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IEIENOA?NOAI IA?ACIAAIEss OE?AEIU

AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss IAOAEEO?AE*ANEAss AEAAeAIEss OE?AEIU

Eaoaae?a oeeinioee

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

ii aeenoeeieeia “?aeeaeaaaaeaiea”

Oaia : “Aoaeaeeci”

?aaioo i?iaa?ee:

?aaioo auiieiee:

nooaeaio a?. OA 96-2e

Eioiai A.I.

Aeiai?iiao?iane 1997 a.

Aoaeaeeci – ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneia o/aiea, eioi?ia aicieeei a Eiaeee a
6-5 aaeao aei i.y. Aoiaeeo a Naiue oecyi – iaeio ec o?ao aeaaiuo ?aeeaee
Eeoay. Iniiaaoaeue aoaeaeecia – eiaeeeneee i?eioe Neaeaeoa?ooa Aaooaia,
iieo/eaoee aiineaaenoaee eiy Aoaeaeu, o.a. i?iaoaeaeaiiiai eee
i?inaaoeaiiiai.

Aoaeaeeci aiciee ia naaa?i-ainoiea Eiaeee a iaeanoyo aeia?aoiaienoneie
eoeueoo?u. Aoaeaeeci auno?i ?ani?ino?aieeny ii anae Eiaeee e aeinoea
iaeneiaeueiiai ?anoeaaoa a eiioea I ouny/aeaoey aei i.y – ia/aea I
ouny/aeaiey i.y. Aoaeaeeci ieacae aieueoia aeeyiea ia aic?iaeaeaaoeeny
ec a?aoiaiecia eiaeoeci, iaeiaei aue auoaniai eiaeoeciii e e XII aaeo
i.y. i?aeoe/anee en/ac ec Eiaeee. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie yoiai noaei
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea eaeae aoaeaeecia inayuaiiiio a?aoiaieciii eanoiaiio
no?ith. Iaeiia?aiaiii, ia/eiay n III aaea aei i.y., ii ioaaoee
THai-ainoi/ioth e Oeaio?aeueioth Aceth e /anoe/ii N?aaeithth Aceth e
Neae?ue.

Oaea a ia?aua noieaoey naiaai nouanoaiaaiey aoaeaeeci ?acaeaeeeny ia 18
naeo, ?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo eioi?uie aucaaee nicua niai?ia a ?aaeaeaa?eoa
a 447 a aei i.y., a Aaeoaae a 367 a aei i.y., a Iaoaee?oo?a a 3 aaea aei
i.y. e i?eaaee a ia/aea iaoae y?u e ?acaeaeaieth aoaeaeecia ia aeaa
aaoae: Oeiayio e Iaoayio.

Oeiayia ooaa?aeeeanue a iniiaiii a thai-ainoi/iuo no?aiao e iieo/eea
iacaaiea thaeiiai aoaeaeecia, a Iaoayia – a naaa?iuo no?aiao, iieo/ea
iacaaiea naaa?iiai aoaeaeecia.

?ani?ino?aiaiea aoaeaeecia niinianoaiaaei nicaeaieth neie?aoe/aneeo
eoeueoo?iuo eiiieaenia, niaieoiiinoue eioi?uo ia?acoao oae iacuaaaioth
aoaeaeeeneoth eoeueoo?o.

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth aoaeaeecia yaeyaony aai yoeei-i?aeoe/aneay
iai?aaeaiiinoue. N naiiai ia/aea aoaeaeeci aunooiee ia oieueei i?ioea
cia/aiey aiaoieo oi?i ?aeeaeiciie aeecie e i?aaeaea anaai ?eooaeecia, ii
e i?ioea aano?aeoii-aeiaiaoe/aneeo eneaiee, naienoaaiiuo, a /anoiinoe,
a?aoiaieenei-aaaeeeneie o?aaeeoeee. A ea/anoaa oeaio?aeueiie i?iaeaiu a
aoaeaeecia auea auaeaeiooa i?iaeaia auoey ee/iinoe.

Noa?aeiai niaea?aeaiey aoaeaeecia yaeyaony i?iiiaaaeue Aoaeaeu i /aou?ao
aeaai?iaeiuo enoeiao. ?acuyniaieth e ?acaeoeth yoeo iieiaeaiee e, a
/anoiinoe, caeeth/aiiiio a ieo i?aaenoaaeaieth ia aaoiiiiee ee/iinoe,
iinayuaiu ana iino?iaiey aoaeaeecia.

No?aaeaiea e inaiaiaeaeaiea i?aaenoaaeaiu a aoaeaeecia eae ?acee/iua
ninoiyiey aaeeiiai auoey: no?aaeaiea – ninoiyiea auoey i?iyaeaiiiai,
inaiaiaeaeaiea – iai?iyaeaiiiai. Oi e ae?oaia, aoaeo/e ia?acaeaeueiui,
aunooiaao, iaeiaei, a ?aiiai aoaeaeecia eae ineoieiae/aneay
?aaeueiinoue, a ?acaeouo oi?iao aoaeaeecia – eae einie/aneay
?aaeueiinoue.

Inaiaiaeaeaiea aoaeaeeci i?aaenoaaeyao naaa i?aaeaea anaai eae
oie/oiaeaiea aeaeaiee, oi/iaa – oaaoaiea eo no?anoiinoe. Aoaeaeeeneee
i?eioeei oae iacuaaaiiai n?aaeiaai (n?aaeeiiiai) iooe ?aeiiaiaeoao
ecaaaaoue e?aeiinoae – eae aea/aiey e /oanoaaiiiio oaeiaieuenoaeth, oae
e niaa?oaiiiai iiaeaaeaiey yoiai aea/aiey. A i?aanoaaiii-yiioeeiiaeueiie
noa?a ainiiaenoaothuae a aoaeaeecia ieacuaaaony eiioeaioeey
oa?ieiinoe, ioiineoaeueiinoe, n iiceoeee eioi?ie i?aanoaaiiua
i?aaeienaiey ia yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie e iiaoo auoue ia?ooaiu.

A aoaeaeecia ionoonoaoao iiiyoea ioaaonoaaiiinoe e aeiu eae /aai-oi
aaniethoiiai, io?aaeaiueai yoiai yaeyaony ionoonoaea a aoaeaeecia /aoeie
a?aie iaaeaeo eaeaaeaie ?aeeaeiciie e naaoneie ii?aee e, a /anoiinoe,
niya/aiea eee io?eoeaiea aneaoecia a aai iau/iie oi?ia. I?aanoaaiiue
eaeaae aoaeaeecia i?aaenoaao eae aaniethoiia iai?e/eiaiea a?aaea
ie?oaeathuei (aoeina), i?ienoaeathuaa ec iauae iyaeinoe, aeia?iou,
/oanoaa niaa?oaiiie oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe. A eioaeeaeooaeueiie noa?a
aoaeaeecia ono?aiyaony ?acee/ea iaaeaeo /oanoaaiiie e ?annoaei/iie
oi?iaie iiciaiey e onoaiaaeeaaaony i?aeoeea oae iacuaaaiiai
nica?oeaoaeueiiai ?aciuoeaiey (iaaeeoaoeee), ?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai
yaeyaony ia?aaeeaaiea oeaeinoiinoe auoey (ia?acee/aiey aioo?aiiaai e
aiaoiaai), iieiay naiioaeoaeaiiinoue. I?aeoeea nica?oeaoaeueiiai
?aciuoeaiey neoaeeo, oaeei ia?acii, ia noieueei n?aaenoaii iiciaiey
ie?a, neieueei iaeiei ec iniiaiuo n?aaenoa i?aia?aciaaiey ineoeee e
ineoioeceieiaee ee/iinoe. A ea/anoaa eiie?aoiiai iaoiaea
nica?oeaoaeueiiai ?aciuoeaiey iniaaiii iiioey?iu aeoueyiu, iieo/eaoea
iacaaiea aoaeaeeeneie eiae. Ninoiyiea niaa?oaiiie oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe e
naiioaeoaeaiiinoe, aaniethoiie iacaaeneiinoe aioo?aiiaai auoey –
iieiaeeoaeueiue yeaeaaeaio oaaoaiey aeaeaiee – anoue inaiaiaeaeaiea, eee
ie?aaia.

A iniiaa aoaeaeecia eaaeeo ooaa?aeaeaiea i?eioeeia ee/iinoe,
iaioaeaeeiie io ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, e i?eciaiea auoey naiaia?aciiai
ineoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, a eioi?ue ieacuaaaony aiaea/aiiui e ie?.
?acoeueoaoii yoiai yaeyaony ionoonoaea a aoaeaeecia i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe
noauaeoa e iauaeoa, aeooa e iaoa?ee, niaoaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e
einie/aneiai, ineoieiae/aneiai e iioieiae/aneiai e iaeiia?aiaiii
iiae/a?eeaaiea iniauo iioaioeeaeueiuo nee, oayueony a oeaeinoiinoe yoiai
aeooiaii-iaoa?eaeueiiai auoey. Oai?/aneei ia/aeii, eiia/iie i?e/eiie
auoey ieacuaaaony ineoe/aneay aeoeaiinoue /aeiaaea, ii?aaeaeythuay eae
ia?aciaaiea ie?icaeaiey, oae e aai ?aniaae: yoi aieaaia ?aoaiea “ss”,
iiieiaaiiai eae iaeay aeooiaii-oaeaniay oeaeinoiinoue. Ec iaaaniethoiiai
cia/aiey aeey aoaeaeecia anaai nouanoaothuaai aacioiineoaeueii e
noauaeoo, ec ionoonoaey niceaeaoaeueiuo no?aieaiee o ee/iinoe a
aoaeaeecia neaaeoao auaiae, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i oii, /oi aia eae aunoaa
nouanoai eiiaiaioai /aeiaaeo e ie?o, n ae?oaie – /oi a aoaeaeecia iao
iaaeiaiinoe a aiaa eae oai?oea e nianeoaea, oi anoue aiiaua eae
aaconeiaii aa?oiaiii nouanoaa, o?ainoeaiaeaioiii yoie iauiinoe. Ec yoiai
auoaeaao oaeaea ionoonoaea a aoaeaeecia aeoaeecia aiaeanoaaiiiai e
iaaiaeanoaaiiiai, aiaa e ie?a.

Ia/aa n io?eoeaiey aiaoiae ?aeeaeiciinoe, aoaeaeeci a oiaea naiaai
?acaeoey i?eoae e aa i?eciaieth. I?e yoii i?iecioei ioiaeaeanoaeaiea
aunoae ?aaeueiinoe aoaeaeecia – ie?aaiu – n Aoaeaeie, eioi?ue ec
ieeoeaoai?aiey i?aanoaaiiiai eaeaaea i?aa?aoeeny a aai ee/iia
aiieiuaiea, noaa, oaeei ia?acii, aunoei iauaeoii ?aeeaeiciuo yiioeee.
Iaeiia?aiaiii n einie/aneei aniaeoii ie?aaiu aicieeea einie/aneay
eiioeaioeey Aoaeaeu, noi?ioee?iaaiiay a aeieo?eia o?eeae. Aoaeaeeeneee
iaioaii ia/ae ?ac?anoaoueny ca n/ao aaaaeaiey a iaai anyeiai ?iaea
ieoieiae/aneeo nouanoa, oae eee eia/a anneieee?othueony n aoaeaeeciii.
Eoeueo, ioaaouaathuee ana noi?iiu aeecie aoaeaeenoa, ia/eiay io
naiaeii-auoiaie e caeai/eaay i?acaeieeaie, iniaaiii oneiaeieeny a
iaeioi?uo oa/aieyo Iaoayiu, a /anoiinoe a eaiaecia. I/aiue ?aii a
aoaeaeecia iiyaeeanue naiaoa – iiiaoaneay iaueia, ec eioi?ie n oa/aieai
a?aiaie au?inea naiaia?aciay ?aeeaeiciay i?aaiecaoeey.

Iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiay aoaeaeeeneay i?aaiecaoeey – nicaeaiiia a 1950
aiaeo anaie?iia a?aonoai aoaeaeenoia. Eeoa?aoo?a aoaeaeecia iaoe?ia e
aeeth/aao ni/eiaiey ia iaee, naine?eoa, aea?eaeiii naine?eoa,
neiaaeacneii, ae?iaineii, eoia?neii, eeoaeneii, yiiineii e oeaaoneii
ycueao.

Aoaeaea Aaooaia, ecaanoiue oaeaea eae Oaeueyioie, aeee 2500 eao iacaae a
iia?aie/iie iaeanoe iaaeaeo Eiaeeae e Iaiaeii. Ii ia aue Oai?oeii eee
Aiaii. Ii aue i?inoi /aeiaaeii, noiaaoei iiiyoue aeeciue, yaeythuothny
enoi/ieeii anaaiciiaeiuo aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo i?iaeai. Ii niia
i?aiaeieaoue ana nianoaaiiua i?iaeaiu e ia?aie/aiey e ?aaeeciaaoue ana
naie aiciiaeiinoe, /oiau iiiiaaoue ae?oaei iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii. Oae ii
noae ecaanoai eae Aoaeaea, o.a. oio, eoi yaeyaony iieiinoueth
i?inaaoeaiiui. Ii o/ee, /oi eaaeaeue iiaeao aeinoe/ue yoiai, eai
eaaeaeue iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoyie, aiciiaeiinoyie eee oaeoi?aie,
iicaieythueie i?iecieoe iiaeiaiie o?ainoi?iaoeee, o. a. eaaeaeue
iaeaaeaao “i?e?iaeie aoaeaeu”. Eaaeaeue iaeaaeaao oiii, a cia/eo
niiniaiinoueth iiieiaoue e ciaoue. Eaaeaeue iaeaaeaao na?aeoeai, a
cia/eo niiniaiinoueth i?iyaeyoue /oanoaa ii ioiioaieth e ae?oaei.
Eaaeaeue iaeaaeaao niiniaiinoueth iauaiey e ii?aaeaeaiiui o?iaiai
yia?aee – niiniaiinoueth aeaenoaiaaoue.

Yoe niiniaiinoe yaeythony iniiaiui ?aai/ei iaoa?eaeii, eiathueiny o
eaaeaeiai, aeeth/ay aeeaioiuo e ianaeiiuo, e oioy o ioaeaeueiuo
eiaeeaeaeooiia iie iiaoo auoue ia?aie/aiu, oai ia iaiaa eaaeaeue iiaeao
?acaeoue naie niiniaiinoe e i?aiaeieaoue ia?aie/aiey n oeaeueth iaeaieaa
iieiie ?aaeecaoeee nianoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae.

