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Христианство и его распространение в мире

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O?enoeainoai e aai

?ani?ino?aiaiea a ie?a.

Ieai.

Aaaaeaiea

1. I?ienoiaeaeaiea o?enoeainoaa

2. Eoi aaoi?u Aaaiaaeea?

3. Ai?ueaa ca ia?ac O?enoa

4. Niia?ieee o?enoeainoaa

5. Aieneiiu e eo aeanoue

6. Eiia?aoi? Eiinoaioei

7. I?aaineaaea.

8. Eaoieeoeeci.

9. I?ioanoaionoai.

10. ?ani?ino?aiaiea o?enoeainoaa

11. O?enoeainoai a iaoe aeie.

Caeeth/aiea

Aaaaeaiea

I i?ienoiaeaeaiee o?enoeainoaa iaienaii ia?iiiia, ii nouanoao iaiauyoiia
eiee/anoai eiea, noaoae e ae?oaeo ioaeeeaoeee. Ia yoii iii?eua
o?oaeeeenue e o?enoeaineea aaoi?u, e oeeiniou-i?inaaoeoaee, e
i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaeaeneie e?eoeee, e aaoi?u-aoaenou. Yoi e iiiyoii,
iineieueeo ?a/ue eaeao ia enoi?e/aneii oaiiiaia – o?enoeainoaa,
nicaeaaoai iiiai/eneaiiua oea?eae, eiathuai ieeeeiiu iineaaeiaaoaeae,
caieiaaoai e aei neo ii? caieiathuai aieueoia ianoi a ie?a, a eaeaeiie,
yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie ia?iaeia e ainoaea?noa. O?enoeainoai
– (io a?a/aneiai Christos- iiiacaiiee) iaeia ec oae iacuaaaiuo ie?iauo
?aeeaee (ia?yaeo n aoaeaeeciii e eneaiii). O?enoeainoai ?ani?ino?aiaiii
a no?aiao Aa?iiu, Aia?eee, a Aano?aeee, a oaeaea a ?acoeueoaoa aeoeaiie
ienneiia?neie aeayoaeueiinoe – a Ao?eea, ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea e a ?yaea
?aeiiia Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea. Oi/iua aeaiiua i /eneaiiinoe iineaaeiaaoaeae
O?enoeainoaa ionoonoaotho. Aeaaiua eaeae O?enoeainoaa: eneoieoaeueiay
ienney Eenona O?enoa, i?aaenoiyuaa aoi?ia i?eoanoaea O?enoa, no?aoiue
noae, iaaaniia aicaeayiea e onoaiiaeaiea oea?noaa iaaaniiai. Oae /oi aea
oaeia O?enoeainoai. Anee aiai?eoue nianai ei?ioei, yoi ?aeeaey a iniiaa
eioi?ie eaaeeo aa?a a oi, /oi aeaa ouny/e eao iacaae Aia i?eoae a ie?.
Ii ?iaeeeny, iieo/ee eiy Eenon, aeee a Eoaeaa, i?iiiaaaeiaae, no?aaeae e
oia? ia e?anoa, eae /aeiaae. Aai nia?oue e iineaaeothuaa aine?aoaiea ec
ia?oauo eciaieei noaeueao anaai /aeiaa/anoaa. Aai i?iiiaaaeue iieiaeeea
ia/aei iiaie, aa?iiaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee. Aeey o?enoeai aea aeaaiui
/oaeii auei ia neiai Eenona, a Ii Nai. Aeaaiui aeaei Eenona auei aai
auoea: auoea n ethaeueie, auoea ia e?anoa.

O?enoeaia aa?yo a oi, /oi ie? nicaeai aaeeiui i?aaeaa/iui Aiaii, e
nicaeai aac cea.

A iniiaa aeiaiaoeee e aiaineoaeaiey O?enoeainoaa – Aeaeey, eee Nayuaiiia
ienaiea. Iiuo i?i?ieia eoaeaeneiai ia?iaea, iauaaoeony n Aiaii, e iiuo
ethaeae, ciaaoeo O?enoa a Aai caiiie aeecie, ninoaaeee Aeaeeth. Aeaeey-
yoi ia eceiaeaiea aa?io/aiey e ia enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa. Aeaeey- yoi
?anneac i oii, eae Aia eneae /aeiaaea.

O?enoeaineay oea?eiaue aeeth/eea a Aeaeeth eoaeaeneee Aaooee caaao;
eneeth/eoaeueii o?enoeaineie /anoueth Aeaeee yaeyaony Iiaue caaao (a
iaai aoiaeyo 4 Aaaiaaeey, iiaanoaothuea ia Eenona O?enoa, “Aeayiey
aiinoieia”, iineaiey aiinoieia e Aiieaeeinen). Iauei i?eciaeii,
iauaaeeiythuei o?enoeaineea aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, oea?eae, naeou, yaeyaony
eeoue aa?a a O?enoa, oioy e caeanue iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaotho
?aciiaeaney.

Iniiaiua aaoae O?enoeainoaa:

1. eaoieeoeeci;

2. i?aaineaaea (nouanoaoao 15 i?aaineaaiuo naiinoiyoaeueiuo oea?eaae e
ianeieueei aaoiiiiiuo oea?eaae.);

3. i?ioanoaionoai (aeeth/aao 3 iniiaiuo oa/aiey: ethoa?ainoai,
eaeueaeieci, aiaeeeainoai – e aieueoia /enei naeo, ec eioi?uo iiiaea
i?aa?aoeeenue a naiinoiyoaeueiua oea?eae: aaioenou, iaoiaeenou,
aaeaaioenou e ae?oaea.).

I?ienoiaeaeaiea o?enoeainoaa

O?enoeainoai aicieeei a Iaeanoeia a I a. i.y., eioi?ay, eae, ai?i/ai, e
ana N?aaeecaiiiii?uea , aoiaeeea a ninoaa ?eineie eiia?ee. Aai ?iaenoai
n eoaeaeciii, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, i?iyaeyaony a oii, /oi ia?aay
/anoue Aeaeee, Aaooee caaao, nayuaiiay eieaa eae eoaeaaa, oae e o?enoeai
(Aoi?ay /anoue aeaeee, Iiaue caaao, i?eciaaony oieueei o?enoeaiaie e
yaeyaony aeey ieo aeaaiaeoae). I ianiiiaiiie aeecinoe ia?aiia/aeueiiai
o?enoeainoaa eoaeaeneie iaueia ynnaiia naeaeaoaeuenoaotho oaeaea
iaeaeaiiua a 1947 a. naeoee a ?aeiia Ia?oaiai ii?y. Iauiinoue
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo i?eioeeiia o ynnaiia e ia?aiia/aeueiuo o?enoeai
i?ineaaeeaaaony a ianneaiecia – iaeeaeaiey nei?iai i?eoanoaey O/eoaey
i?aaaaeiinoe, a ynoaoieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaieyo, a enoieeiaaiee eaeae
a?aoiaiinoe /aeiaaea, a ia?yaeiinoe, a i?aaiecaoeee iauei e ioiioaiee e
nianoaaiiinoe. Ioiineoaeueii auno?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea o?enoeainoaa a
iaeiaceaoneeo i?iaeioeeyo ?eineie eiia?ee e a naiii ?eia auei
iaoneiaeaii ?yaeii nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Ia/aaoeeny e?ecen
aioe/iuo ii?yaeeia ii?iaeaeae anaiauoth iaoaa?aiiinoue a caao?aoiai
aeia, /oanoai aiaoee e aania?niaeoeaiinoe. Oneeeeny aioaaiieci ia
oieueei iaaeaeo ?aaaie e naiaiaeiuie, ii e iaaeaeo ?eineeie a?aaeaeaiaie
e iiaeaeaiiuie i?iaeioeee, iaaeaeo ?eineie iioiinoaaiiie ciaoueth e
iaiaaoeaoeieny anaaeieeaie.

?eineay ?aeeaey, eae e ?acee/iua ?aeeaeiciua o/aiey Ainoiea, ia iiaea
aeaoue ooaoaiea iaacaeieaiiui e a neeo naiaai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
ia iicaieyea ooaa?aeaeaoue eaeath anaiauae ni?aaaaeeeainoe, ?aaainoaa,
nianaiey. O?enoeainoai i?iaicaeaneei ?aaainoai anao ethaeae eae
a?aoieeia. Iii aeaei ?aao ooaoaiea, iaaeaaeaeo iieo/aiey naiaiaeu
i?inoui e iiiyoiui niiniaii – /a?ac iiciaiea aiaeanoaaiiie enoeiiu,
eioi?oth i?eian ia caieth O?enoin, /oiau iaanaaaea eneoieoue ana
/aeiaa/aneea a?aoe e ii?iee.

O?enoeaineay aiieiaaoeea ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi a ioee/ea io anao inoaeueiuo
?aeeaee ie?a o?enoeainoai ia nicaeaii ethaeueie, a aeaii /aeiaa/anoao
Aiaii a aioiaii e caeii/aiiii aeaea. Iaeiaei enoi?ey ?aeeaeiciuo o/aiee
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi o?enoeainoai ia naiaiaeii io ?aeeaeiciuo,
oeeinioneeo, yoe/aneeo e eiuo aeeyiee. O?enoeainoai onaieei e
ia?ainiuneeei i?aaeoanoaothuea eaeaeiua eiioeaioeee eoaeaecia,
ieo?aecia, ae?aaieo ainoi/iuo ?aeeaee, oeeinioneea aicc?aiey. Ana yoi
iaiaauaei e oeaiaioe?iaaei iiaoth ?aeeaeth, i?aa?auaei aa a iiuioth
eoeueoo?ii-eioaeeaeooaeueioth neeo, niiniaioth i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue naay
anai iaoeeiiaeueii-yoie/aneei eoeueoai e i?aa?aoeoueny a ianniaia
iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea. Onaiaiea ia?aiia/aeueiui o?enoeainoaii
i?aaeoanoaothuaai ?aeeaeicii-eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey ioithaeue ia
i?aa?auaei aai a eiiaeiia?ao ?ac?iciaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, a
niinianoaiaaei i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiio o/aieth iieo/eoue anaiauaa
i?eciaiea.

Iniaaiii caiaoiia aeeyiea ia iniiau o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey ieacaee
iaiieaoiieci Oeeiia Aeaenaiae?eeneiai (ie. 25 aei i. y. – ie. 50 i.y.) e
i?aanoaaiiia o/aiea ?eineiai noieea Naiaee (ie. 4 aei i. y. – 65 i. y.).
Oeeii niaaeeiee iiiyoea Eiaina a aeaeaeneie o?aaeeoeee, ?anniao?eaathuae
Eiain a ea/anoaa aioo?aiiaai caeiia, iai?aaeythuaai aeaeaeaiea Einiina.
Eiain o Oeeiia – nayuaiiia Neiai, iicaieythuaa nica?oeaoue Nouaa. Eiiai
iooe iiciaiey Aiaa ia nouanoaoao, oieueei /a?ac Eiain – Neiai. O/aiea
Oeeiia i i?e?iaeaeaiiie a?aoiaiinoe anao ethaeae, i iieayiee, i Nouai
eae ia?aiia/aea ie?a, ia yenoaca eae n?aaenoaa i?eaeeaeaiey e Aiao, i
eiainao, n?aaee eioi?uo Nui Aiaeee – aunoee Eiain e ae?oaea eiainu,
iacaaiiua aiaaeaie, – iineoaeeei iaeiie ec eaeaeiuo i?aaeiinueie aeey
o?enoeaineeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia ea?a?oee aeooiaiuo ia/ae, ieacaei
caiaoiia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea o?enoeainoaa.

I?aanoaaiiia o/aiea o?enoeainoaa, a iniaaiiinoe i aeinoeaeaiea
aeia?iaeaoaee, aeecei e acaeyaeai Eoe?aoeey Aiiay Naiaee. Aeaaiui aeey
anyeiai /aeiaaea Naiaea n/eoae aeinoeaeaiea naiaiaeu aeooa iin?aaenoaii
iniciaiey aiaeanoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Anee aea naiaiaea ia aoaeao
auoaeaoue ec aiaeanoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe, oi iia ieaaeaony ?aanoaii.
Oieueei iiaeiiaaiea noaeueaa ii?iaeaeaao iaaiciooeiinoue aeooa,
niaanoue, i?aanoaaiiua ii?iu, iaua/aeiaa/aneea oeaiiinoe. Ooaa?aeaeaiea
iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae caaeneo ia io ainoaea?noaaiiuo o?aaiaaiee, a
anaoeaei io iaueoaeueiinoe. Iiae iaueoaeueiinoueth Naiaea iiieiaao
i?eciaiea aaeeinoai /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu, acaeiioth ethaiaue, anaiauaa
nino?aaeaiea, caaioo eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea i ae?oaeo, aio iiaeiaiuo,
iacaaeneii io nioeeaeueiiai iieiaeaiey. Naiaea a ea/anoaa i?aanoaaiiiai
eiia?aoeaa i?eciae cieioia i?aaeei ii?aee, eioi?ia cao/aei neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

“Iaoiaeenue ni noiyueie ieaea oae, eae ou oioae au, /oiau n oiaith
ia?auaeenue noiyuea auoa”

Aeeceay oi?ioee?iaea niaea?aeeony a Aaaiaaeee io Iaooay:

“E oae ai anai, eae oioeoa, /oiau n aaie iinooiaee ethaee, oae
iinooiaeoa e au n ieie”.

O?enoeainoao auee nicao/iu onoaiiaee Naiaee i nei?ioa/iinoe e
iaiai/eainoe /oanoaaiiuo oaeiaieuenoaee, caaioa i ae?oaeo ethaeyo,
naiiia?aie/aiea a iieueciaaiee iaoa?eaeueiuie aeaaaie, iaaeiiouaiea
?acaoea no?anoae, aeaaeueiuo aeey iauanoaa e /aeiaaea, ne?iiiinoue e
oia?aiiinoue a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Aio eiiiie?iaaee e noi?ioee?iaaiiua
Naiaeie i?eioeeiu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie yoeee. Ee/iia nianaiea i?aaeiieaaaao
no?iaoth ioeaieo nianoaaiiie aeecie, naiioniaa?oainoaiaaiea, ia?aoaiea
aiaeanoaaiiiai ieeina?aeey.

Onaiaiea o?enoeainoai ?acee/iuo yeaiaioia ainoi/iuo eoeueoia,
yeeeienoe/aneie oeeinioee ia iaaaeiyei, a iaiaauaei iiaoth ?aeeaeth.
Eiaiii iiyoiio iia ioiineoaeueii auno?i aioea a iauee iioie
n?aaeecaiiiii?neie eoeueoo?u.

Eoi aaoi?u Aaaiaaeea?

Neieueei nouanoaoao o?enoeainoai, noieueei i?iaeieaeathony nii?u i
ee/iinoe aai iniiaaoaey. ?anneacu ia Eenona O?enoa, iienaiiua a
Aaaiaaeeyo io Iaooay, Ia?ea, Eoee e Eiaiia, a oaeaea a iineaieyo e
aeayieyo aiinoieia i Aiaa-nuia, yaeaoainy a ie? a ia?aca niaa?oaiiiai
/aeiaaea, /oiau acyoue ia naay a?aoe ethaeae e nianoe eo aeey aa/iie
aeecie, aucuaaee iaiaei niiiaiee. Ieacaeinue, /oi aeaaea niiauaaiua eie
naaaeaiey aucuaatho niiiaiey. Aaaeue onoaiiaeaii, /oi iie ia ec ia?auo
?oe, oioy eeoea, n/eoathueany eo aaoi?aie, aeieaeiu auee ana
?anneacaiiia oai ciaoue ii ee/iui iaaethaeaieyi. Iaaeaeo oai yoe yeiau
i/aaeaeoeu niauoee, a oaeaea eo ae?oa e eaoiienaoe Eoea – ana iie
eniieueciaaee /oaeea enoi/ieea. Oae, iai?eia?, Iaooae e Eoea aeeth/eee a
naie Aaaiaaeey ii/oe aanue oaeno Ia?ea e o.ae.

Naaiaeiy iu ciaai oaea, /ai yoi iauynieoue. Aaaiaaeey iaienaiu ia
Iaooaai, ia Ia?eii, ia Eiaiiii e, auoue iiaeao, aeaaea ia Eoeie. Eo
nicaeaee eee nia?aee ec ?aciuo ienueiaiiuo enoi/ieeia e onoiuo i?aaeaiee
ae?oaea, iaecaanoiua iai aaoi?u, /uee iiaeeeiiua eiaia iu, aeieaeii
auoue, oae ieeiaaea e ia ociaai. Aeaaea eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue
auioaeaeaia auea i?eciaoue, /oi aii?in ia aaoi?noaa Aaaiaaeee ioithaeue
ia cae?uo, e iaeuecy aic?aaeaoue i?ioea aeaeueiaeoaai iao/iiai
enneaaeiaaiey yoie i?iaeaiu. O/anoieee 2 Aaoeeaineiai niai?a, ianoaeaeay
“Eiinoeoooeeth ia ioe?iaaiee”, ioaa?aee aieueoeinoaii aieinia
neaaeothuee ioieo: “Aiaeuey oea?eiaue anaaaea ooaa?aeaeaea e
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aaoi?aie Aaaiaaeee yaeythony oa, /uee eiaia iacaaiu a
eaiiia nayuaiiuo eiea, a eiaiii: Iaooae, Ia?e, Eoea e Eiaii”. Aianoi
ia?a/eneaiey yoeo eiai ?aoeee aienaoue – “nayoua aaoi?u”.

Eoae, aaoi?u Aaaiaaeee ia auee i/aaeaeoeaie niauoee. Yoi auee
eiiieeyoi?u, /a?iaaoea naie naaaeaiey ec oieueeei?iie o?aaeeoeee
o?enoeaineeo iauei, aaea oaea oiaaea iooai ni/aoaiey oaeoia n eaaaiaeaie
nicaeaaaeny iaeee noa?aioei aeia?aoee Eenona, iacuaaaiue iaeioi?uie
enneaaeiaaoaeyie “i?ioiaaaiaaeeai” eee “i?aaaaiaaeeai”. Neiiioe/aneea
Aaaiaaeey aace?othony ia oaeii iauai enoi/ieea, e yoei iauyniyaony eo
noiaenoai, iineoaeeaoaa iniiaaieai aeey oaaaeaeaiey, /oi eo aaoi?u,
aoaeo/e i/aaeaeoeaie niauoee, iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa ?anneacuaatho
oi, /oi a naiii aeaea i?ienoiaeeei. Ethaiiuoii, /oi yoiai oaaaeaeaiey ia
iieieaaaei aeaaea Aaaiaaeea io Eiaiia. Iii auei nicaeaii a niaa?oaiii
eiie n?aaea, aia aeeyiey neiiioe/aneiai ia?acoea e aeaao niaa?oaiii eiie
ia?ac Eenona.

Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue ie/oiaeiia cia/aiea Aaaiaaeee eae enoi/ieeia
eioi?iaoeee i iiaeeeiiie aeia?aoee Eenona. Ii a Iiaii caaaoa anoue aeaa
i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua a neeo naiaai aeai?a eaaeoony aieaa
iaiaaeaaeeaathueie. Yoi, i?aaeaea anaai, “Aeayiey nayouo aiinoieia”, a
oaeaea nai?iee iineaiee, i?eienuaaaiuo na. Iaaeo, na. Eaeiao, na. Eiaiio
e na. Eoaea.

Iiaiai?ei i?aaeaea anaai i iineaieyo, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaith aaaeiue
enoi/iee aeey eco/aiey enoi?ee o?enoeainoaa.

Oeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi ec /aou?iaaeoeaoe iineaiee
Iaaea eeoue /anoue iiaeii n/eoaoue iiaeeeiiuie. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee
n/eoatho iiaeeeiiuie anaai /aou?a iineaiey. Yoo oi/eo c?aiey
noi?ioee?iaae a na?aaeeia ieioaoaai noieaoey ecaanoiue i?ioanni?
aiaineiaey a Othaeiaaia Oa?aeeiaiae Aao?, i?eoaaeoee iinea
oeeieiae/aneiai aiaeeca oaenoia e auaiaeo, /oi Iaaae aue aaoi?ii oieueei
iineaiee e ei?eioyiai, aaeaoai e e Oeeeiiio.

Yoio auaiae, n iaeiie eeoue iii?aaeie, iiaeoaa?aeeee nia?aiaiiua
aeaeaenou ec ai?iaea Yaeeiao?aa: i?ioanni? aiaineiaey Iaea?aai? e aai
nio?oaeiee Ii?oii. A naieo eeiaaenoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo iie
ainiieueciaaeenue eiiiuethoa?ii e ia iniiaa iaoaiaoe/aneeo au/eneaiee
iaii?iaa?aeeii onoaiiaeee, /oi aaeeinoai ycuea e noeey naycuaaao iyoue
iineaiee: e ?eieyiai, e ei?eioyiai (iaa iineaiey), e aaeaoai e e
Oeeeiiio. Ia iiaeeaaeeo niiiaieth, /oi iie iaienaiu iaeiei /aeiaaeii. A
iineieueeo ia iniiaaiee ?yaea i?eciaeia, ia eioi?uo iu caeanue ia aoaeai
inoaiaaeeaaoueny, n/eoaaony aeieacaiiui, /oi aaoi?ii aeaoo iineaiee
(ia?aia iineaiea e ei?eioyiai e iineaiea e aaeaoai) yaeyaony na. Iaaae,
oi i?eoiaeeony i?eciaoue aai oaeaea e aaoi?ii o?ao inoaeueiuo.

*oi aei inoaeueiuo iineaiee, i?eienuaaaiuo Iaaeo, oi oaea ynii, /oi iie
i?eiaaeeaaeao iaecaanoiui aaoi?ai, eioi?ua ii iau/ath oiai a?aiaie
iacaaeenue eiaiai aiinoiea, /oiau i?eaeaoue aieueooth cia/eiinoue naiei
aeiaiaeai. Iineaiey e Oeiioath e e Oeoo, iai?eia?, ioiinyony e ia?aie
iieiaeia 2 aaea: a ieo io?aaeaia oaeay ianoaiiaea a o?enoeaineeo
iaueiao, eaeay auea i?inoi iaaiciiaeia i?e aeecie Iaaea. Oai eaeao ?a/ue
i ai?ueaa n a?anyie, aicieeoeie, eiaaea Iaaea oaea aeaaii ia auei a
aeeauo.

*oi aea i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iiaeeeiiua iineaiey Iaaea? Ae?aooea iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi aaoi? iiaeieiaao oai ?yae aeieo?eiaeueiuo e i?aanoaaiiuo
i?iaeai, aieiiaaaoeo a oo ii?o o?enoeaineea iaueiu. Ii aeaaiie oeaeueth
aaoi?a iineaiee yaeyaony i?iiiaaaeue oaieiae/aneie eaeae, eioi?oth, oioy
iia e ia/aea oaea oiaaea ca?iaeaeaoueny n?aaee o?enoeai a ?acoeueoaoa
neie?aoe/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo yeeeienoe/aneeo oa/aiee, eeoue
Iaaae iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?ac?aaioae e eceiaeee.

