aauae. Ii aoeeeaniaie iyoie anao yoeo
o/aiee yaeyeinue iaiaeanoaeaiea oaioe/aneiai ia/aea, iaecauaiue no?ao
ia?aae iei. Iiyoiio einie/aneay aeoaa i?aaenoaaeyeanue ianeii/aaiie.

Ai anai aiaaeaeaeneii ie?a iaeei Ca?aoono?a oioy e i?eiye yoo oai?eth,
ii ana aea ioaa?a aa ianneieci. Aai aeeaay aa?a a Aiaa ioe?uea aio
a?yaeouoth iiaaaeo Aeia?a. Caeanue ii niiaa i?eaeeaeaaony e Aeaeee.

Anee a?aee aeinoeaee auni/aeoae aa?oeiu a oeeinioneii iniuneaiee eaeae
Aiaa, anee eiaeeeoeu i?eoee e auni/aeoaio i?aaeaeo «anoanoaaiiie
ienoeee», oi, eneeth/ay aeaeaeneia Ioe?iaaiea, a ?aeeaee Ca?aoono?u iu
aeaeei iaeaieueoaa i?eaeeaeaiea e Aiao AEeaiio. E ana aea yoi auei
«/aeiaa/aneia, neeoeii /aeiaa/aneia» i?eaeeaeaiea. Eaeay nayuaiiie aieiu
ii?a/aea aai /enoioo, a onooiea o?aaeeoeeiiiiio aeoaeecio inoaaeyea
oycaeiia ianoi, ia?aeaaoaa ca?aoono?eci ia ii?aaeaiea.

Iaeaieaa aeaaioai?iui e aeieaiaa/iui ieacaeinue o/aiea Ca?aoono?u i
i?aanoaaiiie naiaiaea. Ia neaiia, oiuei-iiei?iia eniieiaiea
i?aaeienaiee, ii niciaoaeueiue e ioaaonoaaiiue auai? aeia?iai ia/aea
aeieaeai iiaoaeeoue /aeiaaea anoaoue a ?yaeu aieiia Iacaeu.

Ii ia/oai i?i?iea i a?yaeouai oi?aeanoaa aai o/aiey ia noaeaeaii auei
nauoueny. I?e aai aeecie iacaeaeci ia ?ani?ino?aieeny aeaeueoa Aaeo?ee,
a ?aeeaeiciua aieiu eii/eeenue aoi?aeaieai a?aaia a Aaeo?o e aeaaeueth
i?anoa?aeiai Ca?aoono?u.

Ieiei 546 a. aei ?.O. Aaeo?ey aioea a ninoaa ia?neaeneie aea?aeaau Ee?a.
I?eniaaeeiaiea aa, ii naeaeaoaeuenoaai Aa?iaeioa e Eoaney, i?iecioei
ie?iui iooai.

Ee? anthaeo i?iaiaeee aoiaiioth iieeoeeo: n oaaaeaieai ioiineeny e
ianoiui iau/ayi e aa?iaaieyi, ia aeiioneae ianniauo oaeenoa e iuoie
ieaiiuo, a ai?iaeao nio?aiyeinue naiioi?aaeaiea, iiaeaoe
onoaiaaeeaaeenue oia?aiiua.

Neooe ia yoeo niauoeyo ia iiaee ia aeieoe aei eoaeaeneeo ieaiieeia a
Aaaeeiia. Aoi?ienaey i?enoaeueii neaaeee ca oniaoaie iiaiai iiaaeeoaey
Ainoiea. Iinea anne?eeneeo e oaeaeaeneeo caa?noa Ee? eacaeny iineaiieeii
anaiauaai ie?a. Anee ii i?eaeao a Oaeaeath, ieai Ec?aeey, ianiiiaiii,
eii/eony.

Iiieiay, aa?iyoii, /oi noaaoea Ee?a n Aaaeeiiii iaecaaaeia, Enaey Aoi?ie
?aoaao ia?aoeoueny i?yii e ia?neaeneiio oea?th. A oi a?aiy i?i?i/anoaai,
enoiaeeaoei aeaaea io eiicaiiuo i?iaeaeoeaa, i?eaeaaaee aieueoia
cia/aiea. Iiyoiio neiai eoaeaeneiai ioae?aoea aeieaeii auei auoue
iaaac?acee/ii Ee?o.

Eoioeu ec E?aia /anoi i?eoiaeeee a Aaaeeii, e yoi ?aeeaeiciiai
a?iaeaiey, aicieeoaai aie?oa o/aiey Nieoaiu iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey
Aaeo?ee, iiaei aeieoe aei Aoi?ienaee.

Ie iaeei ec aeaeaeneeo i?i?ieia ia aica?auaaony n oaeie ianoie/eainoueth
e oaia ie?ioai?aiey, eae Enaey Aoi?ie. Nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi yoi
ia neo/aeii, /oi i?i?ie oaea ciaeii n e?aineei o/aieai i aeaoo aeooao e
oioae eae iiaeii yniaa ooaa?aeeoue aaeeiiaiaeea. Eaaeaony, /oi ii n
eai-oi nii?eo, eiaaea n iaenoiaui aea?ii e no?anoueth aiai?eo i oii, /oi
o Aiaa iao «aeaieieea».

Ii a oaeii neo/aa i?i?ie aeaeaao Aiaa ioaaonoaaiiui e ca ie?iaia cei. Ia
cao/eo ee yoi eiuoinoaii?

Aia aeey i?i?iea — enoi/iee aeecie e aeaaa, cei aea i?ienoaeaao io
eciaiu Aio.

Aoi?ienaey ciaao i oii, /oi Aiao i?ioeainoiyo ceua neeu. Aaeeinoaaiiue
ec anao aaoi?ia Aeaeee ii i?yii aiai?eo i einie/aneie aeoaa Oai?oea n
/oaeiaeuai Oaina (En 27:1; 51:9).

Ii ai?ueaa Oaina n Aiaii e iiaaaea Oai?oea — yoi ia noaaoea
«aeeciaoeia», eae o Ca?aoono?u, a oi?aeanoai Oea?noaa Aiaeey iaae ceie
aieae oaa?e, iaae neeaie, eioi?ui auea aea?iaaia naiaiaea, ii iie
eca?aoeee iooe Nicaeaoaey.

E ana aea aeey ethaeae oiai a?aiaie, aea e aeey iiiaeo a iaoe aeie,
ioaao Ca?aoono?u eacaeny aieaa oaaaeeoaeueiui. Iaeiaei ia ana oi, /oi
i?inoi e ynii aeey eioaeeaeoa, niioaaonoaoao aeoaeiiie oaeia.
Ecia?aceoue aa a aeaea eiae/aneie iiaeaee a?yae ee aiciiaeii. Aoi?ienaey
ii?aaeaeyao a?aieoeo aeey ?acoia, iuoathuaainy ioaaoeoue oaeio Aiaeeeo
noaeaa, ii aiai?eo i iaeniiaaaeeiie aacia?iinoe Oai?oea, i
iaiinoeaeeiinoe Aunoaai. Ainoeuaiiia nie?aiea, ?iaeaeaiiia iaii?aiie
ie?icaeaiey, — aio iaeei ec aa?iuo iooae e Aiao. Yoi ecoieaiea eo/oa
naiie ino?ioiiie iaoaoeceee i?eaiaeeo e iiaeeeiiiio nii?eeiniiaaieth n
aa?oiaiie ?aaeueiinoueth Nouaai.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei, /oi anee ainnoaiea i?ioea aiaa a E?aia iiaei
aucaaoue ?aaeinoue e ni/oanoaea o ec?aeeueneiai i?i?iea, oi eneooaieth
iinoaaeoue ?yaeii n Aiaii iaeiaai «aeeciaoea» ii i?ioeaeeny anaie neeaie
aeooe.

__________________________________________________________________

‘ ?iaenoai ae?aaieo eiaeeeneie e e?aineie eoeueoo? aeieacuaaaony
aeecinoueth ycueia; oae iacuaaaiua eiaeie?aineea ycuee aueacuaatho
cia/eoaeueioth aeecinoue a ?aieao eiaeiaa?iiaeneie naiuee ycueia.

2 Aeueaeaienoai, aiaiieeuenoai, iaaeeeeainoai — oa/aiey, aicieeaaoea a
o?enoeainoaa e ii?aaeaeaiiua Oea?eiaueth eae a?ane, o. a. acaeyaeu,
i?ioeai?a/auea o/aieth O?enoa e Aai Oea?eae.

3 Iiiaaeu — ianoooaneea ieaiaia.

4 ssnia — iaeaieaa ae?aaiyy /anoue Aaanou, niaea?aeauay aeiiu, ec
eioi?uo naiuie ?aiieie i?eciaiu 28— 34,43—51,53, eiaioaiua Aaoaie.

Eiiaoe iaaiee

Aaaeeii, 546-538 aa. aei ?.O.

Iaecaanoii, aeioee ee aei Ee?a i?i?i/anoaa Aoi?ienaee, e anee aeioee, oi
eae ii e iei ioianny. Ii aio i?eoei a?aiy, eiaaea i?i?ie iia i?iaa?eoue,
ianeieueei aai iaaeaaeaeu iniiaaoaeueiu. Iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey Aaeo?ee
a?iey Ee?a aeaeioeanue ia Aaaeeii. Ia?neaeneee oea?ue e oiio a?aiaie
oaea ciae, /oi e Aaaeeii ia ieaaeao nii?ioeaeaiey.

12 ieoya?y 539 a. aei ?.O. ia?nu anooieee a Aaaeeii, naeaaoeeny ia
ieeinoue iiaaaeeoaeae. Ii?yaeie a ieeoie?iaaiiie noieeoea aue
ia?acoeiaue: Ee? i?eeacae no?iai neaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau ia auei
a?aaaaeae; o?aiiaua caeaiey ioeaieee aienea, io?aiyy eo io
iinyaaoaeuenoa. Ia?neaeneee oea?ue aea?iaae ai?iaeo iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue
e a naiai iaieoanoa iauyaee naay ii/eoaoaeai aiaa Ia?aeoea, /ai
ieii/aoaeueii iiei?ee ae?aoeia.

Eoaeaeneee i?i?ie iia oi?aeanoaiaaoue: ethaee oaia?ue aii/eth
oaaaeeeenue, /oi «ioae i?aaaeu», /ae i?eoiae ii i?eaaonoaiaae,
aeaenoaeoaeueii aue inaiaiaeeoaeai, a ia oe?aiii. Ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu,
iaieoano Ee?a iaaeaoniuneaiii iieacae, /oi ieeaeie iaaeaaeaeu ia aai
ia?auaiea e Aiao iao. *aeiaae, eioi?ue i?eian aea?oau Ia?aeoeo, aa?ioe
ai?iaeai eo eaeieia e naeeceeny n ae?aoeaie, a?yae ee niae?aeny
ioeacuaaoueny io ycu/anoaa. Yoi auei aieueoei ?aci/a?iaaieai aeey
i?i?iea, e?ooaieai caoaaiiuo aai iaaeaaeae.

Ai?i/ai, auei au iani?aaaaeeeaui ii ioiioaieth e Ee?o neacaoue, /oi ii
caaue i ieaiieeao, eioi?ua oae aeaeaee aai. Anei?a aea iinea naiae
iiaaaeu ii i?eieiaao eoaeaeneoth aeaeaaaoeeth, a aaniie 538 a. aei ?.O.
ecaeaao yaeeeo, eanathueeny aa?aaa. A oeaca iauyniyaony, /oi ana eoaeae,
anee iie oiai iiaeaeatho, iiaoo aa?iooueny ia ?iaeeio i?aaeeia.

Eoae, iinea iieoaaea, i?ioaaeoaai ni a?aiaie e?ooaiey Neiia, ai?ioa
iaaiee ?aniaoioeenue.

Iiea «enoiae» aue iaaiciiaeai, aa?ae i iai /anoi aiai?eee e ieaoiie/anee
ia/oaee i naiaiaea. Ii aio ii noae ?aaeueiinoueth, e no?ao ia?aae
iaecaanoiinoueth, eieaaaiey, niiiaiey caaeaaeaee iiiaeie: eae ooiaeeoue
ec aiaaoie oeeaeeeciaaiiie no?aiu, aaea oaia?ue iiae yaeaeie Ee?a
aeeciue aeieaeia oa/ue ie?ii e niieieii? Eae ?aoeoueny eaeoe a yoo
ionooth caa?ioaiioth Eoaeath, aaea iao ie/aai, e?iia ?acaaeei? Caeanue,
a Aaaeeiia, e oneoaai eaaeaeiai ana ieiaeu auniei?acaeoie eoeueoo?u, oai
— aeooay i?iaeioeey, iaee/aaoay ca aeanyoee eao caionoaiey. Anee aeey
oao, eoi a iae ?iaeeeny, ainiiieiaiey aua /oi-oi aiai?eee, oi aeey
«aeaoae ecaiaiey» caiey iooeia — eeoue ieo.

Ia noaaioieo nia?aieyo Aoi?ienaey aunooiae n ?a/aie, eioi?ua iu oaia?ue
iacaaee au neiienoneeie. A oeaio?a aai i?iiiaaaee noiyei ia i?inoi
iaoeeiiaeueiia aic?iaeaeaiea; aeey iaai «enoiae» aue ?aeeaeiciui
iiaeaeaii iaua/aeiaa/aneiai ianooaaa. Aai oaaaeaeaiey iiaeii auei au
e?aoei au?aceoue oae: aaeeiue Aia anaai /aeiaa/anoaa i?aaeiacia/ee
ec?aeeueoyiai ?ieue Aai aeaaiaanoieeia a ie?a.

Ninoiyoaeueiua ethaee ia oioaee e neuoaoue i oii, /oiau iieeiooue
Aaaeeii. Aeey ieo yoi icia/aei ?aci?aiea. Naiua iao?eioe/anee
iano?iaiiua ec ieo ia?aie/eaaeenue oai, /oi aiineee iiaea?oaiaaiey ia
iniauaiea ea?aaaia.

*oi iia aic?aceoue i?i?ie ia eiae/iua aeiaiaeu ?annoaeeoaeueiuo ethaeae,
n/eoaaoeo «enoiae» aacoiiie caoaae? Ii iia eeoue nnueaoueny ia oi, /oi
aeaei Aiaeea ia iiaeao ieacaoueny ouaoiui. Ana i?aa?aaeu ?annathony, eae
aeui, ia?aae neeie Ainiiaeiae. O ssaaa — Naie caiuneu, e Ii ciaao, eaeei
niiniaii eo inouanoaeoue:

«Iie iunee — ia aaoe iunee,

e iooe aaoe ia oaeiau, eae iooe Iie;

Ii eae iaai auoa caiee,

oae e iooe Iie auoa iooae aaoeo».

(En 55:8-9)

A yoe eeoi?aaei/iua aeie iuneyie Aoi?ienaee oeaeeeii caaeaaeaaaao
ae?aaiaa neacaiea ia Enoiaea; ii aeeaao ei, a aai aeacao iaa niauoey —
noa?ia e iiaia — eae au neeaathony aiaaeeii. A?aiaia Iienay
i?iaoee?othony ia yiioo Ee?a. I?i?ie ecia?aaeaao no?ainoaea Ec?aeey a
Caieth Iaaoiaaiioth a /oaeaniii aeaea: ionouiy ?anoeaaoaao, eae naae,
i?aa?auaynue a Yaeai.

Ca/a?iaaiiue yoei iacaiiui aeaeaieai, i?i?ie noiae ca?aceoue naieie
/oanoaaie ?aaiiaeooiuo, oaaaeeoue niiiaaathueony, oe?aieoue neaauo. E
aania ea?aaai aue aioia aunooieoue a iooue.

Aica?auaiea. Ia?aua o?oaeiinoe

Ea?onaeei, 538—530 aa. aei ?.O.

E aio Aeaiane oaea iicaaee, ea?aaai oae oaia?ue i?yii ia tha,
i?iaeaeaaynue ii e?ath ionouie.

I?e anooieaiee a Ea?onaeei anao ioaaoeee ?aaeinoue aica?auaiey e ia/aeue
i?e aeaea oiueuo ?aaiei ia ianoa auaoaai O?aia e oea?neiai aeai?oea.
Ai?iae ia/ou i?aaenoae ia?aae ieie a aeaea aieiai oieia, ia eioi?ii
n?aaee iaeiieia e uaaiy ?in eieth/ee eonoa?iee.

Aaniie neaaeothuaai 537 a. aei ?.O. yaeeanue iaeiiaoe aiciiaeiinoue
i?enooieoue e no?ieoaeuenoao O?aia. A iniiao ieaia iieiaeeee iienaiea
Eacaeeeey. Caeeaaeeo O?aia i?aa?aoeee a i?acaeiee.

Iaaeaeo oai aeeoaee Naia?ee i?iaaaeaee i oii, /oi oai?eony a Eoaeaa, e
i?eneaee ethaeae, i?aaeeaaay iiiiuue a aeaai/anoeaii aeaea. Iineaioeu
aiai?eee, /oi naia?yia aeaaii oaea i?eiyee ?aeeaeth ec?aeeueoyi e eo
i?eaa?aeaiiinoue e eoeueoo?a ssaaa ian/eouaaao iieoi?a aaea.

?en. 118

Eiia i?iiiaaaeoao ieiaaeoyiai. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Ciaiaiaoaeueiue /an! Ia ia/eiaaony ee nauaaoueny i?i?i/anoai i ia?iaeao,
eioi?ua i?eaeoo ia Neii aicaeaoue /anoue aaeeiiio Aiao?

Ii eiaiii a yoio enoi?e/aneee iiiaio /a?iay o?aueia ?acaa?ceanue iaaeaeo
eoaeaeneie iaueiie e ie?ii…

Naia?yi ano?aoeee n ioe?iaaiiui iaae?oaeaethaeai e
iiaeic?eoaeueiinoueth, i?eiyoue eo iiiiuue ?aoeoaeueii ioeacaeenue.

A /ai aea e?ueanue i?e/eia yoiai iaiaeeaeaiiiai ioeaca? Ii/aio auee
i?aaeaiu eaeaaeu i?i?ieia?

Aiaeaee iaueiu niiiaaaeenue a /enoioa aa?u anao oao, eoi ecaaaeae ieaia,
nua?aea ?ieue e eneiiiay a?aaeaea iaaeaeo Naaa?ii e THaii. E iaeiiaoe,
ainoi/iua eieiienou a Naia?ee ia?yaeo n ssaaa /oeee e aiaia naiae
?iaeeiu. Aiaeaee iaueiu no?aieeenue ai /oi au oi ie noaei niaethnoe
/enoioo aa?u.

Aia anyeiai niiiaiey, Aoi?ienaey aue oae?o/ai enoiaeii ia?aaiai?ia. Ii
aeaeae ienneiia?neiai iiaeaeaa, eioi?ue i?eiao ia naay Ec?aeeue eae
Neoaa Aiaeee, ii nai ia?iae ia nic?ae aeey yoiai.

I?i?ie anooiee a ai?ueao n aeooii eneeth/eoaeueiinoe e ecieyoeeiiecia.

Ethaee Aaooiai Caaaoa ia auee eaeeie-oi iniaaiiuie nouanoaaie,
naeaeaiiuie ec eiiai iaoa?eaea, /ai i?i/ea. Ienaiea ia neo/aeii
ecia?aaeaao eo ai anae eo /aeiaa/aneie iaiiue e i?ioeai?a/eainoe. Ei oae
aea, eae e iai, auee naienoaaiiu aeooiaiua aceaou e aeooiaiia aanneeea.
Aicaeaeaay naie O?ai, iie niia?ie/aee, nni?eeenue, ?aaiiaaee, eneaee
auaiae, oeeiiyeenue io o?oaeiinoae. Ii eiaiii iioiio, /oi iie auee
oaeeie aea, eae iu, enoi?ey eo inoaeanue noieue aeeciaiiie e aaaeiie
aeey ian. Neaaua e caiiua, iie i?ioiaeeee iooue iaeaaeiai ainoiaeaeaiey,
ii?ie naeaaynue e iaaeay.

Neieueei ?ac Enaey Aoi?ie auioaeaeai aue i?eciaaaoue, /oi iaaeaaeaeu aai
iai?aniu! Ii aeaeaiea cieioiai A?aaea ai?aei ia?aae iei e a eiioea aai
caiiiai no?ainoaey. Ia yoio ieuee ai?iae, eaaeauee a ?acaaeeiao, ii
Iiaue Ea?onaeei inoaeny ia?ooeiui iieioii aai aa?u, i?aaeiaoii aai
ethaae.

Caeanue iu aeieaeiu ?annoaoueny n Aoi?ienaeae — oaeinoaaiiui aacuiyiiui
aeaaioii Aeaeee. Auoa iaai aaooicaaaoiia niciaiea oaea ?aaeei niiaeao
iiaeiyoueny.

Aoi?ie O?ai

Ea?onaeei, 530—428 aa. aei ?.O.

Iinea iiiaieaoiaai aacaeaenoaey a Ea?onaeeia aiiaue i?enooieee e
i?a?aaiiui ?aaioai ia ai?a Aiaeeae. 12 ia?oa 515 a. aei ?.O. ninoiyeinue
oi?aeanoaaiiia inayuaiea Aoi?iai O?aia, i?eo?i/aiiia e i?acaeieeo Ianoe.
I ia?eiaea iaaeaeo 515 e 445 aa. aei ?.O. Aeaeey iie/eo. Ca yoi a?aiy
iiae iiauie oaea?aie noaeueau aieia ia/aaoaainy auei a Ea?onaeeia
ianneaineiai a?iaeaiey niaea.

Ii yoi eiaei e naie iieiaeeoaeueiua iineaaenoaey, iaoaea/a canoaaeea
caaeoiaoueny eo/oeo ethaeae Ec?aeey i aai noaeueaa. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iaeia ec naiuo oaeeaeoaeueiuo eiea Aaooiai Caaaoa —
Eieaa i?i?iea Eiiu.

Ian ia aeieaeii aaiaeeoue a caaeoaeaeaiea oi, /oi aa iau/ii iiiauatho
n?aaee i?i?i/aneeo ienaiee; yoi i?iecaaaeaiea ioiineony e nianai eiiio
aeai?o, e ?ac?yaeo «aaaae» — oae eiaiiaaeenue aa?aeneea iaceaeaoaeueiua
neacaiey e i?eo/e.

Aeaaiie oeaeueth aaaaeu yaeyeinue iio/aiea. Enoi?e/aneea eieae1 Aaooiai
Caaaoa oiaea i?aneaaeiaaee yoo oeaeue, ii iie caeeth/aee a naaa
iiaeeeiiua oaeou, acyoua ec eaoiienae. Aaaaea aea, ii nouanoao,
?aaiiaeooia e enoi?e/aneie aeinoiaa?iinoe naiaai ?anneaca. A iae eaeay
oeaeeeii caneiiyao enoi?eth.

Aaaaee/aneay oi?ia aeaeaeneiai o/eoaeuenoaa i?aaeaea iaei i?eieiaeanue a
?an/ao oieeiaaoaeyie Eieae Eiiu, iie oioaee aeaeaoue a iae iienaiea
iiaeeeiiuo niauoee. Oaeie iiaeoiae iaecaaaeii ioaeaeae io aeaaiiai:
neaioeee i?aa?auaee enoi?eth iacaaea/eeaiai i?i?iea a ieoaiue aeey
ianiaoae, a aai caueoieee ecuneeaaee niiniau aeieacaoue, /oi /aeiaae
iiaeao i?iauoue iaa?aaeeiui o?e aeiy a aeaeoaeea «aieueoie ?uau». E
?uaa, e oaioanoe/aneia ?anoaiea, au?anoathuaa ca iaeio ii/ue aei
?acia?ia aea?aaa, aiai?yo i oii, /oi ia?aae iaie aeeaai?ey,
iaceaeaoaeueiay eaaaiaea; e anee n eo iiceoeee ?anniao?eaaoue eieao, oi
ianiaoee iaae iae ieaaeoony aanniuneaiiuie. Iia caeeth/aao a naaa
eaeath, eioi?ay noaaeo yoio oaaeaa? ia iaeii ec ia?auo iano a Aaooii
Caaaoa.

*oi iiaoaeeei aaoi?a iaienaoue Eieao Eiiu, aeiaaaeaoueny iao?oaeii.
Iaeaieaa ieaiaiiua ian-neaienou Eoaeae iaeeaeaee, aa?iyoii, /oi
ycu/aneea e?aiinoe iaaeoo, iiaa?aeaiiua einie/aneie ao?ae. Ii ana
inoaeinue ia i?aaeieo ianoao. Iiiaea oniio?aee a yoii ioeac ssaaa io
Naiaai neiaa e ioe?uoi ?iioaee. Eae iia Ii iiuaaeeoue ycu/ieeia?

E aio, ioaa/ay yoei caiin/eaui e oa?thiui ethaeyi, ouaoii iaeeaeaaoei
aeaaee /oaeacaiiuo iiia?oee, ec?aeeueneee o/eoaeue ieoao Eieao Eiiu.

A iae ?anneacuaaaony i i?i?iea, eioi?iai Aia iineae i?iiiaaaeiaaoue a
naiia ycu/aneia iaeei: a Ieiaaeth. Ieiaaey iacaaia ia neo/aeii, eai iia
inoaeanue a iaiyoe Ec?aeey eae /oaeiaeua, ooaea eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii e
i?eaeoiaoue.

Iieo/ea iaaaniia iiaaeaiea, Eiia ioithaeue ia iaia?aaaeny caaioeoueny i
nianaiee ieiaae-oyi. *aeiaae iueeee e oaiia?aiaioiue, ii e ia ne?uaae
i?e/ei naiaai iaiineooaiey: aio neeoeii oi?ioi ecaanoii, /oi ssaaa — Aia
«aeaaie, aeieaioa?iaeeaue, iiiaiieeinoeaue e ioiaiythuee aaaenoaey»,
iiyoiio iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue ia oi, /oi Ii iiuaaeeo a?aoieeia, anee iie
?aneathony.

?annoaeea oae, Eiia aac eeoieo neia naaeeony ia eoia/aneee ei?aaeue e
?aoaao «aaaeaoue io eeoea ssaaa» a aeaeaeee Oa?nen, a Eniaieth. Ii aai
iaeaiay oeiaea iai?ania: Aia iinueaao ao?th, e Eiia aeiaaaeuaaaony, /oi
ei?aaeue iiaeao iieoe ei aeio ec-ca iaai. Ii i?ineo eoioeia a?ineoue aai
a aiaeo, e aaeaa iie auiieiytho aai i?inueao, ii?a ooeoaao.

No?iioeaue i?i?ie ia ooiioe: ssaaa iineae aeaaioneoth ?uao, eioi?ay
i?iaeioeea Eiio e /a?ac o?e aeiy auiethioea ia aa?aa. E caeanue Aia
niiaa i?eeacuaaao Eiia eaeoe a Ieiaaeth.

Iiieiay aaniieaciinoue i?ioeaeaiey, Eiia ioi?aaeyaony a iooue. A Ieiaaee
ii a oi/iinoe auiieiyao ii?o/aiea ssaaa, iauyaea, /oi anee ai?iae ia
ioa?aoeony io naiaai ia/anoey, oi /a?ac ni?ie aeiae aai iinoeaiao
aeaaeue.

«E iiaa?eee ieiaaeoyia Aiao, — iiaanoaoao ?anneac/ee, — e iauyaeee iino,
e iaeaeenue ai aeanyieoeu, io aaeeeiai aei iaeiai» (Eiia 3:5). Nai
a?iciue oea?ue anne?eeneee anoae n o?iia e, niya iaioeth, nae a ?oaeua
ia iaiea. Ai anaiauai iinoa i?eiyee o/anoea ia oieueei ethaee, ii aeaaea
e neio.

Oaeia ene?aiiaa nie?ooaiea, ?acoiaaony, ioaaei io ia/anoeaoeaa aiaa
Ainiiaeaiue. Ii Eiio oaeie ?acoeueoao aai aea i?iiiaaaee aeoaiei
aiciooee. A caiaeue/eainoe ii noae iaiyoue Aiao: «Ia yoi ee aiai?ee y,
aua eiaaea aue a caiea naiae?» Ii i?aaeaeaeae, /oi ssaaa iiieeoao
ieiaaeoyi.

«Iaoaeaee yoi oaay noieue iai?/eei?» — ni?inee Ainiiaeue. Eiia iie/ae,
ii aai iie/aiea auei aanueia e?anii?a/eai. Iaaeaynue aoaeia, /oi
iaaaniue a?ii ana aea ii?aceo Ieiaaeth, i?i?ie ?acaee iaeaoeo o aa noai
e noae iaaethaeaoue, /oi aoaeao aeaeueoa.

Oiaaea Ainiiaeue i?aiiaeae o?ie oi?yioeo: a iaeio ii/ue Ii au?anoee
oaienoia ?anoaiea, eioi?ia nianei Eiio io iaieeina?aeiiai iieoaeaiiiai
ciiy. Yoa iaiaeeaeaiiay i?ioeaaeiay oaiue i/aiue ia?aaeiaaea Eiio. Ii
iaoo?i neaaeothuaai aeiy /a?aue iiaeoi/ee ?anoaiea, e iii caayei. Aaoi?
neacaiey i?iaeieaeaao:

?en. 119

Ecaaaeaiea Eiiu. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

«Eiaaea aea caneyei nieioea, iaaae Aia iaeyuee aaoa? n ainoiea, e
nieioea ia/aei aea/ue aieiao Eiiu oae, /oi ii noae i?ineoue naaa nia?oe
e neacae: eo/oa iia oia?aoue, iaaeaee aeeoue! E neacae Aia Eiia:
iaoaeaee ou oae iai?/eeny ec-ca ?anoaiey? Ioaa/ae ii: i/aiue, aeaaea aei
nia?oe! Oiaaea neacae ssaaa: ou aeaeaaoue ?anoaiea, iaae eioi?ui ia
o?oaeeeny e eioi?iai ia au?aueaae, eioi?ia a iaeio ii/ue au?inei e a
iaeio aea ii/ue canioei. Iia ee ia iiaeaeaoue Ieiaaee, ai?iaea aaeeeiai,
a eioi?ii aieaa noa aeaaaeoeaoe ouny/ /aeiaae, ia oiathueo ioee/aoue
i?aaie ?oee io eaaie, e iiiaeanoai neioa?» (Eiia 4:8— 11).

Oaeia eiiaoe eieae, e ioaao ia aii?in Aiaa iai?aoeaaaony nai niaie:
Nicaeaoaeth aei?iae ana ia?iaeu, e aeaaea oaeie a?aoiue, eae ieiaaeoyia,
a nianaiea ycu/ieeia aeey Iaai ia iaiaa aaaeii, /ai nianaiea eoaeaaa.

A yoie eieaa aia?aua i?aaiieee i?i?ieia, eieaeieee, cayaeee i naaa eae i
iiaie aeooiaiie neea. Iaeiaei acaeyaeai, auneacaiiui a Eieaa i?i?iea
Eiiu, aoaeao iinoiyiii i?ioeaeoueny aeoo iaoa?ieiinoe, i?eaianaiiue a
eoaeaenoai eieaeieeii ec Aaaeeiia Yc?ie, i?iaicaeaoaiiui a 428 a. aei
?.O. ?aeeaeiciui aeaaie eoaeaaa.

Yc?a o?aeoiaae Caeii eae aeiaiai?: Aia aeae ethaeyi i?aaeienaiey
ioiineoaeueii anae eo aeecie, ii iie i?aiaa?aaaee oneiaeyie Caaaoa.
Auiieiea io neiaa aei neiaa ana, /oi o?aaoao Caeii, Ec?aeeue noaiao
aeinoieiui naiaai eca?aiie/anoaa e aoaeao niiaa a ieeinoe o Aiaa.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi caeiiie/anoai ii?iaeeo ocinoue nooiai
aoeaaeecia, oa?enaeneia naiiaeiaieuenoai e aunieiia?ea. Oaea/aiea
aiaoieie i?aaeeaie e ia?yaeaie aoaeao ii?ie i?eieiaoue a?ioaneiua oi?iu.
Yc?a o?aaiaae io eoaeaaa aaconeiaiie ecieyoeee, iieiiai ioaeaeaiey
/eaiia iaueiu io eiiieaiaiieeia, n/eoay iainiaeaiea io ycu/aneiai ie?a
iniiaiui oneiaeai nianaiey Ec?aeey. Ii ieii/aoaeueii i?aa?aoee Ec?aeeue
ec iaoeee a naiaai ?iaea ?aeeaeiciue i?aeai.

Aiai?y i ai?ueaa aeaoo oa/aiee a eoaeaenoaa — i?i?i/aneiai oieaa?naeecia
e caeiiie/aneie iainiaeaiiinoe, i?iua anaai n/anoue Yc?o eeoue ceui
aaieai Ec?aeey, iiaoaeaoei aeaei i?i?ieia. Ii iinea aica?auaiey ec ieaia
eoaeayi iaiaoiaeeii auei ia iaeioi?ia a?aiy oeoe a naay, iia?oceoueny a
?aciuoeaiey. Ieiaeaie ?aoi?iu Yc?u ainiieuecothony ioae?aoeu, eieaeieee
e ?aaaeiu, eioi?ua a oa/aiea noieaoee noaioo o?oaeeoueny iaae aeooiaiui
ainieoaieai ia?iaea. ?aoi?ia Yc?u iicaieeo ei ia o?aoeoue nee ia ai?ueao
n ycu/aneeie aeeyieyie.

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1 Enoi?e/aneeie eieaaie o?aaeeoeeiiii iacuaatho Eieae Eenona Iaaeia,
Noaeae e Oea?noa.

VI. IA II?IAA IIAIAI CAAAOA

Io yiioe Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai aei i?iiiaaaee Eiaiia E?anoeoaey

AOAeAeECI, EIAA E EIAeOECI

Aoiea Eiaeey, 272-232 aa. aei ?.O.

Ii?aaeaeaiiua iiiaiou enoi?ee iiaeii iaicia/eoue neiaaie: oi?aeanoai
aeooa. Oaeei a?aiaiai, aannii?ii, aue ?anoeaao aoaeaeecia a Eiaeee i?e
oea?a Aoiea (272-232 aa. aei ?.O.).

A ia/aea oea?noaiaaiey ii i?iyaee naay eae /aeiaae no?iaue e aeaaea
aeanoieee. Niaeanii eaaaiaea, aeiaeaaynue o?iia, oea?ue oia?oaee naieo
naiaeiuo a?aoueaa e aac eieaaaiee eaciee iaoaiaeiuo ethaeae. Ai a?aiy
aieiu n ainoi/iui eiyaeanoaii Eaeeiaie Aoiea ia?aaee aieaa noa ouny/
/aeiaae e oaiae a ieai noi iyoueaeanyo ouny/. ?anneacuaaee, /oi ieaiiuo
ii iiaeaa?aae no?aoiui iuoeai e iinueae ia eaoi?aeiua ?aaiou.

Ii iaeiiaoe ana yoe caa?noaa noaee oyaioeoue naiiai Aoieo. Ii
i?aaeaieth, ioaeanoai iaeiaai iiiaoa-aoaeaeenoa, iiiaaoaai a oea?neea
canoaiee, i?iaoaeeei a oea?a oa?ucaiey niaanoe e niinianoaiaaei ei?aiiie
ia?aiaia eae oa?aeoa?a, oae e iieeoeee Aoiee.

?en. 120

No?uey, aia Nieioea. XII a.

Ieiei 264 a. aei ?.O. oea?ue i?eiye aoaeaeeci, e iineaaeothuea aiaeu aai
i?aaeaiey ia ia?anoatho aucuaaoue oaeeaeaiea.

Ia?aoeaoenue e Aoaeaea, aeoaiia e naiaoa1, Aoiea oi?aeanoaaiii iauyaee,
/oi iio?ynai ai?ai ethaeae, iino?aaeaaoeo io aieiu, e /oi ?ani?aau,
iiaeiaiua iineaaeiae aieia, ieeiaaea aieueoa ia iiaoi?yony. Ii o?aaiaae,
/oiau aio niiauaee i aeaeao a ethaia a?aiy, ia aiynue ioi?aaoue io
?aaiou e ioaeuoa. Caaioeeny Aoiea e i caei?iauea iiaeaeaiiuo, naaeae
?iue, no?iee eaca?aou, ii aai i?eeaco auei au?uoi iiiai iiauo
eieiaeoeaa. Aeaaiie naiae caaea/ae Aoiea n/eoae «iaania/aiea n/anouey a
yoii e oii ie?a».

I?aaeaiea oea?y-aoaeaeenoa — yaeaiea ii/oe iai?aaaeiiiaeiaiia,
eneeth/eoaeueiia ai anae ie?iaie enoi?ee. Iii iieacaei, eaeie neeie
iiaoo noaoue ?aeeaeicii-i?aanoaaiiua i?eioeeiu, ?aaeeciaaiiua a aeecie
iauanoaa.

?en. 121

?iaeaeaiea Neou. XV a.

Caneoae oea?y-aoaeaeenoa ian?aaiaiiu, e ia ia iai eaaeaea aeia ca
i?ioeai?a/ey, iaia?oaeeaoeany a aeieo?eia Aoaeaeu, eiaaea iia aioea a
nii?eeiniiaaiea n ie?ii.

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1 Aeoaiia (iaee, nayuaiiue ycue ae?aaia-eiaeeeneeo eoeueoia) oi aea, /oi
aeoa?ia, ie?iaie ii?yaeie, caeii, oaeaea o/aiea Aoaeaeu; naiaoa —
aoaeaeenoneay iaueia. Aoaeaea, aeoa?ia e naiaoa — oae iacuaaaiua «o?e
nie?iaeua» aoaeaeecia.

?en. 122

Oa?e Oa?a.

Aiaeanoai n ao?eaooaie Oeau e Aeoio. 1730 a.

«Oea?noaaiiay eiaa» Iaoaiaeaeaee

Eiaeey, ie. 180 a. aei ?.O.

Iaeieo eiaa eio?eaoao naiae yecioeeie e iaauaaeuie oaiiiaiaie, ae?oaeo a
iae i?eaeaeatho niiniau nio?aieoue e oe?aieoue caei?iauea. Ii, oioy ai
anai yoii iaiaei io i?ioaie?othuae* iiaeu, nai ii naaa eioa?an e eiaa
aiieia ii?aaaeai. Anee aoaeaeenoneay ii?aeue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeio
ec aa?oei aeio?enoeaineie yoeee, oi eiaa neiioeaio?e?iaaea a naaa
ouny/aeaoiee iiuo naiioaeoaeaiey e ineoioaoieee, ia eiathuee naaa ?aaiuo
a ae?aaiinoe. Noaa oeieie aeooiaiie nia?aiiinoe, aneacu e nica?oeaiey,
iia iainii?eii caiyea naia ianoi a ?yaeo aaeeeeo aeinoeaeaiee
/aeiaa/anoaa.