Aoaeaea iiieiae, /oi ana ethaee iaiaeeiaeiau e iaeaaeatho ?aciuie
oa?aeoa?aie e neeiiiinoyie, e iiyoiio ii ieeiaaea ia auaeaeaae
eaeoth-eeai iaeio aeiaiaoe/aneoth nenoaio, a iao/ae ?acee/iui nenoaiai e
iaoiaeai a caaeneiinoe io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe iao/aaiiai. Ii anaaaea
iiiu?ye ethaeae i?iaa?youe eo ia nianoaaiiii iiuoa e ie/aai ia
i?eieiaoue ia aa?o. Aoaeaeeci ?acaeaaeny a Eiaeee a iauai eiioaenoa
eiaeeeneie oeeinioee e ?aeeaee, aeeth/aaoae oaeaea eiaeoeci /.
aeaeaeieci. Oioy aoaeaeeci eiaao iaeioi?ua iauea /a?ou n yoeie
?aeeaeyie, oai ia iaiaa nouanoaotho i?eioeeieaeueiua ?acee/ey.

I?aaeaea anaai a aoaeaeecia a ioee/ea io eiaeoecia ia niaea?aeeony eaeay
eanoiainoe, ii eae auei ioia/aii auoa, niaea?aeeony eaeay ?aaainoaa anao
ethaeae n oi/ee c?aiey iaeaaeaiey eie iaeeiaeiauie aiciiaeiinoyie.

Eae e eiaeoeci, aoaeaeeci aiai?eo i ea?ia, ii naia eaeay ea?iu caeanue
niaa?oaiii eiay. Yoi ia eaeay noaeueau eee ?iea, iiaeiaii eneaineie
eaeaa eeciaoa, eee aiaeueae aiee. Yoiai iao ie a eeanne/aneii eiaeoecia,
ie a aoaeaeecia, oioy a. nia?aiaiiii iiioey?iii eiaeoecia iia eiiaaea
i?eia?aoaao oaeia cia/aiea aneaaenoaea aeeyiey eneaia. A eeanne/aneii
eiaeoecia eaeay ea?iu aeeaea e eaeaa aeieaa. Ethaee ?iaeaeathony a
?acee/iuo aeeciaiiuo e nioeeaeueiuo oneiaeyo aneaaenoaea
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e ?aciui eanoai (e eanoa aieiia, i?aaeoaeae, neoa) eee
?iaeaeathony aeaiueiaie. Eo ea?ia, eee aeiea, – a niaoeeoe/aneeo
aeeciaiiuo neooaoeeyo neaaeiaaoue eeanne/aneei ia?acoeai iiaaaeaiey,
iienaiiui a “Iaoaaoa?aoa” e “?aiayia”, aaeeeeo yie/aneeo i?iecaaaeaieyo
eiaeoenoneie Eiaeee. Anee eoi-eeai aeaenoaoao, iai?eia?, eae niaa?oaiiay
aeaia eee niaa?oaiiue neoaa, oiaaea a aoaeoueo aeeciyo aai iieiaeaiea,
aa?iyoii, aoaeao eo/oa.

Aoaeaeeeneay eaeay ea?iu niaa?oaiii ioee/ia io eiaeoenoneie. A
aoaeaeecia ea?ia icia/aao “eiioeuenu”, eioi?ua iiaoaeaeatho ian /oi-eeai
aeaeaoue eee aeoiaoue. Yoe eiioeuenu aicieeatho eae ?acoeueoao
i?aaeoanoaothueo i?eau/iuo aeaenoaee eee iiaaaeai/aneeo iiaeaeae. Ii
iineieueeo iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe neaaeiaaoue eaaeaeiio eiioeueno, iaoa
iiaaaeaiea ia yaeyaony no?iai aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiui. Oaeiaa aoaeaeeeneay
eiioeaioeey ea?iu.

E a eiaeoecia, e a aoaeaeecia niaea?aeeony eaeay ia?a?iaeaeaiey, ii
iiieiaaony iia ii-?aciiio. A eiaeoecia iu aiai?ei ia aoiaia, eee “y”,
ia?iaiaioiii, iaeciaiiii, ioaeaeueiii io oaea e oia, anaaaea iaeiii e
oii aea e ia?aoiaeyuai ec aeecie a aeeciue; ana yoe “y”, eee aoiaiu,
aaeeiu ni anaeaiiie, eee A?aoiie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiiaiia?acea, eioi?ia
iu aeaeei aie?oa ian – eeethcey, eai a ?aaeueiinoe ana iu aaeeiu.

Aoaeaeeci o?aeooao yoo i?iaeaio eia/a: ia nouanoaoao iaeciaiiia “y”, eee
aoiai, ia?aoiaeyuaa ec aeecie a aeeciue: “y” nouanoaoao, ii ia eae ieiae
oaioacee, ia eae ia/oi iai?a?uaiia e iinoiyiiia, ia?aoiaeyuaa ec iaeiie
aeecie a ae?oaoth. A aoaeaeecia “y” iiaeii oiiaeiaeoue ecia?aaeaieth ia
eeiieaioa, aaea nouanoaoao iai?a?uaiinoue eaae?ia, a ia iai?a?uaiinoue
ia?aoiaeyueo ec eaae?a a eaae? iauaeoia. Caeanue iai?eaieaia aiaeiaey
“y” ni noaooae, ia?aiauathuaeny, eae ia eiiaaea?a, ec iaeiie aeecie a
ae?oaoth.

Eae auei neacaii, ana nouanoaa ?aaiu a oii niunea, /oi ana iie eiatho
iaeeiaeiaua aiciiaeiinoe noaoue aoaeaeie, iaeiaei aoaeaeeci ia
i?iaicaeaoaao, /oi ana oiaeaeanoaaiiu eee aaeeiu a Aaniethoa. Aoaeaeeci
aiai?eo, /oi eaaeaeue eiaeeaeaeoaeai. Aeaaea noaa aoaeaeie, ii nio?aiyao
naith eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue. Aoaeaeeci ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi ana yaeyaony
eeethceae: ana iiaeiaii eeethcee. Yoi na?ueaciia ioee/ea. I?aaeiaou
iiaeiaiu eeethcee a oii niunea, /oi iie eaaeoony oaa?aeuie, iinoiyiiuie
e eiie?aoiuie, oiaaea eae a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iie ia oaeiau. I?aaeiaou
ia yaeythony eeethceae, iineieueeo eeethci?iay ieua ia iaiieieo iao
aeaeoaeie, a ?aaeueiay ieua iaiieieo.

Ae?oaia cia/eoaeueiia ioee/ea ninoieo a oii, /oi a eiaeoecia e
aoaeaeecia iniaia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony ?aciui aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe,
aaaeouei e inaiaiaeaeaieth io i?iaeai e o?oaeiinoae. A eiaeoecia iau/ii
iiae/a?eeaathony aiaoiea oece/aneea aniaeou e oaoieee, iai?eia?,
?acee/iua anaiu a oaooa-eiaa, a eeanne/aneii eiaeoecia – i/euaiea iooai
iiiaaiey a Aaiaa, a oaeaea ?aaeei ieoaiey.

A aoaeaeecia aieueoia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony ia aiaoiei, a aioo?aiiei
oaoieeai, aicaeaenoaothuei ia oi e na?aeoea. Yoi aeaeii ia i?eia?a oaeeo
au?aaeaiee, eae “?acaeoea aeia?iai na?aeoea”, “?acaeoea ioae?inoe aeey
aeaeaiey ?aaeueiinoe” e o. ae. Yoi ?acee/ea i?iyaeyaony oaeaea i
iiaeoiaea e i?iecianaieth iaio? – iniauo naine?eoneeo neiaia e o?ac. A
eiaeoenoneii iiaeoiaea aeoeaio aeaeaaony ia aini?iecaaaeaiea caoea. Ni
a?aiaie Aaae n/eoaeinue, /oi caoe aa/ai e iaeaaeaao naiae nianoaaiiie
ia?iiiie neeie. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoiio a aoaeaeeeneii iiaeoiaea e
iaaeeoaoeee, aeeth/athuae iaio?u, iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ?acaeoeth
niiniaiinoe e eiioeaio?aoeee n iiiiuueth iaio?, a ia caoeo eae oaeiaiio.

A oa/aiea naiae aeecie Aoaeaea iao/ae ?aciui iaoiaeai, ii eae e a neo/aa
n o/aieyie Eenona O?enoa, i?e aeecie Aoaeaeu ie/aai ia auei caienaii.
*a?ac ianeieueei ianyoeaa iinea ooiaea Aoaeaeu nia?aeenue 500 aai
o/aieeia (iicaeiaa yoi nia?aiea noaei ecaanoii eae Ia?aue aoaeaeeeneee
niaao), /oiau onoii ooaa?aeeoue oi, /aio o/ee Aoaeaea. O/aieee ii iaiyoe
aini?iecaiaeeee ?acee/iua io?uaee oneuoaiiuo eie nayuaiiuo oaenoia.
Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi yoi nia?aiea oaenoia, ecaanoiia iiae iacaaieai
“O?eieoaea”, eee “O?e ei?ceiu”, auei aini?iecaaaeaii ii iaiyoe e
ioeoeeaeueii ooaa?aeaeaii oaea a yoio ?aiiee ia?eiae, caienaii iii auei
cia/eoaeueii iicaea. Iai?eia?, iaeeeneee eiiii aue caienai a ia/aea 1 a.
i.y. a O?e Eaiea. I?e/eiie yoiai auei oi, /oi ienueiaiiue ycue
eniieueciaaeny a oi a?aiy oieueei a eiiia?/aneeo eee aaeieieno?aoeaiuo
oeaeyo e ieeiaaea ia eniieueciaaeny aeey iao/iuo oeaeae eee oeaeae
iao/aiey. Yoe oaenou nio?aiyeenue a iaiyoe, i?e/ai ii?aaeaeaiiua a?oiiu
ethaeae a iiianou?yo auee ioaaonoaaiiu ca nio?aiaiea ?acee/iuo oaenoia.

Ia ana o/aiey Aoaeaeu ia?aaeaaaeenue onoii oae ioe?uoi. N/eoaeinue, /oi
iaeioi?ua ec ieo i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey aoaeouaai, iiyoiio iie econoii
ia?aaeaaaeenue ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea o/eoaeyie e o/aieeaie aieaa
oaeii. Eiiaaea o/aiey Aoaeaeu, iaia?iaeiaaiiua a cia/eoaeueii aieaa
iicaeiaa a?aiy, iiaeaa?aathony e?eoeea.

E?eoeea iicaeieo aoaeaeeeneeo o/aiee eae iaaooaioe/iuo ia iniiaaiee oiai
a?aoiaioa, /oi oieueei ?aiiea aoaeaeeeneea enoi/ieee niaea?aeao
iiaeeeiiua neiaa Aoaeaeu, i?aaenoaaeyaony ianinoiyoaeueiie. Eai anee
“?aiiea” aoaeaeenou cayaeytho, /oi iicaeiaeoea o?aaeeoeee iaaooaioe/iu,
iioiio /oi iniiaaiu ia onoiie o?aaeeoeee, oi yoio aea a?aoiaio iiaeao
auoue eniieueciaai e a ioiioaiee ?aiieo o/aiee, o. e. iie oiaea ia auee
caienaiu naiei Aoaeaeie, a ia?aaeaaaeenue onoiie o?aaeeoeeae. Oio oaeo,
/oi ?acee/iua oaenou Aoaeaeu auee caienaiu ia ?aciuo ycueao e a ?aciuo
noeeyo, oaeaea ia noaaeo iiae niiiaiea eo iiaeeeiiinoue, o. e. nai
Aoaeaea aiai?ee, /oi aai o/aiey neaaeoao nio?aiyoue ia oii ycuea,
eioi?ue i?eiyo a aeaiiii iauanoaa, n o/aoii naienoaaiiiai yoiio iauanoao
noeey. Iniaia cia/aiea anaaaea aeieaeii i?eaeaaaoueny niuneo, a ia
neiaai, oaeno ia aeieaeai ioaeaeaoueny a aeiiieieoaeueiii oieeiaaiee.

Yoa ia?aay a?oiia o/aiee, eioi?ay ia?aaeaaaeanue onoii e ioe?uoi, ni
a?aiaiai auea caienaia e ia?aciaaea iniiao iai?aaeaiey, ecaanoiiai eae
Oeiayia. ?acee/iua ?aneieu e iaiaa cia/eoaeueiua ?anoiaeaeaiey a
o?aeoiaea iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee i?eaaee e ?acaeaeaieth Oeiayiu ia 18 oeie,
a eioi?uo ia ?acee/iuo eiaeeeneeo aeeaeaeoao ia?aaeaaaeenue
iacia/eoaeueii ioee/athueany ae?oa io ae?oaa oaenou. Oeiea Ooa?aaaaeu,
iai?eia?, iiiaa a O?e-Eaieo e a THai-Ainoi/ioth Aceth, nio?aiyea naie
o/aiey ia ycuea iaee, a oeiea Na?aanoeaaaeu, iieo/eaoay ?ani?ino?aiaiea
a Oeaio?aeueiie Acee, eniieueciaaea naine?eo.

Oeiayia, iauee oa?iei aeey iacaaiey yoeo 18 o?aaeeoeee, icia/aao
“Ne?iiiay eieanieoea”. Iau/ii, Oeiayia ia?aaiaeeony eae “Iaeay
eieanieoea”, iaeiaei iao ioaeaeu i?eaeaaaoue yoiio neiao
oie/eaeeoaeueiue iooaiie. Eieanieoea icia/aao “aeaeaeaiea oia”, o. a.
iooue iuoeaiey, /oanoaa, aeaenoaey e o. ae., eioi?ue aaaeao e
ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee. Iia ne?iiiay a oii niunea, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao
iaoiaeu aeinoeaeaiey ne?iiiie, a ia aunoae oeaee. Iia nouanoaoao aeey
oao, eoi i?inoi ?aaioaao iaae i?aiaeieaieai naieo nianoaaiiuo i?iaeai,
o. e. aeey ieo auei au iaiineeueii ?aaioaoue n oeaeueth i?aiaeieaiey
anaiaueo i?iaeai. Aianoi oiai, /oiau no?aieoueny noaoue aoaeaeie, iie
no?aiyony noaoue inaiaiaeaeaiiuie ethaeueie (ia naine?eoa “a?oao”).

Aoaeaea o/ee, /oi a oaeouoth ie?iaoth yiioo iiyaeony 1000 aoaeae. A
nenoaia Oeiayiu ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi aeey oiai, /oiau noaoue aoaeaeie,
iaiaoiaeeii neaaeiaaoue iooe aiaeoenaooau, o. a. iieiinoueth iinayoeoue
naay ieacaieth iiiiue ae?oaei e naiioniaa?oainoaiaaieth, /oiau aeaeaoue
yoi iaeeo/oei ia?acii; iaeiaei ana 1000 iano oaea caiyou.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?aaioaoue aeey oiai, /oiau noaoue aoaeaeie a oaeouae
yiioa iao niunea, iiyoiio neaaeoao no?aieoueny e oiio, /oi yaeyaony
i?aeoe/anee aeinoeaeeiui, o. a. no?aieoueny noaoue inaiaiaeaeaiiui
/aeiaaeii.

