IIAAss E IIAAEOAss ENOI?Ess

EIIO?IEUeIAss ?AAIOA ( aa?eaio ? 2)

( III EO?N, CAI*IIA IOAeAEAIEA, 1996 / 1997 a.)

OAEOEUeOAO: EAOAOECAOI?NEEE.

O.E.I. nooaeaioa: Ai?aoiia Aeieo?ee Aeaenaiae?iae/.

Aeaoa auiieiaiey ?aaiou: 27.01.1997.

A /ai ninoieo ao?aeoaciue oa?aeoa? noaouee “?aeeaey” ec yioeeeeiiaaeee
Ae.Aeeae?i? Eaeiau a iae iiaua, ii n?aaiaieth ni N?aaeiaaaeiaueai,
eaeae? Eaeea nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu yaeythony iineoaeyie (au?aceoaeyie)
oaeeo eaeae?

Aeaiioth noaoueth iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae ao?aeoacioth, oae eae
?aeeaey ?anniao?eaaaony caeanue n oi/ee c?aiey e?aeiaai noauaeoeaecia. E
yaiia i?aaeiiae/oaiea ioaeaaony “i?e?iaeiie”, “anoanoaaiiie” ?aeeaee —
aeaecio, eiaaea /aeiaae a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe auiineo ca neiaee Aiaa e
iniiauaaao aeeciaiiua eaeaaeu ia noaoai caiiii, “aoiaieoa?iii”
ie?iaicc?aiee. A yoii neo/aa, ii neiaai Aaa?aeeie, “an?, /oi iiaeao
auoue auaaaeaii ec ee/iinoe, eee noauaeoa, i?eciaaony ieii/aoaeueiui,
aiaeiae/ii oiio, eae i?e?iaea noaea enoi/ieeii iiciaiey, a
anoanoaaiiinoue — oeaiiinoiui e?eoa?eai”, o.a. aeayoaeueiinoue noauaeoa
ia?auaia ia ie?oaeathuee ie? e ei aea e ioeaieaaaony.

Caeanue au? nio?aiyaony ii?aeueiue aeiea ia?aae “aunoei nouanoaii”, ii
iineaaeiaaoaeueiia i?eiyoea eaeae aeaecia iaeciaiii i?eaiaeeo e aoaecio,
/oi iu e aeaeei ia i?eia?a aeeciaiiiai iooe Aeeae?i.

Aeaeci oa?aeoa?ecoao no?aieaiea caeeth/eoue Aiaa ia iaaeinyaaaiuo
aunioao, inaiaiaeeoueny io Aai aeeyiey ia oiu /aeiaa/anoaa e no?ieoue
naith aeeciue e aeeciue iauanoaa ia iniiaa nianoaaiiuo eaeae “cae?aaiai
niunea”, aeioiaeyueo ii?ie aei ooeeeoa?ecia. Aia aeey ieo oieueei
aacee/iay Ia?aii?e/eia, neeoeii aaeeeay, /oiau iioneaoueny aei oaa?iiai
ie?a.

A noaouea ynii i?inooiatho iniiaiua ie?iaic?ai/aneea eaeae Iiaiai
a?aiaie:

no?aieaiea ioeacaoueny io iaaycuaaaiiai Aiaii Ioe?iaaiey, “nouanoaiaaiea
e enoeiiinoue”, eioi?iai iaaei au? aeieacaoue;

ia?auaiea e i?e?iaea, eae e naiiaeinoaoi/iiio enoi/ieeo anoanoaaiiie
enoeiu;

ioeac io aaoi?eoa?iiai ia?aca iuoeaiey, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey
N?aaeiaaaeiauey, e?eoe/aneia iniuneaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iniiaaiiia
ia niia?aaeaieyo nianoaaiiiai ?annoaeea;

“Ie? ia?anoa?o auoue oaa?ueth e noaiiaeony “i?e?iaeie”; /aeiaa/aneia
aeaei ia?anoaao auoue neoaeaieai Oai?oeo, e naii noaiiaeony “oai?aieai”,
“oai?/anoaii”, /aeiaae, i?aaeaea neoaa e ?aa, noaiiaeony “niceaeaoaeai”.

Iaen Aaaa? a noaouea “I?ioanoaineay yoeea e aeoo eaieoaeecia” ieoao i
nouanoaiaaaoae “ia ca?a eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey” “nayce iaaeaeo
oiaieai ethaeae i?eniiniaeoueny e eaieoaeenoe/aneiio i?iecaiaenoao e eo
?aeeaeiciie iai?aaeaiiinoueth”. Iaiaoiaeeiia i?e eaieoaeecia ioiioaiea e
naiae i?ioannee eae e “i?ecaaieth”, eae e iai?aeiaeiiio aeieao e
aaeeinoaaiiiio niuneo nouanoaiaaiey aaconeiaii o?aaiaaei ?aeeaeiciie
iniiau. Iaeei ec y?eeo i?iiiaaaeieeia “aeooa eaieoaeecia” A. O?aieeei —
“aeaeno aac eaeie-eeai eiioanneiiaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoe” e, /oi
oa?aeoa?ii, nui no?iaiai eaeueaeienoa, ethaeaoaai iiaoi?youe: “Aeaeae ee
ou /aeiaaea, i?iai?iiai a naiai aeaea? Ii aoaeao noiyoue i?aae oea?yie”.
Eiaiii ?aeeaeiciua ieiaeu ?aoi?iaoeee caeiaeeee iniiao aeey oaeiai
ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e naiae ie?neie aeayoaeueiinoe. A N?aaeiea aaea
“naiaiaeiia i?eia?aoaoaeuenoai” auei “yoe/anee eiaeeooa?aioiui”
yaeaieai, e oieueei ?aoi?iaoeey aicaaea a aanietho “ie?neie
i?ioanneiiaeueiue o?oae e ?aeeaeiciia aicaeayiea ca iaai”. Ethoa? a
oiaea naiae i?iiiaaaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe an? aieaa neeiiyeny e oiio,
/oi “auiieiaiea ie?neeo iaycaiiinoae neoaeeo i?e ethauo ianoiyoaeuenoaao
aaeeinoaaiiui n?aaenoaii auoue oaiaeiui Aiao, /oi yoi — e oieueei yoi —
aeeeooaony aiaeanoaaiiie aieae e /oi iiyoiio ana aeicaieaiiua i?ioannee
?aaiu ia?aae Aiaii”.