Aua a III ouny/aeaoee aei ?.O. ia eiaeeeneeo ia/aoyo ecia?aaeaeenue
oeao?u, neaeyuea a eiae/aneie «iica eioina». Yoi aeieacuaaao, /oi eiaa
ca?iaeeeanue a aeia?eeneea a?aiaia n?aaee aai?eaaiia no?aiu.

Aaaeiaeoea i?eioeeiu eiae noi?ioee?iaae ao?o Iaoaiaeaeaee, aaoi?
«Eiaa-noo?u».

?aciuoeyy i Aiaeanoaa, /aeiaae ia iia ia caaeaaaoue naaa aii?in: ii/aio
Iii iaaeinooiii ethaeyi n oaeie aea i/aaeaeiinoueth, eae yaeaiey
aeaeeiiai ie?a eee aeinoeaeaiey ie?a aioo?aiiaai? Ia yoi a?aoiaieci
ioaa/ae: Nayuaiiia aeecei, Iii ?yaeii, Iii ai anai, Iii a oaaa; ii ou ia
a ninoiyiee nica?oeaoue Aai, eai aanue iia?oaeai a eiaeiia e a?aiiia.
Iiyoiio ou iiaeaoue ociaoue i Iai eeoue ec ienaiee eee nianoaaiiuo
oiicaeeth/aiee. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aea aini?eyoea Aiaa aeieaeii
i?aaeaa?youeny iiaeaioiaeie, eioi?ay naeaeaea au oaay niiniaiui e
iinoeaeaieth oaeiu Aaeeiiai e Aa/iiai. Yoie-oi oeaee e neoaeeo eiaa.

?en. 123

Aiieiuaiea Aeoio a aeaea aai?y. O—O/ aa

A i?ioeanna iaaeeoaoeee e oi?aaeiaiee ia Aia ioe?uaaaony ethaeyi, ii —
/aeiaae ia?aoaao naiiai naay. E Iaao iaeuecy iiaeiyoueny iaeieie
/aeiaa/aneeie oneeeyie. E anee i?e?iaeo (a oii /enea e nianoaaiioth) iu
enneaaeoai naie, oi Aiaiiiciaiea anoue ano?a/a e acaeiiaeaenoaea aeaoo
ia/ae, aeaoo aieue. A «Eiaa-noo?a» aea ana ia/eiaaony e eii/aaony
/aeiaaeii.

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_________

1 I?ioaiaoeey a oceii niunea neiaa — eniieiaiea nayuaiie/aneeo ooieoeee
eeoeaie, ia eiathueie niioaaonoaothuaai noaoona, o.a. iaiinayuaiiuie; a
oe?ieii — ?ani?ino?aiaiea a oi?iuaiiii e eneaaeaiiii aeaea neiaeiuo
niaoeeaeueiuo aicc?aiee.

Eiaeoeci

Eiaeey iaaeaeo II a. aei ?.O. e niaiie yiio

Auoiae eiaeoecia ia aaainoeaio enoi?ee niaa?oeeny ii/oe aac ai?ueau, eae
au iacaiaoii. Yoiio niinianoaiaaea, ai-ia?auo, neeiiiinoue eiaeeeoeaa
naeeaeaoue ?acee/iuo aiaia, /oi nicaeaaaei oa?ieiinoue iaaeaeo eo
ii/eoaoaeyie. Aoi?ay iniaaiiinoue eiaeoecia oiaea naycaia n
iaioaenoe/aneei ie?i/oanoaeai. Ethaay aa?a no?aieony iaeoe n?aaenoaa
aeey iaeieaiey aeenoaioeee iaaeaeo /aeiaaeii e Aunoei. Iaioaeci aea
i?inoi eaii?e?iaae yoo aeenoaioeeth. Oaaaeaeaiea, /oi ana ie?u i?iiecaiu
Aiaeanoaii e oanii niayiu iaaeaeo niaie, nicaeaaaei /oanoai aeecinoe
Nayuaiiiai; iiyoiio ?aeeaee, ianaeyaoea Anaeaiioth niiiaie aeooiaiuo
nee, anaaaea eiaee iniaoth i?eoyaaoaeueiinoue.

Aianoa n a?oae/aneeie aiaaie aa?ioeenue e iiiaea aeia?eeneea iau/ae.
Ia?aiauoiue oioaieci ia?ae aoi?ia aeuoaiea, oioy enoieeiauaaee aai oaea
ii-iiaiio: iineieueeo Aia iiaeao i?iyaeyoueny ai anai, oi ai?u,
?anoaiey, aeeaioiua aeieaeiu aini?eieiaoueny eae Aai aiieiuaiey. Ieaaea,
e?iia, iiaeaeoe, Aaeioa, eoeueo aeeaioiuo ia aea?aeaeny oae noieei, eae
a Eiaeee. Ii/eoaiea ei?ia, iaacueyi, ciae e ii nae aeaiue inoaaony
iaiouaieaiie /a?oie eiaeoecia.

?en. 124

Aeoio, nioneathueeny n iaaan (Ecaaaeaiea neiia) VI-VII aa.

Aieoaa a naay ?acii?iaeiua ia?yaeu, aa?iaaiey e noaaa?ey, eiaeoeci noae
nai iioiaeeoue ia oaioanoe/aneia ia?aieaoaiea oi?i, oe?aoathueo oanaaeu
eiaeeeneeo o?aiia, aaea aiae e aeaiiiu, ethaee e caa?e ia?acotho aaeeiue
oci? — ea?oeio iiiaieeeiai auoey.

Ieou ia aaaoa?ao1, /a?othuea eaaaiaeu i ?aia e Neoa, i ethaiaiuo
iioiaeaeaieyo ianoooa E?eoiu auee eo/oeie i?iaiaeieeaie eiaeoecia,
eioi?ue ioaeaaae aeieaeiia anai nineiaeyi, caiyoeyi e aic?anoai. Yoa
aieay ?aeeaey i?eaeaeaea anao: iooaeueieeia e aieiia, caieaaeaeueoeaa e
ai?iaeai. Iia ioe?uaaea aeaa?e aaeiaui oea?aiiieyi, i?eciaeai e iau/ayi.
Eiaeoeci noae aa?ie ia?iaea, ii ia?ac?uaii n?inny n aai aiaaoie
eoeueoo?ie e ieoae aa. Ana yoi iaania/eei eiaeoecio iiaaaeo iaae
iineaaeiaaoaeyie Aoaeaeu.

Oaeiaa auea aeooiaiay neooaoeey ia aa?aaao Aaiaa, eiaaea oai iiyaeeenue
ia?aua i?iiiaaaeieee Aaaiaaeey. Ii anee yeeeienoe/aneee ie? aue eo
ie?ii, oi Eiaeey inoaeanue aeey aiinoieia /oaeaeie e iaeiiiiyoiie.
Iiyoiio oniao iennee aue oai aanueia ia?aie/aiiui. Eeoue iiiai aaeia
nionoy o?enoeaia iao/aony oeaieoue aeooiaioth ioae?inoue Ainoiea e
niiaoo aiai?eoue n iei ia aai nianoaaiiii ycuea.

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1 Aaaoa?, eee aaaoa?a, aaoa?a (naine?.) — a eiaeoenoneie ieoieiaee aia,
i?eoaaeoee e ethaeyi a iaeeea nia?oiiai nouanoaa.

A?A*ANEAss IUNEUe

*aeiaae a iaiythuainy ie?a

Caiaae e Ainoie, IV—III aa. aei ?.O.

Ec anao ia?eiaeia ae?aaiinoe i?iia?acii XIX e XX aa. a iaeaieueoae
noaiaie iiaeao neoaeeoue oeeaeeecaoeey yeeeiecia.

Ia?aui iio?ynaieai aeey a?aeia noaei «ioe?uoea ie?a». A iioiaeao
Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai iie noieeioeenue n iiiaeie ia?iaeaie ae?aaiae
ooii/aiiie eoeueoo?u. Aieiu e i?eoaaeoea aneaae ca ieie oi?aiaoeu e
eieiienou ia eaaeaeii oaao noaeeeaaeenue n oaeeaeoaeueiuie aeey ieo
yaeaieyie. Ieiiaaa ionouie e caniaaeaiiua o?aaou Acee, iie iiiaaeaee a
ai?iaea ni no?aiiie, ia eo acaeyae, a?oeoaeoo?ie; eo ii?aaeaee caoee
iaaaaeiiuo ycueia, /oaeacaiiua aa?iaaiey e iau/ae. Aeeeiaeiiua eaeieu,
aeoa?e iaiaiieeiiieeia, eiaeeeneea aneaou, /aeiaa/aneea aea?oau, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, e cai?ao i?eiineoue a aea?oao aeaaea aeeaioiuo — n
ae?oaie, iaiiiyoiua caeiiu e ia?yaeu — neiaii, auei io /aai i?eeoe a
caiaoaoaeuenoai.

Aua ?aiueoa oeeiniou iiaeoi/eee aa?o a iacuaeaiinoue onoiaa
ainoaea?noaa. ?ac?ooeoaeueiua eaeae nioenoia, i?iaeou Ieaoiia,
enneaaeiaaiey A?enoioaey i?eaaee a?aeia e oaaaeaeaieth, /oi
a?aaeaeaineee ii?yaeie — ia/oi oneiaiia, oeaeeeii caaenyuaa io aiee
ethaeae. Iieeoe/aneay aeeciue iieena eeoaaony o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oi/ae
iii?u, ia?iaeo noaiiaeony ana o?oaeiaa ianoe a?aiy naiaiaeu.

?en. 125

O?ea?a. VI-V aa. aei ?.O.

?en. 126

Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee. Iicae/iay ea?oeia a Iiiiayo. O?aaiaio. II a.

Yoei iieuecothony aeeaaeioe — iieeiaiaeoeu, i?aaiieee Aeaenaiae?a.
Iaeaaeiiaoe iieacae ei ca?aceoaeueiue i?eia?. Ia?ac thiioe, iiei?eaoaai
iieie?a e iauyaeaoaai naay aiaii, noieo ia?aae ieie eae i?aaeae
/anoiethaeauo ia/oaiee.

Iaanaaaea i?ioee a?aiaia iaeaiueeeo oea?noa eee ?anioaeee, aaea aeey
?aoaiey aeae ia ieiuaaee iiaee nia?aoueny ana iieiii?aaiua aeeoaee. Ia
oaeaeny e iiuo oaaea?aoeee, naiaiaeiiai nithca no?ai.
Iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiay eiia?ey — yoa a?iaieoea naiaiaeu — ii naiie naiae
i?e?iaea o?aaoao neeueiie aeanoe. Iai?i/iinoue nayce aa /anoae, niayiiuo
eeoue neeie i?oaeey, iinoiyiii aeaao i naaa ciaoue. Iiyoiio
i?aaeoaeuenoao i?eoiaeeony aea?aeaoue iaaioiaa iaoeio iiaeaaeaiey e
oaaee/eaaoue aiia?ao /eiiaieeia.

Aea?ceay ia/oa Aeaenaiae?a ia?aiaoaoue ana ianaeaiea aea?aeaau,
i?aa?aoea aai a iaeei ia?iae, oi?aaeyaiue oea?ai-aiaii, ia
inouanoaeeanue. Iaeiaei e yeeeiu, e «aa?aa?u» ioiuia ieacuaathony a
iaeiie oi?yaeea eae oea?neea iiaeaeaiiua. Yoi iieiaeaiea, ?aieaoaa
naiiethaea a?aeia, eiiiaine?oaony aeey ieo oai, /oi yeeeienoe/aneay
eoeueoo?a noaiiaeony aaaeouae a Acee e Naaa?iie Ao?eea. Aa eaiiiu i?i/ii
aue?enoaeeeciaaeenue ca aaea: io e?eoi-ieeaineiai ia?eiaea aei a?aiaie
Ia?eeea e A?enoioaey. Iia iiei?yao naiae oaeeaeoaeueiie oeaeueiinoueth e
caaa?oaiiinoueth.

Aeaeioaoeeny i?e Aeaenaiae?a ia ainoie iioie a?aeia-ia?anaeaioeaa ia
ennyeaao a oa/aiea noieaoey iinea aai nia?oe. Iie?iaeoaeuenoaoaiua
oea?yie eieiienou ec Aoei, n A?oeiaeaaa, ec Eiiee i?iieeatho ana
aeaeueoa a aeoaue Acee e Ao?eee. I?inoiia?iaeiue ycue a?aeia (eieia1)
ia/eiaao ea?aoue ?ieue oieaa?naeueiiai. Ii iicaieyao a?aeai oioy au
io/anoe iuouaoue naay aeiia anthaeo: e o aa?aaia Aio-Aea?uee, e o
a?aieoe Eiaeee.

Ie? iinoaiaiii noaiiaeony yeeeineei; a oi aea a?aiy iaiyaony e naii
yeeeinoai: no?aieaiea e eiioi?oo, /oanoaaiiinoue, eciaaeaiiinoue e
ethaiaue e ?ineioe niaieee i?inoioo e no?iainoue, eioi?ua oeaieeenue
i?aaeieie iieieaieyie. A eeoa?aoo?a e eneonnoaa oaeaea iaia/aaony oyaa e
ecuneaiiiio, aicaoaeaeathuaio ia?au, y?ioe/aneiio. Iiiaea ienaoaee oiai
a?aiaie oeacuaatho ia i?eciaee iianaianoiiai i?aanoaaiiiai oiaaeea.

A ?acaeoii iauanoaa iooiae io ?aeeaee anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?acaoeii
noaaa?ee. Caeeeiaoaee, ciaoa?e, oieeiaaoaee niia e iaae i?i/ii e
iaaeieai iainiiauaathony a ai?iaeao. Iuneyuea ethaee euoo ioaaoa o
oeeinioia, aeeyiea eioi?uo aic?anoaao eae ieeiaaea ?aiueoa. Oeeinioey
aia?aua noaiiaeony iiioey?iie ai anao neiyo iauanoaa. Oeeiniou caiyou ia
noaeueaie Anaeaiiie e /aeiaa/anoaa, a o/anoueth eiaeeaeaea. N?aaee
yeeeienoe/aneeo iuneeoaeae iu i?aaeaea anaai aeaeei ii?aeenoia e
o/eoaeae aeecie. A yoii iie naeeaeathony n ioae?aoeaie Eiaeee e Eeoay,
eioi?ua i?iiiaaaeiaaee a oo aea yiioo.

A?a/aneay oeeinioey aunooiaao oaia?ue ia noieueei eae iaoea aeey
ethaiciaoaeueiuo, neieueei eae iaiaoeay, noeyuay /aeiaaeo nianaiea e
aioo?aiiee ie?. *aou?a oeieu a?aiai yeeeiecia: neaioe/aneay,
yieeo?aeneay, eeie/aneay e noie/aneay — iieo/atho oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a iannao.

________________________________________________________________________

‘ Eieia — ?acaiai?iue ycue, ia eioi?ii iauaeenue iaaeaeo niaie iineoaee
?aciuo a?a/aneeo aeeaeaeoia. A eieia aeeaeaeoiua iniaaiiinoe auee
noa?ou, /oi niinianoaiaaei acaeiiiiieiaieth.

Yieeo? e neaioeee Aoeiu e Yeeaea, III a. aei ?.O.

Nui aaaeiiai aoeineiai ia?anaeaioea Yieeo? (341—271 aa. aei ?.O.) i?iaae
aeaonoai ia ino?iaa Naiia, ?iaeeia Ieoaai?a. Iaoue aai auea
caeeeiaoaeueieoeae ceuo aeooia e ca?aaaouaaea ia oeaa naiei eneonnoaii.
Yieeo? aua ?aaaieii auioaeaeai aue nii?iaiaeaeaoue aa, eiaaea iia
oiaeeea ii aeiiai, aithy n aeaiiiaie, e oaean io iinoiyiiie aeecinoe
/aai-oi ceiaauaai iiaeeye ia iaeue/eea: ioa/anoaaiiay ?aeeaey i?aaenoaea
ia?aae Yieeo?ii a iooaeeeaathuai aeaea, ioiaeaeanoaeyynue n ?aianeii
iaoa?e.

Aunueea yiea?aioia ec Aoei canoaaeea Yieeo?a a 322 a. oaoaoue a Iaeoth
Aceth. Oai ii neeoaeny ianeieueei eao, eco/ay oeeinioeth, /eoay eaeoeee
e oa?iy ii?ie e?aeithth ioaeaeo. Iinoaiaiii o iaai neiaeeeanue
nianoaaiiay nenoaia acaeyaeia. Noa?aeiai yieeo?aenoaa noaea ia
einiieiaey, a iiaia ioiioaiea e aeecie.

A o?eaeoeaoue aeaa aiaea Yieeo? ia/eiaao i?iiiaaaeiaaoue naith aeieo?eio
e eceaaaoue aa ienueiaiii. Eaoii 306 a. ii aica?auaaony a Aoeiu, aaea
auno?i iaoiaeeo o/aieeia, noaaoeo aai i?aaeaiiuie e ethayueie
ae?ocueyie. Iaeciaiii niieieiue e i?inaaoeaiiue, ii aeaeaao eo eae au
/eaiaie iaeiie naiuee. Ii i?eia?o neooaoaeae Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey iie
i?eia?aoatho aeey Yieeo?a o/anoie caiee aeec Aeeieeiineeo ai?io. Ooaea,
a oaienoue naae, noiaeyony ana aeaeathuea i?eiyoue o/anoea a aanaaeao
ioae?aoea. Oeeinio oaiuaao eo oeaaii e ?iaeieeiaie aiaeie e o/eo
iaoiaeeoue ?aaeinoue a naiii i?inoii e iaiaoiaeeiii.

?en. 127

Yieeo?. IV-V aa. aei ?.O.

I /ai aea aaeenue aanaaeu n?aaee ie?o e oeaaoia Yieeo?iaa naaea?

Ia/aoue n oiai, /oi oeeinio, n/eoay Anaeaiioth neiieaieai aoiiia, oai ia
iaiaa anaaaea ioeeiiye iaaeiaiey a ia/anoee eee aoaecia. «Aiae
nouanoaotho, — cayaeye ii. — Iiciaiea eo — oaeo i/aaeaeiue. Ii iie ia
oaeiau, eaeeie i?aaenoaaeyao eo oieia».

Yieeo? ia i?eciaaae ie/aai /enoi aeooiaiiai e aeaaea i?e?iaeo aiaia
?anniao?eaae eae iaoa?eaeueioth.

Eo auoea ?eniaaeinue aio aa?oeiie ie?iaiai niaa?oainoaa, e iioiio ii
n/eoae eo naiaiaeiuie io oaeie oyaeeie iaycaiiinoe, eae ?oeiaiaenoai
ie?ii. Ie? ethaeae e ie? aiaia, niaeanii Yieeo?o, — aeaa ii/oe ie/ai ia
naycaiiua noa?u. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoi aeieaeii ono?aieoue anyeee no?ao
ia?aae aiaeanoaaiiui. Noieue aea aanniuneai e no?ao ia?aae Noaeueaie.

*aeiaae aeieaeai aueeiooue ec aieiau e iuneue i nia?oe. «Nia?oue, —
aeieacuaae Yieeo?, — ia eiaao ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e iai: eai oi, /oi
?aceiaeeeinue, ia /oanoaoao, a oi, /oi ia /oanoaoao, ia eiaao ieeaeiai
ioiioaiey e iai». Nia?oue ia eanaaony ie aeeauo, ie ia?oauo, «oae eae
aeey iaeieo iia ia nouanoaoao, a ae?oaea — oaea ia nouanoaotho».

Iieii/ea, oaeei ia?acii, n «naiui no?aoiui ec cie», Yieeo? i?aauaaao a
oaa?aiiinoe, /oi iaoae nae?ao n/anoeeaie aeecie. Ouaneaaea,
aeanoiethaea, ae/iinoue, ?anioonoai — ana yoi, ii iiaieth oeeinioa,
aieacie, eioi?ua ecio?ytho /aeiaaea, eeoay aai aioo?aiiaai ?aaiiaaney.
«Aeaaiiieo/ea e n/anouea ia a iaeeee aeaiaa, ia a aunieii iieiaeaiee, ia
a aeieaeiinoyo eaeeo-eeai eee neea, ii a naiaiaea io ia/aee, a
oia?aiiinoe /oanoa e ?aniieiaeaiee aeooe, iieaaathueo (anaio) i?aaeaeu,
iacia/aiiua i?e?iaeie».

I?iiiaaaeoy aicaea?aeaiea, Yieeo? iieaaaao, /oi i?aanoaaiiia iiaaaeaiea
anoanoaaiii aeey /aeiaaea, /oi naia i?e?iaea aai iai?aaeaia e
aeia?iaeaoaee. Ii i?ioiaeeo ieii o?aae/aneeo eiioeeeoia ee/iinoe,
eioi?ua n oaeie neeie ecia?aaeaee Nioiee e Aa?eieae.

Yieeo? ia i?eciaao ie/aai, /oi noiyei au iaae ethaeueie, o?aaoy io ieo
ai?ueau n ie?ii e n niaie. Aeaeaeneee Eia ainnoaaae i?ioea cea, o?aaiaae
ni?aaaaeeeainoe, eai ciae, /oi ie? e /aeiaae eiatho aunoaa
i?aaeiacia/aiea. Yieeo? aea ia aa?eo ie a iniuneaiiinoue ie?a, ie a
eiia/ioth I?aaaeo e e?ioei i?eaieao aeeciue oaeie, eaeiaa iia anoue.

Oae aea, eae yieeo?aenoai, e?ao/aeoee iooue e ia?ooeiiio aioo?aiiaio
ie?o i?aaeeaaae e neaioeoeeci.

Iao?ea?oii neaioeeia n/eoaaony Ie??ii (365—275 aa. aei ?.O.) ec
iaeiiiiianneiai ai?iaea Yeeaeu. Iiaeiaii Yieeo?o, ii eneae nae?ao
n/anouey, iiieiay aai eae naiaiaeo io ieia ie?a.

I?eciaa, /oi /oanoaa ia aeatho iiaeeeiiie ea?oeiu auoey, a ?acoi ia
niiniaai aeaaaoue iainii?eiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa, neaioeee aicaaee
niiiaiea a i?eioeeiu, iieiinoueth io?eoeay iauaeoeaioth oeaiiinoue
ethaiai oai?aoe/aneiai ooaa?aeaeaiey. Iie n/eoaee, /oi iu ia?a/aiu
aeeoue iaeieie «iiaieyie», /oi iao ?aoeeiiaeueiiai e?eoa?ey, eioi?ue aue
au aeinoaoi/ii i?i/iui ooiaeaiaioii ie?iaicc?aiey. A yoii aannii?iay
caneoaa ie??iienoia a enoi?ee iunee.

I?aeoe/aneee aea niune oeeinioneiai neainena aeaeaeny a aicaea?aeaiee io
noaeaeaiee, a iaaiciooeiinoe, aanno?anoee. A yoii ioieoa Ie??ii
niieioeny a Yieeo?ii, e a?a/aneay iuneue aua ?ac ia?anaeeanue n
aoaeaeeeneie. Iooue Ie??iia aae e ooieeo, iaaeaeo oai eae /aeiaae eneae
auoiaea, eneae ?aoaiey ei?aiiuo aeeciaiiuo i?iaeai.

«AEeoue niaeanii i?e?iaea!»

Aoeiu e Ei?eio, V—III aa. aei ?.O.

I?eiyoi aeoiaoue, /oi oieiu iai?aaiiuo iieiaeuo ethaeae, eioi?ua
neiiythony ii aei?iaai e oeeoeai aieueoeo ai?iaeia, iiyaeeenue oieueei a
iaoo yiioo, i?anuuaiioth oeeaeeecaoeeae. Iaaeaeo oai aioe/iue ie? oiaea
ciae naieo «oeiie»; iie ai iiiaii auee iioiaee ia iuiaoieo, oioy, a
ioee/ea io ieo, eniiaaaeiaaee ynioth e caeii/aiioth oeeinioeth
ii?iuaiey.

Iiaeiaiua ac?uau ioa?auaiey e oeeaeeecaoeee nii?iaiaeaeaee aa iiiaea
aaea, io Eai-oecu aei ?onni e Oienoiai. Yoi yaeaiea ianeo/aeiia; iii
oanii naycaii n i?ioeai?a/eyie, ecia/aeueii i?enoueie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Naiay na?ueaciay iiiuoea «aa?iooueny e i?e?iaea» enoiaeeea ec iunee, /oi
/aeiaae aeieaeai eneaoue ?oeiaiaenoaa e /ai-oi, noiyuai iaae iei. A
ea/anoaa oaeie iniiau /anoi iacuaaee «anoanoaaiiue Ii?yaeie»,
io?aaeathuee Aiaeanoaaiiia auoea. «Ana auoiaeeo oi?ioei ec ?oe
Ie?icaeaoaey, ana au?iaeaeaaony a ?oeao /aeiaaea», — aiai?ee ?onni,
aunooiay i?ioea oneiaiinoae e eneonnoaaiiinoe oeeaeeeciaaiiie aeecie. A
A?aoeee au?aceoaeyie yoiai i?ioanoa noaee eeieee. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau
eo o/aiey aeiaieueii neaau; eeieci ia noieueei oai?ey, neieueei niinia
nouanoaiaaiey. A a yiioo, eiaaea ethaee oa?yee ii/ao iiae iiaaie, yoio
aucuaathuee e a oi aea a?aiy ?aaii aeinooiiue e aaaeiyeai, e i?anuuaiiui
ia?ac aeecie iiiiaae naiiooaa?aeaeaieth ee/iinoe.

?en. 128

Aeeiaai e Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee. ?aeueao. Eiiey ea?oeiu. IV a. aei
?.O.

N?aaee eeieeia iaeaieueooth, i?aaaea, ianeieueei neaiaeaeueioth
ecaanoiinoue iieo/ee Aeeiaai Neiiineee (400—323 aa. aei ?.O.). AEaeaiea
ii?inoeoueny i?eiyei o iaai a?ioaneiua oi?iu. *aeiaae ia?aciaaiiue,
ienaoaeue e ii?aeeno, ii noae oiaeeoue ii oeeoeai iieoaieui, ii/aaaoue a
aieueoii eoaoeia ec-iiae ca?ia («Aeeiaaiiaa ai/ea»), eaeaoue aiaeo, eae
niaaea, ioi?aaeyoue anoanoaaiiua ioaeaeu i?e anao, cayaeyy: «*oi
anoanoaaiii, oi ia iinouaeii». Ii aeaaea iuoaeny anoue nu?ia iyni.

Iaeii iai?/aei aai: iaei auei ethaeae, aeaeathueo neaaeiaaoue aai
i?eia?o. Ii oiaeee ii oeeoeai n oiia?ai n?aaee aaea aeiy, cayaeyy, /oi
ouaoii euao oioy au iaeiiai ianoiyuaai /aeiaaea.

A III a. aei ?.O. eeieci noae i/aiue iiioey?ai. Ii eiaiii oiaaea yoi
o/aiea ia/eiaao aeaa?aaee?iaaoue. Eeieee iacaiaoii i?aa?auathony a
«oeeieeia» a nia?aiaiiii niunea neiaa. Iie i?iiiaaaeotho aeeaioiue
yaieci, o/ao ?aaiiaeooii ia?aiineoue nia?oue aeeceeo. O?iee o?oaeiethaey
niaiythony ii?aaaeaieai ia?aceoecia, aneaoeci — oiaieai aeeoue ca /oaeie
n/ao.

Oeeaeeecaoeey ianao a naaa iiiai oaiiiai — ii ia oaeiaa ee o/anoue anaai
nicaeaiiiai /aeiaaeii? Ii?iee oeeaeeecaoeee — aai ii?iee. A oi aea a?aiy
iaeuecy ia i?eciaoue, /oi e a oeeaeeecaoeee /aeiaae ?aaeecoao
caeiaeaiiua a iai oai?/aneea aiciiaeiinoe. Eeieee, eae aiai?eony, aianoa
n aiaeie auieaneeaaee e ?aaaiea. Iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea e ai?iaeneie
aeecie iie ia?aiineee ia eoeueoo?o aiiaua, ioaeaaay i?aaeii/oaiea
iieoaeeaioiiio ia?aco aeecie, a yoi auei oaea ianoiyuei iinyaaoaeuenoaii
ia aeoo e eoeueoo?o.

Oai ia iaiaa, eeieci ia i?ioae aanneaaeii a enoi?ee iunee. I/enoea aai
io th?iaenoaa e e?aeiinoae, noieee iieiaeeee iaeioi?ua aai i?eioeeiu a
iniiao naiaai ie?iaicc?aiey, noaaoaai naiui aeeyoaeueiui a yiioo
yeeeiecia.

Ia?aua noieee

Aoeiu, 315-200 aa. aei ?.O.

I?aanoaaiiay aeeeaiia aeey noieeia oaeeaeoaeueii i?inoa. Ei iaiiiyoia
ae?aia aiee, eioi?ay a naieo iaoaieyo ia?aeecoao ?acoi. Aeey ieo
aanniuneeoeae cao/aee au neiaa aiinoiea Iaaea: «Oi, /oi iaiaaeaeo, oi
ethaeth», eai iie n/eoaee, /oi ?acoi aeaeaao oieueei aeia?a. A neeo aea
?acoia iie aa?eee aani?aaeaeueii.

Noieoeeci noae naiaia?aciie oi?iie aaanoaa io ie?a. Aei eiioea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiue noiee naiaiaeai io i?eaycaiiinoae, eae eia eee
aoaeaeenoneee iiiao. O iaai iao naiuee, iao aeaeaiey neaau, iao aeaaeaeu
ianeaaeaeaiee. Oaeiaieuenoaea a aai aeacao — aeoiinoue. Ii no?ia, o?aca,
ie/aio ia oaeeaeyaony, ie/aai ia no?aoeony. Ii ?aaiiaeooai e ethaui
i?aa?aoiinoyi aeecie. «Aaoa n/anouea — ia ioaeaeaoueny a n/anouea», —
ia?auaaony ii e ethaeyi.

Nicaeaoue iiaue oei ?aeeaee noieoeeci aue ia a ninoiyiee, aea, a
nouiinoe, e ia i?aoaiaeiaae ia yoi. Aeey aieueoeinoaa naieo noi?iiieeia
ii inoaaaeny oieueei «eaeaieiaeae», a ?aeeaey — yoi aeeciue.

IOAe?AOeU AAOOIAI CAAAOA

*aeiaa/aneay ioae?inoue

e I?aioae?inoue Aiaeey

Ea?onaeei, 420-400 aa. aei ?.O.

Eieae Aeaeee, iaienaiiua iaaeaeo 400 e 200 aa. aei ?.O., aiai?yo i
iai?yaeaiiie aeooiaiie aeecie: i nii?ao, eneaieyo e iiauo iiai?ioao
?aeeaeiciie iunee. I?eo/e, Eia, aiieaeeioe/aneea ienaiey, Yeeeaceano
iiaeiaiu ieeai iiaeaiaeiiai o?aaoa, iiaeiiaeea eioi?iai ne?uoi a
aeoaeiao aiae. Ii iei iu iiaeai oioy au io/anoe noaeeoue i oii, /ai aeee
oiaaea Ec?aeeue.

?en. 129

Oeeoea a Ea?onaeeia

Ioae?aoeu niieieii aeaeaee naia aeaei: niae?aee ae?aaiea i?eo/e, neaaaee
inaeiu e iiyiu, ninoaaeyee aioieiaee. Aeey ieo aaaeiaa anaai auei ia
ii?iaa?aaoue eiai-oi, a aeaeeoueny naieie aeoiaie i /aeiaa/aneie aeecie
e aa iooyo. Oae aicieeea Eieaa I?eo/ae Nieiiiiiauo.

Iaeei nia?aiaiiue ienaoaeue caiaoee: eiaaea ia?aoiaeeoue io /oaiey
I?i?ieia e I?eo/ai, eaaeaony, aoaeoi nioneaaoueny n iaaa ia caieth. E a
naiii aeaea, yoa eieaa niaea?aeeo aeaaiui ia?acii iunee i naiaeiie
aeecie e ainieoaiee aeaoae, i caiyoeyo ai?iaeai e caieaaeaeueoeaa, i
ae?oaeaa e /anoiinoe, aaaeiinoe e aiaaonoaa, o?oaeiethaee e i?acaeiinoe.

Ca aeeoaeneeie naioaioeeyie eieae noieo ia/oi ai?acaei aieueoaa, /ai
eaaeaony ia ia?aue acaeyae. Ia i?eia?a I?eo/ae iu aeaeei, eae
Ioe?iaaiea, ia eiiay anoanoaaiiiai oiaea /aeiaa/aneie iunee, iaaeeaiii
i?iieeaao a aa iaae?a e a eiioea eiioeia i?eaiaeeo e iiciaieth aiee
Oai?oea.

O a?aeia ioae?inoue iiae/an naia ii naaa n/eoaeanue aeia?iaeaoaeueth. A
Eieaa I?eo/ae, iaiai?io, eiaiii aeia?iaeaoaeue ii/eoaaony enoeiiie
ioae?inoueth, eai ioae? ia oio, eoi eiaao iiiai ciaiee i ie?a (/oi yoi a
n?aaiaiee n naiei ie?ii?), a oio, /uey aeeciue niaeanoaony a aaeaieyie
Aiaeeeie. Ia?ooaiea Aai aiee anoue aacoiea eee ?iae naiioaeenoaa.

I?e yoii ioae?aoe aiana ia neeiiai n/eoaoue aeia?i «anoanoaaiiui» e
eaaeei. Ii neeoeii oi?ioi ciaao i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue /aeiaa/aneie
iaoo?u ei ceo. Ethaeyi ioithaeue ia naienoaaiii iiaeiiaaoueny aieino
niaanoe e ?acoia.

Yoio aeaeaeneee ?aaeeci ia iicaieyao ioae?aoeo eneaoue enoi/iee
i?aanoaaiiinoe a naiii /aeiaaea. Iii?iay oi/ea yoeee aeieaeia
iaoiaeeoueny auoa, a naa?oi?e?iaeiii ie?a. Auae?ay iaaeaeo aeia?ii e
ceii, eioi?ua /aeiaae iaia?oaeeaaao a naaa, ii aeieaeai neaaeiaaoue
aeia?o eae caeiio, onoaiiaeaiiiio Oai?oeii. Iiaeeeiiay ioae?inoue
iaioaeaeeia io aa?u, io no?aieaiey auiieiyoue caiiaaaee. Ioae?inoue eae
eniieiaiea aaeaiee Nouaai i?ioeainoieo a?aoo e iaiiue a /aeiaa/aneii
auoee.

Oaea ia ia?aue ?ac a aeie nei?aae e niiiaiee ia?auaeny Ec?aeeue e
Nouaio. E aio niiaa ii aicauoaao aiein, /oiau aiai?eoue ni naiei
Ainiiaeii. Yoio ii?aceoaeueiue aeeaeia iu iaoiaeei a naiie o?aae/iie e
aa?ie/aneie eieaa Aeaeee, eieaa, iinyuae eiy Eiaa.

Eia

Eoaeay, ie. 400 a. aei ?.O.

Eieaa Eiaa, ii?aaeathuay aeoaeiie iunee e iiyoe/aneie e?anioie, ecaeaaia
i?eaeaeaea aiaineiaia e oeeinioia, ooaeiaeieeia e iiyoia. Aa ia?aeaaae
Eiiiiinia, A?oa eniieueciaae aa nthaeao a i?ieiaa naiaai «Oaonoa»,
Iooeei aiai?ee, /oi a yoie eieaa caeeth/aia «any /aeiaa/aneay aeeciue»;
ii niaoeeaeueii eco/ae aa?aeneee ycue, /oiau ia?aaiaeeoue «Eiaa».

?en. 130

Ian/anoey Eiaa. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

?en. 131

Eia ia aiieua. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Ii/aio no?aaeaao iaaeiiue?

Aaeeeea a?a/aneea o?aaeee — nia?aiaiieee aaoi?a Eieae Eiaa — /aua anaai
eneaee ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in a eaeaa ?iaeiaiai aiciacaeey eee a oaeiii,
ionoue aeaaea iainiciaiiii, a?aoa (eae oi auei n Yaeeiii). Eiaeeeoeu
nnueaeenue ia ia?aaiieiuaiea e Ea?io1. Ie/aai iiaeiaiiai iao a Eieaa
Eiaa. Iia io?eoeaao ianeaaenoaaiioth aeio, a a i?ieiaa Nai ssaaa
i?eciaao aa?iy «iaii?i/iui, ni?aaaaeeeaui, aiaiaiyciaiiui e aeaeaeei io
cea» (Eia 1:8). Aia eae au ai?aeeony aai aa?iinoueth e, oeacuaay ia Eiaa
Naoaia, iacuaaao aai Naiei «neoaeeoaeai». Oai naiui aii?in i o?aae/aneie
noaeueaa i?aaaaeieea iinoaaeai a i?aaeaeueii yniie, aaciaiai?i/iie
oi?ia.

Eia — ia iiiacaiiee, ia i?i?ie, ia io/aiee, acyaoee ia naay a?aoe
ethaeae; ii i?inoi /aeiaae, iaeei ec iiiaeo. Iiyoiio ana iiiuoee
aeaeaoue a iai i?iia?ac O?enoa eeoaiu iniiaaiey. Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi
auaeaeyao Eiaa, — i?aaaaeiinoue. E ia iia ee aeieaeia auea, niaeanii
iauai?eiyoui acaeyaeai, ia?aaeeoue aai io anyeiai cea? Iaaeaeo oai ii —
aacoi?a/iue e /enoue — iiaeaa?aaaony naiui aeanoieei eniuoaieyi. Cia/eo
ee yoi, /oi /aeiaae ia iiaeao aieueoa ?ann/eouaaoue ia ni?aaaaeeeainoue?
Eoi aea a oaeii neo/aa Ii, Aa?oauee iooe ie?a, e eaeia ianoi Ii
i?aaeiacia/ee ia caiea /aeiaaeo? Eia eae au aiai?eo io eeoea Aaaey e
anao eaeoueo ca iei aea?oa.

O?oaeii ii/oanoaiaaoue anth aeoaeio io/ayiey Eiaa, anee ia ciaoue
eoaeaeneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee oie yiioe i /aeiaaea. Aeey Aeaeee /aeiaae — ia
«ieaiiue aeoo», ii oeaeinoiia aeeaia nouanoai, aaeeinoai aeooa e ieioe.

Eiaaea ?ac?ooaaony naycue aeooa e ieioe, /aeiaae, ii iiaieth eoaeaaa,
oaeoe/anee en/acaao. Aaeiaoneea ae?aoeu, a?a/aneea oeeiniou e
iineaaeiaaoaee eiaeoecia oaea aeaaii i?iieeeenue aa?ie a oi, /oi auoea
ee/iinoe ia eii/aaony n iineaaeiei acaeioii. Ionoue iie iiieiaee
iinia?oea ii-?aciiio, ii yoi auei iaoe?iia aeooiaiia i?ino?ainoai,
eioi?ia ?acaa?ouaaeinue ia?aae /aeiaaeii, niciaaaaoei naay aannia?oiui.

