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Ислам в новое и новейшее время. Жизнь и деятельность Магомета

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Eneai a iiaia e iiaaeoaa a?aiy.

Iieoi?a noieaoey n ia/aea XIX aei aoi?ie iieiaeiu XX aaea yaeeenue
aaaeiui ia?aeiiiui iiiaioii a yaiethoeee Eneaia. Eciaiaiey a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo no?oeoo?ao no?ai Ainoiea, noaiiaeaiea iiaiai
eeanna – iaoeeiiaeueiie ao?aeoacee, ?acaeoea
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey, ?ani?ino?aiaiea eaeae
ia?enecia – ana yoi a niaieoiiinoe ia iiaei ia iiaea/ue ca niaie
ia?aiaiu ai acaeyaeao ia ?ieue Eneaia a iauanoaa, oae e a naiie
eneaineie iioeaaoeee iiauo ?aeeaee iauanoaaiiiai auoey.

I?ioeann aaeaioaoeee ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneeo e i?aaiauo ii?i eneaia e
iiaui enoi?e/aneei oneiaeyi, ia/aaoeiny a na?aaeeia XIX aaea e
i?iaeieaeathueeny e iiiuia, iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee iaicia/atho oa?ieiii
“ionoeueiaineay ?aoi?iaoeey”, oioy ii i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/ai io
?aoi?iaoeee o?enoeaineie. Ioee/ea caeeth/aaony, ai-ia?auo, a oii, /oi
yoe i?ioeannu i?ienoiaeeee a ?acee/iua yiioe, a ?acee/iuo
eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo. Ai-aoi?uo, “ionoeueiaineay ?aoi?iaoeey”
au?aaeaeanue i?aaeaea anaai a ia?aniio?a (eee iiiuoea ia?aniio?a)
?aeeaeiciuo iioeaaoeee ?acee/iuo aniaeoia naaoneie aeecie e eeoue a
iacia/eoaeueiie ia?a cao?aaeaaea nianoaaiii aiaineianeea aii?inu.
A-o?aoueeo, ionoonoaea a Eneaia einoeoooa oea?eae e aeooiaainoaa,
aiaeiae/iuo o?enoeaineei, iaeiaeeei aanueia nouanoaaiiue ioia/aoie ia
oa?aeoa? ?aoi?i a Eneaia.

Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey i?aoa?iaea ionoeueiaineay noaeaaiay nenoaia,
neiaeeaoayny a n?aaeiaaaeiauea, e a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a – naia nenoaia
ionoeueiaineiai i?aaa: i?ienoiaeeei iinoaiaiiia ia?aie/aiea
th?enaeeeoeee oa?e’aoneeo noaeia; e na?aaeeia XIX aaea ia oa??eoi?ee
Iniaineie eiia?ee auee ieii/aoaeueii ?aca?aie/aiu noa?u eiiiaoaioeee
oa?e’aoneeo e naaoneeo noaeia (i?ioeann yoio ia/aeny cia/eoaeueii
?aiaa). Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei inouanoaeyaony eiaeeoeeaoeey ii?i
ionoeueiaineiai i?aaa (naiae iieiaeaiee oaiaoenoeiai i?aaa – Iaiaeaeaeea
– aue ninoaaeai a 1869-1876 aiaeao), a ?yaea no?ai aaiaeyony oaieiaiua
eiaeaenu e ae?oaea i?aaiaua aeieoiaiou, ia i?aaeoniao?eaaaiua oa?e’aoii.
Ii?aaeaeaiiua eciaiaiey ?iee Eneaia a iauanoaaiiie aeecie (oioy e
aanueia ia?aie/aiiua) i?iecioee a nayce n ?aoi?iaie Iooaiiaaea “Aee a
Aaeioa e iieeoeeie oaiceiaoa a Iniaineie eiia?ee.

Iio?aaiinoe nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey noaaeee ionoeueiaineeo
aiaineiaia e i?aaiaaaeia ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iiaiai iniuneaiey
oeaeiai ?yaea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iieiaeaiee Eneaia. Iaeiaei yoio i?ioeann
ieacaeny aanueia aieaciaiiui e caoyaeiui. Yoi io?aceeinue, a /anoiinoe,
a iieaieea ii iiaiaeo aeiionoeiinoe (eee a?aoiaiinoe) nicaeaiey a
ionoeueiaineeo no?aiao aaieianeie nenoaiu. Iieaieea ?acai?a/eaaeanue, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, aie?oa iieiaeaiey i aceiaiee nnoaeiiai i?ioeaioa
(?eaa’), a n ae?oaie – a nayce n oa?e’aoneei cai?aoii ia iia?oaaiea
eaieoaea. Iaeaieaa y?ei au?aaeaiioth oi?io iia i?eia?aea a Aaeioa, aaea
ioooe Iooaiiaae ‘Aaaei a 1899 aiaeo ecaeae oaoao, ?acuyniyaooth, /oi
aaieianeea aeeaaeu e aceiaiea n ieo i?ioeaioia ia yaeythony
?inoiaue/anoaii e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee
inoaeaeaaiiai ?eaa’. Yoa oaoaa niinianoaiaaea i?eaaaeaieth
nouanoaiaaaoae nenoaiu a niioaaonoaea n eioa?anaie iaoeeiiaeueiie
ao?aeoacee.

?anoe?aiea i?aeoeee eaieoaeenoe/aneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a
ionoeueiaineeo no?aiao aeaeei ca niaie ia oieueei ia?aniio? oa?e’aoneeo
iieiaeaiee (eae a neo/aa n ?eaa’), ii e iaeeaeaiea iaeioi?uo
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo i?eioeeiia, eiaaoeo oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ia?eiae
ionoeueiaineiai n?aaeiaaaeiauey, iai?eia? iooa?aea e ee?aae (i?eioeeiu
oi?aiaiai nio?oaeie/anoaa). N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia ?aaeei iiaua ii
niaea?aeaieth yaeaiey aini?eieiaeenue eae i?iaeieaeaiea e ?acaeoea
ionoeueiaineie o?aaeeoeee: oaeiau, iai?eia?, eiiia?/aneea iauaaeeiaiey,
aeaenoaiaaaoea a ?acee/iuo /anoyo ionoeueiaineiai ie?a ia
?aeeaeicii-iaueiiia iniiaa (oi?aiaua aeiia e oeiainiaua i?aaei?eyoey
enia’eeeoia oiaeaea e aio?a, iaiaiia), aini?eieiaaoeany eae
i?iaeieaeaiea n?aaeiaaaeiaie o?aaeeoeee nicaeaiey ionoeueiaineeo
oi?aiauo aeiiia, ii eioi?ua ii nooe naae eiaee oaea eaieoaeenoe/aneee
eee iieoeaieoaeenoe/aeee oa?aeoa?.