Aeaaiui iineoaeai yoeo eaeae aue auoiaeyuee ia enoi?e/aneoth a?aio
n?aaeiee neie, ii neiaai I.Aaaa?a yoi auee “ia oieueei e ia noieueei
eaieoaeenoe/aneea i?aaei?eieiaoaee ec e?oaia oi?aiaiai iao?eoeeaoa,
neieueei iiaeieiathueany n?aaeiea neie ?aianeaiieeia”. N?aaeiaaaeiaua
yoe/aneea, iieeoe/aneea e yeiiiie/aneea ?aiee oaea ia ono?aeaaee yoe
eeannu. Iiyoiio aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey eaieoaeecia iaiaoiaeei aue
?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?aai?io niciaiey, eioi?ue e i?iecioae, iciaiaiiaaa
niaie ia/aei Iiaiai a?aiaie.

Eaeiau i?e/eiu n?uaa iineianeeo (1939 a.) ia?aaiai?ia iaaeaeo aiaiiuie
aeaeaaaoeeyie Aaeeeia?eoaiee, O?aioeee e NNN??

A nayce n iaonoie/eaie aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaeie eaoii 1939 a.
Niaaoneee Nithc iaeiia?aiaiii aeaenoaiaae a aeaoo acaeiieneeth/athueo
iai?aaeaieyo: iiene naeeaeaiey n caiaaeiuie aeaiie?aoeyie
(Aaeeeia?eoaiey e O?aioeey) e nithca n oaoenoneie Aa?iaieae. I?e/ai
caeoeeniua oaeiua ia?aaiai?u i?iaiaeeeenue e iaaeaeo Eiiaeiiii, Ia?eaeai
e Aa?eeiii, e iaaeaeo NNN? e Aa?iaieae.

Aeaaiui i?aaeiaoii ia?aaiai?ia NNN?, Aiaeee e O?aioeee auea ?annoaiiaea
nee a neo/aa ia/aea aiaiiuo aeaenoaee a nayce n aiciiaeiie aa?iaineie
aa?anneae.

17 ai?aey 1939 a. NNN? i?aaeeiaeee caeeth/eoue o?aonoi?iiiaa niaeaoaiea,
ioaaouaaaoaa naiei aeaenoaeai anth Ainoi/ioth Aa?iio. A oio aea aeaiue
niaaoneee iinie a Aa?eeia iinoaaee a ecaanoiinoue aa?iaineia
i?aaeoaeuenoai i aeaeaiee Niaaoneiai Nithca onoaiiaeoue naiua oi?ioea
ioiioaiey n Aa?iaieae.

Caiaaeiua no?aiu oaeaea no?aieeenue ecaea/ue iaeneiaeueioth auaiaeo ec
aiciiaeiiai nithca n Aa?iaieae eee Niaaoneei Nithcii e a oi aea a?aiy
i?aaeioa?aoeoue niaaonei-aa?iaineia naeeaeaiea. An? aieaa ?aaeueiie
noaiiaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue iiaoi?aiey Ithioaineiai niaeaoaiey 1938 a.,
eiaaea Aa?iaiee auea ioaeaia Noaeaoneay iaeanoue, ii nae/an oaea yoa
o/anoue a?iceea Iieueoa.

Iiyoiio 1 ethiy, iinea ioaeeeaoeee a “I?aaaea” e?eoe/aneie noaouee i
iiceoeee caiaaeiuo aea?aeaa, Aiaeey e O?aioeey i?aaeeiaeeee aeeth/eoue
aaeoeeneea ainoaea?noaa a noa?o aeaenoaey “ainoi/iie aa?aioee” i?e
oneiaee “caiaaeiie aa?aioee” a ioiioaiee Oaaeoea?ee, Aieeaiaeee e
Ethenaiao?aa. Ii oae eae oiiieiaaoeany ainoaea?noaa ia aeaeaee oaeeo
aa?aioee, oi NNN? ioeacaeny io yoiai niaeaoaiey.

Aeaaiui aeey Niaaoneiai Nithca auei aeiaeoueny aa?aioee oiai, /oi
I?eaaeoeea ia ieaaeaony a ?oeao Aa?iaiee e iieo/eoue i?aai aaiaeeoue
aienea ia oa??eoi?eth Iieueoe e ?oiuiee aeey i?ioiaea e aa?iaineei
a?aieoeai.