Aeaaiia a aai o/aiee – aa?a a oi, /oi Eenon O?enoin yaeyaony aiaii,
eioi?ue ?aaee eneoieaiey ia?ai?iaeiiai a?aoa /aeiaa/anoaa iicaieee naay
?aniyoue, aine?an, aicianny ia iaaana e ni aeiy ia aeaiue aa?iaony,
/oiau onoaiiaeoue oea?noai aiaeuea ia caiea.

A yoie eiioeaioeee Eenon, eae eiie?aoiay enoi?e/aneay ee/iinoue,
anoanoaaiii, ioiaeaeaaeny ia caaeiee ieai. Iaaae, iiaeiuaiiue naiae
eaeaae, ia eioa?aniaaeny caiiie noi?iiie aeecie Eenona. A naieo
iineaieyo ii iacuaaao aai anaaaea “O?enoin”, /oi cia/eo ianney, eee nui
aiaeee, nianeoaeue e nui /aeiaa/aneee.

Aiciiaeiinoue oaeie o?aeoiaee Eenona iaeaa/aei Iaaeo oi ianoiyoaeuenoai,
/oi ii ia aue ee/ii ciaeii n Eenonii e ia ieacaeny iioiio a iieiaeaiee
oao aa?aaa ec Aaaiaaeey io Eiaiia, eioi?ua aii?ioaee n oaeanii e
ecoieaieai: “Ia Eenon ee yoi, nui Eineoia, eioi?iai iooea e iaoue iu
ciaai?”. Eae aea aiai?eo ii: “ss nioae n iaaan?”(6:42)

Ana, /oi Iaaae ciae ia Eenona, ii neuoae io ae?oaeo, a iniiaiii io aai
?aaiinoiuo iineaaeiaaoaeae, eioi?ua a naieo ainoi?aeaiiuo ainiiieiaieyo
ecia?aaeaee aai naa?o/aeiaa/aneei nouanoaii. Yoa ioaea/aiiay o?aeoiaea,
i?e eioi?ie Eenon eeoeeny eiie?aoiuo /a?o e noae eneeth/eoaeueii
aiieiuaieai oaieiae/aneie eaeae, i?eaaea e oiio, /oi a iineaieyo Iaaea
Eenon-/aeiaae ii/oe iieiinoueth ionoonoaoao.

*oi eanaaony inoaeueiuo iineaiee, oi iiiaea o/aiua (a iniaaiiinoe
iaiaoeeee aeaeaeno Ia?enai) i?yii cayaeytho, /oi ie iaeii ec ieo ia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo oeacaiiiio a eaiiia aaoi?o. Yoi, eae au?aaeathony
niaoeeaeenou, “inaaaeiyiea?aou”. Iaeuecy oaea onoaiiaeoue, eoi i?eienae
aaoi?noai eo niioaaonoaothuei aiinoieai: naie aaoi?u eee aieaa iicaeiea
ia?aien/eee. Aiciiaeii, /oi iineaiey eaeia-oi a?aiy auee aiiieiiuie, /oi
niinianoaiaaei aicieeiiaaieth iiaeiaiuo ioeaie eee niciaoaeueiuo
ienoeoeeaoeee. Iaeioi?ia eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao ooo ia?aia iineaiea na.
Eiaiia, eai i/aaeaeii, /oi aai iaienae aaoi? /aoaa?oiai Aaaiaaeey.

Ana auoaneacaiiia ia cia/eo, iaeiaei, /oi iineaiey Iiaiai caaaoa ia
i?aaenoaaeytho oeaiiinoe aeey enoi?eeia e ?aeeaeiaaaeia. Oeeoeaiuie
ieacaeenue eo ioeoeeaeueiua aaoi?u, ii ia eo niaea?aeaiea. Iu iaoiaeei a
ieo aeinoiaa?iue, aeeaie, iaienaiiue ii ai?y/ei neaaeai niauoee ?anneac
i ?acee/iuo yaeaieyo, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey auoa, i?aaia e nioeeaeueiuo
ioiioaiee a ?annayiiuo ii ie?o o?enoeaineeo iaueiao.

Aaoi?u iineaiee, oioy e ne?uoua iiae ianeie oeeoeaiuo eiai, enoi?e/anee
aeinoiaa?iu. Aaaeue iie aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaiaaee e no?anoii
ai?ieenue ca yoiai iiaiai /aeiaaea. Ii yoi ia auee aiinoieu. Iie ia
ciaee ee/ii Eenona e ia iiaoo n/eoaoueny i/aaeaeoeaie aai aeecie e
aeayiee. Iiyoiio a iineaieyo ia ie/aai oaeiai, /oi iiaei au
i?eaiaeeoueny aeey ainnicaeaiey aeia?aoee O?enoa.

“Aeayiey aiinoieia” – yoi aaeeinoaaiiue aeioaaeoee aei ian ia?aienoi/iee
ii enoi?ee o?enoeainoaa aei 3 aaea, inaauathuee /?acau/aeii aaaeiia
o?eaeoeaoeeaoea – ia?eiae io ?aniyoey Eenona aei iiyaeaiey a ?eia na.
Iaaea a 61 – 63 aiaeao. Iu ciaai eae aue aiaao niauoeyie yoio ia?eiae e
eaeia ii eiae ?aoathuaa cia/aiea a enoi?ee iiaie ?aeeaee, iiyoiio
iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi o/aiuo i/aiue eio?eaiaae aii?in, ianeieueei
i?aaaeeau ea?oeiu, ecia?aaeaiiua a “Aeayieyo aiinoieia”, iiaeii ee
n/eoaoue yoi ni/eiaiea aeinoiaa?iui enoi/ieeii.

I?aaeaea anaai anoae aii?in ia aaoi?a yoiai i?iecaaaeaiey e a?aiaie aai
nicaeaiey. N/eoaaony ianiiiaiiui, /oi “Aeayiey aiinoieia” yaeythony
i?iaeieaeaieai Aaaiaaeey io Eoee e ninoaaeytho aianoa n yoei aaaiaaeeai
aaeeioth eiiiiceoeeth iaeiiai e oiai aea aaoi?a, ?acaeaeaiioth ia aeaa
oiia, niioaaonoaothuea oiaaeaoiei aeaoi naeoeai. Yoi aeaeii oioy au ec
ia?aie o?acu “Aeayiee aiinoieia”, aaea aiai?eony: “Ia?aoth eieao iaienae
y e oaaa, Oaioee, i anai, /oi Eenon aeaeae e /aio o/ee …”

Anoue e ae?oaea aeiaiaeu a iieueco iauaai aaoi?noaa yoeo aeaoo eiea
Iiaiai caaaoa. Oeeieiae onoaiiaeee, iai?eia?, oiaeaeanoai noeey e
eaeneee, ia aiai?y oaea i oii, /oi iaa eieae aaoi? iinayuaao iaeiiio e
oiio aea eeoeo, iaeiaio Oaioeeo. Iieacaoaeueii e oi, /oi i?ieia e
“Aeayieyi aiinoieia” yaeyaony eae au iiaoi?aieai iineaaeiae aeaau
Aaaiaaeey io Eoee, oi anoue caaiii, naycuaathuei a iaeii oeaeia iaa
/anoe iiaanoaiaaiey.

Niaeanii oea?eiaiie o?aaeeoeee, aaoi?ii iaaeo eiea yaeyaony Eoea,
nae?aoa?ue e a?a/ na. Iaaea. Ii a?yae ee oaeanony eiaaea-eeai a oi/iinoe
onoaiiaeoue ee/iinoue aaoi?a Aaaiaaeey io Eoee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e
“Aeayiee aiinoieia”.

Aii?in i a?aiaie nicaeaiey “Aeayiee aiinoieia” ieacaeny i?iua, oioy e
caeanue ia iaioeinue aac o?oaeiinoae. A oaenoa ni/eiaiey iao ie iaeiiai
iaiaea ia ?ac?ooaiea Ea?onaeeia, e iaeioi?ua aeaeaenou iaoee yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai aeinoaoi/iui aeey oiai, /oiau caeeth/eoue, /oi “Aeayiey
aiinoieia” auee iaienaiu aei 70 aiaea. Iaeiaei iie i?e yoii oionoeee ec
aeaeo, /oi “Aeayiey aiinoieia” – aoi?ay /anoue Aaaiaaeey io Eoee, /oi
yoi, a nouiinoe, iaeii ni/eiaiea, i?eiaaeeaaeauaa ia?o iaeiiai aaoi?a.
Iaaeaeo oai a oaenoa Aaaiaaeey eiathony oiiieiaiey i ?ac?ooaiee
Ea?onaeeia e aeaaea i ?ai?anneyo, eaeei iiaeaa?aae iineaaeiaaoaeae
O?enoa eiia?aoi? Aeiieoeeai, oea?noaiaaaoee a 81-96 aiaeao. A iineieueeo
“Aeayiey aiinoieia” auee iaienaiu iicaea eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, a iaeii
a?aiy n aaaiaaeeai, oi eo neaaeoao ioianoe i?eia?ii e 90 aiaeo.

Ai?ueaa ca ia?ac O?enoa

A eiia/iii n/aoa, nii?u ia Eenona O?enoa i?eaaee e ia?aciaaieth aeaoo
iniiaiuo oeie – ieoieiae/aneie e enoi?e/aneie.

I?aaenoaaeoaee ieoieiae/aneie oeieu n/eoatho, /oi iaoea ia ?aniieaaaao
aeinoiaa?iuie aeaiiuie ia Eenona O?enoa eae enoi?e/aneie ee/iinoe.
Aaaiaaeueneea ?anneacu i iai, iaienaiiua iiiai eao nionoy iinea
iienaiiuo a ieo niauoeyo, ia niaea?aeao ?aaeueiie enoi?e/aneie iniiau.
E?iia oiai, eae enoi?e/aneea enoi/ieee ia/aea I a. ie/aai ia aiai?yo i
noieue iai?aeeia?iuo niauoeyo, eae aine?anaiea ec ia?oauo, i /oaeanao,
niaa?oaiiuo O?enoii, i aai i?iiiaaaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeiei ec
aaaeiuo a?aoiaioia a iieueco naiae oi/ee c?aiey ieoieiae/aneay oeiea
n/eoaea aiaiaeanoeineia i?ienoiaeaeaiea o?enoeainoaa, a oaeaea iaee/ea
aiaeiaee ni neacaieyie i ?iaeaeathueony, oie?athueo e aine?anathueo
aiaao a ae?oaeo ainoi/iuo eoeueoo?ao, iaee/ea a Aaaiaaeeyo aieueoiai
/enea i?ioeai?a/ee, iaoi/iinoae, ?acii/oaiee.

Aoi?ay – enoi?e/aneay – oeiea n/eoaao Eenona O?enoa ?aaeueiie
ee/iinoueth, i?iiiaaaeieeii iiaie ?aeeaee, eioi?ue noi?ioee?iaae ?yae
i?eioeeieaeueiuo eaeae, caeiaeeaoeo iniiao o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey.
?aaeueiinoue Eenona iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ?aaeueiinoueth oeaeiai ?yaea
aaaiaaeueneeo ia?niiaaeae, oaeeo, eae Eiaii E?anoeoaeue, aiinoie Iaaae,
e ae?oaeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiiuo n O?enoii aaaiaaeueneie oaaoeie. A
?anii?yaeaiee iaoee nae/an eiaaony ?yae enoi/ieeia, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo
auaiaeu enoi?e/aneie oeieu. Oae, a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie
niaea?aeaueeny a “Ae?aaiinoyo” Eineoa Oeaaey (37-iinea 100) o?aaiaio ia
Eenona O?enoa n/eoaeny iicaeiaeoae eioa?iieyoeeae. A o?aoueae aeaaa 18
-ie eieae ?a/ue iieaeao i ?eineii i?ieo?aoi?a

Iiioee Ieeaoa e, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, neacaii neaaeothuaa: “A oi a?aiy aeee
Eenon, ioae?ue ioae, anee oieueei aai iiaeii iacaaoue /aeiaaeii, eai ii
aue /oaeioai?aoe, o/eoaeue ethaeae, ?aaeinoii aini?eieiaaoeo
aicaauaaioth ei enoeio, e iaoae iiiai i?eaa?aeaioeaa n?aaee eoaeaaa e
yeeeiia. Yoi aue O?enoin. Oioy, ii aeiiino ciaoiuo ethaeae iaoaai
ia?iaea, Ieeao i?eeacae ?aniyoue aai, aai o/aieee, ethaeaoea aai,
inoaeenue aio aa?iuie…io iaai aaaeoo naia iacaaiea o?enoeaia, naeoa
eioi?uo n oao ii? ia i?ae?auaaony…”. Iaeiaei iaeaeaiiue a 1971 a. a
Aaeioa a?aaneee oaeno “Ae?aaiinoae”, auiieiaiiue aaeiaoneei aieneiiii
Aaaieai a O a., aeaao ana iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi Oeaaeai iienai
iaeei ec ecaanoiuo aio i?iiiaaaeieeia ii eiaie Eenon, oioy a iienaiee
Oeaaey ia aiai?eony i niaa?oaaiuo O?enoii /oaeanao e aai aine?anaiea
iienuaaaony ia eae oaeo, a eae iaeei ec iiiai/eneaiiuo ?anneacia ia yoo
oaio.

I?aaenoaaeoaee e ieoieiae/aneie, e enoi?e/aneie oeieu aianee
cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a ecaeaiea aeaeaeneeo oaenoia, a oaeaea ae?oaeo
enoi/ieeia, ioiinyueony e ia?aui aaeai o?enoeainoaa. A iineaaeiea aiaeu
aieueoeinoai ?aeeaeiaaaeia ?acaeaeytho iiaiea i?aaenoaaeoaeae
enoi?e/aneie oeieu

?ani?ino?aiaiea o?enoeainoaa a ?eineie eiia?ee

Anee ia n/eoaoue Iaeanoeiu e Ne?ee, iaeaieaa aiooeoaeueiuo oniaoia iiaay
?aeeaey aeiaeeanue a ai?iaeao Iaeie Acee, Aaeoeeneiai iieoino?iaa e
Eoaeee – oai aicieeee naiinoiyoaeueiua iaueiu iineaaeiaaoaeae Eenona
O?enoa, oaea ioaeaeeaoeany io ianoiuo neiaaia. Ii/oe ana ianaeaiea
iaeioi?uo iaeiaceaoneeo i?iaeioeee ia?aoeeinue a o?enoeainoai.

I?aaeaiea , iiaeoaa?aeaeaaiia iiaaeoeie enneaaeiaaieyie, niiauaao ia
oniaoiie i?iiiaaaee aiinoiea Iao?a a Iaeie Acee, a iicaea- a Aaeioa e
?eia. Aai aeeaeaeoeie niiaeaeaeieeii e i?iaeieaeaoaeai iennee a Aaeioa
aue nayoie aiinoie e aaaiaaeeno Ia?e.

Aeaei naieo nia?aoueaa-aiinoieia a Iaeie Acee i?iaeieaeee na. Eiaii
Aiaineia. Oeaio?ii aai i?iiiaaaee noae ai?iae Yoan, ioeoaea ii oaeaea
?oeiaiaeee aeeciueth o?enoeaineeo iauei a iaeiaceaoneeo ai?iaeao Nie?ia,
Ia?aaia, Oeaoe?a, Na?aeena, Oeeaaeaeueoee e Eaiaeeeee.

I?aaeaiea niiauaao e i i?iiiaaaeie/aneeo o?oaeao ae?oaeo aiinoieia. Oae,
Iaooae iinea i?iiiaaaee a Eoaeaa, Ne?ee e Ia?nee io/aie/anee ieii/ee
naith aeeciue a Yoeiiee. Io/aie/aneoth eii/eio i?eiyee iinea i?iiiaaaee
a A?iaiee aiinoieu Aa?oieiiae e Eoaea Oaaeaeae. A caieyo e naaa?o io
Iaeie Acee i?iiiaaaeiaae aiinoie Aiae?ae, eioi?ue, ii i?aaeaieth, aeioae
aei Aeiai?a aei ianoa, aaea iicaea au?in Eeaa.

Niaeanii i?aaeaieth, aiinoie Oeeeii i?iiiaaaeiaae ai O?eaee, Oiia – a
Eiaeee, Eaeia Aeoaaa – a Ne?ee e Aaeioa, na. aiinoie Neiii Ceeio – ia
Eaaeaca , ia oa??eoi?ee iuiaoiae Aaoacee.

?ani?ino?aiaiea o?enoeainoaa i?iaeieaeeee aeeaeaeoea o/aieee e i?aaiieee
aiinoieia, eioi?ua aua i?e aeecie naieo o/eoaeae nii?iaiaeaeaee eo a
ienneiia?neeo iooaoanoaeyo.

Ianiio?y ia i?aneaaeiaaiey, o?enoeainoai auno?i ?ani?ino?aiyeinue.
Aaaeue ?eineay eiia?ey, aeanoieay aiieoaeueieoea o?enoeai, iauaaeeiyea
iiiaeanoai ia?iaeia a iaeii niiauanoai, /oi cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/aei
i?iiiaaaeue Aaaiaaeea a i?aaeaeao a?aei-?eineiai ie?a. N?aaeecaiiiii?uea
oaeaea aeaaii?eyonoaiaaei ?ani?ino?aiaieth o?enoeainoaa. Oaea ai 2 a.
iii auei i?eianaii a Aaeeeth o/aieeaie Iieeea?ia Nie?ineiai.

O/aiea O?enoiai ?ani?ino?aiyeinue nia/aea ia ainoiea, n?aaee aa?aaa e
a?aeia, a no?aiao a?a/aneie ?a/e. Aaaiaaeey auee iaienaiu ia a?a/aneii
ycuea. A ia?aua iieoi?anoa eao a ?eia e caiaaeiie /anoe eiia?ee auei
iaei iineaaeiaaoaeae o?enoeainoaa. A?aee i?eieiaee o?enoeainoai nei?aa,
iioiio /oi iie auee iya/a i?aaaie e ia?aciaaiiaa. O?enoeaineia o/aiea ia
aeaeaei ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ethaeueie ii eo i?ienoiaeaeaieth. Aiinoie
aiai?eo, /oi iao ie yeeeia, ie eoaeay, ie naiaiaeiiai, ie ?aaa, a ana –
iaeii ai O?enoa.

O?enoeaia ninoaaeyee nia/aea iaaieueoea ae?oaeaneea iauanoaa. *eaiu yoeo
iauanoa noiaeeeenue ia iieeoao e iauoth aanaaeo, iaueiiaaiii aa/a?ii, a
iaiyoue Oaeiie aa/a?e O?enoiaie. I?ienoiaeeea a?aoneay o?aiaca, ai a?aiy
eioi?ie i?e/auaeenue. Iioii noaee ia?aiineoue i?e/auaiea ia neaaeothuaa
ca o?aiacie oo?i.

O?aiacu ninoaaeyeenue ia iauea aciinu, e naiaio aciino iiiaea
i?eaaaeyee aea?u a iieueco aaaeiuo, ieeinouiae e aeaaioai?eoaeueiui
aeaeii iie oioaee i/enoeoue aeooo naith. Aaaeiuo iacuaaee
“ae?aaioeaiiuie nie?iaeuaie oea?eae”. Nayoui aeaeii n/eoaeinue o
o?enoeai e inaiaiaeaeaiea ?aaa. “?aaa aueoieoue – cia/eo aeooo nianoe”.
O?enoeaineee aieneii Eei?eai o/ee: “A ieaiaiiuo a?aoueyo au aeieaeiu
aeaeaoue O?enoa e aueoiaoue Oiai, Eoi ian aueoiee io nia?oe, au aeieaeiu
au?aaoue ec ?oe aa?aa?ia Oiai, eoi ian au?aae o aeeaaiea”. O?enoeaia
i?acaeiiaaee o?e aeiy a iaaeaea: n?aaeo, iyoieoeo e aine?anaiuea, a
iaiyoue i ieaiaiee O?enoa, io/aie/anoaa Aai e aine?anaiee. A i?acaeieee
iie ia oe?aoaee aeaa?ae e oeeoe oeaaoaie, ia aiaeeee oi?iaiaeia, e yoi
a?inaeinue a aeaca ie?oaeathuei.

E na?aaeeia I a. a o?enoeainoaa io/aoeeai auyaeeinue iiiaeanoai
?acee/iuo iai?aaeaiee, eioi?ua aaee ai?y/ea nii?u ae?oa n ae?oaii e
aiaoieie eaeaeiuie eiieo?aioaie. ?aiiao?enoeaineea iaueiu ia ciaee
aeiaiaoeee e eoeueoa iicaeiaeoaai o?enoeainoaa. Iaueiu ia eiaee
niaoeeaeueiuo iano aeey i?iaaaeaiey aiaineoaeaiee, ia ciaee oaeinoa,
eeii. Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi auei iauei aeey anao iauei e a?oiie?iaie, – yoi
aa?a a aeia?iaieueioth eneoieoaeueioth aea?oao, i?eianaiioth ?ac e
iaanaaaea ca a?aoe anao ethaeae iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo Aiaii e /aeiaaeii.

Ii ia?a ?inoa o?enoeaineiai einiiiieeoecia e oi?ie?iaaiey iniiaiuo
aeiaiaoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee oneeeeny i?ioeann iooiaea io eoaeaecia e
?ac?uaa n iei. E eiioeo I – ia/aeo II a., a iniaaiiinoe iinea ii?aaeaiey
aa?aeneeo ainnoaiee i?ioea ?eia e iainiaeaiey Eoaeaenoaa, yoio ?ac?ua,
i/aaeaeii, ioi?ieeny ieii/aoaeueii.

Eciaiaiea nioeeaeueiiai ninoaaa iauei ii?aaeaeeei e yaiethoeeth eo
nioeeaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoe. Iaaethaeaaony ana aieueoee iooiae io
i?aaeieo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee, ana ianoie/eaaa noaiiaeony
no?aieaiea e nithco n eiia?aoi?neie aeanoueth.

Eiia?aoi?neay aeanoue, a naith i/a?aaeue, iuouaea ino?oth
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiiieieoue ie?iaoth eiia?eth ie?iaie ?aeeaeae. Iiiuoee
i?aa?aoeoue a oaeiaoth iaeio ec iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?aeeaee, a /anoiinoe
?eineoth, oniaoa ia eiaee. Ioaeia auea iiaay ?aeeaey, iiiyoiay anai
ia?iaeai eiia?ee.

Iaaeaeo o?enoeaiaie auee ethaee no?iaiai iau/ay, eioi?ua n/eoaee
iaaiciiaeiui aoiaeeoue a eaeia-eeai iauaiea n iieeiiieeaie aiaia. Iie
aiai?eee, /oi iaaei ecaaaaoue oaao?a e ea?, iioiio /oi yoi – aeaei
aeueyaiea, iuoiinoue eaeieineoaeaiey. O?enoeaiei ia aeieaeai auoue
neoeueioi?ii, iioiio /oi aio i?eaeaony ecia?aaeaoue aiaia, ia aeieaeai
aea?aeaoue oeieu, iioiio /oi i?eaeaony iauyniyoue ieou i aiaao. Aio
iaeuecy auoue nieaeaoii, iioiio /oi ciaiaia inayuaiu ia/anoeauie
ia?yaeaie. Iaeuecy caieiaoue eaeoth-eeai aeieaeiinoue, iioiio /oi eia/a
i?eoeinue au niaa?oaoue ia?aae ia?iaeii aea?oao, i?enyaaoue ia?aae
noaooae eiia?aoi?a e o.ae.