Aaaeiaeooth ?ieue nua?aee eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeeaoea a noa?a
iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey. Yoi eanaaony i?aaeaea anaai i?ioeanna
noaiiaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey e aicieeiiaaiey ao?aeoaciiai
iaoeeiiaeecia. A ?onea yoiai i?ioeanna iieo/eeinue iiaia iniuneaiiia
o?aaeeoeeiiiia iieiaeaiea Eneaia i aaeeinoaa anao ionoeueiai. Aeaeaiae
ae-aeei ae-Aoaaie oi?ioee?oao eaeath nieeaea?iinoe ionoeueiai,
aueeaoothny caoai a eiioeaioeeth iaieneaiecia e iieo/eaooth oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea ii anaio ionoeueiaineiio ie?o. Ia?aeeaeueii n
iaieneaieciii, iai?aaeaiiui ia iauaaeeiaiea anao ionoeueiai ia
eiioanneiiaeueiie iniiaa, ?acaeaaaony e ionoeueiaineee iaoeeiiaeeci,
noi?iiieee eioi?iai aunooiatho ca iainiaeaiea ionoeueiaineeo iauei io
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo eiioannee. Ionoeueiaineea
?aeeaeicii-iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea eaeae eiaee iauaeoeaii aeaienoaaiiue
oa?aeoa?: n iaeiie noi?iiu, iie ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia niinianoaiaaee
?acaeoeth iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey, n ae?oaie – a
eiia/iii n/aoa ieacuaaeenue i?oaeeai a ?oeao iaeaieaa ?aaeoeeiiiuo nee.
A oeaeii aeeyiea iaoeeiiaeecia iuouaeinue a oie eee eiie ia?a ii/oe ai
anao iai?aaeaieyo ionoeueiaineie iauanoaaiiie iunee eiioea XIX ia/aea XX
aaea.

A yoio ia?eiae ?aeeaeicii-iaiiaeai/aneea i?ioeannu a Eneaia auee
naycaiu a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n i?iaeaiie inaiaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo
aeinoeaeaiee Caiaaea. Noi?iiieee ?aoi?iaoi?neiai iai?aaeaiey
auneacuaaeenue ca iiaea?iecaoeeth onoaiiaeaiee Eneaia, oi?iiceaoeo
i?ioeann aiaae?aiey aeinoeaeaiee Caiaaea. Ei i?ioeainoiyee
o?aaeeoeeiiaeenou, aunooiaaoea ca aic?iaeaeaiea ii?i e oeaiiinoae
?aiiaai Eneaia, i?ioeaynue iiaiaaaaeaieyi caiaaeiiai ia?acoea. Ii ia?a
?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey e iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey ana aieaa io/aoeeai noaea i?iyaeyoueny iieeoecaoeey Eneaia
(oioy ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee Eneai ieeiaaea ia aue ioi?aai io
iieeoeee), au?aaeaaoayny a oe?ieii eniieueciaaiee eneaineeo eicoiaia a
iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaa. ?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey, aicieeaaoea a
oeeoneie n?aaea (iai?eia?, aaaeci), aaee e ioii/eiaaieth “naeoaioneeo”
iauei, a noiieoneii aea Eneaia iie a aieueoeinoaa naiai ia
nii?iaiaeaeaeenue ia?aniio?ii iieiaeaiee aeiaiaoeee. Aioeeieiieaeueiua
aunooieaiey ia?aaeei nii?iaiaeaeaeenue ia?auaieai e ianneaineei eaeayi,
iauyaeaieai eo eeaea?ia iaoaee. Aeey ?anniao?eaaaiiai ia?eiaea
oa?aeoa?ia oaeaea aeoeaecaoeey o/anoey a iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaa nooeeneeo
a?aonoa; ia aaca iaeioi?uo ec ieo aicieeatho iiuiua iiaua eneaineea
?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey, eae, iai?eia?, aeaeaeaiea naioneoia
a Naaa?iie Ao?eea. N a?aonoaii eaaee?eea oanii naycaii aioeeieiieaeueiia
aeaeaeaiea a Aeaee?a a na?aaeeia XIX aaea iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii ‘Aaae
ae-Eaaee?a, i?eiyaoaai oeooe aei? ae-io’ieiei. A eiioea XIX e iniaaiii
a ia/aea XX aaea aieueoie ?aciao ii anaio ionoeueiaineiio ie?o
i?eia?aoaao aeaeaeaiea ca ?aoi?iaoeeth Eneaia, i?aaenoaaeoaee eioi?iai
anooiatho a ino?oth iaeaieeo e n ionoeueiaineeie o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoaie, e
ni noi?iiieeaie naaoneeo eiioeaioeee iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.
Iaeiia?aiaiii ia/eiaao neeaaeuaaoueny e iaaeaeoia?iaeiia eneaineia
aeaeaeaiea, iniiaaiiia ia eiioeaioeee eneaineie nieeaea?iinoe: a 1926
aiaeo auea nicaeaia ia?aay iaaeaeoia?iaeiay ionoeueiaineay i?aaiecaoeey
Anaie?iue eneaineee eiia?ann (Io’oaia? ae-‘aeai ae-eneaie).

Ea/anoaaiii iiaue yoai a enoi?ee Eneaia – aoi?ay iieiaeia XX aaea.