Aeey i?iaeieaeaiey caoaaeoeo a ooiee ia?aaiai?ia 11 aaaonoa a Iineao
i?eauee aeaeaaaoeee Aiaeee e O?aioeee, ninoiyuea a iniiaiii ec
/eiiaieeia ieceiai ?aiaa n aanueia ooiaiiuie iieiiii/eyie. I?aaeiaoii
ianoaeaeaiey ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaaeenue aii?inu eiee/anoaa aunoaaeyaiuo
aeeaecee, aa?aioee ieacaiey iiiiue, i?aaa i?ioiaea niaaoneeo aiene /a?ac
oa??eoi?ee Iieueoe e ?oiuiee e a?aieoeai Aa?iaiee. Aeaeaaaoeee ia eiaee
i?aaa ianoaeaeaoue aeaiiua aii?inu, iiyoiio ia?aaiai?u eneonnoaaiii
caoyaeaaeenue e 21 aaaonoa auee ia?aianaiu ia aieaa iicaeiee n?ie.

Ia?aeeaeueii niaaoneea aeeieiiaou aaee ia?aaiai?u n Aa?iaieae. 14
aaaonoa ?eaaaio?ii niiauee i aioiaiinoe i?eauoue a Iineao aeey
caeeth/aiey auaiaeiiai iieeoe/aneiai niaeaoaiey. 19 aaaonoa auei
iiaeienaii oi?aiaia niaeaoaiea, auaiaeiia Niaaoneiio Nithco. Iinea
ooi/iaiee e ei??aeoea 23 aaaonoa a Iineaa aue iiaeienai aeiaiai? i
iaiaiaaeaiee n?ieii ia 10 eao, niaea?aeauee nae?aoiue i?ioieiei ?acaeaea
noa? aeeyiey a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia.

Oaeei ia?acii, auai? aue naeaeai e caeeth/aiea niaaonei-aa?iaineiai
iaeoa i?eaaei e i?ae?auaieth anao eiioaeoia iaaeaeo Aiaeeae, O?aioeeae e
NNN?, iocuao aiaeeeneie e o?aioeocneie aeaeaaaoeee ec Iineau, oioy
niaaoneia ?oeiaiaenoai e i?aaeiieaaaei aeaeea?aoeaii i?iaeieaeeoue
ia?aaiai?u.

Iniiaiua eoiae Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu iineaaiaiiiai ono?ienoaa ie?a ianoaeaeaeenue ia
eiioa?aioeeyo “Aieueoie o?ieee” a sseoa (oaa?aeue 1945 a.) e Iionaeaia
(etheue-aaaono 1945 a.). A sseoa auee ?acaeaeaiu noa?u aeeyiey — e NNN?
iooiaeeee Iieueoa, *aoineiaaeey, Aaia?ey, Aieaa?ey. A?aieoeu Iieueoe
onoaiaaeeaaee ii “eeiee Ea?ciia”, auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i oi?ie?iaaiee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e i?aaiecaoeee naiaiaeiuo auai?ia. Aa?iaiey ?acaeaaeanue
ia ciiu aiaeeeneie, aia?eeaineie, o?aioeocneie e niaaoneie ieeoiaoeee. A
iaiai ia oa??eoi?eaeueiua i?eia?aoaiey (Eo?eeueneea ino?iaa, THae
Naoaeei) e yeiiiie/aneea eueaiou NNN? niaaneeny ia ioe?uoea aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee i?ioea ssiiiee. Auee iaia/aiu aeaiaaeiua ?acia?u ?aia?oaoeee a
iieueco NNN? (10 ie?ae.$).

Niaeanii ?aoaieeth Iinoaeaineie eiioa?aioeee Aa?iaiey iioa?yea 1/4
/anoue naiae oa??eoi?ee c 9 iei. Ianaeaieai ii ninoayieth ia 19938 a.
Aino. I?onney n a. E?ieanaa?a auea ioaeaia NNN?, inoaeueiay /anoue —
Iieueoa. Iauay noiia ?aia?oaoeee auea ii?aaeaeaia a 20 ie?ae $, iieiaeio
ec eioi?uo iieo/ae NNN?. Aa?iaiey auea ?acaeaeaia ia 3 ciiu (n oneiaeai
auiieiaiey aeiiieieoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee O?aioeee ii a? aeaeaieth), ia
oa??eoi?ee niaaoneie ieeoiaoeee iaoiaeeeny Aa?eei, oae aea ?acaeaeaiiue
ia ciiu ieeoiaoeee no?ai-iiaaaeeoaeueieoe.

2 naioya?y eaieooee?iaaea ssiiiey e noa?a aeeyiey Niaaoneiai Nithca
?ani?ino?aieeanue ia Naa. Ei?ath e Eeoae.

Iniiaiia a?aiy aieiu auian Niaaoneee Nithc. I?yiie iaoa?eaeueiue oua?a
aeinoea ii/oe 1/3 anaai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa no?aiu, iiaeaei aei 27
iei. /aeiaae. Iioa?e Aa?iaiee oaeouie ninoaaeee iaiaa 14 iei., NOA e
Aiaeee — ii ianeieueei nioai ouny/ /aeiaae.

A 1945 a. auee nicaeaiu III, Aaethoiue oiiae e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaie
?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey — i?aaiecaoeee, niinianoaothuea iiauoaieth
noaaeeueiinoe e acaeiiiiiiue a ie?a.

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo eoiaia aieiu noaea iiaay aaiiieeoe/aneay neooaoeey,
oa?aeoa?eciaaaoayny ia?anoaieai i?ioeainoiyiey aaaeoueo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa e Niaaoneiai Nithca. Ie? ?acaeaeeeny ia
aeaa eaaa?y (IAOI e NYA a 1949 a.) ii a?aieoea, onoaiiaeaiiie a sseoa.