Eiaaea o?enoeaia-?aaieoaee a?iiei ioeacuaaeenue io aea?oa, io iieeiia
ia?aae ecia?aaeaieai eiia?aoi?a, eo a?aee iiae no?aaeo e inoaeaeaee ia
eaciue. Eiiaaea ia?iaeiay oieia iiae aia/aoeaieai eaeie-ieaoaeue aaaeu,
iai?eia? caieao?ynaiey, ia?ooeaaeanue ia o?enoeai, ecaeaaea eo. Ia?iae
aioia aue aeaeaoue i?e/eio ian/anouey a “aacaiaeee” o?enoeai, a oii, /oi
o?enoeaia, io?eoeay aiaia, iaaeaeee aiaa ia anao.

Aueua aiiaiey o?enoeainoaa ?eineei ainoaea?noaii a ia/aea VI a.
niaieeenue aeoeaiie iiaeaea?aeeie yoie iiaie ?aeeaee. Eiia?aoi?
Eiinoaioei (ie. 285-337) naiei yaeeeoii io 324 a. iieiaeee ia/aei
i?aa?auaieth o?enoeainoaa a ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aeeaeth ?eineie eiia?ee.
*a?ac aiae, a 325a., iiae aai i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii nia?aeny a a. Ieeaa
ia?aue anaeaineee niai? o?enoeaineeo oea?eaae, nua?aaoee aaaeioth ?ieue
a ooaa?aeaeaiee o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey.

Oaea ai 2 a. aaeeeee o?enoeaineee ienaoaeue na. io/aiee Eonoei Oeeinio
iia ioiaoeoue, /oi “iao oaea aieaa ia?iaea a ie?a, n?aaee eioi?iai ia
aiciineee au oaaeu Iooeo e Nicaeaoaeth any/aneeo aeaa ai eiy Eenona
O?enoa.”

Niia?ieee o?enoeainoaa.

Iaeiei ec neeueiaeoeo niia?ieeia o?enoeainoaa aue aiinoeoeeci. Iniiaiia
?acee/ea yoeo nenoai caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi o aiinoeeia aia aaniethoai
a naiai niaa?oainoaa e eiaiii iiyoiio ia yaeyaony oai?oeii. Ie? anoue
ie? cea, oi?aaeyaiue aeaiiiaie, iiyoiio ii nioai??i ia aiaii, a oai?oeii
(aeaieo?aii), aiieiuathuei Cei, eiiaaea, enoaoe, ioiaeaeanoaeyaiui n
eoaeaeneei ssoaa. I?aeiouanoai o/aiey aiinoeeia auei a oii, /oi iii ia
iieo/eei no?iai eaiiie/aneiai ioi?ieaiey. Eiaiii iiyoiio aiinoe/aneea
eaeae e oa/aiey iiaee nouanoaiaaoue e aioo?e eoaeaenoaa, e aioo?e
o?enoeainoaa, ieoay iiiaea naeou, n eioi?uie o?enoeaia aaee aeieaoth e
iaeanoi/aiioth ai?ueao ia i?ioyaeaiee o?ao aaeia (n II-VI).

Iiaaaea o?enoeainoaa iaae aiinoeoeeciii auea iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi
aiinoeoeeci ia?aiinee caueoo io ie?iaiai cea i?aeiouanoaaiii a iaeanoue
ano?ieiaee, aeaiiiieiaee, aiaaeieiaee e iaaee, oiaaea eae o?enoeainoai
iaauaei nianaiea /a?ac eneoieaiea a?aoia aea?oaaiiie nia?oueth O?enoa e
i?iiiaaaeiaaei aioo?aiiaa naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiea, iniiaaiiia ia aa?a.
Iineieueeo aeaaiui aeey aiinoeeia auei eiooeoeaiia iiciaiea enoeiu, a ia
iiaaaeaiea a ?aaeueiii ie?a, eo yoe/aneea acaeyaeu auee iaii?aaeaeaiiu,
a oai?ee cuaee, iiyoiio ?anoeaao aiinoe/aneeo e iieoaiinoe/aneeo o/aiee
i?eoiaeeony ia ia?aoth iieiaeio II a., eiaaea o?enoeainoai aua ia
iaa?aei aeieaeiie neeu.

Ae?oaei na?ueaciui niia?ieeii o?enoeainoaa aue ieo?aeci – Eoeueo aiaa
Ieo?u.

Iiaeiaii o?enoeainoao, ieo?aeci ia?auaeny i?aaeaea anaai e iecoei neiyi
ianaeaiey, ia?aiaiaiiui anyeeie oyaioaie, nicaeaiiuie ?eineie eiia?eae.
Iiaeiaii aiinoeoeecio, ieo?aeci ieeiaaea ia eiae ienaiiai eaiiia. Ai
aeaaa ieo?aenoe/aneie nenoaiu noiyei Aaneiia/iia A?aiy, aiaeiae/iia aiao
aiinoeeia. A ie?a ai?ieenue aeia?ia e ceia ia/aea, Ieo?a oaeaea aue
aeaieo?aii (nicaeaoaeai), ii a ioee/ea io aeaieo?aa aiinoeeia aeia?ui:
ii aue iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo aiaeanoaaiiuie neeaie anaeaiiie e /aeiaaeii,
caueoieeii /aeiaaea e ia?acoeii aeey iiae?aaeaiey a aeecie. Ii iaauae
i?aaaaeieeai iinia?oiia aeaaeainoai iinea No?aoiiai Noaea.

Ieo?aeci aue ?aeeaeae, eioi?oth iaiiiai eaa/a auei i?eniiniaeoue e
o?aaeeoeeiiiui iieeoaenoe/aneei ?aeeaeyi e nioeeaeueiui oeaiiinoyi
?eineie eiia?ee, iaaeaee o?enoeainoai, e oai ia iaiaa, ia?ac Eenona aue
iiiyoiaa e i?eaeaeaoaeueiaa, /ai neaaeiaaiea ca yaii ieoieiae/aneei,
naa?ouanoanoaaiiui Ieo?ie. Iiyoiio ieo?aeci ia ia?aaeee V aaea, e
iioiiee aai i?eaa?aeaioeaa, eae e aieueoeinoai aiinoeeia, aeeeenue a
o?enoeaineea iaueiu.

Aieaa iaeeeie niia?ieeaie o?enoeainoaa auee oaeea ?aeeaeicii-ienoe/aneea
niiauanoaa, eae i?oeee e aa?iaoenou. Iie oai aieaa ia onoiyee i?ioea
iaai – i?oeci – ec-ca iieeoaenoe/iinoe e e?aeiae caieiooinoe, aa?iaoeci
– ec-ca neeoeii aano?aeoiiai e io/anoe iaae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

Aieneiiu e eo aeanoue

*a?ac aeaanoe eao iinea ia/aea o?enoeaineie i?iiiaaaee o?enoeai auei
iiiai e ia caiaaea: iie i?i aeai?a e a aienea, n?aaee aiaaouo ethaeae.
Ec ?aciuo aeeaaeia a iaueiao o?enoeai ninoaaeeenue aieueoea n?aaenoaa. A
ai?iaeao o?enoeaia auno?ieee e?oiiua oea?eae. Iaueiu ia?anueaeenue
iaaeaeo niaith ienueiaie, iiiiaaee ae?oa ae?oao. Aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa anaie
yoeie aeaeaie iie auae?aee ec naiae n?aaeu aieneiiia. Aieneii nei?i noae
naiui oaaaeaaiui e neeueiui eeoeii a iaueia. Ii ?anii?yaeaeny aieueoei
oea?eiaiui eiouanoaii. E iaio ia?auaeenue aeey ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia e oyaea
aianoi oiai, /oiau eaeoe e noaeuea. O?enoeaiei, ioi?aaeyaoeeny a
ae?oaoth no?aio ni naeaeaoaeuenoaii io aieneiia, ano?a/ae o nia?aoueaa
ii aa?a ai?y/ee i?eai: aio aeaaaee i?etho, iiuaaee iiae, naaeaee ia
ia?aia ianoi ca noieii.

Iaeioi?ua aieneiiu a aieueoeo eee noa?uo ai?iaeao, Aioeioee,
Aeaenaiae?ee, Ea?onaeeia, iieueciaaeenue iniaui ii/aoii. E iiaieth yoeo
iao?ea?oia eee iai iniaaiii i?eneooeaaeenue. Anaai aiea cia/aiey eiae
?eineee aieneii, iioiio /oi ?ei n/eoaee aa/iui ai?iaeii, aeaaie ie?a.

O?enoeaineea iaueiu ?ani?ino?aieeenue e 300 aiaeo ii anai iaeanoyie
?eineie eiia?ee. Aieneiiu no?aieeenue ooaa?aeeo ai anao iaueiao
ii?yaeee, iaeii o/aiea, iaeie ia?yaeu. Eiaaea iiaeieiaeny iaaeaeo
iaueiaie nii? i oii, eae iiieiaoue o/aiea, aieneiiu nuacaeaeenue aianoa
n i?anaeoa?aie ia nia?aiey; ia yoeo neiiaeao noa?aeenue onoaiiaeoue
niaeanea. Eoi ionooiae a /ai-ieaoaeue io ooaa?aeaeaiiiai ii?yaeea eee
o/aiey, n/eoaeny a?aoeeii, o.a. “?aneieueieeii”, “io?acathuei” naay io
iauae oea?eae. A?aoeeia ioeo/aee io oea?eae, o.a. iauyaeyee eeoaiiuie
nianaiey.

Eiia?aoi? Eiinoaioei

Ei a?aiaie Aeeieeaoeaia o?enoeaia auee aieueoie neeie a eiia?ee. Ianoaie
noa?ua aiae e eo aeoa?e auee iieeioou. Eiia?aoi?u e eo iaianoieee
aeaeaee, eae aaeeea aeanoue aieneiiia. Ei eacaeinue, /oi oea?eiaue
ioaeaeaao e ethaeae, e aiaaonoaa io neoaeau eiia?ee. Aua ca 50 eao aei
Aeeieeaoeaia auee ecaeaiu no?iaea oeacu i?ioea o?enoeai; nia?aiey eo
auee cai?auaiu, ei a?iceee ioia?aieai eiouanoaa. I?e eiia?aoi?a
Aaea?eaia neeueii i?aneaaeiaaee i?anaeoa?ia e aieneiiia, ieiei eioi?uo
oanieeenue aa?othuea: eo aeaeaea nnueea eee eaciue. N oao ii? i?ioei
iiiai eao, a oa/aiea eioi?uo o?enoeaia iiaee aeeoue niieieii.

E eiioeo i?aaeaiey Aeeieeaoeaia yoe oeacu auee aiciaiiaeaiu, e e iei
i?eaaaeeenue aua aieaa no?iaua ia?u. Nia/aea iia?iceee aueeth/eoue ec
n?aaeu aienea e /enea /eiiaieeia anao, eoi ioeaaeaony i?eianoe aea?oao
aaieth eiia?aoi?a. Caoai Aeeieeaoeai i?aaeienae naea/ue eieae o?enoeai e
neiiaoue eo oea?eae e iieeoaaiiua aeiia.

I?aneaaeiaaiea o?enoeai ia eiaei oniaoa. Oioy iaeioi?ua iieieaaaeenue e
auaeaee eieae, ii aieueoeinoai inoaeinue oaa?aeuie; aunooiaee
i?iiiaaaeieee, eioi?ua a?iiei iauyaeyee naith aa?o. O?enoeaia aua e?ai/a
aea?aeaeenue ca iino?aaeaaoeo aieneiiia, aieaa neooaeenue eo neiaa.
Aeeieeaoeai ai a?aiy i?aneaaeiaaiee ioeacaeny io aeanoe eiia?aoi?a.

Nui aai oiaa?eua ii aeanoe, Eiinoaioei (311-337 aa.), a oaeaea eeee?eaoe
ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth, i?aaeaoee e?aeiae caiaaeiie /aoaa?oie /anoueth
eiia?ee, nia/aea i?eie?eeny n o?enoeaiaie, iioii ia?aoae ia eo noi?iio.
Aeanyoue eao nionoy iinea aiiaiee Aeeieeaoeaia Eiinoaioei oeacii a
Ieeaia iicaieee o?enoeaiai naiaiaeii eniiaaaeiaaoue aa?o. Iioa?iaaoea
iieo/eee iacaae naia eiouanoai.

Eiinoaioei noae iioii aeaaaoue ia?aaan o?enoeaiai. A naiai aienea
Eiinoaioei aaae iiaia e?anoiia?aciia ciaiy: iaaa?oo aai auee ecia?aaeaiu
ia/aeueiua aoeau eiaie O?enoiaa; ia iai noiyea iaaeienue: “Nei
iiaaaeeoue”. Auei iicaieaii ecia?aaeaoue e?ano ia eiia?aoi?neeo iiiaoao.
Eiinoaioei noae iniaaiii i?eaeeaeaoue e naaa aieneiiia. Ii iicaieee ei
o/anoaiaaoue a noaea, ?aoaoue oyaeau; iicaieee ioioneaoue ?aaia ia aieth
a oea?eaao. Eiinoaioei inaiaiaeee aeooiaainoai io iiaeaoae e oyaeeie
iiaeiiinoe aeinoaaeyoue oeaa a eacio. Ii i?eaeaoae aieneiiia e naiaio
noieo e uaae?i iaea?ye oea?eae. Aieneiiu noaee aeaaiie iii?ie aai
oi?aaeaiey. Naieo aeaoae Eiinoaioei ainieoae a o?enoeainoaa.

I?AAINEAAEA

Neiai “i?aaineaaea” yaeyaony ia?aaiaeii, eaeueeie a?a/aneiai neiaa
“i?oiaeieney”. I?aaineaaea, oaeei ia?acii, a i?yiii niunea neiaa anoue a
ioee/ea io eiaeiiai i?aaeeueiia (i?aaia) aa?io/aiea. Eiaiii a yoii
cia/aiee yoi neiai oiio?aaeyaony n yiioe Anaeaineeo Niai?ia (IV—VIII
aa.), eiaaea i?aaenoaaeoaee anao oea?eaae, ia?aaeaeay o?enoeaineia
o/aiea io eneaaeathueo aai eaeae (?aeeaeiciuo e oeeinioneeo), aeieo?ei,
oi?ioee?iaaee iieiaeaiea ecia/aeueiie aa?u. Yoe oi?ioee?iaee au?aaeaee
i?aaineaaiia o/aiea, i?aaineaaiuie auee e oea?eae, aai niaea?aeauea.

A XI a. ?einei-eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue a iaeiinoi?iiiai ii?yaeea
aeeth/eea a iauaoea?eiaiia eniiaaaeaiea aa?u (“Neiaie aa?u”)
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaia ooaa?aeaeaiea i Nayoie O?ieoea (oae iacuaaaiia
“Oeeeieaa”), /oi yaeeinue iaeiie ec i?e/ei “Aaeeeiai ?aneiea”. Ainoi/iua
oea?eae n oiai a?aiaie noaee iacuaaoueny i?aaineaaiuie, a ana caiaaeiua
aia?oee (iaeanoe), iiae/eiaiiua ?eio, ieacaeenue a ?einei-eaoiee/aneie
eee i?inoi eaoiee/aneie oea?eae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ian/eouaaaony 15 Aaoieaoaeueiuo (o.a.
naiinoiyoaeueiuo) oea?eaae, aeeth/ay e ?onneoth, niaea?aeaueo
i?aaineaaioth aa?o, iauoth aeey anao ieo.

Eaeiau iniaaiiinoe yoie aa?u, /oi auaeaeyao aa ec iiiai/eneaiiuo a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy o?enoeaineeo eiioannee (eniiaaaeaiee)?

Nayuaiiia I?aaeaiea

Oioy ana o?enoeaineea eniiaaaeaiey iniiauaathony ia Aeaeee, iiieiaiea aa
e o?enoeaineiai o/aiey a oeaeii ?acee/ii o o?enoeai ?aciuo aaoaae.
E?eoa?eai aa?iiai iiieiaiey Nayuaiiiai Ienaiey aeey eaoieeeia yaeyaony a
eiia/iii n/aoa neiai iaiu, aeey i?ioanoaioia — oaaaeaeaiea iniiaaoaey
aeaiiie eiioannee, oiai eee eiiai aiaineiaey e aeaaea ee/iia iiaiea
naiiai aa?othuaai, aeey i?aaineaaiuo aaeeinoaaiii aeinoiaa?iui e?eoa?eai
yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiia Nayuaiiia I?aaeaiea. Nouanoai yoiai e?eoa?ey
ninoieo a oii, /oi aannii?iui aa?aioii a iiieiaiee Aeaeee, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e enoeiiinoe aa?u iiaoo auoue oieueei o?aaeeoeee eee
i?aaeaiea. Nayuaiiia I?aaeaiea iicaieeei i?aaineaaeth nio?aieoue
aa?iinoue ecia/aeueiiio o?enoeainoao.

Niai?iinoue

Iniaaiiinoueth i?aaineaaey yaeyaony aai o/aiea i niai?iinoe Oea?eae.
Niai?iinoue neaayineee yeaeaaeaio a?a/aneiai oa?ieia “eaoiee/iinoue”
iauai?eiyoiai a ?acee/iuo o?enoeaineeo eniiaaaeaieyo. A i?aaineaaiii
iiieiaiee niai?iinoue icia/aao iaeia i?aaie/aneia aaeeinoai Oea?eae
(o.a., anao iiianoiuo oea?eaae e anao aa?othueo, aianoa acyouo), i?e
eioi?ii ethaay iiianoiay oea?eiaue (eee ioaeaeueiue aa?othuee), aiiny a
iaeiinoi?iiiai ii?yaeea /oi-oi i?eioeeieaeueii iiaia aeey o?enoeaineiai
o/aiey, oai naiui eneeth/aao naay ec oea?eiaiiai aaeeinoaa, noaiiaeony
ia iooue ?aneiea. iniiaiay oaia i?aaineaaey: a aeaaiii — aaeeinoai, ai
aoi?inoaiaiiii — naiaiaea, ai anai — ethaiaue.

Nianaiea

Iniiaiay eaeay o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee — nianaiea /aeiaaea io oiai, /oi
ii?iaeaeaao ian/anouey, no?aaeaiey, aieacie, aieiu, nia?oue, ana cei a
ie?a. Ii?iaeaeathuae i?e/eiie cea o?enoeainoai iacuaaao a?ao, o.a. aeo
ee/iinoe, iai?aaeaiiue i?ioea niaanoe, Aiaa, i?ioea i?aanoaaiiiai
caeiia, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao eneeth/eoaeueii aeinoieinoai e e?anioo
/aeiaaea n?aaee ie?a aeeauo nouanoa. A?ao iaacia?aaeeaaao /aeiaaea,
?ac?ooay i?e?iaeo aeooe aioo?aiia, a /anoi e aiaoia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
any aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea i?eia?aoaao iaii?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

“O?enoeainoai ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi nianaiea ioe?uoi Eenonii O?enoii,
eioi?ue, aoaeo/e Nuiii Aiaeeei, aiieioeeny e noae *aeiaaeii, /a?ac
aeia?iaieueiua no?aaeaiey ia E?anoa oia?oaea a?aoiaiinoue i?e?iaeu
/aeiaaea e aine?anea aa aeey aa/iie aeecie. Nianaiea — a aa?a a iaai.
Yoi iauaa o?enoeaineia iieiaeaiea ?acee/ii eioa?i?aoe?oaony a ?aciuo
o?enoeaineeo eniiaaaeaieyo: i?aaineaaee, eaoiee/anoaa, ethoa?ainoaa,
?aoi?iaoi?noaa e ae?. ?acee/ey ioiinyony e neaaeothuei o?ai aeaaiui
iieiaeaieyi a o/aiee i nianaiee: eneoieaieth eee cia/aieth e?anoiie
aea?oau Eenona O?enoa; Oea?noao Aiaeeth eae oeaee nianaiey /aeiaaea;
aeooiaiie aeecie eae oneiaeth nianaiey /aeiaaea.

Eneoieaiea.

A naiai o/aiee i nianaiee i?aaineaaea enoiaeeo ec iiieiaiey: “Aia anoue.
ethaiaue”

I?aaineaaea ia ?acaeaeyao aeiieie?othuae a eaoiee/anoaa e i?ioanoaioecia
th?eaee/aneie eiioeaioeee eneoieaiey, aeanyuae, /oi aea?oaa O?enoiaa
auea iaoneiaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?aiey i?aainoaeeth Aiaeeth
ca a?ao Aaeaia e aai iioiieia, eioi?ua, ia?ooea caeii Aiaeee, inei?aeee
Aai e oai naiui caneoaeeee naaa aa/iia iaeacaiea. O?enoin aea acye ia
Naay yoi iaeacaiea, eneoiea (o.a. aueoiea), oaeei ia?acii, /aeiaa/anoai
io i?aaaaeiiai aiaaa Aiaa-Iooea.

Oea?noaea Aiaeea.

Caiaaeiiio o?enoeainoao i?enoua iiieiaiea eiia/iie oeaee aeecie
aa?othuaai /aeiaaea – Oea?noaey Aiaeey eae ianoa, aaea o?enoeaiei,
eneoieaiiue O?enoii io iaeacaiey ca naie a?aoe, iieo/eo io Aiaa iinea
anaiauaai aine?anaiey aiciiaeiinoue aaneiia/iiai aeaaeainoaa.
I?aaineaaea ia ?acaeaeyao oaeia iiieiaiea. N i?aaineaaiie oi/ee c?aiey
th?eaeeci a iiieiaiee Oea?noaa Aiaeey eneaaeaao nouanoai o?enoeainoaa,
i?ecuaathuaai /aeiaaea e aeooiaiiio niaa?oainoao, aiaiiiaeiaeth e ia e
eneaieth ianeaaeaeaiey, oioy au e aeooiaiiai.

Iiae Oea?noaii Aiaeeei (eia/a, nianaieai) i?aaineaaea iiieiaao ninoiyiea
aeooe, i/euaiiie io anyeiai cea e i?eia?aooae oeacaiiua a Aaaiaaeee
naienoaa, a ia aiaoiaa ii?aaaeaiea /aeiaaea ia noaea Aiaeeai, ia
iaa?aaeo (ieaoo) ca aeia?ua aeaea.

Aeooiaiay aeeciue.