Aaooee Caaao yoie ia?niaeoeau aue aeieai eeoai. Naao aa?u ica?ye aeey
eoaeay oieueei caiiie ie?. Iiaeeeiiie aeeciueth a aai aeacao iaeaaeae
iaeei Nouee. Ana inoaeueiia iieo/eei io Iaai eeoue a?aiaiiia auoea.
Nia?oue aica?auaea ieioue caiea, a aeooo oaeaeaea a oea?noai oaiae,
eoaea ia i?iieeae naao Aiaeee.

Ionoonoaea aa?u a aannia?oea i?eaiaeeei e iniciaieth oeaiiinoe aeecie e
caiiuo aeae. Anee /aeiaae oioae iiciaoue iieiioo auoey a ioiouaiiue aio
n?ie, ii aeieaeai aue oai?eoue aeia?i e oaeaeyoueny io cea. Caeanue,
iiea ii aeea, ii e iiaeeiae ieiaeu ei niaa?oaiiiai. Yoe aeanoeea ?aiee
yaeeenue iaeiei ec aaee/aeoeo aeooiaiuo eniuoaiee Ec?aeey, ii a oi aea
a?aiy iie i?aaeio?aiyee aai io ia/oaoaeueiiai nie?eooaeecia. Oae
naaeiaiee eiiaaea ia?aaeaeaao ni anai noi?ii ?anoaiea, /oiau oe?aieoue
aai.

Eoi ciaao, ia eiaao ee ineaaeaiea /oanoaa aannia?oey a iaoe aeie oaeiai
aea i?iaeaeaioeeaeueiiai2 niunea? Aaaeue aa?ie a eiie ie? neeoeii /anoi
ceioiio?aaeyee a oua?a i?aanoaaiiui o?aaiaaieyi ?aeeaee. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi
Aaaiaaeea iaei aiai?eo i iinia?oee, oioy iii iinoiyiii iiae?acoiaaaaony.
Yoi cia/eo, /oi iuneue i aa/iinoe ia aeieaeia auoaniyoue o ethaeae iunee
i i?aanoaaiiuo caaea/ao a?aiaiiie aeecie.

Eia — /aeiaae, eioi?ue ie/aai ia ciaao i Nayuaiiie enoi?ee e ia oi/ao
neuoaoue i a?yaeoueo iieieaieyo. Ii aii?ioaao Aiaa i naaa. ?acaeaaeaiiue
ai?ai e eaaeauee a iuee, ia naiii aeaea ii noieo ai aanue ?ino. Eiao
auei au eaa/a, anee a ii ciae, /oi aeiiaai. Ii ii niciaao naith i?aaioo,
e yoi naiia oaeaniia. Aaaeue ii n/eoae, /oi Aia ia iia oae iinooieoue n
iei. A ?ac yoi neo/eeinue — oi ?ooeony ana… Ii iaeei, aaniethoii iaeei
— ai aeanoe niaaeathuae aai aiee.

A Eieaa Eiaa oaea niaea?aeeony aanue «ea?aiacianeee» aoio i?ioea Aiaa e
ie?a, a iae aeai e iieiue iaai? yecenoaioeeaeueiuo3 oa?aeoa?enoee
/aeiaaea. Ii o?oiie, ie/oiaeai, caaeaaeai no?aoii e iaoaa?aiiinoueth.
Ie? aeey iaai iieii oaeana; yoi eioia?, io eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii
i?iaoaeeoueny.

A naieo aeaeiaao e iaaeiaieyo Eia aeioiaeeo aei naiiai e?ay i?iianoe;
eaaeaony, /oi aio-aio ii ni?aaony, e oiaaea ie/aai ia inoaiaony, e?iia
aoioa.

Naiia iaiinoeaeeiia, /oi yoio /aeiaae, i?ecuaaaoee Aiaa ia noae,
inoaaaeny ana aea /aeiaaeii aa?u.

Ni aeia aacaeiu Eia iaaeiyao Aiaa a aeanoieinoe, aoaeia iaaeaynue, /oi
ioeaaaony.

Aeiaa?ea Eiaa ninoaaeyao naioth nooue aai ioiioaiey e Aiao. Oioy e
?acoi, e /oanoaa aiai?yo aio, /oi ana aiiee iai?aniu, ii ia ia?anoaao
acuaaoue. Iie/aiea Iaaa ia iiaeao iieieaaaoue i?aaaaeieea.

E aio aiacaiii ec iaeaoaaoae ao?e ?acaeaaony aean Ainiiaeaiue.

ssaeaoenue Eiao, Aia ia nieiaao iie?iaa n oaeiu. Cia/eo ee yoi, /oi
ioaaoia aiiaua ia nouanoaoao? Iao, ii a aeaiiii neo/aa ana iauyniaiey
auee au iaoianoiu.

Eia iia au oneuoaoue i aannia?oee /aeiaaea, i aicaeayieyo a aa/iinoe, i
aine?anaiee, ii aaaeue aai io/eei e eiia: ii/aio Aia aeiioneaao cei a
ie?a?

A ?a/ao ssaaa iu iaoiaeei eeoue aaeaa oeiaeiue iaiae ia ioaao. Ii
aiai?eo oieueei i oii, /oi aaoi? ciaao. A ciaao ii iiea iaeii: iuneue
/aeiaaea ia a neeao aianoeoue anao caiuneia I?iaeaeaiey.

Ana iooe Oai?oea iai?aaeaiu ia eiia/iia aeaai ie?a, neieue au
caaaaei/iuie iie ie eacaeenue ethaeyi.

Ii nouanoao e yoiio naiaeeony aanue iiiieia ssaaa. Ii ai?acaei aaaeiaa
aeey iiieiaiey eieae — ?aaeoeey e ioaao naiiai Eiaa ia Aiaiyaeaiea. Ii
«eeaaeao ?oeo naith ia onoa» (Eia 39:34), neeiiyaony a nie?aiee e
aeaaiaiaaiee. Ii/aio?

A i?enoonoaee Ainiiaeiai ana aii?inu ioiaee naie niaie. Au?aceoue yoo
oaeio ieacaeinue ia iiae neeo aeaaea oaeiio aaeeeiio iiyoo, eae aaoi?
Eieae Eiaa. Oai?aiea aai i?ae?anii eiaiii yoie iaaeineacaiiinoueth e
oeaeiioae?eai.

Eieaa Eiaa ia io?eoeaao Aiaeeae ni?aaaaeeeainoe; iia eeoue iieacuaaao,
/oi ia ana iauyniyaony oieueei aicaeayieai. A yoii aa ia?iiiia cia/aiea
a enoi?ee Aaooiai Caaaoa. Iia auea nicaeaia, eiaaea noa?ia aiaineiaea
ia?aaeeaaei o?aae/aneee e?ecen.

________________________________________________________________________
_____

1 Ea?ia (eiae.) — caeii aicaeayiey, caeii i?e/ei e neaaenoaee.

2 I?iaeaeaioeeaeueiue — i?aaeoniio?aiiue I?iiuneii Aiaeeei e neoaeauee
Aai oeaeyi.

3 Yecenoaioeeaeueiue (io eao. exsistentia, «nouanoaiaaiea») —
ioiinyueeny e auoeth.

Yeeeaceano

Eoaeay, ie. 350 a. aei ?.O.

Eieaa Eiaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i a?iaeaiee oiia e aea?eeo nii?ao,
aieiiaaaoeo Ec?aeeue, eiaaea iuneyuea ethaee iuoaeenue iaeoe ?ac?aoaiea
aeao/eo i?iaeai, ecaaaay nnueie ia Caeii e Nayuaiioth enoi?eth. A
iai?yaeaiiie aeooiaiie ai?ueaa noaeeeaaeenue i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oi/ee
c?aiey. Ii aeaaea e ia yoii oiia naiaiaeiuo aeeneonnee Yeeeaceano iia
iieacaoueny eieaie aucuaathuae.

«?iae ooiaeeo, e ?iae i?eoiaeeo, a Caiey inoaaony iaaae.

Ainoiaeeo nieioea, e caoiaeeo nieioea, e ia ianoi naia iiniaoaao…

Ana — iaeia iaaoa, e ieeoi ?anneacaoue ia oiaao, —

Aeyaeyo — ia i?anuoyony i/e, neooatho — ia ia?aiieiyony ooe.

*oi auei, oi e aoaeao, e /oi oai?eeinue, oi e oai?eony,

E iao ie/aai iiaiai iiae nieioeai. Auaaao, neaaeoo i /ai-oi: niio?e, yoi
iiainoue!

A yoi oaea auei a aaeao, /oi i?ioee aei ian».

(Aeee 1:4-10)

Ioaa/aiiue eaeei-oi aeanoieei ianeaaeaeaieai, aaeyaeuaaaony iiyo a
ea?oeio aa/iiai e?oaiai?ioa. Eaaeaony, /oi ii caaue ana, i /ai aicaauaee
i?i?iee Ec?aeey. Yoi ie?icaeaiea, eioi?ia nica?oeaao /aeiaae, eeoaiiue
naaoa Ioe?iaaiey… A yoii ie?a aeeciue oa?yao niune e cia/aiea.

Aeaaiia, /oi ioee/aao yoeeo Yeeeaceanoa io yoeee i?i?ieia, — yoi
ineaaeaiea oc iaaeaeo ?aeeaeae e i?aanoaaiiinoueth. I?i?iee /a?iaee a
aa?a neeo aeey i?iiiaaaee aeaenoaaiiiai aeia?a. *aeiaa/iinoue e aa?a
auee aeey ieo iaioaeaeeiu. Caeanue aea yoie nayce noieue ynii ia
iuouaaony.

O Yeeeaceanoa iao aaeioiiaaiey, aea?oaiiai aa?ie, e aio inoaaony
?ann/eouaaoue eeoue ia iau/iua caiiua ?aaeinoe.

Ii eiaiii ooo ii oa?ieo naiia aeanoieia ii?aaeaiea. Ana, /oi iaieei e
niaeaciyei aai, ia iiaa?eo ieacaeinue «noaoie».

Ii iino?iee naaa i?ae?aniua aeiia, iinaaeee aeiia?aaeieee, oeaaoieee,
naaeu, n?aaee eioi?uo aeee oiioaiu. Ii iaeoiee ?aaia e iaeiaeieoe,
ie?oaeee naay iaaoeaie e iaaeoeaie. Aeaca aai aeaiue e ii/ue ?aaeiaaee
nie?iaeua.

«Ie a /ai, /oi i/e iie i?ineee, y ia ioeacuaae ei,

Ie io eaeie y ?aaeinoe ia oaea?aeeaae na?aeoea…

Ii iaeyioeny y ia aeaea, /oi naeaeaee ?oee iie,

E ia o?oaeu, iaae eioi?uie o?oaeeeny, —

E aio, ana — noaoa e iiaiiy ca aao?ii!»

(Aeee 2:10-11)

Yoio i?a/iue i?eiaa i noaoiinoe eaeoiioeaii i?ioiaeeo /a?ac anth eieao.

I?aaenoaaeaiea eoaeaaa i oii, /oi Nouee — ana, a /aeiaae ie/oi, i?eiyei
o Yeeeaceanoa e?aeithth, io?aoaiii-oieiaeioth oi?io. Aia eaaeaony
?aaiiaeooiui e ie?o, eioi?iio Ii i?aaeinoaaee e?oaeeoueny ii
i?aaeienaiiui caeiiai aac anyeie oeaee. Iaecaanoii aeaaea, aeaeaao ee Ii
aeaaa naiei oai?aieyi. Aeaaea eiaaea /aeiaae iaaeaaony, /oi anoue
eaeie-oi i?aanoaaiiue ie?iii?yaeie, ii ioeaaaony. Iao ianoiyuae iaa?aaeu
aeia?ui, aea e naia iaa?aaea a yoii ie?a — /oi iia, eae ia noaoa noao?

?en. 132

Aioeio IV. Iiiaoa

Aaeaa ee ai anae eeoa?aoo?a aua iaeaeaony eieaa n oaeei aacunoiaeiui
ie?i/oanoaeai. Aac iaoina, niieieii e aani?eno?anoii I?iiiaaaeiee
oie/oiaeaao ana iii?u aeecie, inoaaeyy ethaeyi eeoue aeaeeia iiaeiaea
iaaeaaeaeu. Aaaeue eiaiii aeaaiiieo/ea a yoie aeecie n/eoaeinue
iaauaiiie Aiaii iaa?aaeie. Ii anee yoio aaeeinoaaiiue aea? io?aaeai, — e
/aio ii?

Ia ia?aue acaeyae eaaeaony iaiinoeaeeiui, eae iiaea iiaeiaiay eieaa
iiianoue a Aeaeeth. Ecaanoii, /oi o/eoaee eoaeaenoaa iiiai ni?ineee,
i?aaeaea /ai ?aoeeenue aeaoue ae ianoi ?yaeii n oai?aieyie ioae?aoeia,
I?i?ieaie e Caeiiii. Oai ia iaiaa iie yoi naeaeaee.

Ea?onaeeineee oeeinio iiaeian ethaeyi /aoo n ai?ueeei iaieoeii, ii oi
aue iaieoie enoeaeythuee. Oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi aunoaa aeaai
ia?aie/aii caiiuie i?aaeaeaie, auea i?aa?aaeie ia iooe ec?aeeueneie
?aeeaee. Yeeeaceano ?ac?ooee yoi i?aiyonoaea.

Oeaiiinoue aiaeu ii-ianoiyuaio iiciaaony a ionouia, aeaaeaea aa/iinoe
i?iaoaeaeaaony, eiaaea /aeiaae ioaeaao naaa io/ao i ieiieaoiinoe
caiiiai. A yoii caeeth/aaony aaeeeee niune io?eoeaoaeueiiai iiuoa
Yeeeaceanoa.

EOAeAENOAI E YEEEIECI

Yeeeiecaoeey. Eieaa Aeaieeea

Eoaeay. 168-166 aa. aei ?.O.

Ianoaee aeie, eiaaea iaeaiueeie e?aiinoe Aaooiai Caaaoa, ?acaee?aaiie
nii?aie, i?aaenoiyei auaea?aeaoue naiue y?inoiue ooo?i, eaeie iia
eiaaea-eeai eniuoaea a i?ioeii.

Aioeio IV Yieoai, aoi?ie nui Aioeioa Aaeeeiai, — iaeia ec iaeaieaa
no?aiiuo e aeaiiie/aneeo oeao? a?aiai yeeeiecia. Iaiau/iuie auee e
oa?aeoa?, e noaeueaa Aioeioa.

Iinea aeaaee a?aoa Naeaaea IV, oaeoiai oea?aaeai?oeaie, Aioeio noae
aeanoeoaeai ne?eeneie aea?aeaau Naeaaeeaeia. ?ei iaeia?ee aai
eaiaeeaeaoo?o, iaaeaynue naeaeaoue aai iineooiui i?oaeeai. Ii
aiineaaenoaee naiaoi?u iiiyee, /oi i?in/eoaeenue.

?en. 133

I?i?ie Aeaieee. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Caaaoiie ia/oie Aioeioa IV auea oioaeueiay yeeeiecaoeey ainoaea?noaa. Ii
no?aieeny iaaycaoue aei?iaea aio a?a/aneea iau/ae e eoeueou e iiaeaaeoue
iaoeeiiaeueiua i/aae nii?ioeaeaiey.

Na?ueaciuo i?aiyonoaee naiei caiuneai oea?ue ia ano?aoee. Eaiiai
i?aoeiiaaiey ieacaeanue iaeia Eoaeay.

A aeaeaeneie o?aaeeoeee Yieoai noae i?ioioeiii Aioeo?enoa. Ia/eiay n
Eieae Aeaieeea aei Eiaiiiaa Aiieaeeinena nayuaiiua ienaoaee aoaeoo
i?eaeaaaoue A?aao Aiaeeaio /a?ou Aioeioa. Yoio /aeiaae ia oieueei
aia?aua a enoi?ee ?aoee iieiinoueth enei?aieoue eoaeaeneoth ?aeeaeth, ii
e aue ia?aui oea?ai iinea Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai, eioi?ue ana?ueac
aini?eieiae naie aiaeaneee oeooe. Aia Ec?aeey aue aeey iaai i?ioeaieeii,
eioi?iai iaaeeaaeaei naa?aiooue n i?anoiea.

Inaiueth 168 a. aei ?.O. Aioeio aaeae i?ae?aoeoue neoaeao a
Ea?onaeeineii o?aia e ?acineae ii ai?iaeai yienna?ia n oeacii: ana
aeeaouea ai aeaaeaieyo oea?y ioiuia aeieaeiu n/eoaoueny «iaeiei ia?iaeii
e inoaaeoue naie caeii». Aa?ayi cai?auaeinue /eoaoue Ienaiea,
niaethaeaoue noaaioo, niaa?oaoue ia?acaiea e aeaaea i?inoi iacuaaoueny
eoaeayie. Ia?ooeaoaai oeac aeaeaea nia?oiay eaciue.

I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua /eiiaieee ?acuacaeaee ii no?aia, /eiy ?ani?aao.
Naeoee Aeaeee, eioi?ua iiiaaeaee ei a ?oee, ?aaee eee i?aaeaaaee iaith.

?en. 134

I?i?ie Aeaieee ai ?ao eueaeiii. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Iaeiaaeaeu a oaeiuo oaaaeeuao, aaea ienoeu i?yoaee naeoee Aeaeee,
iiyaeeanue iiaay eieaa. Iia iiaeiniaea aia?aiy. Aa n aeaaeiinoueth
/eoaee, ia?aienuaaee e ia?aneacuaaee. I?e/eio aucaaiiiai ath aieiaiey
iao?oaeii iiiyoue: iia ?annaeaaea i?ae e aica?auaea aeiaa?ea e I?iiuneo
Aiaeeth, aeaenoaothuaio a caiiuo niauoeyo.

Eieaa iineea eiy Aeaieeea, ioae?aoea. Aeaieee ciaao, /oi i?eaeeaeaiea
Aiaeeaai Oea?noaa aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny ?acaoeii cea e aaccaeiiey,
/oi a ie?a anoue oaiaeaioeey e au?iaeaeaieth, /oi a iai aeaenoaotho
?ac?ooeoaeueiua neeu, ii ie ia ieiooo ia caauaaao, /oi ?yaeii n yoei
ienoiaeyuei iioieii i?ieaaaao ?onei ae?oaiai, ainoiaeyuaai, oeaeue
eioi?iai — Oea?noai Ainiiaeia. I?iaeaeaoe aiai?eo i eiioea enoi?ee eae i
iiaie nooiaie ia iooe /aeiaa/anoaa. A?yaeouaa niceaeaaony a
i?ioeaiai?noaa aeaoo ia/ae e a oi?aeanoaa iaaaniiai A?aaea iaeaeao naia
inouanoaeaiea. Yoio A?aae yaeony ia aeey oiai, /oiau ana iiaoi?eeinue
aiiaue, a /oiau ioe?uoue oaa?e ie? Aiaeanoaaiiiai naaoa.

Eieaa Aeaieeea, ?iaeaeaiiay a oyaeaeoth aiaeeio, ianeaicue i?iieeiooa
iuouaieai aaeeeie noaaoee aeia?a e cea. Aa neiaa iiaoi?eo O?enoin,
aiai?y i caeaoa aaooicaaaoiie y?u, aa ycue noaiao ycueii eoaeaeneeo e
o?enoeaineeo aiieaeeinenia.

?en. 135

O?e io?iea a ia/e iaiaiiie. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Iiaeiaii aeeaie aiaea iaaeaee neiaa Aeaieeea a ecio/aiiua aeooe. A?yaeao
Nui *aeiaa/aneee, Eioi?ue iieiaeeo ia/aei iiaiio ie?o. E iniaaiii
ie?ueyei eo i?i?i/anoai i noaeueaa ethaeae, nio?aieaoeo aa?iinoue aei
iineaaeiaai aeuoaiey. Iie iiaeaee, ii nia?oue eo — oieueei a?aiaiiue
nii. A aeaiue Noaea…

«Iiiaea ec niyueo ai i?aoa caiiii i?iaoaeyony:

iaeie aeey aeecie aa/iie,

ae?oaea ia aa/iia ii?oaaiea e iin?aieaiea.

E ?acoiiua aoaeoo neyoue, eae naaoeea

ia oaa?aee, e ia?aoeaoea iiiaeo e i?aaaea —

eae caacaeu, aiaaee, iaanaaaea».

(Aeai 12:2-3)

A eiioea a?aiai a?oaiaae Ieoaee, iie?iaeoaeue aaooicaaaoiie Oea?eae,
iiie/eony ia naoaieineoth ?aoue e iaeieaao aa. Aiiaua anae Eieaa
Aeaieeea naienoaaiii /oanoai aeecinoe iac?eiuo nee, o/anoaothueo a
ie?iaie ae?aia. I?i?ieo ioe?uoi, /oi aeaea /aeiaa/aneea ii?aaeaeythony
aeooiaiie aeoaie, eioi?ay eaeao ai Anaeaiiie iaaeaeo neeaie naaoa e
oueiu.

Ioaeaeeaoeany

Eoaeay, 160-63 aa. aei ?.O.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay ?aniaeoaaaeueiay i?aaaaeiinoue (nyaeaea) inoaaaeanue aeey
aunoaai aeooiaainoaa e ciaoe /ai-oi iai?aacieaeaiiui. Auoue iiaeao,
iiyoiio iie iacuaaee naay «naaeieeoaie», eee naaeaeoeayie.

A i?aeoe/aneie aeecie naaeaeoeae i?iyaeee naay aeaeeie i?aaiaoeeaie,
i?aneaaeothueie naiaei?unoiua oeaee e neeiiiuie e onooieai. Iie
ie?oaeeee naay ?ineioueth, caoi ia?iae n/eoaee ioaeiui iinoiyiii
aea?aeaoue a ocaea. N yoie oeaeueth naaeaeoeae ionoaeaaee no?iaua
i?eioeeiu ae?aaiaai oaieiaiiai i?aaa.

A ai?ueaa ca i?i/iia ianoi i?e aeai?a iie i?aa?aoeeenue a aeoeaioth
iieeoe/aneoth ia?oeth. Niaao noa?aeoei, eee Neiaae?eii, ninoiye a
iniiaiii ec aa /eaiia. Anoanoaaiii, /oi a ia?iaea e yoei /a?noaui,
iaaeiaiiui ethaeyi ioiineeenue ii/oe a?aaeaeaaii.

?en. 136

Naienaa/iee.

?aeueao ia a?ea Oeoa. O?aaiaio. Iinea 81 a.

?en. 137

Nayuaiieee

Oa?enae iainiaeeenue ia oieueei io i?aayuae aa?oooee, ii e io anao, eoi,
ii eo iiaieth, iaei ciae eee ieioi niaethaeae Caeii.

Oa?enae auee «oii/aeoeie oieeiaaoaeyie Caeiia», ii oieeiaaiea eo auei
iniaiai ?iaea. A ioee/ea io naaeaeoeaaa iie ia niio?aee ia Ienaiea eae
ia ia?oaoth ?aeeeaeth eee no?iai caoeene?iaaiiue eiaeaen; ii e?aeiae
ia?a a i?eioeeia oa?enae enoiaeeee ec iunee, /oi aa?a ia iiaeao
ia?aie/eaaoueny ?aieaie eieae. Iie ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi aeeaay aeooiaiay
i?aainoaaiiinoue, eee oea?eiaiia I?aaeaiea, ea?aao ?ieue ia iaiueooth,
/ai eaiiie/aneea eieae.

?acoiaaony, onoiia I?aaeaiea eaa/a cani?yaony /aeiaa/aneeie aeiiuneaie,
«i?aaeaieyie» n iaeaiueeie aoeau. *oiau ecaaaeaoue yoiai, oa?enae
no?aieeenue nio?aieoue naycue iaaeaeo iieieaieyie eieaeieeia e
?ac?aaioaoue i?eioeeiu ecuyniaiey Aeaeee. Ii eiaiii caeanue i?iyaeeanue
neiaaiiinoue eo aeooiaiiai oai?/anoaa. «I?aaeaiey noa?oeaa» auee
eaiiiece?iaaiu e aicaaaeaiu a ?aia iauaiaycaoaeueiie enoeiu.

?en. 138

Ia?ainayuaiiee, eia/aa, aeoa?ue e nayuaiiua ninoaeu a Nayoay Nayouo

Oa?enae ia aeaee iiaaniooue aeooo aeaai/anoey a ia?iaea, i?aaeioa?aoeee
aai au?iaeaeaiea a naaoneoth iaoeeth, oi?aaeyaioth naaoneeie oea?yie.
Aeaaiaea?y ei Aeaeey ia i?aa?aoeeanue a oaoeo, a inoaeanue iiaeeeiiie
eieaie aeecie.

Neiaaiae e oeieu ieacaeenue ni a?aiaiai oeaeeeii a ?oeao oa?enaaa.
Eiaiii ei ia?iae aue iaycai anai eo/oei, /oi au?inei a aai iaae?ao ia
ii?iaa Iiaiai Caaaoa.

Aicaeaaay aeieaeiia oa?enayi, eo ia neaaeoao, iaeiaei, eaeaaeece?iaaoue.
A yoii oa/aiee neeoeii aieueoia ianoi caieiaee eacoenoeea e ?eoo-aeeci,
eioi?ua iiae?acaee e?ueuey naiaiaeiiio i?i?i/aneiio aaeioiiaaieth.

O?aouea iai?aaeaiea a eoaeaecia — annaen-eia. Iieaaay, /oi aeanoue
eiouea e aanue ia?iae naeeenue n enoeiiiai iooe, e iaeeaeay nei?iai
noaea Aiaeey, iie ia?aciaaee naiaai ?iaea «Oea?eiaue aioo?e Oea?eae».

Yoa naeoa n o?oaeii oeeaaeuaaeanue a ?aiee o?aaeeoeeiiiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia eoaeaecia. Iiianou?neee onoaa, oi?iaiiay aaeay
iaeaaeaea, iauiinoue eiouanoaa — ie/aai yoiai ia ciaea enoi?ey Ec?aeey.

Ae?aaiea enoi?eee aiai?yo, /oi o anaaa ia auei ie aeaiaa, ie ?aaia;
o?oaeeeenue ana. Eaeaaeii auea no?iaay iaaiaeiinoue.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea e enoi?ey yoiai iieoiiiaoaneiai i?aeaia aeieai
inoaaaeenue caaaaeeie. Oieueei a na?aaeeia XX a. iaoiaeee a ionouia ia
iiaa?aaeuea Ia?oaiai ii?y i?ieeee iiaue naao ia annaeneia aeaeaeaiea.
Aieueoeinoai enoi?eeia i?eciaei, /oi eiaeaiua iaione?eiou e ?acaaeeiu
iinaeeia, iaia?oaeaiiua a ?aeiia Eoi?aia, i?eiaaeeaaeaee annaeneei
iaueiai.

Enneaaeiaaiea eoi?aineeo naeoeia iaaaei enoi?eeia ia neaae aiaeaey eee
aeaaea iniiaaoaey naeou. Eiy aai inoaaony oaeiie; a oaenoao ii
oeao?e?oao eae Nayuaiiee, Eca?aiiee, Acuneothuee Oi?u, Aaeeinoaaiiue
O/eoaeue, a /aua anaai eae O/eoaeue I?aaaaeiinoe.

?en. 139

Noie aeey oeaaia i?aaeeiaeaiey

Ii caaeoiae iniiaaoue iaueio «nuiia naaoa», aa?y, /oi eiaaea yaeony
aunoee Noaeey, ana «au?aceaoea aioiaiinoue i?eniaaeeieoueny e
eca?aiieeai» aoaeoo nianaiu.

Ia?aua neaaeu iinaeaiey ia aa?aao Ia?oaiai ii?y ioiinyony e
ni?ieiaui-o?eaeoeaoui aiaeai II a. aei ?.O. Yoi icia/aao, /oi O/eoaeth
oaeaeinue iieo/eoue ai aeaaeaiea o/anoie caiee a Eoi?aia. Ii i?ecuaae
anao «aa?iuo Caeiio» aueoe, iiaeiaii Aa?aaio, ec n?aaeu a?aoieeia, /oiau
aioiaeoue naay e iineaaeiei aeiyi.

?en. 139

THieoa?.

Ia.

Ethaee, iinaeeaoeany a Eoi?aia, ethaeee iacuaaoue naay i?inoi
«Ec?aeeai», eai n/eoaee, /oi eeoue iie aeinoieiu yoiai neaaiiai eiaie.
Noa?ue Caaao ia?ooaeny oaea iiiaeie iieieaieyie. Caeanue, a ionouia,
annae iaaeayeenue caeeth/eoue n Aiaii Iiaue Caaao, eioi?ue aoaeao i?eiyo
iaii?i/iui Inoaoeii, aaaeiyeaie, /athueie Aeiy Ainiiaeiy.

Ii, aioiaynue e anooieaieth a Oea?noai Aiaeea, eoi?aineee O/eoaeue a
eiioea eiioeia nicaeae ianoiyuee eoeueo eneeth/eoaeueiinoe. Aai
no?aieaiea niaethnoe /enoioo aa?u i?eaaei e iooaeeeaathuae naeoaioneie
ai?aeuia.

I?aanoaaiiue iaeee annaaa ii?a/aao ia oieueei yoa oaiaeaioeey. Eo
caeiiie/aneia aoeaiaaenoai inoaaeei aeaeaei iicaaee aeaaea naiuo
caeiniaeuo oi?iaeenoia n?aaee oa?enaaa.

Ia ?oaaaea II e I aa. aei ?.O. annae noaee iinaeyoueny e a ai?iaeao. O
yoeo naeoaioia, aeeaoeo «a ie?o», anoanoaaiii aicieeaee eiioaeou n
eiino?aioeaie. Iaeioi?ua annae aeaaea iuoaeenue ?ani?ino?aiyoue naie
acaeyaeu.

Oai ia iaiaa enoiae ec ionouie /anoe annaaa ia icia/ae ioeaca io
i?eioeeia iainiaeaiiinoe. Iie ii-i?aaeiaio ioiineeenue e ethaeyi eiiai
oieea n inoaeaeaieai e iai?eyciueth. Iniaaiii a?aaeaeaaiu iie auee e
naaeaeoeayi. Ai?i/ai, e oa?enaaa iie ia uaaeeee, iacuaay eo
«oieeiaaoaeyie neieueceiai».

E yoiio a?aiaie ?ei ia?aaeee ai?ueao aie?oa ?aoi?iu A?aeoia e aeeeoaoo?o
Noeeu, iiaeaaee ainnoaiea Nia?oaea e ia/ae ?acaa?iooui o?iioii aanoe
ianooieaiea ia Ainoie. A 66 a. aei ?.O. Aiae Iiiiae neiiee aiaiioth
iiuue Iiioa e Eaaeaca, a /a?ac aeaa aiaea iiyaeeny a Ne?ee.

Eoaeae oaea iiieiaee, /oi ecaaaeaoue iiaiai eiicaiiiai aeaaeu/anoaa ia
oaeanony. Noiye eeoue aii?in: eiai ec i?aoaiaeaioia ia o?ii i?eciaao
?eineee iieeiaiaeaoe. Iaeei ec ieo, A?enoiaoe, aeiionoee ?yae
oaeoe/aneeo ioeaie, e Iiiiae i?eiye iiyoiio noi?iio ae?oaiai, Ae?eaia.
Iaeiaei A?enoiaoe ia niaeaneeny n yoei ?aoaieai, e eiaaea Ea?onaeei
ioe?ue ?eieyieio ai?ioa, ii oe?aieeny a o?aiiaie oeeoaaeaee, aioiaynue
auaea?aeaoue ooo?i.

O?e ianyoea aeeeeanue aeieaaea; iaeiiaoe 10 ieoya?y 63 a. aei ?.O.
e?aiinoue auea caoaa/aia. ?eineea nieaeaou ai?aaeenue a nayoeeeua.
Aeaaea a naiii O?aia iie ano?aoeee io/ayiiia nii?ioeaeaiea. N?aaee iauae
noiyoeoeu eeoue nayuaiieee i?iaeieaeaee niaa?oaoue aiaineoaeaiea.

A?enoiaoe aue acyo a ieai e ioi?aaeai a ?ei. Iiiiae aea iinea caoaaoa
O?aia i?iiee a Nayoay Nayouo. Ii, oaeiaeaoai?ea naia ethaiiuonoai, ii ie
e /aio ia i?eo?iioeny, eai ?eieyia i?eaueee oa?ieii ioiineoueny e
/oaeacaiiui eoeueoai.

?ei oae e nicaeaieth ie?iaie aea?aeaau. Ioe?ueanue iiaay aeaaa enoi?ee,
e oaea ia?iaeeeinue iieieaiea, eioi?iio i?aaenoiyei auoue nia?aiaiieeii
aaaiaaeueneeo niauoee.

?en. 141

Aeueyaie (aeaiii iiaecaiiiai oea?noaa). Yo?onneee iaaea?iaiue ?enoiie.
IV-III aa. aei ?.O.

?EI, A?AEE E AINOIE

Aeooa e aa?a ?eieyieia

Eoaeey, ie. 650 a. aei ?.O.

Ii?aceoaeueiua oniaoe ?eieyi aucuaaee ainoi?a e caaenoue nia?aiaiieeia.
Iiiuoee ?acaaaeaoue nae?ao eaoeineie oi?ooiu a naia a?aiy i?aaei?eieiaee
Iieeaee e Aaaonoei, Iiioaneuea e Aaaaeue. Ionnieeie aeoiae, /oi noiaao
aine?aneoue aueia aaee/ea ?eia, iaeiaei aeeciue iieacaea ouaoiinoue yoie
ia/ou. Oioy iiiaea yeaiaiou ae?aaia?ein-eiai aeooa ia oia?ee, — /oi-oi
aeaaiia ooei aacaica?aoii.

*oi aea i?aaenoaaeyee niaie no?ieoaee Orbis Romanum, «?eineiai ie?a»?

A noa?eio aiai?eee, /oi o iaai anoue aoi?ia, oaeiia, eiy, eioi?ia iiaeii
iaeoe, i?i/eoaa neiai Roma ii-ainoi/iiio: ni?aaa iaeaai. Oiaaea iii
aoaeao cao/aoue eae Amor, Ethaiaue. Aeoo ?eia noieue aea ia?aaeienaeai e
aeaienoaaiai, eae e ana cia/eoaeueiua yaeaiey ie?iaie eoeueoo?u. A naiii
aeaea, ?eieyia, ia iaeaaeay ?aeeaeiciui aaieai, neuee aeaai/anoeaui
ia?iaeii e ai?aeeeenue yoei; ?ei a oa/aiea o?ao aaeia i?aneaaeiaae
Oea?eiaue, ii ii aea noae iaeiei ec anaie?iuo oeaio?ia o?enoeainoaa. Aai
oeeaeeecaoeey auea aua aieaa naaoneie, /ai o a?aeia, iaeiaei iooeu
Oea?eae n/eoaee ?ei iieioii aa?u.

Ia?acaeaeueiinoue a?aaeaeaineiai e ?aeeaeiciiai aeooa aeaaioai?ii
neacuaaeanue ia i?aanoaaiiie noi?iia aeecie ?eieyi. Eo o?aaeeoeeiiiua
aeia?iaeaoaee: aa?iinoue, /anoiinoue, ne?iiiinoue, ioaeanoai, oaaaeaiea
e noa?oei — iianthaeo aucuaaee oaeeaeaiea. Ioiioaiea ?eieyi e caeiio ia
auei /enoi naaoneei. Naia i?eaa?aeaiiinoue ii?yaeeo auoaeaea ec aa?u a
aai aunoee niune.

Iaeiaei ?aeeaey, eioi?ay ieoaea a?aaeaeaineia e i?aaiaia niciaiea ?eia,
naia iino?aaeaea io caneeey ?eineiai i?aaa.

Oi?iaeueiue aeiea eae aeaaiue noeioe aeaenoaey aioea?eeny o eaoeiyi e a
iaeanoe aa?u, iaaaeiyy e neiauaay aa. I?aaenoiy Aunoaio, /aeiaae oieueei
auiieiye naiaai ?iaea iiaeiiinoue. Na?aeoea aai i?e yoii inoaaaeinue
ii/oe aaco/anoiui. ?eineay iieeoaa aaeaa ee aeaaea caneoaeeaaao yoiai
iacaaiey; iia ia?aie/eaaeanue iaoaie/aneei i?iecianaieai oi?ioe e
i?aaeienaiiuie aeanoaie. Oeeoea?ii n iieiui i?aaii aiai?eo, /oi «any
?aeeaey ?eineiai ia?iaea ?acaeaeyaony ia aea?oaii?eiioaiey e aaaeaiey».
Aa n/eoaee iaiouaieaiui yeaiaioii a?aaeaeaineiai no?iy. *aeiaae,
iaa?aaeiue a ?eooaeao, ?eneiaae ieacaoueny a /enea a?aaia ainoaea?noaa.

Eaoeineia neiai religio icia/aao «naycuaath»1. Nayuaiiiaeaenoaey
naycuaaee ethaeae n aiaaie e iaaeaeo niaie. Ii yoa naycue iineea
oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Iieaaaee, /oi, niaethaeay aei oiieinoe ana
oea?aiiiee, /aeiaae /anoii auiieiyao oneiaey aeiaiai?a n aunoeie neeaie.
A yoii ?eieyiei aue ia iaiueoei iaaeaioii, /ai ethaie eoaeaeneee
caeiiiee. AEeciue aai iioouaaee ouny/e cai?aoia e ia?aie/aiee,
inayuaiiuo ae?aaiinoueth. A /anoiinoe, ae?aoe THieoa?a ia aeieaeai aue
i?eeanaoueny e eioaaee, oanoo, aiaai, ia eiae i?aaa i?iaiaeeoue aia
aeiia aieaa o?ao aeiae, caaycuaaoue oceu ia iaeaaeaea e o.ae.

?en. 142

Y?eo?aeneay Neaeeea.

Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. 1509 a. O?aaiaio ?iniene

A iauai, aac i?aoaaee/aiey iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ?aiiyy ?eineay ?aeeaey
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie oi?io, ii/oe eeoaiioth niaea?aeaiey. Aacio/aoiia
i?aeeiiaiea ia?aae Aiaeanoaaiiie Oaeiie ia ?acaeeinue a iiaeeeiioth
aa?o, a inoaeinue a ca/aoea, a iaeeaeaiee eiuo a?aiai. Iaeiaei ie
?eooaeueiia caeiiie/anoai, ie neaiay i?aaeaiiinoue o?aaeeoeee ia niiaee
iiaaneoue a ?eieyiao no?aieaiey iaeoe ia/oi aieaa iaeooioai?aiiia, /ai
eo ioeoeeaeueiue eoeueo. Yoi no?aieaiea a eiioea eiioeia ia?aei naith
oeaeue a o?enoeainoaa. Ii i?aaeaea /ai Aaaiaaeea i?eoei e ?eieyiai, iie
iuoaeenue ooieeoue naie aeooiaiue aieiae, ia?auaynue e aa?iaaieyi
yo?oneia e yeeeiia, aceaoia e aaeioyi.

______________________________________________________________________

‘ A o?aaeeoeeyo eaoeineie a?aiiaoeee iniiaiie aeaaieueiie oi?iie
n/eoaaony 1-a eeoei aae. /enea iano. a?aiaie, a ia iaii?aaeaeaiiay
oi?ia, eae a ?onneie e ae?oaeo a?aiiaoeeao.

Yo?onee, Neaeeea, Ea?oaaai

Eoaeey, 650-204 aa. aei ?.O.

Oeeaeeecaoeey yo?oneia aei neo ii? inoaaony caaaaeeie. Iie cayaeee i
naaa a Eoaeee eao ca noi aei iniiaaiey ?eia, ii ieeoi ia ciae, ioeoaea
iie i?eoee. Yoe ianoaaieee ?eieyi, niaoaaoenue n ae?oaeie eoaeeeneeie
ieaiaiaie, en/acee eae ia?iae caaeieai aei iaoae y?u. N oao ii?
oeuaathueany noaooe e ?anienaiiua a?iaieoeu o?aiyo iie/aiea, iiaeiaii
?oeiai E?eoa; ec aeaayoe ouny/ nio?aieaoeony yo?onneeo iaaeienae
aieueoay /anoue ia ?anoeo?iaaia.

O?anee e iicaeee a a?iaieoeao ?anneacuaatho i iiaecaiiuo aeooao e
aeaiiiao, ia ioa?aoeoaeueiuo /oaeiaeuao, ianaeyaoeo yo?onneoth
i?aeniiaeithth.

Oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi aiae iiaoo ioe?uaaoue aoaeouaa, iiaoaeaeaea
?eieyi ioiineoueny n aaee/aeoae na?ueaciinoueth e «oaoieea»
i?aaeneacaiey. Yo?onee neuee a yoii iai?aacieaeaiiuie ianoa?aie: eo
/anoi i?eaeaoaee, /oiau ociaoue aieth aiaia.

No?aaii, aaia?ao ec Iiioa, ia?a/eneyao iiiai ae?oaeo iau/aaa e ia?yaeia,
eioi?ua ?ei oianeaaeiaae io yo?oneia. Ii ie iaeei ec ieo ia auoiaeeo ca
?aiee ia?aiauoiuo oea?aiiiee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiioaeo n Yo?o?eae ia iia
ii-ianoiyuaio iaiaaoeoue ?aeeaeth ?eieyi.

Iaeioi?ua naie i/enoeoaeueiua ia?yaeu ?ei caeinoaiaae o a?aeia. THa
Eoaeee aue e VI a. aei ?.O. oaea aonoi canaeai yeeeineeie eieiienoaie.

Aiieeii noae ia?aui ieeiieeoeai, iiei?eaoei ?eieyi. Iaeia ec i?e/ei aai
iiioey?iinoe caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi Aiieeii ecaeaaia n/eoaeny aiaii,
aea?othuei i/euaiea io neaa?iu. Iiyoiio Oa?eaeiee I (615—578 aa. aei
?.O.) nai iauyaee naay iieeiiieeii Aiieeiia. I?e iai a ?eia iiyaeeenue
nayuaiiua eieae, yeiau aeinoaaeaiiua oea?th Neaeeeie, ae?eoeae
yeeeineiai aiaa.

Niaeanii eaaaiaea, iaeia ec i?i?i/eoe, aeeaoay a Y?eo?aa, iieo/eea io
Aiieeiia aannia?oea i?e oneiaee, /oi ieeiaaea ia oaeaeeo ?iaeiie caiee.
Iinea yoiai Neaeeea iainiiaaeanue a Eoiao, aaea aa ie?oaeeee caaioie e
oaaaeaieai, a aa i?aaeneacaieyi aieiaee eae aeano naiiai Aiieeiia. N
aiaeaie Neaeeea ii/oanoaiaaea, ianeieueei oyainoia aeey iaa aa/iay
aeeciue. Eoiaioeu naeaeeeenue iaae aauoiueae e i?eaacee ae ai?noue
y?eo?aeneie caiee. Acaeyioa ia iaa, Neaeeea oiaea iaacie/ue e enionoeea
aeoo. Iia ia?aea iaeiiaoe aeaeaiiue iieie.

Aianoa n eieaaie Neaeeeu a onoie/eaue eoaeeeneee ie? i?iieeea ia?aay
aiieaeeioe/aneay no?oy, i?aaaea, iiea aua i/aiue neaaay. Iieeiiieee
Aiieeiia aa?eee, /oi a ai?ueaa aiaia Aiieeii aueaeao iiaaaeeoaeai. Ec
iaiaeia aioe/iuo ienaoaeae iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi Neaeeea i?aae?aeaea
eiiaoe i/a?aaeiiai ia?eiaea a aeanyoue aaeia e ianooieaiea iiaie y?u.

A 609 a. aei ?.O. a ?eia auea i?iaicaeaoaia ?anioaeeea. Aienea yo?oneia,
iuoaaoeany aa?iooue o?ii ecaiaiiiio ?eieyiaie oea?th Oa?e-aeieth,
iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea. Iinoiyiiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii noae iao?eoeeaineee
naiao.

Aeaaea o eoaeaaa, eioi?ua ?aaeei ainoeuaeenue ycu/aneeie aea?aeaaaie, iu
iaoiaeei aunieoth ioeaieo ?anioaeeeaineiai no?iy ?eieyi. I?aanoaaiiay
no?iainoue e ii?yaeie i?eia?aoaeenue oeaiie aeanoieiai ?aaeeia, a
eioi?ii auei oanii oai?/anoao e oaeaioo. ?ieue nayuaiiie aaoie?aoee
caiaiye aeeeoao a?aaeaeaineie aeenoeeieeiu.

Yia?aey iaoeee, naeaaeaiiay ainoaea?noaaiiui iaoaieciii, iaecaaaeii
eneaea auoiaea ai aiaoiae yeniainee. Io caueou ?eia ?anioaeeea ia?aoea e
ianooiaoaeueiui aeaenoaeyi. Iaiaeieeiay aeaaeaea caaiaaaiee, eacaeinue,
canoaaeyea ?eineee ia?iae iinoiyiii ?anoe?youe ?oaaaee no?aiu.

Aua a IV a. aei ?.O. ?eieyia caeeth/aee nithcu n ea?oaaaineie
aea?aeaaie. Ii iinea iiei?aiey Eoaeee iaa ainoaea?noaa iaecaaaeii
aeieaeiu auee i?aa?aoeoueny a niia?ieeia. ?aoaeny aii?in, eoi aoaeao
ainiiaenoaiaaoue a aiaeao caiaaeiiai N?aaeecaiiiii?uey.

Iiaue a?aa aue iaiau/ai. Anee i?aaeaea ?ei, eae i?aaeei, eiae aeaei n
?iaenoaaiiuie aio ia?iaeaie, oi a Ea?oaaaia ii ano?aoee ie? aeoaiei
/oaeaeue e iooaeeeaathuee.

Ea?oaaai iiae/eiee oocaiiua aa?aa?neea ieaiaia ioieaeeeoeaa e iinoaiaiii
?ani?ino?a iee naie aeaaeaiey ii anaio naaa?iiio iiaa?aaeueth Ao?eee.

?en. 143

Noeeieii Noa?oee. III a. aei ?.O.

Oi aue ianoiyuee iieio eiiia?naioia. *a?ac ia?iiiue ii?o oee oi?aiaua
iooe ni anao eiioeia naaoa. Nthaea, ia a?aieoeo /a?iiai iaoa?eea, aacee
neiiiaoth einoue e i?aii?, iinoaeo e oeaie, ae?aaioeaiiua eaiie e
aeaaiaiiey, eia?u e i?oaeea. Aiaiiay iiuue Ea?oaaaia iie?aeanue ia
a?ieth iaaiieeia, eioi?uo aa?aiaaee ec neoeeeeeoeaa, a?aeia e aa?aa?ia.

?ei aue eoaea aaaeiaa e neaaaa Ea?oaaaia, eioi?iio aai ieaioaoeee,
oaiiaeie e oeio i?eiineee ianiaoiua aiaaonoaa. Iiyoiio naiao aeieaia
a?aiy i?aaeii/eoae aeeoue a ie?a n Ao?eeie. Eeoue eiaaea ?eieyia ie?aiee
e i?yiua eioa?anu aea?aeaa noieeioeenue, aieia noaea iaieioaiie.

Nia?oaeueiay a?aaeaea ?eieyi e ioiai (oae iacuaaee iie oeieeeeoeaa)
iauyniyaony, ai?i/ai, ia oieueei iieeoe/aneeie i?e/eiaie. Ei auee
iaiaaenoiu nai aeoo e ?aeeaey Ea?oaaaia.

Ecoaa?neea iau/ae, eca?auaiey, /aeiaa/aneea aea?oau e ?eooaeueiay
i?inoeoooeey nio?aiyeenue o ioiia aieioue aei yiioe yeeeiecia.

?anneacuaatho, /oi Aaiieaae iiaa?a ia aeoa?ue Aaaea o?e ouny/e
eia?eeoeaa. O/anoue yoa iinoiyiii aeaeaea nioie thiioae e aeaaooae ec
eo/oeo ea?oaaaineeo naiae.

?eieyia ioithaeue ia auee ethaeueie iyaeina?aea/iuie, ii ana aea
ea?oaaaineea iau/ae aiooaee ei neeoeii aieueooth aaaeeeainoue, /oiau
i?eie?eoueny n ieie.

?en. 144

Oeeoea?ii. I a. aei ?.O.

?en. 145

Aae THeee Oeaca?ue. I a. aei ?.O.

Enoiae ai?ueau aeaoo eieinnia aue i?aae?aoai. Eiai?ou ?eineeo a?aaeaeai
canoaaeee ionooieoue ao?eeaineeo iaaiieeia.

Ao?eea, Eniaiey, Ne?aeocu ieacaeenue oaia?ue a ?oeao eiinoeia.
O?eoioaeueiue ia?aae, eioi?ui aue ano?a/ai iiaaaeeoaeue Aaiieaaea
Noeeieii Noa?oee, i?aacioae ana, /oi i?aaeaea aeaeaee ?eieyia. Ii a oa
aeie aua eia-eoi iia i?acaeiiaaoue iiaaaeo, oioy e ae?oaiai ?iaea.
*aeiaae, nie?ooeaoee Ea?oaaai, aue ieaiai a?a/aneie eoeueoo?ie e ?aoee
niaeaenoaiaaoue aa oi?aeanoao ia eaoeineie caiea. Ioiuia noaeueaa
no?iaiai ?eia aoaeao i?i/ii naycaia n yeeeineei aaieai. Eiiaoe
Ioie/aneeo aiei aue iciaiaiiaae ia/aeii a?aei-?eineie yiioe, eioi?ay
i?eianea iiaaaeeoaeyi iiiai iiauo o?aaia e iaiaeeaeaiiinoae.

Yeeeieci a ?eia Eoaeey, 204-120 aa. aei ?.O.

?eineay enoi?ey oaea ia?anoaea auoue enoi?eae Eoaeee. Eaeueou, eniaioeu,
aa?aa?u, ne?eeoeu e a?aee ieacaeenue iiae yaeaeie Eaieoieey. Iiaaaeeoaee
nio?aiyee o?aaeeoeee iiei?aiiuo ia?iaeia. Eae e Aeaenaiae?, iie
/oanoaiaaee, /oi eo aea?aeaaa e?iia ianeeey ioaeiu eaeea-oi eiua
iauaaeeiythuea ia/aea. Naie iie iiaee aeaoue ie?o iaiiiai.
Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi i?eaeaeaei anao, — yoi i?aaa, naycaiiua n ?eineei
a?aaeaeainoaii, ii aei ii?u aeeoaeyi i?iaeioeee aai aeaaaee iaaeeaiii e
iaioioii.

?en. 146

Aaiieaae. III a. aei ?.O.

Eae e i?aaeaea, ?eieyia i?iaeieaeaee aa?eoue, /oi iaoeinieoaeueiia
niaethaeaiea ia?yaeia iaania/eei oi?aeanoai eiia?ee iaae anaie aa
niia?ieeaie.

?en. 147

Iineaeiiee. / a. aei ?.O.

Iaaeaeo oai o?aaeeoeeiiiay ?aeeaey ia oaeiaeaoai?yea oaea naieo a?aeia.
Yeeei niio?ae n iaaeaaeaeie ia noieueei ia Ieeii, neieueei ia
oaeinoaaiiua eoeueou Ainoiea.

I?ioei iaiiiai a?aiaie, e eaoeiyiai n eo na?ueaciinoueth a aeaeao
eoeueoa i?eoeinue oaaaeeoueny, /oi a?aee ioiinyony e naiae ?aeeaee
aeiaieueii eaaeiiuneaiii. Naaoneee aeoo eeoee ieoieiaeth a?aeia
ienoe/aneiai i?aiea, a oeeiniou, oioy e iuoaeenue nianoe aa, nayee
iaiaeue niaeaci, e iinoaiaiii neaioeoeeci noae ca?aaeaoue naii ?eineia
iauanoai.

?ino aieueiiaeoinoaa nii?iaiaeaeaeny ineaaeaieai i?aanoaaiiuo onoiaa.
Ia?aiaiu a ia?aca aeecie neeueii iiaeeyee ia oa?aeoa? ?eieyi. Iaanaaaea
i?ioee a?aiaia, eiaaea iineu oea?y Ie??a iiaee canoaoue ?eineiai
aiaia/aeueieea a aea?aaia ca i?eaioiaeaieai iioeaaee ec ?aiu. Iiauaaa a
Ea?oaaaia, Ei?eioa e Ia?aaia e ianiio?aaoenue ia caii?neoth ?ineioue,
ethaee ia aeaeaee aieueoa aeeoue, eae eo iooeu; iie iiethaeee eiioi?o,
ecuneaiiue noie, oaanaeaiey. A caei?iaay e?anoueyineay ii?aeue e
nia?oaineea i?eau/ee i?aaeieo iieieaiee caauaaeenue.

Aieiu nieceee oeaiu ia ?aaia. Eo auei oaia?ue iiiai ia oieueei a
?oaeieeao e ia no?ieeao, ii e ia iieyo. O?oae noae eacaoueny i?ac?aiiui
caiyoeai, aeinoieiui eeoue iaaieueieea. Ciaoiay iieiaeaaeue
i?aaeaaaeanue i?acaeiinoe, ono?aeaaea eooaaee, ni?aaiiaaeanue ai
anaaiciiaeiuo ii?ieao, e eioi?ui ?ei i?aaeaea ieoae ioa?auaiea. En/acea
oaaeaiay ?eineay /anoiinoue: iieeoeee noaee aa?ieiiiuie, aieiu iiiuoeyee
aieueoa anaai i a?aaaaeao, eoioeu ia a?acaiaaee ie/ai ?aaee iaaeeau.

Oee?eiaua i?aaenoaaeaiey e aie aeaaeeaoi?ia i?aa?aoeeenue a e?iaaaoth
no?anoue ?eieyi. I?aaeoaeuenoai ?ann/eouaaei oai naiui iaeo?aeeciaaoue
aa?anneaiinoue iann.

Ii, ?acoiaaony, aeaeaei ia anaaaea iiaeii auei ooeoiie?eoue aac?aaioiuo.
Ia?iaeiua nia?aiey ia?aaeei aueeaaeenue a ae?aee e iiiiaeiaueio.

Iaaeaeaaeenue aiaeu ia?aai?ioia, a?aaeaeaineeo aiei e aeeeoaoo?u. Ca
aeanoue iaae ia?iaeaie ?eio, eae e eaaeaeie eiia?ee, i?eoiaeeeinue
ieaoeoue aei?iaie oeaiie.

Iiiuoee neioaca

Eoaeey, 120-80 aa. aei ?.O.

Ia?aciaaiiua ?eieyia ia oioaee neaii eiie?iaaoue /oaeia, a no?aieeenue
nicaeaoue nianoaaiiia ie?iaicc?aiea ia iniiaa nieaaa yeeeinoaa e
eaoeinoaa. A yoii ei iiiiaee noieee, eioi?ua a oi a?aiy aaee iianthaeo
yia?ae/ioth i?iiaaaiaeo naiaai o/aiey. Ioae?aoeia, iaeaouo a aaooea
ieaue, iiai?ieeia oia?aiiinoe e aicaea?aeaiey, iiaeii auei ano?aoeoue a
aeiiao eiinoeia e a oaaa?iao, ia aaca?ao e a oeieao.

Ia?aui i?iiiaaaeieeii noieoeecia a ?eia aue a?ae Iaiaoeee (185-110 aa.
aei ?.O.), o?iaeaiaoe ino?iaa ?iaein.

Aia e Anaeaiiay, o/ee Iaiaoeee, aaeeiu e aa/iu. Eiain, aioo?aiiee caeii
ie?icaeaiey, i?iiecuaaao ana, a oii /enea e /aeiaaea. Aa?iiie/ia
aeeciue, eioi?ay niioaaonoaoao einie/aneiio no?ith, Eiaino. Eiaaea
ianooiaao nia?oue, ana yeaiaiou /aeiaaea aica?auathony a e?oaiai?io
i?e?iaeu e oieueei iaiyoue iioiieia o?aieo aai ia?ac.

N/anouea ioae?aoea — a ?aaiiaanee; ii aeieaeai oeaieoue aea?u i?e?iaeu,
a a /an eniuoaiee nio?aiyoue nia?oaineoth iaaiciooeiinoue.

Iaiaoeee, eae e i?i/ea oeeiniou-a?aee, ioiineeny e ia?iaeiui aa?iaaieyi
i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueii, a aai ae?oa enoi?ee Iieeaee ioe?uoi cayaeye, /oi
?aeeaey nicaeaia aeey oiai, /oiau aea?aeaoue oieio a iiaeiiaaiee.

?eieyia aea ia iiaee ioiaoiooueny io yoie i?iaeaiu. Ei ioaeii auei yniia
e iineaaeiaaoaeueiia aa ?ac?aoaiea.

Iiyoiio, eiaaea o/aiee Iaiaoeey Iineaeiiee Aiaiaeneee (135—51 aa. aei
?.O.) i?aaei?eiye ?aoi?io Noie1, niiaa naeecea aa n ?aeeaeae, o iaai
iaoeinue aieueoa iineaaeiaaoaeae, /ai o anao ae?oaeo iuneeoaeae oiai
a?aiaie.

AEeoaee ?iaeina, aaea iinaeeeny oeeinio, ai?aeeeenue ei. Neaaa i
Iineaeiiee a?aiaea ii anai yeeeineei ai?iaeai. Ia ino?ia ioianthaeo
nuacaeaeenue ethaee iineooaoue aai eaeoeee. N?aaee ieo auee e ecaanoiua
iieeoeee, oaeea, eae Iiiiae e Oeeoea?ii. Ia iiiaeo i?iecaiaeeei
aia/aoeaiea, /oi noieue o/aiue /aeiaae caueuaao eaeae Aiaa e aannia?oey.

Iineaeiiee noae iniiaiiieiaeieeii ?aeeaeiciiai noieoeecia.

Enoi/ieeii eaeae Iineaeiiey auea eiooeoeey aunoaai aeooiaiiai Auoey,
eioi?ia i?aauaaao ca aeaeeiinoueth i?aoiaeyuaai. Ii yoi Auoea, a ioee/ea
io ie?aaiu aoaeaeenoia, naycaii n iaoa?eae. Aneaae ca Ieaoiiii
Iineaeiiee n/eoae Anaeaiioth oeaeinoiui i?aaieciii, «aeeaui, ?acoiiui,
iaeooaaeaiiui e oiiiinoeaeeiui». Iia ianeaicue i?iiecaia «aeeciaiiie
neeie» Aiaeanoaa, eee «iaiaiiie iiaaiie» Ie?iaie Aeooe. Eae Aia yaeyaony
aioo?aiiae nouiinoueth Einiina, oae e aeoo /aeiaaea anoue iineaiaoe
Eiaina, ainoue ec iacaeaoieo noa? a oea?noaa i?e?iaeu. Ii ?iaenoaai
anaie?iiio Aeooo e eeoue a?aiaiii naycai n oaeii. *aeiaae iiciaao e
Nouaa, e Anaeaiioth eiaiii a neeo naiae i?e/anoiinoe ei iaiei.

O Iineaeiiey einie/aneay ea?a?oey nouanoa iiae/eiaia caeiio e?oaiai?ioa,
e a yoii oeeinio inoaeny enoeiiui nuiii ycu/anoaa. No?aiynue niaaeeieoue
iaoeo e ?aeeaeth, Iineaeiiee nio?aiee a naiae nenoaia e ae?aaiee ieo i
ie?iauo oeeeeao.

Aeeiaieea anaeaineiai a?auaiey, ii iiaieth oeeinioa, anaoeaei caaeneo io
Aiaeanoaa, Eioi?ia iaeiia?aiaiii aai Noaeueaa. «Noaeueaa, — aiai?eo
Iineaeiiee, — yoi iai?a?uaiay oeaiue i?e/ei nouaai, eee ?acoi, niaeanii
eioi?iio oi?aaeyaony ie?icaeaiea». ?ie aeaenoaoao n iiiiuueth caeiia
anaiauae neiiaoee, o.a. acaeiinayce anao /anoae Einiina. Iineieueeo aea
iia ioaaouaaao eaaeaeue o?iaaiue auoey, oi aeaeaeaiea iaaaniuo oae
aeieaeii neacuaaoueny ia niauoeyo, i?ienoiaeyueo ia caiea. Ionthaea
inoaaaeny iaeei oaa aei i?eciaiey ano?ieiaee, oaa, eioi?ue Iineaeiiee e
naeaeae. O/aieai i «neiiaoee» ii ii?aaaeuaae aeaiiiieiaeth, ai?iaeao e
eneonnoai i?aaeneacaiey.

Eiaaea aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai Noeeo iacuaaee «N/anoeeaui», — a yoi
i?icaeua aeeaaeuaaee iniaue niune. Ia n/anouea niio?aee eae ia aea?
naaoee e ?iea. Nai Noeea, eioi?ue, ia niouaynue, a?aaee o?aiu, aa?ee a
naith caacaeo e ia ?annoaaaeny n oaeeniaiaie. A aai niia?iee Ia?ee
iianthaeo aicee n niaie ne?eeneoth i?i?eoeaoaeueieoeo. A aaao?ia aieueoa
ia aa?eee, ii caoi aa?eee a iaaeth e ai?ineiiu.

Oa aeanyoue aaeia, eioi?ua, niaeanii Neaeeea, ia/aeenue n O?iyineie
aieiu, enoaeee a 83 a. aei ?.O. Aeey ?eieyi yoi icia/aei eiiaoe
/aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea, iineaaeiee aeo ae?aiu, i?aaeia/a?oaiiie aa/iuie
caacaeaie. Iaaeaeaaeanue ii/ue.

Oa, eoi i?aaeaea oiiaae ia ainoaea?noai, oaia?ue iioneaee ?oee, oa?yy
eioa?an e aeecie. O/anoeeenue neo/ae naiioaeenoa. Iineaaeiaaoaeyi
Yieeo?a e noieea Iaiaoeey nia?oue noeeea iieie iaauoey. Oeeoea?ii
ioe?iaaiii auneacuaaeny a yoii aea aeooa.

Anee ?aiueoa ?eieyia aeaeaee niune aeecie a eniieiaiee a?aaeaeaineeo
iaycaiiinoae, oi oaia?ue oaeie acaeyae ia?anoae eo oaeiaeaoai?youe.
*aeiaae eae au ia?aoae iaeiiaoe naiiai naay, ana /aua caaeoiuaaynue iaae
nianoaaiiie noaeueaie e aa cia/aieai. Ioeoaea y i?eoae, aeey /aai y
aeeao, eoaea eaeo, /oi aeaeao iaiy iinea nia?oe?

Iiaue, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? aa?u o?aaiaae e iiauo oi?i iauiinoe.
Iianaianoii noaee iiiaeeoueny /oaeaeua iieeoeea a?aonoaa, nithcu, oaeiua
eeoau, eioi?ua naeeaeaee ethaeae oaniaa, /ai ainoaea?noai e
iaoeeiiaeueiinoue.

Iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae aicieeathueo ii anae eiia?ee nithcia
yaeeinue ii/eoaiea ainoi/iuo aiaeanoa.

Ethaee Caiaaea iauaaeeieeenue aie?oa aiaia, /oeiuo a Ne?ee e Aaeioa,
O?eaee e Ia?nee, iaaeaeyy eo iiauie eiaiaie.

I?eaa?aeaioeu Ieo?u niae?aeenue ia iieeoao a iiaecaiaeueyo e iaua?iuo
o?aiao. Noaiu eo oe?aoaee ciaee ciaeeaea e einie/aneea neiaieu.
Eoeueieiaoeeae aiaineoaeaiey aue iiiaio, eiaaea ioaea?aeaaeanue caaana e
«a?aouey» nica?oeaee noaooth Ieo?u; eae i?aaeei, aai ecia?aaeaee a
iiiaio caeeaiey ei aeaaioneiai auea.

?eineea nieaeaou ioioii i?eaaaaee e iie?iaeoaeuenoao yoiai iiao/aai
aiaa, e aica?auaynue ec iioiaeia, caiineee naiaia ieo?aecia ai ana
oaieee eiia?ee.

E iiiuia a Ao?eea, a A?eoaiee, ia Aeoiaa e ?aeia nio?aieeenue inoaoee
iaua?iuo ieo?aoiia. Iie nii?oaeaiu ii aaeeiiio ieaio, /oi oeacuaaao ia
aaeeinoai ia?yaeia e o/aiey ?annayiiuo iianthaeo a?aonoa.

________________________________________________________

‘ Noiy — oeeinionee-ie?iaicc?ai/aneay nenoaia noieoeecia.

Eoaeaeneea ienneiia?u

140-50 aa. aei ?.O.

A Eoaeee aa?aeneea yiea?aiou, aiaiiiieaiiua e ioiouaiieee noaee
naeeoueny oaea n III a. aei ?.O. I?eaeyaeuaaynue e yoei ethaeyi, ?eieyia
ioia/aee eo io?eoaineea i?aau, eioi?ua naie oeaieee e io oo?aou eioi?uo
aeaaii no?aaeaee. A?inaeanue a aeaca iaoa?ieiinoue aa?aaa e ii?ieai e
eca?auaieyi, caianaiiui a ?ei ec a?a/aneeo ai?iaeia. Ii naiaio
ono?ienoao aaooicaaaoiua iaueiu /ai-oi iaiiieiaee eoeueoiaua a?aonoaa,
eioi?ua n ecaanoiiai a?aiaie caaiaaaee iiioey?iinoue o ?eieyi. I?aaaea,
a neiaaiaao ia niaa?oaee oaeiuo oea?aiiiee, caoi oai cao/aee
aaeioiiaaiiua iieeoau e aeiiu; oai iiaeii auei anooieoue a aanaaeo,
iiciaeiieoueny n o/aieai, eioi?ia aeaaaei ioaaou ia iniiaiua aii?inu
aeecie. Iieeoaaiiua aeiia ioee/aeenue io o?aiia oai, /oi aeinooi a ieo
aue ioe?uo anai e eaaeaeiio.

?en. 148

Aaaono. I a. aei ?.O.

Iiiaeo ?eieyi ?acae?aaeaei, /oi iiaeaeanoiue ia?iae aea?aeeony
iacaaeneii, ia oa?yy naiaai aeinoieinoaa. Iaeie oi?aeaee eoaeaaa ca eo
aiaaonoaa, ae?oaea — ca ieuainoai; iaeie iaaeiyee a «noaaioiae eaie»,
ae?oaea — a /?acia?iie aeeiaie/iinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, aioenaieoeci
(aii?aee ?ani?ino?aiaiiiio iiaieth) aiciee caaeieai aei o?enoeainoaa,
aua a aioe/ioth yiioo. Iaiaaeee ia aa?aaa ia/aeenue, eiaaea ?aeeaey
Caaaoa aeiaeeanue ia?auo iiaaae a ycu/aneie n?aaea. Eiuie neiaaie,
iaeiie ec i?e/ei aioe/iiai aioenaieoecia auei iiyaeaiea «i?icaeeoia».

Oa?iei «i?icaeeou» anoue a?a/aneee ia?aaiae neiaa aa?ei, «i?eoaeueoeu».
A yeeeienoe/aneoth yiioo oae iacuaaee anao iaaa?aaa, eniiaaaeiaaaoeo
eoaeaeci. I?icaeeo eoaeaeneie ?aeeaee aeieaeai aue oeaeeeii i?aiaeieaoue
noa?ia niciaiea, ioeacaoueny io aea?oa Ieeiieeoeai e io a?aaeaeaineeo
?eooaeia. Ii aaciaiai?i/ii aaa?ye naay Aaeeiiio — Oai?oeo iaaa e caiee,
i Eioi?ii o/eea Aeaeey. Aea?aeaoueny n ei??aeoiie oa?ieiinoueth,
iicae?aaeoue ycu/ieea a aeaiue aai i?acaeieea — aio naiia aieueoaa, /oi
iia iicaieeoue naaa /aeiaae, i?eiyaoee eoaeaeci. A inoaeueiii iaaeaeo
iei e aai i?ioeui eiii?iienn eneeth/aeny.

Eiaiii a yoii ioieoa e aicieeea aeaaiay iai?yaeaiiinoue, eioi?ay
aiineaaenoaee aucaaea noieeiiaaiea ?eia n o?enoeaiaie.

Eoaeaeneay ienney a ?eia nii?iaiaeaeaeanue noieue aea ino?ie ai?ueaie,
eae e yeeeiecaoeey. Ii a iaieo neo/ayo ie a?aaeaea, ie ia?u
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia iiaee nicaeaoue aeooie ieioeiu: /enei i?icaeeoia
aic?anoaei ii anae eiia?ee.

«Iaoe caeiiu, — ienae Oeeii, — i?eaeaeatho e naaa anao: aa?aa?ia,
eiiieaiaiieeia, a?aeia, iaeoaoaeae iaoa?eea e aeeoaeae ino?iaia, ia
Ainoiea, Caiaaea e a Aa?iia». Iniaaiii iiiai ia?auaiiuo iiyaeeinue a
Aioeioee e Aeaianea, ii aeaaiui oeaio?ii eoaeaeneie i?iiiaaaee noaea
Aeaenaiae?ey.

I?icaeeoeci aue iaeiei ec naiuo oaeeaeoaeueiuo yaeaiee ?eineie aeecie.
Aaaeue a oie eee eiie noaiaie ii i?eiauae iaioeoia e eoaeayi, a
aeiaiaeia i?ioea yoiai auei aeinoaoi/ii iiiai. Ia?iae Aeaeee iinea noa
eao naiaiaeu niiaa aue eeoai iacaaeneiinoe e a aeeanii?a (?annayiee) ia
?ac oa?iae i?eoaniaiey. Eaaeaeue, anooieaoee n iei a aeeaeia, iia
?annoaeaeaoue oae aea, eae /a?ac ouny/o eao eiycue Aeaaeeie?: anee au
iaoiaeeoanue a noieue iacaaeaeiii iieiaeaiee, ia cia/eo ee yoi, /oi
?aeeaey aaoa eiaeia eee Aia ioaa?ioeny io aan? E ana aea aa?a Aaooiai
Caaaoa ieacaeanue noieue i?eoyaaoaeueiie, /oi aii?aee yoei niia?aaeaieyi
i?icaeeoeci i?iaeieaeae ?ani?ino?aiyoueny.

*aeiaaeiaia

?eineay eiia?ey, 66—7 aa. aei ?.O.

*aeiaa/anoai oiieeinue ia?aae i?eoanoaeai Ecaaaeoaey. Ii anee iaeie
aeaeaee a Aai eeoea aanoieea eiiai ie?a, oi ae?oaea auee aioiau eneaoue
nianaiey o caiiiai iiaaeeoaey e aiaa.

Oaeea oeao?u, eae Oeaca?ue, Aaaono eee Iaiieaii, anaaaea noaiiaeeenue
iauaeoaie eaeieiiieeiinoaa, i?eieiaaoaai oi?iu ianniaiai ineoica. Ca ieo
auee aioiau ioaeaaaoue aeeciue e n eo eiaiaie ia onoao oee ia aeaaeue.
Nae?ao aeiiioe/aneiai aeeyiey aiaeaeae e?iaony ia oieueei a eo oiaiee
aeaaeaoue oieiie, a eo iaenoiaie yia?aee e iaayiee. Iie iiei?yee e oai,
/oi a ieo eae au aiieiuaeanue iiuue noeoeeiiai, aei/aeiaa/aneiai ie?a.
Iie oee e naiae oeaee, i?eiiny a aea?oao oeaeua ia?iaeu, — e
iiaaaeaeaee. Yoi aucuaaei o?aiao, niaoaiiue n iaiaeaieai, e ii?iaeeei
aeaiiie/aneoth ienoeeo aaniethoecia. Caeanue enoi/iee eoeueoa
aaoi?eoa?iuo aiaeaeae anao a?aiai. Aeey ieo iannu auee eeoue n?aaenoaii,
ii eiaiii yoe iannu, aeaeiiua ia?aiauoiui einoeieoii, oee ca ieie,
neiaii iineooiia noaaei.

A 29 a. aei ?.O. iiyaeeenue oaea ia?aua o?aiu, iinayuaiiua aaieth
cae?aanoaothuaai eiia?aoi?a. Eae anaaaea. Aaaono aeaenoaiaae n
iaeyaeeie, i?eeeaeuaaynue, /oi onooiaao aiea ia?iaea. Nia/aea aeoa?e aio
aicaeaeaaee ia a ?eia, a a ainoi/iuo i?iaeioeeyo, aaea ecaeaaia i?eaueee
e iieeiiaieth iiia?oai. I?ioei iaiiiai a?aiaie, e aaeiaoneea ae?aoeu
oneoaeeeai iainiiaaee oai?eth aiaeanoaaiiinoe oeaca?y. Aeaaea a Eoaeaa
E?iae auno?iee aeaa o?aia aiao Aaaonoo.

?en. 149

Aeoa?ue Ie?a Aaaonoa. 13—9 aa. aei ?.O. ?aeiino?oeoeey

?en. 150

Aiaiiaoa?ue. Oaioai A?ae. 1405 a. O?aaiaio.

Ii e oiaaea ia ana iaee aea?oaie ianniaiai aacoiey: anoue aeooea iaiaee,
oeacuaathuea ia iaee/ea iiiiceoeee.

A naiii aeaea, ii/aio oeaca?th iiae eiiaoe aeecie i?eoiaeeeinue nnueaoue
iiyoia e eiioeneiauaaoue iaoaiaeiua aio eieae? Aeey /aai aue ecaeai
caeii i?ioea iaioeaoenoia? Cia/eo, eiai-oi oaea ia/eiaee ?acae?aaeaoue
aacoaea?aeiua neaaineiaey.

I?AAeAeAA?EA

Caiiay aeanoue e oaeia ianneainoaa

Eoaeay, 37—7 aa. aei ?.O.

Eae au a ioaao ia yoe i?eoycaiey /aeiaaeiaiaa i?icao/aea eiay ianiue,
eioi?oth oneuoaee ianoooe Aeoeaaia. Iia caaea anao, eoi ia iieeiieeny
eaeaiannee, iia aicaauaea i ianooieaiee iiaeeeiiiai Oea?noaa Aiaeey, i
ie?a iaaeaeo caieae e Iaaanaie. Ii neiaai aaaiaaeenoia, Eenon O?enoin
?iaeeeny «ai aeie oea?y E?iaea» (ni. Io 2:1; Ee 1:5).

Yoi i?aaeaiea auei iciaiaiiaaii iineaaeiae a enoi?ee Ec?aeey iiiuoeie
nicaeaoue naaoneoth iiia?oeth, iiiuoeie, eioi?ay iioa?iaea e?ao. *a?ac
o?eaeoeaoue eao iinea ei?iiaoeee E?iae, i?icaaiiue Aaeeeei, ana aua aeee
a no?aoa e iaeeaeae oaea?a a nieio.

Ana naie iacao?yaeiua niiniaiinoe E?iae ioaeae oiio, /oiau i?aacieoe
ninaaeieo aeanoeoaeae e aeieacaoue, /oi ii caneoaeeaaao oea?neiai
caaiey. Ii ainnoaiaaeeaae ai?iaea, no?iee e?aiinoe, aeai?oeu,
eiiiae?iiu. Aai yia?aey e oaioacey auee iaenoiueiu. Aaaono i?eciaaae,
/oi E?iae nicaeai aeaaeaoue anae Ne?eae e aeaaea Aaeioii.

Iaaeaynue nieneaoue ethaiaue iaaiaeiuo ethaeae, oea?ue i?enooiee e
inouanoaeaieth a?aiaeeiciiai i?iaeoa: iieiie ?aeiino?oeoeee O?aia.
Ieeiaaea aua Aeii Aiaeee ia aeinoeaae oaeiai aaeeeieaiey.

E?anioa noieeoeu E?iaea ii?aaeaea ia oieueei iaeiiieeia-eoaeaaa, ii e
eiino?aioeaa, i?eacaeaaoeo a Ea?onaeei. Iiiaea ec ieo, iai?eia? eiinoe
Aa?eiia e iieeiaiaeaoe Aeoaeeee, i?eiineee aea?oau a O?aia, aaea aeey
ycu/ieeia aue ioaaaeai iniaue aeai?. Nai Aaaono i?enueae a aea? O?aio
ae?aaioeaiiua ninoaeu. AEeoaee iiaee ai?aeeoueny naiei ai?iaeii e aai
aeai/oaeeiie — Aeiiii Ainiiaeiei.

Oea?th auee, eiia/ii, aeaaiaea?iu ca aai caaiou, iniaaiii a aeie aieiaea
eee eiaaea ii i/euae aei?iae io a?aaeoaeae. Ii ana aea e aai naiiai
n/eoaee /ai-oi a?iaea ?acaieieea, ainnaaeathuaai ia i?anoiea Aeaaeaea.

AEeciue oea?neiai aeai?a — a iia ie aeey eiai ia auea nae?aoii —
aucuaaea anaiauaa ioa?auaiea. Aie?oa E?iaea aeaiue e ii/ue ieaeenue
eio?eae. Iuneue i oii, /oi aai ia n/eoatho aeinoieiui aeanoe, noaea o
oea?y iaayc/eaie e eeoaea aai nia.