Ninoaaeoue e?aoeea neiaa?iua noaouee (aeaou aeecie, e?aoeea
aeia?aoe/aneea naaaeaiey, ?ieue a enoi?ee) e neaaeothuei eiaiai:

Aaeaina, Eao (1943- ) Iieueneee i?ionithciue aeayoaeue, i?aceaeaio
Iieueoe n 1990. Iniiaaoaeue i?ionithca “Nieeaea?iinoue” a 1980,
i?aaiecaoeee, ia caaenyuae io eiiia?oee, ai?iaoaeny i?ioea iieueneiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa a 19800 — 81; a ?acoeueoaoa /aai auea cai?auaia. ?iae. a
Iiiiai a e?anoueyineie naiuea. Ia/eiae ?aai/ei a Aaeaiuenea. A 1970 —
?oeiaiaeeoaeue caaanoiai/iiai eiieoaoa iauaaeeiaiey “Yeaeo?iiiioaae”,
1979-78 aeaaa caaanoiai/iiai eiieoaoa ia noaeiaa?oe. Aaaeouea ?iee a
i?ioiauaaeeiaiee “Nieeaea?iinoue”. 1981-82 — eioa?ie?iaai iinea
aaaaeaiey aiaiiiai iieiaeaiey. N 1989 i?aaenaaeaoaeue A?aaeaeaineiai
eiieoaoa “Nieeaea?iinoue”. Eao?aao Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee ie?a 1983. AEaia —
Ie?ineaaa Aeaiooa, eiaao ainueia?uo aeaoae.

iaia Eiaii Iaaae II (Ea?ieue Aieoeea) (1920 — ), ?eineee iaia n ieoya?y
1978. Ia?aue iaeoaeueyiaoe, eca?aiiue iaiie n 1522. ?iaeeeny a
Aaaeiaeoeao iiae E?aeiaui, Iieueoa. A 1958 aue ?oeiiieiaeai a aieneiiu e
?aaioae iiiiuieeii E?aeianeiai a?oeaieneiia. N 1963 a?oeaieneii —
ieo?iiieeo E?aeianeee, 1967 — ea?aeeiae. Aeoeaiia o/aoea ai II
Aaoeeaineii niai?a. Yioeeeeeea “Eneoieoaeue /aeiaaeia”, iineaiey i Na.
Aaoa?enoee, i naiuea, i ?aaioath Iinaoee iiiaea no?aiu, aunooiae a III.
Oe?aieaiea aeenoeeieeiu (ooaa?aeaeaiea oeaeeaaoa e eaeae iaineie
iaiia?aoeiinoe, aunooieaiey i?ioea iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
nayuaiieeia, i?ioea aeaiuei-nayuaiieeia, eneonnoaaiiie eiio?aoeaioeee e
i?.), ca /oi aucuaaao e?eoeeo n eeaa?aeueiie noi?iiu. 13 iay 1981 a ?eia
auei niaa?oaii iieooaiea ia aeeciue iaiu.

*aiaa?eai (A?oo?) Iaaeeue (1869 — 1940), i?aiuea?-ieieno? Aaeeeia?eoaiee
a 1937 — 1940; eiina?aaoi?. Nui Aeae. *aiaa?eaia, ieieno?a eieiiee
Aaeeeia?eoaiee 1895 — 1903, n 1922 iiiaie?aoii aoiaeee a i?aaeoaeuenoai.
Noi?iiiee iieeoeee oie?ioai?aiey oaoenoneeo aea?aeaa, iiaeienae
Ithioaineia niaeaoaiea. Iinea ia/aea II ie?iaie aieiu, i?iaeieaeae iiene
iooae aeey niaeaoaiey n oaoenoeie Aa?iaiee ca n/ao NNN?. A ianoaiiaea
aiaiiuo iaoaea/ Aaeeeia?eoaiee (a Ii?aaaee) auoae a ionoaaeo. Iuoaeny
naeaaeeoue aeaaithth a?aaeaeo iaaeaeo Aiaeeae e E?eaiaeeae, niaeaneeny
aa?iooue Ye?o ii?ou, oaea?aeeaaaiua aiaeeeneeie ii?neeie neeaie.

?eaaaio?ii Eiaoei (1893 — 1946), iaeei ec aeaaiuo iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo
i?anooiieeia. Aaaio ii i?iaeaaea oaiiaineeo aei, 1930 — i?eieioe e
iaoeenoneie ia?oee e anei?a noae i?eaeeaeaiiui Aeoea?a. Iinea i?eoiaea
oaoenoia e aeanoe aicaeaaee niaoe. ath?i, nicaeaiiia aeey auiieiaiey
iniauo caaeaiee a iaeanoe aiaoiae iieeoeee. A 1936 — iinie a Eiiaeiia,
iaoae iauee ycue n *aiaa?eaiii, 1938 — 1945 ieieno? eiino?aiiuo aeae.
I?iaiaeee iieeoeeo oaioaaea, i?iaieaoeee, caioaeaaiey, iaania/eaae
caoaaoie/aneoth i?ia?aiio Aa?iaiee, aeeieiiaoe/aneay iiaeaioiaea
aaaeiaeoeo aeoia aeoea?ianeie aa?annee, neiea/eaae aiaiiua aeiee aeey
caaiaaaiey ie?iaiai ainiiaenoaa. Iiaeienae niaeaoaiey a Ithioaia (1938),
a Iineaa (iaeo Iieioia- ?eaaaio?ii,1939) e ae?. Eaciai ii i?eaiai?o
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aiaiiiai o?eaoiaea a Ith?iaa?aa (1946).