Aeaeaa, Aoaeaea o/ee, /oi eiaaea /aeiaae aeinoeaaao ie?aaiu, eee
inaiaiaeaeaaony io nianoaaiiuo i?iaeai, oiaaea iioie niciaiey
i?a?uaaaony eee aaniao iiaeiaii naa/a. Yoi iiiiaaao ethaeyi, ia
i?aneaaeothuei aunoea oeaee, ia auoue iiaeaaeaiiuie no?aoii, a oaeaea
aeaao ei aiciiaeiinoue iuooeoue, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueii ianooieo eiiaoe eo
no?aaeaieyi, e oaeei ia?acii anooieoue ia iooue Oeiayiu.

A caienaiiuo iicaeiaa o/aieyo Iaoayiu (“I?inoi?iay eieanieoea*) oa 1000
aoaeae, i iiyaeaiee eioi?uo aiai?ee Aoaeaea, ?anniao?eaathony eae
iniiaaoaee ie?iauo aoaeaeeeneeo ?aeeaee. E?iia ieo iiyaeony oaeaea
iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo aoaeae, eioi?ua ia aoaeoo iniiaaoaeyie ie?iauo
aoaeaeeeneeo ?aeeaee; noaoue iaeiei ec yoeo aoaeae aiciiaeii. Aieaa
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo o/aieeia Aoaeaea ianoaaeye, eae noaoue aoaeaeie: yoi
icia/aao ia oieueei i?aiaeieaiea nianoaaiiuo i?iaeai, ii e nianoaaiiuo
ia?aie/aiee, a oaeaea iaeneiaeueioth ?aaeecaoeeth aiciiaeiinoae ii
ieacaieth iiiiue aeeaeiei. Aoaeaea o/ee, /oi i?ae?auaiea iioiea niciaiey
iinea aeinoeaeaiey ia?eie?aaiu icia/aao i?ae?auaiea nouanoaiaaiey iioiea
niciaiey a aai i?aaeiai ea/anoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, iioie niciaiey aa/ai,
eae e aeeciue, iaiieiaiiay iiiiuueth aeeaeiei.

Eoae, ia?aie caienaiiie nenoaiie o/aiee auea Oeiayia. A iae niaea?aeaony
iniiaiiieaaathuea o/aiey, i?eciaaaaiua oaeaea e Iaoayiie, a eiaiii: ana
o/aiey.i ea?ia (i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiay naycue); ana i?aaeea yoe/aneie
naiiaeenoeeieeiu, aeeth/ay i?aaeea iiianou?neie aeenoeeieeiu aeey
iiiaoia e iiiaoeiue; aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe oinoaaiiie e yiioeeiiaeueiie
noa?; oeacaiey eae ?acaeoue niiniaiinoe e eiioeaio?aoeee, a oaeaea eae
aeinoe/ue ioae?inoe, /oiau i?aiaeieaoue caaeoaeaeaiey e oaeaeaoue
?aaeueiinoue. O/aiey Oeiayiu aeeth/atho oaeaea niiniau ?acaeoey /oanoaa
ethaae e nino?aaeaiey. Ethaiaue ii?aaeaeyaony eae aeaeaiea n/anouey
ae?oaei ethaeyi, a nino?aaeaiea – eae iiaeaeaiea ae?oaei ethaeyi
inaiaiaeeoueny io eo i?iaeai. Iaoayia ?acaeaaao yoe iieiaeaiey,
aeiaaaeyy e iei i?eiyoea ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aeaenoaaiioth
iiiiuue ae?oaei ethaeyi, ia ia?aie/eaaynue oieueei iiaeaeaieai ei
aeia?a. Iineieueeo aneaaenoaea naienoaaiiuo /aeiaaeo ia?aie/aiee ii ia a
ninoiyiee ieacuaaoue ae?oaei iaeneiaeueioth iiiiuue, iniaia aieiaiea
Iaoayia oaeaeyao ?ane?uoeth na?aeoea eiaeeaeaeooia n iiiiuueth
aiaeoe/eoou. Aiaeoe/eooa icia/aao onoaiiaeo noaoue aoaeaeie, ae?oaeie
neiaaie na?aeoea, no?aiyuaany e i?aiaeieaieth anao i?enoueo ee/iinoe
ia?aie/aiee e e ?aaeecaoeee anao aiciiaeiinoae n oeaeueth ieacaiey
iaeaieueoae iiiiue eaaeaeiio..

Eae oaea oiiieiaeinue, o/aiey Oeiayiu ia?aaeaaaeenue 18 ?acee/iuie
oeieaie, eioi?ua ?acaeeenue enoi?e/anee a ?acoeueoaoa aicieeaaoeo a
oiaea oea?eiaiuo Niai?ia ?aciiaeanee. A iieiii iauaia aei iaoaai a?aiaie
nio?aieeanue o?aaeeoeey Ooa?aaaaeu, eee “O/aiea noa?aeoei”.

A iaoe aeie iia ?ani?ino?aiaia a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, iniaaiii a
O?e-Eaiea (Oeaeeii), Iueyiia?a (Ae?ia), Oaeeaiaea, Eaiio/ee (Eaiaiaeaea)
e Eaina. A O?e-Eaieo e Iueyiia? o/aiey yoie oeieu iiiaee a na?aaeeia III
a. aei i.y. n iiiiuueth eiaeeeneiai ei?iey Aoiee. A aieaa iicaeiee
ia?eiae a iaaeo yoeo no?aiao iuouaeenue aeeyiey o/aiee Iaoayiu, aeeth/ay
oaio?o, iiiaaoea nthaea ec ainoi/iie Eiaeee, iaeiaei yoe aeeyiey auee
iacia/eoaeueiuie. A na?aaeeia XI a., eiaaea aue iino?iai aoaeaeeeneee
ai?iae Iaaai, a Iueyiia?a i?iecioei aic?iaeaeaiea o?aaeeoeee Ooa?aaaaeu.

Aei ia/aea XIII a. Oaeeaiae ninoiye ec ianeieueeeo iaaieueoeo
ei?ieaanoa, eniuouaaaoeo ii?aaeaeaiiua aoaeaeeeneea aeeyiey ni noi?iiu
ninaaeieo n iei Iueyiia?a e Eaiio/ee. Iinea iauaaeeiaiey no?aiu a
na?aaeeia XIII a. ei?ieue i?eaeanee ec O?e Eaiee i?aaenoaaeoaeae
o?aaeeoeee Ooa?aaaaeu. A XVIII a. O?e-Eaiea ia?aoeeanue e Oaeeaiaeo n
oeaeueth aic?iaeaeaiey i?aainoaaiiuo eeiee iinayuaiey a iiiaoaneee nai,
ineaaaaoeo ca ia?eiae eieiieaeueiiai i?aaeaiey aa?iiaeoeaa.

Ia?aui eiaeoenoneei ainoaea?noaii THai-Ainoi/iie Acee a 1 a. i.y. auei
Eoia?neia ei?ieaanoai (Eaiio/ey). Aai aeanoue ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia
Eaiio/eth, THaeiue Aueaoiai, Oaeeaiae, Iaeaeneee iieoino?ia. E eiioeo IV
a. a yoii ?aaeiia oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeenue Iaoayia, eiaeoeci, a oaeaea,
a iaeioi?ie noaiaie, Ooa?aaaaea. Caoai iineaaeiaae ia?eiae oiaaeea,
iinea /aai aoaeaeeci aeinoea ?anoeaaoa a IX a. A eiioea XII a. e a
ia/aea XIII a. iaeei ec eoia?neeo ei?ieae, ieacuaaaoeo iie?iaeoaeuenoai
Iaoayia, iino?iee ia?iiiue eiiieaen o?aiia a Aiaei?a. A na?aaeeia XIII
a. Oaeeaiae caoaaoee Eaiio/eth e n oao ii? oai i?aiaeaaeaao o?aaeeoeey
Ooa?aaaaeu.

A na?aaeeia XIV a. /eai i?aaeaoae a Eaina ei?ieaaneie oaieeee iaoiaeeeny
a ecaiaiee a Eaiio/ee. Aa?ioaoenue ia ?iaeeio e noaa ei?ieai, ii
?ani?ino?aiee oai o?aaeeoeeth Ooa?aaaaeu. ?aiaa, a 1 e II aa. aei i.y.,
Ooa?aaaaea iiiaea a naaa?iue Aueaoiai ii?neei iooai iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec
Eiaeee, iaeiaei anei?a aa auoanieea eeoaeneay oi?ia Iaoayiu. Ai II – III
aa. Ooa?aaaaea ec Eiaeee iiiaea a Eiaeiiaceth, i?e/ai eae e a Eaiio/ee
caeanue i?eiaoeaaeenue iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou Iaoayiu e eiaeoecia. Iaeiaei
anei?a Iaoayia iiyoue noaea i?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie aoaeaeecia a yoie
no?aia. Ianeieueei iicaea y aieaa iiae?iaii inoaiiaethnue ia enoi?ee
aoaeaeecia ai Aueaoiaia e Eiaeiiacee.

Oaeiaa iauay noaia ?ani?ino?aiaiey Ooa?aaaaeu a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee. A
iniiaiii iia ?ani?ino?aiyeanue ec Eiaeee a O?e-Eaieo e Iueyiia?, a aieaa
iicaeiaa a?aiy ec O?e-Eaiee iacaae a Iueyiia? e Oaeeaiae e, iaeiiaoe, ec
Oaeeaiaea a Eaiio/eth, a ioooaea a Eain.

Eae y oaea oiiieiae, o/aiey Ooa?aaaaeu auee caienaiu ia ycuea iaee,
iaeiii ec eiaeeeneeo ycueia, aieaa ?acaiai?iii, /ai naine?eo. A eaaeaeie
ec iacaaiiuo no?ai ia ycuea iaee /eoatho iaeie e oa aea oaenou,
ecaanoiua eae O?eieoaea, eee “O?e ei?ceiu”. Iaeiaei a eaaeaeie no?aia
aeey eo caiene eniieuecoaony ianoiue aeoaaeo.

A no?aiao, aaea iieo/eee ?ani?ino?aiaiea o/aiey oeieu Ooa?aaaaeu,
nouanoaoao aaeeiay nenoaia iiiaoaneeo iaaoia: o?aaeeoeee aeaineiai
iineooaiey e iiiaoanoaa ia iieo/eee ?acaeoey, ianiio?y ia iaee/ea a
?oeiienyo oaenoia iaaoia aeey iiiaoeiue.

Oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue aoaeaeecia caeeth/aaony a aai i?eniiniaeyaiinoe
e eoeueoo?ai ?acee/iuo no?ai, aaea ii iieo/ee ?ani?ino?aiaiea. Iai?eia?,
a oi a?aiy eae ai anao no?aiao iiiaoaneea iaaou i?eieiathony ia anth
aeeciue, a Oaeeaiaea aiciee iau/ae i?eiyoey iaaoa ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie.
A ia/aea XIV a. ei?ieue Eoaae ia i?ioyaeaiee o?ao ianyoeaa aae
iiiaoaneoth aeeciue a iaeiii ec ioaeneeo iiianou?ae, /oi iieiaeeei
ia/aei oieeaeueiiio oaeneiio iau/ath, niaeanii eioi?iio ioae/eiu eiatho
i?aai i?eieiaoue iiiaoaneea iaaou ia ei?ioeia a?aiy. A Oaeeaiaea anoue
ethaee, ?aaoey?ii i?eieiathuea iaaou ia aiae eee ia ianeieueei ianyoeaa.
Ie/aai iiaeiaiiai iu ia iaoiaeei ie a iaeiie aoaeaeeeneie no?aia. Aieaa
oiai, oaeneie eoeueoo?a i?enoua aa?a a aeooia. A yoii eiioaenoa
aoaeaeeci eniieueciaaeny neaaeothuei ia?acii: iiiaoe ia/eouaaee
?acee/iua nayuaiiua oaenou, /oiau caueoeoue ethaeae io ceuo aeooia.
Iiiaoe n/eoaeenue eca?aiiuie e auniei oaaaeaaiuie ethaeueie, iieo/aaoeie
i?iieoaiea a aeaea iiaeayiey, ianaeaiea i?aaeaiii iiaeaea?aeeaaei eo
?aaoey?iuie i?eiioaieyie. Iineieueeo ethaie /aeiaae iia noaoue iiiaoii,
oioy au ia ei?ioeia a?aiy, yoi ieeiaaea ia ?anniao?eaaeinue eae
yeiiiie/anee oyainoiia yaeaiea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a O?e-Eaiea
o?aaeeoeey Ooa?aaaaeu ca/anooth eiaao iao/iue oa?aeoa?.

Ae?oaea o?aaeeoeee Oeiayiu, oaenou eioi?uo auee caienaiu ia ia iaee, a
ia naine?eoa, aeinoeaee ?anoeaaoa a nianoaaiii Eiaeee e caoai ec Eiaeee
?ani?ino?aieeenue ia caiaae, caoai ia naaa? e ia ainoie aaeieue
Oaeeiaiai iooe /a?ac Oeaio?aeueioth Aceth a Eeoae. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ec
yoeo o?aaeeoeee auee Na?aanoeaaaea e Aeoa?iaaoioa.