Aeooiaiay aeeciue a i?aaineaaee iiieiaaony eae aeeciue aiaiiiaeiaiay eai
“Aia anoue aeoo, e iieeiiythueany Aio aeieaeiu iieeiiyoueny a aeooa e
enoeia” Ii iiaicaaaoiiio Ioe?iaaieth naiui nouanoaaiiui naienoaii Aiaa
yaeyaony ethaiaue, iia aea ninoaaeyao e ana nouanoai aeooiaiie aeecie.
Aiinoie Iaaae iiae/a?eeaaao ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea ethaae a
neaaeothueo caia/aoaeueiuo neiaao, ecaanoiuo eae “aeii ethaae”: “Anee y
aiai?th ycueaie /aeiaa/aneeie e aiaaeueneeie, a ethaae ia eiath, oi y —
iaaeue caaiyuay, eee eeiaae cao/auee. Anee eiath aea? i?i?i/anoaa, e
ciath ana oaeiu, e eiath anyeia iiciaiea e anth aa?o, oae – /oi iiao e
ai?u ia?anoaaeyoue, a ia. eiath ethaiaue, — oi y ie/oi. E anee y ?acaeai
ana eiaioaiia e ioaeai oaei iia ia niaeaeaiea, a ethaae ia eiath – iao
iia -a oii ieeaeie iieuecu”.

Aeaaiui naienoaii enoeiiie ethaae yaeyaony aanei?unoiay aea?oaaiiinoue.
Enoeiiay ethaiaue ianiaianoeia n iaiaaenoueth e iaeiiio eaeiio-eeai
/aeiaaeo. Ethayuee – ?aaeoaony, iaiaaeaeyuee – no?aaeaao. A yoii nooue
i?ecuaa Eenona O?enoa ethaeoue e a?aaia naieo. AEeciue aac ethaae
oa?yao e ?aaeinoue e niune – yoi enoeia aeinoaoi/ii ecaanoiay. Ii eae
naeaeaoue ethaiaue iinoiyiiui naienoaii aeooe, ia caaeneiui ie io eaeeo
oneiaee aeecie, — yoi iniiaiie aii?in aeey eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea.

I?aaineaaea oeacuaaao ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ecaaaaoue eeethcee ethaae,
“ia?aiaeaoiai yaiecia”, eiaaea ethaiaue ae?oaiio anoue ia aieaa eae
eneaiea nianoaaiiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey e ianeaaeaeaiey. Oaeay
inaaaeiethaiaue ?acaeaaao a /aeiaaea yaieci, ?ac?ooay e eaea/a
ee/iinoue, aeaeaao aa a eiia/iii n/aoa ianiiniaiie e enoeiiie ethaae e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e oiio, /oi eiaioaony n/anoueai.

Aneaoeea

A i?aaineaaee iniaia, eneeth/eoaeueiia aieiaiea ia?auaaony ia
i?eia?aoaiea nie?aiey — naienoaa, i?ioeainoiyuaai ai?aeinoe, iniiaa e
enoi/ieeo yaiecia e anao no?anoae /aeiaa/aneeo. Ai?aeinoue io/oaeaeaao
ee/iinoue io anao ae?oaeo, aeaeaao aa anioeeaeueiie, eeoaao aa ethaae,
o.a. Aiaa. Ee/iinoue ia iiaeao aeeoue aac ethaae, aia aeooiaiiai iauaiey
n ae?oaeie, e iioiio ai?aeinoue, eae oth?aiiay noaia, caiueay /aeiaaea a
naaa, iaecaaaeii oaeaaao aai. Iianiinoue aea ai?aeinoe i/aiue aaeeea o
aneaoa. Aai aeooiaiay aeeciue anaaaea nii?yaeaia n ia?aaeeaaieyie
aeoaieie ?aaeinoe, n ?acaeoeai niaa?oaiii iiauo niiniaiinoae e
iaia?oaeaieai ia?iiiuo nee, ne?uouo io iau/iiai /aeiaaea. Anee ana yoi
iiaeaeaeiee ia noaaeo oeaeueth naiae aeecie, anee ia oaea/aony, ia
niaeacieony, ia “iaaeao”, a a nie?aiee i?iaeieaeaao naie iiaeaea
aanei?unoiiai no?aieaiey e Enoeia, ii aeinoeaaao ninoiyiey i?aaeaeueiiai
aiaiiiaeiaey e noaiiaeony naaoeeueieeii naiae caiee, naiaai ia?iaea.

I?aaineaaiue oea?eiaiue eaeaiaea?ue

I?aaineaaiue oea?eiaiue eaeaiaea?ue neiaeai ii ninoaao. Ii ioee/aaony io
naaoneiai eaeaiaea?y o?aiy iniiaiuie /a?oaie.

Ai-ia?auo, oea?eiaue aeeaao ii THeeaineiio eaeaiaea?th (iacaai ii eiaie
eiia?aoi?a THeey Oeaca?y), o.a. oiio, /oi aeaenoaiaae aua ai a?aiaia
?aiiaai o?enoeainoaa. Iuia a ie?a ?ani?ino?aiai A?eai?eaineee
eaeaiaea?ue (ii eiaie i?iaaaeoaai eaeaiaea?ioth ?aoi?io a 1582 a.
?eineiai iaiu A?eai?ey XIII), eioi?ue eni?aaee ionoaaaiea n/aoa a?aiaie
ia 11 n eeoiei ieioo THeeaineiai eaeaiaea?y. Yoi ionoaaaiea, eiaaoaa a
XVI a. 10 aeiae, a XX a. ninoaaeei oaea 13 aeiae. Iiyoiio i?acaeieee e
iaiyoue nayoui a Oea?eae iaicia/athony ae?oaeie aeiyie e /anoi ae?oaei
ianyoeai, /ai yoi iauai?eiyoi. Oae, aeaiue na. Aai?aey Iiaaaeiiinoea
ioia/aaony ii-noa?iio, o.a. ii oea?eiaiiio eaeaiaea?th, 23 ai?aey, /oi
niioaaonoaoao 6 iay ii iiaiio noeeth. ?iaeaeanoai O?enoiai, i?acaeioaiia
ii noa?iio noeeth 25 aeaeaa?y, i?eoiaeeony ia 7 yiaa?y iauai?eiyoiai
eaeaiaea?y.

Ai-aoi?uo, aiae oea?eiaiiai eaeaiaea?y ia/eiaaony ia n 1 yiaa?y, n
na?aaeeiu ceiu, a n 1 naioya?y (noa?iai noeey, 14 naioya?y iiaiai), n
ia/aea inaie. A yoio aeaiue Oea?eiaue o?aaeeoeeiiii ioia/aao ia/aei
“iiaiai eaoa”, (aiaea). Aanue e?oa aiaeiauo i?acaeieeia ia/eiaaony n
naioya?y, n ?iaeaeanoaa Aiai?iaeeoeu, e caaa?oaaony aaaonoii. Oniaieai
Aiaeeae Iaoa?e.

A-o?aoueeo, a e?oao iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuo. 12 i?acaeieeia, iacuaaaiuo
aeaoiaaeanyouie (io ae?aaianeaayineiai iacaaiey /enea 12 —
aeaoiaaeanyoue), ia?yaeo, n oaie, eioi?ua eiatho oi/iua aeaou, anoue
iaeioi?ua iaeaieaa ii/eoaaiua, yaeythueany ia?aoiaeyueie. Ioaeaeaiiua
ii?aaeaeaiiui, iinoiyiiui /eneii aeiae io i?acaeieea Ianoe, iie iaiytho
naie aeaou aaeaaiaeii.

Aiaee/iue i?acaeie/iue e?oa

Aaaeiaeoee i?acaeiee aiaea, “i?acaeieeia i?acaeiee e oi?aeanoai
oi?aeanoa”,— Ianoa, eee Aine?anaiea Eenona O?enoa, eiaaea o?enoeaia
i?acaeiotho aai iiaaaeo iaae nia?oueth, /oi yaeyaony caeiaii aa/iie
aeaaeaiiie” aeecie (aannia?oey aeooe) /aeiaaea. Ianoa ioia/aaony aaniie,
a ai?aea eee iaa, a ?acee/iua aeie. Ae i?aaeoanoaoao aeeeoaeueiue, a
oa/aiea 40 aeiae, Aaeeeee iino (*aou?aaeanyoieoea), caaa?oathueeny
No?anoiie naaeieoeae (naieaeiaaiie iaaeaeae), eiaaea aa?othuea
aniiieiatho no?aaeaiey O?enoa ia e?anoa, aai nia?oue e iia?aaaiea. Ca
iaaeaeth aei Ianoe, a aine?anaiuea, eioi?ia ia ?one iacuaaaony Aa?aiui,
i?acaeioaony Aoiae Ainiiaeaiue a Ea?onaeei, eiaaea Nianeoaeue, ii
naeaeaoaeuenoao anao aaaiaaeenoia, anooiee a yoio ai?iae iaeaioia
no?aaeaiee e nia?oe ia e?anoa.

Ia ni?ieiaie aeaiue iinea Aine?anaiey O?enoa i?acaeioaony Aicianaiea
Ainiiaeia — aeaiue, eiaaea, ii ienaieth aaaiaaeenoia, ii aicianny ia
iaai. Ia iyoeaeanyoue aeaiue iinea Ianoe ianooiaao i?acaeiee
Iyoeaeanyoieoea. Aeaiue nioanoaey nayoiai aeooa ia aiinoieia, eee
O?ieoea. Ia ?one i?acaeiee O?ieoeu niaiaaeaao n caaa?oaieai iieaauo
?aaio e ioia/aaony “caaeaaieai aa?acu” — oe?aoaieai o?aiia e aeeeeu
caeaiueth e oeaaoaie. Noaaioa iaeaioia O?ieoeu ecaanoia eae
?iaeeoaeueneay noaaioa, eiaaea iiieiathony oniioea ?iaenoaaiieee. A
ia?aue aine?aniue aeaiue iinea O?ieoeu i?aaineaaiay Oea?eiaue niaa?oaao
i?acaeiee Anao nayouo, iinea eioi?iai n iiiaaeaeueieea ia/eiaaony Iao?ia
iino. Ii eiaao ?acioth i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue a ?acee/iua aiaeu, aei aeiy
Iao?a e Iaaea 12 ethey. Ai aoi?ie aine?aniue aeaiue iinea O?ieoeu
ioia/aaony i?acaeiee Anao ?onneeo nayouo.

E?iia i?acaeieeia ia?aoiaeiuo, ia oeene?iaaiiuo oi/iuie /eneaie e
caaeneiuo io aeaou Ianoe, inoaeueiua aeaoiaaeanyoua i?acaeieee
ioia/athony a iinoiyiiua aeie. E iei ioiinyony:

?iaeaeanoai O?enoiai (7 yiaa?y iiaiai noeey) n iyoueth aeiyie
i?aaei?acaeie/iuie e oanoueth aeiyie iii?acaeianoaa. Yoi naiue aieueoie
ceiiee i?acaeiee, ia ?one ii niaiaaeaao ni Nayoeaie, eiaaea iaee
o?aaeeoeeiiiua eieyaeee, ono?aeaaee aaaeaiey e ea?u. O?enoeaia
i?eo?i/eaatho e ?iaeaeanoao aeaaioai?eoaeueiua aeaea iiiiue aieueiui,
noa?ui e ne?ioai, oe?aoatho a aeiiao, ia ieiuaaeyo aea?aaoei aeee,
ono?aeaay i?acaeiee aeaoyi, aeaeatho iiaea?ee ?iaeiui e ioaeaeathueiny.
Eaioi ?iaeaeanoaa, ni/aeueiee, — aeaiue iiaeaioiaee e ?iaeaeanoao.
I?acaeieeo i?aaeoanoaoao ?iaeaeanoaaineee iino (n 28 iiya?y),
i?iaeieaeathueeny 40 aeiae e aeeth/athuee oaeaea ni/aeueiee.

E?auaiea Ainiiaeia (19 yiaa?y iiaiai noeey), eee Aiaiyaeaiea. A aeaiue
E?auaiey i?iecaiaeeony inayuaiea aiaeu, oiio?aaeyaiie aa?othueie “ia
anyeo iieueco ec?yaeio”.

N?aoaiea Ainiiaeia (15 oaa?aey iiaiai noeey) i?acaeioaony Oea?eiaueth ia
ni?ieiaie aeaiue iinea ?iaeaeanoaa eae ano?a/a (noa?ineaayine.
“n?aoaiea”) ieaaeaioea Eenona a Ea?onaeeineii o?aia ni noa?oeai
Neiaiiii, eioi?ue i?eciae a iai Ianneth — Nianeoaey ie?a.

Aeaaiaauaiea i?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu (7 ai?aey iiaiai noeey) iaiiieiaao i
oii, eae ii Aaaiaaeeth aiinoiea Eoee a?oaiaae Aaa?eee, i?eaey a Iaca?ao
e aeaaa Ia?ee, niiauee ae i oii, /oi ia iaa niecioae Nayoie aeoo e iia
?iaeeo Nianeoaey Eenona.

I?aia?aaeaiea Ainiiaeia, Nian (19 aaaonoa iiaiai noeey). Yoi iaiyoue
aaaiaaeueneiai niauoey, eiaaea iacaaeieai ia?aae e?anoiui no?aaeaieai
O?enoin ia Oaai?neie ai?a a Iaeanoeia ai a?aiy iieeoau aue ica?ai
/oaeaniui naaoii, i?aia?aceeny, eiaaea ?acaeaeny aean Aiaa-Iooea. Yoi
aeieaeii auei naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i aiaeanoaaiiinoe Eenona. A yoio
aeaiue i?iecaiaeeony inayuaiea ia?auo ieiaeia.

Oniaiea i?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu (28 aaaonoa iiaiai noeey) ioia/aaony eae
aeaiue iaiyoe Aiaeeae Iaoa?e, neii/aaoaeny a Ea?onaeeia e iia?aaaiiie a
Aaoneiaiee. Oea?eiaue neaaeo Aiaiiaoa?ue eae eaeaae nie?aiey e /enoiou.
Ia?aae Oniaieai n 14 aaaonoa onoaiiaeaiu aeaa iaaeaee Oniaineiai iinoa.

?iaeaeanoai ‘i?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu (21 naioya?y) — iaeei ec i?acaeieeia
Aiaiiaoa?e, ?iaeaeaiiie io Eiaeeia e aanieiaeiie e iiaeeeie Aiiu.

Aicaeaeaeaiea e?anoa Ainiiaeiy (27 naioya?y iiaiai noeey). A yoio aeaiue
o?enoeaia ioaeatho iaiyoue E?anoo, ia eioi?ii aue ?aniyo O?enoin, eae
neiaieo i?anoiea, aaea auea i?eianaia aea?oaa, eneoiathuay a?aoe
ethaeae.

Aaaaeaiea ai o?ai i?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu (4 aeaeaa?y iiaiai noeey)
ioia/aao eae au aoi?ia aeooiaiia ?iaeaeaiea, eiaaea iia auea ioaeaia ia
ainieoaiea a aaooicaaaoiue o?ai Aiaeee e ia i?eaioiaeaiea e oiio, /oiau
noaoue iaoa?ueth Nianeoaey ie?a.

I?aaineaaiua oea?eae a nia?aiaiiii ie?a

A ioee/ea io i?eaa?aeaioeaa eaoieeoeecia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e iaeiie
oea?eae, ?eineie, aicaeaaeyaiie iaeiei ia?ainayoeoaeai — iaiie ?eineei,
i?aaineaaiua oea?eae nio?aiytho ?aiiea o?enoeaineea o?aaeeoeee
iieeoeaio?ecia, o.a. i?eiaaeeaaeao e ianeieueeei oea?eayi. A nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo a no?aiao, aaea aieueoia /enei i?eaa?aeaioeaa i?aaineaaey,
oea?eae eiatho iiae/an iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? eee, nio?aiyy
enoi?e/aneea o?aaeeoeee, yaeythony iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuie.

Noa?aeoeie naiinoiyoaeueiuie yaeythony Eiinoaioeiiiieueneay,
Aeaenaiae?eeneay, Aioeioeeneay e Ea?onaeeineay oea?eae, aicaeaaeyaiua
iao?ea?oaie.

Iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiie n?aaee i?aaineaaiuo oea?eaae yaeythony ?onneay
i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue ai aeaaa n iao?ea?oii Iineianeei e anay ?one,
iauaaeeiythuay oaeaea Oe?aeineoth e Aaei?onneoth i?aaineaaiua oea?eae. E
?onneie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae i?eiaaeeaaeao aa?othuea iiiaeo
iaoeeiiaeueiinoae a iaoae no?aia e ca aa i?aaeaeaie, a /anoiinoe a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, Aia?eea, ssiiiee (Aaoiiiiiay ssiiineay oea?eiaue) e
ae?.

Aaoieaoaeueiuie yaeythony oaeaea ?oiuineay, Aieaa?neay, Na?aneay
oea?eae, aicaeaaeyaiua iao?ea?oaie. A?oceineay oea?eiaue n
eaooeeeocoi-iaopea?oii ai aeaaa, A?a/aneay (Yeeaaeceay), Iieueneay;
*aoineiaaoeeay e ae?oaea i?aaineaaiua oea?eae, aicaeaaeyaiua
ieo?iiieeoaie e a?oeaieneiiaie. Nouanoaoao oaeaea e nicaeaiiay a
N?aineeo Ea?eiaoeao (THaineaaey) ioaeaeueiay ?onneay ca?oaaaeiay
i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue, aicaeaaeyaiay iuia ieo?iiieeoii.

?onneay i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue a XX a.

E ia/aeo XX a. i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue auea iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiie
?aeeaeiciie i?aaiecaoeeae ?innee: i?aaineaaiua, ninoaaeyee ieiei 70%
ianaeaiey. Neiaa “?onneee” e “i?aaineaaiue” /anoi eniieueciaaeenue eae
neiiieiu.

EAOIEEOeECI

A nia?aiaiiii ie?a ?einei-eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue ian/eouaaao aieaa 900
iei. iineaaeiaaoaeae, /oi iaiiiai i?aauoaao /enei iineaaeiaaoaeae
ae?oaeo iai?aaeaiee o?enoeainoaa. Eaoeineay o?aaeeoeey caiaaeiiai
o?enoeainoaa ecaanoia eae eaoiee/aneay (n a?a/. — oieaa?naeueiay)
oea?eiaue, iaeiaei oi/iaa eniieueciaaoue oa?iei ?einei-eaoiee/aneay
oea?eiaue. Ai aeaaa yoie oea?eae noieo ?eineee iaia — oae n III — IV aa.
noaee iacuaaoue naay aieneiiu ?eia. N VI a. yoio oa?iei cae?aieeny ca
aeaaie o?enoeaineie iaueiu “aa/iiai ai?iaea”, ?eia, noieeoeu ia?iiiie
eiia?ee. ?eineea aieneiiu, iacuaathuea naay “iaianoieeaie Aiaa ia
caiea”, iinoaaeee naay a i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea, i?aoaiaeoy ia
ii/aoiia (ii i?aaeaieth, oea?eiaue ?eia auea iniiaaia aiinoieaie Iao?ii
e Iaaeii) e th?eaee/aneia (eae oea?eiaue noieeoeu eiia?ee) ia?aainoai
n?aaee anao o?enoeaineeo oea?eaae.

Oa?iei “eaoeineee” iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi eniieueciaaiea eaouie a ea/anoaa
ioeoeeaeueiiai ycuea Caiaaeiie ?eineie eiia?ee ii?aaeaeeei naycaiiinoue
enoi?ee yoie o?enoeaineie o?aaeeoeee n enoi?eae ia?iaeia e ainoaea?noa
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Eaoeineay o?aaeeoeey caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa
i?ineaaeeaaaony i?eia?ii n IV a.

O?enoeaiece?iaaiiua ia?iaeu eiia?ee noaee ?eineeie a?aaeaeaiaie e
i?eciaee iniaia iieiaeaiea oea?eae ?eia. Aa?iia e caiaaeo io eeiee
Neaiaeeiaaey-Ea?iaou-Aeoiae i?aa?auaeanue a oeaeinoiia o?enoeaineia
niiauanoai, naycaiiia iauei aeey anao eaoeineei ycueii e i?eciaieai
aa?oiaainoaa iaineiai i?anoiea. Yoa caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay iauiinoue a
n?aaeiea aaea iniciaaaea naay eae “O?enoeaineia oea?noai”.

Noaiiaeaiea eaoeineie o?aaeeoeee oei iaeiia?aiaiii n i?ioeannaie
?acaeaeaiey ?eineie eiia?ee ia Caiaaeioth e Ainoi/ioth e oiaaeeii
eiia?aoi?neie aeanoe ia caiaaea. A ?aiaa aaeeiii o?enoeainoaa n IV —V
aa., eae iu oaea aiai?eee, ia/aee iainiaeyoueny aeaa iai?aaeaiey:
caiaaeiia (eaoeineia) e ainoi/iia (a?aei-i?aaineaaiia). Oi?iaeueiia
?acaeaeaiea i?iecioei a 1054 a., eiaaea ?eineee iaia Eaa IX e
aecaioeeneee iao?ea?o Ieoaee Ea?oeea?ee, ioeacaaoeeny i?eciaoue
i?eoycaiey ?eia ia aa?oiaainoai iaae a?a/aneie oea?eiaueth, iaeiaeeee
ae?oa ia ae?oaa aiaoaio.

N V — VI aa. ia/aeinue oneeaiea ?iee ?eineeo ia?ainayuaiieeia:
aic?anoaei eo yeiiiie/aneia e iieeoe/aneia iiaouanoai. Nia/aea a Eoaeee,
a caoai e aeaeaei ca aa i?aaeaeaie ?anoe?yaony th?enaeeeoeey iaineie
Oea?eiaiie iaeanoe. Iuoaynue ooaa?aeeoue naia aa?oiaainoai ia oieueei
iaae oea?eiaiuie ea?a?oeyie, ii e iaae naaoneeie oaiaeaeueiuie
i?aaeoaeyie, iainoai e?iiioeeai nicaeaaaei naith eaoeineoth
?einei-eaoiee/aneoth aeooiaii-naaoneoth eiia?eth. Oaeoeea nithca n
iiaaaeeoaeai e ia?auaiey a naith aa?o caaiaaaoaeae i?eiineea iainoao
oniao a ia?eiae n?aaeiaaaeiauey: aaaiaaeecaoeey ii?iaiiia, “aeayiey Aiaa
/a?ac o?aieia”, nithc n aa?iaineeie eiia?aoi?aie, e?anoiaua iioiaeu,
?aeiieenoa e eiieenoa. A n?aaeiaaaeiaie Caiaaeiie Aa?iia
?einei-eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue i?aa?auaeanue a iii?o anae oaiaeaeueiie
nenoaiu. Oiaei iieuecoynue oa?icie ioeo/aiey e cae?aieyy th?eaee/aneeie
ii?iaie eaoeineiai eaiiie/aneiai i?aaa e iaineeie aoeeaie naie aeooiaiua
e naaoneea i?eaeeaaee, iainoai iuoaeinue iauaaeeieoue ?acae?iaeaiioth,
iia?ycooth 6 iaaeaeioniaiuo aieiao Aa?iio a aaeeioth oaie?aoe/aneoth
iiia?oeth iiae aeanoueth iaiu.