Iaaeue Ei?a i?aiuea?-ieieno? Aaia?ee (1954) ii ianoiyieth I.N. O?ouaaa,
ii anei?a niauai ia aeieaeiinoue ieieno?a n/o. Iinea inaie 1956
(“iieueneee????? Ieoya?ue”) aiiaue noae i?aiuea?-ieieno?ii. Acye eo?n ia
iacaaeneiinoue — auoiae ec Aa?oaaneiai aeiaiai?a, ia?auaiea ca iiiiuueth
a III. Ii aaiae niaaoneeo aiene iiiaoae yoei ieaiai. Iaaeue aue
a?anoiaai e eaciai a 1958 a.

Oiiaea? Y?eo (1912-1994) iaoiaeeeny o aeanoe a AAe? 1973-89, aeaaa
ainoaea?noaa, aaia?aeueiue nae?aoa?ue OeE NAIA n 1976. A ia?eiae
oaoenoneie aeeeoaoo?u — a iiaeiieuee (n 1935 a caeeth/aiee). A ieoya?a
1989 aue niauai e caiaiai Yaiiii E?aioeai, a aeaeaa?a eneeth/ai ec
eiiia?oee. Aeaeaa iineaaeiaaee iaaeiaiey a ei??oioeee ai a?aiy aai
?aaeeia, ii aue caeeth/ai iiae aeiiaoiee a?ano. A 1993 aio auei
?ac?aoaii oaoaoue a nnueeo a *eee.

*aooaneo Ieeieaa (1918 — 1989) ?oiuineee iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue, aeaaa
?oiuineie eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee, o aeanoe 1965-89. I?iaiaeee
iacaaeneioth iieeoeeo, e?eoeeiaae NNN?. Iacia/ee anao naieo
?iaenoaaiieeia, aeeth/ay naith aeaio, Aeaio *aooaneo, ia aeaaiua iinou a
ainoaea?noaa e ia?oee, ?oeiaiaeee no?aiie ai ana aic?anoathuae
?ai?anneaiie iaia?a, /oi i?eaaei e iaieuaieth no?aiu. *aooaneo auee
naa?aioou ai a?aiy e?iaaaiai aiaiiiai ia?aai?ioa a aeaeaa?a 1989 e
?anno?aeyiu.

Aieeue Oa?eue aea (1890 — 1970) i?ac. O?aioeee a 1958 — 69. I?ai.-iei. a
1944 — yia. 1946 e a 1958. Eiy A. oanii naycaii n iiaaaeie iaae
oaoenoneeie aa?anni?aie ai II ie?iaie aieia: a 1940 iniiaae
iaeiiioienoe/aneia iao?eioe/aneia aeaeaeaiea “Naiaiaeiay O?aioeey” (n
1942 — “N?aaeathuayny O?aioeey”), i?eieioaoaa e aioeoaoenoneie
eiaeeoeee, a 1941 noae ?oeiaiaeeoaeai O?aioeocneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
eiieoaoa, a1943 -O?aioeocneiai eiieoaoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai inaiaiaeaeaiey.
Iinea aieiu iniiaaoaeue e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia?oee ?IO. A 1958 aeiaeeny
onoaiiaeaiey ai O?aioeee ?aaeeia i?aceaeaioneiai oeia, noceaoaai
iieiiii/ey ia?eaiaioa. A iaeanoe aiaoiae iieeoeee i?iaiaeee
?aaeenoe/aneee eo?n, inouanoaee iiai?io e niaaonei-o?aioeocneiio
nio?oaeie/anoao.

Iiioaiia?e Aa?ia?ae Eiae (1887-) aiaiiue aeayoaeue Aaeeeia?eoaiee,
oaeueaeia?oae 1944, aeeiio Yeue-Aeaiaeneee. ?iae. a Eiiaeiia a naiuea
aieneiia. A a?iee n 1908. Ieii/ee Aiaiioth aeaaeaieth a Naiaeoa?noa. O/.
I e II ie?iauo aiei. A 1939-40 — eiiaiaeothuee 3-e iaoioiie aeaaecee,
aeaenoaiaaaoae ai O?aioeee, caoai eiiaiaeothuee 8-e a?ieae, ?oeiaiaeee
iia?aoeeyie i?ioea aa?iainei-eoaeueyineeo aiene a Naa. Ao?eea, Eoaeee,
iaea?aeae iiaaaeo iiae Yeue-Aeaiaeiii (1942). N aeae. 1943 eiiaiaeothuee
21-e a?oiiie a?iee, aeaenoaiaaaoae a Naa. O?aioeee, Aaeueaee,
Ieaea?eaiaeao e Naa. Aa?iaiee, eiiaiaeothuee a?eoaineeie ieeoiaoeeiiiuie
aieneaie a Aa?iaiee. 1946-48 ia/. eii. Aaiooaaa. 1948-51 i?aaenaaeaoaeue
eii-oa aeaaiieiiaiaeothueo Aino. niaaoneie iai?iiu Cai. Nithca, a
1951-58 I cai. Aa?o. aeaaiieiiaiaeothuaai iauaaeeiaiiuie neeaie IAOI a
Aa?iia. Iinea ionoaaee (1958) aunooiae ca niya/aiea iaaeaeoia?iaei.
iai?yaeaiiinoe, i?aaeinoa?aaae oa?ica aic?iaeaeaaoaainy aa?i.
ieeeoa?ecia. A iaioa?ao e?eoeeiaae aia?. aiai. eiiaiaeiaaiea ai a?aiy II
ie?iaie aieiu.