Inaiaiaeaeaiea ionoeueiaineeo ia?iaeia io eieiieaeueiie caaeneiinoe,
nicaeaiea ie?iaie nenoaiu nioeeaeecia, oaeoaeaiea e?eceniuo yaeaiee a
eaieoaeenoe/aneii ie?a iinoaaeee i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua i?iaeaiu ia?aae
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ionoeueiaineie iauanoaaiiie iunee. Yoi io?aceeinue
i?aaeaea anaai a oe?iei ?acaa?ioaoaeny ai?ueaa aie?oa i?iaeaiu auai?a
iooe ?acaeoey inaiaiaeeaoeieny no?aiaie, a oiaea eioi?ie iiyaeythony
iiiai/eneaiiua eiioeaioeee oae iacuaaaiiai “o?aoueaai iooe”, ioee/iiai
eae io eaieoaeenoe/aneiai, oae e io nioeeaeenoe/aneiai. Aiaeee?oy e
o?aaeeoeeiiiui oeaiiinoyi Eneaia, ionoeueiaineea iauanoaaiiua aeayoaee
(eae ?aeeaeiciua, oae e naaoneea) auaeaeaatho oacen ia eneaineii iooe
?acaeoey eae i aaeeinoaaiii i?eaieaiii aeey no?ai ?ani?ino?aiaiey
Eneaia. Ia aai iniiaa nicaeathony eiioeaioeee “eneaineiai ainoaea?noaa”,
“eneaineiai i?aaeaiey”, eneaineie yeiiiieee”, “eneaineiai nioeeaeecia” e
o.ae., ia?aaeei nouanoaaiii ioee/athueany ae?oa io ae?oaa a o?aeoiaeao
oao eee eiuo aii?inia, ii eiathuea iauoth nioeeaeueioth i?e?iaeo –
ao?aeoacioth eeai iaeeiao?aeoacioth.

Eiioeaioeee “eneaineiai ainoaea?noaa” iiae?acoiaaatho aiieiuaiea a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo o?aaeeoeeiiiie eneaineie iiaeaee iieeoe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa, a eioi?ii a oie eee eiie oi?ia ni/aoaeanue
naaoneay e aeooiaiay aeanoue (i?e i?eciaiee Aeeaoa a ea/anoaa
aaeeinoaaiiiai enoi/ieea aeanoe), inouanoaeyeenue au i?eioeeiu
ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia, ?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee a
niioaaonoaee n i?aaeienaiiuie oa?e’aoa e o.ae. A oeaeii yoe eiioeaioeee
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iiaea?iecaoeeth iieeoe/aneie e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeieo?ei eeanne/aneiai Eneaia n o/aoii
niaoeeoeee ?acaeoey eiie?aoiie no?aiu. Ia?ii?eyoey ii eo ?aaeecaoeee e
i?iiaaaiaea, iinyuea iacaaiea “eneaiecaoeee”, inouanoaeythony eae
“naa?oo” – iooai caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai aaaaeaiey oao eee eiuo ii?i
(iai?eia? a Iaeenoaia – aaaaeaiea ‘oo?a e caeaoa, eneaiecaoeey
aaieianeie nenoaiu, a E?aia – i?iaicaeaoaiea “eneaineiai i?aaeaiey”), oa
e “nieco” – a ?acoeueoaoa aeaaeaiey ?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee, n?aaee eioi?uo iaeaieueooth aeoeaiinoue a yoii iai?aaeaiee
i?iyaeytho “A?aouey-ionoeueiaia”. Iiae “eneaiecaoeeae” iiae?acoiaaaaony
e i?ioeann ?anoe?aiey /enea iineaaeiaaoaeae Eneaia, i?ienoiaeyuee a
?yaea no?ai Acee e Ao?eee (i?aaeaea anaai a ?aaeiia e thao io Naoa?u),
eioi?ue ia?aaeei eneonnoaaiii noeioee?oaony aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
iiiai/eneaiiuo ienneiia?neeo eneaineeo oeaio?ia, nicaeaaaaiuo
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia n?aaenoaa iaooaaeiauaathueo ainoaea?noa A?aaee.

Nia?aiaiiue Eneai – aoi?ay ii /eneaiiinoe iineaaeiaaoaeae (iinea
o?enoeainoaa) ie?iaay ?aeeaey. Ii i?eaeeceoaeueiui io/aoai, iauay
/eneaiiinoue ionoeueiai ia caiiii oa?a aeinoeaaao 800 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae
(ieiei 90 i?ioeaioia ec ieo noiieou), ec eioi?uo aieaa aeaoo o?aoae
aeeaao a ca?oaaaeiie Acee, ninoaaeyy nauoa 20 i?ioeaioia ianaeaiey yoie
/anoe ieaiaou, ii/oe 30 i?ioeaioia – a Ao?eea (49 i?ioeaioia ianaeaiey
eiioeiaioa). Ec aieaa /ai 120 no?ai ie?a, a eioi?uo nouanoaotho
ionoeueiaineea iaueiu, a 35 ionoeueiaia ninoaaeytho aieueooth /anoue
ianaeaiey – nauoa 80 i?ioeaioia ianaeaiey ai anao no?aiao Naaa?iie
Ao?eee, Caiaaeiie Acee (ca eneeth/aieai Eei?a, Eeaaia, Ec?aeey), a
Naiaaaea, Aaiaee, Ieaa?a, Niiaee, Aoaaienoaia, Iaeenoaia, Aaiaeaaeao,
Eiaeiiacee e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo; a ?yaea no?ai iineaaeiaaoaeae Eneaia
ian/eouaaaony io iieiaeiu aei 80 i?ioeaioia aeeoaeae (Aaeiay, Iaee,
Eeaai, *aae, Noaeai), a Iaeaecee e Ieaa?ee – ii/oe iieiaeia, a iaeioi?uo
no?aiao iie ninoaaeytho aeeyoaeueiia iaiueoeinoai (Aaeiay-Aenao,
Eaia?oi, Ao?eeia Oani, Nuea??a-Eaiia e ae?.). Iaeaieaa e?oiiui ii
aaniethoiie /eneaiiinoe ionoeueiaineea iaueiu – a Eiaeiiacee, Eiaeee,
Iaeenoaia e Aaiaeaaeao; cia/eoaeueiia /enei ionoeueiai i?iaeeaaao a
Eeoaa, Oaeeaiaea, Yoeiiee, Oaicaiee, ia Eei?a, a iaeioi?uo no?aiao
Aa?iiu (THaineaaey, Aeaaiey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, O?A, O?aioeey e ae?.),
Aia?eee (NOA, Eaiaaea, A?aaioeia, A?aceeey, Aaeaia, No?eiai, O?eieaeaae
e Oiaaai), a Ano?aeee, ia ino?iaao Oeaeaee.