Na?aanoeaaaea ioaeaeeeanue io Ooa?aaaaeu a eiioea i?aaeaiey ei?iey Aoiee
a na?aaeeia III a. aei i.y., e aeinoeaea ?anoeaaoa nia/aea a Eaoie?a e
Aaiaeoa?a, oi anoue ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai Iaeenoaineiai Iaiaeaeaaa
e Oeaio?aeueiiai Aoaaienoaia. A eiioea III e ia/aea II aa. aei i.y. yoe
?aeiiu auee caoaa/aiu iioiieaie a?aeia, eioi?ua i?eoee nthaea aieaa aaea
iacaae aianoa n Aeaenaiae?ii Aaeeeei ai a?aiy aai iioiaeia a
Oeaio?aeueioth Aceth e naaa?i-caiaaeioth Eiaeeth. Caoai Na?aanoeaaaea
?ani?ino?aieeanue ia canaeaiiua eie caiee a Aaeo?ee e Niaaeeaia. Aaeo?ey
?aniieaaaeanue a ?aeiia iaaeaeo ai?aie Aeiaeoeoo a Aoaaienoaia e ?aeie
Ienon (Aio-Aea?uey) e aeeth/aea Aoaaineee Oo?eanoai e /anoue oa??eoi?ee
nia?aiaiiie Oo?eiaiee. Niaaeeaia ?aniieaaaeanue a iniiaiii a ?aeiia
iaaeaeo ?aeaie Ienon e ssena?oan (Nu?-Aea?uey) e ioaaouaaea iaeioi?ua
?aeiiu nia?aiaiiiai Oaaeaeeeenoaia, Ocaaeenoaia e, aa?iyoii, Ee?aecee. A
na?aaeeia 1 a. aei i.y. iia i?inoe?aeanue io Eaoie?a ia naaa? aei Oioaia
a thaeiie /anoe aannaeia ?aee Oa?ei a Ainoi/iii Oo?eanoaia. A eiioea 1
a. i.y. aieueoay /anoue yoeo oa??eoi?ee aoiaeeea y ninoaa Eooaineie
eiia?ee, ianaeaiiie oeaio?aeueii-aceaoneeie ia?iaeaie aoiineiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, eioi?ua nin?aaeioi/eeenue ia naaa?i-caiaaea Eiaeee.
Eooaineee ei?ieue Eaieoea aue iie?iaeoaeai Na?aanoeaaaeu e ai a?aiy aai
i?aaeaiey auee iino?iaiu aaeeeea iaua?iua aoaeaeeeneea iiianou?e e
iao/iua oeaio?u a Aaieaia a Oeaio?aeueiii Aoaaienoaia, a oaeaea a
Aaeaeeia-Oaia, Ea?a-Oaia e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo ianoao a thaeiii
Oaaeaeeeenoaia ieiei nia?aiaiiiai Oa?iaca. Oaeaea ai a?aiy aai
oea?noaiaaiey Na?aanoeaaaea ec Eaoie?a iiiaea a Eaaeaeo. Ec Oioaia iia
ia/aea ?ani?ino?aiyoueny /a?ac ai?iaea-iacenu ionouiue Ainoi/iiai
Oo?eanoaia ii iai?aaeaieth e ai?iaeo Eo/a, ?aniieiaeaiiiio a naaa?iie
/anoe aannaeia ?aee Oa?ei, e a Eaoaa? ia caiaaea. Auea caaa?oaia caienue
oaenoia Na?aanoeaaaeu ia naine?eoa e ia/aoa ?aaioa ii eo ia?aaiaeo ia
oioaineee ycue. Iaeiaei a Oeaio?aeueiie Acee ana aoaeaeeeneea oaenou
caienuaaeenue ia naine?eoa.

I?eiaaeeaaeauay Oeiayia oeiea Aeoa?iaaoiou ioeieieanue io Ooa?aaaeu a
ia/aea Ea. aei i.y. e aeinoeaea ?anoeaaoa ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai
Aaeoaeaeenoaia ia thai-ainoiea Iaeenoaia e a Ia?oyineii oea?noaa,
iniaaiii ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai ainoi/iiai E?aia e iaeioi?uo ?aeiiia
Oo?eiaiee. Aiaeec nayuaiiuo oaenoia iieacuaaao, /oi ia/eiay ni II a.
i.y., a naaa?iii Eeoaa aeaaiie oeieie Oeiayiu auea Na?aanoeaaaea,
iaeiaei eeiey iinayuaiey iiiaoia e iiiaoeiue i?eoea a Eeoae eiaiii ec
oeieu Aeoa?iaaoiou, ionthaea iia ?ani?ino?aieeanue ia Ei?ath, ssiiieth e
Aueaoiai. Oaenou Iaoayiu ia/aee caienuaaoue ia naine?eoa, a ioe?uoi iie
iiyaeeenue anei?a iinea ieii/aiey oea?noaiaaiey ei?iey Eaieoee ai II a.
i.y. Aia/aea yoi eiaei ianoi a ?aeiia Aiaeo?a ia thai-ainoiea Eiaeee, a
caoai yoe o/aiey auno?i ?ani?ino?aieeenue ia naaa?ioth Eiaeeth, Eaoie?
e, iniaaiii, Oioai, Ia/eiay n IV a. a naaa?iie /anoe Eiaeee auee
iino?iaiu aaeeeea iiianou?neea oieaa?neoaou, oaeea eae Iaeaiaea e
Aee?aiaoeea. Iinoaiaiii Iaoayia iiiaea oaeaea a Caiaaeiue Oo?eanoai,
aaea aoaeaeeci, eae oaea oiiieiaeinue auoa, eniiaaaeiaaeny ia
oa??eoi?eyo nia?aiaiiie Oo?eiaiee, Oaaeaeeeenoaia, Ocaaeenoaia e
Ee?aecee aieioue aei a?aaneeo iaoanoaee a VIII a., a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo
yoe ?aeiiu iiaeaa?aeenue ionoeueiaiecaoeee. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue ?aiaa,
?aiiyy eiaeeeneay Iaoayia iiiaea oaeaea a Eaiio/eth, a /a?ac iaa a
thaeiue Aueaoiai.

A na?aaeeia II a. i.y. /a?ac Oeaio?aeueioth Aceth e Oaeeiaue iooue
ia/aeenue eiioaeou Eeoay n aoaeaeeciii. Iiiaoe ec eoia/aneeo naiae
Eiaeee, Eaoie?a, Niaaeeaiu, Ia?oee, Oioaia e Eo/e, iiiaea ec eioi?uo
auee o?iaeaioeaie Eeoay, ia/aee ia?aaiaeeoue aoaeaeeeneea oaenou n
naine?eoa ia eeoaeneee ycue. Nia/aea yoi auee oaenou Oeiayiu, iaeiaei
anei?a auee ia?aaaaeaiu oaeaea nayuaiiua oaenou Iaoayiu. A III-IV aa.
Eeoae aue ?acae?iaeai ia ?acee/iua eiyaeanoaa aeaeeaoeany ia naaa?iua e
thaeiua. A thaeiii Eeoaa, aaea i?iaeieaeaea nouanoaiaaoue aieaa
o?aaeeoeeiiiay eeoaeneay eoeueoo?a, eioa?an e aoaeaeecio aue /enoi
oeeinioneei, nii?iaiaeaeaaoeiny iiiaeanoaii ?annoaeaeaiee, /anoi
iooathueo o/aiey Iaoayiu i ionoioa eee ionoonoaee aiia?aaeaaiuo niiniaia
nouanoaiaaiey n ianoiuie eaeayie iaauoey. Ia naaa?a, aaea i?aaeee ii
aieueoae /anoe aeeianoee, i?aaenoaaeyaoea ia?iaeu iaeeoaeneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, yaeyaoeany aeaeueieie i?aaeeaie oth?eia, oeaaooeaa,
iiiaieia e iaiue/aeo?ia, iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue iaaeeoaoeee, a
oaeaea ?acaeoeth e eniieueciaaieth yeno?anaini?iuo e yeno?aoece/aneeo
nee.

Iineieueeo ia?aaaaeaiiua oaenou ia auee ioia?aiu a niioaaonoaee n
eaeie-eeai nenoaiie, a oa?ieiu /anoi caeinoaiaaeenue ec eiioooeeaineie
o?aaeeoeee e oieueei /anoe/ii auee yeaeaaeaioiu ia?aaiaeeiui oa?ieiai,
auei iiiai iooaieoeu ioiineoaeueii nouiinoe o/aiey Aoaeaeu. Aneaaenoaea
yoiai iiiaea iiiaoe niaa?oaee iooaoanoaey ii Oaeeiaiio iooe a
Oeaio?aeueioth Aceth eee ii ii?th n oeaeueth i?eaacoe aieueoaa
eiee/anoai oaenoia e iaaeaynue n eo iiiiuueth ono?aieoue iayniinoe; n
yoie aea oeaeueth iie iinauaee aaeeeea iiianou?neea oieaa?neoaou. Oae
auei nia?aii e i?eaacaii a Eeoae iiiai oaenoia. I?e iiiuoeao naaaeaiey
anao yoeo oaenoia aiaaeeii iie noieeioeenue n na?ueaciuie i?iaeaiaie. A
Eiaeee o/aiey Iaoayiu ia auee aua aeinoaoi/ii oieoeoee?iaaiu, e eaaeaeue
iaeiiiee, i?eiineaoee n niaie nayceo oaenoia, eiae ?acee/iue iiaeai?
iaoa?eaea, aneaaenoaea /aai ia auei aaeeiiai iiaiey i oii, eaeea oaenou
n/eoaoue aaaeiaeoeie o/aieyie Aoaeaeu. Oaeei ia?acii aicieeee ?acee/iua
oeieu eeoaeneiai aoaeaeecia, ioee/athueany ae?oa io ae?oaa /aua anaai
oai, eaeie oaeno e eaeie iaoiae ec oao, eioi?ui o/ee Aoaeaea,
i?eciaaaeny aeaaiui.

A Eeoae aoaeaeeci iiiae oaeaea ii?neei iooai n thaa. Iaeiei ec
aaee/aeoeo eiaeeeneeo o/eoaeae, i?eauaoei a THaeiue Eeoae, aue
Aiaeoeaeoa?ia. Io ianoa?a Aiaeoeaeoa?iu ?acaeeny oae iacuaaaiue
/aiue-aoaeaeeci. A yoii o/aiee iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony i?inoiio e
anoanoaaiiiio auoeth a aa?iiiee n i?e?iaeie e anaeaiiie, /oi oa?aeoa?ii
oaeaea aeey eeoaeneie oeeinioee aeainecia.

Eae y oaea ioia/aea, aoaeaeeci anaaaea no?aieony i?eniiniaeoueny e oie
eoeueoo?a, a eioi?oth ii aoiaeeo. A thaeiii Eeoaa oaeaea i?ienoiaeeo
aaeaioaoeey aoaeaeeeneeo oaoiee. Oai oaeaea o/ao, /oi nouanoaoao
“iaiiaaiiia” i?inaaoeaiea. Yoi niaeanoaony n eiioooeeaineie eaeaae i
oii, /oi /aeiaae aeia?iaeaoaeai ii naiae i?e?iaea, e enoiaeeo ec
eiioeaioeee, /oi eaaeaeue iaeaaeaao i?e?iaeie aoaeaeu, i /ai y oaea
neacae a ia/aea eaeoeee. *aiue-aoaeaeeci o/eo, /oi anee /aeiaae niiaeao
oniieieoue ana naie “eneonnoaaiiua” (noaoiua) iunee, oi ii niiaeao
i?aiaeieaoue ana naie caaeoaeaeaiey e i?aiyonoaey a iaiiaaiea iea, e
oiaaea iaiaaeeaiii ianooieo i?inaaoeaiea. Yoi ia niioaaonoaoao
eiaeeeneie eiioeaioeee i oii, /oi ?acaeoea niiniaiinoae eaeao a ?aieao
iinoaiaiiiai aeeeoaeueiiai i?ioeanna nicaeaiey iieiaeeoaeueiiai
iioaioeeaea, ?acaeaay nino?aaeaiea e oae aeaeaa iooai aeoeaiie iiiiue
ae?oaei ethaeyi.

A yoi a?aiy a Eeoaa nouanoaiaaei ia?iiiia eiee/anoai aiththueo
eiyaeanoa: a no?aia oea?ee oain. A oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie
Aiaeoeaeoa?ia nin?aaeioi/aiii ?aciuoeye i oii, eaeea iaoiaeu iiaoo auoue
i?eaieaiuie aeey oiai a?aiaie e aeey oao oneiaee; ii ?ac?aaioae oi, /oi
a iineaaenoaee noaei ecaanoii eae aiaaua eneonnoaa, e ia/ae Iao/aoue
yoei eneonnoaai.

A Eiaeee ia nouanoaiaaea o?aaeeoeey aiaauo eneonnoa; /oi-eeai iiaeiaiia
ia ?acaeeinue iicaeiaa ie a Oeaaoa, ie a Iiiaieee, eoaea aoaeaeeci
i?iiee ec Eiaeee. Aoaeaea o/ee i oiieeo yia?aeyo oaea e ?aaioa n ieie.
Iineieueeo ?ac?aaioaiiay aeey Eeoay nenoaia aiaauo eneonnoa oaeaea eiaao
aeaei n oiieeie yia?aeyie oaea, iia niaeanoaony n aoaeaeeciii. Iaeiaei a
aiaauo eneonnoaao yia?aee oaea iienuaathony n oi/ee c?aiey i?eiyoiai a
Eeoaa o?aaeeoeeiiiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia yoeo yia?aeyo, eioi?ia iu
iaoiaeei a aeainecia.

Aoaeaeecio naienoaaiii no?aieaiea ?acaeoue yoe/aneoth naiiaeenoeeieeio e
niiniaiinoue e eiioeaio?aoeee n oai, /oiau ee/iinoue auea a ninoiyiee
nin?aaeioi/eoueny ia ?aaeueiinoe, ioae?i i?iieeay a nooue aauae e
i?aiaeieaaay caaeoaeaeaiey; a oaeaea ?ac?aoeoue nianoaaiiua i?iaeaiu e
iaeneiaeueii iiii/ue ie?oaeathuei. Aiaaua eneonnoaa yaeythony oaoieeie,
aeathuae aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeoue oa ea/anoaa ee/iinoe, eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey aeinoeaeaiey oie aea naiie oeaee.

A Eeoaa e a Ainoi/iie Acee iaeaieaa iiioey?iie aoaeaeeeneie oeieie
yaeyaony oeiea *enoie caiee, eioi?ay iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyao
ia?a?iaeaeaieth a *enoie caiea Aoaeaeu Aieoaau. Oai ana niinianoaoao
oiio, /oiau auno?aa noaoue Aoaeaeie e auoue a ninoiyiee nei?aa
i?eiineoue iieueco ae?oaei. Iniaia aieiaiea a Eiaeee anaaaea oaeaeyeinue
iaaeeoaoeaiui i?aeoeeai eiioeaio?aoeee n oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey yoie aea
oeaee. A Eeoaa o/eee, /oi ana, /oi iaaei aeaeaoue, yoi iiaoi?youe eiy
Aieoaau.

Iiioey?iinoue yoie oeieu a ?aaeiia ?ani?ino?aiaiey eeoaeneie eoeueoo?u
aeaaea a iaoa a?aiy iauyniyaony, aa?iyoii, oai, /oi eaeay ia?a?iaeaeaiey
Aoaeaeu Aieoaau a iaoiaeyuaeny ia caiaaea *enoie caiea niaeanoaony n
aeainneie eaeaae i iiiaaeaiee iinea nia?oe a “caiaaeiue ?ae”
aannia?oiuo. Oaeei ia?acii, iu ?anniio?aee ?acee/iua aniaeou e
iiaeeoeeaoeee eeanne/aneiai eeoaeneiai aoaeaeecia.

Aneaaenoaea no?iauo i?aneaaeiaaiee aoaeaeecia a Eeoaa a na?aaeeia IX a.
aieueoeinoai eiathueo oeeinioneoth i?eaioaoeeth oeie caaeioei. Iniiaiuie
nio?aieaoeieny oi?iaie aoaeaeecia auee oeiea *enoie caiee e
/aiue-aoaeaeeci. A aieaa iicaeiaa a?aiy aoaeaeeci niaoaeny n
eiioooeeaineei eoeueoii ii/eoaiey i?aaeeia e aeainneeie i?aeoeeaie
aaaeaiey n iaei/eaie.