Iieioia (Ne?yaei) Ay/aneaa Ieoaeeiae/ (1980 — ia/. 1990) iieeo.
aeayoaeue NNN?. A eiiia?oee n 1906. A Ieo. ?aaiethoeeth /e.
Iao?ia?aaeneiai A?E. N 1919 i?aaenaaeaoaeue Ieaeaai?iaeneiai
aoaeniieeiia, nae?. Aeiiaoeeiai aoaeiieoaoa ?EI(a). A 1920 nae?.
OeEEI(a) Oe?aeiu. A 1921 — 30 nae?.OeE AEI(a)th A 1930-41 i?aae. NIE
NNN?. A 1941-57 I cai. I?aaenaaeaoaey NIE(NI) NNN?, iaeiia?ai. A 1941-45
cai. I?aae. AEI, a 1939-49 e 1953-56 ia?eii, iei. ei. aeae NNN?. N 1957
iinie a II?. A 1960-62 i?aaenoaaeoaeue NNN? i?e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
aaaionoaa ii aoiiiie yia?aaoeea. N 1962 a. ia iainee. Neii/aeny a
aacaanoiinoe a ia/aea 90-uo.

No?aooi?ae Oiian Aaiai?o. Ia?aue a?ao No?aooi?ae (1593 — 1641).
Aiaeeeneee iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue, a ia/aea aue iiiiiaioii Ea?ea I, a
1628 ia?aoae ia noi?iio ?iyeenoia. Aeaniioe/ii i?aaee eae aeoea-ei?ieue
E?eaiaeee (1632 -39), aaea i?aaieciaae a?ieth eaoieeeia, ia
iiaeaeanoioth ia?eaiaioo. Aa?ioeny a Aiaeeth, noae ae. Niaaoieeii Ea?ea
e iieo/ee a?aonoai a 1640. Ii o?aaiaaieth ia?eaiaioa (Aeieaee ia?eaiaio,
ioe?. 3 iiya?y 1640) aue a?anoiaai e eaciai ca ain. eciaio.

Aaiiaeai (Oaiiaeai) Aeaeii (1594-1643) iaeei ec eeaea?ia (n 1621)
ia?eaiaioneie iiiiceoeee iaeaioia Aiaeeeeneie ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee
XVII a. A ia/aea I a?aaeaeaineie aieiu (1642-46) i?eieioe e
eiaeaiaiaeaioai. Aiaaoue oi?aiaaoe, ?iaenoaaiiee E?iiaaey. A 1637
aeaiiino?aoeaii ioeacaeny oieaoeoue “ei?aaaeueioth iiaeaoue”,
aaaaeaiioth Ea?eii I, ca /oi aue inoaeaeai (i?eciaii iacaeiiiui e
ioiaiaii Aeieaei ia?eaiaioii a 1640). Aeaei iieo/eei oe?ieoth iaeaneo e
aeoeaece?iaaei ai?ueao i?ioea aaniethoecia. ssaeyeny aeoeaiui /eaiii
Aeieaiai ia?eaiaioa, aue aeeth/ai a nienie 5 aeaeiuo eeaea?ia, eioi?uo
Ea?e I i?eeacae a?anoiaaoue a yia. 1642. Aianoa n E?iiaaeai o/anoaiaae a
i?aaiecaoeee ia?eaiaioneie a?iee. Iaeei ec eieoeeaoi?ia a?anoa ei?aea
No?aooi?aea e a?oeai. Eiaea. Nia?oaeueii ?aiai a aith n ei?ieaaneeie
aieneaie.

Eaio Eiiaioee (1724-1804), iai. oeeinio, ?iaeiia/aeueiee iai.
eeanne/aneie oeeinioee, i?io. E?ieianaa?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa (1770). *eai
o?ao aeaaeaiee (Aa?eeineie, Iaoa?ao?aneie, Neaineie). A 1747-55
?ac?aaioae einiiaiie/aneoth aeiioaco i?ienoiaeaeaiey nieia/iie nenoaiu
ec ia?aiia/aeueiie ooiaiiinoe. A ?acaeoie n 1770 “e?eoe/aneie oeeinioee”
(“E?eoeea /enoiai ?acoia”. 1781, “E?eoeea i?aeoe/aneiai ?acoia”. 1788,
“E?eoeea niiniaiinoe noaeaeaiey”, 1790) aunooiee i?ioea aeiaiaoecia
oiic?eoaeueiie iaoaoeceee e neaioeoeecia n o/aieai i iaiiciaaaaiuo
“aauao a naaa” e iiciaaaaiuo yaeaieyo, ia?acothueo noa?o aaneiia/iiai
aiciiaeiiai iiuoa. Oneiaea iiciaiey — iauacia/eiua ai?ei?iua oi?iu,
oii?yaei/eaathuea oain iuouaiee. Oeaio?aeueiue i?eioeei yoeee Eaioa —
eaoaai?e/aneee eiia?aoea.

Oaeae?ai Oa?eue Ii?en (1754-1838) o?aioe aeeieiiao, ieieno? eiino?aiiuo
aeae. Eae aieneii iiaeaea?aeeaae oia?aiiua ?aoi?iu ai a?aiaia O?.
?aaiethoeee, aue ioeo/ai io oea?eae iaiie ?eineei e ne?ueny a NOA. A
1797-99 (i?e Aee?aeoi?ee), a 1799-1807 (a ia? Eiinoeuenoaa e eiia?ee
Iaiieaiia I). 1814-15 (i?e Ethaeiaeea XVIII). Aeaaa o?aioeocneie
aeaeaaaoeee ia aaineii eiia?anna 1814-15, oai aea e auaeaeioe i?eioeei
eaaeoeiecia a ea/anoaa iniiau iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Ianoa?
oiieie aeeieiiaoe/aneie eio?eae; aani?eioeeiiue iieeoee.