A 28 ao?i-aceaoneeo ainoaea?noaao Eneai i?eciai ainoaea?noaaiiie (eee
ioeoeeaeueiie) ?aeeaeae, Yoi Aaeiao, Eoaaeo, Naoaeianeay A?aaey, E?ai,
Iaeenoai e ae?. A iaeioi?uo no?aiao neiai “eneaineee” aeeth/aii a eo
ioeoeeaeueiia iacaaiea: Eneaineay ?anioaeeea E?ai, Eneaineay ?anioaeeea
Iaeenoai, Eneaineay ?anioaeeea Iaa?eoaiey e ae?.

Ai iiiaeo no?aiao ?ani?ino?aiaiey Eneaia aeaenoaotho ionoeueiaineea
ia?oee, ea?athuea ia?aaeei aaaeioth ?ieue a iieeoeea, iai?eia? Ia?oey
eneaineie ?anioaeeee a E?aia, Ia?oey aaeeinoaa e ?acaeoey a Eiaeiiacee,
Iaiiaeaeneay eneaineay ia?oey a Iaeaecee, Aeaeaiaao-e eneaie a Eiaeee e
Iaeenoaia.

A ?yaea no?ai ?ani?ino?aiaiu ?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee (a
oii /enea e iaoiaeyueany aia caeiia, iai?eia? “A?aouey-ionoeueiaia”,
Ia?oey eneaineiai inaiaiaeaeaiey e ae?.), ooieoeeiie?otho iiiai/eneaiiua
?aeeaeiciua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey (ei?aie/aneea oeieu, iaae?ana,
ionoeueiaineea oieaa?neoaou), eneaineea iauanoaa, ienneiia?neea
i?aaiecaoeee, eiiia?/aneea i?aaei?eyoey (eneaineea aaiee, no?aoiaua
eiiiaiee).

I?iaeieaeaao nio?aiyoueny nenoaia ionoeueiaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.
Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 70-o – ia/aea 80-o aiaeia aeaeaeenue iiiuoee
aic?iaeaeaiey iaeioi?uo ii?i oa?e’aoa, ?aiaa oi?acaeiaiiuo ia i?aeoeea:
oaeiai, iai?eia?, aaaaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo ionoeueiaineei i?aaii oaeaniuo
iaeacaiee ca oaieiaiua i?anooieaiey a Iaeenoaia, Noaeaia (i?e
i?aceaeaioa Aeae. Ieiae?e), a?aaeeneeo iiia?oeyo.

A eiioea 70-o – ia/aea 80-o aiaeia ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeaeao noaee ea?aoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ionoeueiaineea
i?aaiecaoeee, aeaenoaothuea eae ia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii, oae e ia
iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiii o?iaia. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiay ec ieo –
I?aaiecaoeey eneaineie eiioa?aioeee (Ioiaccaiao ae-io’oaia? ae-eneaie),
nicaeaiiay a 1969 aiaeo e iauaaeeiythuay 44 ao?i-aceaoneeo ainoaea?noaa,
a oaeaea I?aaiecaoeeth inaiaiaeaeaiey Iaeanoeiu. Ionoeueiaineea no?aiu
i?aaenoaaeaiu a iae aeaaaie ainoaea?noa e i?aaeoaeuenoa. Naith
aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiioth ia inouanoaeaiea eneaineie nieeaea?iinoe,
IEE i?iaiaeeo /a?ac Aaia?aeueiue nae?aoa?eao ni ooaa-eaa?oe?ie a
Aeaeeaeaea e oeaeue ?yae niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee (Eneaineee
aaie ?acaeoey, Eneaineia aaaionoai iiainoae, Eneaineay i?aaiecaoeey ii
ia?aciaaieth, iaoea e eoeueoo?a, Eneaineee oiiae ?acaeoey e ae?.). Aeey
aeayoaeueiinoe IEE oa?aeoa?ia aeaienoaaiiinoue iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee: n
iaeiie noi?iiu, auaeaeaathony aioeeiia?eaeenoe/aneea eicoiae,
i?eieiathony ?aoaiey, iai?aaeaiiua i?ioea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiia?eaeecia
e neiiecia, n ae?oaie – ia?aaeei cao/ao aioeeiiioienoe/aneea i?ecuau,
iieo/atho iiaeaea?aeeo ?aaeoeeiiiua neeu a no?aiao ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

N?aaee iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ionoeueiaineeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
i?aaiecaoeee iaeaieueooth aeoeaiinoue i?iyaeytho Eeaa eneaineiai ie?a
(nicaeaia a 1962 aiaeo a Iaeea), Anaie?iue eneaineee eiia?ann, Anaie?iay
eneaineay i?aaiecaoeey, Eneaineee niaao Aa?iiu e ae?. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a
aeayoaeueiinoe yoeo i?aaiecaoeee ?aaeoeeiiiua, aioeeiiioienoe/aneea
yeaiaiou ea?atho cia/eoaeueii aieueooth ?ieue, /ai a aeayoaeueiinoe IEE.
Eo oneeey iai?aaeaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii ia i?iiaaaiaeo e ?ani?ino?aiaiea
Eneaia, i?aaiecaoeeth iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ano?a/ ?aeeaeiciuo aeayoaeae,
ieacaiea iiiiue ionoeueiaineei iaueiai a ?acee/iuo no?aiao.

IOOAIIAAe (Iooaiiaae, Iaaiiao)

Aoiaae a. ‘Aaae Aeeao (ieiei 570-632) ec ?iaea oaoei ?iaei-ieaiaiiie
a?oiiu eo?aeo – iniiaaoaeue ?aeeaee eneaia e ia?aie iaueiu ionoeueiai.
Ii i?aaenoaaeaieth ionoeueiai – i?i?ie Aeeaoa e aai iineaiiee, /a?ac
eioi?iai aue ia?aaeai ethaeyi oaeno Ei?aia.

?iaeeeny a Iaeea a iaaiaaoie, ii aeeceie ii ?iaenoao e iaeeaineie
ciaoe naiuea. Aai ioaoe oia? ai a?aiy oi?aiaie iiacaeee aei ?iaeaeaiey
Iaaiiaoa, iaoue – /a?ac ianeieueei eao. Iaaiiao ainieouaaeny a aeiia
naiaai aeaaea ‘Aaae ae-ioooaeeaa. N iieiaeuo eao ii aue ciaeii n
ea?aaaiiie oi?aiaeae, eiiaaea o/anoaiaae a oi?aiauo iiacaeeao. Iaaiiao
iaiyeny aanoe oi?aiaua aeaea aiaaoie iaeeaineie aaeiau Oaaeeaeaee aeio
Ooaaeeeo, ia eioi?ie aeaieeny a aic?anoa 25 eao. Iiea Oaaeeaeaea auea
aeeaa, Iaaiiao ia a?ae naaa ae?oaeo aeai. Iia ?iaeeea aio ianeieueei
neii/aaoeony a ieaaeai/anoaa nuiiaae, a oii /enea Eaneia, ii eioi?iio
Iaaiiaoa caaee Aao-e-Eanei, e /aou?ao aei/a?ae: ?oeaeo, Oii Eoenoi,
Caeiaa e Oaoeio.