Ia?iaeu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu ia?auaeenue a o?enoeainoai iannaie, anai
niiauanoaii n?aco, iiyoiio ?einei-eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue ?acaeaaeanue
eae oea?eiaue oeaeiai ia?iaea, oeaeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey.
Niioaaonoaaiii e th?enaeeeoeey iaoeeiiaeueiie eiia?ee ?ani?ino?aiyeanue
ia ana ianaeaiea aac ecuyoey. Aei XVI a. yoi auei iaycaoaeueiie ii?iie,
e eeoue iinea ?aoi?iaoeee oaeaeinue aeiaeoueny th?eaee/aneie naieoeee ia
aiciiaeiinoue ?aciuo aa?ieniiaaaeaiee ianaeaiey iaeiie aa?iiaeneie
no?aiu. Aunieiia?iue oieoi?ieci eaoeineiai o?enoeainoaa e ii?iaeaeaaiia
ei i?aneaaeiaaiea eiaeiaa?othueo e eiaeiiuneyueo auee oianeaaeiaaiu e
iiiaeie i?ioanoaioneeie oea?eayie. Iiyoiio Ethoa?a e Eaeueaeia naie
?aoi?iaoi?u /anoi iacuaaee niioaaonoaaiii aeooaiaa?aneei e aeaiaaneei
iaiaie,

Ia?iiioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee aaeeiie eoeueoo?iie aio/eiu ia?iaeia
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu nua?aea eaouiue, ioeoeeaeueiue ycue i?aaa, ?aeeaee e
ia?aciaaiey. Aua aeieai iinea oiai, eae eaoeineee ycue oo?aoee ooieoeeth
?acaiai?iiai, aai cia/aiea e ?ieue a oea?eae, noaea e oieaa?neoaoa
nio?aiyeenue. ?aeeaey ni “niaoeeaeueiui” ycueii niinianoaiaaea
eiioeaio?aoeee aeanoe e iiaouanoaa a ?oeao iniaiai ?aeeaeiciiai nineiaey
— eaoiee/aneiai aeooiaainoaa, eioi?ia iinoaaeei naay a i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia
iieiaeaiea ii ioiioaieth ei anai inoaeueiui aa?othuei.

N?aaeiaaaeiaay eaeay i oii, /oi aa?iiaeneia “O?enoeaineia oea?noai” ni
noieeoeae a ?eia iiaeii iooai naaoneie yeniainee ?anoe?eoue aei
i?aaeaeia anaai “ciaaiiai ie?a”, iieo/eea ?aaeueiia aiieiuaiea a XV —
XVI aa. aianoa n inaiaieai Aoeaioeee e ia/aeii eieiieaeueiie yeniainee
Aa?iiu. Yoi iicaieeei ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae eiiiaine?iaaoue a
Iiaii Naaoa iioa?e, eioi?ua ae iaianea ?aoi?iaoeey ia aa?iiaeneii
eiioeiaioa.

?aneie a eaoeineie o?aaeeoeee caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa i?eaae e iiaaaea
?aoi?iaoi?ia e nicaeaieth a XVI a. naaa?iie, eee i?ioanoaioneie,
o?aaeeoeee caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa. N yoiai a?aiaie oea?eae eaoeineie
o?aaeeoeee nin?aaeioi/eeenue ia thaa Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. E?anoiaua iioiaeu
iiae ia?onaie aeiieie?iaaaoeo ia ii?a a XVI a. Ii?ooaaeee e Eniaiee
iicaieeee o/?aaeeoue oea?eae eaoeineie o?aaeeoeee ia oieueei a
Oeaio?aeueiie e THaeiie (Eaoeineie) Aia?eea, ii e ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao
Ao?eeaineiai iiaa?aaeuey e ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiao Acee.

Ienneiia?neay aeayoaeueiinoue e eieiieaeueiay yeniainey” XIX XX aa.
niinianoaiaaee aua aieaa oe?ieiio aaia?aoe/aneiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth
?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Eiiea?aoeey ec E?eaiaeee, Eoaeee e ae?oaeo
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai n eaoeineie o?aaeeoeeae o?enoeainoaa i?eaaea e
oi?ie?iaaieth eaoeii-o?enoeaineeo aieeaaia a Naaa?iie Aia?eea, Aano?aeee
e ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao n aeiieie?othuei i?ioanoaioneei aeeyieai.

A XIX a. aeayoaeueiinoue ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae cia/eoaeueii
iieeoece?iaaeanue, /oi auei naycaii n eieiieaeueiie yeniaineae,
oi?ie?iaaieai iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e ?acaeoeai ?aai/aai e
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiee a no?aiao Aa?iiu. Ia I Aaoeeaineii niai?a
1869— 1870 aa. ?eineee iaia Iee IX, ca ianeieueei eao aei yoiai
iioaeeeiaaaoee “Neeeaaon, eee Iieiia ia?a/eneaiea aeaaiuo caaeoaeaeaiee
iaoaai a?aiaie”, no?aieeny, n iaeiie noi?iiu, iiaeiyoue aaoi?eoao iaiu e
eaoiee/aneiai o/aiey a aii?inao ?aeeaee, iieeoeee e eaeaieiaee, a n
ae?oaie – ii?aaeaeeoue iiceoeee oea?eae ii ioiioaieth e iiaui iao/iui,
iauanoaaiiui e iieeoe/aneei oa/aieyi e eaeayi. Niai? inoaeee yoe o/aiey
(?aoeeiiaeeci, iaioaeci, nioeeaeeci e o.ae.) e aeaiie?aoe/aneea
o?aaiaaiey iauanoaaiiuo aeaeaeaiee (naiaiaea neiaa, ia/aoe e o.ae.), a
oaeaea i?eiye aeae?ao i iaiia?aoeiinoe ?eineiai iaiu (iaianoieea
“O?enoa”), eiaaea ii aunooiaao ioeoeeaeueii ii aii?inai aa?u e ii?aee.
Iineaaeiaa ?aoaiea i?eaaei e auoiaeo ec oea?eae /anoe eaoieeeia e
oi?ie?iaaieth eie naiinoiyoaeueiie noa?ieaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Yoe
iaaieueoea oea?eae aeaenoaotho naaiaeiy a ianeieueeeo
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao e NOA.

Auno?ue eiee/anoaaiiue ?ino eaoiee/aneeo oea?eaae a Eaoeineie Aia?eea e
Ao?eea i?eaae e au?aaioea Aaoeeaiii iiaie iieeoe/aneie no?aoaaee,
i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia oe?aieaiea naieo iiceoeee a auaoeo eieiieaeueiuo e
caaeneiuo no?aiao. Eaoeineay o?aaeeoeey caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa aioea a
ia?eiae ea/anoaaiiuo ia?aiai.

O ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae iaeiieai ia?iiiue iiuo i?iiaaaiaeenoneie
?aaiou. Naaiaeiy iiae eiio?ieai eaoieeeia aeaenoaotho iiiai/eneaiiua
oeiia?aoee e ecaeaoaeuenoaa, ?aaeeinoaioeee e oaeaeiiiaiee, ecaeathony
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua e i?eoiaeneea aacaou e aeo?iaeu, iauay e niaoeeaeueiay
?aeeaeiciay eeoa?aoo?a. Iiiai ieooo i oeiainiaie eiia?ee Aaoeeaia.

Aeaenoaothuea ?aeeaeiciua e naaoneea eaoiee/aneea i?aaiecaoeee aeatho
oea?eae aiciiaeiinoue ?aaioaoue n aa?othueie anao aic?anoia. Neeueiua
iiceoeee eiaao ?einei-eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue ia anao o?iaiyo noa?u
ia?aciaaiey. I?eaeeaae?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea a iaeanoe aunoaai ia?aciaaiey
caieiatho i?anoeaeiua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, iniaaiii i?aeaia eacoeoia.
Oi?ioi i?aaieciaaiu e no?oeoo?e?iaaiu ?acee/iua oi?iu aeaaioai?eoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Oe?ieay ?aaioa aaaeaony a iaeanoe cae?aaiio?aiaiey:
naieoa?iia i?inaauaiea, ianeoaeeaaiea ainieoaeae, aeiiia aeey
i?anoa?aeuo eai?ici?eaa.

?einei-eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue ioaeaao i?ei?eoao i?aaeaieth, o.a. ia?yaeo
n Aeaeeae, o?oaeaie iooeia Oea?eae e ?aoaieyie ia?auo Anaeaineeo niai?ia
iia iiaeieiaao aei o?iaiy iai?a?aeaaiiai aaoi?eoaoa aeey aa?othueo
ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou, iiaeaioiaeaiiua iaiie e aunoeie i?aaiaie
oeaio?aeueiiai oea?eiaiiai oi?aaeaiey. ?einei-eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue ia
?aeiiaiaeiaaea (aei II Aaoeeaineiai niai?a) aa?othuei naiinoiyoaeueiia
eco/aiea Aeaeee, ianoaeaay ia /oaiee a i?enoonoaee nayuaiiineoaeeoaey,
eioi?ue aeaao ioeoeeaeueiia oieeiaaiea. Oieueei a ea?a?oee eaoeineiai
o?enoeainoaa anoue ea?aeeiaeu. Oaeinoai eiioe?iaoeee (n eao. –
ie?iiiiacaiea) i?iaiaeeony a aic?anoa 7 – 13 eao. Aaoa?enoey niaa?oaaony
ia ia eaaniii oeaaa (eae o i?aaineaaiuo), a ia i?aniii (iaeaoea).
E?anoiia ciaiaiea niaa?oaaony ia ni?aaa iaeaai, eae o i?aaineaaiuo, a
neaaa iai?aai.

E ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae i?eiueatho oieaoneea oea?eae, o.a.
iaoeeiiaeueiua o?enoeaineea oea?eae, iiaeienaaoea oieth (n eao. – nithc)
n Aaoeeaiii. Oieaoneea oea?eae i?eieiatho aa?io/aiea e ?oeiaiaenoai
?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae, ii nio?aiytho iaoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe a
aiaineoaeaiee e ia?yaeiaie i?aeoeea. Oieaoneea oea?eae i?eaea?aeeaathony
?acee/iuo ia?yaeia: a?a/aneiai, oaeaeaeneiai, a?iyineiai, ia?iieoneiai,
ne?eeneiai e eiioneiai.

I?IOANOAIOECI

I?ioanoaioeci — iaeii ec o?ao iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee o?enoeainoaa,
aicieeoaa a Naaa?iie Aa?iia a ia/aea XVI a. a oiaea ?aoi?iaoeee. A 1529
a. a?oiia aeaa iaaieueoeo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?aciaaiee (i?aeiouanoaaiii
aa?iaineeo caiaeue) e i?aaenoaaeoaeae naiaiaeiuo ai?iaeia, o/anoaiaaaoeo
a ?aaioa eiia?neiai naeia a a. Oiaea?a, aaea aieueoeinoai aeaeaaaoia
ninoaaeyee eaoieeee, aunooieea n ioeoeeaeueiie i?ioanoaoeeae i?ioea
naeia, iai?aaeaiiie ia i?ana/aiea aeaeaeaiee ca ?aoi?io
?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae.

O?iiieiae/anee caoeanoioaoaa Caiaaeioth Aa?iio ?aoi?iaoeeiiiia
aeaeaeaiea niaiaaeaei n e?ecenii oaiaeaeueiiai no?iy e ?aiieie
ao?aeoaciuie ?aaiethoeeyie. Aioeoaiaeaeueiua aunooieaiey oe?ieeo
ia?iaeiuo iann e aeaeaeaiey ia?iaeaeathuaeny ao?aeoacee i?eia?aoaee
?aeeaeicioth ie?aoaiiinoue. I?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii ioaeaeeoue a ieo
?aeeaeiciua o?aaiaaiey io o?aaiaaiee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e
iieeoe/aneeo: ana auei oanii ia?aieaoaii ieaia ?aeeaeiciii ?aoi?iaoeey
i?eaaea e naiiio aeoaieiio e?eceno a enoi?ee ?einei-eaoiee/aneie
oea?eae, io eaoeineie o?aaeeoeee caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa ioeieieanue
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aa?othueo, ia?aciaaaoeo iiaoth, i?ioanoaioneoth,
eee naaa?ioth, o?aaeeoeeth caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa.

Oa?iei “naaa?iay o?aaeeoeey” aaiaeeony iioiio, /oi yoi iai?aaeaiea
o?enoeainoaa oa?aeoa?ii i?aaeaea anaai aeey ia?iaeia Naaa?iie Aa?iiu e
Naaa?iie Aia?eee, oioy i?aeoe/anee naaiaeiy i?ioanoaioneea oea?eae
?ani?ino?aiaiu ii anaio ie?o. Oa?iei “i?ioanoaio” ia yaeyaony, oa?ieiii
niaoeeaeueiui, a naie o/anoieee ?aoi?iaoeee /aua iacuaaee naay
?aoi?iaoi?aie eee aaaiaaeenoaie.

?aoi?iaoeey, aucaaaoay ?aneie caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa, caaa?oeeanue
ioeacii io i?eciaiey aa?oiaainoaa ?eineiai iaiu e io eniieueciaaiey
eaoeineiai ycuea a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai ioeoeeaeueii aeiioneaaoaainy
aeey ?aeeaeiciiai iauaiey ycuea. Anee ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie eaoieeoeecia
yaeyaony no?iai oeaio?aeeciaaiiay ea?a?oe/aneay oea?eiaue, oi
naiaia?acea i?ioanoaioecia ninoieo a nouanoaiaaiee iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo
iacaaeneiuo o?enoeaineeo aeaeaeaiee, oea?eaae, iauei e naeo, aaoiiiiiuo
a naiae ?aeeaeiciie aeecie. Yoi ia eneeth/aao eo iauaaeeiaiey ia
iaoeeiiaeueiii eee iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia ii i?eioeeio iauae oeaee eee
iaeiie aeaiiieiaoeee. Iauynieoue yoo iiiaeanoaaiiinoue a ii?aaeaeaiiie
ia?a iiaeao iiii/ue oacen iaeiiai ec iooeia ?aoi?iaoeee, Ia?oeia
Ethoa?a, eioi?ue, ionoaeaay naie iiceoeee, ooaa?aeaeae: “Ia oii noith e
ia iiao eia/a” I?eciaiea aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii aa?io/aiey Nayuaiiiai
Ienaiey ia iiaei ia i?eaiaeeoue e noauaeoeaecio a aai oieeiaaieyo.

Naaa?iay, eee i?ioanoaioneay, o?aaeeoeey caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa — yoi
o?aaeeoeey iaoeeiiaeueiay, ianoiay, eieaeueiay. N?aaee eeaea?ia ?aiiae
?aoi?iaoeee XVI a. oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caieiaao eaoiee/aneee nayuaiiee,
i?ioanni? oaieiaee a Aeooaiaa?aneii oieaa?neoaoa Ia?oei Ethoa? (1483 —
1543), eioi?ue a 1517a. iaia?iaeiaae 95 oacenia iainiiaaaoeo
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoi?i a ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Io e?eoeee
i?aeoeeiaaaoaeny oea?eiaueth i?iaeaaee eiaeoeueaaioeee Ethoa? ia?aoae e
e?eoeea iniia eaoiee/aneiai aa?io/aiey e iainoaa e eceiaeaieth
i?eioeeiia, ia eioi?uo aeieaeia no?ieoueny ?aoi?ie?iaaiiay o?enoeaineay
oea?eiaue. A ioaao ia iaaeiaiea aai a a?ane Ethoa? ioaee/ii naeaa
iaineoth aoeeo, ioeo/aaooth aai io oea?eae. Ii noae aiaeaeai ?aeeaeiciie
iiiiceoeee a Aa?iaiee. Eaeaieiaii e aiaeaeai oaaeoea?neeo ?aoi?iaoi?ia
?aiiaai ia?eiaea aue nayuaiiee O.Oeaeiaee (1484 — 1531), aunooieaoee ni
naieie oacenaie i?eioeeiia ?aoi?i ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Oeaeiaee
ioiineeny e aieaa ?aaeeeaeueiiio e?ueo ?aoi?iaoeee, iineaaeiaaoaeueii
?aaeecoy a ?oeiaiaeeiie ei oea?eae i?eioeei naiioi?aaeyaiinoe, eca?aiey
e niauaiey oea?eiaiineoaeeoaeae ia iauai nia?aiee anao /eaiia iaueiu.

Aua aieaa ?aaeeeaeueiui aiaeaeai e?anoueyinei-ieaaaeneiai oa/aiey
?aoi?iaoeee aue Oiian Ithioea? (1490 — 1525), eaciaiiue iinea ?aca?iia
?oeiaiaeeiiai ei iiie/aiey a oiaea E?anoueyineie aieiu a Aa?iaiee.

Ianniaua ia?iaeiua aeaeaeaiey ?aaeeeaeueiie ?aoi?iaoeee — ieaaaeneee
aiaaaioeci — io?eoeaee oea?eiaioth ea?a?oeth, o?aaiaaee naiaiaeu
ee/iinoe e i?ae?auaiey aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a aeeciue oea?eae,
Aiaaaioenou (“ia?ae?auaioeu”) o?aaiaaee aoi?iai, niciaoaeueiiai e?auaiey
oaea a c?aeii aic?anoa.

Aeeaea ae?oaeo i?ioanoaioneeo oea?eaae, eae ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?a, oae e ii aeieo?eia e ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae noieo
Aiaeeeaineay oea?eiaue. Aicieeioa a Aiaeee a ia?eiae ?aoi?iaoeee (i?e
ei?iea Aai?eoa VIII, eioi?ue e aue iauyaeai aeaaie oea?eae), yoa
oea?eiaue nio?aieea eaoiee/aneoth ia?yaeiinoue e aeooiaioth ea?a?oeth. A
aa aeieo?eia ni/aoaaony eaoiee/aneia o/aiea i nianathuae neea oea?eae n
i?ioanoaioneei o/aieai i nianaiee ee/iie aa?ie. A eoeueoiaie i?aeoeea
Aiaeeeaineie oea?eae nio?aiaiu iiiaea yeaiaiou eaoeineie o?aaeeoeee
o?enoeainoaa. Iniiau aiaeeeaineie aeiaiaoeee e ia?yaeiinoe niaea?aeaony
a Eieaa iaueo iieeoa — ioeoeeaeueiii nai?ieea iieeoa e eeoo?ae/aneeo
i?aaeienaiee, i?eiyoii a 1549a.

Aiaeeeaineay oea?eiaue yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiie, aa aeaaa — aiaeeeneee
iiia?o (ei?ieue eee ei?ieaaa) iacia/aao ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee eiiennee
aieneiiia; i?eianii (n eao. — ia?aainoaothuee) oea?eae yaeyaony
a?oeaieneii Eaioa?aa?eeneee. Iineieueeo naiinoiyoaeueiua aiaeeeaineea
oea?eae aeaenoaotho a 16 no?aiao, oi n oeaeueth i?eaeaiey iaaeoea?eiaiui
eiioaeoai iinoiyiiiai oa?aeoa?a iaeei ?ac a 10 eao a Eiiaeiia
i?iaiaeyony Eaiaaoneea eiioa?aioeee, a ?aaioa eioi?uo o/anoaotho
aiaeeeaineea aieneiiu.

A oeaeii oi?ie?iaaiea naaa?iie o?aaeeoeee caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa i?e
anai ?aciiia?acee aa ianoiuo oi?i i?ioiaeeei ia iniiaa iaueo aeey anao
iiauo ?aeeaeiciuo i?eioeeiia. Iie naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio.

1 Aaeeinoaaiiui e eneeth/eoaeueiui enoi/ieeii aa?io/aiey yaeyaony
Nayuaiiia Ienaiea. Aeaeey aeieaeia ia?aaiaeeoueny ia ianoiua ycuee.
Naiinoiyoaeueiia /oaiea e oieeiaaiea Aeaeee — iaycaiiinoue eaaeaeiai
aa?othuaai. Aaoi?eoao I?aaeaiey a aii?inao aa?u io?eoeaaony.

2. Aiaeanoaaiiie aeaaiaeaoueth iaeaaeaao ia oieueei aeooiaainoai (/a?ac
aieneiineia ?oeiiieiaeaiea), ii e ana aa?othuea, eaaeaeue /aeiaae,
oaa?iaaaoee a eneoieoaeueioth aea?oao O?enoa. Yoei ono?aiyeanue a?aieoea
iaaeaeo ie?yiaie e aeooiaainoaii, ioiaaeaea naia iio?aaiinoue a
ea?a?oee.

3. Nianaiea aeinoeaaaony ia aeia?uie aeaeaie, a oieueei e
eneeth/eoaeueii ee/iie aa?ie a Aiaa.

4. I?eciathony eeoue aeaa oaeinoaa: e?auaiea e i?e/auaiea, a ieo
i?aeiouanoaaiii neiaiee/aneee niune. O ethoa?ai a?ae, ?oeiiieiaeaiea,
niai?iaaiea, eiioe?iaoeey n/eoathony i?inouie ia?yaeaie. Aieueoeinoai
i?ioanoaioneeo oea?eaae ia i?eciaao iieeiiaiey nayoui, ii/eoaiey iiuae,
eeii, neoeueioo?iuo ecia?aaeaiee nayouo e aeaaea e?anoa.

5. Eoeueo, ia?yaeu e iaeee oea?eae oaeaoaaeythony e oi?iuathony.
Ioaa?aathony yeaiaiou iiiiaciinoe e ?ineioe a aiaineoaeaiee, oa?ainoaa
o?aia (oaeaeaiea eeii, noaooe, iiuae, aeoa?y e o.ae.), a iaeaaeaea
nayuaiiineoaeeoaeae. Aiaineoaeaiea naiaeeony e i?iiiaaaee ianoi?a,
niaianoiie iieeoaa e niaianoiiio iaieth inaeiia; iii aaaeaony ia ianoiuo
ycueao.

6. Oeaeeaao (n eao. – aaca?a/ea) aeooiaainoaa ioaa?aaaony. Iiiaoanoai
iauyaeyaony iaioaeiui e aaniieaciui — iiianou?e aeieaeiu auoue cae?uou e
cai?auaiu.

7. Io?eoeaiea aaeeiie aeey anao ea?a?oe/aneie no?oeoo?u oea?eae e
aa?oiaiie aeanoe ?eineiai iaiu. Aeaiie?aoe/aneay no?oeoo?a oea?eae
auno?aeaaaony nieco aaa?o ia ooiaeaiaioa iauaai nia?aiey anao /eaiia
oea?eae, aaea eaaeaeue iiaeao i?eiyoue o/anoea a ianoaeaeaiee eae
iaoa?eaeueiuo, oae e aiaineianeeo aii?inia. Iaueiu, eee eiia?aaaoeee,
aa?othueo aaoiiiiiu a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee e a aeayoaeueiinoe, iie
oi?aaeythony ecae?aaiuie iauei nia?aieai ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie
eiinenoi?eyie (ianoi?, aeeaeii e noa?aeoeiu (i?anaeoa?u) ec /enea
ie?yi). I?iaeioeeaeueiua eiinenoi?ee iinueatho aeaeaaaoia ia ?aaoey?ii
nicuaaaiue i?iaeioeeaeueiue neiiae. Neaaeothuee o?iaaiue —
iaoeeiiaeueiue neiiae e o.ae.