Iae Ieoaeue (1769-1815) ia?oae O?aioeee. Aa?oeia Yeueoeiaaineee (1808),
ei. Iineianeee (1812). O/anoiee ?aaiethoeee e iaiieaiiianeeo aiei,
eiiaiaeothuee ei?ionii iiae Aonoa?eeoeai, Eaiie, a iioiaea 1812 ia
?inneth, ca ee/ioth niaeinoue aai iacuaaee “o?aa?aeoei ec o?aa?uo”.
Oniaoii aeaenoaiaae a Oeueineii n?aaeaiee 1805 iiae Yeueoeiaaiii.
1808-11 aiaaae a Eniaiee, aaea iioa?iae ?yae iaoaea/. A Ai?iaeeineii
n?aaeaiee 1812 eiiaiaeiaae oeaio?ii iaiieaiiianeie a?iee, ai a?aiy
ionooieaiey — a? a?uea?aa?aeii, eioi?ue aue ii/oe iieiinoueth oie/oiaeai
a aith iiae E?aniui. O/anoaiaae a eaiiaieyo 1813 e1814. A 1814 ia?aoae
ia noi?iio Ao?aiiia e aue iacia/ai iy?ii O?aioeee e /eaiii Aiaiiiai
niaaoa. Eiaaea Iaiieaii aaaeae n Yeueau, Iae aue iineai a?anoiaaoue aai,
ii aianoi yoiai i?eniaaeeieeny e iaio e n?aaeaeny i?e Aaoa?eii. Iinea
“Noa aeiae” ?anno?aeyi Ao?aiiaie.

iaia Iee VII Aa?iaaa, a?ao Euey?aiiioe. (1740-1823). O/eeny a Iaaeoa,
Ia?ia e ?eia. A 1782 aieneii Oeaiee, a 1782 ea?aeeiae, aia?oey Eiiee.
1800 iaia ?eineee. Iinea ainnoaiiaeaiey iaineiai ainoaea?noaa
aica?auaiea a ?ei. 15 ethey 1801 iiaeienai eiiei?aeao n Iaiieaiiii. 1804
— ei?iiaoeey Iaiieaiia Aiiaia?oa a Ia?eaea. 1805 — aica?auaiea a ?ei
aii?aee aiee Iaiieaiia. Iinea caiyoey ?eia o?aioeocneeie aieneaie a
1808, eiia?aoi? i?eniaaeeiee iaineia ainoaea?noai e O?aioeee, a ?ei
iauyaee naiaiaeiui ai?iaeii. A ?acoeueoaoa eiioeeeoa n Iaiieaiiii iaia
iiiaaeaao ai o?aioeocneee ieai. A 1814 iaia inaiaiaeaeai, ia Aaineii
eiia?anna iaia aiiaue i?eciai aeaaie iaineiai ainoaea?noaa e
eaoiee/aneiai ie?a. A 1814 ei ainnoaiiaeai i?aeai eacoeoia.

Ciey Yieeue (1814-1902) o?aioeocneee ienaoaeue. A ?aiiai oai?/anoaa
iuooee aeeyiea ?iiaioe/aneie iiyoeee. Eeoa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/aneea eieae
i?ioea ioeoeeaeueiiai naeiiii-aeaaeaie/aneiai eneonnoaa a iiaeaea?aeeo
ia?auo aunooieaiee eii?anneiienoia. Iniiaiua i?iecaaaeaiey: 20-oe o.
na?eeiue ?iiai “?oaii-Iaeea?u” (1871-93) — enoi?ey iaeiie naiuee a?aiai
Aoi?ie eiia?ee, eo/oea ec eioi?uo: “*?aai Ia?eaea” 1873, “Caiaaeiy”
1877, “AEa?ieiaeue” 1885, “Aeaiueae” 1891, “?aca?ii” 1892, aaea n
aieueoie ?aaeenoe/aneie neeie ecia?aaeaiu nioeeaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey.
Iacaaa?oaiiay nioeeaeueiay ooiiey — oao?aeiaey “4 Aaaiaaeey”
(Ieiaeiaeoinue,1899; O?oae,1901; Enoeia,1901; Ni?aaaaeeeainoue,
iacaaa?o.). C. — noi?iiiee i?eioeeiia iaoo?aeecia (“Yenia?eiaioaeueiue
?iiai” 1880. I?aaenoaaeaiea i caeiiao iauanoaa eae i caeiiao
aeieiae/aneeo. Aunooiee n i?ioanoii i?ioea aeaea eai. Ae?eoona, aai
iaioeao “ss iaaeiyth” (1898) aue iai?aaeai i?aceaeaioo ?anioaeeee e
iineoaeee niei/aieth eioaeeeaaioeee a aeaea caueou iaaeiii
inoaeaeaiiiai.

Ethaeiaee XVI (1743-93), o?aioeocneee ei?ieue a 1774-92. Iaoiaeeeny iiae
aeeyieai naiae aeaiu, Ia?ee-Aiooaiaoou, o?aioeocneay oeiaianiaay nenoaia
i?eoea a oaeie oiaaeie, /oi a 1789 auee nicaaiu Aaia?aeueiua ooaou
(ia?eaiaio) e ia/aeanue o?aioeocneay ?aaiethoeey. N ia/aea o?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee i?ecuaae eiino?aiiua aea?aeaau e eioa?aaioeee. Iieiinoueth
iioa?ye aaoi?eoao a ethia 1791, eiaaea iuoaeny aaaeaoue ec no?aiu, a
aaaonoa 1792 aeai?aoe a Otheeue?e acyo ooo?iii e ei?ieaaneay naiuey
caeeth/aia iiae no?aaeo. Naa?aioo a aeaeaa?a 1792. Inoaeaeai Eiiaaioii a
yiaa?a 1793 e aeeueioeie?iaai.