Iaaiiao ethaee iaeeii/anoai e aeaai/anoeaua ?aciuoeaiey, /anoi
oaeaeyeny a ninaaeiea n Iaeeie ai?u; aue ciaeii n iniiaaie eoaeaecia e
o?enoeainoaa, ni acaeyaeaie a?aaeeneeo iiiioaenoia-oaieoia. Eiaaea
Iaaiiaoo auei ieiei 40 eao, ai a?aiy iaeiiai ec ia?eiaeia oaaeeiaiey aio
noaee yaeyoueny aeaeaiey, a caoai – ?a/aiey ecaia, iicaeiaa caienaiiua
ii iaiyoe n aai neia e ninoaaeaoea nayuaiioth eieao ionoeueiai – Ei?ai.

Ia?aiia/aeueii Iaaiiao enioaaeny ia/aaoeony “ioe?iaaiee”, ii caoai
oaa?eeny, /oi eca?ai aiaeanoaii a ea/anoaa iineaiieea (?anoe) e i?i?iea
(iaae), /oiau ianoe ethaeyi neiai aiaeuea. Ia?aua “ioe?iaaiey”, eioi?ua
Iaaiiao iuoaeny ia?aaeaoue naiei ni?iaee/ai, i?iaicaeaoaee aaee/ea
aaeeinoaaiiiai e aaeeiiai aiaa Aeeaoa, ioaa?aaee ?ani?ino?aiaiiia a
A?aaee iiiaiaiaeea, i?aaeoi?aaeaeaee i a?yaeouai aine?aoaiee ia?oauo,
Aeia noaea e iaeacaiee a aaeo anao, eoi ia aa?oao a Aeeaoa.

I?iiiaaaeue Iaaiiaoa auea ano?a/aia a Iaeea n ianiaoeie, iaeiaei
iinoaiaiii aie?oa iaai nia?aeanue a?oiia noi?iiieeia, /anoueth ec
ciaoiuo ?iaeia, /anoueth – ec iecia iaeeaineiai iauanoaa. Iaeeaineay
aa?oooea ia/aea i?aneaaeiaaoue e i?eoaniyoue iineaaeiaaoaeae Iaaiiaoa –
ionoeueiai. Nai Iaaiiao iaoiaeeeny iiae caueoie naiaai ?iaea e aai aeaau
– Aao Oaeeaa, iiiaea aea ec ionoeueiai, nianaynue io aiiaiee oaoaee ec
Iaeee a Yoeiieth. I?iiiaaaeue Iaaiiaoa, yeiau ia?aaeaaaaoay i?yioth
?a/ue Aeeaoa, a yoi a?aiy aeieacuaaea anaiiaouanoai Aeeaoa, /anoi
eiaiiaaaoaainy Ieeinoeeaui (?aoiai), aai aaee/ea, iieioth caaeneiinoue
io iaai /aeiaaea. I?e yoii Iaaiiao ionueae neooaoaeae e ecaanoiui ei
enoi?eyi i i?i?ieao i?ioeiai e i iiaeaoeo ae?aaieo ia?iaeao. Ei?ai eae
au iieacuaae, /oi i?i?i/anoai Iaaiiaoa – yaeaiea ecaanoiia e aiciiaeiia
e /oi iaiineooaiea i?i?ieo anaaaea aaei e iaeacaieth iaaa?othueo.

A eaeie-oi iiiaio (ieiei 618-620 aa.)aicieeea aiciiaeiinoue eiii?iienna
n iaeeaioeaie. Iaaiiao yeiau niaeaneeny i?eciaoue iniaia iieiaeaiea i?e
Aeeaoa ii/eoaaiuo a Iaeea aiaeiue – ae-Eao, ae-‘occu e Iaiao, a
iaeeaioeu – i?i?i/aneoth ienneth Iaaiiaoa e ia?aia ianoi Aeeaoa n?aaee
aiaia. Iaeiaei i?eie?aiea, ia?ooaaoaa aeaaiue i?eioeei iiaiai o/aiey –
no?iaia aaeeiiaiaeea, ia ninoiyeinue, e ai?ueaa iaino?eeanue. Oai
a?aiaiai oia?ea Oaiaeeaeaea, oia? Aao Oaeea. Iaaiiao eeoeeny
cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ii?aeueiie iiaeaea?aeee e caueou. Noaaoee aeaaie
?iaea Aao Eaoaa ioeacae Iaaiiaoo a iie?iaeoaeuenoaa.

Iaaiiao noae eneaoue noi?iiieeia aia Iaeee. Ii ia?auaeny n
i?iiiaaaeyie e ethaeyi, i?eacaeaaoei a ai?iae ii oi?aiaui aeaeai,
niaa?oee a aac?acoeueoaoiuo iieneao oaaaeeua iiacaeeo a Oa’eo. Iaeiiaoe,
ieiei 620 aiaea ii anooiee a oaeiia niaeaoaiea n a?oiiie aeeoaeae
Ean?eaa – e?oiiiai caieaaeaaeaeue/aneiai iacena i?eia?ii a 400 ei. e
naaa?o io Iaeee. AEeaoea oai ecu/aneea e i?eiyaoea eoaeaeci a?aaneea
ieaiaia iaoiaeeeenue a ninoiyiee caoyioaoeony e caiooaiiuo
iaaeaeioniaeoe, ec eioi?uo iie, ii a?aaeeneiio iau/ath, iaaeayeenue
aua?aoueny n iiiiuueth aaoi?eoaoiiai e aani?eno?anoiiai o?aoaeneiai
noaeuee. A ea/anoaa oaeiai noaeuee iie e i?eaeaneee Iaaiiaoa, i?eciaa
aai i?i?i/aneoth ienneth eae iniiao aai aaoi?eoaoa.