A oa/aiea iiiaeo noieaoee aoaeaeeeneea oaenou ia?aaiaeeeenue ia
eeoaeneee ycue n naine?eoa e eiaeiaa?iiaeneeo ycueia Oeaio?aeueiie Acee.
Eeoaeneee eaiii aieaa iaoe?ai, iaaeaee iaeeeneee, eai ii aeeth/aao
oaeaea oaenou Iaoayiu. I?aaeea aeenoeeieeiu e iaaou aeey iiiaoia e
iiiaoeiue ianeieueei ioee/athony io i?eiyouo a o?aaeeoeee Ooa?aaaaeu,
oae eae eeoaeoeu, eae oaea oiiieiaeinue auoa, neaaeotho ae?oaie oeiea
Oeiayiu, a eiaiii oeiea Aeoa?iaaoiou. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi 85% iaaoia
iiiaoia, e iiiaoeiue oa aea naiua, /oi e a oaenoao Ooa?aaaaeu,
iacia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey nouanoaotho. A THai-Ainoi/iie Acee iiiaoe iinyo
i?aiaeaaua eee aeaeoua iaeaaeaeu aac ?oaaoae. A Eeoaa i?aaeii/eoatho
iaeaaeaeo i?eiyouo a yoie no?aia /a?iiai, na?iai e ei?e/iaaiai oeaaoia n
aeeeiiuie ?oeaaaie, /oi aucaaii o?aaeeoeeiiiuie eiioooeeaineeie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie i ne?iiiinoe. A ioee/ea io Ooa?aaaaeu e iicaeieo
oeaaoneeo o?aaeeoeee a Eeoaa nouanoaoao o?aaeeoeey iieiinoueth
iinayuaiiuo iiiaoeiue2. Yoa i?aainoaaiiay ieiey iinayuaiey
i?iaeieaeaaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia Oaeaaia, a Aiieiiaa e THaeiie Ei?aa.

Nianoaaiii eeoaeneay aoaeaeeeneay o?aaeeoeey nouanoaoao a iaoa a?aiy a
i/aiue ia?aie/aiiuo ianooaaao a Eeoaeneie Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeea. Iia
iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaia ia Oaeaaia, a i?aeoeeoaony a Aiieiiaa, a
caii?neeo iaueiao eeoaeoeaa ia Neiaaio?a, a Iaeaecee, Eiaeiiacee,
Oaeeaiaea, Aueaoiaia e ia Oeeeiieiao, a oaeaea a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao e
ae?oaeo no?aiao, aaea inaee eeoaeoeu.

?aiiea oi?iu aoaeaeecia, iaia?oaeaiiua eae a Caiaaeiii, oae e a
Ainoi/iii Oo?eanoaia, iiieii Eeoay, ?ani?ino?aieeenue ia ae?oaea
eoeueoo?u no?ai Oeaio?aeueiie Acee, iaeiaei /anoi e iei i?eiaoeaaeenue
iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou eeoaeneie eoeueoo?u. Aeinoieiui aieiaiey yaeyaony
?ani?ino?aiaiea aoaeaeecia n?aaee oth?eia, ia?aiai ecaanoiiai ia?iaea,
aiai?eaoaai ia oth?eneii ycuea e iieo/eaoaai yoi aea iacaaiea. Oth?eneee
eaaaiao aiciee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia VI a. e nei?i ?aniaeny ia aeaa /anoe.
Naaa?iua oth?ee nin?aaeioi/eeenue a ?aeiia ica?a Aaeeae, aaea iicaeiaa
ia?aciaaeanue Ao?yoey, a thaeiua – a aeieeia ?aee Aienae, ia oa??eoi?ee
Ooau – a Ainoi/ii-Neae?neii ?aaeiia NNN?. Oth?ee ianaeyee oaeaea
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue Iiiaieee. Caiaaeiua oth?ee eiaee naieie oeaio?aie
O?oi/e e Oaoeaio.

Aoaeaeeci aia?aua iiiae a Oth?eneee eaaaiao ec Niaaeeaiu a oi?ia
Oeiayiu, eioi?ie, ia/eiay n eiioea Eooaineiai ia?eiaea (II-III aa.
i.y.), auee oaeaea i?enoue iaeioi?ua /a?ou Iaoayiu. Niaaeeeneea eoioeu,
/anoi ano?a/aaoeany ia anai i?ioyaeaiee Oaeeiaiai iooe, ianee naith
eoeueoo?o e ?aeeaee. Eiaiii iie auee iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie ia?aaiae/eeaie
naine?eoneeo oaenoia ia eeoaeneee e ae?oaea ycuee Oeaio?aeueiie Acee;
iie oaeaea ia?aaiaeeee oaenou n naine?eoa, a a aieaa iicaeiee ia?eiae –
n eeoaeneiai ia naie nianoaaiiue, ?iaenoaaiiue ia?neaeneiio, ycue. Ai
a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey Naaa?iiai e Caiaaeiiai eaaaiaoia n?aaee oth?eia
i?aiaeaaeaee iaoayineea iiiaoe ec ?aeiia Oo?oai a naaa?iie /anoe ?aee
Oa?ei. Iaeioi?ua oaenou auee ia?aaaaeaiu ia noa?ue oth?eneee ycue
eiaeeeneeie, niaaeeeneeie e eeoaeneeie iiiaoaie. Yoi auei ia?aie
ecaanoiie aieiie ?ani?ino?aiaiey aoaeaeecia, aeinoeaoae Iiiaieee,
Ao?yoee e Ooau. A Caiaaeiii Oo?eanoaia nio?aiyeanue oaea nouanoaiaaaoay
oai aoaeaeeeneay o?aaeeoeey aei oao ii?, iiea a ia/aea XIII a. oth?ee ia
auee ?acaeou a?aaaie, e yoe ?aeiiu ia auee iiaeaa?aioou
ionoeueiaiecaoeee.

Oeao?u, ?iaenoaaiiue ooaeioeai oth?eneee ia?iae, caaiaaaee naaa?iuo
oth?eia e i?aaeee ia oa??eoi?ee Iiiaieee, Ooau e a aeeceaaeaueo ?aeiiao
n na?aaeeiu VIII a. aei na?aaeeiu IX a. Oeao?u oaeaea eniuouaaee aeeyiea
aoaeaeecia ec Niaaeeaiu e Eeoay, iaeiaei iniiaiie eo ?aeeaeae auei
i?eoaaeoaa ec Ia?nee iaieoaenoai. Iie i?eiyee aicieeooth ia iniiaa
ne?eeneie niaaeeeneoth ienueiaiiinoue; eiaiii io oeao?ia iiiaieu
iieo/eee naith nianoaaiioth ienueiaiiinoue. Ooaeineee ycue oaeaea
eniieueciaae ienueiaiiinoue oeao?ia, aoaeaeeeneia aeeyiea iiiaei e
ooaeioeai io oeao?ia a IX a. aianoa n ecia?aaeaieyie Aoaeaeu Aieoaau.

A na?aaeeia IX a. oeao?u iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea io ee?aecneeo oth?eia.
Iiiaea ec ieo iieeioee Iiiaieeth e iea?e?iaaee ia thai-caiaae a ?aeii
Oo?oai a naaa?iie /anoe ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia, aaea aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy
nouanoaiaaea ia?aay oeiayineay o?aaeeoeey Na?aanoeaaaeu, a caoai
Iaoayia, iiiaaoay nthaea ec ei?ieaanoaa Eo/a. Auee ia?aaaaeaiu oaenou ia
eiaeiaa?iiaeneee eo/aineee ycue, eioi?ue ecaanoai oaeaea eae oioa?neee.
*anoue oeao?ia iea?e?iaaea a ainoi/iua ?aeiiu Eeoay (nia?aiaiiay
i?iaeioeey Eaiueno), aaea oaeaea i?iaeeaaee oeaaooeu. Yoa /anoue oeao?ia
noaea iacuaaoueny “aeaeoua” oeao?u, iiiaea ec ieo yaeythony aoaeaeenoaie
e ii nae aeaiue. Eiaiii a yoi a?aiy oeao?u ia/aee oe?iei ia?aaiaeeoue
aoaeaeeeneea oaenou. Nia/aea iie ia?aaiaeeee niaaeeeneea oaenou,
iicaeiaa iniiaiay /anoue ia?aaiaeia aeaeaeanue n eeoaeneiai. Iaeiaei
cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ia?aaiaeia inouanoaeyeanue n oeaaoneeo oaenoia, e a
oeao?neii aoaeaeecia ni a?aiaiai ana aieaa e aieaa i?aiaeaaeaei
oeaaoneia aeeyiea. Ia?aay aieia ?ani?ino?aiaiey aoaeaeecia a Iiiaieee,
Ao?yoee e Ooaa, iieo/aiiay io oth?eia e oeao?ia, ia auea i/aiue
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiie.

Iicaeiaa, a eiioea O a ia/aea XIII aa. oaiaoou ec Oa?a-Oioi,
?aniieiaeaiiiai ia thai-caiaaea Iiiaieee, iieo/eee eae eeoaeneoth, oae e
oeaaoneoth oi?iu aoaeaeecia. Iie ia?aaaee aieueoia eiee/anoai oaenoia ia
oaiaooneee ycue, ienueiaiiinoue eioi?iai iiaeiaia Eeoaeneie, ii iaiiiai
neiaeiaa aa.

Nianoaaiii eeoaeneee aoaeaeeci, iniaaiii i?eiyoay ia naaa?a i?eaeathuay
aieueoia cia/aiea iaaeeoaoeaiui i?aeoeeai aai oi?ia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
IV a. ec Eeoay iiiae a Ei?ath. A IV a. ec Ei?ae ii ?ani?ino?aieeny ia
ssiiieth. A Ei?aa ii i?ioeaaoae i?eaeeceoaeueii aei eiioea XIV a.,
eiaaea caaa?oeeinue aeaaeu/anoai iiiaieia. Aei ia/aea XII a., ai a?aiy
i?aaeaiey aeeianoee E, eiaaoae eiioooeeaineoth i?eaioaoeeth, aoaeaeeci
aue cia/eoaeueii ineaaeai. Aic?iaeeeny aoaeaeeci ai a?aiy i?aaeaiey
yiiioeaa. I?aiaeaaeathuae oi?iie aue /aiue-aoaeaeeci, eioi?ue a Ei?aa
iieo/ee iacaaiea “nii”. Yoa oi?ia aoaeaeecia eiaao iiuioth iiianou?neoth
o?aaeeoeeth, a eioi?ie iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony eioaineaiie
iaaeeoaoeaiie i?aeoeea.

Iieo/ea ia?aiia/aeueii aoaeaeeci ec Ei?ae, yiiioeu, ia/eiay n VII a.
acaeeee a Eeoae n oeaeueth iao/aiey e iaania/aiey iai?a?uaiinoe
i?aainoaaiiuo eeiee. I?eaacaiiua eie o/aiey aia/aea eiaee oeeinioneoth
ie?aneo, iaeiaei iicaeiaa noaee i?aiaeaaeaoue oa?aeoa?iua yiiineea
/a?ou. Eae oaea oiiieiaeinue, aoaeaeeci anaaaea aaeaioe?oaony e ianoiui
o?aaeeoeeyi ia?aco iuoeaiey. A XIII a. Nei?ai ia iniiaa oeieu *enoie
caiee ?acaee o/aiea oeieu Aecaaei Neiath. Eeoaeoeu a yoi a?aiy oaea
naaee eiaeeeneoth i?aeoeeo iaaeeoaoeee aeey aeinoeaeaiey ia?a?iaeaeaiey
a *enoie caiea Aieoaau i?inoi e iiiaie?aoiiio iiaoi?aieth n ene?aiiae
aa?ie eiaie Aieoaau. ssiiioeu naeaeaee oaa aua aeaeueoa e oi?inoeee anth
i?ioeaaeo?o aei iaeiie?aoiiai i?iecianaiey n ene?aiiae aa?ie eiaie
Aieoaau, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai /aeiaae aeieaeai iiianoue a *enooth caieth
iacaaeneii io oiai, neieueei ieioeo iinooieia ii niaa?oee a i?ioeii.
Aeaeueiaeoaa iiaoi?aiea eiaie Aoaeaeu yaeyaony au?aaeaieai
aeaaiaea?iinoe. ssiiioeu ia i?eaeaaaee niaa?oaiii ieeaeiai cia/aiey
iaaeeoaoeee e niaa?oaieth iieiaeeoaeueiuo iinooieia, o. e. yoi iiaeao
i?aaeiieaaaoue iaaeinoaoie aa?u a nianeoaeueioth neeo Aieoaau. Yoi
niaeanoaony n yiiineie eoeueoo?iie oaiaeaioeeae ecaaaaoue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oneeee, a aeaenoaiaaoue, eae /anoeoea aieueoie
eiiaiaeu iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoaii auaeathuaeny ee/iinoe.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi e yoiio a?aiaie a ssiiiee nouanoaiaaee eeoue
iieo/aiiua ec Ei?ae e Eeoay i?aainoaaiiua eeiee iinayuaiey a iiiaoaneee
nai ioae/ei e aeaiuei, Nei?ai o/ee, /oi niaethaeaiea oeaeeaaoa e
iiiaoaneee ia?ac aeecie ia yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie. Ii iniiaae
o?aaeeoeeth, aeiioneathuoth aeaieoueao o?aiiauo nayuaiieeia,
niaethaeathueo ia?aie/aiiue iaai? iaaoia. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a.
i?aaeoaeuenoai Iaeaeaee ecaeaei aeae?ao, niaeanii eioi?iio aeooiaainoai
anao yiiineeo aoaeaeeeneeo naeo iiaei caeeth/aoue a?aee. Iinea yoiai a
ssiiiee iinoaiaiii ioia?ea o?aaeeoeey iiiaoanoaa.