Ie?aai Aaa?eaeue ?eeaoe a?ao aea (1749-1791) aeayoaeue O?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee. A iieiaeinoe a aeaeo aanii?yaei/iiai ia?aca aeecie
iaiaeiie?aoii iiaeaa?aaeny oth?aiiui caeeth/aieyi. A 1776, iinea aaanoaa
n /oaeie aeaiie ca a?aieoeo aue i?eaiai?ai e nia?oiie eacie, ii anei?a
aiienoe?iaai. A ecaiaiee niaa?oainoaiaae naie auaeathueeny i?aoi?neee
oaeaio e ioaeeeiaae i?iecaaaeaiey i?ioea aeaniioe/iuo oi?i i?aaeaiey.
1785 — aica?auaiea a Ia?eae, 1786 — aeeieiiaoe/aneay ienney a I?onnee.
Aue eca?ai aeaiooaoii a Aaia?aeueiua ooaou 1789 io 3-ai nineiaey.
I?eia?ae iiioey?iinoue iaee/aieyie aaniethoecia. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey
?aaiethoeeeI., noi?iiiee eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiia?oee ii aiaeeeneie
iiaeaee, noae eeaea?ii e?oiiie ao?aeoacee. N ca e?oiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea
e iaycaoaeuenoai iiaaneoue aeieae a 1790 noae oaeiui aaaioii
ei?ieaaneiai aeai?a. Ia?ao e ?iaaniuea?, oaaaeuaay aai eciaio, aunooiaee
i?ioea iaai. Iinea nia?oe iaia?oaeaiu eciaee/athuea aeieoiaiou e aai
i?ao, iiiauaiiue a Iaioaii, ia?acaoi?iiai ia eeaaeaeua aeey
i?anooiieeia.

Ia?ao AEai Iieue (1743-93) aeayoaeue O?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee, iaeei ec
aiaeaeae yeiaeioeaa, aeo?iaeeno, o/aiue. Aei ia/aea ?aaiethoeee
caieiaeny anoanoaaiiuie e oeeinioneeie iaoeaie, aeieoi? iaaeeoeeiu
(1775, Yaeeiao?aneee oieaa?neoao). N naioya?y 1789 ecaeaaae aacaoo
“Ae?oa ia?iaea”, a eioi?ie ?aciaea/ae i?ienee eiio??aaiethoeee. A 1790 —
ne?uaaeny io i?aneaaeiaaiee i?ioeaieeia a Aiaeee, 1792 — aica?auaiea e
ooiae a iiaeiieuea.Aue eca?ai a Iaoeeiiaeueiue Eiiaaio a 1792, aaea
ai?ieny n i?aauie aee?iiaeenoaie, i?aaieciaaaoeo noae o?eaoiaea iaae I.
(ai?.1793), ii I. aue ii?aaaeai e aica?auai a eiiaaio. Aianoa n I.
?iaaniuea?ii ?oeiaiaeee iiaeaioiaeie ia?iaeiiai ainnoaiey 31 iay — 2
ethiy 1793, ioiyaoaai aeanoue o aai i?ioeaieeia. Oaeo Oa?eiooie Ei?aea,
aee?iiaeenoeie.

Eieue Oaeueioo (1903-) iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue Aa?iaiee, eiina?aaoi?,
i?aaenaaeaoaeue O?enoeaineiai aeaiie?aoe/aneiai nithca (OAeN) n 1973 e
ieieno?-i?aceaeaio caiee ?aeieaiae-Ioaeueoe n 1969. Eaioeea? Cai.
Aa?iaiee 1982-90. A 1958 caueoee aeenna?oaoeeth a Aaeaeaeueaa?aneii
oi-oa, aeieoi? oeeinioee. A 1946 anooiee a OAeN. N yoiai a?aiaie aeoeaii
o/anoaiaae a a? aeaenoaee e caieiae aaaeouea aeieaeiinoe a OAeN. Aoaeo/e
oaea oaaea?aeueiui eaioeea?ii O?A ?aaioae a iai?aaeaiee iauaaeeiaiey
Aa?iaiee e a 1990 aue eca?ai ia?aui eaioeea?ii iauaaeeiaiiie Aa?iaiee.
Aai i?in/aou i?e iauaaeeiaiee i?eaaee e iaaeaieth aai iiioey?iinoe a
no?aia. AEaia (n 1960) — Oaiiaei?a, eiaao aeaieo nuiiaae.

?. Aaa?aeeie Eiiaoe iiaiai a?aiaie; Aii?inu oeeinioee ?4, 1990; AINNN?
Ei-o oeeinioee, no?. 139.

Oai aea, no?. 140.

Aaaa? I. Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey: Ia?. n iai./Nino.. iau. ?aae. e
iineane. TH.I. Aeaauaeiaa; I?aaeene. I.I. Aaeaeaiei. — I.; I?ia?ann,
1990. — 808 n. -.(Nioeeieiae/. iuneue Caiaaea); no?. 84.

Oai aea, no?. 75.

Oai aea, no?. 76.

Oai aea, no?. 79.

Oai aea, no?. 99.

Oai aea, no?. 98.

Oai aea, no?. 85.

PAGE

PAGE 1

No?.

Похожие записи