*ai i?a/iaa noaiiaeeinue oea?noaiaaiea E?iaea, oai e?ai/a auei oiiaaiea.

N?aaee «/athueo Ooaoaiey» aaaiaaeeno Eoea iacuaaao noa?oea Neiaiia e
i?i?i/eoeo Aiio; e iei aea, ii-aeaeeiiio, i?eiaaeeaaeaee nayuaiiee
Caoa?ey, aai aeaia Yeeoaaa (Aeecaaaoa) e, iaeiiaoe, thiay Ia?eai ec
ai?iaea Iaca?aoa.

Iaca?ao aue oi?ioi ciaeii ia?aui o?enoeaiai: iiiaea iinauaee yoi oeoia
naeaiea n?aaee oieiia, aaea, eacaeinue, caia?ei naii a?aiy. Iaca?ao ia
neuoae oyaeaeie iinooie eaaeiia?ia e i?iiceoaeueiuo caoeia oaioa?.
Oieueei oeeeaaeu caaiaee n?aaee ieea e ?iaeie ianoooa ncuaae ia ca?a
?annayaoaany noaaei eic.

Iaiaeue niune caeeth/ai a oii, /oi yoi caauoia ethaeueie ianoi noaei
oi/eie ia?ana/aiey iaaa e caiee. Iaca?ao iaiiieiaao ia eiuo ia?eeao
aaeeeiai, iaaeaee oa, e eioi?ui i?eaueea /aeiaa/aneay noaoiinoue. Eae
anaeaineia ieaiy nicaacaeee e aaeaeoee ca?iaeaeaaony a aeoaeiao
iee?iie?a, oae e inue aeooiaiie enoi?ee i?ioea a oa aeie ia /a?ac ?ei,
Aeaenaiae?eth eee Ea?onaeei, a /a?ac iai?eiaoiue iinaeie, ie?oaeaiiue
aeiia?aaeieeaie.

?en. 151

Neiaii I?aaaaeiue. Eeiia. Na?aaeeia XW a

Ia?oe?iaaee eiai?ou, aiieea /a?iue a aioeoaao?ao; naiaoi?u e ooou,
aaeoaiee e iiyou, oi?aaoe e oeeiniou ?oeiieaneaee noa?athuaio Aaaonoo.
A?iaeee ii naiaio aeai?oeo noi?a/iue E?iae; nii?eee, neeiiyynue iaae
naeoeaie, eoaeaeneea eieaeieee. Iaeoaoaee eiia?ee aieiaoaeueii neaaeeee
ca oeiainiauie naeaeeaie e ?enoaeeuaie. Iaei eoi ec ieo neuoae i
aeaeaeii Iaca?aoa, e, eiia/ii, ieeoi ia ciae i aeiia, aaea ne?uoay io
ie?a e ioe?uoay Aiao aeooa ia?aaeeea iaecuynieioth Ano?a/o. Iaaeaeo oai
nionoy aaea iunee ieeeeiiia ethaeae aoaeoo i?eeiaaiu e Aa aaaeiie
eaeuea. Aaaono e E?iae oeaeoo a i?ioeia, a Iia i?aaoaeao aa/iie
Niooieoeae /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea.

«A oanoie aea ianyoe iineai aue Aiaae Aaa?eee io Aiaa a ai?iae
Aaeeeaeneee, iacuaaaiue Iaca?ao, e Aeaaa, ia?o/aiiie ioaeo eiaiai Eineo,
ec aeiia Aeaaeaeiaa; eiy aea Aeaaa: Ia?ey».

(Ee 1:26-27)

Yoi eae au ia?aay aniuoea naaoa, naaoa Neaau Aiaeeae. Ii i?aaeaieth, iia
canoeaea Aeaao o iaca-?aoneiai eieiaeoea. A caoai ianooiaao aaciieaea,
iieiia o?aiaoa e nayuaiiiai oaeana, ioaaoeaoaai Ia?eai.

«Iia aea auea niouaia yoie ?a/ueth e ?aciuoeyea: /oi aea yoi ca
i?eaaonoaea?»

(Ee 1:29)

E oiaaea i?eoiaeeo aoi?ay aieia — aanoue ia eca?aiiinoe e i?ecaaiee:

«Ia aieny, Ia?ey, eai Ou ia?aea aeaaiaeaoue o Aiaa. E aio ca/iaoue ai
/?aaa, e ?iaeeoue Nuia, e ia?a/aoue Aio eiy: Eenon. Ii aoaeao aaeee e
ia?a/aony Nuiii Anaauoiaai; e aeano Aio Ainiiaeue Aia i?anoie Aeaaeaea,
iooea Aai; e aoaeao oea?noaiaaoue iaae aeiiii Eaeiaa aiaaee, e oea?noao
Aai ia aoaeao eiioea».

(Ee 1:30-33)

A aeeciue Ia?eai aioei Iacaeaoiaa. Naia Iia ia oio/an niiaea aianoeoue e
iniuneeoue yoio iiuo; ia ?ac aua aoaeao ioaaouaaoue Aa no?ao e ecoieaiea
ia?aae eeoeii naa?oeaoaainy.

Oaeia Eenona iaioaeaeeia io oaeiu Aeaau.

Aeio?enoeaineee ie? naeaeae ana aeinooiiia /aeiaaeo, /oiau iinoe/ue
niune aeecie e ia?anoe Aiaa. Ioiuia aea aio yaeai Nai Iaec?a/aiiue, e
yaeai aienoeio aiaeanoaaiiui ia?acii — aac ianeeey iaae ?acoiii e aieae
ethaeae.

Ioaa?aeaiiue e aiieiue, «ia eiathuee, aaea i?aeeiieoue aieiao» (ni. Io
8:20; Ee 9:58), O?enoin aea/ao e Naaa eeoue oao, eoi naiaiaeii iiethaee
e i?eiye Aai, eoi ociae Aai iiae «ia?acii ?aaa» (Oei 2:6—7). Eae aaeue
oeaao iiaeiuaao niaeo?, oae e Aaaiaaeea iauaieao aa?o i?i?ieia,
aoaeaeenoneoth aeaaeaeo nianaiey, aeeiaieci Ca?aoono?u e /aeiaa/iinoue
Eiioooeey. Iii inayuaao ana eo/oaa, /oi auei a yoeea aioe/iuo oeeinioia
e a ienoeea eiaeeeneeo ioae?aoeia. I?e yoii o?enoeainoai — ia iiaay
aeieo?eia, a Aanoue i ?aaeueiii oaeoa, i niauoee, niaa?oeaoainy a aeaoo
ieaiao — caiiii e iaaaniii. Ia?aie/aiiia ianoii e yiioie, iii auoiaeeo
ca i?aaeaeu a?aiaiiiai.

E iaio noiaeyony ana aei?iae, ei ecia?yaony e noaeeony i?ioeia,
ianoiyuaa e aoaeouaa.

VII. EENON O?ENOIN

Ia/aei o?enoeainoaa

7 a. aei ?.O. — 30 a. ii ?.O.

AAAAeAIEA

Ia?aua enoi?e/aneea naeaeaoaeuenoaa i o?enoeaiao iu iaoiaeei o ?eineeo
enoi?eeia Ei?iaeey Oaoeeoa (55-120 aa.) e Naaoiiey (70-140 aa.). Oiaaea
aea i o?enoeaiao ienae ?eineee /eiiaiee Ieeiee Ieaaeoee (61—113 aa.).
Oioy yoe naeaeaoaeuenoaa iaienaiu a i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueiii e aeaaea a?oaii
oiia, iie ii?aaeaeaiii oeacuaatho ia oi, /oi i?e Oeaa?ee aue eaciai
O?enoin (ie. 30 a.), /oi «niyoaiea n?aaee ?eineeo eoaeaaa ia/aeinue
ec-ca iaeiaai O?enoa» (ie. 50 a.) e /oi a 64 a. i?e Ia?iia e a 112 a.
i?e O?ayia auee aiiaiey ia o?enoeaineea iaueiu, eioi?ua noaee oaea
aeinoaoi/ii iiiai/eneaiiu, oae /oi ?eineia i?aaeoaeuenoai auei
auioaeaeaii ia?aoeoue ia ieo aieiaiea.

Iaeiaei aeey oiai /oiau ociaoue i naiii ia/aeueiii ia?eiaea
o?enoeainoaa, iai neaaeoao ia?aoeoueny e enoi/ieeai, iaienaiiui naieie
o?enoeaiaie. Naiua ae?aaiea ec ieo — Aaaiaaeey — iiaanoaiaaiey ia Eenona
O?enoa, iaienaiiua a ia?eiae io 40 aei 90 a. ii ?.O. Eiaiii ec ieo iu
ociaai i niauoeyo, naycaiiuo n aicieeiiaaieai o?enoeainoaa,
ii?aaeaeeaoaai ia oieueei eoeueoo?o, ii e aanue iaeee nia?aiaiiie
oeeaeeecaoeee. Naii neiai «aaaiaaeea» a ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai icia/aao
«?aaeinoiay aanoue». Aeaa ec /aou?ao eaiiie/aneeo Aaaiaaeee auee
iaienaiu o/aieeaie Eenona O?enoa, a aeaa ae?oaeo — o/aieeaie yoeo
o/aieeia. Aaaiaaeey aoiaeyo a ninoaa aoi?ie /anoe Aeaeee, iacuaaaiie
Iiaui Caaaoii.

?en. 152

Iieeiiaiea aieoaia. Ieiei 1410 a.

«Anoue eieaa, — iaienae iacaaeieai aei nia?oe Iooeei, — eiae eaaeaeia
neiai enoieeiaaii, iauyniaii, i?iiiaaaeaii ai anao eiioeao caiee,
i?eiaiaii ei anaaiciiaeiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai aeecie… Ney eieaa
iacuaaaony Aaaiaaeeai, — e oaeiaa aa aa/ii iiaay i?aeanoue, /oi anee iu,
i?anuuaiiua ie?ii eee oae?o/aiiua oiuieai, neo/aeii ioe?iai aa, oi oaea
ia a neeao i?ioeaeoueny aa neaaeinoiiio oaea/aieth e iia?oaeaainy aeooii
a aa aiaeanoaaiiia e?anii?a/ea».

I?ieia

63—4 aa. aei ?.O.

Aaniie 63 a. aei ?.O. ia aei?iaao Iaeanoeiu iiyaeeenue eieiiiu ?eineeo
nieaeao. Eiiaiaeiaae a?ieae ni?ieao?aoeaoiee iieeiaiaeaoe Aiae Iiiiae.
?acaiaaaiiue eiaa?iie iieeoeeie i?aaeoaeae Iaeanoeiu, Iiiiae auno?ui
ia?oai aeaeaaeny ia Ea?onaeei.

Iinea o?aoiany/iie inaaeu auea ?ac?ooaia iaeia ec aaoai o?aiiaie
oeeoaaeaee, e ?eieyia oeuioee a ia?aaeo O?aia. Iieuecoynue i?aaii
iiaaaeeoaey, Iiiiae ?aoee iniio?aoue ciaiaieoue Ea?onaeeineee o?ai, a
oii /enea e Nayoia Nayouo, ianoi, eoaea ?ac a aiae iia aoiaeeoue oieueei
eoaeaeneee ia?ainayuaiiee. A iai?yaeaiiie oeoeia ioiaeaeioeanue caaana.
Oaeeaeaieth Iiiiay e aai ioeoea?ia ia auei a?aieoe. Iie iaeeaeaee
oaeaeaoue ia/oi iaiaueiiaaiiia. Ii oai auei ionoi. Oai iaeoaei
Iac?eiia… Ni no?aiiui /oanoaii niouaiiua ?eieyia iieeioee O?ai, ia
i?eeinioaoenue ie e /aio.

?en. 153

Ai?iae Iaca?ao

A oi a?aiy nianoaaiiua ae?aaiea aa?iaaiey e ieou noaee aucuaaoue o
iiiaeo ?eieyi ianiaoeo. ?aeeaey oa?yea naia aeeyiea, i?aa?auaynue eeoue
a a?aaeaeaineoth iaycaiiinoue. Iiyoiio, iiciaeiieaoenue n ?aeeaeyie
Ainoiea, ?eieyia aeaaeii iioyioeenue e iei. Ieeoeueoiua o/aiey, iaaey,
ano?ieiaey e ai?iaeaa iaoiaeeee iiiaeanoai iineaaeiaaoaeae. ?aeeaey
Ec?aeey — eoaeaeci — auea aaeeinoaaiiie, ii/eoaaoae ia neaci/iuo aa?iaa
e iaiaeanoaeaiiua neeu i?e?iaeu, a Aaeeiiai Aiaa — Oai?oea anaai
aeaeeiiai e iaaeaeeiiai. Yoio Aia aiai?ee i Naaa ethaeyi /a?ac
nioai?aiiue Ei ie?, a oaeaea ioe?uaaeny ioae?aoeai e i?i?ieai eae
Aeooiaiia Ia/aei, i?aaeuyaeythuaa /aeiaaeo aunieea i?aanoaaiiua
o?aaiaaiey. A eoaeaecia auee no?iai cai?auaiu ethaua ecia?aaeaiey, e?iia
?anoeoaeueiiai i?iaiaioa. Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo iniaaiiinoae eoaeaecia auea
aa?a a oi, /oi a ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy Aia iioeao Naiaio ia?iaeo
Ianneth-Ecaaaeoaey, Eioi?ue inaiaiaeeo ia?iae io anyeiai cea e aoaeao
ii/eoaai anaie ae?oaeie ia?iaeaie caiee. A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey
ia?aae ia/aeii iiaie y?u yoi iaeeaeaiea ?ani?ino?aieeinue ii anae
?eineie eiia?ee.

IO AEOEAAIA AeI EAIA?IAOIA

?iaeaeaiea Eenona O?enoa.

Iaca?ao 7 a. aei ?.O. — 27 a. ii ?.O.

A nia?aiaiiie o?iiieiaee oao eee eiuo niauoee a?aiy iaicia/aaony /eneii
eao, i?ioaaeoeo eeai aei ia/aea «iiaie y?u», eeai iinea: «aei i.y.»,
«i.y.». Ca ia/aei iiaie y?u auei i?eiyoi a?aiy ?iaeaeanoaa Eenona
O?enoa. Oaeie ii?yaeie eaoin/eneaiey aue i?aaeeiaeai a VI a. ii ?.O. e
anei?a aue i?eiyo anaie aa?iiaeneeie no?aiaie. Aei yoiai ana no?aiu
N?aaeecaiiiii?uey aaee eaoin/eneaiea io a?aiaie iniiaaiey ?eia. Oae,
naii ?iaeaeaiea Eenona O?enoa, eae iieaaaee, i?iecioei a 747 a. io
iniiaaiey ?eia. Oaea a iaoai aaea ec niiinoaaeaiey anao enoi?e/aneeo
naaaeaiee i niauoeyo oiai a?aiaie auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?iaeaeaiea
Eenona O?enoa i?iecioei ?aiaa aeaou, i?eiyoie a VI a. Oaeei ia?acii, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ?iaeaeanoai O?enoiai
niaa?oeeinue a 7—6 aa. «aei ?.O.».

Aaaiaaeey io Iaooay e Eoee niaea?aeao ?anneac i ?iaeaeaiee Eenona ai
a?aiy i?aaeaiey oea?y E?iaea. Aeaa ae?oaeo Aaaiaaeey, io Ia?ea e io
Eiaiia, ia/eiatho naia iiaanoaiaaiea n oiai a?aiaie, eiaaea Eenon oaea
auoiaeeo ia i?iiiaaaeue Naiaai o/aiey. Aio auei ieiei 30 eao.

Oea?ue E?iae Aaeeeee i?aaee Eoaeaae n 37 a. aei ?.O. ii 4 a. ii ?.O.
Caoaaoea aeanoue i?e iiaeaea?aeea ?eieyi i?ioea aiee ia?iaea, ii ouaoii
no?aieeny caaiaaaoue o iaai iiioey?iinoue. E?iae ?acaa?ioe aieueoia
no?ieoaeuenoai; ca o?eaeoeaoue o?e aiaea aai oea?noaiaaiey no?aia
iieo/eea aaoiiiieth. *anoiethaeaue e aeanoieee, E?iae iinoiyiii aeee a
aoiinoa?a no?aoa, iianaynue caaiai?ia. AEa?oaaie aai iiaeic?eoaeueiinoe
noaee aeaia e aeaia nuiiaae.

?en. 154

Iieeiiaiea aieoaia. Aeaeiooi. O?anea. Ieiei 1305 a.

?en. 155

?iaeaeanoai O?enoiai. Eeiia. Ia/aei XV a. O?aaiaio

A i?aaeaiea eiia?aoi?a Aaaonoa aio auei i?eeacaii i?iaanoe ia?aienue ii
anae Iaeanoeia. Eaaeaeiio naiaenoao iaaeeaaeaei aeey yoiai i?eeoe a
ai?iae, ioeoaea ?iaeii aue aeaaa naiuee. Oae Eineo e Ia?ey ieacaeenue a
Aeoeaaia, iaaieueoii ae?aaiai ai?iaea, iaiiaeaeaeo io Ea?onaeeia. Ia?ey
aeaeaea ?aaaiea. Ec-ca aieueoiai neiieaiey ethaeae iaaiciiaeii auei
iaeoe ianoa a aeiia. Ia?ee e Eineoo i?eoeinue inoaiiaeoueny a iaua?a,
neoaeeaoae caaiiii aeey iaaoe. Oai Ia?ey ?iaeeea naiaai Nuia — Eenona.
Ianoiua ianoooe — ia?aua, eoi oaeaeae Ieaaeaioea, — ?anneacuaaee i
iaiaueiiaaiiuo yaeaieyo, eioi?ua i?eaaee eo a iaua?o.

Eiaaea Ia?ey i?eoea n Ieaaeaioeai a Ea?onaeeineee o?ai aeey auiieiaiey
i/enoeoaeueiuo ia?yaeia, i?ici?eeaue noa?aoe Neiaii i?aaeneacae aa Nuio
aaeeeia aoaeouaa. Neiaii aeaaineiaee ecoieaiiuo ?iaeeoaeae e aeiaaaee,
ia?auaynue e Ia?ee: «Aio Ii eaaeeo ia iaaeaiea e ia ainnoaiea iiiaeo a
Ec?aeea… Oaaa aea naiie aeooo i?ieaeao ia/» (ni. Ee 2:34—35).

A /a?ac aeaa aiaea n Ainoiea a Ea?onaeei i?eoae iaaieueoie ea?aaai.
Ioae?aoeu-ano?ieiae, iacuaaaiua aieoaaie, ?anni?aoeaaee o anao, aaea
iaoiaeeony ?iaeeaoeeny Oea?ue Eoaeaeneee, oae eae iie aeaeaee ia
iaaineeiia iiaoth iaiaueiiaaiioth caacaeo. Ii eo iiaieth, iia
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea i ?iaeaeaiee a Eoaeaa aaeeeiai Oea?y, Eioi?iio iie e
i?eoee iieeiieoueny. Neoo ia yoii aeioae aei E?iaea. Io ia?ainayuaiieeia
ii ociae, /oi, niaeanii i?i?i/anoaai, yoi iiaei i?iecieoe a Aeoeaaia.
I?ecaaa e naaa aieoaia, E?iae ociae i a?aiaie iiyaeaiey caacaeu e
iiaaeae ei ?acociaoue ana i Ieaaeaioea e caoai niiaueoue aio.
Aeanoiethaeaue noa?ee ieaie?iaae oie/oiaeeoue iaiaeeaeaiiiai niia?ieea.
Aaaiaaeea ?anneacuaaao, /oi iinea iieeiiaiey Ieaaeaioeo Eenono aieoau ia
aica?aoeeenue e E?iaeo, a ioioee a naith no?aio ae?oaei iooai.

?en. 156

Ecaeaiea ieaaeaioeaa. Neoeueioo?a Niai?a Iio?-Aeai. Ia?eae. XIII a.

?acaiaaaiiue oea?ue ioaeae aacoiiue ii aeanoieinoe i?eeac oie/oiaeeoue a
Aeoeaaia anao ieaaeaioeaa a aic?anoa aei aeaoo eao. Eiaaea ?a/ue oea i
aeanoe, ii ia inoaiaaeeaaeny ie ia?aae /ai.

Iaeiaei Oio, Eiai eneaee oaeeoeu, aue oaea aeaeaei io ai?iaea. Naiuey
Eineoa ne?ueanue anei?a iinea ooiaea aieoaia. Iie ioi?aaeeenue a Aaeiao
— iaeei ec aeeaeaeoeo oeaio?ia, aaea aeeee eoaeae aia Iaeanoeiu e aaea
ia?aaeei nianaeenue i?aneaaeoaiua E?iaeii.

?en. 157

Enoi/iee a Iaca?aoa

Eiaaea nionoy ianeieueei eao ecaanoea i nia?oe E?iaea (4 a. ii ?.O.)
aeinoeaei Aaeioa, Eineo aa?ioeny ia ?iaeeio e iinaeeeny ia naaa?a
Iaeanoeiu, a iaaieueoii ai?iaeea Iaca?aoa, aaea aeee n Ia?eae i?aaeaea.

Eae aeeea naiuey Eineoa a Iaca?aoa? Eeoue Iaooae e Eoea i/aiue iaiiiai
?anneacuaatho i aeaoneeo aiaeao Eenona. Ai anyeii neo/aa, Eenon n
aeaonoaa iinoiyiii aeaeae ethaeae, caaioeeai io?aiythueo naie noaaea,
aeiia?aaea?ae, iiaeaycuaathueo eicu, nayoaeae ia aanaiieo iieyo,
aeiaoeia n na?iaie, n?acathueo eieinuey. Iicaeiaa yoe ea?oeiu iineoaeeee
ia?acaie aeey Aai i?eo/. Eae e Eineo, Eenon noae ieioieeii. Eineo oia?,
aa?iyoii, eiaaea Eenono auei ieiei aeaaaeoeaoe eao. Ai a?aiy neoaeaiey
Eenona Aai iacuaaee «Nuiii Ia?ee», /oi icia/aei, /oi Eineoa oaea ia auei
a aeeauo.

Noaiiaeaiea ethaie ee/iinoe, a iniaaiii iaiaueiiaaiiie, anaaaea
caaaaeea; oai aieaa iai ia aeaii i?iieeiooue a oaeio aeooe Eenona. Iaeii
oieueei eaaeaony aannii?iui: Ii aue naiaiaeai io aioo?aiieo eiioeeeoia,
eioi?ua n aeaoneeo eao oa?catho /aeiaaea. Aa?iyoii, a naiaiaeiua io
o?oaea /anu Eenon, eae e iicaeiaa, a aiaeu i?iiiaaaeie/anoaa, ethaee
ooiaeeoue a oaaeeiaiiua ianoa aeey iieeoau. Oai, ia oieiao Iaca?aoa,
iieiue aeooiaiuo e oaeaniuo nee, Ii oieueei aeaeae ciaea, /oiau a?ineoue
a ie? ia?aua naiaia Naiae i?iiiaaaee. E ciae aue iiaeai.

I?aaeoa/a. Eenon a ionouia

27a.

Iaeiaaeaeu a?oiia ethaeae, ninoiyuay ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeooiaainoaa e
?aeeaeiciuo o/eoaeae, auoea ec ai?io Ea?onaeeia e ioi?aaeeanue ii
aei?iaa, aaaeouae e aa?aaai Ei?aeaia. I?aaei?eiyoue yoi iooaoanoaea eo
iiaoaeee neoo i iieiaeii ionouiieea Eiaiia, iacuaaaoai naay «aieinii
aanoieea».

Eiaii i?ienoiaeee ec nayuaiie/aneiai nineiaey. Ii ?aii inoaeny aac
?iaeeoaeae. Aanueia aa?iyoii, /oi ii aue onuiiaeai annayie, eioi?ua
ia?aaeei a?aee ia ainieoaiea ne?io e, oe?uaaynue a oaaeeiaiiuo ianoao,
aaee aneaoe/aneee ia?ac aeecie.

?en. 158

Eiaii I?aaeoa/a. Eeiia. XV a. O?aaiaio

Eiaii oaeaea aae aeeciue aneaoa. Ii iaeaaaeny a a?oaoth ianoooaneoth
iaeaaeaeo ec aa?aethaeueae oa?noe, ia no?ea aiein, ia iee aeia. Aai ieuo
ninoaaeyee nooaiay na?ai/a e aeeeee iaae. Eiaaea aio eniieieeinue
o?eaeoeaoue eao, ii iieeioe ionouith, i?eoae a aeieeio Ei?aeaia e ia/ae
naith i?iiiaaaeue. «Iieaeoanue, — aiai?ee i?i?ie, — eai aeecei Oea?noai
Iaaaniia!» (Io 3:2). Aai neiaa n?aco aea iaoee oe?ieee ioeeee. E ?aea
oieiaie oee ethaee ec ie?anoiuo ai?iaeia e nae. I?i?ie aiai?ee i Noaea
iaae ie?ii, e, eacaeinue, ana aie?oa Eiaiia aeuoaei i?aae/oanoaeai
aeecinoe aaeeeeo niauoee.

Neiaieii anooieaiey a ianneaineoth y?o Eiaii eca?ae ia?yae iia?oaeaiey a
aiaeu Ei?aeaia. Iiaeiaii oiio eae aiaea iiuaaao oaei, oae iieayiea
i/euaao aeooo. Eiaii o?aaiaae io ethaeae ia?aioeaiee anae aeecie,
ene?aiiaai ?aneayiey. Ia?aae iiiaaieai (a?a/. «aaioeci», ?on.
«e?auaiea») ethaee eniiaaaeiaaee naie a?aoe.

*aai aea oioae Eiaii? Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao eoaeaeneiai enoi?eea Eineoa
Oeaaey, Eiaii o/ee ia?iae «aanoe /enoue ia?ac aeecie, auoue
ni?aaaaeeeauie ae?oa e ae?oao e aeaaiaiaaeiuie ia?aae Aiaii». I naaa
Eiaii aiai?ee, /oi ii iineai aeey oiai, /oiau i?eaioiaeoue ia?iae e
i?eoiaeo Aiaeueaai Iineaiieea — Iannee, a ii, Eiaii, — Aai I?aaeoa/a.

Neooay Eiaiia, ia?iae iinoiyiii iaoiaeeeny a iaeeaeaiee. Iiiaea ciaee,
/oi Ianney aeieai aoaeao inoaaaoueny iaociaiiui. Neiaa Eiaiia: «Ii noieo
n?aaee aan» (Ei 1:26) canoaaeyee o/auaiii aeoueny na?aeoea. A yoi naiia
a?aiy ia aa?aao n?aaee oieiu iiyaeeny *aeiaae ec Iaca?aoa. Yoi auea
neiaiee/aneay ano?a/a. Iooaeueiee ai aeanyieoea n eciiaeaeaiiui eeoeii
aiieiuae niaie oa?ienoue iooue aeio?enoeaineie ?aeeaee, a iiaia
ioe?iaaiea i?eiinee *aeiaae, Eioi?ue aiaoia, eacaeinue, ie/ai ia
ioee/aeny io ethaiai i?inoiethaeeia ec Aaeeeae.

?en. 159

O?enoin a ionouia. E.I. E?aineie. 1872 a.

Iinea e?auaiey Eenon oio/an iieeioe aa?aa Ei?aeaia e oaeoaeeny a
ionouith. Oai, n?aaee aieuo aacaeeciaiiuo oieiia. Ii i?iaae a iinoa
aieaa ianyoea. Ii iooe ia naaa?, a Aaeeeath, Eenon ia ei?ioeia a?aiy
niiaa iiauaae a oii ianoa, aaea i?iiiaaaeiaae Eiaii. Eiaaea Eiaii
oaeaeae Aai, ii neacae, ia?auaynue e ie?oaeaaoei aai ethaeyi: «Aio
Aaiaoe Aiaeee, Eioi?ue aa?ao a?ao ie?a» (Ei 1:29). Neiai «Aaiaoe»
iaiiieiaei i i?i?ieao, eioi?uo i?aneaaeiaaee e oaeaaee. Eiaii iiaoi?ee
naia naeaeaoaeuenoai a e?oao o/aieeia, iinea /aai Aiae?ae e Eiaii noaee
eneaoue ano?a/e n Eenonii. Iie i?eoee a aeii, aaea Ii inoaiiaeeny, e
i?iaaee oai aanue aeaiue. Ia neaaeothuee aeaiue Aiae?ae iouneae a?aoa
naiaai Neiiia-Iao?a e n ainoi?aii cayaee: «Iu iaoee Ianneth…».
Ii?aceoaeueiay aanoue auno?i ?ani?ino?aieeanue n?aaee aaeeeayi, eioi?ua
i?eoee ia Ei?aeai. Nei?aa anaai, yoe i?inoina?aea/iua ethaee ?aoeee, /oi
iaeaeaiiue eie Oea?ue ne?uaaaony eeoue aei ii?u aei a?aiaie, ii i?eaeao
/an, e Ii caeiao i?anoie, a iie, ociaaoea Aai, noyaeatho aaeeeoth neaao
a ianneaineii Oea?noaa. Eoae, ia naaa?, a Aaeeeath, Eenon i?eoae oaea ia
iaeei, a a nii?iaiaeaeaiee Naieo i?eaa?aeaioeaa.

Aaeeeay. Ia?aua o/aieee

Aania 27 a.

Aia/aea iiaei iieacaoueny, /oi i?iiiaaaeue Eenona auea eeoue
i?iaeieaeaieai iennee Eiaiia E?anoeoaey. Iaa aiai?eee i aeecinoe
Oea?noaa Aiaeueaai, iaa caaee ia?iae e iieayieth e i?eiyee a ea/anoaa
ia?yaea aiaeiia iiiaaiea — e?auaiea. Ii a ioee/ea io Eiaiia, Eenon Nai
oae iaano?a/o ethaeyi. Ii iaoiaeee ai?iaea e naeaiey. Ii noaaioai Aai
?a/ue cao/aea a iieeoaaiiuo aeiiao, a a inoaeueiua aeie — iiae ioe?uoui
iaaii. Eiie ?ac oieia auea ianoieueei aaeeea, /oi Eenon naaeeeny a
eiaeeo e ioooaea ia?auaeny e ?aniieiaeeaoaio ia aa?aao ia?iaeo.

AEeay a Aaeeeaa, O/eoaeue iaeciaiii anoaaae ?aii e ano?a/ae ainoiae,
oaaeeieaoenue a ai?ao. Aeaiue Eenona aue caiieiai iai?yaeaiiui o?oaeii:
aei naiie oaiiiou ca Iei ii iyoai neaaeiaaee aieueiua, iaeeaeay
iaeaa/aiey iaaeoaia, oaa?iaaaoea aeaaeii eiaeee Aai neiaa, neaioeee
caaeaaaee eaaa?ciua aii?inu eee anooiaee n Iei a nii?u, eieaeieee
o?aaiaaee ?acuyniaiey o?oaeiuo iano a Aeaeee. Ii?ie Eenono e Aai
o/aieeai iaeiaaea auei e iianoue. Iaeiaei a Aaaiaaeeyo oieueei aeaaaeaeu
aiai?eony, /oi O/eoaeue neeueii onoae. Iau/ii aea iu aeaeei Aai
iaooiieiui e iieiui yia?aee. «Iiy ieua, — aiai?ee Ii, — anoue oai?eoue
aieth Iineaaoaai Iaiy e niaa?oeoue aeaei Aai» (Ei 4:34).

Aeoaiei /aeiaa/iui ?enotho O?enoa aaaiaaeenou. Ii nei?aeo, oaeeaeyaony,
?aaeoaony, iaieiaao aeaoae, ethaoaony oeaaoaie. ?a/ue Aai aeuoeo
nienoiaeeoaeueiinoueth e neaainoyi /aeiaaea, ii Naieo o?aaiaaiee Ii
ieeiaaea ia niya/aao. Ii aiai?eo n iaaeiinoueth e aeia?ioie, ii iiaeao
auoue no?ia e aeaaea ?acie. Iau/ii e?ioeee e oa?iaeeaue, Eenon
aaniiuaaeai e oaiaeai. Oai ia iaiaa aioo?aiiee ?aceaae Aio /oaeae. Ii
anaaaea inoaaony Naiei Niaie. Eenon aeaeae io aieaciaiiie yecaeueoaoeee,
io ennooieaiiiai oaiaoecia, naienoaaiiiai iiiaei iiaeaeaeieeai e
iniiaaoaeyi ?aeeaee. I?inaaoeaiiay o?acainoue — iaeia ec aeaaiuo /a?o
Aai oa?aeoa?a.

Ienaoaeyi ieeiaaea ia oaeaaaeinue nicaeaoue oaaaeeoaeueiue ia?ac aa?iy,
anee ii?o?ao aai ia iooaiyeny iaaeinoaoeaie. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho
aaaiaaeenou, e ia iioiio, /oi iie auee iai?aacieaeaiiuie ianoa?aie, a
iioiio, /oi ecia?aaeaee iai?aacieaeaiioth Ee/iinoue. Eenon ia
ioai?a/eaaeny io ie?a, ia i?yoae io iaai nie?iaeu aeooa, a uaae?i
ioaeaaae eo ethaeyi. «Eiaaea, — aiai?ee Ii, — caaeeaatho naaoeeueiee, ia
noaayo aai iiae ninoae, ii ia iiaenaa/iee, e naaoeo anai a aeiia» (ni.
Io 5:15; Ie 4:21; Ee 8:16; 11:33).

Ia?aaeei neiaa Aai cao/aee aaee/anoaaiiui ?a/eoaoeaii, iaiiieiay aeiiu
ae?aaieo i?i?ieia. Ii /anoi aiai?ee aoi?eciaie, noaaee aii?inu, ia
i?aiaa?aaay e eiae/aneeie aeiaiaeaie. Iniaaiii ethaee Eenon i?eia?u ec
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie — i?eo/e. A ieo iaeaieaa iieii caia/aoeaeinue Aai
o/aiea. ?enoy ia?aae ethaeueie ciaeiiua ea?oeiu i?e?iaeu e auoa, Eenon
ia?aaeei i?aaeinoaaeye neooaoaeyi naiei aeaeaoue auaiaeu ec Aai
?anneacia. Oae, ecaaaay aano?aeoiuo neia i /aeiaa/aneii a?aonoaa. Ii
i?eaiaeeo neo/ae, eiaaea iino?aaeaaoee io ?acaieieeia eoaeae iieo/ee
iiiiuue io eiiaa?oea-naia?yieia. Iiaeiaiua enoi?ee caiaaeaee a aeooo e
ieacuaaeenue aeaenoaaiiaa ethauo ?annoaeaeaiee.

?en. 160

Eneooaiea Nianeoaey aeeaaieii. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

Aa?iyoii, ana ia?aua iineaaeiaaoaee Eenona auee iieiaeu. Noa?oeinoai
i?eiaaeeaaeaei ?uaaeo ?iaeii ec ai?iaea Aeonaeaeu — Neiiio. Eenon aeae
aio i?icaeua Eeoa, eaiaiue, /oi ii-a?a/anee cao/eo eae Iao?. Ae?oaei
o/aieeii aue Aiae?ae, a?ao Neiiia-Iao?a. Aeaa ae?oaeo o/aieea, a?aouey
Eaeia e Eiaii, oaeaea auee ?uaaeaie. A Ea-ia?iaoia iaoiaeeeanue
oaiiaeiy. Iinaoea aa, Eenon ano?aoee oai nai?ueea iaeiaia — iuoa?y
Iaooay e neacae aio: «Neaaeoe ca Iiie». Iaooae n?aco i?eniaaeeieeny e
o/aieeai Eenona. Iicaeiaa yoio /aeiaae, aa?iyoii, ia?aui ia/ae
caienuaaoue neiaa O?enoa. E?iia yoeo iyoe o/aieeia, n?aaee
i?eaa?aeaioeaa Eenona auee e ae?oaea, ana iie i?ienoiaeeee ec Aaeeeae.
THaeaieiii aue oieueei o?iaeaiaoe ai?iaea Ea?eioa1 Eoaea. Eiaiii aio
ii?o/ee Eenon o?aiaiea n?aaenoa iaueiu. Oai naiui Ii, auoue iiaeao,
oioae iiae/a?eiooue Naia aeiaa?ea Eoaea.

?en. 161

Ai?a Eneooaiey

Eiy yoiai /aeiaaea noaei neiaieii iecinoe e aa?ieiinoaa. Iaeiaei
niiieoaeueii, /oiau O?enoin aeaeae i?eaeeceoue e Naaa ii?aeueiiai
o?iaea, nouanoai, i?aanoaaiii aaciaaeaaeiia. Ae?aia Eoaeu auea naycaia n
iioa?ae aa?u a O/eoaey, ?aci/a?iaaiea ii?iaeeei a iai /oanoai
iceiaeaiiinoe e oieeioei ia i?aaeaoaeueneee oaa. Ai anyeii neo/aa,
n/eoaoue, /oi Eoaeie ?oeiaiaeeea oieueei ae/iinoue, — cia/eo
iai?aaiia?ii oi?iuaoue aaaiaaeueneoth o?aaaaeeth.

______________________________________________________________________

1 A eeoa?aoo?a ano?a/athony oaeaea iaienaiey Ee?eio eee Ea?eio.

Aeaaay Aanoue

Eenon O?enoin iacuaae Naia o/aiea ?aaeinoiie, eee Aeaaie, Aanoueth
(a?a/. Aaaiaaeea). Ii i?eian ie?o ia iiaua oeeinioneea aeieo?eiu e ia
iiciaiea oaei iioonoi?iiiaai. Ii a ei?ia eciaiee naii ioiioaiea ethaeae
e Aiao. Aeaaay Aanoue Eenona aiai?eo i aunoai i?ecaaiee /aeiaaea e i
?aaeinoe, eioi?oth aea?oao aio aaeeiaiea n Oai?oeii. Iaen/a?iaaiia
aiaaonoai Aaaiaaeey ae?aooea ia?eniaaoue iaeaaei, iiyoiio iu inoaiiaeiny
eeoue ia aeaaiii.

Iaaaniue Ioaoe e Aiainuiianoai. I?iiiaaaeue Eenona ia?auaia ia e
«iannai», ia e aaceeeiio io?aaaeieeo, a e eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe.
A oieia aeooiaiue o?iaaiue ethaeae nieaeaaony, iie ieacuaathony ai
aeanoe noaaeiuo einoeieoia. A eaaeaeii /aeiaaea caeeth/ai oeaeue ie?,
aaneiia/ii oeaiiue a aeacao Aiaeeeo. «Eoi ec aan, eiay noi iaaoe e
iioa?ya iaeio ec ieo, ia iieeaeaao aeaayiinoa aeaayoe a ionouia e ia
eaeao ca i?iiaaoae, aeieiea ia iaeaeao aa?.. Aiai?th aai, /oi oae ia
iaaanao ?aaeinoue aoaeao aieueoa ia iaeiii a?aoieea eathuainy, /ai i
aeaayiinoa aeaayoe i?aaaaeieeao, eioi?ua ia ioaeaeathony a iieayiee»
(ni. Io 18:12-14; Ee 15:4-7).