A XIII a. ioi?ieeanue oaeaea oeiea Ieoe?ai, aa iniiaaoaeai aue o/eoaeue
Ieoe?ai. Caeanue iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue i?iecianaieth ia yiiineii
ycuea iacaaiey “Eioiniaie noo?u” – “Iai-i oI?yi-aa e “,
nii?iaiaeaeaaoaiony oaea?aie a aa?aaai. Iiae/a?eeaaiea oieaa?naeueiinoe
Aoaeaeu e aai i?e?iaeu i?eaaei e oiio, /oi enoi?e/aneay oeao?a Aoaeaeu
Oaeueyioie ioioea ia 2-e ieai. Ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi anee eaaeaeue /aeiaae
a ssiiiee aoaeao iiaoi?youe yoo oi?ioeo, oi ssiiiey i?aa?aoeony a ?ae ia
caiea, i?eaeaao aoaeaeecio iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneee iooaiie. Iniiaiia
aieiaiea oaeaeyaony caiiie noa?a. A XX a. ia iniiaa yoie naeou
?acaeeinue yiiineia iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea Niea Aaeeae.
O?aaeeoeey *aiue, iiiaa a ssiiieth, noaea iacuaaoueny Aecyi;
ia?aiia/aeueii iia aeinoeaea ?anoeaaoa a OII-OO aa. Iia oaeaea i?eia?aea
y?ei au?aaeaiiue oa?aeoa?, i?enouee yiiineie eoeueoo?a. A
aecyi-aoaeaeecia i?enoonoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua aeeyiey aieineie o?aaeeoeee
ssiiiee, eioi?ie i?enoua i/aiue no?iaay aeenoeeieeia: aa?othuee aeieaeai
neaeaoue a aacoi?a/iie iica, i?e ia?ooaiee eioi?ie aai auetho iaeeie. A
ssiiiee nouanoaoao oaeaea o?aaeeoeeiiiay ?aeeaey neioi, oaeaeythuay
iniaia aieiaiea ooii/aiiiio aini?eyoeth e?aniou anaai nouaai ai anao aai
i?iyaeaieyo. Aeaaiaea?y aeeyieth neioi a aecyi-aoaeaeecia ?acaeeenue
o?aaeeoeee a?aiaee?iaee oeaaoia, /aeiie oea?aiiiee e ae?oaea,
yaeythueany iieiinoueth yiiineeie ii naiei eoeueoo?iui iniaaiiinoyi.

Eeoaeneay oi?ia aoaeaeecia ?ani?ino?aieeanue oaeaea ai Aueaoiaia. Ia
thaa, ia/eiay n eiioea II a. i.y., i?aiaeaaeaee eiaeeeneay e eoia?neay
oi?iu aoaeaeecia, i?e/ai neaaeoao ioiaoeoue niaoaiea Ooa?aaaaeu, Iaoayiu
e eiaeoecia. A XV a. iie auee auoaniaiu eeoaeneeie o?aaeeoeeyie. Ia
naaa?a auea ia?aiia/aeueii ?ani?ino?aiaia o?aaeeoeey Ooa?aaaaeu,
iiiaaoay nthaea ii ii?th, a oaeaea aoaeaeeeneea aeeyiey ec Oeaio?aeueiie
Acee, eioi?ua auee caianaiu inaaoeie caeanue eoioeaie. Ai II-III aa.
eiaee ianoi ?acee/iua eeoaeceea eoeueoo?iua aeeyiey. E eiioeo VI a.
ioiineony iiyaeaiea /aiue-aoaeoeecia, ecaanoiiai ai Aueaoiaia eae Oueai.
I?aeoeee *enoie caiee oaeaea noaee /anoueth Oueai, iie auee
i?eaioe?iaaiu ia nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu. O?aaeeoeey Oueai
a cia/eoaeueii iaiueoae noaiaie, /ai *aiue, iono?aiyeanue io ie?neeo
aeae.

A Ei?aa, ssiiiee e Aueaoiaia nio?aieeny eeoaeneee aoaeaeeeneee eaiii,
caienaiiue eeoaeneeie ea?iaeeoaie, iaeiaei a eaaeaeie ec yoeo no?ai ii
i?ieciineeny ii-naiaio. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iiiaea oaenou auee
ia?aaaaeaiu ia iaoeeiiaeueiua ycuee, eeanne/aneee eeoaeneee ycue
inoaaaeny aeaaiui.

A yoi a?aiy (IV a. i.y. e aeaeaa) a iiianou?neeo oieaa?neoaoao Eiaeee
i?iaeieaeaeanue onoiay ?ac?aaioea eaeae aoaeaeecia. Cia/eoaeueiia
?acaeoea iieo/eee eiaeea e oeeinioey eae oeieu Na?aanoeaaaeu, oae e
Iaoayiu. O/aiea Aoaeaeu iineoaeeei iniiaie aeey ?ac?aaioee ?acee/iuo
oeeinioneeo nenoai, iai?eia?, Aaeaoaoeee e Naoo?aioeee a Na?aanoeaaaea,
*eooaiao?u, ecaanoiie oaeaea eae Aeaeaeiyiaaaaea e Iaaeoueyieee,
aeeth/ay Naaoaio?eeo e I?anaiaeeo, a Iaoayia. Naiia aeaaiia ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo ieie, iiieii iiiaeo iaiaa cia/eoaeueiuo, ninoieo a oii, /oi
eaaeaeay neaaeothuay ec yoeo nenoai aeaao aieaa oiieee aiaeec
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oae eae eiaiii iaciaiea eiaeeaeaeooiii
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yaeyaony i?e/eiie ia?eiaee/aneiai iaeiio?iee?oaiiai
iiaoi?aiey aai i?iaeai. Eiaeeeneea o/eoaey, i?eaea?aeeaaaoeany ?acee/iuo
oi/ae c?aiey, inoaaeee eiiiaioa?ee ei iiiaei nayuaiiui oaenoai Aoaeaeu.
N?aaee iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo aaoi?ia auee Iaaa?aeaeoia, iaienaaoee
eiiiaioa?ee e Iaaeoueyieea, e Anaiaa, ni/eieaoee eiiiaioa?ee e
*eooaiao?a. Aieueoea aeeneonnee auee ia oieueei iaaeaeo ieie, ii e ni
noi?iiieeaie oaeeo aaeeeeo oeeinioneeo o?aaeeoeee eae eiaeoeci e
aeaeaeieci, oaeaea ?acaeaoeony a Yoio ia?eiae. *eooaiao?a e Iaaeoueyieea
iiiaee a Eeoae e nouanoaiaaee oai eae ioaeaeueiua oeieu, iaeiaei a
?acoeueoaoa i?aneaaeiaaiee a na?aaeeia IX a. iie caaeioee.

Oaenou oaio?, ioiinyueany e Iaoayia, e iniaaiii e Iaaeoueyieea,
ia?aaeaaaeenue ni a?aiaie Aoaeaeu iniaaiii oaeii, eo ia/aee caienuaaoue,
aa?iyoii, ai II-III aa. i.y. Oaio?a iiae/a?eeaaao eniieueciaaiea
aiia?aaeaiey n i?eiaiaieai oaoiee aecoaeecaoeee naiiai naay a ia?aca
Aoaeaeu, a ?acee/iuo aai iaeeeao i?e iieiii iniciaiee niioaaonoaothuae
?aaeueiinoe. I?aaenoaaeyy naiiai naay oaea iaeaaeathuei oaeii e ?acoiii
Aoaeaeu, iu nicaeaai i?e/eiu aeey aieaa auno?iai aeinoeaeaiey yoiai
iauaaeeiythuaai ninoiyiey, /ai n iiiiuueth iau/iuo iaoayineeo iaoiaeia,
e oaeei ia?acii iiaeai nei?aa ia/aoue iiiiaaoue ae?oaei ethaeyi.
Iiiaeanoai eeoe, ?oe e iia o iaeioi?uo ec ecia?aaeaiee Aoaeaeu eiaao
ianeieueei o?iaiae, neiaiee/anee i?aaenoaaeythueo ?acee/iua ?aaeecaoeee
ia iooe. Eo aecoaeecaoeey iiiiaaao iaeiia?aiaiii oaea?aeaoue a oia ana
yoe i?ic?aiey, eioi?ua iie neiaieece?otho n oai, /oiau aieaa yooaeoeaii
niinianoaiaaoue ainnicaeaieth anaaaaeouaai oia Aoaeaeu.

Oaenou oaio?, ioiinyueany e Iaoayia, e iniaaiii e Iaaeoueyieea,
ia?aaeaaaeenue ni a?aiaie Aoaeaeu iniaaiii oaeii, eo ia/aee caienuaaoue,
aa?iyoii, ai II-III aa. i.y. Oaio?a iiae/a?eeaaao eniieueciaaiea
aiia?aaeaiey n i?eiaiaieai oaoiee aecoaeecaoeee naiiai naay a ia?aca
Aoaeaeu, a ?acee/iuo aai iaeeeao i?e iieiii iniciaiee niioaaonoaothuae
?aaeueiinoe. I?aaenoaaeyy naiiai naay oaea iaeaaeathuei oaeii e ?acoiii
Aoaeaeu, iu nicaeaai i?e/eiu aeey aieaa auno?iai aeinoeaeaiey yoiai
iauaaeeiythuaai ninoiyiey, /ai n iiiiuueth iau/iuo iaoayineeo iaoiaeia,
e oaeei ia?acii iiaeai nei?aa ia/aoue iiiiaaoue ae?oaei ethaeyi.
Iiiaeanoai eeoe, ?oe e iia o iaeioi?uo ec ecia?aaeaiee Aoaeaeu eiaao
ianeieueei o?iaiae, neiaiee/anee i?aaenoaaeythueo ?acee/iua ?aaeecaoeee
ia iooe. Eo aecoaeecaoeey iiiiaaao iaeiia?aiaiii oaea?aeaoue a oia ana
yoe i?ic?aiey, eioi?ua iie neiaieece?otho n oai, /oiau aieaa yooaeoeaii
niinianoaiaaoue ainnicaeaieth anaaaaeouaai oia Aoaeaeu.

Oaia?ue ioiineoaeueii oaio?u. Nouanoaotho /aou?a eeanna oaio?, A Eeoae e
ssiiieth iiiaee i?aeiouanoaaiii ia?aua o?e eeanna e /anoe/ii /aoaa?oue.
Iaeiaei eiaiii ii n oa/aieai a?aiaie iieo/ee iaeaieaa iieiia ?acaeoea a
Eiaeee. A /aoaa?oii eeanna oaio?, Aioooa?a-eiaa, aeoeaio ia ?aaioa n
?acee/iuie oiieeie yia?aeyie oaea aeey ia?aoaiey aeinooia e iaeaieaa
oiieiio o?iaith niciaiey, /oiau caoai eniieueciaaoue aai eae eino?oiaio
iinoeaeaiey ?aaeueiinoe n oeaeueth ?ac?aoaiey nianoaaiiuo i?iaeai e
ia?aoaiey niiniaiinoe iiiiaaoue ae?oaei iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii.

A oa/aiea yoiai a?aiaie Iaoayia aianoa n oaio?ie ?ani?ino?aieeanue ec
Eiaeee, iniaaiii ec aa ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia, a no?aiu THai-Ainoi/iie Acee.
Eae oaea ioia/aeinue ?aiaa, yoe o/aiey iiiaee a O?e-Eaieo (Oeaeeii) e
Iueyiia? (Ae?ia), iaeiaei iie ia noaee ainiiaenoaothueie, oae eae ?aiaa
oai ooaa?aeeeanue Ooa?aaaaea. A Eaiio/ee (Eaiaiaeaea) e a naaa?iie /anoe
Oaeeaiaea, ia/eiay n IV a., Iaoayia auea ?ani?ino?aiaia ia?yaeo n
Ooa?aaaaeie e eiaeoeciii. Ni a?aiaiai e oai oiaea iia auea auoaniaia
Ooa?aaaaeie.

A Eiaeiiacee eiioaeou n eiaeeeneie eoeueoo?ie, e a oii /enea n
aoaeaeeciii a aeaea Ooa?aaaaeu e Iaoayiu, ia/aeenue ai II-III aa. i.y.
ia Noiao?a, ssaa e Noeaaane (Oeaeaaan). A eiioea V a. Iaoayia, aeeth/ay
oaio?o, iiiaea ia Oeaio?aeueioth ssao e i/aiue oai oneeeeanue: aoaeaeeci
aue ioeoeeaeueii i?eiyo ei?ieaaie. ?aiaa a yoii ?aeiia i?aiaeaaeaea
Ooa?aaaaea. Eae e a Eoia?neii ei?ieaanoaa (Eaiio/ey) caeanue, ia?yaeo n
aoaeaeeciii i?ioeaaoae eiaeoeci a oi?ia oeaaecia, ca/anooth iie
niaoeaaeenue, Aeey i?eia?aoaiey iiaouanoaa iaeioi?ua aa?othuea
eniieueciaaee oaeaea yeaiaiou ianoiuo ?eooaeia e nie?eoecia. A eiioea
VII a. aoaeaeeci noae ioeoeeaeueiie ?aeeaeae ia Noiao?a. A ia/aea IX a.
ia ssaa iino?ieee aaeeeee eiiieaen nooi Ai?iaoaeo?. E na?aaeeia IX a.
yaaineea ei?iee caaiaaaee Noiao?o, a oaeaea Iaeaeneee iieoino?ia. Ia
anae yoie oa??eoi?ee i?ioeaaoaea Iaoayia, aeeth/ay ana /aou?a eeanna
oaio?. A eiioea O a. aaeeeee eiaeeeneee ianoa? Aoeoa iinaoee
No?aa?iaaeaeio, eioi?oth iiaeii eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue eae Noiao?o. Ii
acaeee ooaea n oeaeueth aica?auaiey iaoayineie i?aainoaaiiie eeiee
o/aiee i Aiaeoe/eooa, i oii, eae ?ane?uoue na?aeoea anao e noaoue
aoaeaeie, /oiau iiiiaaoue ethaeyi. Ii aa?ioe yoe o/aiey ia oieueei a
Eiaeeth, ii e a Oeaao, aaea niinianoaiaae aic?iaeaeaieth aoaeaeecia
iinea ia?eiaea i?aneaaeiaaiee e oiaaeea. Aoeoa niiauee, /oi a yoi a?aiy
a Eiaeiiacee auee ?ani?ino?aiaiu o/aiey Eaea/ae?a Oaio?u. A eiioea XIII
a. ia Noiao?a, ssaa e a Iaeaecee ?ani?ino?aieeny eneai, caaac iiue
nthaea a?aaneeie e eiaeeeneeie eoioeaie, iniiaaaoeie ia iiaa?aaeuea
oi?aiaua oeaio?u. E eiioeo XV a. caeanue ainiiaenoaiaae eneai, a
aoaeaeeci aue oo?a/ai. Oieueei ia Aaee nio?aieeanue niaoaiiay oi?ia
eiaeoenoneiai oeaaecia e iaoayineiai oaio?e/aneiai aoaeaeecia.

A yoio ia?eiae Iaoayia e ana /aou?a eeanna oaio? iiiaee oaeaea a Iaiae,
aaea ni a?aiaie ei?iey Aoiee nouanoaiaaea ?aiiyy Oeiayia. Iaoayia ia
oieueei auoanieea Oeiayio, ii e nio?aieeanue a eiaeeeneie naine?eoneie
oi?ia aei iaoeo aeiae n?aaee iaaa?ia a Oeaio?aeueiii Iaiaea.