Nia/aea aieueoeinoai iaeeaineeo ionoeueiai, a caoai e nai Iaaiiao
ia?anaeeeenue a Ean?ea. Ii i?eaue ooaea 12 eee 18 ?aae’ I, o.a. 24 eee
22 naioya?y 622 aiaea. N ia?aiai ianyoea (ae-iooa??ai) yoiai aiaea
ionoeueiaia (i?e ‘Oia?a I) noaee ion/eouaaoue aiaeu iiaie y?u ii
oeaeae?a, o.a. ii aiaeo ia?anaeaiey Iaaiiaoa e Iaeee a Ean?ea, eioi?ue
noae iacuaaoueny Iaaeeiao ai-iaae (“ai?iae I?i?iea”) eee i?inoi
ae-Iaaeeia (Iaaeeia).

Iaaiiao i?aa?aoeeny ec i?inoiai i?iiiaaaeieea a iieeoe/aneiai eeaea?a
iaueiu, aeeth/aaoae iiia/aeo ia oieueei ionoeueiai. Iinoaiaiii
onoaiaaeeaaaony aai aaeeiiaeanoea a Iaaeeia. Aeaaiie iii?ie Iaaiiaoa
auee i?eoaaeoea n iei ec Iaeee ionoeueiaia – iooaaeaee?u e iaaeeineea
ionoeueiaia – aina?u. Iaaiiao iaaeayeny oaeaea iaeoe ?aeeaeicioth e
iieeoe/aneoth iiaeaea?aeeo o eoaeaaa Ean?eaa, ii aeaaea iiae/a?eiooi
eca?ae eeaeie Ea?onaeei. Iaeiaei iie ioeacaeenue i?eciaoue a Iaaiiaoa
ianneth ec iaeoaeaaa, aieaa oiai auniaeaaee i?i?iea Aeeaoa e aeaaea
anooieee a eiioaeou n a?aaaie Iaaiiaoa – iaeeaioeaie. E iei
i?eniaaeeieeenue e /anoue ae?oaeo ean?eaoeaa ec ycu/ieeia, eoaeaaa e
o?enoeai, ia?aiia/aeueii ioioii i?eiyaoeo eneai, ii caoai aunooieaoeo
i?ioea Iaaiiaoa. Yoa aioo?aiiyy iaaeeineay iiiiceoeey iaiaeiie?aoii
inoaeaeaaony a Ei?aia iiae eiaiai “eeoeaia?ia” (ioiaoeeoi).

Aioo?aiiaa ?aciaaeaaaiea iiiiaei ?acaeoeth i?aaenoaaeaiey ia eneaia
eae ia ioaeaeueiie ?aeeaee, oneeaieth aa a?aaeeneeo /a?o. Iaaiiao ana
io/aoeeaaa aiai?eo ia iniaie ?iee eneaia, i naaa eae i iineaaeiai
i?i?iea – “ia/aoe i?i?ieia”, eoaeae e o?enoeaia ii?eoeathony eae ieioea
aa?othuea, eneai iauyaeyaony eni?aaeaiea aeiiouaiiuo eie eneaaeaiee aiee
Aeeaoa. A i?ioeaiaan noaaioa onoaiaaeeaaaony iniaue ionoeueiaineee
aeaiue iauae iieeoau – iyoieoea, iauyaeyaony i nayoinoe ae-Ea’au e
ia?ainoaiaiiii cia/aiee iaeiiie/anoaa e iae. Iia noaiiaeony aeaaiie
nayouiae eneaia, e iae iieyueany ia/eiatho ia?auaoueny ai a?aiy iieeoau
(eeaea).

A Iaaeeia no?iyony ia?aay ia/aoue, aeii Iaaiiaoa, onoaiaaeeaathony
iniiau ionoeueiaineiai ?eooaea – i?aaeea iieeoau, iiiaaiey, iinoa,
i?ecuaa e iieeoaa, nai?ia ia aeaai/anoeaua ioaeaeu e o.ae. A i?iiiaaaeyo
Iaaiiaoa noaee oeene?iaaoueny i?aaeea aeecie iaueiu – i?eioeeiu
ianeaaeiaaiey, ?acaeaea eiouanoaa, a?aeini/aoaiey. Iauyaeythony cai?aou
ia aeii, naeieio e aca?oiua ea?u.

Ia/eiaao iniai auaeaeyoueny iieiaeaiea Iaaiiaoa eae iineaiieea Aeeaoa.
A “ioe?iaaieyo” iiyaeythony o?aaiaaiey iniaiai ii/oaiey e Iaaiiaoo, aio
“ieniinueathony” eneeth/aiey ec iaeioi?uo cai?aoia, iaycaoaeueiuo aeey
ae?oaeo.

Oaeei ia?acii, a Iaaeeia Iaaiiao noi?ie?iaae iniiaiua i?eioeeiu
?aeeaeiciiai o/aiey, ?eooaea e i?aaiecaoeee iaueiu. Yoe i?eioeeiu auee
au?aaeaiu a “ioe?iaaieyo” e /anoe/ii – a auneacuaaieyo, ?aoaieyo e
iinooieao naiiai Iaaiiaoa.

Iaeiie ec oi?i niei/aiey iaueiu e aa ?anoe?aiey n naiiai ia/aea
iaaeeineiai ia?eiaea noaea ai?ueaa n iaaa?othueie iaeeaioeaie. A 623
aiaeo ia/eiathony iaiaaeaiey ionoeueiai ia iaeeaineea ea?aaaiu, a 624
aiaeo i?e Aaae?a ionoeueiaia, aicaeaaeyaiua Iaaiiaoii, iiaaaeeee
iaeeaineee io?yae, e yoa iiaaaea auea aini?eiyoa e enoieeiaaia eae
aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi Aeeao – ia noi?iia ionoeueiai. A 625 aiaeo
iaeeaioeu iioee e Iaaeeia e n?aceeenue n ionoeueiaineei aieneii ieiei
ai?u Oooae. A aith Iaaiiao aue eaaei ?aiai a aieiao, ionoeueiaia iiianee
aieueoea iioa?e, iaeiaei iaeeaioeu ia ?acaeee naie oniao e ioioee. A
neaaeothuai aiaeo iie niiaa iiaeioee e Iaaeeia, ii auee inoaiiaeaiu
iai?iiie ionoeueiai o niaoeeaeueii aueiiaiiiai ?aa.