Ec anao eiai, eioi?uie a Ienaiee iacuaaaony Oai?aoe, Eenon i?aaeii/eoaao
neiai Ioaoe. Io O?enoa ethaee ociatho, /oi n Nicaeaoaeai Anaeaiiie
iiaeii aiai?eoue iaeei ia iaeei, eae n ethayuei Iooeii, Eioi?ue aeaeao
ioaaoiie ethaae. Ie o?aiiaia aeaenoai, ie aeaaea niaianoiay iieeoaa ia
iiaoo caiaieoue iauaiey n Aiaii iaaaeeia, nie?iaaiiie aanaaeu n Iooeii.
A aaeeinoaaiiie iieeoaa, eioi?oth aeae Eenon o/aieeai. Ii o/eo iieeoueny
i?inouie neiaaie n ethaiaueth e aeiaa?eai (ni. Io 6:9-13; Ee 11:2-4).

?en. 162

I?iiiaaaeue Eenona. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

IO*A IAO, EIOI?UE IA IAAANAO!

Iu aeaoe Oaie, e o Oaay iaoa io/ecia.

AeA NAssOEONss EIss OAIA. Ionoue i?aaoaeao a ian aeaaiaiaaiea e Oaiae
nayuaiiae oaeia.

AeA I?EAeAO OeA?NOAI OAIA, AeA AOAeAO AIEss OAIss E IA CAIEA, EAE IA
IAAA. Iu aeaeai, /oiau Ou aioea?eeny ai anai Naiai Oai?aiee, /oiau
eniieieeny Oaie caiunae e Ou iaeei noae iaoei Oea?ai e Ainiiaeii.

OEAA IAO IANOUIUE AeAE IAI NAAIAeIss. Iiaeaea?aee iaoo aeeciue nae/an,
eai iu aa?ei, /oi i caao?aoiai aeia Ou iicaaioeoueny.

E I?INOE IAI AeIEAE IAOE, EAE E IU I?INOEEE AeIEAEIEEAI IAOEI. Nuiiaiee
aeiea, eioi?ue iu oae ieioi ieaoei Oaaa, anoue ioaaoiay ethaiaue. Iao/e
ian ethaeoue e i?iuaoue ae?oa ae?oaa, eae Ou ethaeoue e i?iuaaoue ian.

E IA AAAAeE IAN AI ENEOOAIEA, II ECAAAUe IAN IO EOEAAIAI. Ia?aaee ian io
cea, eaeouaai ecaia e io ian naieo.

EAI OAIA ANOUe OeA?NOAI E NEEA E NEAAA AIAAEE. AIEIUe.

Caiaoei, /oi ia ia?aia ianoi a yoie iieeoaa noaayony ia /aeiaa/aneea
aeaeaiey, a aiey Ainiiaea. Ia?auaynue e Iaio, ethaee ia aeieaeiu eneaoue
oieueei naiaai. A Aaaiaaeee i?iaeaia cea — i?aeoe/aneay i?iaeaia,
aeeciaiiay caaea/a.

Caiiaaaeue ethaae. Cei, n eioi?ui /aeiaae nii?eeanaaony oaniaa anaai,
aeeaao a iai naiii:

neeiiiinoue e ianeeeth, neaiay iyoaaeiinoue, euouay naiiooaa?aeaeaiey ca
/oaeie n/ao e aaca?aie/iiai i?inoi?a einoeieoai. Yoi cei ieoaaony
iuouaieai nianoaaiiiai «y» eae aaeeinoaaiiiai oeaio?a, eiathuaai
oeaiiinoue. ?anoai?aiea «y» a noeoee iauanoaa, a eieeaeoeaa, eacaeinue
au, ia?aie/eaaao aoio eiaeeaeaea, ii i?e yoii ieaaee?oao, noe?aao
ee/iinoue. Auoiae ec ooieea — a aeaeaeneie caiiaaaee, aeaiiie aua a
Aaooii Caaaoa, caaeieai aei Eenona O?enoa: «Aicethae aeeaeiaai oaiaai,
eae naiiai naay» (Eaa 19:18; Io 5:43; 19:19; 22:39; Ie 12:31; Ee 10:27).
Iia i?ecuaaao e ai?ueaa i?ioea yaienoe/aneeo ia/ae, e i?eciaieth
oeaiiinoe ae?oaiai «y». Caiiaaaeue ethaae e aeeaeiaio eiie?aoece?oaony
Eenonii a i?inoii i?aaeea: «Ai anai, eae oioeoa, /oiau n aaie iinooiaee
ethaee, iinooiaeoa e au n ieie» (Io 7:12; Ee 6:31).

?en. 163

Iioi?iiiay i?ioeanney

Aaaiaaeea — yoi ia oi?iaeueiay noaia «aeia?iaeaoaee», eioi?ay naiaeeony
e iaeiei cai?aoai. Aeaaeaiiue Aaaonoei, aeeaoee a IV a. ii ?.O., ienae:
«Ethae Aiaa e iinooiae eae oi/aoue», oi anoue ioiioaiea e ethaeyi
aeieaeii i?aaie/ii auoaeaoue ec aa?u. Iiciaaoee Aiaa ia iiaeao ia
ethaeoue Aai oai?aiea.

A eae aeieaeiu iinooiaoue o/aieee O?enoiau, anee noaeeeaathony n
i?inooieaie ae?oaeo ethaeae? I?e aeaea neaainoae aeeaeiaai /aeiaae
aeieaeai ia auiineoue aio i?eaiai?, a nino?aaeaoue, iaiyooy i
nianoaaiiie a?aoiaiinoe. «Ia noaeeoa, — i?aaeinoa?aaaao Eenon, — /oiau e
au ia auee noaeeiu, eai eaeei noaeii noaeeoa e eaeith ia?ith ia?eoa, oae
aoaeao ioia?aii e aai» (Io 7:2; Ie 4:24; Ee 6:38).

I?eaeeaeay e Naaa a?aoieeia, Eenon oioae i?iaoaeeoue a ieo ?aneayiea e
aeaaeaeo iiaie aeecie. Ia?aaeei Aai aeia?ioa e aeiaa?ea niaa?oaee
iiaeeeiiua /oaeana.

Noa?ia e iiaia. Aeey ethaeae, neooathueo Eenona, auei aaaeii ?aoeoue,
eae niioiineony Aai o/aiea n ae?aaiei Iienaaaui Caeiiii. ?aeeaeiciua
o/eoaee Ec?aeey a?aiai Eenona, oa?enae e eieaeieee, /anoi i?eaaaeyee e
Caeiio nioie iaei/iuo i?aaee. Eenon, iai?ioea, aica?auae Aaooee Caaao e
aai enoieai — e Aeanyoe caiiaaaeyi Neiay, iiaeeeiiiio Iienaaao
ianeaaeeth, nio?aiaiiiio i?i?ieaie. Eenon oaeoaeyao e aeiiieiyao
yoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey Caeiia. Anee Caeii aini?auae oaeenoai, oi Eenon
i?ecuaaao ecaiiyoue ec na?aeoea iaiaaenoue — ei?aiue i?anooieaiey. Anee
Caeii inoaeaeae ia?ooaiea aa?iinoe a a?aea, oi Eenon aiai?eo ia
iianiinoe ii?i/iuo /oanoa. Anee Caeii o?aaiaae niaethaeaiey eeyoau, oi
Eenon aiiaua n/eoaao aa eceeoiae: «Aea aoaeao neiai aaoa aea, aea; iao,
iao, a /oi naa?o yoiai, oi io eoeaaiai» (Io 5:37).

Ethaeyi naienoaaiii iaiaaeaeaoue a?aaia, ii o/aieee Eenona O?enoa
aeieaeiu iiaaaeaeaoue cei aeia?ii. Ei neaaeoao ai?ioueny n inoeoaeueiuie
/oanoaaie. Iaei oiai, iie aeieaeiu aeaeaoue aeia?i naiei iaeae/eeai.
«Aea aoaeaoa nuiaie Iooea aaoaai Iaaaniiai, eai Ii iiaaeaaaao nieioeo
Naiaio ainoiaeeoue iaae ceuie e aeia?uie e iinueaao aeiaeaeue ia
i?aaaaeiuo e iai?aaaaeiuo… Eoae, aoaeueoa niaa?oaiiu, eae niaa?oai
Ioaoe aao Iaaaniue» (Io 5:45; 5:48). Aio caoaaouaathuay aeoo aunioa,
eoaea Eenon i?ecuaaao /aeiaaea.

Aua a naiii ia/aea Naiaai neoaeaiey Eenon ooaa?aeee iiaia ioiioaiea e
aeaiueia.

Aeey Nie?aoa aeaiueia auea eeoue ooiui, iacieeeaui nouanoaii. Aoaeaea ia
?ac?aoae naiei iineaaeiaaoaeyi aeaaea niio?aoue ia aeaiuei. A
aeio?enoeaineii ie?a aeaiueiu /aua anaai inoaaaeenue iie/aeeauie
?aauiyie, aeeciue eioi?uo auea ia?aie/aia ecio?eoaeueiui o?oaeii e
aeiiaoieie caaioaie. Ia neo/aeii a iaeiie ec eoaeaeneeo iieeoa auee
neiaa: «Aeaaiaea?th Oaay, Aiaea, /oi Ou ia nicaeae iaiy aeaiueiie…»
O?enoin aica?auaao aeaiueia ioiyoia o iaa /aeiaa/aneia aeinoieinoai e
i?aai eiaoue aeooiaiua cai?inu. Ioiuia ianoi aa ia oieueei o naiaeiiai
i/aaa. Iiyoiio n?aaee aeeaeaeoeo iineaaeiaaoaeae Eenona iu aeaeei iaiaei
o/aieoe.

Aiineaaenoaee, eiaaea ianoae /an eniuoaiee, ia?aua aeaiueiu-o?enoeaiee
ia iieeioee Ainiiaea, eae ae?oaea Aai o/aieee. AEaiueiu auee ia Aieaioa
a iiiaio Aai nia?oe, i?iaiaeeee O/eoaey aei ianoa iia?aaaiey, ei ia?aui
auea ioe?uoa Ianoaeueiay oaeia.

Aaaiaaeea ?ac?ooeei i?aa?aaeu, ?acaeaeythuea ethaeae. Eaaeaeue,
noaiiayueeny o?enoeaieiii, i?eia?aoaao eae au aoi?ia a?aaeaeainoai,
aoiaeeo a ia?iae, a eioi?ii «iao ie yeeeia, ie eoaeay… ii ana e ai
anai O?enoin» (Aae 3:28; Eie 3:11).

Caiiay aeeciue e aeeciue aa/iay. Oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi nouanoaoao eiay
aeeciue, eioi?ay i?iaeieaeaaony e iinea ?aniaaea oaea, aeeea a niciaiee
ethaeae n aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe. Ieaoii, iai?eia?, ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iao
caiiie iooue anoue eeoue i?aethaeey aa/iinoe.

Aaooicaaaoiay ?aeeaey a yoii ioiioaiee i?aaenoaaeyea niaie eneeth/aiea.
I/aiue aeieai iia ia iaoiaeeea ioaaoa ia aii?in i iinia?oiie o/anoe
/aeiaaea. A Aaooii Caaaoa auei nicaeaii i?aaenoaaeaiea i Oaiea,
noi?a/iii oea?noaa ia?oauo, I?aeniiaeiae. Ianoiyuaa aea «i?iaeieaeaiea
aeecie» aeaeaee aeaaiui ia?acii a iioiieao. Oieueei a IV a. aei ?.O.
Ec?aeeue oneuoae aeaaiaanoea i aa/iie aeecie. Ii ia «aannia?oea aeooe»
ioe?ueinue aio, a a?yaeouaa aic?iaeaeaiea, aine?anaiea anaai /aeiaaea —
iiaia iaai e iiaay caiey, aaea aoaeao oea?noaiaaoue i?aaaea e ana ceia
aoaeao iiaaaeaeaii.

?en. 164

Aeueyaie, iiaee?athuee aeooo /aeiaaea. Neoeueioo?a. O?aioeey. XII a.

Eenon O?enoin iieiinoueth iiaeoaa?aeee aa?o a aine?anaiea ia?oauo.
Iaeiaei, iinoiyiii oeacuaay ia ?aaeueiinoue «aoaeouaai aaea». Ii ia
i?iiiaaaeiaae ioaea/aiiiai nie?eooaeecia, aeey eioi?iai caiiay aeeciue —
i?ec?ae.

Aaaiaaeea o/eo ia oieueei i iioonoi?iiiai, ii e i oii, eae iai aeieaeii
aeeoue naaiaeiy. Aannia?oea, aine?anaiea, Oea?noai Aiaeea, i eioi?uo
aiai?eo Aaaiaaeea, iaioaeaeeiu io oiai, /oi niaa?oaaony a yoii ie?a.
Anee /aeiaae noaiao i?aiaa?aaaoue naiei caiiui neoaeaieai, yoi aoaeao
eciaiie aai i?ecaaieth. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oao, eoi ana neeu ioaeaao
oieueei iaoa?eaeueiiio, aeaeao iaieioaiay eaoano?ioa. AEeciue ei?ioea e
iiaeao iai?aaoueny a ethaie iiiaio. E a ethaie iiiaio /aeiaae iiaeao
auoue ni?ioai i oii, eae ii i?iaeee naith aeeciue, ia /oi oiio?aaee ii
aeaiiua aio niiniaiinoe e oaeaiou.

?en. 165

Aaca?iue aeaiue a Ea?onaeeia

Eenon i?ecuaae Naieo iineaaeiaaoaeae: «Ia niae?aeoa naaa nie?iaeua ia
caiea, aaea iieue e ?aea eno?aaeytho e aaea ai?u iiaeeaiuaatho e
e?aaeoo, ii niae?aeoa naaa nie?iaeua ia iaaa, aaea ie iieue, ie ?aea ia
eno?aaeytho e aaea ai?u ia iiaeeaiuaatho e ia e?aaeoo, eai, aaea
nie?iaeua aaoa, oai aoaeao e na?aeoea aaoa» (Io 6:19—20).

Ai a?aiaia i?i?ieia aie?oa ieo a?oiie?iaaeenue ethaee, eioi?ua iacuaaee
naay «aeooiaiuie aaaeiyeaie». Iie ia auee ieueie a iau/iii niunea yoiai
neiaa, ii i?aaaaeieeaie, aeaeaaoeie inaiaiaeaeaiey io noaoiinoe e
noyaeaoaeuenoaa. Oaeeie aea, ii neiaai Eenona, aeieaeiu auoue e Aai
o/aieee: «Aeaaeaiiu ieuea aeooii, eai eo anoue Oea?noai Iaaaniia» (Io
5:3). «Ieuea aeooii» — eca?aaoea aeia?iaieueioth aaaeiinoue, /oiau
noyaeaoue aeaaiaeaoiua aea?u aeooiaiua, — ieuea ?aaee aeooa.

Oea?noai Aiaeea. *oi aea oaeia Oea?noai Aiaeea, Aanoue i eioi?ii
caieiaao noieue aaaeiia ianoi a i?iiiaaaee Eenona? A eoaeaecia yoi
iiiyoea ia?aaeei naycuaaee n aiaoiei oi?aeanoaii Ec?aeey e
oaioanoe/aneei aeaaiaeainoaeai ia caiea. I?i?iee aea aa?eee, /oi
aioea?aiea Aiaa i?aaeaea anaai ecaiieo anyeia cei e i?aia?aceo
Anaeaiioth. A aiieaeeioe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a, iiaanoaiaaaoae i eiioea
enoi?ee, ia?aieaoaeenue iaa aicc?aiey. Ii oi, /oi ia/aei Oea?noao
iieiaeeo i?eoiae Iannee, auei iauei /ayieai ii/oe anao eoaeaaa.

Eenon aiai?eo i Oea?noaee Aiaeeai, eiiaaea iacuaay aai oaeaea Oea?noaii
Iaaaniui, eae i Naiai Oea?noaa, Naiai ainiiaenoaa a ie?a e a na?aeoeao
ethaeae. Oea?noai Aiaeea «ia io ie?a naai» (Ei 18:36), iii auoa anaai
i?aoiaeyuaai. Nie?ooay aeanoue cea, iii ianao ia caieth caeiiu Iaaa. Yoo
aeooiaioth ?aaeueiinoue iaeuecy noaaeoue a iaeei ?yae n eaeei-eeai
caiiui n/anoueai. Caiiia n/anouea o?oiei, iaiiiai ioaeii, /oiau
?acaayoue aai. Oea?noai Aiaeea — yoi aeeciue a i?aaaea Aiaeeae, eiaiii
oaeay aeeciue i?eiineo /aeiaaeo iaeaunoaa oaeiaeaoai?aiea e n/anouea.
Oea?noai Aiaeea ianeaaeotho ie?ioai?oeu e nino?aaeaoaeueiua, /enoua
na?aeoeai e aiieiua ca i?aaaeo. Oai ooaoaony iea/ouea, iaiaaoyony «ieuea
?aaee aeooa», ianuoyony ae/ouea Enoeiu.

Oaeei ia?acii, Aeaaay Aanoue Eenona O?enoa anoue aanoue i nianaiee io
aeooiaiie nia?oe, i i?eiauaiee ie?a e Aiaeanoaaiiie aeecie eae aunoae
aai oeaee. Yoi Oea?noai oaea i?eoiaeeo a iao ie?, anee a aeooao ethaeae
aioea?yaony Ainiiaeue. Iii i?eiineo anooiathuei a iaai ia caauouea, a
naaoeia, ?aaeinoiia /oanoai aeecinoe Iooea Iaaaniiai.

«A ss aiai?th aai…» Aiciiaeii ee, iineeueii ee aeey ethaeae oi, e /aio
ciaao Aaaiaaeea? Aaaeue /aeiaae, aeaaea iiethaea eaeaae, /anoi ia
iaoiaeeo a naaa nee iiaeiyoueny aei iaai. Ae?oaia iiao/aa i?eoyaeaiea
aeaaeaao ei, i?eaeaay e caiea: /aeiaae no?aieony e aiaaonoao, iineo ia
oaa eaiaiue caaiou, i?iaiaeeo ioiouaiiia aio ae?aaioeaiiia a?aiy aeecie,
iia?ycay a iaei/ao.

Eoi aea iiaeao i?ieiaeeoue iooue e Oea?noao? Eoi iiaeaaaeao e iaio
/aeiaaea?

Ii aio ethaee neuoao neiai Eenona Iaca?yieia: «Aaea aeaia eee o?ia
nia?aiu ai eiy Iia, oai ss iin?aaee ieo…» (Io 18:20). Cia/eo, Ii —
Ianney? Aeieaiaeaeaiiue Ooaoeoaeue Ec?aeey? Ana aeaeaee, /oi Eenon
i?iiiaaaeoao «eae aeanoue eiathuee, a ia eae eieaeieee e oa?enae» (Io
7:29; Ie 1:22). Eae iiieiaoue Aai neiaa: «A ss aiai?th aai…»? Eenon ia
oieueei Ianou?ue; Ii — Aeaa?ue, A?aoa, /a?ac eioi?ua aoiaeyo iaoeu. Oae
o/ee Ii i Naaa Naiii.

Ii — Iin?aaeiee, niaaeeiythuee Iaai e caieth. «Ieeoi, — aiai?eo Eenon, —
ia i?eoiaeeo e Iooeo, eae oieueei /a?ac Iaiy» (Ei 14:6). Ii ii/aio aea
oiaaea Ii aeaenoaoao noieue inoi?iaeii, ii/aio ne?uaaao io ia?iaea Naie
nai, cai?auaao iacuaaoue Naay Ianneae?

IANNEss

«Ia ie?, ii ia/»

Aania 28 a.

«AEeciue Eenona, — aiai?eo Aeeaa?o E. *anoa?oii, — no?aieoaeueia, eae
iieiey. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai ae?aia, i?aaeaea anaai — inouanoaeaiea».
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, o/aieee ia iiaee ia /oanoaiaaoue, /oi o Eenona anoue
iaeee ieai, iiaeiaii aeaeaei eaeouaio ieaio iieeiaiaeoea. Ii o?aaiaae io
ieo ?aoeiinoe noiyoue aei eiioea. Aai Aaaiaaeea ia eiaei ie/aai iauaai n
ia/oaoaeueiui aeaaiaeooeai e ?anneaaeaiiinoueth.

Aie n oea?noaii cea aoaeao iaeaaeei. I?ioea Iannee ainnoaioo ana a?aoe e
i?aae?annoaeee, oei?aieaoeany a ethaeyo. Oeaeaono?aieaiiinoue Eenona
iaeiia?aiaiii ieaiyea e no?aoeea o/aieeia. Ai?i/ai, Aai neiaa iie
enoieeiauaaee ii-naiaio, aeoiay, /oi O/eoaeue iaiaeaao ia
?aaiethoeeiiiue ac?ua, ca eioi?ui iineaaeoao Aai ei?iiaoeey a
Ea?onaeeia. E eiaaea Eenon iai?aaeeny ooaea ia Ianoo, iie ?aoeee, /oi
ianoaiao aeaiue, eiaaea Oea?noaea Aiaeea aoaeao «acyoi neeie» (Io
11:12).

Ea?onaeei a oa aiaeu aue iiae aeanoueth iineaioea ?eineiai eiia?aoi?a —
i?ieo?aoi?a Iiioey Ieeaoa. Aai aeanoieinoue, ae/iinoue e naiiaeo?noai
auee ecaanoiu iianthaeo. Eioeeaeaiou, aucaaiiua aaccaeiieyie
i?ieo?aoi?a, ia ?ac eii/aeenue ianniaie ?aciae. Eaaeaeoth Ianoo
i?aaeoaeue aeaeae ainnoaiey e iioiio ia i?acaeiee eaaeaeue ?ac i?eacaeae
ec naiae ?aceaeaioeee, Eana?ee, a Ea?onaeei, aaea iia ee/ii neaaeeoue ca
ii?yaeeii. Iianaiey Ieeaoa auee aiieia iniiaaoaeueiu. Ii ?aniieaaae
iaaieueoei aieneii a o?e ouny/e /aeiaae, a iaoeeiiaeenou-caeiou e eo
noi?iiieee oieueei aeaeaee aiaeaey, eioi?ue iiaeiye au ia?iae i?ioea
?eieyi.

Ii-aeaeeiiio, o/aieee Eenona aoaeia oioaee, /oiau eiaiii Ii noae yoei
aiaeaeai. Iaeiaei O/eoaeue, eacaeinue, iieiinoueth eaii?e?iaae i?iaeaio
/oaeacaiiiai aeaaeu/anoaa. Aai o?aaiaeeei ia iieeoe/aneia, a aeooiaiia
ninoiyiea ia?iaea. Iiyaeaoenue a Ea?onaeeineii o?aia, iiaue O/eoaeue
n?aco i?eaae anao a caiaoaoaeuenoai. Naea ec aa?aaie ae/, Ii auaiiyao ca
ia?aaeo O?aia iaaoe e aieia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo ia i?iaeaaeo aeey
aea?oaii?eiioaiey. Ii aeanoii o?aaoao iieii/eoue n aan/einoaii aaeece
nayouie: «Ia i?aa?auaeoa aeiia Iooea Iiaai a aeii oi?aiaee!» (ni. Ei
2:16).

Ia?aue aeceo a Ea?onaeei caeii/eeny eeoue noieeiiaaieai n ?aeeaeiciuie
aiaeaeyie. Eiaaea Eenon oieeiaae Caeii a aeooa o/aiey i?i?ieia,
eieaeieee iaaeiyee Aai a iieooaiee ia «i?aaeaiey noa?oeaa». Eiaaea Ii
aiai?ee, /oi ieeina?aeea oaiaeiaa Aiao, /ai ia?yaeu, a aeacao oa?enaaa
yoi aue iiae?ua anae nenoaiu ?eooaeia aeaai/anoeaie aeecie.

Iiaeao iieacaoueny no?aiiie oaeay neaiay i?aaeaiiinoue aoeaa e oi?ia.
Iaeiaei ioaeii o/eouaaoue, /oi ia?yaeiaa?ea — oii?iue iaaeoa,
ei?aiyueeny a aeoaeia /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee. Iioiio-oi a enoi?ee aooaaaei
noieueei no?anoae aie?oa ?eooaeia e auei i?ieeoi noieueei e?Ueae ec-ca
?aciiaeanee a ?aeeaeiciuo oea?aiiieyo. Noiaeiay aieaciue, iiaeiaiay
iaayc/eaiio iaa?ico, ii?aaeaea ia?aaeei e o?enoeai, eioi?ua caauaaee,
/oi aeey O?enoa ethaiaue e Aiao e ethaeyi ian?aaiaiii auoa ethauo
aiaoieo i?aaeienaiee.

I?eaa?aeaioeu aoeau, ?eooaea e noa?eiu ai ana a?aiaia ioee/aeenue
einiinoueth. Ae?aia oa?enaaa naycaia n oeie/iui i?iyaeaieai oiai, /oi
aiineaaenoaee noaee iacuaaoue «oa?enaenoaii». Ea?onaeeineea noa?aeoeiu,
eae a?aoiaiu Eiaeee eee ?onneea noa?iaa?u, aeeee a iinoiyiiii no?aoa
«ineaa?iaiey». I?i ieo aiai?eee, /oi iie aioiau «i/enoeoue naii
nieioea». Ii, aeoiay naiae iaaiaeiinoueth i?eaeeceoue a?aiaia Iannee,
aiaeaee Ec?aeey, naie oiai ia niciaaay, ioaa?ioeenue io Oiai, Eoi i?eian
ei Aanoue i nianaiee.

N oao ii? Eenon aua ia ?ac iinaoeo Ea?onaeei, ii i?eciai oai ia aoaeao.
A aai iaueio aieaeoo i?aeiouanoaaiii aaeeeayia, aeeoaee naaa?iie /anoe
Iaeanoeiu, a aeeoaeyi thaa Ii inoaiaony /oaeae.

Ciaee i?enoonoaey Oea?noaa Iannee

Aania-eaoi 28 a.

Aaoi?u Aaaiaaeee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi ia?iae «aeeaeeny» o/aieth
Eenona; ii ia iaiueoaa aia/aoeaiea i?iecaiaeeea Aai neea, iiaaaeaeathuay
noeoee e iaaeoae. I Iai ?anneacuaaee a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eae i
*oaeioai?oea. Aiineaaenoaee e o?enoeaia ia?aaeei aioiau auee aeaeaoue a
/oaeanao aeaaiia aeieacaoaeuenoai naa?o/aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu Eenona.
Iaeiaei Nai Ii ioeeiiye iiaeiaioth iuneue. Eenon aeaaae iiiyoue, /oi
aeanoue iaae i?e?iaeie aoiaeeo a caiunae Aiaeee i /aeiaaea. Anee /aeiaae
aeinoeaaao aaeeiaiey n Aeooii, aeey iaai iao ie/aai iaaiciiaeiiai. A
/oaeanao ioe?uaaaony aeoaeia aauae, eiia ecia?aiea, aaea i?aiaeieaiu
caeiiu oeaiiiai ie?a e oea?noaoao naiaiaea. Eiaaea ethaee nii?eeanathony
n yoei ecia?aieai, oi, ii neiao O?enoa, eo «aeinoeaei Oea?noai Aiaeea»
(Io 12:28).

Oio, eoi oi/ao aeieacaoue, /oi yaeaiey, iacuaaaiua /oaeanaie, iaiuneeiu,
ia o/eouaaao, eae iaei aua ecaanoii i oaeiao auoey. Ii ii/aio aeaaea
ethaee, eioi?ua neeiiiu aa?eoue naiui oaeeaeoaeueiui niiauaieyi i eiaao,
?anneacu Iiaiai Caaaoa aini?eieiatho neaioe/anee? Ia yoi anoue aeooiaiay
i?e/eia. I?eiyoea Aaaiaaeey o?aaoao aioo?aiiaai auai?a, ia?aiaiu anao
aeeciaiiuo onoaiiaie.

Eenon ia?aaeei oeacuaae ia oanioth naycue iaaeaeo ninoiyieai oaea e
aeooe. Enoeaeea ia?aeeoeea, Ii i?aaeoi?aaeee aai: «Aio, ou aucaei?iaae;
ia a?aoe aieueoa, /oiau ia neo/eeinue n oiaith /aai ooaea» (Ei 5:14).

A oo ao?ioth ia?aeiiioth yiioo oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee
ineoe/aneea aieacie. Anee Aaooee Caaao ii/oe ia ciaao eo, oi Aaaiaaeey
iaaiaeyo ia iuneue i eaeie-oi yieaeaiee aeooaaiuo iaaeoaia. Iniaaiii
no?aoai aue caaaaei/iue aeae aacoiey — iaea?aeeiinoue, eee aaniiaaiea.
Aieueiie e?e/ae iaanoanoaaiiui aieinii, aiai?ee io eeoea aania, aeeaoueo
a iai, oaa?yy eiiaaea, /oi a iai aeeaao oeaeay a?iey aeaiiiia. O?enoin
iaeiei Naiei i?enoonoaeai ii?aceoaeueii aeaenoaiaae ia yoeo ian/anoiuo;
eiie ?ac aeinoaoi/ii auei iaeiiai Aai aeanoiiai neiaa eee i?eeiniiaaiey,
— e aeooa inaiaiaeaeaeanue io aeaaeaaoeo ath oaiiuo nee.

Neoo ia enoeaeaieyo a Aaeeeaa n naiiai ia/aea noae aucuaaoue
aaniieienoai o ea?onaeeineeo aethnoeoaeae Caeiia. Eiaaea O/eoaeue ai
aoi?ie ?ac iinaoee Ea?onaeei, Naieie iinooieaie e ?a/aie Ii aucaae aua
aieueoaa iaaiaeiaaiea. Ia yoio ?ac Ii oaea ioe?uoi aicaanoee, /oi
/oaeana anoue ciae Aai Aunoaai iineaiie/anoaa. AEeciue e aeaaineiaaiea
enoiaeyo io Aiaa, iiyoiio e Oio, Eoi iineai Ei ia caieth, i?ecaai
enoeaeyoue e aeaaaoue aeeciue.

Yoeo ?a/ae i?aaiaa?iua oaea ia iiaee noa?iaoue. Iaei oiai, /oi Iaca?yiei
ia?ooaao Caeii, Ii aua e iacuaaao Naay Nuiii Aiaeeei. Eieaeieee
ianooieee Aai e iio?aaiaaee, /oiau Ii aeae oaeia «ciaiaiea n iaaa» (ni.
Io 12:38; 16:1; Ei 2:18), eioi?ia oaaaeeei au anao. Ii Eenon ioaa?a yoi
o?aaiaaiea. «?iae eoeaaue e i?aethaiaeaeiue euao ciaiaiey, — neacae Ii,
— e ciaiaiea ia aeaaony aio, e?iia ciaiaiey Eiiu i?i?iea» (Io 12:39). A
yoeo neiaao niaea?aeaeny iaiae ia niauoey, i eioi?uo ?anneacaii a
aaooicaaaoiie Eieaa i?i?iea Eiiu. I?iiiaaaeue Eiiu n?aaee aeeoaeae
anne?eeneie noieeoeu Ieiaaee eiaea naiei ?acoeueoaoii ?aneayiea
ieiaaeoyi, iaeacaiea Aiaeea auei ioiaiaii, e ai?iae aue nianai io
iaieioaiie aeaaee. Niune neia Eenona a oii, /oi naia Aai i?iiiaaaeue
anoue ciaiaiea, oi anoue ciae i?ecuaa Aiaa, ia?auaiiiai e ethaeyi. Aeey
oao, eoi yoiai ia aeaeeo, aoaeoo aaniieaciu e ethaua ae?oaea ciaee
ethaae Aiaeeae.

Aeaaiaaeoeaoue o/aieeia. Nia?oue Eiaiia

E?anoeoaey

Inaiue 28 a. — aania 29 a.

Anee ia n/eoaoue ei?ioeeo iooaoanoaee a Eoaeath, Eenon a oa/aiea aiaea
ia iieeaeae Aaeeeae. Ii oaea n naiiai ia/aea Eenon aioiaee o/aieeia e
iunee i aieaa oe?ieie i?iiiaaaee Aaaiaaeey. Aeey yoie oeaee e auee
eca?aiu Aeaaiaaeoeaoue. Eenon iacaae eo iineaiieeaie, ii-a?a/anee —
«aiinoieaie». Eaaeaeue eo aeaiue e eaaeaeue oaa ioiuia aoaeoo
i?eiaaeeaaeaoue oieueei Aiao e ethaeyi. Iie iieaeoo e no?aaeaeouei, iany
ei aeooiaiia e oaeaniia enoeaeaiea. E?ia e oeaa iie iieo/ao io oao, eoi
i?eiao eo eae iineaioeaa Eenona O?enoa.

?en. 166

*aou?a aiinoiea. A. Aeth?a?. Aeeioeo. 1526 a.

Eiaaea Aeaaiaaeoeaoue, ?acaeaeeaoenue ii aeaia, ooee a ninaaeiea
ai?iaea, Eenon inoaeny iaeei. A anei?a Aio niiaueee i aeaaee Eiaiia
E?anoeoaey. E?iae Aioeia, aeanoeoaeue naaa?iie /anoe Iaeanoeiu, anooiee
a a?ae n aeaiie naiaai a?aoa E?iaeeaaeie. Aeey yoiai E?iaeo i?eoeinue
?acaanoenue ni naiae ia?aie aeaiie, aei/a?ueth nithciiai iaaaoaeneiai
oea?y, /oi aucaaei ?ac?ua aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee n Iaaaoaae. A naiie
Eoaeaa iinooiie E?iaea aucaae aaeeiiaeooiia inoaeaeaiea.

Eiaii E?anoeoaeue, aua aoaeo/e ia naiaiaea, ioe?uoi auneacuaaeny i?ioea
yoiai e?iainianeoaeueiiai a?aea. Ii ia ia?anoaaae oi?aeaoue E?iaea e
iinea oiai, eae oio caoi/ee aai a e?aiinoue. Iiyoiio ociee i?iaeieaeae
auoue iianiui aeey E?iaeeaaeu. A aeaiue ?iaeaeaiey E?iaea, eiaaea ie?
aue a ?acaa?a, Naeiiay, aei/ue E?iaeeaaeu, e iaiienoaiiio ainoi?ao anao
ainoae, eniieieea caaeeaaoaeueiue ne?eeneee oaiaoe. «I?ine o iaiy, /oi
oi/aoue!» — e?e/ae iueyiue oea?ue. Naeiiay, ii niaaoo iaoa?e,
iio?aaiaaea: «Iiaeae iia nae/an aea ia aethaea… aieiao Eiaiia
E?anoeoaey». Eeoei Aioeiu iii?a/iaei. Iaeiaei, aeaeay naea?aeaoue neiai,
aeaiiia i?e ainoyo, ii i?eeacae oaeio?aieoaeth nionoeoueny a oaiieoeo.
Nei?i oio aa?ioeny n ie?iaaaeaiiie aieiaie Eiaiia a ?oeao. Aa iieiaeeee
ia aethaei, a Naeiiay ioianea no?aoiue aea? iaoa?e.

Oae iiaea i?aaeoanoaaiiee. I?aaeoa/a Eenona. Aio auei iaiiiaei aieaa
o?eaeoeaoe eao. Ii ii oia?, eae aeee, — ianaeaaaiui naeaeaoaeai i?aaaeu
Aiaeeae.

N oao ii? E?iaea Aioeio noae i?aneaaeiaaoue no?ao. Oneuoaa ia Eenona, ii
oaa?ye ie?oaeathueo, /oi yoi ainnoae ec ia?oauo eaciaiiue ei i?aaaaeiee.

Oaeia Eenona

Eaoi-inaiue 29 a.

Iaeiaaeaeu iinea iieeoau Eenon ia?aoeeny e Aeaaiaaeoeaoe n aii?inii: «Ca
eiai ii/eoatho Iaiy ethaee?». «Iaeie ca Eiaiia E?anoeoaey, — ioaa/aee
iie, — ae?oaea ca Eeeth, a eiua ca Ea?aieth eee iaeiiai ec i?i?ieia». «A
au ca eiai Iaiy ii/eoaaoa»? Io eeoea anao ioaaoee Neiii-Iao?: «Ou —
Ianney (a?a/. — O?enoin), Nui Aiaa AEeaiai!». «Aeaaeai ou, Neiii, —
oi?aeanoaaiii i?iaiai?ee Eenon, — iioiio /oi ia ieioue e e?iaue (o.a. ia
/aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea) ioe?uee oaaa yoi, a Ioaoe Iie, Eioi?ue ia
iaaanao. E ss aiai?th oaaa: Ou — neaea (a?a/. “iao?in”), e ia neaea yoie
iino?ith Iith Oea?eiaue, e a?aoa aaeiau ia iaeieatho aa» (ni. Io
16:13—18).

Aii?in Eenona: «Ca eiai ii/eoatho Iaiy ethaee?» — cao/eo e naaiaeiy; e
naaiaeiy iiiaea aioiau aeaeaoue a Iai oieueei i?i?iea eee o/eoaey
i?aanoaaiiinoe. Ii a /ai aea oiaaea caeeth/aeanue iaiiaoi?eiay
i?eoyaaoaeueiinoue Eenona O?enoa? Oieueei ee a Aai ii?aeueiie aeieo?eia?
Aaaeue aicauoaiioth yoeeo i?aaeeaaaee e Aoaeaea, e Nie?ao, e Naiaea.

Caeanue iu anooiaai a iaeanoue iaeaieaa oaeinoaaiiiai e ?aoathuaai ai
anai Iiaii Caaaoa. Caeanue aiacaiii ?acaa?caaony i?iianoue iaaeaeo
Eenonii O?enoii e anaie oeeinioaie, ii?aeenoaie, iniiaaoaeyie ?aeeaee.
Ethaie ec ieo iniciaaae naay anaai eeoue /aeiaaeii, ia?aooei enoeio e
i?ecaaiiui aicaauaoue aa. Iie ynii aeaeaee aeenoaioeeth, ioaeaeyaooth eo
io Aa/iiai. A Eenon? Ni niieieiie oaa?aiiinoueth yoio O/eoaeue, /oaeaeue
oaeueoe e yecaeueoaoeee, i?iaicaeaoaao Naay Aaeeinoaaiiui Nuiii Aiaeeei.
Ii aiai?eo ia eae i?i?ie io eiaie Nouaai, a eae Nai Nouee.