Ia?auie oeaaooeaie, ieacaaoeie i?aaeii/oaiea aoaeaeecio, aue ia?iae
/eaia. Yoi i?iecioei a eiioea IV a. i.y., eiaaea iie oi?aaeyee /anoueth
naaa?iiai Eeoay, /oi, iaeiaei, ia ieacaei aeeyiey ia nianoaaiii Oeaao. A
ia?aie iieiaeia VII a. ninoiyeenue ia?aua eiioaeou Oeaaoa n aoaeaeeciii
(aai iaoayineie o?aaeeoeeae), i?eoaaeoei ec Oioaia, ?aniieiaeaiiiai a
thaeiie /anoe aannaeia ?aee Oa?ei a Ainoi/iii Oo?eanoaia. Yoe niauoey
eiaee ianoi ai a?aiy i?aaeaiey ei?iey Niiaoeai aaiii, eioi?ue aeanoaiaae
a oeaio?aeueiii e ainoi/iii Oeaaoa, a Oai-Ooia a Caiaaeiii Oeaaoa, a
naaa?iie /anoe Iueyiia?a (Ae?ia) e, a oa/aiea iaeioi?iai a?aiaie, a
Iaiaea. Ii aeaieeny ia eeoaeneie e iaiaeueneie i?eioeannao; iaa
i?eioeannu i?eaacee n niaie ecia?aaeaiey Aoaeaeu, a oaeaea
ano?ieiae/aneea e iaaeeoeeineea oaenou oao o?aaeeoeee, eioi?ui iie
neaaeiaaee. Ei?ieue iai?aaee a Eaoie? ienneth n oeaeueth ?ac?aaioee
aieaa niaa?oaiiie nenoaiu oeaaoneie ienueiaiiinoe; nouanoaiaaaoay a
Oeaaoa ienueiaiiinoue auea caeinoaiaaia ec Oai-Ooia, iia oaeaea eniuoaea
iaeioi?ia aeeyiea oioaineie ienueiaiiinoe. A yoi a?aiy ia/aee
ia?aaiaeeoue n naine?eoa aoaeaeeeneea oaenou, iaeiaei ?aaiou ia eiaee
aieueoiai ianooaaa.

Iaaeaeo yoei ia?eiaeii e ecaanoiui aeeniooii iiianou?a Naiuea a eiioea
VIII a., eiaaea ai a?aiy i?aaeaiey ei?iey O?eciia-aeaooeaia auei i?eiyoi
?aoaiea, /oi a Oeaaoa aoaeao i?eiyoa ia eeoaeneay, a eiaeeeneay oi?ia
aoaeaeecia, ninoiyeenue eiioaeou n ae?oaeie aoaeaeeeneeie o?aaeeoeeyie.
A yoi a?aiy aeaaeu/anoai Oeaaoa ?ani?ino?aiyeinue ia ainoaea?noaa-iacenu
ionouiue Ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia, eiioaeou n aoaeaeeciii a Caiaaeiii
Oo?eanoaia i?inoe?aeenue aei Naia?eaiaea. Eiaiii ei?ieue
O?eciia-aeaooeai caaiaaae e a oa/aiea ei?ioeiai a?aiaie oaea?aeeaae
eeoaeneoth noieeoeo *aiuyiue. Oioy ia yoii aeeniooa eeoaeneee aoaeaeeci
aue ioaa?aioo, iaeioi?ia aeeyiea o?aaeeoeee /aiue iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue a
oao oeieao oeaaoneiai aoaeaeecia, eioi?ua aiai?yo i aeaoo oeiao
aa?othueo: i oao, eoi aeinoeaaao anaai n?aco aea, e i oao, eoi i?ioiaeeo
iooue iinoaiaiii. Ia?aay oeiea iaiiieiaao o/aiea /aiue i no?aieoaeueiii
i?inaaoeaiee (i iai auei neacaii auoa), iaeiaei a Oeaaoa iii
eioa?i?aoe?oaony niaa?oaiii ii-ae?oaiio.

A Ee?aecee auee iaia?oaeaiu ?oeiu aoaeaeeeneeo iiianou?ae, aeaoe?oaiua
VI-O aa. Iaynii, i?eiaaeeaaeao ee iie o?aaeeoeee caiaaeiuo oth?eia eee
oeao?ia, a oaeaea neieue aaeeei auei caeanue aeeyiea Oeaaoa. A aeieeiao
?ae Eee e *o, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ainoi/iaa eee caiaaeiaa ica?a Ennue-Eoeue,
iaeaeaii iiiaeanoai ianeaeueiuo aoaeaeeeneeo iaaeienae ia oeaaoneii
ycuea, aeaoe?oaiuo eiaiii yoei e aieaa iicaeiei ia?eiaeaie, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?enoonoaee oeaaoneie aoaeaeeeneie eoeueoo?u a yoeo
?aeiiao.

Aeiaoaeaeeeneay oeaaoneay o?aaeeoeey aii aeinoeaea ?anoeaaoa a
ei?ieaanoaa Oai-Ooi, naiue caiaaeiue ?aeii aa ?ani?ino?aiaiey – Oacee.
O?oaeii neacaoue, ?aniieiaeai ee Oacee ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai
Oaaeaeeeenoaia. Yoo o?aaeeoeeth enneaaeoao ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n
?ani?ino?aiaiiui a Oeaio?aeueiie Acee oaiaieciii, oioy iie e eiatho
iauea /a?ou. A oeaaoneii aoaeaeecia i?enoonoaoao iaeioi?ia aeeyiea
oaiaiecia, i?aeiouanoaaiii a oaeeo ?eooaeao, eae i?eaycuaaiea e
aea?aaueyi iieeoaaiiuo oeaaia, auiieiaiea anaaiciiaeiuo ia?yaeia n
oeaeue oieeinoeaeoue aeooia, o?aieoaeae ai?iuo ia?aaaeia e o. ae.
O?aaeeoeey aii nouanoaoao e a iaoe aeie, ii iia noieue oanii neeeanue n
aoaeaeeciii, /oi i?aeoe/anee yaeyaony aua iaeiie aai eeieae. A yoie
o?aaeeoeee eniieuecoaony ae?oaay oa?ieiieiaey e ae?oaea iacaaiey
nayuaiiuo ia?acia, iaeiaei iniiaiua oaoieee eiatho i/aiue iiiai iauaai n
oeaaoneeie aoaeaeeeneeie oaoieeaie, ?acaeaoeieny ia iniiaa ia?aie aieiu
?ani?ino?aiaiey aoaeaeecia a Oeaaoa.

Ia?aay aieia aoaeaeecia i?eoea a Oeaao i?aeiouanoaaiii aeaaiaea?y
oneeeyi Iaaeianaiaoaau, eee Ao?o ?eiii/a, eae ii noae ecaanoai n?aaee
oeaaooeaa. Ii iieiaeee ia/aei o?aaeeoeee Iueeiaia, eee “noa?uo
(ia?aaiaeia)”. A na?aaeeia IX a. eiaee ianoi neeueiua aiiaiey ia
aoaeaeeci, e o?aaeeoeey Iueeiaia i?iaeieaeaea nouanoaiaaoue a iniiaiii
oaeii, iiiaea oaenou auee ni?yoaiu a iaua?ao e iaia?oaeaiu aiiaue /a?ac
ianeieueei noieaoee.

Iinea ianooieaiey aieaa aeaaii?eyoiiai a?aiaie, ia/eiay i?eaeeceoaeueii
n O a., ec Eiaeee i?eaeaneee iiauo o/eoaeae e a Oeaao i?eoea ae?oaay
aieia aoaeaeecia. Iia ecaanoia eae ia?eiae “iiauo (ia?aaiaeia)”, eiaaea
iieo/eee ?acaeoea o?e aeaaiua o?aaeeoeee: Naeuey, Eaaueth e Eaaeai. A
XIV a. o?aaeeoeey Eaaeai auea i?aia?aciaaia a Iiaoth Eaaeai, eee Aaeoa.
A o?aaeeoeee Eaaueth nouanoaotho aeaa aeaaiua eeiee. Aeaaii Eaaueth
?acaeeanue ec eeiee Oeeiiu, Ia?iiu, Ia?iu, Ieea?aiu e Aaiiiiu. Iia
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia 12 ?aciuo eeiee, iaeia ec ieo Ea?ia Eaaueth, aeaaie
eioi?ie o?aaeeoeeiiii yaeyaony Ea?iaia. Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie ec yoeo 12
eeiee yaeythony Ae?oaia, Ae?eeoia e Oaa-eoia Eaaueth. Aoi?ay aeaaiay
eeiey Eaaueth, Oaiaia, aaaeao naia i?ienoiaeaeaiea io eiaeeeneiai
ianoa?a Eouethiaii Iaeaei?. O?aaeeoeey Naeuey eaeao io aaeeeiai
eiaeeeneiai ianoa?a Ae?oiu, a Eaaeai – io eiaeeeneiai ianoa?a Aoeoe,
eioi?ue, i?aaeaea /ai ioi?aaeoueny a Oeaao, niaa?oee iooaoanoaea a
Eiaeiiaceth n oeaeueth aic?iaeaeaiey iaeioi?uo eeiee Iaoayiu, iiiaaoeo
ooaea, eae oaea oiiieiaeinue, ec Eiaeee. O?aaeeoeey Iiaay Eaaeai, eee
Aaeoa, auea iniiaaia Ociieaiie.

Iaeiie ec aaee/aeoeo oeao? a oeaaoneii aoaeaeecia yaeyaony Aeaeae-eaia;
Aeaeae-eaia 1 aue o/aieeii Ociieoaiu, eiaaea 3-e aai “ia?a?iaeaeaiaoe”
i?eaue a Iiiaieeth, aio aeaee eiy “Aeaeae”, ii-iiiaieuenee “ieaai”, a
i?aaeuaeouea aai ia?a?iaeaeaiey iinea nia?oe auee i?eciaiu eae
Aeaeae-eaiu 1 e II. Aeaeae-eaia IV ?iaeeeny a Iiiaieee; Aeaeae-eaia V
iauaaeeiee aanue Oeaao e noae ia oieueei aeooiaiui, ii e iieeoe/aneei
eeaea?ii. Iaaa?ii iieaaaoue, /oi Aeaeae-eaia yaeyaony aeaaie o?aaeeoeee
Aaeoa; aa aicaeaaeyao Aaiaeyi O?e ?eiii/a. Aeaeae-eaia noieo auoa
ethaiai aeaau ethaie ec o?aaeeoeee, yaeyynue iie?iaeoaeai anaai
oeaaoneiai aoaeaeecia. Iai/ai-eaia 1 aue iaeiei ec o/eoaeae Aeaeae-eaiu
V. A ioee/ea io Aeaeae-eaiu Iai/ai-eaia caieiaaony eneeth/eoaeueii
aeooiaiuie aeaeaie. Eiaaea aic?ano Aeaeae-eaiu e Iai/ai-eaiu aue
iiaeoiaeyuei, oiaaea iaeei ec ieo iia noaoue o/eoaeai ae?oaiai.

Aiaeece?oy /aou?a o?aaeeoeee oeaaoneiai aoaeaeecia, iu i?eoiaeei e
auaiaeo, /oi iauaa o ieo ninoaaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii 85%, Ana iie
neaaeotho o/aieyi Eiaeee eae naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie iniiaa. Ana iie
eco/atho oeeinioneea aeiaiaou /aou?ao aoaeaeeeneeo o?aaeeoeee Eiaeee,
?anniao?eaay yoi eae iooue e aeinoeaeaieth ana aieaa oiieiai iiieiaiey
?aaeueiinoe. A yoii ioiioaiee iie ana i?eciaaaee, /oi iaeaieaa
niaa?oaiiie yaeyaony Iaaeoueyieea. Ana iie niaethaeatho o?aaeeoeeth
i?iaaaeaiey aeeniooia, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiioth a eiaeeeneeo iiianou?yo,
a oaeaea o?aaeeoeeth aaeeeeo nica?oeaoaeae Eiaeee, iaoaneaeaeo. Ana iie
neaaeotho iauaaeeiaiiiio iooe noo?u e oaio?, eioi?ua yaeythony iauae
iaoayineie iniiaie yoeo o/aiee. Iauae aeey ieo yaeyaony e o?aaeeoeey
iiiaoaneeo iaaoia; yoi o?aaeeoeey oeiayineie oeieu Ioea-Na?aanoeaaaeu,
?acaeaoayny ec Na?aanoeaaaeu e iacia/eoaeueii ioee/athuayny io
?ani?ino?aiaiiie a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee e Eeoaa o?aaeeoeee Ooa?aaaaeu. A
Oeaaoa ia iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiey o?aaeeoeey iieiinoueth iinayuaiiuo
iiiaoeiue, oioy a oeaaoneeo iiianou?yo nouanoaiaae einoeooo iineooieoe.
I?eaeeceoaeueii 85% iiiaoaneeo iaaoia ia ioee/athony io iaaoia ae?oaeo
o?aaeeoeee. Iaeiaei iacia/eoaeueiua ?acee/ey nouanoaotho. Iaeaaeaea
iiiaoia oaiii-ai?aeiaiai oeaaoa, a ?oaaoee ia eiatho ?oeaaia.

Aoaeaeeeneea oaenou ia?aaiaeeeenue ia oeaaoneee ycue aeaaiui ia?acii n
naine?eoa, eeoue iaeioi?ua auee ia?aaaaeaiu n eeoaeneiai, a neo/aa,
eiaaea aue ooa?yi naine?eoneee iiaeeeiiee. Oaenou o?aiyony a aeaoo
aeaaiuo nia?aieyo: Eyiaueth?, iauaaeeiythuee iiaeeeiiua neiaa Aoaeaeu, e
Oyiaueth?, a eioi?ii nia?aiu eiaeeeneea eiiiaioa?ee. Yoi naiue e?oiiue
ei?ion aoaeaeeeneie eaiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, niaea?aeauee iaeaieaa
iieiia eceiaeaiea eiaeeeneie aoaeaeeeneie o?aaeeoeee, /oi iniaaiii
oeaiii, oae eae ia/eiay n OII-OIII aa. aoaeaeeci a Eiaeee iioa?ye
aeeyiea a ?acoeueoaoa oth?eneeo aoi?aeaiee ec Aoaaienoaia. Aieueoeinoai
oo?a/aiiuo naine?eoneeo iiaeeeiieeia nio?aieeinue eneeth/eoaeueii a
oeaaoneeo ia?aaiaeao.

Oaeei ia?acii, Oeaao noae ianeaaeieeii eiaeeeneiai aoaeaeecia a oi
a?aiy, eiaaea a naiie Eiaeee ii ioi?ieeny a aeaea o?aaeeoeee,
i?eciathuae iinoaiaiiue iooue. Aaeeeee aeeaae oeaaooeaa a aoaeaeeci
ninoieo a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee aai i?aaiecaoeee e iaoiaeia iao/aiey.
Oeaaooeu ?ac?aaioaee niiniau ?ane?uoey anao iniiaiuo oaenoia e
i?ae?aniua nenoaiu oieeiaaiey e iao/aiey.