Oaniua nayce aioo?aiiae iaaeeineie iiiiceoeee n iaeeaioeaie, aa
iiiuoee iieooaiey ia aeeciue Iaaiiaoa e oii?iue ioeac io iieiiai aio
iiae/eiaiey aucuaaee ?aceea ioaaoiua ia?u. Iineaaeiaaoaeueii ec Iaaeeiu
auee ecaiaiu eoaeaeneea ieaiaia aaio eaeioea’ e aaio iaaee?,
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aaio eo?aeca auea ia?aaeoa, auee oaeou e iaeioi?ua
iaeaieaa aeoeaiua i?ioeaieee e niia?ieee Iaaiiaoa. Caoai auee nia?aiu
aieueoea neeu aeey ?aoeoaeueiie ai?ueau n Iaeeie.

A 628 aiaeo aieueoia aienei, e eioi?iio i?eniaaeeieeenue iaeioi?ua
ei/aaua ieaiaia, aeaeioeinue a noi?iio Iaeee e inoaiiaeeinue a ianoa/ea
ae-Ooaeaeaeea, ia naiie a?aieoea nayuaiiie oa??eoi?ee Iaeee.

Ia?aaiai?u iaaeaeo iaeeaioeaie e ionoeueiaiaie caaa?oeeenue ia?aie?eai.
?iaii /a?ac aiae Iaaiiao e aai niiaeaeaeieee niaa?oeee a niioaaonoaee n
aeiaiai?ii iaeia iaeiiie/anoai (‘oi?a).

Oai a?aiaiai e?aiea neea iaaeeineie iaueiu. Auee caaiaaaiu aiaaoua
iacenu Naaa?iie A?aaee Oaeaa? e Oaaeae, nithcieeaie Iaaiiaoa
noaiiaeeenue ana iiaua e iiaua ieaiaia. A yoeo oneiaeyo i?iaeieaeaeenue
oaeiua ia?aaiai?u iaeeaioeaa n Iaaiiaoii, iiiaea iaeeaioeu i?eieiaee
eneai ioe?uoi eee oaeii. A ?acoeueoaoa anaai yoiai iiaeioaaeoaa e Iaeea
a 630 aiaeo ionoeueiaineia aienei aani?aiyonoaaiii aioei a ai?iae.
Iaaiiao niaa?oee iieeiiaiea ae-Ea’aa, i/enoee aa io ycu/aneeo eaeieia.

Iaaiiao, iaeiaei, i?iaeieaeae aeeoue a Iaaeeia, eeoue iaeiaaeaeu (a
632 aiaeo) aua niaa?oea iaeiiie/anoai, iacuaaaiia i?iuaeueiui
(oeaeaeaeao ae-aaaea’). Iiaaaea iaae Iaeeie aua aieaa oe?aieea
oaa?aiiinoue Iaaiiaoa a naaa e iiaeiyea aai iieeoe/aneee e ?aeeaeiciue
aaoi?eoao a A?aaee. Ii iinueaao ?acee/iui oea?yi e aiaeaeyi A?aaee e
iaianoieeai iia?aie/iuo n A?aaeae iaeanoae Aecaioee e E?aia iineaiey n
i?aaeeiaeaieai i?eiyoue eneai. Iaeeaineea aiaiiua io?yaeu caoaaouaatho
iiaua iacenu a Naaa?iie A?aaee, iiyaeythony a Eaiaia. A Iaeeo
i?eacaeatho i?aaenoaaeoaee ?acee/iuo ieaiai e iaeanoae iieoino?iaa.
Iiiaea ec i?eacaeaaoeo aeiaiaa?eaathony n Iaaiiaoii i nithca. A
n?aaeaiee i?e Ooiaeia a 630 aiaeo ionoeueiaia e eo nithcieee ioaeee
aieueoia ianooieaiea ia Iaeeo a?aaeaeaaiuo ei/aauo ieaiai. A 631-632 aa.
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue A?aaee ieacuaaaony a oie eee eiie noaiaie
aeeth/aiiie a iieeoe/aneia iauaaeeiaiea, aicaeaaeyaiia Iaaiiaoii.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie Iaaiiao ii?aaeaeyao oeaeue yoiai
iauaaeeiaiey – ?ani?ino?aiaiea aeanoe eneaia ia naaa?; ii aeayoaeueii
aioiaeo aiaiioth yeniaaeeoeeth a Ne?eth. A ethia/ethea 632 aiaea a
aic?anoa 60-63 eao Iaaiiao iaiaeeaeaiii aeey naieo niiaeaeaeieeia
neii/aeny iinea iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiie aieacie. Nouanoaoao eaaaiaea, /oi
ii aue io?aaeai. Iioi?iiai ii a aeaaiie ia/aoe Iaaeeiiu (Ia/aoe
I?i?iea).

Ni nia?oueth Iaaiiaoa i?ae?aoeeny i?yiie “eiioaeo” iaueiu n Aeeaoii,
ath noaee oi?aaeyoue oaeeou – caianoeoaee I?i?iea a aeaea i?iaaaeaiey a
aeeciue caeiiia e i?aaee, caiiaaaeaiiuo Iaaiiaoii e eceiaeaiiuo a
Ei?aia. Ca i?aai auaeaeaeaiey ia iino oaeeoa naiaai i?aaenoaaeoaey
niia?ie/aee ?aciua a?oiiu ionoeueiai. Ia?aui oaeeoii noae iaeei ec
aeeaeaeoeo ni?aoieeia Iaaiiaoa – Aao Aae?.

Iinea nia?oe Oaaeeaeaee Iaaiiao caeeth/ae aieueoia eiee/anoai a?aeia.
I?aai I?i?iea ia?aauneoue ?ac?aoaiiia aeey ionoeueiaieia /enei aeai
(/aou?a) auei niaoeeaeueii iainiiaaii ei?aie/aneei “ioe?iaaieai”. A
aieueoeinoaa naiai yoe a?aee iineee iieeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, oe?aieyy
nayce Iaaiiaoa n ?acee/iuie ?iaei-ieaiaiiuie a?oiiaie. Ethaeiie aeaiie
Iaaiiaoa i?aaeaiea n/eoaao ‘A’eoo, aei/ue Aao Aae?a. Iinea nia?oe
I?i?iea iia iuoaeanue ea?aoue iieeoe/aneoth ?ieue a ea/anoaa o?aieoaey e
oieeiaaoaey aai caaaoia. Iniaie ethaiaueth Iaaiiaoa oaeaea
iieueciaaeanue eiioneay iaaieueieoea Ia?ey, ?iaeeaoay aio nuia Ea?aoeia,
oia?oaai a ieaaeai/anoaa e ai?ueei iieaeaiiiai I?i?ieii. Niaeanii
i?aaeaieth, o Iaaiiaoa auei 11 ioeoeeaeueiuo aeai, aeaayoue ec eioi?uo
auee aeeau a iiiaio aai eii/eiu.