I?eioeeiu, eaaeauea a iniiaa i?ioanoaioneie o?aaeeoeee, niinianoaiaaee
aeoeaiie ?ac?aaioea i?ioanoaioneeie oaieiaaie aii?inia naycaiiuo n
oaeeie iiiyoeyie, eae “ioe?iaaiea”, “aa?a”, “ineoieiaey aa?u”. A aae
I?inaauaiey i?ioanoaioneay oaieiaey ieacaea aeeyiea ia iiyaeaiea e
?acaeoea ?aoeeiiaeecia.

Iiiaea i?ioanoaioneea oea?eae i?eieiatho aeoeaiia o/anoea a aeaeaeaiee
ca iauaaeeiaiea anao o?enoeaineeo eiioannee. Yoi aeaeaeaiea iineo
iacaaiea yeoiaie/aneiai (a?a/. “yeoiaia” — ie?, Anaeaiiay) e eiaao naiae
oeaeueth ainnoaiiaeaiea oo?a/aiiiai a ia?eiae n?aaeiaaaeiauey
o?enoeaineiai aaeeinoaa.

?ANI?INO?AIAIEA O?ENOEAINOAA.

Ca?oaaaeiay Aa?iia.

O?enoeaineay ?aeeaey i?iieeea a Aa?iio anei?a iinea naiaai
aicieeiiaaiey. Iaeiaei ia ia?auo ii?ao aeeyiea yoie ?aeeaee auei
iaaaeeei, i?e/ai ?ani?ino?aiaiea aa ia?aie/eaaeinue ?aeiiaie
N?aaeecaiiiii?uey. A oeaio?aeueiiaa?iiaeneea no?aiu o?enoeainoai
aiaae?eeinue ianeieueei iicaea, a ia naaa? e ainoie Aa?iiu – eeoue a
VII-XII aa.

N ?acaeaeaieai o?enoeainoaa a XI a. ia caiaaeioth e ainoi/ioth aaoae
no?aiu THai-Caiaaeiie, Caiaaeiie, Oeaio?aeueiie e Naaa?iie Aa?iiu
iineaaeiaaee ca ?eiii, Ainoie e THai-Ainoie – ca Eiinoaioeiiiieai.
?aoi?iaoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea, ?acaa?ioaoaany a Aa?iia a ia?aie iieiaeia
XVI a., aua aieaa ineiaeieei ?aeeaeicioth ea?oeio a yoie /anoe naaoa:
ia?yaeo n eaoieeeaie e i?aaineaaiuie iiyaeeenue aua e i?ioanoaiou.
I?ioanoaioeci ooaa?aeeeny a ?yaea ?aeiiia Oeaio?aeueiie e Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu, a oaeaea ia anai naaa?a.

N oie ii?u aaia?aoey ?acee/iuo ?aeeaeiciuo iai?aaeaiee a Aa?iia ia
i?aoa?iaea nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee. I?ioanoaioeci ii-i?aaeiaio
i?aiaeaaeaao n?aaee aa?othueo naaa?iaa?iiaeneeo no?ai (Oeieyiaeey,
Oaaoeey, Ii?aaaey, Aeaiey, Eneaiaeey), a oaeaea ioaeaeueiuo no?ai
Caiaaeiie e Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu ( Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Naaa?iay E?eaiaeey, a
ainoi/iie /anoe Aa?iaiee ). A oaeeo aea caiaaeii- e
oeaio?aeueiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao, eae Ieaea?eaiaeu, caiaaeiay /anoue
Aa?iaiee, Oaaeoea?ey, i?ioanoaioeci a ?aciuo oi?iao eniiaaaeoao i?eia?ii
iieiaeia aa?othueo.

A no?aiao THai-Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu ( Eoaeee, Eniaiee, Ii?ooaaeee, Iaeueoa
), a oaeaea a iaeioi?uo no?aiao Caiaaeiie ( E?eaiaeey, O?aioeey,
Aaeueaey, Ethenaiao?a), Oeaio?aeueiie ( Aano?ey ) e Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu (
Iieueoa, *aoey, Neiaaeey, Aaia?ey ) aieueoeinoai aa?othueo – eaoieeee.

I?aaineaaea i?aiaeaaeaao n?aaee aa?othueo THai-Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu
(?oiuiey, Aieaa?ey, A?aoeey), a oae aea ?inney. A THaineaaee iiieii
i?aaineaaiuo iiiai eaoieeeia.

Oeieyiaeey.

O?enoeainoai i?iieeei a Oeieyiaeeth a XII a. A yiioo ?aoi?iaoeee a yoie
no?aia ?ani?ino?aieeinue ethoa?ainoai, eioi?ia eniiaaaeotho 90,5%
ianaeaiey. Aieueoeinoai ethoa?ai – /eaiu Oeineie
aaaiaaee/anei-ethoa?aineie oea?eae. Eiathony oae aea iineaaeiaaoaee
Oaaaeneie Ethoa?aineie oea?eae. Aoi?ie ii /eneo iineaaeiaaoaeae
oea?eiaiie i?aaiecaoeeae a no?aia yaeyaony Oeineay i?aaineaaiay
oea?eiaue.

Oaaoeey.

A Oaaoeee o?enoeainoai auei aaaaeaii a IX a. Ni a?aiaie ?aoi?iaoeee a
no?aia anaoeaei ainiiaenoaoao ethoa?ainoai ( ethoa?aia ninoaaeytho
i?eia?ii 95% ianaeaiey) .Ianiio?y ia i?iaicaeaoaiea naiaiaeu
aa?ieniiaaaeaiey , ethoa?aineie oea?eae a Oaaoeee i?eaeai
ainoaea?noaaiiue oa?aeoa?.

Ii?aaaey

Ii?aaaey Auea ia?auaia a o?enoeainoai a IX a. N XVI a. a no?aia
aac?acaeaeueii ainiiaenoaoao ethoa?aineay Ii?aaaeneay oea?eiaue, eioi?ay
n/eoaaony ainoaea?noaaiiie (ii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui, e yoie oea?eae
i?eiaaeeaaeeo 94% ianaeaiey). A 1877 a. io ainoaea?noaaiiie oea?eae
ioaaoaeeanue Aaaiaaee/anei-ethoa?aineay naiaiaeiay oea?eiaue a Ii?aaaee,
ii /enei aa iineaaeiaaoaeae iaaaeeei. Aua iaei/eneaiiaa iacaaeneiay
Aaaiaaee/anei-ethoa?aineay oea?eiaiay eiia?aaaoeey. N?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoia /enei /eaiia eiatho e ae?oaea i?ioanoaioneea oea?eiaiua
i?aaiecaoeee e naeou, eaoieeeia anaai 15 oun.

Aeaiey

Aeiaieueii ?aii, a naiii ia/aea VIII a., o?enoeainoai ooaa?aeeeinue a
Aeaiee. Iinea ?aoi?iaoeee ioeoeeaeueiui aa?ieniiaaaeaieai no?aiu noaei
ethoa?ainoai. E ainoaea?noaaiiie Aaaiaaee/anei-ethoa?aineie ia?iaeiie
oea?eae Aeaiee ioiineony 94% ianaeaiey no?aiu (eioa?anii, /oi ?aaoey?ii
iinauaao oea?eiaue eeoue 3% ianaeaiey). Eaoieeoeeci eniiaaaeotho 28 oun.
/aeiaae. Eiaaony oaeaea iaaieueoia /enei i?aaineaaiuo e ionoeueiai
(n?aaee eiiea?aioia).

Eneaiaeey

O?enoeaiecaoeey ianaeaiey a yoie no?aia i?iecioea a ia/aea XI a. Iinea
?aoi?iaoeee aieueoeinoai aa?othueo noaee ethoa?aiaie. Aaaiaaee/aneay
ethoa?aineay oea?eiaue iaoiaeeony a no?aia ia iieiaeaiee
ainoaea?noaaiiie. E iae ioiineony 97% ianaeaiey Eneaiaeee. Aieueoeinoai
inoaeueiuo aa?othueo — iineaaeiaaoaee aeaoo iacaaeneiuo i?ioanoaioneeo
a?oiie?iaie: Naiaiaeiie oea?eae e Iacaaeneiie eiia?aaaoeee Naiaiaeiie
oea?eae.

Aaeeeia?eoaiey

Oaea a III a., o. a. aua aei aoi?aeaiey aiaeinaenia, A?eoaiey auea
o?enoeaineie no?aiie. A ia?aie iieiaeia XVI a. oea?eiaue Aiaeee iauyaeea
naay iacaaeneiie io ?eia. Oai ia iaiaa /anoue aa?othueo nio?aieea
aa?iinoue eaoieeoeecio. A ?aciia a?aiy io aiaeeeaineie oea?eae
ioaeaeeeinue iiiai ?acee/iuo oea?eiaiuo a?oiie?iaie e naeo. A Oioeaiaeee
a yiioo ?aoi?iaoeee ooaa?aeeeny eaeueaeieci (a oi?ia i?anaeoa?eainoaa),
eioi?ue e noae iniiaiie ?aeeaeae no?aiu.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Aaeeeia?eoaiee aeaenoaotho aeaa ainoaea?noaaiiua
oea?eae: Oea?eiaue Aiaeee (aiaeeeaineay) e Oea?eiaue Oioeaiaeee
(i?anaeoa?eaineay). Oea?eiaue Aiaeee ian/eouaaao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy 27
iei. iineaaeiaaoaeae (ia n/eoay aiaeeeai a Oyeuena, aaea aiaeeeaineay
oea?eiaue ia yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiie). Oea?eiaue Oioeaiaeee eiaao 953
oun. ac?ineuo /eaiia. E?iia ainoaea?noaaiiuo a Aaeeeia?eoaiee anoue aua
oae iacuaaaiua naiaiaeiua oea?eae. Iaeaieueoaa /enei iineaaeiaaoaeae
eiatho iaoiaeenoneea oea?eiaiua i?aaiecaoeee.

A Aaeeeia?eoaiee aeeaao aeiaieueii aieueoia /enei eaoieeeia. Eo
ian/eouaaaony a Niaaeeiaiiii Ei?ieaanoaa aieaa 5 iei. /aeiaae. Nauoa
iieiaeiu eaoieeeia – e?eaiaeoeu. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiua eaoiee/aneea
a?oiiu eiathony (e?iia Naaa?iie E?eaiaeee) a Aeacai, Ea?aeeooa,
Eeaa?ioea, Ae?ieiaaia e Eiiaeiia. Eiathony oaeaea iaaieueoea a?oiiu
i?aaineaaiuo (a iniiaiii auoiaeoeu ec ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai) e
a?iyii-a?eai?eai (a?iyia).

Ino?ia Iyi – naiioi?aaeythuaany aeaaeaiea Aaeeeia?eoaiee – eiaao a
iniiaiii aiaeeeaineia ianaeaiea. Aianoa n oai ia ino?iaa ano?a/athony
i?eaa?aeaioeu ae?oaeo i?ioanoaioneeo oea?eaae e naeo.

Ia ino?iaa Aeaea?ne (iaeei ec Ii?iaiaeneeo ino?iaia, naiioi?aaeythuaany
aeaaeaiea Aaeeeia?eoaiee) Oea?eiaue Aiaeee yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiie.
Eiathony ia ino?iaa i?aaenoaaeoaee ae?oaeo i?ioanoaioneeo oa/aiee
(iaoiaeenou, aaioenou, eiia?aaaoeeiiaeenou, i?anaeoa?eaia) e eaoieeee.
Oea?eiaue Aiaeee yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiie e aeey ianaeaiey ino?iaa
Aa?ine – aoi?iai ec Ii?iaiaeneeo ino?iaia, oaeaea naiioi?aaeythuaainy
aeaaeaiey Aaeeeia?eoaiee. Iiieii aiaeeeai ia ino?iaa aeeaoo
i?anaeoa?eaia, iaoiaeenou, eiia?aaaoeeiiaeenou, aaioenou, /eaiu Yeeineie
oea?eae, a oaeaea eaoieeee.

E?eaiaeey

E?eaiaeey i?eiyea o?enoeainoai a V a. Iia anaaaea n/eoaeanue iaeiei ec
aanoeiiia eaoieeoeecia. ?eineea eaoieeee ninoaaeytho 94% anaai ianaeaiey
no?aiu. Ec i?ioanoaioia iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiu aiaeeeaia (98 oun.), ca
ieie neaaeotho i?anaeoa?eaia (16 oun.) e iaoiaeenou (6 oun.).

O?aioeey

Ai O?aioeeth o?enoeainoai i?iieeei a ia/aea iiaie y?u. Iau/ii n/eoaaony,
/oi iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey no?aiu (ieiei 90%)
i?eaea?aeeaaaony eaoieeoeecia

Ai O?aioeee eiaaony aieaa 800 oun. i?ioanoaioia. Aieueoeinoai ec ieo
?aoi?iaou. Iie iauaaeeiaiu a o?e oea?eae: ?aoi?iaoneoth oea?eiaue
O?aioeee (400 oun.), ?aoi?iaoneoth oea?eiaue Yeuecana e Eioa?eiaee (42
oun.) e Iacaaeneioth aaaiaaee/aneoth ?aoi?iaoneoth oea?eiaue (10 oun.).
Ethoa?aia ai O?aioeee ia?acotho aeaa oea?eae: Oea?eiaue aoanao?aneiai
eniiaaaeaiey Yeuecana e Eioa?eiaee (230 oun.) e Aaaiaaee/aneoth
ethoa?aineoth oea?eiaue O?aioeee (45 oun.). ?aoi?iaoia aieueoa anaai a
Ia?eaea, Ii?iaiaeee e aeec Ia?naey, ethoa?ai – a Yeuecana e Eioa?eiaee.
Ae?oaea a?oiiu i?ioanoaioia iaaaeeee.

A no?aia eiathony oaeaea a?iyii-a?eai?eaia (180 oun.), i?aaineaaiua (150
oun., i?aeiouanoaaiii ?onneea e a?aee), ii?iiiu (15 oun.), noa?ieaoieeee
(3 oun.).

Iiiaei

A iaaieueoii eiyaeanoaa Iiiaei, ?aniieiaeaiiii ia n?aaeecaiiiii?neii
iiaa?aaeuea, 90% ianaeaiey i?eaea?aeeaaaony eaoieeoeecia. Eiathony
oaeaea aiaeeeaia e ae?oaea i?ioanoaiou.

Ieaea?eaiaeu

Ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiuo Ieaea?eaiaeia o?enoeainoai ia/aei
?ani?ino?aiyoueny n eiioea VII a. Iinea ?aoi?iaoeee aieueoay /anoue
ianaeaiey i?eiyea i?ioanoaioeci, iaeiaei ia thaa nio?aieeny eaoieeoeeci.

I?ioanoaiou ninoaaeytho a Ieaea?eaiaeao 34% ianaeaiey, eaoieeee — 40%.
Eaoieeee iniaaiii iiiai/eneaiiu ia thaa no?aiu, aaea a i?iaeioeeyo
Naaa?iue A?aaaio e Eeiao?a iie ninoaaeytho 90-95% ianaeaiey. Iaiaei eo
oae aea a i?iaeioeeyo Naaa?iay Aieeaiaeey, Iaa?yennae e Aaeaea?eaiae.
I?ioanoaiou aeaeyony ia ?yae oea?eaae e naeo. Iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea eiatho
?aoi?iaoneea oea?eae. Aaaeiaeoay ec ieo – Ieaea?eaiaeneay ?aoi?iaoneay
oea?eiaue. E iae i?eiaaeeaaeeo aieueoeinoai ?aoi?iaoia no?aiu.

Aaeueaey

O?enoeaiecaoeey Aaeueaee i?ioiaeeea n eiioea VII a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aa?othueo a no?aia – eaoieeee (i?eia?ii 90%
anaai ianaeaiey). *enei i?ioanoaioia iaaaeeei. A no?aia aeaenoaotho
Iauaaeeiaiiay i?ioanoaioneay oea?eiaue Aaeueaee (nicaeaia a 1978 a. a
?acoeueoaoa iauaaeeiaiey ethoa?aineie ii eniiaaaeaieth I?ioanoaioneie
oea?eae Aaeueaee, ?aoi?iaoneie oea?eae Aaeueaee e aaeueaeeneiai ie?oaa
?aoi?iaoneeo Oea?eaae a Ieaea?eaiaeao).

N?aaee aeeaoueo a Aaeueaee eiino?aioeaa 20 oun. i?aaineaaiuo.

Ethenaiao?a

Aieueoay /anoue ianaeaiey Ethenaiao?aa – eaoieeee (96%). I?ioanoaioia,
aeaaiui ia?acii ethoa?ai, iaei (4 oun., eee 1% ianaeaiey). *anoue
aeeoaeae Ethenaiao?aa ai a?aiy ia?aiene eee iauyaeee naay aoaenoaie, eee
ioeacaeenue oeacaoue naith ?aeeaeicioth i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue.

Aa?iaiey

Caiaaeiay Aa?iaiey

Ia oa??eoi?eth, ia eioi?ie a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ?aniieiaeaia Caiaaeiay
Aa?iaiey, o?enoeainoai i?iieeei aua a IV a. ?aoi?iaoeey ?aneieiea
iaiaoeeeo o?enoeai ia aeaa a?oiiu: /anoue ec ieo inoaeenue
i?eaa?aeaioeaie ?eineie eaoiee/aneie oea?eae, ae?oaea aini?eiyee
i?ioanoaioeci a ethoa?aineie eee eaeueaeienoneie oi?ia. Aua a XIX a.
auea naeaeaia iiiuoea iauaaeeieoue a ioaeaeueiuo iaiaoeeeo ainoaea?noaao
ethoa?aineea e ?aoi?iaoneea oea?eae (i?e nio?aiaiee aa?ieniiaaaeiuo
iniaaiiinoae eaaeaeie aoiaeyuae a iauaaeeiaiea oea?eiaiie iaueiu).
Iauaaeeiaiiua oea?eae noaee iacuaaoueny aaaiaaee/aneeie. Iinea
ia?aciaaiey aaeeiiai aa?iaineiai ainoaea?noaa auea nicaeaia
Aaaiaaee/aneay oea?eiaue nithca, iaeiaei a aa ninoaa aioee ia ana
ianoiua aaaiaaee/aneea (ethoa?ainei-?aoi?iao-neea) i?aaiecaoeee. A
1948a. auei nicaeaii aua aieaa oe?ieia iauaaeeiaiea – Aaaiaaee/aneay
oea?eiaue a Aa?iaiee, a eioi?oth aioee oaea oiiiyiooay Aaaiaaee/aneay
oea?eiaue nithca, Iauaaeeiaiiay aaaiaaee/anei-ethoa?aineay oea?eiaue
Aa?iaiee, nicaeaiiay a 1948 a., e ?yae naiinoiyoaeueiuo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo
aaaiaaee/anei-ethoa?aineeo e aaaiaaee/anei-?aoi?iaoneeo oea?eaae.

Aieueoei aeeyieai iieuecoaony e ?eineay eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue. E iae
i?eiueaao 46% ianaeaiey no?aiu. Eaoieeoeeci caieiaao iniaaiii neeueiua
iiceoeee ia caiaaea e thaa no?aiu – a caieyo Naa? (74% ianaeaiey),
Aaaa?ey (70%), ?aeieaiae-Ioaeueoe (56%) e Naaa?iue ?aei-Aanooaeey (52%).
A O?A eiathony oaeaea iaaieueoea a?oiiu i?aaineaaiuo.

Ainoi/iay Aa?iaiey

A Ainoi/iie Aa?iaiee, a ioee/ea io Caiaaeiie, eaoieeoeeci ia ea?aao
cia/eoaeueiie ?iee (aai i?eaea?aeeaaaony 8% ianaeaiey). N?aaee
i?ioanoaioia i?aiaeaaeatho ethoa?aia, ii iaiaei e ?aoi?iaoia. Anoue a
no?aia oaeaea iaaieueoea a?oiiu noa?ieaoieeeia e i?aaineaaiuo, a oaeaea
ieiei 5 oun. eoaeaenoia. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ianaeaiey Ainoi/iie
Aa?iaiee ia eniiaaaeoao ieeaeie ?aeeaee.

Aa?eei

A Aa?eeia i?aiaeaaeaao i?ioanoaioeci (70% ianaeaiey). Eiathony a ai?iaea
eaoieeee (12%) e eoaeaenou (5 oun.).

Oaaeoea?ey

A Oaaeoea?ee ?aoi?iaoeey aunooieea a naiaia?aciie oi?ia eaeueaeiecia.
Eiaiii a AEaiaaa i?ioaeaea aeayoaeueiinoue AEaia Eaeueaeia. A 1980a.
i?ioanoaiou ninoaaeyee 44% anaai ianaeaiey no?aiu (aeeth/ay
eiino?aioeaa), eaoieeee – 48%. N?aaee oaaeoea?neeo a?aaeaeai niioiioaiea
aeaoo iniiaiuo eiioannee ianeieueei eiia: i?ioanoaiou -55%, eaoieeee –
43%. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai i?ioanoaioia Oaaeoea?ee – ?aoi?iaou. A
no?aia ooieoeeiie?otho 19 naiinoiyoaeueiuo ?aoi?iaoneeo oea?eaae,
i?aaieciaaiiuo i?aeiouanoaaiii ii eaioiiai.

A Oaaeoea?ee eiathony oaeaea noa?ieaoieeee (O?enoeainei-eaoiee/aneay
oea?eiaue Oaaeoea?ee – 20 oun. iineaaeiaaoaeae, eee 0, 3% ianaeaiey).

Eeooaiooaei

A iaeaiueeii eiyaeanoaa Eeooaiooaei. ?aniieiaeaiiii iaaeaeo Oaaeoea?eae
e Aano?eae, i?aiaeaaeatho eaoieeee (88% anaai ianaeaiey). AEeaouea a
eiyaeanoaa i?ioanoaiou (7%) nin?aaeioi/aiu aeaaiui ia?acii a ?aeiia
noieeoeu eiyaeanoaa – Aaaeooea.

Aano?ey

Ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie Aano?ee o?enoeainoai noaei ?ani?ino?aiyoueny n
eiioea III a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ainiiaenoaothuaa iai?aaeaiea a no?aia –
eaoieeoeeci. Eaoieeee ninoaaeytho 89% ianaeaiey, i?ioanoaiou – 6%.
Aieueoeinoai aano?eeneeo i?ioanoaioia -ethoa?aia. Ethoa?aia
nin?aaeioi/aiu aeaaiui ia?acii ia thaa Aa?oiae Aano?ee, naaa?i-caiaaea
Ooe?ee, caiaaea Ea?eioee e thaa Ao?aaieaiaea. A Aano?ee ian/eouaaaony
i?eaeeceoaeueii 25 oun. noa?ieaoieeeia.