*oiau eo/oa iiiyoue nooue eniiaaaeaiey Iao?a: «Ou — O?enoin, Nui Aiaa
AEeaiai», — neaaeoao aa?iooueny e aeaeaeiio i?ioeiio.

Niaeanii Aeaeee ie? oaea aeaaii i?aauaaao a ninoiyiee oiaaeea e
ioaeaeaaony a enoeaeaiee. Iniciaiea ianiaa?oainoaa ie?a i?eaaei e
?acaeoeth «o/aiee i nianaiee»1. Eo iiaeii naanoe e o?ai oeiai. Aeey
iaeieo (Ieaoii) auoiae caeeth/aaony a eo/oae i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa. Aeey
ae?oaeo (Aoaeaea) — a ienoe/aneii nica?oeaiee e aaanoaa io aeecie.
O?aoee iooue aue ioe?uo a Ec?aeea e E?aia. Oai nouanoaiaaea
oaa?aiiinoue, /oi cei iaeieeii, /oi a a?yaeouai ianooieo i?aia?aaeaiea,
eioi?ia anoue aunoay oeaeue aeecie /aeiaaea.

Ienaiea ecia?aaeaao aeooiaioth eaoano?ioo, ii?aceaooth ie?, a ?anneaca i
a?aoiiaaeaiee ia?auo ethaeae, eioi?ua iiaeaeaee aeanoaiaaoue iaae ie?ii
iacaaeneii io eo Nicaeaoaey, eiuie neiaaie, «auoue, eae aiae». A?ao
oie/oiaeee eee ineaaee iiiaea aea?iaaiey /aeiaaea, ii ?ani?ino?aiyeny,
eae yieaeaiey, anthaeo ioneay naie yaeiaeoua ei?ie.

Oeaio?aeueiia aeaaiaanoea Aeaeee caeeth/aii a oii, /oi Aia ia iieeioe
iaaeoaai ie?a. Ii i?ecuaae i?aaaaeieeia, eioi?ua n?aaee oueiu e aacoiey
nio?aiyee aa?iinoue Aio. Iie ciaee, /oi ianooieo aeaiue, eiaaea iaaeao
i?aa?aaea, ioaeaeeaoay ie? io Aiaa. Nicaeaoaeue ie?a Nai aieaeao a ie?,
noaiao yaiui e aeeceei ethaeyi. I?aaeaa?eo aea anaeaineee ia?aai?io
yaeaiea Iannee-O?enoa. Ii eiaaea i?i?iee iuoaeenue iienaoue yaeaiea
Iannee-Nianeoaey, oi Ii ?eniaaeny aieueoeinoao ec ieo a ia?aca iiao/aai
o?eoioaoi?a. Eeoue iaiiiaea ecia?aaeaee Aai aac aiaoiaai aeanea.

Eenon ioe?ue, /oi Aiaiyaeaiea niaa?oeeinue a Iai Naiii, /oi eiaiii Ii
anoue iaauaiiue Ianney. Aacia?iia e Anaiauaiethuaa ia?aei /aeiaa/aneee
eee e aiein a Ieioieea ec Iaca?aoa, «Nuia Aiaa AEeaiai».

Ii i?ioiaeee ii caiea, ia iiaeaaeyy ethaeae neeie Naiaai iiaouanoaa,
nio?aiea iai?eeiniiaaiiie /aeiaa/aneoth naiaiaeo. Ia ?aaia, a nuiia
eneae Eenon, a?aoueaa, eioi?ua aanei?unoii ii ethayo Aai e iieaeoo ca
Iei. Anee au Ianney yaeeny «ai neaaa», anee au ieeoi ia niia
ioaa?iooueny io Iaai, yoi auei au i?eioaeaeaieai.

Eaiiai i?aoeiiaaiey yaeeinue e oi, /oi i?iiiaaaeue Eenona ia auea
iaeia?aia ioeoeeaeueiuie oea?eiaiuie aeanoyie. Ianoaaieee e ea?a?oe
aaooicaaaoiie Oea?eae inoaeenue aeooe e Aaaiaaeeth. Iie ieacaeenue a
ieaio o?aaeeoeee, aeaiiie, ii eo iiaieth, ?ac e iaanaaaea. Iie ia
aeiioneaee niiiaiee a naiae iaiia?aoeiinoe, a a ?acoeueoaoa noaee
a?aaaie aeaea Aiaeey. Nai oaeo i?eaiai?a, auianaiiiai O?enoo
?aeeaeiciuie aiaeaeyie Ec?aeey, — aaee/aeoay o?aaaaeey /aeiaa/anoaa.

________________________________________________________________________
____________

‘ A o?enoeaineii aiaineiaee o/aiea i nianaiee iacuaatho nioa?eieiaeae
(io a?a/. Nioa? — Nianeoaeue).

IAANO?A*O AIEAIOA

Iiiai caaiuo — iaei eca?aiiuo

Naioya?ue-aeaeaa?ue 29 a.

*oaeana, oai?eiua Eenonii, Aai niaeay i?iiiaaaeue, naii iaayiea Aai
Ee/iinoe i?eaeaeaee e Iaio iiiaeanoai ia?iaea. A Aaaiaaeeyo eiaaony
aeaaea ianeieueei oeacaiee ia oi, /oi ethaee oioaee naeaeaoue Aai
oea?ai. Ii Eenon i?eoae ia aeey oiai, /oiau onoaiiaeoue caiiia oea?noai,
iniiaaiiia ia aiaoiai iiaouanoaa, a aeey oiai, /oiau ioe?uoue na?aeoea
ethaeae Aiao, aeia?o. Yoei iauyniyeanue oieiaeiinoue Eenona e ooiiui
i?iyaeaieyi ia?iaeiiai ainoi?aa. Ianniaue yiooceaci aniuoeaaao eaaei e
eaaei aeaeaao naiae aeiau/ae oao, eoi aeaaeaeao iiae/eiaiey e euao
eoie?ia. Ia oaeiau aeieaeiu auoue aeaoe Aai Oea?noaa. O?enoin aeaeae io
eaaeaeiai aeooiaiiai e i?aanoaaiiiai iiaeaeaa.

Ioeac Eenona eaeoe iaano?a/o no?anoyi oieiu e niaeaneoueny ia ?ieue
iiioeenoneiai aiaeaey, ii-aeaeeiiio, aucaae oiaaeie Aai aeeyiey a
Aaeeeaa. Auei ynii, /oi /uey-oi ?oea iai?aaeyao i?ioea Iaai ethaeae. Aai
oaea ia aeiioneaee, eae i?aaeaea, naiaiaeii i?iiiaaaeiaaoue a neiaaiaao.
Eenon aue auioaeaeai iaanaaaea iieeiooue Eaia?iaoi. A Iaca?ao iooue Aio
aue oaeaea cae?uo. Eieueoei auno?i naeeiaeinue. Inaiueth Eenon eaeao a
Ea?onaeei ia i?acaeiee Eouae, ii ia yaii, a eae au oaeii.

I?acaeiee aeeeeny oaea /aou?a aeiy e aue a naiii ?acaa?a. Iaonoaiii
cao/aea iocuea, o?oaeee o?oau, ia?ae?uaay ethaeneie aiiii; iaae
aea?oaaiieeaie O?aia iiaeieiaeenue eeoau aeuia io naeeaaaiuo i?eiioaiee.
Ioia/aeny eiiaoe aeaoau, ia?iae aanaeeeny e iae, ie?iaae e iieeeny. Ana
naiaiaeiua ianoa a Ea?onaeeia auee onayiu oao?aie, ianei?i nii?oaeaiiuie
ec aaoie. ?yaeii noiyee aa?aethaeu, iiaicee e ioeu. Ai a?aiy i?acaeieea
aniiieiaeinue oaeaea oi a?aiy, eiaaea ia?iae neeoaeny ii ionouia e aeee
a oao?ao (oea?e.-neaa. «eouao»).

Aiacaiii aieiaiea i?enoonoaothueo i?eaeae nii?, eioi?ue aaee eieaeieee a
iaeiii ec oaeia aaea?ae. Anao ii?acee iaecaanoiue /aeiaae n aaeeeaeneei
auaiai?ii. «Ia Oio ee yoi, Eiai euoo oaeoue?» — aeiaaaeuaaeenue
ea?onaeeieyia. Ii ii/aio Ii aeaenoaoao ioe?uoi?

«Anee i?aaoaeaoa a Neiaa Iiai, — o/ee Eenon, — oi au aienoeio Iie
o/aieee, e iiciaaoa enoeio, e enoeia naeaeaao aan naiaiaeiuie! (Ei
8:31—32). Enoeiii, enoeiii aiai?th aai: anyeee, aeaeathuee a?ao, anoue
?aa a?aoa» (Ei 8:34). Ii-aeaeeiiio, ethaeae, eioi?ua i?eciaee a Eenona
iineaioea Aiaeey, iaoeinue iaiaei, e yoi i?aaeioa?aoeei iieooaiea ia
Iaai a i?acaeiee Eouae. Enoeaeaiea neaiiai io ?iaeaeaiey /aeiaaea
iieieaaaei e iaeioi?uo oa?enaaa. Oi, /oi yoio no?aiiue O/eoaeue iaeaaeae
oaeie neeie, ia iiaei auoue neo/aeiinoueth. Ii, oiiaiiua /oanoaii
nianoaaiiiai i?aainoiaenoaa, yoe ethaee ia iiaee ?aniiciaoue AEeaoth
Enoeio, i?eoaaeooth e iei a eeoea Eenona Iaca?yieia.

?en. 167

Aeoaiey. Iiaeea Eaca?y

Aei na?aaeeiu aeaeaa?y Eenon aani?aiyonoaaiii i?eoiaeee a O?ai,
ie?oaeaiiue oieiie o/aieeia. Ii/e Ii i?iaiaeee o naieo ae?ocae a naeaiee
Aeoaiee a ie?anoiinoyo Ea?onaeeia, a aeiai i?iiiaaaeiaae a i?eoai?a
Nieiiiiiaii. Iaeiaei a i?acaeiee Oaioee i?iecioei iiaia noieeiiaaiea. A
yoio aeaiue i?acaeiiaaee iiaaaeo ainnoaiey Iaeeaaaaa iaae ycu/ieeaie.
Aa?ie/aneea iiaeaeae i?ioeiai aeaaaee ieuo ia/oai i iiao/ai aiaeaea,
eioi?ue ii?ieeiao aeanoue ?eieyi. Oieia iaeeaeaea io Eenona ?aoeoaeueiuo
iieeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee. Aianoi yoiai Eenon aiai?ee: «Au ia aa?eoa, eai
au ia ec iaaoe Iieo (Ei 10:26)… ss e Ioaoe — iaeii» (Ei 10:30). ?iiio
oaeana i?ioae ii oieia. Ii aeaeaao Naay Nuiii Aiaee-ei! Ioaeii
iaiaaeeaiii iiea?aoue Aai ca aiaiooeuenoai. Ia yoio ?ac Eenon eeoue
/oaeii ecaaaeae nia?oe.

*an aeeceony

Aeaeaa?ue 29 a. — 2 ai?aey 30 a.

Aei Ianoe inoaaaeinue ieiei o?ao ianyoeaa, ii aeeoue aaeece noieeoeu
Eenon oaea ia iia. Ii ooae ia a?aiy ceiieo aeiaeaeae a Caei?aeaiuea.
O/eoaeue e o/aieee iaoiaeeeenue ca Ei?aeaiii a n?aaieoaeueiie
aaciianiinoe.

Aaniie i?eoei ecaanoea, /oi iianii aieai Eaca?ue, a?ao Ia?ou e Ia?ee. A
aeiia yoeo ethaeae a Aeoaiee Eenon ia?aaeei inoaiaaeeaaeny, eiaaea auaae
a Ea?onaeeia. Iio?aaiaaeinue ia aieaa aeaoo aeiae, /oiau aeinoeaiooue
Aeoaiee. Eenon aua ia aioae a naeaiea, eae iaano?a/o Aio auaaaeaea
Ia?oa. «Ainiiaee, — iea/a aiai?eea iia, — anee au Ou aue caeanue, ia
oia? au a?ao iie». «Aaea iioi?iieee aai?» — ni?inee Eenon. Ethaee iiaaee
Aai e neeaio, caaaeaiiiio ii iau/ath eaiaiiie ieeoie.

«Ioaaeeoa eaiaiue», — i?eeacae O/eoaeue. Aoiae a iaua?o ioe?uee, Eenon
iiaeiye aeaca e iaao e iia?oceeny a iieeoao… «Eaca?ue, auoiaee!» —
aineeeeioe Eenon, e aiein Aai, neiaii oaea? a?iia, ioicaaeny a eiuo
ie?ao. Eiaaea o ii?iaa iaua?u iieacaeny oia?oee, caeooaiiue a
iia?aaaeueiue naaai, ethaee a oaeana iiiyoeeenue. «?acayaeeoa aai e
ionoeoa eaeoe», — neacae Eenon a ianooieaoae oeoeia (ni. Ei 11).

A yoii niauoee Eenon iieacae o/aieeai Naith aeanoue iaae aeeciueth e
nia?oueth. Aine?aoaiea Eaca?y aeieaeii auei iiaeaioiaeoue eo e
Ianoaeueiie Oaeia.

Iaeiaei iaoeenue ethaee, eioi?ua ni/ee naiei aeieaii aeiianoe i
i?ienoaaeoai a Neiaae?eii. Iaiaaeeaiii aue nicaai niaao aunoaai
eoaeaeneiai aeooiaainoaa. Naaeaeoeae, i?aayuay nayuaiie/aneay
a?enoie?aoey, iianaeenue, /oi aeaeaeaiea aie?oa Iaca?aeneiai O/eoaey
ia?a?anoao a iyoaae e auciaao ea?aoaeueiue iioiae ?eieyi. Eineo Eaeaoa,
ia?ainayuaiiee, cayaee, /oi «eaeaianneth» neaaeoao ono?aieoue aac
eieaaaiee. Eo/oa nia?oue iaeiiai /aeiaaea, /ai aaaenoaea, eioi?ia
ia?ooeony ia aanue ia?iae. Ii-aeaeeiiio, aeaei ioeiaeeee, ociaa, /oi
Eenon iieeioe aea?aaith.

?en. 168

Iiaeea Eaca?y

?en. 169

Aine?aoaiea Eaca?y. Aeaeiooi. Ieiei 1305 a. O?anea

Aeiae ca aeanyoue aei Ianoe Eenon iauyaee o/aieeai, /oi iaia?ai i?eauoue
a Ea?onaeei ?aiueoa i?acaeieea. A iooue nia?aeenue auno?i e oee ii/oe ia
inoaiaaeeaaynue. Eenon neiaii niaoee iaano?a/o nia?oe. Aei?iaa aeeanue
n?aaee oieiia. Eia-aaea noaee iiyaeyoueny ethaee, iai?aaeythueany a
Ea?onaeei. Iinoaiaiii Eenon ieacaeny ai aeaaa aieueoie oieiu
aiaiiieueoeaa. Iiiaea ociaaaee Aai e ?aaeinoii i?eaaonoaiaaee. A eiua
i?eaeeaeaeenue e i?ineee i?eiyoue eo a /enei o/aieeia.

A iyoieoeo 31 ia?oa iooieee aioee a Aeoa-ieth, aaea aue ono?iai
i?acaeiee a /anoue i?eauoey O/eoaey. Nia?aeenue iiiaea Aai ae?ocuey.
Eiaaea ieiiaaea noaaioa, Eenon noae aioiaeoueny e anooieaieth a ai?iae.
Eenon aua?ae aeey yoiai ineeea, aeeaioiia, eioi?ia ecaeaaia auei
neiaieii ie?a. Aianoi naaeea ia nieio ineeea iieiaeeee iaeaaeaeu, e, naa
ia iaai, Eenon noae i?eaeeaeaoueny e auacaeo a Ea?onaeei. Oea?ue,
aicaauathuee ie?, Ii aoae aaci?oaeiui, a ie?oaeaiee iaeiiieeia, eioi?ua
e?e/aee: «Inaiia Nuio Aeaaeaeiao!». O/aieee eeeiaaee. Iaeiiaoe-oi ianoae
aeieaiaeaeaiiue aeaiue!

Ea?a?oe i?eoee a iieioth ?anoa?yiiinoue. Oaeiai ao?iiai i?iyaeaiey
ia?iaeiie ethaae e Aaeeeayieio iie ieeae ia iaeeaeaee. Iaaeaeo oai Eenon
i?iaoae ii i?acaeie/iui oeeoeai e, nieaey n ineeea, aioae n o/aieeaie a
ia?aaeo O?aia. Io Iaai iaeeaeaee eaeeo-oi neia e iinooieia, ii Ii iie/a
iniio?ae nayoeeeua, eae Oea?ue, aeaeathuee i?iaa?eoue Naie aeaaeaiey.
Oo?ii, a iiiaaeaeueiee, niiaa i?eaey a O?ai, Ii naeaeae oi aea, /oi e
o?e aiaea iacaae: aaeae oi?aiaoeai iieeiooue i?aaeaeu Aeiia Aiaeey.
Eiaaea i?iaeathuea e iieoiathuea noaee aiciouaoueny, Eenon ii?ieeioe
noieu iaiye n aeaiueaaie e neaiuee n ioeoeaie, i?aaeiacia/aiiuie aeey
i?iaeaaee.

Yoi auei ia?aui aeaeii Iannee, ioe?uoi yaeaoaainy ia?iaeo. Iii auei
ia?auaii i?ioea oieaeaiey O?aia. Aoi?ui aeaeii noaei enoeaeaiea
aieueiuo, eioi?ua ni anao noi?ii iaeaieee Eenona.

Iaeiaei n eaaeaeui aeiai aiinoieu ana yniaa iniciaaaee, /oi Ianney
iaoiaeeony a Ea?onaeeia, eae ai a?aaeaeaaiii eaaa?a. Ii/ue iie
i?iaiaeeee /aua anaai a Aaoneiaineie ?iua ia ie?aeia ai?iaea. Ii ii
oo?ai Eenon niiaa i?eoiaeee a ooiiue ai?iae, aaea Aai aeaeaee neooaoaee
e iiaenoa?aaaee i?ioeaieee.

?en. 170

Iioeaeoe Eoaeu. Aeaeiooi. Ieiei 1305 a. O?anea

A n?aaeo Eoaea oaeii i?iiee ai aeai?aoe ia?ainayuaiieea Eaeaou. Ii
i?aaeeiaeee eoaeaeneei aeanoyi naie ieai: noaaoeoue Eenona ii/ueth aia
ai?iaea, ia i?eaeaeay aieiaiey oieiu. Aa?iyoii, Eoaea niiauee, /oi
Eenon, ii aai iiaieth, iaia?ai i?iaicaeaneoue Naia Oea?noai a aeaiue
Ianoe. Oaia?ue Eoaea aiciaia?eeny aeaaea ecaea/ue auaiaeo ec naiae
eciaiu e acye i?aaeeiaeaiiua aio o?eaeoeaoue Na?aa?aieeia. Iieo/ea
aeaiueae, ii eae ie a /ai ia auaaei aa?ioeny e O/eoaeth.

Ianoa Iiaiai Caaaoa

N aa/a?a 5 aei ii/e ia 7 ai?aey 30 a.

Oo?ii a /aoaa?a Eenon aaeae aiinoieai aioiaeoueny e Ianoaeueiie o?aiaca
— i?acaeieeo, aaeaaiaeii niaa?oaaiiio a ainiiieiaiea ia ecaaaeaiee io
aaeiaoneiai ?aanoaa. Ii oioae oniaoue ano?aoeoue Ianoo a e?oao o/aieeia
e i?eaeaaae aieueoia cia/aiea yoiio iineaaeiaio a Aai caiiie aeecie
i?acaeieeo. Eenon iineae o/aieeia a ai?iae e iaeiiio ec Naieo oaeiuo
iineaaeiaaoaeae, /oiau oa a aai aeiia ana i?eaioiaeee e nayuaiiie
o?aiaca.

Eiaaea ianoae aa/a?, Eenon e o/aieee ii oiaaeaoiaio iaueiiaaieth
aiceaaee ia ieceeo eiaeao: Eiaii ?yaeii n Eenonii, iai?ioea Iaai — Iao?;
iiaeecinoe iaoiaeeeny e Eoaea. Nayuaiiia niauoea Aaeeeiai *aoaa?aa,
eioi?iio i?aaenoiyei noaoue aeaaiui oaeinoaii o?enoeaineie Oea?eae,
caia/aoeaiiui a iieeoaao e aeiiao, a oai?aieyo Aeaeiooi, Aeeiieney e
Eaiia?aei, i?ienoiaeeei a ianoaiiaea iai?eoycaoaeueiie i?inoiou.

Eenon i?iecian iieeoao iaae i?aniui oeaaii. «Yoi oeaa no?aaeaiey,
eioi?ue aee iooeu iaoe a caiea Aaeiaoneie», — iiaoi?ee O/eoaeue
o?aaeeoeeiiiua neiaa nayuaiiie aaooicaaaoiie o?aiacu. Ia nae aea ?ac
Ianoa aicaauaao i no?aaeaiee Eenona O?enoa, Iannee. Eae ?aceiieai yoio
nayuaiiue oeaa, oae aoaeao ioaeaia Aai ieioue a ?oee iaea/ae. «Aicueieoa
— yoi oaei Iia, eiieiia ca aan, — i?iaiai?ee O?enoin e aeiaaaee: — Yoi
niaa?oaeoa a ainiiieiaiea iai Iia».

Ii aio Eenon acye a ?oee iauoth /aoo n aeiii e neacae: «Iaeoa io iaa
ana. Yoi anoue E?iaue Iiy Iiaiai Caaaoa, ca iiiaeo eceeaaaiay aeey
i?iuaiey a?aoia… Niaa?oaeoa yoi anaaaea a ainiiieiaiea iai Iia».
Aiinoieu ia?aaeaaaee /aoo ii e?oao. Oae niaa?oaeanue Ianoa Iiaiai
Caaaoa. Ainiiieiaiea ia ecaaaeaiee io aaeiaoneiai ?aanoaa noaei
ainiiieiaieai ia ecaaaeaiee io ?aanoaa a?aoa, ecaaaeaiee, eioi?ia
iieo/aao /aeiaae, aa?othuee a Eenona O?enoa e niaaeeiythueeny n Iei a
naiae aeecie. Aaaeiaeoei ciaeii yoiai niaaeeiaiey noaei oaeinoai
oeaaii?aeiieaiey eee aeaaiaea?aiey (a?a/. Aaoa?enoey). N iaieai inaeia
iie iieeioee aeii e ii niyuei oeeoeai iai?aaeeenue e ai?ioai (ni. Io
26:26-28; Ie 14:22-24; Ee 22:17-20).

Ii/ue a Aaoneiaiee

N 6 ia 7 ai?aey 30 a.

Eenon n o/aieeaie iai?aaeeny ec ai?iaea e Aeaiineie ai?a. Ia?aeaey
Eaae?iineee ia?aa, iie aioee a Aaoneiaineee naae. Yoi auei iaaieueoia
/anoiia aeaaeaiea, iaianaiiia noaiie, aaea iaoiaeeeanue ieeaeiaay ?iua.
Aieaey a ia?aaeo, o/aieee noaee ?aniieaaaoueny ia ioaeuo. Eenon ioioae a
noi?iio e, oiaa ia eieaie, ia/ae ai?y/i iieeoueny. Ii iieeeny. Aiinoieu
niaee. A ia oeeoeao Ea?onaeeia oaea ?acaeaaaeenue oaae no?aaee.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy naae inaaoeeny oiia?yie e oaeaeaie, iineuoaeenue
ooi e aieina. O aoiaea iieacaeanue oieia ethaeae. Aia?aaee oae ?eineee
ioeoea? n nieaeaoaie, ca iei — aii?oaeaiiua o?aiiaua neoaeeoaee. Aia?aae
i?ioenioeny Eoaea. Ii iaauae aeaoue ciae, /oiau i?e a?anoa a ii/iii
naaeo ia i?iecioei ioeaee.

?en. 171

Acyoea iiae no?aaeo. A. Aeth?a?. A?aath?a

«I?eaaonoaoth Oaay, ?aaae!» — neacae ii, oeaeoy O/eoaey. «Ae?oa, aio
aeey /aai ou caeanue, — i?iiieaee Eenon. — Iioeaeoai ee i?aaeaaoue Nuia
*aeiaa/aneiai?» (ni. Ee 22:47—48).

No?aaea iaiaaeeaiii ie?oaeeea Eenona. A?oaua ?oee iioouaaee Aai
aa?aaeaie.

*A?AC NO?AAeAIEss E NIA?OUe E AA*IIIO OI?AEANOAO

Noae Neiaae?eiia Ii/ue e oo?i 7 ai?aey 30 a.

Eiiaie aeinoaaee Ocieea e ia?ainayuaiieeo Eaeaoa. Inoaoie ii/e Eenon
oa?iae ecaeaaaoaeuenoaa a?oea?aeneie /aeyaee. Ianooieei oo?i. O Eaeaou
aue nia?ai «Iaeue Neiaae?eii», ninoiyuee ec aeaaaeoeaoe o?ao /aeiaae. A
iaai aoiaeeee nayuaiieee ni noa?aeoeiaie. Noaeueaa Eenona auea
i?aae?aoaia ca?aiaa i?e iieiii aaeeiiaeooee anae eieeaaee.

Aunooiaee naeaeaoaee n iaaeiaieyie oeia: Ii oioae ?ac?ooeoue O?ai, Ii
cai?auae ieaoeoue iiaeaoue eana?th. Ii ana yoi ia aeaaaei iiaiaea aeey
auianaiey nia?oiiai i?eaiai?a. Nai Eenon ia i?iecian ie neiaa. AEaeaoue
aeaeueoa Eaeaoa ia iia. «Caeeeiath Oaay Aiaii AEeaui, — aineeeeioe ii, —
neaaee iai: Ou ee Ianney, Nui Aeaaineiaaiiiai?» — «ss», — aue ioaao. Yoi
auei aani?eia?iia naeaeaoaeuenoai, Eenon ?aaeei noieue i?yii aiai?ee i
Naiai ianneainoaa (ni. Io 28:3-64; Ie 14:61-62).

?aciae?aa iaeaaeaeo, eae auei i?eiyoi aeaeaoue i?e ai?anoiii ecaanoee
eee eiuoinoaa, Eaeaoa ane?e/ae a eeoeaia?iii oaeana: «Eaeay iai aua
ioaeaea a naeaeaoaeyo? Au neuoaee ooeo? Eae aai eaaeaony?» — «Iiaeiai
nia?oe», — ?aoeee /eaiu Neiaae?eiia. Ii niaao ia eiae i?aaa eacieoue
eiai au oi ie auei. Inoaaaeinue i?aaeaoue Eenona a ?oee Ieeaoa aeey
noaea ii ?eineei caeiiai.

Noae i?ieo?aoi?a.

Aieaioa 7 ai?aey 30 a.

Oo?ii a iyoieoeo Ieeaoo aeieiaeeee, /oi iyoaaeiee, eioi?ue aue a?anoiaai
iaeaioia aa/a?ii, aeinoaaeai. «Eaeia iaaeiaiea au aunoaaeyaoa i?ioea
yoiai *aeiaaea?» — ni?inee Ieeao. Eiaaea ii iiiye, /oi Eenon yaeyaony a
eo aeacao i?iiiaaaeieeii eiaeiuo oai?ee, ii neacae: «ss ia iaoiaeo aeiu
a yoii *aeiaaea». Ii iiiye, /oi eiaao aeaei n I?iiiaaaeieeii, Eioi?ue
aaeaa ee iianai aeey ?eineie aeanoe. Ieeao ?aoee iaeacaoue Eenona
ieaoueie e caoai ioionoeoue ?aaee i?acaeieea Ianoe. Iaeiaei ia?iae,
iiaeaiaa?eaaaiue a?oea?ayie, noae o?aaiaaoue, /oiau ioionoeee Aa?aaao,
aoioiaueea, ecaanoiiai a ai?iaea. Aa?aaao ia oieueei ciaee, ii e n/eoaee
aa?iai, a Eenon aue i?eoaeaoe, eiy Eioi?iai iaei /oi aiai?eei
ai?iaeaiai.

?en. 172

O?enoin ia?aae Ieeaoii. Neoeueioo?a niai?a a Iaoiao?aa. Aa?iaiey. XIII
a.

?en. 173

O?enoin ia?aae ia?iaeii. E. Aino.

Aaeaa ia iiiinoa iiyaeeny Eenon, aeanoiei ecaeoue ieaoueie, iaae
ieiuaaeueth i?iianny e?ee: «Ia e?ano! ?aniie Aai!», «Ioionoe iai
Aa-?aaao!». Iaaeieoaee Eenona auaeaeioee iiaue, naiue aaneee a?aoiaio:
«Ii iacuaae Naay Ianneae — Oea?ai. Anee ou aai ioionoeoue, ou ia ae?oa
eana?y». Ieeao iiiye, /oi ?a/ue eaeao i aai nianoaaiiii aeaaiiieo/ee.
AEaeay iieacaoue, /oi ii aeaenoaoao ia ii caeiio, a a oaiaeo i?inueaai,
i?ieo?aoi? aaeae i?eianoe aiaeu e, eae o?aaiaae ainoi/iue iau/ae,
aeaiiino?aoeaii oiue ?oee: «Ia aeiiaai y a e?iae I?aaaaeieea».
Inoaeaeaiiue aue ia?aaeai a ?oee nieaeao.

Ii oceei oeeoeai Ea?onaeeia aeaeaaeanue i?ioeanney, auoaaeoay ec
i?aoi?ee, ?aceaeaioeee i?ieo?aoi?a, a iieaeaiue ianoaeueiie iyoieoeu 7
ai?aey 30 a. Ii aeanoieiio i?aaeeo inoaeaeaiiua naie ianee ia?aeeaaeeiu
e?anoia, ia eioi?uo eo ?anieiaee. Enoa?caiiue ae/aie, Eenon oae
iaaeeaiii. Aueaey ec ai?iaea, iiaa?ioee e oieio, iaaeaeaei io aei?iae.
Ca naith oi?io ii iieo/ee iacaaiea Aieaioa — «*a?ai». Ia aai aa?oeia
aeieaeiu auee iinoaaeoue e?anou. ?eieyia anaaaea ?anieiaee inoaeaeaiiuo
aaeieue ethaeiuo iooae, /oiau eo aeaeii ono?aoeoue iaiiei?iuo.

?aniyoea auei iaeiie ec naiuo aan/aeiaa/iuo eaciae, ecia?aoaiiuo
ae?aaiei ie?ii. Inoaeaeaiiiai iaaei i?eaeaaee e noieao n ia?aeeaaeeiie e
inoaaeyee ia iaaeeaiiia oie?aiea. Ianoa?ieii aieaee ?aiu, nieioea aeaei
aieiao, io/eei oaeoouea.

Nieaeaou ni?aaee n Eenona iaeaaeaeo, inoaaea eeoue iaaaae?aiioth
iiayceo. Inoaeaeaiiiai iieiaeeee ia e?ano. Iineuoaeny no?aoiue nooe
iieioeia, eioi?uie a caiynouey ?oe e a nooiie aaiiyee ia?iiiua aaicaee.
Noiyaoea ?yaeii oneuoaee neiaa Eenona: «Io/a, i?inoe ei, eai ia ciatho
iie, /oi aeaeatho» (ni. Ee 23:34). Iinea oiai eae e?anou n ?aniyouie
auee iiaeiyou aa?oeeaeueii, eiiaith i?aaenoiyei aeaeaoue iineaaeiaai
acaeioa inoaeaeaiiuo. Iaaeaeo oai iiaeoe aaoa?. Oio?ua oo/e caaieieee
iaai. Eacaeinue, naii nieioea ne?ueinue, /oiau ia aeaeaoue aacoiey
ethaeae. E o?ai /anai aeiy noaei oaiii, eae a noia?eao.

Iineaaeiea neiaa Eenona auee: «Io/a, a ?oee Oaie i?aaeath aeoo Iie…»
(Ee 23:46). Aiacaiii o No?aaeaeueoea au?aaeny e?ee. Iioii aieiaa Aai
oiaea ia a?oaeue, na?aeoea inoaiiaeeinue. Ii aue ia?oa. Nui *aeiaa/aneee
auiee Naith /aoo aei aeia. Aieaioa iionoaea. Aeaia oaeiuo o/aieeia
Eenona, Eineo e Ieeiaeei, aiaaoua, oaaaeaaiua ethaee, iieo/eee o Ieeaoa
?ac?aoaiea acyoue oaei Eenona. I?e iiiiue neoa oaei niyee n e?anoa e
ia?aianee a ninaaeiee naae. O/anoie i?eiaaeeaaeae Eineoo, eioi?ue
caaioiaee caeanue naaa neeai.

?en. 174

Ianaiea e?anoa. A. Aeth?a?. A?aath?a

?en. 175

?aniyoea. Yeue A?aei. Iinea 1606 a.

Oniioaai caaa?ioee a iia?aaaeueiua iaeaiu, aianee a iaua?o e caaaeeee
aoiae e?oaeie eaiaiiie ieeoie. Aeaa aeaiueiu ec /enea aeeceeo o/aieeia
i?enoonoaiaaee i?e yoii.

A aiinoieu? Iie ie/aai ia ciaee i ianoa iia?aaaiey. Oaean neiaae eo.
Iiea eo ia o?iaaee. Ii aeieai ee yoi i?iaeeeony? Aua aieueoa eo oa?caea
iuneue, /oi Oio, Eoi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaae ia enoeia e iaauae i?eaanoe eo a
Oea?noai Aiaeea, eaaeeo oaia?ue aacaeuoaiiue. Cia/eo, Eenon ia Oio, ca
Eiai iie Aai i?eieiaee, ia Ianney, ia Aiaeee Iineaiiee?

?en. 176

Iieaeeaaiea O?enoa. Aoai aai aea? Aon. I?aaay /anoue aeeioeoa

Iiaaaea iaae nia?oueth

9—14 ai?aey 30 a.

Iiiai iaiinoeaeeiiai o?aiyo aiiaeu1 enoi?ee, ii naiia iaaa?iyoiia a iae
— aeeciue Eenona Iaca?yieia. Ni?aaaaeeeai n/eoatho, /oi oaeia nia?oe e
aine?anaiey O?enoa auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu, aeinooiiua /aeiaa/aneiio
ciaieth. Iaeiaei anoue oaeou, iaoiaeyueany a iiea c?aiey enoi?eea. A oio
naiue iiiaio, eiaaea aeaei Eenona O?enoa, aaeaa ca?iaeeaoenue,
eacaeinue, iaanaaaea iiaeaei, a Aai o/aieee iioa?yee aa?o, — ana
aiacaiii e ei?aiiui ia?acii iaiyaony. Oa, eoi oieueei /oi iieeioe
O/eoaey e io?aeny io Iaai, niaei aicaauatho i Aine?anaiee Eenona O?enoa.
Naeaeaoaeuenoaa aiinoiea Iaaea aianoa n ianoaeueiuie iiaanoaiaaieyie
Aaaiaaeee aeaiiino?e?otho ?aaeueiue oaeo aeooiaiiai aine?anaiey o/aieeia
e iiaeaea eo ia i?iiiaaaeue Aeaaie Aanoe.

Neiaae?eiio iiiaaeiaeeanue naiy ioeoeeaeueiay aa?ney. Auei iauyaeaii,
/oi ii/ueth o/aieee Eenona iioeoeee Aai oaei e noaee aiai?eoue, aoaeoi
Ii aeea.

Ii anee au aiinoieu o/anoaiaaee a iiaeeiaa eee ciaee i iai, ioeoaea
acyeanue au o ieo neea aeooa e niaeinoue ionoaeaaoue niciaoaeueiue iaiai
aeaaea ia?aae eeoeii nia?oe? A ia iiaei ee neo/eoueny, /oi oaei Eenona
auei oianaii eai-oi ae?oaei? Noi?iiieee yoiai iiaiey caauaatho, /oi oi
aea naiia aeoiaee o/aieee e aiaee a aua aieueoaa oiuiea. Ia?aiaia a ieo
i?iecioea eeoue iinea oiai, eae iie oaeaeaee Aine?anoaai Eenona.

?en. 177

Iieiaeaiea ai a?ia. Eeiia. Eiiaoe XV a.

?en. 178

Iaaa?ea Oiiu. Eiiaoe XV a.

Au?aaeaiea aiinoiea Iaaea «oaei aeooiaiia» (1 Ei? 15:44) yaeyaony,
ii-aeaeeiiio, eeth/aaui aeey iiieiaiey Ianoaeueiie Oaeiu. Iii icia/aao,
/oi a naaeo Eineoa i?iecioea aaeeinoaaiiay a naiai ?iaea iiaaaea Aeooa,
eioi?ay, ia oie/oiaeea ieioe, aeaea ae iiaoth, aunooth oi?io
nouanoaiaaiey. Aeey aiinoieia Aine?anaiuea noaei caeiaii iaiaeieeiinoe
Aeia?a, ieeoeaoai?aiiiai a Eenona.

Aaaiaaeey ?anneacuaatho iai, eae Eenon i?eoiaeee e o/aieeai, eiaaea iie
iaoiaeeeenue a caia?oii aeiia, i?eniaaeeiyeny e iei ia iooe a ninaaeiaa
naeaiea, iiyaeyeny ia aa?aao Aaeeeaeneiai ii?y. Eaaeaeue ?ac yoi auea
?aaeueiay ano?a/a, ioe?uaaaoay o/aieeai aeaca ia i?enoonoaea Eenona. A
yoe naaoeua aeie aiinoieu ieii/aoaeueii ooaa?aeeeenue a aa?a. Ec
Aeaaiaaeoeaoe oieueei Oiia ia aeaeae Ainiiaea. Eiaaea ii neooae
ainoi?aeaiiua neiaa ae?oaeo o/aieeia, aio o?oaeii auei ?acaeaeeoue eo
/oanoaa. Ia i?iecioei ee ioeaee? A iaeei ec iineaaeieo aeiae Ianoe
o/aieee nia?aeenue aianoa a iaeiii aeiia. Aeaa?e auee ieioii caia?ou:
no?ao i?aneaaeiaaiee aua ia ooeo. E iiyoue ana aiacaiii oaeaeaee Eenona.
Ii ia?aoeeny e Oiia: iiaeieaee, i?ioyie ?oeo, i?iaa?ue!

?en. 179

Nian. Aiae?ae ?oaeaa. Eeiia. Ia/aei XV a.

«Ainiiaeue iie e Aia iie!» — oieueei e iia auiieaeoue aiinoie. Ii ia
iiiuoeye aieueoa i aeieacaoaeuenoaao. «Ou iioiio oaa?iaae, — neacae
O?enoin, — /oi oaeaeae Iaiy. Aeaaeaiiu ia aeaeaaoea e iiaa?eaoea» (ni.
Ei 20:24~29).