Iaaiiao ia inoaaee ioaeneiai iioiinoaa. Aei/ue Iaaiiaoa Oaoeia auoea
caioae ca aai aeaith?iaeiiai a?aoa e aa?oiaiiai ae?oaa ‘Aee a. Aae
Oaeeaa. Io iioiieia eo nuiiaae – ae-Oanaia e ae-Oonaeia – i?ienoiaeyo
ana aeiaieueii iiiai/eneaiiua a naaiaeiyoiai ionoeueiaineii ie?a iioiiee
“naiuee I?i?iea” – naeeeaeu e oa?eou.

A nia?aiaiiie iaoea nouanoaoao iauaa iiaiea, /oi Iaaiiao
aeaenoaeoaeueii aeee e aeaenoaiaae, i?iecian cia/eoaeueioth /anoue neia,
ninoaaeythueo Ei?ai, iainiiaae iaueio ionoeueiai nia/aea a Iaeea, iioii
a Ean?eaa. A aeeciaiienaiee Iaaiiaoa (ne?a), a i?aaeaieyo i aai neiaao e
iinooieao (oaaeen), a eiiiaioa?eyo e Ei?aio (oaone?) e o.ae. ia?yaeo n
enoi?e/anee aeinoiaa?iuie naaaeaieyie niaea?aeeony iiiai iicaeieo
aeiaaaeaiee, aeiiuneia e eaaaiae. Ana aianoa iie e ninoaaeytho
ecaanoioth anai ionoeueiaiai aeia?aoeth I?i?iea.

Eneai a i?eioeeia ia iaaeaeyao Iaaiiaoa ieeaeeie naa?ouanoanoaaiiuie
/a?oaie. A Ei?aia iaiaeiie?aoii iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi ii oaeie aea
/aeiaae, eae e ana. Oai ia iaiaa aie?oa aai oeao?u iinoaiaiii aiciee
oeeee eaaaiae i /oaeanao. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo ?acaeaatho iaiaee Ei?aia,
eae, iai?eia?, eaaaiaea i oii, /oi aiaaeu ?annaeee iieiaeiio Iaaiiaoo
a?oaeue e iiuee aai na?aeoea, eee eaaaiaea i aai ii/iii iooaoanoaee ia
aieoaaiii aeeaioiii ae-Ao?aea a Ea?onaeei e iineaaeothuai aicianaiee ia
iaaana. Neiaeeeny ?yae eaaaiae i /oaeanao, nioai?aiiuo Iaaiiaoii, – a
aai i?enoonoaee iaaeieiay iaoea aeaao iieiei, iaeie ieue oaaoaao ia
iiiaeanoai ethaeae e o.ae. A oeaeii, iaeiaei, iiaeiaiiai iaoa?eaea a
i?aaeaieyo i Iaaiiaoa n?aaieoaeueii iaei.

A aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?a ia?ac Iaaiiaoa aue ia?aiia/aeueii iauaeoii
?aciuo iaiaaeie e iaaeiaiee a eiaa?noaa, aeanoieinoe, ethaino?anoee,
aicieeaee e aieoaaiua eaaaiaeu, i?eoyaeaaaoea o?enoeaineeo caaiaaaoaeae,
eae iai?eia?, i aenyuai a aicaeooa a?iaa Iaaiiaoa. I?e/oaeeeaui ia?acii
ii noaiiaeeny ii?ie iauaeoii oaeiiai iieeiiaiey, iai?eia? o oaiieea?ia.
I?inaaoeoaee n/eoaee Iaaiiaoa iaiaiueeii, eniieueciaaaoai ?aeeaeth a
oeaeyo nianoaaiiiai aeaaiiieo/ey. O/aiua e ioaeeoeenou Aa?iiu aeaeaee a
Iaaiiaoa e ?aaiethoeeiia?a, e ?aoi?iaoi?a, e ieaiaiiiai iieeoe/aneiai
aiaeaey, e aaeioiiaaiiiai i?i?iea, e o/aieea eoaeaeneeo ?aaaeiia eee
o?enoeaineeo iiiaoia, e e?oiiiai iieeoeea e o.ae. Oniao eneaia eae
?aeeaee e eae nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu aue iaania/ai e iauaeoeaiuie e
noauaeoeaiuie oaeoi?aie. A ?yaeo iineaaeieo iaeii ec aaaeoueo iano
caieiaao ee/iinoue Iaaiiaoa, aaeioiiaaiiiai i?aoi?a, i?iiiaaaeieea,
i?aaeaiiiai naiaio aeaeo aa?io/eoaey, oiiiai e aeaeiai iieeoeea,
oiaaoaai niaaeeiyoue eaeaae n ?aaeueiinoyie aeecie, aa?iinoue o?aaeeoeee
n ?aoeoaeueiuie iiaoanoaaie, i?eioeeieaeueiinoue n aeaeinoueth,
“aeaiie?aoeci” n aaeeiiaeanoeai, iyaeinoue n no?iainoueth e
?aoeoaeueiinoueth.

?aaeueiua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe Iaaiiaoa e oio ia?ac i?i?iea e
i?aaeoaey, iniiao aeey eioi?iai ii nicaeae naiae aeeciueth, ii?aaeaeytho
cia/aiea ?iee e ee/iinoe Iaaiiaoa a n?aaeiaaaeiaie enoi?ee Ainoiea e
Caiaaea.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Eneai a no?aiao Aeeaeiaai e N?aaeiaai Ainoiea. I., 1982;

2. Eneai e i?iaeaiu iaoeeiiaeecia a no?aiao Aeeaeiaai e N?aaeiaai
Ainoiea (eiiaoe 70-o – ia/aei 80-o aiaeia XX a.). I., 1986;

3. A. Nieiaueaa. Iaaiiao, aai aeeciue e ?aeeaeiciia o/aiea. Nia., 1902.

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