Ii?ooaaeey

A Ii?ooaaeeth o?enoeainoai aia?aua i?iieeea a IV a. Nae/an aieueoeinoai
ianaeaiey no?aiu (98%) i?eaea?aeeaaaony eaoieeoeecia. Nouanoaoao oaeaea
?yae i?ioanoaioneeo a?oii.

Eniaiey

A Eniaiee o?enoeainoai nouanoaoao n IV a. i. y., iaeiaei a ia?eiae
a?aaneiai caaiaaaiey iiceoeee yoie ?aeeaee auee neeueii iioaniaiu.
Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aa?othueo eniaioeaa eaoieeee (ii
ioeoeeaeueiui oea?eiaiui aeaiiui, iie ninoaaeytho 98% ianaeaiey no?aiu).
A no?aia eiathony e i?ioanoaiou: aaioenou, /eaiu Eniaineie
aaaiaaee/aneie oea?eae, noi?iiieee Eniaineiai aaaiaaee/aneiai aeueyina.

Aiaei??a

A iaeaiueeii eiyaeanoaa Aiaei??a, ?aniieiaeaiiii a Ie?aiayo, iaaeaeo
O?aioeeae e Eniaieae, ii/oe ana aa?othuea i?eaea?aeeaathony
eaoieeoeecia.

Iaeueoa

Ia Iaeueoa ?eineay eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiie e
iieuecoaony ia?iiiui aeeyieai. E eaoieeoeecio ioiineony iiaeaaeythuaa
aieueoeinoai (98%) ianaeaiey no?aiu. Ano?a/athony i/aiue iaaieueoea
a?oiiu i?ioanoaioia. Eiaaony iaeaiueeay a?oiia eoaeaenoia .

Eoaeey

Eoaeey – iaeia ec ia?auo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?ie oe?iei
?ani?ino?aieeinue o?enoeainoai. Eaoieeee ninoaaeytho iiaeaaeythuaa
aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey no?aiu. Ooieoeeiie?oao a Eoaeee oaeaea
a?aei-eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue, aaaeouay ?aaioo n?aaee i?iaeeaathueo a
Eoaeee a?aeia e aeaaioeaa. Eiathony e i?aaineaaiua. I?ioanoaioia a
no?aia ieiei 100 oun., (aieueoa anaai a Iueaiiioa). Yoi iineaaeiaaoaee
iyoeaeanyoie/aneeo Annaiaeae aiaa (55 oun.), ethoa?aia (6 oun.),
aaeaaioenou naaeueiiai aeiy (5 oun.), aaioenou (5 oun.), iaoiaeenou (4
oun.), noi?iiieee A?iee nianaiey e ae?.

Nai-Ia?eii

A iaeaiueeie ?anioaeeea Nai-Ia?eii, ie?oaeaiiie ni anao noi?ii
oa??eoi?eae Eoaeee, iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aeeoaeae (95%) –
eaoieeee.

A?aoeey

A?aoeey iiaeiaii Eoaeee, i/aiue ?aii aini?eiyea o?enoeainoai. Iaueiu
o?enoeai iiyaeeenue ia aa oa??eoi?ee oaea a I a. i.y., a ai II-III aa.
iiaay ?aeeaey ?ani?ino?aieeanue ii anae no?aia. A XI a., iinea ?aneiea
o?enoeaineie oea?eae, A?aoeey noaea iaeiei ec iieioia aa ainoi/iie aaoae
– i?aaineaaey. Nae/an A?a/aneay i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue yaeyaony a
A?aoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie. Iia iauaaeeiyao 97% ianaeaiey no?aiu.
Eaoieeoeeci ia iieo/ee a A?aoeee oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey.

THaineaaey

A THaineaaee (o?enoeainoai auei aiaae?aii ia nia?aiaiiie oa??eoi?ee
yoie no?aiu a IX a.) a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiay
?aeeaeiciay iano?ioa. I?aaineaaea eniiaaaeotho 41% ianaeaiey,
eaoieeoeeci -32%, i?ioanoaioeci – ieiei 1%, eneai – aieaa 12%.

I?ioanoaiou i?aaenoaaeaiu a THaineaaee i?aaeaea anaai ethoa?aiaie e
?aoi?iaoaie. Iiieii ethoa?ai e ?aoi?iaoia a no?aia ano?a/athony
aaeaaioenou, iyoeaeanyoieee, aaioenou, iaoiaeenou.

Aeaaiey

A Aeaaiee ?ani?ino?aiaiu o?enoeainoai e eneai. O?enoeainoai noaei
?ani?ino?aiyoueny a yoie no?aia aua ni II-III aa. i. y., eneai aea noae
aiaae?youeny n XVII a., iinea oo?aoeeiai caaiaaaiey. Ionoeueiaiaie
yaeythony aieueoeinoai aa?othueo no?aiu. O?enoeainoai i?aaenoaaeaii
i?aaineaaiie oea?eiaueth, iineaaeiaaoaeyie eioi?ie n/eoatho naay aieaa
20% aeaaineeo aa?othueo, e ?eineie eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth, e eioi?ie
ioiineony ieiei 10% anaai aa?othuaai ianaeaiey.

Aieaa?ey

Aieaa?ey, eoaea o?enoeainoaa i?iieeei a IX a., a ?aiiai n?aaeiaaaeiauea
noaea iaeiei ec iieioia i?aaineaaey. E nae/an 85% aa?othueo no?aiu
ioiineony e Aieaa?neie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae, 3% aa?othueo, aeaaiui
ia?acii ia thaa e ainoiea no?aiu, eniiaaaeoao eneai. Iaaieueoia /enei
aeeoaeae no?aiu (50 oun.) – eaoieeee. Eiathony oaeaea i?ioanoaioneea
iaueiu (16 oun. /eaiia). Yoi aaioenou, aaeaaioenou naaeueiiai aeiy e
aaeaaioenou-?aoi?ienou, iaoiaeenou, iyoeaeanyoieee, ?aoi?iaou,
eiia?aaaoeeiiaeenou.

?oiuiey

I?iieeiiaaiea o?enoeainoaa a ?oiuieth ioiinyo e IV a. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?eia?ii 85% aa?othueo – i?aaineaaiua. Iniiaiay ianna eo iauaaeeiaia
?oiuineie i?aaineaaiie oea?eiaueth. E i?aaineaaiui i?eiueaao iaaieueoay
a?oiia noa?iia?yaeoeaa (iioiiee auoiaeoeaa ec ?innee). Aeiaieueii
cia/eoaeueiia /enei e aa?othueo (1,2 iei.) i?eaea?aeeaaaony
eaoieeoeecia. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai /anoue aeeaoueo a ?oiuiee aaia?ia e
iaioeaa e iaaieueoia /enei ?oiui. N?aaee i?ioanoaioia iaeaieaa
iiiai/eneaiiu ?aoi?iaou.

Aaia?ey

Aaia?u auee ia?auaiu a o?enoeainoai a XI a. A XVI a. aieueoay /anoue
aaia?ia i?eiyea i?ioanoaioeci, iaeiaei a XVII a., a ia?eiae
eiio??aoi?iaoeee, eaoieeoeeci iiyoue ainoi?aeanoaiaae e nae/an ieiei
aeaoo o?aoae aaiaa?neeo aa?othueo – eaoieeee. A ainoi/iuo ?aeiiao no?aiu
aeeaao a?oiia a?aei-eaoieeeia. Aieueoay /anoue inoaeueiuo aa?othueo –
i?ioanoaiou. Naioth e?oiioth a?oiio ec ieo ia?acotho ?aoi?iaou (2 iei.).
Cia/eoaeueii e /enei ethoa?ai (500 oun.), *eneaiiinoue iineaaeiaaoaeae
ae?oaeo i?ioanoaioneeo eniiaaaeaiee iaaaeeea. iaca?yia.

*aoey e Neiaaeey

A *aoee e Neiaaeee o?enoeainoai ooaa?aeeeinue a IX a., oioy anoue
iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi a iaeioi?ua ?aeiiu iii i?iieeei ianeieueei
?aiaa. Iniiaiay /anoue aa?othueo i?eaea?aeeaaaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
eaoieeoeecia. Ec i?ioanoaioneeo oa/aiee iaeaieaa neeueiua iiceoeee
caieiaao ethoa?ainoai. Neiaaoeeay ethoa?aineay oea?eiaue iauaaeeiyao
/anoue aa?othueo neiaaeia.

Iieueoa

A Iieueoa (o?enoeainoai ooaa?aeeeinue a yoie no?aia a O a.)
iiaeaaeythuea aieueoeinoai aa?othueo eaoieeee. Anoue a no?aia
n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoay a?oiia a?aei-eaoieeeia. A Iieueoa eiaaony ?yae
oea?eaae, ii oai eee eiui i?e/eiai ioaeaeeaoeony io ?eineie eaoiee/aneie
oea?eae. I?ioanoaioeci i?aaenoaaeai ?yaeii naieo oa/aiee e naeo.

CA?OAAAEIAss ACEss

Acey yaeyaony /anoueth naaoa, aaea ca?iaeeeenue ana e?oiiaeoea ?aeeaee
caiiiai oa?a: eoaeaeci, o?enoeainoai, eneai, eiaeoeci, aoaeaeeci,
aeaeaeieci, eiioooeeainoai, neioieci. Iaeiaei noaeueaa yoeo ?aeeaee auea
?acee/iie. Iaeie ec ieo oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeenue e a ae?oaeo /anoyo
naaoa (o?enoeainoai, eneai, eoaeaeci), ae?oaea aea inoaeenue a iniiaiii
aceaoneeie ?aeeaeyie ( eiaeoeci, aoaeaeeci, aeaeaeieci, eiioooeeainoai,
neioieci).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a THai-Caiaaeiie Acee iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai eneai.
Iaionoeueiaineeie a yoii ?aeiia yaeythony aeaa no?aiu: Eei?, aaea
i?aiaeaaeatho o?enoeaia, e Ec?aeeue , a eioi?ii aieueoeinoai aeeoaeae
eniiaaaeotho eoaeaeci.

Eei?

Eei? – iaeia ec aeaoo i?aeiouanoaaiii o?enoeaineeo ii ianaeaieth no?ai
Acee (ae?oaay Oeeeiieiu). O?enoeainoai i?iieeei ia ino?ia aua a I a.
i.y. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey – a?aee – i?eaea?aeeaaaony
ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii i?aaineaaey. Ia ino?iaa nouanoaoao aaoieaoaeueiay
I?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue Eei?a, aeeyiea eioi?ie aanueia aaeeei.
I?aaineaaiua aa?othuea ninoaaeytho 77% ianaeaiey ino?iaa. Ae?oaea
?aeeaeiciua a?oiiu iaaaeeee. Yoi ia?iieou (3 oun. ), ?eineea eaoieeee,
a?iyii-a?eai?eaia (3, 5 oun.), aiaeeeaia, naeaeaoaee Eaaiau, aaeaaioenou
naaeueiiai aeiy e ae?.

Oeeeiieiu

Oeeeiieiu a iniiaiii o?enoeaineay no?aia (n XVI a.). O?enoeainoaa
i?eaea?aeeaaaony iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai oeeeiieineiai ianaeaiey.
Iniiaiay ianna oeeeiieineeo o?enoeai – eaoieeee (84% anaai ianaeaiey
no?aiu). A 1901 a. io ?eineiai eaoieeoeecia ioeieieanue Oeeeiieineay
iacaaeneiay oea?eiaue, iacuaaaiay eiiaaea ii eiaie aa iniiaaoaey
aieneiia Aaeeiay aaeeiayineie. Iia iauaaeeiyao 5% ianaeaiey. Iaeaieaa
aeeyoaeueia yoa oea?eiaue ia Eoniia. I?ioanoaiou ninoaaeytho 6%
ianaeaiey. Iineaaeiaaoaee iaeaieaa e?oiiie i?ioanoaioneie oea?eiaiie
i?aaiecaoeee – Iauaaeeiaiiie oea?eae O?enoa ia Oeeeiieiao (oea?eiaue
iauaaeeieea ?aoi?iaoia, i?anaeoa?eai e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea a?oiiu
i?ioanoaioia) ian/eouaatho 475 oun. /aeiaae. Ec ae?oaeo i?ioanoaioia
i?aaeaea anaai ioaeii ioiaoeoue iaoiaeenoia, aaeaaioenoia naaeueiiai
aeiy, aaioenoia. Iaiaa e?oiiua a?oiiu ia?acotho aiaeeeaia, ?aciua a?oiiu
iyoeaeanyoieeia, /eaiu Oeeeiieineeo ienneiia?neeo oea?eaae O?enoa.

AO?EEA

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy n?aaee ia?iaeia ao?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa ?ani?ino?aiaii
ianeieueei a?oii aa?ieniiaaaeaiee: ianoiua o?aaeeoeeiiiua eoeueou e
?aeeaee, eneai, o?enoeainoai, a iaiueoae noaiaie eiaeoeci, eoaeaeci e
iaeioi?ua ae?oaea. Iniaia ianoi caieiatho neie?aoe/aneea
o?enoeainei-ao?eeaineea oea?eae e naeou.

?ani?ino?aiaiea o?enoeainoaa a Ao?eea ia/aeinue ni II a. i.y.
Ia?aiia/aeueii iii ?ani?ino?aieeinue a Aaeioa e Yoeiiee, a caoai e ii
iiaa?aaeueth Naaa?iie Ao?eee. A ia/aea IV a. n?aaee o?enoeai Ao?eee
aicieeei aeaeaeaiea ca nicaeaiea iacaaeneiie io ?eia ao?eeaineie
oea?eae. A V a. ia?aciaaeanue iiiioeneoneay oea?eiaue iauaaeeiyaoay
o?enoeai Aaeioa e Yoeiiee. N VII a. a Naaa?iie Ao?eea o?enoeainoai
iinoaiaiii auoaniyaony eneaiii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?aiia/aeueiia
o?enoeainoai nio?aieeinue oieueei o /anoe ianoiiai ianaeaiey Aaeioa, o
aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey Yoeiiee e. iaaieueoie a?oiiu a Noaeaia.

N XV a., n i?eoiaeii caaiaaaoaeae-ii?ooaaeueoeaa, a Ao?eea ia/eiaaony
aoi?ie ia?eiae ?ani?ino?aiaiey o?enoeainoaa, ii oaea caiaaeiiai
iai?aaeaiey. Aianoa n eiieenoaaei?aie iiyaeythony eaoiee/aneea
ienneiia?u. Ia?aua iiiuoee o?enoeaiecaoeee ao?eeaioeaa auee i?aaei?eiyou
ia Aaeiaeneii iiaa?aaeuea, ii iie ieacaeenue iaei?acoeueoaoeaiuie.
Oniaoiaa auea Aeayoaeueiinoue ienneiia?ia a Eiiai, ii e caeanue
o?enoeainoai ?ani?ino?aieeinue a iniiaiii n?aaee ieaiaiiie a?enoie?aoee.
A oa/aiea XVI-XVIII aa. o?enoeaineeie ienneiia?aie aeaeaeenue
iaiaeiie?aoiua iiiuoee ?ani?ino?aieoue naia aeeyiea ia ia?iaeu Ao?eee,
ii aac?acoeueoaoii.

O?aoee yoai a ?ani?ino?aiaiee o?enoeainoaa a Ao?eea ia/eiaaony n
na?aaeeiu XIX a. Yoi aue ia?eiae eieiieaeueiie yeniainee, eiaaea
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea no?aiu ia/aee caoaaouaaoue ia ao?eeaineii eiioeiaioa
iaoe?iua oa??eoi?ee. A yoi a?aiy ?acei aeoeaece?oaony ienneiia?neay
aeayoaeueiinoue. ?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth nicaeathony
niaoeeaeueiua i?aeaia e ienneiia?neea iauanoaa.

Iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu ianooiaao /aoaa?oue ia?eiae a enoi?ee
o?enoeaiecaoeee Ao?eee. Yoio ia?eiae i?ioaeaao a oneiaeyo iauaai e?ecena
eieiieaeueiie nenoaiu e aeinoeaeaiey iacaaeneiinoe iiiaeie ao?eeaineeie
no?aiaie.

Ec i?ioanoaioneeo i?aaiecaoeee oea?eaae e naeo ?aiueoa anao ia/aee
ienneiia?neoth aeayoaeueiinoue a Ao?eea aieeaiaeneea ?aoi?iaou – n
na?aaeeiu XVII a. ia thaa eiioeiaioa, aiaeeeaia e iaoiaeenou — n ia/aea
XIX a.

O?enoeainoai a ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniiaaaeotho 85 iei. /aeiaae. Ieiei 8
iei. ec ieo – auoiaeoeu ec Aa?iiu eee eo iioiiee. I?eaa?aeaioeu
ioaeaeueiuo iai?aaeaiee a o?enoeainoaa ?ani?aaeaeythony neaaeothuei
ia?acii: eaoieeee – nauoa 38% , i?ioanoaiou – ieiei 37% , iiiioeneou –
aieaa 24% , inoaeueiua – i?aaineaaiua e oieaou. Aieueoa anaai
neiioeaio?e?iaaii o?enoeai a no?aiao Ainoi/iie Ao?eee -nauoa o?aoe (35%
ianaeaiey), noieueei aea a Caiaaeiie Ao?eea. A THaeiie Ao?eea o?enoeaia
ninoaaeytho /aoaa?ooth /anoue ianaeaiey ?aaeiia i?e/ai caeanue eaoieeeia
i?eia?ii a o?e ?aca iaiueoa, /ai i?ioanoaioia. Iieiaeia anao ao?eeaineeo
i?ioanoaioia i?eoiaeeony ia aeaa no?aiu — THA? (27%) e Ieaa?eth (22%).

O?enoeainei-ao?eeaineea oea?eae e naeou i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua ioeieieenue io caiaaeiuo oea?eaae e naeo e
nicaeaee naith aeiaiaoeeo, naie ?eooaeu, ia?yaeu e o.i., ni/aoathuea
o?aaeeoeeiiiua yeaiaiou aa?iaaiee e eoeueoia n yeaiaioaie o?enoeainoaa.

Ii iaeioi?ui ioeaii/iui aeaiiui, i?eaa?aeaioeaa
o?enoeainei-ao?eeaineeo oea?eaae e naeo ian/eouaaaony ii anae
O?iie/aneie Ao?eea 9 iei., /oi ninoaaeyao 3% ianaeaiey yoiai ?aaeiia.

AIA?EEA

Aei ia/aea aa?iiaeneie eieiiecaoeee ei?aiiia ianaeaiea Aia?eee (?aciua
a?oiiu eiaeaeoeaa, a oaeaea yneeiinu) i?eaea?aeeaaeenue ?acee/iuo
ianoiuo eoeueoia. N?aaee iiiaeo eiaeaeneeo ia?iaeia nio?aiyeenue
oioaienoe/aneea aa?iaaiey. Caiaoioth ?ieue ea?aee iaae/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey.

Ni a?aiaie aa?iiaeneie eieiiecaoeee (o. a. n eiioea XV a.) a Aia?eeo
noaei iinoaiaiii i?iieeaoue o?enoeainoai. A N?aaeithth e THaeioth
Aia?eeo, aaea a iniiaiii i?oaeiaaee eniaineea e ii?ooaaeueneea
eiieenoaaei?u, o?enoeainoai i?iieeaei a oi?ia eaoieeoeecia, a Naaa?iie
aea Aia?eea, iaoiaeeaoaeny iiae eiio?ieai aiaee/ai, o?aioeocia e
aieeaiaeoeaa, ia?yaeo n eaoieeoeeciii aiaae?yeny e i?ioanoaioeci.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey Aia?eee —
o?enoeaia. A THaeiie Aia?eea ?acei i?aiaeaaeatho eaoieeee. Iie
ninoaaeytho aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey ai anao no?aiao, ca eneeth/aieai
Oieeeaiaeneeo (Iaeueaeineeo) ino?iaia, aaea ?ani?ino?aiai i?ioanoaioeci,
a oaeaea Aaeaiu e No?eiaia, ioee/athueony ?aciiia?aceai ?aeeaeiciiai
ninoaaa. Eaoieeoeeci yaeyaony iniiaiie ?aeeaeae oaeaea ai anao no?aiao
Oeaio?aeueiie Aia?eee e a Iaeneea. A Aano-Eiaeee io ino?iaa e ino?iao
?aeeaeiciue ninoaa caiaoii aa?uee?oaony. A no?aiao, ?aiaa
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo Eniaiee e O?aioeee (Eoaa, Ioy?oi-?eei, Aeiieieeaineay
?anioaeeea, Aaeoe e ae?.), a oaeaea a oaia?aoieo o?aioeocneeo eieiieyo
(Aaaaeaeoia, Ia?oeieea) aieueoeinoai aeeoaeae i?eaea?aeeaathony
eaoieeoeecia, a no?aiao aea, aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iaoiaeeaoeony iiae
ainiiaenoaii Aaeeeia?eoaiee (ssiaeea, Aa?aaaein e o. ae.), iniiaiay
ianna aeeoaeae – i?ioanoaiou. A NOA e Eaiaaea iiiai e i?ioanoaioia e
eaoieeeia, iaeiaei ia?aia ianoi ii /eneaiiinoe aa?othueo i?eiaaeeaaeeo a
yoeo aeaoo ainoaea?noaao ana aea i?ioanoaioecio.

Iineaaeiaaoaeae ianoiuo eoeueoia inoaeinue a Aia?eea n?aaieoaeueii
iaiiiai, i?e/ai /enei eo ana a?aiy nie?auaaony (ca n/ao iiaiia?auaiiuo a
o?enoeaineoth aa?o).

Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou Aia?eee

Aanueia neiaeia ea?oeia ?aeeaeiciie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe ianaeaiey a NOA. Ii
iaeeeth naeo e naiinoiyoaeueiuo oea?eiaiuo i?aaiecaoeee yoa no?aia noieo
ia ia?aii ianoa a ie?a. Oioy a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao ii/oe ana oea?eiaiua
a?oiiu aaaeoo nenoaiaoe/aneee o/ao naieo /eaiia, ii?aaeaeaiea
?aeeaeiciiai ninoaaa ianaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyao aieueoea o?oaeiinoe. Iie
caeeth/athony a oii, /oi oea?eae e naeou NOA i?eaea?aeeaathony ?acee/iuo
e?eoa?eaa i?e ii?aaeaeaiee /eneaiiinoe naieo /eaiia. Oae, ?eineay
eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue, a a iineaaeiaa a?aiy oaeaea Aieneiiaeueiay
oea?eiaue e iiiaea ethoa?aineea oea?eiaiua i?aaiecaoeee o/eouaatho anao
e?auaiuo. Eoaeaenoneea iaueiu n/eoatho naieie /eaiaie anao aa?aaa.
Aieueoeinoai aea i?ioanoaioneeo i?aaiecaoeee iieacuaaao /eneaiiinoue
eeoue „iieiii?aaiuo /eaiia”, o. a. eeoe, aeinoeaoeo ii?aaeaeaiiiai (/aua
anaai 13-eaoiaai) aic?anoa. Ionthaea aeaeii, /oi ioeoeeaeueiua aeaiiua i
/eneaiiinoe ?acee/iuo ?aeeaeiciuo a?oiie?iaie ai iiiaeo neo/ayo ia
aeatho aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeeoue oaeaeueiue aan oie eee eiie
aa?ieniiaaaeiie a?oiiu ai anai ianaeaiee no?aiu.