Iineaaeieie neiaaie Aine?anoaai Ainiiaea ia 40-e aeaiue iinea Ianoe
auee: «Eaeeoa, iao/eoa ana ia?iaeu, e?anoy eo ai eiy Iooea e Nuia e
Nayoiai Aeooa, o/a eo niaethaeaoue ana, /oi ss iiaaaeae aai; e aio, ss n
aaie ai ana aeie aei neii/aiey aaea» (Io 28:19-20).

I?iianeenue aaea…

Aicieeaee e ?ooeeenue eiia?ee, aeaee oeeaeeecaoeee, iaiyeny iaeee caiee,
ii Oea?eiaue, iniiaaiiay Eenonii O?enoii Iaca?yieiii, aicauoaaony, eae
neaea, n?aaee yoiai eeiei/ouaai ii?y. Aa?a, eioi?oth a ia?aua aeie
eniiaaaeiaaei anaai ianeieueei aeanyoeia /aeiaae, aeaeaeao naaiaeiy
ieeeea?aeii aeeoaeae caiee, aiai?yueo ia ?aciuo ycueao e nicaeaaoeo
aan/eneaiiua oi?iu eoeueoo?.

O?enoeainoai niaaeeieei ioae?inoue Aoei e /ayiey Ainoiea n ia/oie ?eia i
anaiauai «niaeanee»; iii inoaeeei oaiaoaoaeae, aicauneei aeaiueio,
niinianoaiaaei enei?aiaieth ?aanoaa. O?enoeaineay «caeaanea»
i?aa?aoeeanue a Aa?iia e Iiaii Naaoa a enoi/iee aeeiaiecia, eioi?iai ia
ciaee ana i?aaeoanoaothuea iyoueaeanyo ouny/ eao nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea.

A?icu e o?aaaiu i?iiineeenue iaae Oea?eiaueth, aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea
iianiinoe iiaenoa?aaaee aa. Aeanoiethaea aiaeaeae e ycu/anoai oieiu,
ie?neea e aneaoe/aneea niaeaciu, iaoene ioe?uouo i?ioeaieeia e a?aoe
o?enoeai, ?ani?e e ?aneieu — ana yoi ii?ie, eacaeinue, noaaeei iiae
oaea? naii nouanoaiaaiea Oea?eae. Ii iia auaea?aeaea ana enoi?e/aneea
aeoau e e?ecenu.

Oaeia aa iaiaeieeiinoe a Nuia *aeiaa/aneii, Eioi?ue, ii neiao aiinoiea,
«a/a?a e naaiaeiy e ai aaee Oio aea» (Aa? 13:8).

Iai?inaaoeaiiia niciaiea /aeiaaea euao aiaoiaai aaee/ey, iiei?yaony
c?eiie neea; ii ia yoi aeaao aio Aaaiaaeea. Eaaeaeay aeooa, ia?aooay
Eenona O?enoa, ioiuia ciaao, /oi /aeiaae — ia iaeeiieee neeoaeaoe a
/a?iie einie/aneie ionouia, a aeeoy Aiaeea, nio/anoiee Aiaeanoaaiiuo
caiuneia. A Iai nie?iaaiiue e iaiinoeaeeiue Oai?aoe noae aeecie iai, e
yoi iaiieiyao aeeciue ?aaeinoueth, e?anioie, niuneii. Iao aieueoa
«ioaathuaai aaciieaey aacaeiu», iaae anai — naao O?enoia e ethaiaue
Iaaaniiai Iooea.

_________________________________________________________________

1 Aiiaeu (eao. «aaeaaiaeieee») — iacaaiea o?iiee-eaoiienae; a ia?aiiniii
niunea — enoi?e/aneea iaoa?eaeu, eioi?iaoeey (oaeoe/aneay).

NIENIE EEETHNO?AOeEE

1. Nioai?aiea naaoa. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

2. *aoaa?oue aeaiue oai?aiey. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

3. Aia nicaeaao Aaeaia. O. Aeaee. Eeethno?aoeey e Eieaa Auoey. 1795 a.

4. Nioeeneee niai? a Eeaaa. X/ a.

5. Neiaaiaa «Neaaa Ec?aeey» a Ea?onaeeia

6. Niai? Iio?-Aeai a ?aeina

7. Ia/aoue a Noaiaoea

8. Aeaaiaauaiea. Eeiia. XIV a.

9. Aiaiiaoa?ue Aeaaeeie?neay. Eeiia. O?aaiaio. Ia/aei XII a.

10. AEa?oaii?eiioaiea Aa?aaia. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

11. Noeaia aea?oaii?eiioaiey. ?eineee ?aeueao. I a.

12. Noeaia aea?oaii?eiioaiey. ?inienue na?eioaaa. E?eo. Eiiaoe XV a. aei
?.O.

13. Oea?ue Na?aii II, ianouee aea?oaaiiiai eiceaiea. VIII a. aei ?.O.

14. *aeiaae-?uaa. ?aeueao ec Oaeeue Oaeaoa. Ieiei 900 a. aei ?.O.

15. Noeien ec Aooeee. Ia/aei VI a. aei ?.O.

16. O?ai yaoa?ia. Oeaio?aeueiay Aia?eea. *e/ai-Eoea. X—XVI aa.

17. Aia Nieioea. Oeaio?aeueiay Aia?eea. Oeeaeue. II—IX aa.

18. Aia iaiy. Ninoae. Oeaio?aeueiay Aia?eea. *eiaeue. X—XVI aa.

19. Aiei-i?ae. Ninoae. Oeaio?aeueiay Aia?eea. *eiaeue. X—XVI aa.

20. Aieueoie Noeien oa?aiia Oao?a a Aeca. Ia?aay iieiaeia III
ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O.

21. E?ueaoua noeienu. Iaiii ec aeai?oea a Nocao. VI a. aei ?.O.

22. Noaooy e?ueaoiai aiaeanoaa Aooo?a. VIII a. aei ?.O.

23. THaeiineaiaeeiaaneea ianeaeueiua eoeueoiaua ecia?aaeaiey yiioe
a?iicu

24. *aeiaae-yaoa?. ?inienue ninoaea. Oeeaeue. XV a. aei ?.O. — II a. ii
?.O. O?aaiaio

25. Eaeie. Iaaa?oea ooaiaea?oa

26. Noaooy ooia?eeneiai aiaa Aa-O. Na?aaeeia III ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O.

27. Aia Nieioea. Ea?iaeeoe/aneay eanoieoea. II—IX aa. O?aaiaio

28. Aieiaa eaeiea n ino?iaa Aii?ain. Eeeeaaeu. 2500—2000 aei ?.O.

29. Ceeeo?ao a O?a. Eiiaoe III ouny/aeaoey aei ?.O.

30. Iieeoaa iiae iaeueiie. ?inienue a?iaieoeu Aiiiiaooa a Oeaao.
XIV—XIII aa. aei ?.O.

31. Noaooyoee ae?aoea Aiaioioaia e aai aeaiu ?aiiae. Aoi?ay iieiaeia XV
a. aei ?.O.

32. Ia?anaeaiea Ec?aeey a Aaeiao. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

33. Iieeiiaiea oa?aiia Yoiaoiia Nieioeo. ?aeueao ec o?aia a Aoaoaoiia.
Ia/aei XIV a. aei ?.O.

34. Aieiaa oea?eoeu Iaoa?oeoe. Ia?aay iieiaeia XIV a. aei ?.O.

35. Aieiaa Yoiaoiia. Ia/aei XIV a. aei ?.O.

36. Eiinneee aeai?aoe. Ieaeiee y?on naaoiaiai eieiaeoea. E?eo. XVI a.
aei ?.O.

37. Aiaeiy ni ciayie. Ec nie?iaeuieoeu Eiinneiai aeai?oea. E?eo.
1700—1600 aa. aei ?.O.

38. Aieiaa i?i?eoeaoaey. Noaooy ainoi/iiai o?iioiia o?aia Caana.
Ieeiiey. 460 a. aei ?.O. Aeaoaeue

39. Nia?aiea aiaia (Aa?a, Aa?ian, Aoeia, Caan, Aaieiaae, Ao?iaeeoa,
A?an). ?inienue eeeeea. Oa?eaeiey. Ieiei 510 a. aei ?.O.

40. Iae. Cieioay iiiaoa. Iaioeeaiae. 350—320 aa. aei ?.O.

41. Aieiaa Caana. Io?eeieue. IV a. aei ?.O.

42. Ninia ia aeoa?a Caana. Ia?aai

43. Ai?a Neiae

44. Noaooy oa?aiia ?ainana II. X/// a. aei ?.O.

45. Eieinnu ?ainana II. Aao-Neiaae. XIV a. aei ?.O.

46. Aei/ue oa?aiia ia?aae ieaaeaioeai Iienaai. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

47. Iienae canooiaaony ca naiaai niieaiaiieea. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae.
A?aath?a

48. Ec?aeeueoyia ia?aae Neiaai. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

49. Iienae nioneaaony n ai?u Neiae. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

50. Aeoa?ue

51. Neeiey a ionouia. Iiaeaeue

52. ?ac?ooaiea noai Ea?eoiia. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

53. Aeoaa ec?aeeueoyi n oeeenoeieyiaie. I. A?aeaaeue. 1562 a.

54. Naioee aeaaineiaeyao Naoea. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

55. Iiiacaiea Nieiiiia ia oea?noai. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeuae. A?aath?a

56. Nieiiii no?ieo O?ai. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeuae. A?aath?a.

57. O?ai Nieiiiia e aai ie?anoiinoe. Iiaeaeue

58. A?aoiiaaeaiea. TH. Ea?ieunoaeueae. A?aath?a

59. AEa?oaaiiee i?i?iea Eeee ia ai?a Ea?iee

60. Eeey ia ai?a Oi?ea. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

61. ssaeaiea Aiaaea Eeee I?i?ieo. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

62. Eeey aine?aoaao nuia aaeiau. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

63. O?ai Iaaa. Iaeei. 1420 a.

64. Eai-oecu oacaeaao ia Caiaae. Noaooyoea

65. *aou?aoeeeee Oeaeeeiaai. V a.

66. E?eoia, iiaeieiathuee ai?o Aiaa?aeoai. Ieieaoth?a. XVIII a.

67. E?eoia, iiaeieiathuee ai?o. ?aeueao. XII a.

68. Aieiaa Aoaeaeu. Oaeeaiae. XV—XVI aa.

69. Neaeyuee Aoaeaea. 110 a.

70. Aieiaa Aoaeaeu. VI a.

71. Noaooy Aoaeaeu. Iaua?a THiueaai. Eeoae. V a.

72. Iaua?iue o?ai THiueaai. Eeoae. V a.

73. Aoaeaea, oaai/aiiue ei?iiie. X/ a.

74. Aoaeaea, i?ieciinyuee i?iiiaaaeue. VIII a.

75. Aoaeaea a?a/othuee. Ei?ay. Eeiiinoan. XVIII a. O?aaiaio.

76. Aiia?. IV a. aei ?.O.

77. A?oaieaea. Ainoi/iue o?ec Ia?oaiiia. 447—432 aa. aei ?.O. O?aaiaio

78. Aiia?. Iiiaoa ec Oeina. IV a. aei ?.O.

79. Aeeiien. ?inienue aioi?u. Ieiei 500 a. aei ?.O.

80. Aa?ia aiaa Aeeiiena. V a. aei ?.O.

81. Aeeiien a eaaeuea. ?inienue eeeeea. O?aaiaio. Ieiei 530 a. aei ?.O.

82. Aeeiien n naoe?aie e iaiaaeaie. ?inienue e?aoa?a. O?aaiaio. Ieiei
440 a. aei ?.O.

83. Oaai n oe?nii. / a.

84. I?oae o o?aeeeoeaa. ?inienue e?aoa?a. O?aaiaio. Ieiei 450 a. aei
?.O.

85. I?oae, ea?athuee ia ee?a. Iicaeea. /// a.

86. Ieoaai?. Na?aaeeia V a. aei ?.O.

87. Aioe/iua oaao?aeueiua ianee

88. Ynoee. 460-450 aa. aei ?.O.

89. Nioiee. V a. aei ?.O.

90. Ia?eee. Ieiei 440 a. aei ?.O.

91. ?acaaeeiu a?a/aneiai oi?oia

92. Aa?aeeeo. V a. aei ?.O.

93. Nie?ao. Noaooyoea

94. Nie?ao

95. Ieaoii. IV a. aei ?.O.

96. O?ai Iinaeaeiia

97. Aoeia. ?inienue aioi?u. O?aaiaio. 490—480 aa. aei ?.O.

98. Ieea Naiio?aeeeneay. Ieiei 190 a. aei ?.O.

99. I?i?ie Aiin. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

100. I?i?ie

101. Caaana

102. Nayoaeue

103. I?i?ie Enaey. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

104. Aeaeaiea i?i?iea Enaee i ?ac?ooaiee Aaaeeiia. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

105. Ainiiaeue ii?aaeaao Eaaeaoaia. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

106. Ii?aaeaiea Neiaooa?eaa ii iieeoaa Acaeee. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae.
A?aath?a

107. Ii?aaeaiea aiene Neiaooa?eaa. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

108. I?i?ie Ea?aiey. Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. O?aaiaio ?iniene. 1511 a.

109. Iea/ Ea?aiee. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

110. I?i?ie Ea?aiey. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

111. I?i?ie Eacaeeeeue. Eeiia. Eiiae, XV a.

112. I?i?ie Eacaeeeeue. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

113. I?i?ie Eacaeeeeue. Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. O?aaiaio ?iniene. 1511 a.

114. No?aoiua aeaeaiey i?i?iea Eacaeeeey. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

115. ?ac?ooaiea Ea?onaeeia e ieaiaiea ec?aeeueoyi. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae.
A?aath?a

116. I?i?ie Enaey. TH. Ea?ieuenoaeueae. A?aath?a

117. Aeoa?ue aiaa iaiy. E?ai

118. Eiia i?iiiaaaeoao ieiaaeoyiai. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

119. Ecaaaeaiea Eiiu. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

120. No?uey, aia Nieioea. X// a.

121. ?iaeaeaiea Neou. OO a.

122. Oa?e Oa?a. Aiaeanoai n ao?eaooaie Oeau e Aeoio. 1730 a.

123. Aiieiuaiea Aeoio a aeaea aai?y. X—XI aa.

124. Aeoio, nioneathueeny n iaaan (Ecaaaeaiea neiia). VI—VII aa.

125. O?ea?a. VI-V aa. aei ?.O.

126. Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee. Iicae/iay ea?oeia a Iiiiayo. O?aaiaio. //
a.

127. Yieeo?. IV-V aa. aei ?.O.

128. Aeeiaai e Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee. ?aeueao. Eiiey ea?oeiu. IV a.
aei ?.O.

129. Oeeoea a Ea?onaeeia

130. Ian/anoey Eiaa. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

131. Eia ia aiieua. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

132. Aioeio IV. Iiiaoa

133. I?i?ie Aeaieee. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

134. I?i?ie Aeaieee ai ?ao eueaeiii. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

135. O?e io?iea a ia/e iaiaiiie. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

136. Naienaa/iee. ?aeueao ia a?ea Oeoa. O?aaiaio. Iinea 81 a.

137. Nayuaiieee

138. Ia?ainayuaiiee, eia/aa, aeoa?ue e nayuaiiua ninoaeu a Nayoay Nayouo

139. Noie aeey oeaaia i?aaeeiaeaiey

140. THieoa?. / a.

141. Aeueyaie (aeaiii iiaecaiiiai oea?noaa). Yo?onneee iaaea?iaiue
?enoiie. IV— Oaa. aei ?.O.

142. Y?eo?aeneay Neaeeea. Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. 1509 a. O?aaiaio ?iniene

143. Noeeieii Noa?oee. /// a. aei ?.O..

144. Oeeoea?ii. / a. aei ?.O.

145. Aae THeee Oeaca?ue. / a. aei ?.O.

146. Aaiieaae. /// a. aei ?.O.

147. Iineaeiiee. / a. aei ?.O.

148. Aaaono. Ia. AeI ?.O.

149. Aeoa?ue Ie?a Aaaonoa. 13—9 aa. aei ?.O. ?aeiino?oeoeey

150. Aiaiiaoa?ue. Oaioai A?ae. 1405 a. O?aaiaio.

151. Neiaii I?aaaaeiue. Eeiia. Na?aaeeia XVI a.

152. Iieeiiaiea aieoaia. Ianoa? aaineiai «Iieeiiaiey Ieaaeaioeo». Ieiei
1410 a.

153. Ai?iae Iaca?ao

154. Iieeiiaiea aieoaia. Aeaeiooi. O?anea. Ieiei 1305 a.

155. ?iaeaeanoai O?enoiai. Eeiia. Ia/aei XV a. O?aaiaio

156. Ecaeaiea ieaaeaioeaa. Neoeueioo?a Niai?a Iio?-Aeai. Ia?eae. XIII a.

157. Enoi/iee a Iaca?aoa

158. Eiaii I?aaeoa/a. Eeiia. XV a. O?aaiaio

159. O?enoin a ionouia. E.I. E?aineie. 1872 a.

160. Eneooaiea Nianeoaey aeeaaieii. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

161. Ai?a Eneooaiey

162. I?iiiaaaeue Eenona. A. Aei?a. A?aath?a

163. Iioi?iiiay i?ioeanney

164. Aeueyaie, iiaee?athuee aeooo /aeiaaea. Neoeueioo?a. O?aioeey. XII
a. 1

165. Aaca?iue aeaiue a Ea?onaeeia

166. *aou?a aiinoiea. A. Aeth?a?. Aeeioeo. 1526 a.

167. Aeoaiey. Iiaeea Eaca?y

168. Iiaeea Eaca?y

169. Aine?aoaiea Eaca?y. Aeaeiooi. Ieiei 1305 a. O?anea

170. Iioeaeoe Eoaeu. Aeaeiooi. Ieiei 1305 a. O?anea

171. Acyoea iiae no?aaeo. A. Aeth?a?. A?aath?a

172. O?enoin ia?aae Ieeaoii. Neoeueioo?a niai?a a Iaoiao?aa. Aa?iaiey.
XIII a.

173. O?enoin ia?aae ia?iaeii. E. Aino.

174. Ianaiea e?anoa. A. Aeth?a?. A?aath?a

175. ?aniyoea. Yeue A?aei. Iinea 1606 a.
\

176. Iieaeeaaiea O?enoa. Aoai aai aea? Aon. I?aaay /anoue aeeioeoa

177. Iieiaeaiea ai a?ia. Eeiia. Eiiae, XV a.

178. Iaaa?ea Oiiu. Eiiaoe XV a.

179. Nian. Aiae?ae ?oaeaa. Eeiia. Ia/aei XV a.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Aeaeey n i?eeiaeaieyie. A?thnnaeue: AEeciue n Aiaii, 1973—1977 e ae?.
aiaeu.

2. Ieou ia?iaeia ie?a. O. 1-2. I„ 1980-1982.

3. Oeeinioneay yioeeeeiiaaeey [OY]. O. 1-5. I., 1961-1970.

4. Aa?aiiaa 3. Ecia?aaeaiea /aeiaaea a iaeaieeoe/aneii eneonnoaa
Aa?acee. I., 1966.

5. Aaa?eieaa N. N. Ynoaoieiaey. — OY. O. 5. I., 1970.

6. Aai aea. Iiyoeea ?aiiaaecaioeeneie eeoa?aoo?u. I., 1977.

7. Aeaenaiae?eeneay iiycey. Nino. I. A?aaa?ue-Iannae. I., 1972.

8. Aionei E. Ae. ?oeiiene Ia?oaiai ii?y. I., 1960.

9. Aai aea. Iaoiaeee o Ia?oaiai ii?y. I., 1964.

10. Aioe/iay ae?aia. Nino. N. Aio. I., 1970.

11. Aioe/iay ee?eea. Nino. N. Aio e TH. Ooeueoe. I., 1968.

12. Aiieeiaei?. Ieoieiae/aneay aeaeeioaea. I., 1972.

13. Anion A. O. Enoi?ey aioe/iie oeeinioee. I., 1965.

14. Aaeyaneee A. A. Aaaeeii eaaaiaea?iue e Aaaeeii enoi?e/aneee. I.,
1971.

15. Aa?aeyaa I. A. Oeeinioey naiaiaeu. Niune oai?/anoaa. I., 1989.

16. Aai aea. Niune enoi?ee. I., 1990.

17. Aiae, a?aoiaiu, ethaee. *aou?a ouny/e eao eiaeoecia. I., 1969.

18. Aiiaa?ae -Eaaei A. I. Eiaeey yiioe Iao?ueaa. I., 1973.

19. Aai aea. Ae?aaiaeiaeeeneay oeeaeeecaoeey. Oeeinioey, iaoea, ?aeeaey.
I., 1980.

20. Aiiaa?ae-Eaaei A. I., Aa?aneiia A. A. Ioae?aoeu e oeeiniou Ae?aaiae
Eiaeee. I., 1975.

21. Aiiaa?ae-Eaaei A. I., Eeueei A. O. Ae?aaiyy Eiaeey. I., 1969.

22. Aiiia? O. A?a/aneay oeeaeeecaoeey. O. I-III. I., 1958-1962 (I.,
1992).

23. Aaneeueaa E. N. Eoeueou, ?aeeaee, o?aaeeoeee a Eeoaa. I., 1970.

24. Aa?aeeee. Aoeieeee. Aai?aeee. Yiaeaea. I., 1970.

25. Aoeee E. O? Oaeaeaaa. I., 1961.

26. Aaaaeue A. A. O. Oeeinioey ?aeeaee. O. 1-2. I., 1976-1977.

27. Aa?iaeio. Enoi?ey, a aeaayoe eieaao. Ia?. A. No?aoaiianeiai. I.,
1972 (I., 1993).

28. Aeaaeeia A. E. Oieeiaaiea Aaaiaaeey. I., 1991.

29. Aiia?. Eeeaaea. Iaeennay. I., 1967.

30. Ai?aoeee. Iaeu. Yiiaeu. Naoe?u. Iineaiey. I., 1970.

31. Aea A?ieeue E. Ii o?iiai iaoee. I., 1964.

32. Aeiaeueoioa? Y. Ciaee e /oaeana. I., 1963.

33. Ae?aaiaeiaeeeneay oeeinioey. Ia/aeueiue ia?eiae. I., 1963.

34. Aeueyeiiia E. Iauanoaaiiue e ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie Ae?aaiaai
Aeao?a/uey. Ooia?. I., 1959.

35. Aa?eieae. O?aaaaeee. Ia?. E. Aiiaineiai. O. I—II. I., 1969.

36. Caiueeianeee A., i?io.” Aiieiaaoeea. ?eaa, 1992.

37. Aai aea. Iniiau o?enoeaineie oeeinioee. O. 1—2. I., 1992.

38. Ceaoeianeee O. O enoieia aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u. I., 1961.

39. Eeueei A. O. ?aeeaey Ae?aaiae Eiaeee. I., 1959.

40. Eiaeeeneay eoeueoo?a e aoaeaeeci: Na. noaoae. Iiae ?aae. I. E.
Eii?aaea e A. I. Aiiaa?ae-Eaaeia. I., 1972.

41. Ea?ai E. Aiae, a?iaieoeu, o/aiua. I., 1960.

42. Eanneaee O. X. Io ieoa e eiaino. Noaiiaeaiea a?a/aneie oeeinioee.
I., 1972.

43. Ei?inoiaoeaa I. A. ?aeeaey Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa. I., 1976.

44. Einaiae Ae. Eoeueoo?a e oeeaeeecaoeey Ae?aaiae Eiaeee. I., 1968.

45. E?aa/oe A. Caeao Ioieiiaaa. I., 1973.

46. E?aia? N. Enoi?ey ia/eiaaony a Ooia?a. I., 1965.

47. Eoi I. A. Eaaaiaeu e ieou Ae?aaiae A?aoeee. I., 1957.

48. Einaa A. Aioe/iay ieoieiaey a aa enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee. I., 1957.

49. Aai aea. Enoi?ey aioe/iie ynoaoeee. ?aiiee yeeeieci. I., 1979.

50. Aai aea. Enoi?ey aioe/iie ynoaoeee. Iicaeiee yeeeieci. I., 1980.

51. Einneee A. I. I/a?e ienoe/aneiai aiaineiaey Ainoi/iie oea?eae. I.,
1991.

52. Ia?eei N. Aiia? e aai iiyiu. I., 1962.

53. Iaouea I. Ae?aaiaaaeiaoneea ieou. I.-E., 1956.

54. Aa aea. Eneonnoai Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa. I., 1964.

55. Aa aea. Ai a?aiaia Iaoa?oeoe. I., 1965.

56. Iaouea I., Aoaianueaa A. E., Aeueyeiiia E. I. Eneonnoai Ae?aaiaai
Ainoiea. I., 1958.

57. Iaoaaoa?aoa. ?aiayia. I., 1974.

58. Ia?aeai ?. E. Aiae, aeaiiiu e ae?oaea. I., 1974.

59. Ianeaeue A. Iunee i ?aeeaee. I., 1974 (Aeaeeioaea anaie?iie
eeoa?aoo?u, o. 42).

60. Ia?aiaeeei TH. Oaeia cieioiai a?iaa. I., 1968.

61. Ieooa?o. N?aaieoaeueiua aeeciaiienaiey. O. 1—3. I., 1961—1964.

62. Iiycey e i?ica Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea. I., 1973.

63. ?aaeoae?eoiai N. Eiaeeeneay oeeinioey. O. 1—2. I., 1956.

64. ?anionnai E. Aaeeeee naiiue iooue. I., 1958.

65. ?aaea? Ae. Ieou e eaaaiaeu Ae?aaiaai Aeao?a/uey. I., 1965.

66. ?eaeei A. E. Aioe/iia eneonnoai. I., 1972.

67. Naaoiiee. AEeciue aeaaiaaeoeaoe oeaca?ae. I., 1964 (I., 1992).

68. Naeno Yiie?ee. Ni/eiaiey a aeaoo oiiao. O. 1—2. I., 1975—1976.

69. Naiaea Eoe,ee Aiiae. I?aanoaaiiua ienueia e Eooeeeeth. I., 1977.

70. Nieiaueaa A. N. Ni/eiaiey a aeaoo oiiao. O. 1—2. I.: Iuneue, 1988.

71. Aai aea. Ni/eiaiey a aeaoo oiiao. O. 1—2. I.: I?aaaea, 1989.

72. Oaoeeo. Ni/eiaiey a aeaoo oiiao. O. 1—2. E., 1969.

73. Oaeei? Y. Ia?aiauoiay eoeueoo?a. I., 1989.

74. Oaey? aea Oa?aeai I. Oaiiiai /aeiaaea. I., 1987.

75. Oaenou Eoi?aia. Ia?. E. Ae. Aioneia. Aui. I. M., 1971.

76. Oiea?aa N. Ia?aiia/aeueiua oi?iu ?aeeaee. M., 1963.

77. Aai aea. ?aeeaey a enoi?ee ia?iaeia ie?a. M., 1964.

78. Oiinii Aeae. Enneaaeiaaiey ii enoi?ee ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai iauanoaa.
Aeienoi?e/aneee Yaaeneee ie?. M.,1958.

79. O?oaaoeeie A. Niune aeecie. M., 1918.

80. Oa??a? O. AEeciue Eenona O?enoa. M., 1990.

81. Oei?aineee I., nayu. Noiei e ooaa?aeaeaiea enoeiu. M.; 1990.

82. O?aie N. E. Ni/eiaiey, M., 1990.

83. Aai aea. Aeooiaiua iniiau iauanoaa. M., 1992.

84. O?yca? Ae. Cieioay aaoaue. M., 1980.

85. Oaeaioi Ae. Oioaieci, aai nouiinoue e i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Aeooaiaa,
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86. O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea. M., 1963.

87. O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee. M., 1964.

88. O?anoiiaoey ii enoi?ee Ae?aaiaai ?eia. M., 1962.

89. Oea?ai Y. Aeaeaeneea oieiu. M., 1986.

90. *aaaeaaa I. ss. Iieiia nia?aiea ni/eiaiee e eca?aiiua ienueia. O.
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91. *aeeae A. Ae?aaiee Ainoie i?e naaoa iiauo ?aneiiie. M., 1956.

92. Oaaeoea? A. Aeaaiaiaaiea ia?aae aeeciueth. M., 1992.

93. Yiin i Aeeueaaiaoa. Ia?. E. Aeueyeiiiaa. M., 1961.

94. Ynoee. O?aaaaeee. Ia?. N. Aioa. M., 1971.

NIAeA?AEAIEA

IO ECAeAOAEUeNOAA. ………………………………………. 5

I. ENOIEE ?AEEAEE ……………………………………… 7

Aaaaeaiea. ………………………………………… 7

I?e?iaea aa?u……………………………………… 9

Auoea e aa?a ……………………………….. 9

Ia ii?iaa iineaaeiae oaeiu ………………………. 10

*aeiaae ia?aae Aiaii …………………………… 13

*aeiaae ai Anaeaiiie ………………………………… 16

Oai?aiea, yaiethoeey, /aeiaae ………………………. 16

Ia?ac e iiaeiaea……………………………… 17

*aeiaae: nia?oue e aannia?oea …………………….. 20

Ia?aae eeoeii Nouaai………………………….. 23

II. IAAECI E AAeEIIAIAEEA

?aeeaeiciue iooue /aeiaa/anoaa aei yiioe aaeeeeo O/eoaeae
………………….. 25

Aeienoi?e/aneee ie? ………………………………… 25

Ca?iaeaeaiea ?aeeaee ………………………….. 25

A ie?a aeaiiiia e aeooia ……………………….. 26

Aeienoi?e/aneea ienoeee ……………………….. 28

Iaae/aneia ie?inica?oeaiea ………………………. 29

Ia?aua oeeaeeecaoeee …………………………………. 31

Io iaaia e iaiaeanoaeaiiui oea?yi ………………….. 31

Caiey Naiiaa?neay. ………………………….. 33

Ainoie e Caiaae ai aoi?ii ouny/aeaoee aei ?.O. ……………….. 35

Ianoooaneea ia?iaeu. A?uee a Eiaeee ………………… 35

Ethaee, noeoee e aiae ………………………….. 37

Ia/aei Aaooiai Caaaoa. Aa?aai …………………… 39

Nuiu Ec?aeey …………………………….. 40

Aiaeanoaaiiia Nieioea. «A?aoee ec Aoaoaoiia» …………… 42

Oaeia Eaae?eioa ……………………………. 44

Oo?i Yeeaaeu. Ieeiieeoeu ……………………….. 46

Ai?ueaa aiaia e oeoaiia ………………………… 47

Ia?iae Caaaoa …………………………………….. 49

«Aeii ?aanoaa». Iienae. ………………………… 49

Iooue e Neiath ……………………………… 52

Aeanyoue caiiaaaeae …………………………….. 54

Caiey Iaaoiaaiiay …………………………… 56

Aia Ec?aeeaa e ycu/anoai. ………………………. 57

Oaie?aoe/aneia oea?noai. Neiineee caaao ………………. 59

Nayuaiiay enoi?ey……………………………. 62

Ai?ueaa ca aa?o. I?i?ie e oea?ue ……………………. 67

III. O A?AO IIE*AIEss

Aeooiaiay aeeciue Eeoay e Eiaeee a na?aaeeia ia?aiai ouny/aeaoey aei
?.O. ………….. 69

Eeoaeneay oeeinioey ………………………………… 69

Ia aa?aaao Ooaioy……………………………. 69

Ii caaaoai i?aaeeia …………………………… 71

Eiaeey io a?aoiaiecia aei Aoaeaeu ………………………… 73

«Oaeiia o/aiea» ……………………………. 73

I?iaicaanoea E?eoiu. Aoaaaaaae-Aeoa ……………….. 74

AEeciue e i?iiiaaaeue Aoaeaeu Aaooaiu ………………………. 77

Oaeeeneee iooaeueiee ………………………… 77

IV. AeEIIEN, EIAIN, NOAeUeAA

?aeeaey e oeeinioey Ae?aaiae A?aoeee
………………………………. 83

Ae?aaiaa?a/aneay ?aeeaey ……………………………… 83

I/aeiaa/aiiua aiae ………………………….. 83

Aeeiien…………………………………… 86

I?oeee ………………………………….. 88

Ieoaai?…………………………………. 90

A?a/aneay o?aaaaeey ………………………………….. 91

Ynoee. …………………………………… 91

Nioiee. …………………………………. 92

Ae?aaiaa?a/aneay oeeinioey …………………………….. 96

Aicieeiiaaiea oeeinioee ……………………….. 96

Aa?aeeeo…………………………………. 97

Nie?ao …………………………………… 98

Nia?oue ioae?aoea …………………………….. 100

Ieaoii. Iiene enoeiu …………………………. 101

Eaeay aeaoo ie?ia ……………………………. 102

Ainoaea?noai……………………………….. 104

Eiain e Oain ……………………………… 106

V. AANOIEEE OeA?NOAA AIAEEss

Aeaeaeneea i?i?iee io Aiina aei yiioe ?anoaa?aoeee, VIII—IV aa. aei ?.O.
…………. 107

Aaaaeaiea. ……………………………………….. 107

Aei ieaia. ……………………………………….. 108

Ianooo Aiin ………………………………. 108

Ioe?iaaiea ethaae Aiaeeae. I?i?ie Iney ……………… 111

Enaey e «aaaeiyee Ainiiaeie» ……………………… 113

Neiai i Iannee. …………………………….. 116

Naia?ey e Neii. …………………………….. 117

sscu/aneay ?aaeoeey. Nie?iaaiiay Oi?a ………………. 120

Aic?iaeaeaiea i?i?i/anoaa. I?ecaaiea Ea?aiee ………….. 120

Ea?onaeeineay ?aoi?ia ……………………….. 122

Ea?aiey i?ioea Ea?onaeeia …………………….. 123

Iaaaniay eieanieoea. Eacaeeeeue …………………… 126

E?ooaiea ………………………………… 128

E ia ?acaaeeiao aeeaao iaaeaaeaea …………………… 129

Ieai e ?anoaa?aoeey …………………………………. 130

«Ia ?aeao aaaeeiineeo» ……………………….. 130

Aeaeaiea A?aaea Aiaeey ………………………….. 131

«Aaooicaaaoiue aaaiaaeeno» ……………………… 132

I?i?ie Aaanou e i?i?ie Aeaeee ………………….. 135

Eiiaoe iaaiee ……………………………… 139

Aica?auaiea. Ia?aua o?oaeiinoe …………………… 140

Aoi?ie O?ai………………………………. 142

VI. IA II?IAA IIAIAI CAAAOA

Io yiioe Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai aei i?iiiaaaee Eiaiia E?anoeoaey
…………… 145

Aoaeaeeci, eiaa e eiaeoeci ……………………………… 145

Aoiea ………………………………….. 145

«Oea?noaaiiay eiaa» Iaoaiaeaeaee ………………….. 146

Eiaeoeci. ………………………………… 147

A?a/aneay iuneue …………………………………… 149

*aeiaae a iaiythuainy ie?a …………………….. 149

Yieeo? e neaioeee …………………………… 150

«AEeoue niaeanii i?e?iaea!» ………………………. 152

Ia?aua noieee. …………………………….. 153

Ioae?aoeu Aaooiai Caaaoa ……………………………… 153

*aeiaa/aneay ioae?inoue e I?aioae?inoue Aiaeey …………… 153

Eia……………………………………. 155

Yeeeaceano ……………………………….. 157

Eoaeaenoai e yeeeieci ……………………………….. 158

Yeeeiecaoeey. Eieaa Aeaieeea …………………….. 158

Ioaeaeeaoeany ……………………………… 162

?ei, a?aee e ainoie…………………………………. 165

Aeooa e aa?a ?eieyieia………………………… 165

Yo?onee, Neaeeea, Ea?oaaai ……………………… 167

Yeeeieci a ?eia ……………………………. 169

Iiiuoee neioaca ……………………………. 170

Eoaeaeneea ienneiia?u ………………………… 172

*aeiaaeiaia ………………………………. 173

I?aaeaeaa?ea………………………………………. 174

Caiiay aeanoue e oaeia ianneainoaa …………………. 174

VII. EENON O?ENOIN

Ia/aei o?enoeainoaa 7 a. aei ?.O. — 30 a. ii ?.O.
……………………… 177

Aaaaeaiea. ……………………………………….. 177

I?ieia………………………………….. 178

Io Aeoeaaia aei Eaia?iaoia …………………………… 178

?iaeaeaiea Eenona O?enoa ………………………. 178

I?aaeoa/a. Eenon a ionouia ……………………… 180

Aaeeeay. Ia?aua o/aieee ………………………. 182

Aeaaay Aanoue ………………………………. 184

Ianney …………………………………………. 189

«Ia ie?, ii ia/» ……………………………. 189

Ciaee i?enoonoaey Oea?noaa Iannee ………………… 190

Aeaaiaaeoeaoue o/aieeia. Nia?oue Eiaiia E?anoeoaey ………… 190

Oaeia Eenona ……………………………… 192

Iaano?a/o Aieaioa …………………………………. 193

Iiiai caaiuo — iaei eca?aiiuo …………………. 193

*an aeeceony ………………………………. 194

Ianoa Iiaiai Caaaoa …………………………. 196

Ii/ue a Aaoneiaiee…………………………… 197

*a?ac no?aaeaiey e nia?oue e aa/iiio oi?aeanoao………………… 198

Noae Neiaae?eiia …………………………….. 198

Noae i?ieo?aoi?a. Aieaioa ………………………. 198

Iiaaaea iaae nia?oueth ………………………….. 201

NIENIE EEETHNO?AOeEE. ………………………………… 205

EEOA?AOO?A…………………………………………… 209

Aeaenaiae? Aieueoiae/ Iaiue

ENOI?Ess ?AEEAEE

Eieaa ia?aay A iieneao Iooe, Enoeiu e AEecie

Ooaeiaeiee:

I.I.Ao?aiia Oioi:

?aiao Iaoeacei

?aaeaeoi?u:

I.A.Aa?aeoeeay, B-A.Aeaiaioueaa, O.E.E?aociaa, I.N.Oaaei?iaa Ei??aeoi?:

O.E.Na?aaaaa

Iiaeai? eeethno?aoeee:

O.I.Iaea?iaa

E? ? 070824 io 21.01.93

Iiaeienaii a ia/aoue 25.09.97 Oi?iao 84o108/16. Ia/aoue ionaoiay
Aa?ieoo?a «Aeaaeaie/aneay». Iauai 13,5 i. e. Aeii. oe?aae 4000 yec.
Caeac ? 2301 Oeaia aeiaiai?iay

Ecaeaoaeueneee Aeii «OI?OI» 103001, Iineaa, oe. Aieueoay Naaeiaay, ae.
4, no?iaiea 1

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