Ec ioaeaeueiuo oea?eiaiuo i?aaiecaoeee iaeaieueoaa /enei iineaaeiaaoaeae
eiaao ?eineay eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue. Eaoieeee a NOA -yoi a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iioiiee auoiaeoeaa ec E?eaiaeee, Eoaeee, Iieueoe e ae?oaeo
no?ai n i?aeiouanoaaiii eaoiee/aneei ianaeaieai. E?iia eaoieeeia
eaoeineiai ia?yaea a NOA eiathony oaeaea eaoieeee ainoi/iuo ia?yaeia
(oae iacuaaaiua oieaou). N?aaee oieaoia ?acei i?aiaeaaeatho
a?aei-eaoieeee. A iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa yoi oe?aeioeu, ?oiuiu,
eoaeueyineea a?aee, aaia?u, oi?aaou, iaaieueoia /enei aaei?onia e
?onneeo.

E?oiiaeooth a?oiio n?aaee i?ioanoaioia NOA ia?acotho aaioenou.
Iieiii?aaiuo /eaiia aaioenoneeo iauei 27, 1 iei. Eo iauaaeeiyao ?yae
naiinoiyoaeueiuo oea?eiaiuo i?aaiecaoeee, ec eioi?uo aieaa eee iaiaa
cia/eoaeueiuie yaeythony THaeiay aaioenoneay eiiaaioeey (13 790 oun.
/eaiia).

A NOA anoue ?yae oea?eiaiuo i?aaiecaoeee noa?ieaoieeeia. E?oiiaeoay ec
ieo — Naaa?iaia?eeaineay noa?ay ?eineay eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue
(aiaeeeneiai ia?yaea) – ian/eouaaao 61 oun. E?iia oiai, a no?aia eiaaony
oaeaea Iieueneay iaoeeiiaeueiay eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue, yaeythuayny ii
aa?io/aieth noa?ieaoiee/aneie.

Iineaaeiaaoaeae i?aaineaaey a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao – 4, 9 iei. /aeiaae.
Iaeiaei a no?aia iao aaeeiie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae, a anoue cia/eoaeueiia
/enei ioaeaeueiuo i?aaineaaiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo oea?eaae, i?e/ai eiiaaea
aeaaea a i?aaeaeao iaeiie iaoeeiiaeueiie a?oiiu i?aaineaaiua ae?iayony
ia ianeieueei oea?eiaiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaeneea

Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey (89%) – eaoieeee. I?ioanoaiou
ia?acotho ieiei 4% ianaeaiey, n?aaee ieo aieueoa anaai aaioenoia (363
oun.) e i?anaeoa?eai (233 oun.). Eiathony oaeaea iineaaeiaaoaee
Oaaaeneie naiaiaeiie iennee (80 oun.), aaeaaioenou naaeueiiai aeiy (53
oun.), iaoiaeenou (40 oun.), ?aciua a?oiiu iyoeaeanyoieeia.

A?aceeey

A A?aceeee, e?oiiaeoae eaoeiiaia?eeaineie no?aia, eaoieeee ninoaaeytho
aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey (90%). I?ioanoaioia a yoie no?aia 7, 9 iei.
/aeiaae. Iaeaieaa e?oiioth a?oiio ia?acotho ethoa?aia (2, 1 iei.,
i?aeiouanoaaiii iaioeu). E?iia oiai, eiathony aaioenou (1, 1 iei.).

Aaianoyea

A Aaianoyea eaoieeee oaeaea ninoaaeytho aieueooth /anoue ianaeaiey
(96%). I?ioanoaioia iaiiiai.

Eieoiaey

A Eieoiaee ?eineay eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue n/eoaaony ainoaea?noaaiiie. E
iae i?eiaaeeaaeeo 96% anaai ianaeaiey. Iauay /eneaiiinoue i?ioanoaioia –
90 oun. /aeiaae. E?oiiaeoea a?oiiu i?ioanoaioia ia?acotho aaeaaioenou
naaeueiiai aeiy (16 oun.), i?anaeoa?eaia (15 oun.), iineaaeiaaoaee
Aaaiaaee/aneeo oea?eaae (11 oun.), aaioenou (10 oun.), iyoeaeanyoieee.

Yeaaaei?

A Yeaaaei?a e eaoieeoeecio i?eiaaeeaaeeo iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
ianaeaiey (94%). I?ioanoaioia -19 oun. Cia/eoaeueiay eo /anoue
-iineaaeiaaoaee O?enoeaineiai e ienneiia?neiai aeueyina.

Ia?o

Aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey Ia?o (93%) – eaoieeee. I?ioanoaioia -128 oun.
Ec i?ioanoaioneeo a?oii iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiu aaeaaioenou naaeueiiai
aeiy (33 oun.), iyoeaeanyoieee (12 oun., a oii /enea Annaiaeae aiaa – 7
oun., Iyoeaeanyoie/aneea aaoiiiiiua oea?eae – 5 oun.), iaoiaeenou (9
oun.). i?eaa?aeaioeu Ia?oaineie aaaiaaee/aneie oea?eae (8 oun.),
iaca?yia (5 oun.), aaioenou (5 oun.), iineaaeiaaoaee O?enoeaineiai e
ienneiia?neiai aeueyina (4 oun.), i?anaeoa?eaia (3 oun.), ethoa?aia (3
oun.), i?eaa?aeaioeu Iaeiiie/aneie oea?eae nayoinoe (2 oun.), A Ia?o
aeeaao oaeaea 5 oun. eoaeaenoia.

Aieeaey

A Aieeaee iniiaiay /anoue ianaeaiey (94%) — eaoieeee. A no?aia
i?iaeeaaao 43 oun. i?ioanoaioia. Iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiu ec ieo
aaeaaioenou naaeueiiai aeiy (11 oun.), aaioenou (8 oun.), eaaea?u (a
oun.), iineaaeiaaoaee Aieeaeeneie eiaeaeneie iennee (6 oun.), iaoiaeenou
(3 oun.), iyoeaeanyoieee (3 oun., a oii /enea iineaaeiaaoaee Annaiaeae
aiaa – 2 oun.), iaca?yia (2 oun.). Eoaeaenoia a Aieeaee – 750 /aeiaae.

*eee

A *eee e eaoieeoeecio ioiineony aieueoeinoai (86%) aeeoaeae- Ii
naaaeaieyi oea?eiaiuo i?aaiecaoeee, i?ioanoaioia – 880 oun. Iniiaiay
a?oiia /eeeeneeo i?ioanoaioia – iyoeaeanyoieee (ii ioeoeeaeueiui
oea?eiaiui enoi/ieeai, 700 oun.).

A?aaioeia

A A?aaioeia aieueoeinoai ianaeaiey (92%) ninoaaeytho eaoieeee.
I?ioanoaioia a yoie no?aia – nauoa 400 oun. Ec ieo ethoa?ai – 188 oun.
(i?aeiouanoaaiii iaioeu e aeao/aia).

Ia?aaaae

A Ia?aaaaa eaoieeoeeci yaeyaony ainoaea?noaaiiui eniiaaaeaieai. Eaoieeee
ninoaaeytho aieueooth /anoue (ieiei 90%) ianaeaiey. I?ioanoaioia – 25
oun. Iaeaieaa e?oiiua a?oiiu ia?acotho aaioenou (11 oun.).

AANO?AEEss E IEAAIEss

E iiiaioo i?iieeiiaaiey aa?iiaeoeaa a Aano?aeeth e Ieaaieth ianaeaiea
yoie /anoe naaoa i?eaea?aeeaaeinue ?acee/iuo ianoiuo eoeueoia. A
Aano?aeee e Ieaaiee aeeei aieueoia /enei ia?iaeia e ieaiai, caiaoii
?acee/aaoeony iaaeaeo niaie eae ii o?iaith naiaai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, oae e ii oicyenoaaiii-eoeueoo?iui
iniaaiiinoyi. A neeo yoiai o?aaeeoeeiiiua aa?iaaiey aano?aeeeneeo e
ieaaieeneeo ia?iaeia ioee/aeenue aeiaieueii aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai.

O?aaeeoeeiiiua aa?iaaiey a aieueoae /anoe Aano?aeee e Ieaaiee auee
iinoaiaiii auoaniaiu o?enoeainoaii, eioi?ia noaei ?ani?ino?aiyoueny
aneaae ca i?iieeiiaaieai eieiiecaoi?ia. ?aiueoa anaai ienneiia?neay
?aaioa auea ia/aoa ia Ia?eaineeo ino?iaao. Oaea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVll
a. ia ioaeaeueiua ino?iaa yoiai a?oeiaeaaa i?eauee eaoiee/aneea
ienneiia?u, nii?iaiaeaeaaiua eniaineeie nieaeaoaie. I?iiiaaaeieee,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea e i?aeaio eacoeoia, ia/aee aanoea?aiiiii aiaoeaaoueny a
aeeciue ei?aiiuo aeeoaeae, i?aaei?eieiaee iaiaeiie?aoiua iiiuoee
ianeeuenoaaiiiai e?auaiey eo aeaoae. Eiaaea aea ino?iaeoyia noaee
ieacuaaoue nii?ioeaeaiea iacieeeaui „ainoyi”, eacoeou eniieueciaaee
i?eauaoeo n ieie nieaeao aeey aaniiuaaeiie ?ani?aau n ianoiuie
aeeoaeyie. E?iaaaay aieiy i?eaaea e ii/oe iieiiio eno?aaeaieth ac?ineiai
ioaeneiai ianaeaiey Ia?eaineeo ino?iaia.

I?ioanoaioneea ienneiia?u i?iieeee a yoo /anoue naaoa cia/eoaeueii
iicaea. Ia?aua iiiuoee ia/aoue ienneiia?neoth ?aaioo a Ieaaiee auee
i?aaei?eiyou i?ioanoaioaie a eiioea XVIII a., eiaaea ioaeaeueiua
i?iiiaaaeieee aunaaeeeenue ia ino?iaao Oiiaa e Iauanoaa. Iaeiaei oe?ieia
?acaeoea aeayoaeueiinoue ienneiia?ia (eae i?ioanoaioneeo, oae e
eaoiee/aneeo) iieo/eea eeoue a XIX a., eiaaea iie iainiiaaeenue ia anao
aieaa eee iaiaa cia/eoaeueiuo ieaaieeneeo ino?iaao e aoieeao.

I/aiue auno?i iaaeaeo i?ioanoaioneeie e eaoiee/aneeie ienneiia?aie
aicieeei ino?ia niia?ie/anoai. Niia?ie/aaoea neoaeeoaee ?aeeaee
iao?aaeeaaee naieo aaeaioia ae?oa ia ae?oaa, /oi i?eaaei ia iaeioi?uo
a?oeiaeaaao e e?iaaaui noieeiiaaieyi. Iniaaiii aeanoieay ai?ueaa iaaeaeo
eaoieeeaie e i?ioanoaioaie oea ia ino?iaao Iauanoaa, Oieeen, ?iooia,
Eoaeioa.

Ienneiia?ia ni?aaaaeeeai iacuaatho i?aaeaanoieeaie eieiieaeueiiai
ii?aaiuaiey ieaaieeneeo ia?iaeia. Eiaiii iie iiaeaioiaeee eieiieaeueiue
caoaao iiiaeo a?oeiaeaaia Ieaaiee.

Aacaea, aaea iiyaeyeenue ienneiia?u, iie noa?aeenue iieiinoueth
enei?aieoue noa?oth ycu/aneoth eoeueoo?o e aiaae?eoue o?enoeaineea,
ia?aaeei niaa?oaiii /oaeaeua aai?eaaiai iau/ae. A yoii naiai noa?aiee
i?iiiaaaeieee /anoi aeioiaeeee aei iieiiai ianeo?aioecia. Iai?eia?,
eniaineea ienneiia?u ia ino?iaa Ianoe oie/oiaeeee aieueooth /anoue
oaaee/ae n ae?aaiae ienueiaiiinoueth ino?iaeoyi. Eiia/ii, ana yoi ia
icia/aao, /oi n?aaee ienneiia?ia ia auei /anoiuo ethaeae, oi?ioi
ioiineaoeony e ei?aiiiio ianaeaieth e ene?aiia aeaeaaoeo aio aeia?a.
Ioaeii ioiaoeoue e oi, /oi iaeioi?ua aniaeou ienneiia?neie ?aaiou
(iai?eia?, iao/aiea ino?iaeoyi a?aiioa) iauaeoeaii niinianoaiaaee
iiaeuaio eoeueoo?iiai o?iaiy ianoiuo aeeoaeae. Iaeiaei a oeaeii
aeayoaeueiinoue ienneiia?ia a Ieaaiee aeieaeia auoue ioeaiaia
io?eoeaoaeueii.

Eae oaea oeacuaaeinue, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey Aano?aeee e Ieaaiee – o?enoeaia. Neaaeoao, iaeiaei,
iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i/aiue /anoi i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue ianoiuo aeeoaeae e
o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee iineo aanueia oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Iie iau/ii ia
aieeatho a oiieinoe ?aeeaeiciiai aa?io/aiey e, e?iia oiai, ia?aaeei
nio?aiytho aa?iinoue naiei noa?eiiui o?aaeeoeeyi e ?eooaeai. Ca/anooth,
iniaaiii n?aaee ia?iaeia, iaaeaaii ia?auaiiuo a o?enoeainoai, iiaeii
iaaethaeaoue naiaia?aciia aeaiaaa?ea, eiaaea niaethaeathony
i?aaeienaiey eae noa?ie, oae e iiaie ?aeeaee.

Ioia/aaoayny auoa ai?ueaa iaaeaeo i?ioanoaioaie e eaoieeeaie i?eianea
aieueoa iiaaae ia?aui, /ai aoi?ui. E?iia oiai, e n?aaee eiiea?e?iaaaoeo
a Aano?aeeth e Ieaaieth aa?iiaeoeaa i?ioanoaiou /eneaiii i?aiaeaaeaee
iaae eaoieeeaie. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ioanoaioeci a yoie /anoe naaoa ieacaeny
aieaa aeeyoaeueiui, /ai eaoieeoeeci. A oi aea a?aiy i?ioanoaiou, a
ioee/ea io eaoieeeia, eae ecaanoii, ia i?aaenoaaeytho aaeeinoaa a
i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ioiioaiee, a ?aniaaeathony ia cia/eoaeueiia /enei
oa/aiee e naeo. A Aano?aeee e Ieaaiee iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiu oaeea
i?ioanoaioneea oa/aiey, eae aiaeeeainoai, iaoiaeeci, ethoa?ainoai,
i?anaeoa?eainoai, ?aoi?iaonoai, eiia?aaaoeeiiaeeci. Eiathony oaeaea
aaioenou, aaeaaioenou naaeueiiai aeiy, iyoeaeanyoieee e ae?oaea
i?ioanoaioneea naeou.

I?ioanoaioecia i?eaea?aeeaathony ana ianaeaiea Ieoey?ia, aieueoeinoai
o?enoeaineiai ianaeaiey Aano?aeee, Iiaie Caeaiaeee, Ii?oieea,
Iaioa-Iiaie Aaeiae, Nieiiiiiauo Ino?iaia, Aaioaoo, Oeaeaee, Iao?o,
Ooaaeo, Oieaeao, Caiaaeiiai e Ainoi/iiai Naiia, Oiiaa, Ieoy, ino?iaia
Eoea, O?aioeocneie Iieeiacee, ianeieueei aieaa iieiaeiu o?enoeai
Ee?eaaoe e iiaeiia/iie oa??eoi?ee „Oeoiieaaineea ino?iaa”, cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue aeeoaeae Iiaie Eaeaaeiiee (aianoa n iiae/eiaiiuie ae ino?iaaie) e
Aaaaeaa.

Aiaeeeaineay oea?eiaue ii /eneaiiinoe naieo i?eaa?aeaioeaa — iaeaieaa
cia/eoaeueiia i?ioanoaioneia oa/aiea a Aano?aeee e Ieaaiee.
Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aiaeeeai yoi iioiiee aiaeeeneeo ia?anaeaioeaa
a Aano?aeee e Iiaie Caeaiaeee. Aaaeouea iiceoeee caieiaao aiaeeeainoai e
ia Ii?oieea. N?aaee ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey cia/eoaeueiua a?oiiu aiaeeeai
eiathony a Iaeaiacee — i?aaeaea anaai ia Nieiiiiiauo Ino?iaao e a
Iaioa-Iiaie Aaeiaa.

Iaoiaeenoia aeiaieueii iiiai a Iiaie Caeaiaeee, iie ?acei i?aiaeaaeatho
n?aaee o?enoeai Oeaeaee e Oiiaa.

I?anaeoa?eaia iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiu a Iiaie Caeaiaeee, a oaeaea ia
Aaioaoo (a yoie no?aia i?anaeoa?eainoai caieiaao ia?aia ianoi ii /eneo
iineaaeiaaoaeae).

O?enoeainoai a iaoe aeie.

Ca aaea ?ani?ino?aiaiey o?enoeainoaa ii anaio ie?o iii anneieee?iaaei a
?aciuo eoeueoo?ao, /anoi auoaniyy noa?ua ycu/aneea aa?iaaiey.

N eaaeaeui aiaeii iu iieo/aai ana aieueoa oi/iie eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiea
aeae a o?enoeaineii ie?a. Iaeiaei, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eaaeaeay
oea?eiaue eiaao aieueoa /eaiia, /ai aeoeaiuo aa?othueo, a a iaeioi?uo
neo/ayo /eainoai ieacuaaaony /enoi neiaiee/aneei. Eiee/anoai ethaeae,
?aaoey?ii iinauathueo oea?eiaue a A?eoaiee (iaiaa 10%), ieaea /ai ai
iiiaeo ae?oaeo no?aiao, ii iaiaeiie?aoiua ii?inu iiaeoaa?aeaeatho, /oi
ieiei 70% ethaeae cayaeytho i naiae aa?a a Aiaa e ?aaoey?ii iieyony.

A NOA a oea?eiaue ?aaoey?ii oiaeeo ieiei 42% ianaeaiey. A Eoaeee ieiei
33% aeeoaeae ?aaoey?ii iinauatho ianno, a 85% cayaeytho i naiae
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e ?eineie eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Ai O?aioeee oea?eiaue
?aaoey?ii iinauatho ieiei 13% ianaeaiey.

O?enoeainoai ca?iaeeeinue ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea e ia naiuo ?aiieo yoaiao
iiyaeeinue oaeaea a Naaa?iie Ao?eea. A O1O e ia/aea OO aaea i?iecioei
caiaoiia iaeeaeaiea ienneiia?neiai aeaeaeaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa
o?enoeaineay oea?eiaue oei?aieeanue ia anao eiioeiaioao e nouanoaoao
i?aeoe/anee ai anao no?aiao. O?enoeaineay aa?a i?iaeieaeaao
?ani?ino?aiyoueny, iaeiaei oeaio? oyaeanoe auno?i niauaaony: ec Aa?iiu e
(a iaiueoae noaiaie) NOA a Ao?eeo, Aceth e Eaoeineoth Aia?eeo.
Aeaiia?aoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee a yoeo no?aiao iicaieytho i?aaeiieiaeeoue,
/oi oea?eiaue OOI aaea aoaeao i?aaenoaaeaia ana aieaa iieiaeuie,
yia?ae/iuie e aaaeiuie ethaeueie, ia i?eiaaeeaaeauea e aaeie ?ana.

Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu.

Ca iineaaeiea ianeieueei aeanyoeeaoee oea?eae o/anoaotho a aeaaaoao ia
oaiu:

-aiciiaeia ee “ni?aaaaeeeaay aieia” a yaea?ioth yiioo;

-oa??i?eci: yaeyaony ee “ai?aoe ca naiaiaeo” nieaeaoii eee i?anooiieeii;

-aeaiia?aoe/aneee ac?ua: i?iaeoeou ieoaiey e ae?oaea ?ano?nu, ie?iaay
oi?aiaey e aeieae “o?aoueaai ie?a”;

-yeieiaey e oeaeinoiinoue Oai?aiey;

-ceioiio?aaeaiea ia?eioe/aneeie aauanoaaie;

-/aeiaa/aneay naenoaeueiinoue, aeeth/ay aiiinaenoaeueiinoue;

-aa?aiaiiinoue: noaoon e caueoa /aeiaa/aneiai yia?eiia;

-i?aaa aeeaioiuo;

-a?ae, niaeeoaeuenoai, ?acaiae e i?iaeaiu naiuee;

-NIEAe, i?iaeaia aai?oia;

-aeeciue a iauanoaa, aaea nouanoaoao iiiai eoeueoo? e aa?iaaiee.

Caeeth/aiea

Aeiaiaou aa/iu e iaen/a?iaaiu. Yoaiu eo ?ane?uoey a niciaiee e enoi?ee
oea?eae, ii?aaeaeaiey – yoi aa?noiaua noieau, ia eioi?uo ia/a?oaiu
?oeiaiaeyuea aacioeai/iua oeacaiey, eoaea e eae oaa?aiii e aaciianii
aeieaeia eaeoe aeeaay o?enoeaineay iuneue, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay e niai?iay.
Enoi?ey ?aeeaee, a a /anoiinoe o?enoeainoaa, anoue ?acaa?ouaaiea
nooiaiae ana ia?anoathuaai ioe?iaaiey Aiaeey a noaeueaao caiiiai
/aeiaa/anoaa, a aua oi/iaa – a noaeueaao iaeioi?uo aai /anoae, o.a.
ioaeaeueiuo ia?iaeia.

Ciaeiiynue n ioeoeeaeueiie enoi?eae ?acaeoey Caiee, iu aeaeei, eae ia
oiia iinoiyiiuo aiei, ai?ueau ca aeanoue iiyaeythony o/aiey, iuoathueany
iieacaoue eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo aai ianoiyuaa eeoei, oeaee e caaea/e, ianoi
a einie/aneie yaiethoeee. Oaeeie o/aieyie yaeythony ie?iaua ?aeeaee, a a
/anoiinoe o?enoeainoai: aio i?eaea?aeeaathony e, y aeoiath, aoaeoo
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny iiiaea aiaeu e, iiaeao, aeaaea aaea.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. Yioeeeeiiaaeey aeey aeaoae (?aeeaee ie?a.).Ecaeao. “Aaaioa+” 1996a.

2. ?aeeaee ie?a. Ecaeao. “I?inaauaiea” 1994a.

3. “O?enoeainoai”. Ecaeao. Oi?a. aeii “A?aiae”. 1998a.

4. Iiene iaaeaaeaeu e aeoo ooaoaiey (i/a?ee ii enoi?ee ?aeeaee). Ecaeao.
INOA 1991a.

5. Ianoieueiay eieaa aoaenoa. 8-a ecaeaiea.

6. Aoean.

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