Ec Oeaaoa aoaeaeeci i?iiee a ae?oaea ?aeiiu Aeiaeaaa, oaeea eae Eaaeaeo,
Eaooe-Nieoe, Eeiioa?, iaeanoue Oa?ia a Iaiaea, Neeeei, Aooai e A?oia/ae.
Iaeiaei iaeaieaa ianooaaiui auei ?ani?ino?aiaiea aoaeaeecia a Iiiaieee a
eiioea VI a. ai a?aiy oth?eneiai, a caoai e oeao?neiai i?aaeaiey a
Iiiaieeth i?eoea ec Oeaio?aeueiie Acee ia?aay aieia o/aiee iaoayineiai
aoaeaeecia. Iicaeiaa, a XVII a. Iiiaieey auea eneonnoaaiii ?acaeaeaia
iaiue/aeo?aie ia Aiaoithth e Aioo?aiithth Yoi i?iecioei aei caaiaaaiey
eie Eeoay, Aoaeaeeci ?ani?ino?aieeny ia oa??eoi?ee anae Iiiaieee.
Aoi?ay, aieaa e?oiiay aieia i?eoea eo Oeaaoa a OI1 a. ai a?aiaia oaia
Ooaeeay, eiaaea a Iiiaieeth i?eaue aaeeeee ianoa? o?aaeeoeee Naeuey
Ioaaia-eaia. Aeey iiiiue a ia?aaiaea aoaeaeeeneeo oaenoia ii ?ac?aaioae
iiaoth iiiaieueneoth ienueiaiiinoue. A yoi a?aiy a Iiiaieeth i?eoee
oaeaea o/eoaey o?aaeeoeee Ea?ia Eaaueth.

Oeaaoneee aoaeaeeci aue i?eiyo oaeaea iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie ianeaaeieeaie
*eiaec-oaia, a eiaiii: oaiaie *eaeoae, i?aaeaoeie a Ainoi/iii e
Caiaaeiii Oo?eanoaia, e oaiaie Eee, i?aaeaoeie a Ia?nee. oaeoe/anee a
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aeanyoeeaoee oeaaoneee aoaeaeeci aue
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aeeaeae Ia?nee, oioy ii e ia iieo/ee iiaeaea?aeee
ei?aiiiai ionoeueiaineiai ianaeaiey. A na?aaeeia XIV a., n iaaeaieai a
Eeoaa iiiaieueneie aeeianoee THaiue, aeeyiea aoaeaeecia a Iiiaieee,
iiaeaea?aeeaaaoaainy a iniiaiii ciaoueth, ineaaaei.

O?aouey aieia aoaeaeecia i?eoea a Iiiaieeth a eiioea XVI a. aeaaiaea?y
oneeeyi Aeaeae-eaiu III, eiaaea aeaaiie oi?iie ?ani?ino?aieaoaainy
n?aaee iiiaieia oeaaoneiai aoaeaeecia noaea o?aaeeoeey Aaeoa. Iaeiaei
iacia/eoaeueiua neaaeu o?aaeeoeee Naeuey e Eaaueth nio?aieeenue ianiio?y
ia oi, /oi iie ia auee i?eciaiu ioeoeeaeueii. A iaeioi?uo iaaieueoeo
iiianou?yo i?iaeieaeaee i?aeoeeiaaoue o?aaeeoeeth Iueeiaia, iaeiaei aa
enoiee ia yniu: i?ienoiaeeo iia io oeaaoneeo o?aaeeoeee nianoaaiii oeieu
Iueeiaia eee aea io i?aeoee Iueeiaia, ainoiaeyueo e “*enoui aeaeaieyi”
Aeaeae-eaiu V. Ia?aiia/aeueiue noeeue aicaaaeaiey oeaaoneeo iiianou?ae
aiciee a eiioea XVI a. i?e iino?ieea iiianou?y Y?aeyie-Oeco ia ianoa
ae?aaiae noieeoeu Ea?aei?oi.

N oeaaoneiai ycuea ia iiiaieueneee auee ia?aaaaeaiu iieiua nia?aiey
oaenoia Eyiaueth? e Oyiaueth?. Auaeathueany iiiaieueneea o/aiua iaienaee
eiiiaioa?ee e aoaeaeeeneei oaenoai eiiaaea ia iiiaieueneii, ii aieueoae
/anoueth ia oeaaoneii ycuea. A Iiiaieeth ec Oeaaoa ia?aoea o?aaeeoeey
iiianou?neie aeecie iiiaoia, ii o?aaeeoeey iineooieoe ia iiiaea ie a
Iiiaieeth, ie a ?aeiiu n ao?yoneei, ooaeineei e eaeiuoeeei ianaeaieai.
Eeiey ia?a?iaeaeaiee oeaaoneiai ianoa?a Oa?aiaooe noaea ecaanoia eae
eeiey Aiaaei-aaaaiia, eee Aeaeaaoeoi-aeaiaa Oooooo, eioi?ua noaee
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie aeaaaie aoaeaeecia a Iiiaieee. Eo ?aceaeaioeey
iaoiaeeeanue a O?aa (iuia Oeai-Aaoi?). N oa/aieai a?aiaie oeaaoneee
aoaeaeeci ianeieueei i?eniiniaeeny e oneiaeyi Iiiaieee. Iai?eia?, 1-e
Aiaaei-aaaai Aecaiaaaca? (aoi?ay iieiaeia XVII – ia/aei XVIII aa. )
nicaeae niaoeeaeueioth iaeaaeaeo iiiaieueneeo iiiaoia aeey iioaiey
aeaaiui ia?acii a naiaiaeiia io auiieiaiey oea?aiiiee a?aiy. Ia iniiaa
oeao?neie e iiiaieueneie ienueiaiiinoe ii ?ac?aaioae oaeaea aeoaaeo
nithiao, eniieueciaaaoeeny aeey o?aineeoa?aoeee oeaaoneeo e naine?eoneeo
neia.

A XVII a. oeaaoneee aoaeaeeci, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue o?aaeeoeey Aaeoa,
iiiae e iaiue/aeo?ai, a ai a?aiy eo i?aaeaiey – a Iaiue/aeo?eth e a
naaa?iua iaeanoe Eeoay. Aue iniiaai oeaaoneee iiianou?ue a Iaeeia, a a
Aaoiea, eaoiae noieeoea iaiue/aeo?ia, ?aniieiaeaiiii ia naaa?i-ainoiea
io Iaeeia auee iino?iaiu oi/iua eiiee eoanneie Iioaeu, a oaeaea
iiianou?ae Naiuea e Oaoeeoiii. Eyiaueth? aue iieiinoueth ia?aaaaeai n
oeaaoneiai ycuea ia iaiue/aeo?neee, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo
aaeaioe?iaaiiue iiiaieaie oeao?neee o?eoo.

A ia/aea XVII a. oeaaoneee aoaeaeeci ec Iiiaieee i?iiee ia naaa? e
ao?yoneiio ianaeaieth Caaaeeaeuey. Aoi?ay eeiey i?eoea iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ec Oeaaoa ec iiianou?y Eaa?aia Oaoeeueee a i?iaeioeee Ai-aei. N oeaeueth
ineaaeaiey iiceoeee Aiaaei-aaaaiia e aeeyiey iiiaieia e iaiue/aeo?ia a
yoie /anoe ?innee, oea?ue aeae ianoiyoaeyi Aoneiiica?neiai aeaoeaia eae
aeaaai ao?yoneiai aoaeaeecia oeooe Aaiaeeaei Oaiai-Eaia. Oaeei ia?acii
ao?yoneay o?aaeeoeey noaea ioeoeeaeueii iacaaeneiie io iiiaieueneie
oea?eae. A 20-o aiaeao iaoaai aaea /anoue ao?yo ia?anaeeeanue ec
Caaaeeaeuey ai Aioo?aiithth Iiiaieeth e oai i?iaeieaeeea naie
nianoaaiiua aoaeaeeeneea o?aaeeoeee a aeiiieiaiea e oai, /oi oaea
nouanoaiaaee a yoie iaeanoe.

A XVIII a. oeaaoneee aoaeaeeci ec Iiiaieee iiiae oaeaea e oth?eneiio
ianaeaieth Ooau, oioy, eae auei ioia/aii ?aiaa, ia?aay aieia aoaeaeecia
i?eoea a Ooao a IX a. io oeao?ia. Eae e a Caaaeeaeuea, yoi auea aeaaiui
ia?acii o?aaeeoeey Aaeoa; o?aaeeoeey Iueeiaia oaeaea iieo/eea
cia/eoaeueiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. Ianoiyoaee *aaeaineiai oo?y eae aeaau
ooaeineiai aoaeaeecia iieo/eee oeooe Oaiao-eaia. Iineieueeo Ooaa,
iiaeiaii Iiiaieee, aei 1912 a. iaoiaeeeanue iiae iaiue/aeo?neei
i?aaeaieai, ooaeineea Oaiao-eaiu iiae/eiyeenue iaiin?aaenoaaiii
Aiaaei-aaaaiai a O?aa: ooaeineee aoaeaeeci eiae cia/eoaeueii aieaa
oaniua nayce n Iiiaieeae, /ai ao?yoneee. A Ooaa aoaeaeeci ie?ii
ninouanoaiaae n ianoiie o?aaeeoeeae oaiaiecia: a iaeieo neo/ayo ethaee
ia?auaeenue e oaiaiai, a a ae?oaeo – e aoaeaeeeneei nayuaiieeai.

E caiaaeiui iiiaieai, ie?aoai, oeaaoneee aoaeaeeci aia?aua iiiae a XIII
a., iaeiaei ia iieo/ee caeanue oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey. Aieaa aeoaieea
ei?ie ii ionoee a eiioea XVI – ia/aea XVII aa., eiaaea iieo/eea
?ani?ino?aiaiea o?aaeeoeey Aaeoa, i?eoaaeoay iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec Oeaaoa
e io/anoe /a?ac Iiiaieeth. Yoi auei a Aeaeoiaa?ee a Ainoi/iii Oo?eanoaia
(iuia naaa?iay i?iaeioeey Neiue-Oecyiue, a EI?), a Ainoi/iii Eacaonoaia,
a oaeaea, aiciiaeii, ia Aeoaa.

Oaiaieci a yoeo ?aeiiao aue cai?auai Niaaoii oaiia. Eiaaea i?aaeee
eaeiueia ioaeaeeeenue io ie?aoia Aeaeoiaa?ee a ia/aea XVII a.
ia?aianoeeenue a ?aeii iaaeaeo Aieaie e Aeiiii e naaa?o io Eanieeneiai
ii?y, iie i?eianee n niaie nianoaaiioth o?aaeeoeeth oeaaoneiai
aoaeaeecia. Aieueooth iiiiuue ei ieacae ie?ao Cay Iaiaeeoa, Iaieoae
Aeyoni, eioi?ue ia iniiaa iiiaieueneie ienueiaiiinoe ?ac?aaioae
eaeiuoeei-ie?aoneoth ienueiaiiinoue. Aeaaa eaeiuoeeiai aoaeaeecia
iacia/aeny oea?ai e eiaiiaaeny Eaia eaeiuoeeiai ia?iaea. Aai
?aceaeaioeey ?aniieaaaeanue a Ano?aoaie, e, iiaeiaii ao?yoneiio
Aaiaeeaei Oaiai-eaia, ii aue niaa?oaiii iacaaenei io iiiaieia. Aeooiaiia
?oeiaiaenoai eaeiuee iieo/eee iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec Oeaaoa. Ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea o eaeiueia iieo/eea o?aaeeoeey
Aaeoa, aneaaenoaea i?enouaai ei neie?aoecia iie i?eiyee oaeaea iaeioi?ua
ia?yaeu o?aaeeoeee Naeuey e Eaaueth.

A XVIII a. iaiue/aeo?u eno?aaeee ie?aoia a Aeaeoiaa?ee; ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia oiai aea noieaoey iiiaea eaeiuee aa?ioeenue a Aeaeoiaa?eth e
i?eniaaeeieeenue e ie?aoai, aua inoaaaaoeiny a yoie iaeanoe, i?eiany n
niaie neeueioth aoaeaeeeneoth o?aaeeoeeth. Yoa o?aaeeoeey i?iaeieaeaao
nouanoaiaaoue n?aaee ie?aoia a naaa?iuo ?aeiiao Ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia.
Iaeia aaoaue ooaeioeaa, oaeaea iiaeaa?aoeony aiiaieyi iaiue/aeo?ia,
aeioea aei oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia, e, i/aaeaeii,
iniiaaea nianoaaiioth o?aaeeoeeth oeaaoneiai aoaeaeecia a ?aeiiao O?oi/e
e Oo?oai.

E?iia oiai, iaeiei ec ianoaaieeia Aeaeae-eaiu XIII aue ao?yoneee eaia
Aaaai Aei?aeeaa. Iiae aai aeeyieai a Iao?ia?aaea a 1915 a. aue iino?iai
oeaaoneee aoaeaeeeneee iiianou?ue o?aaeeoeee Aaeoa.

Eoae, iu aeaeei, /oi aoaeaeeeneea o/aiey oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeenue ai
anao iaeaieaa aaaeiuo ?aaeiiao Acee. A eaaeaeii ec yoeo ?aaeiiia
aoaeaeeci aaeaioe?iaaeny e ianoiui iau/ayi e o?aaeeoeeyi e, a naith
i/a?aaeue, eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a aianea a aai ?acaeoea naie oa?aeoa?iua
/a?ou. Ana yoi iaoiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n iniiaiui aoaeaeeeneei
iaoiaeii iao/aiey n iiiiuueth “eneoniuo n?aaenoa”. Nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai
oaoiee e iaoiaeia, eniieuecoy eioi?ua iiaeii iiii/ue ethaeyi
i?aiaeieaoue nianoaaiiua i?iaeaiu e ia?aie/aiey, ?aaeeciaaoue
aiciiaeiinoe n oai, /oiau iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii iiiiaaoue ae?oaei. Oaeei
ia?acii, oioy nouanoaoao iiiai ?acee/iuo oi?i aoaeaeecia, ana iie,
iniiauaaynue ia o/aieyo Aoaeaeu, niaeanothony ae?oa n ae?oaii.

Lama Ole Nydahl: The way things are, Blue Dolphin 1996

AEo?iae EAAUeTH” (2.94)

AEo?iae “O?aaeeoeeiiiay iaaeeoeeia”, Iineaa, 1992

EAIA IEA IEAeAE. “EAEEI AN ssAEssAONss IA NAIII AeAEA “.

EAIA IEA IEAeAE. “IAOAIOAe?A. AACA?AIE*IAss ?AAeINOUe E NAIAIAeA”.

EAIA IEA IEAeAE. “O*AIEA I I?E?IAeA OIA”

EAIA IEA IEAeAE. “OANOUe INAIAIAEAeATHUEO AeAENOAEE”.

EAIA IEA IEAeAE. “108 AII?INIA AOAeAeEENEIIO EIAEIO”.

EAIA IEA IEAeAE. “I?AEOE*ANEEE AOAeAeECI. IOOUe EAAUeTH”.

EAIA IEA IEAeAE. “AA?OII IA OEA?A”.

EAIA IEA IEAeAE. “IOE?UOEA AEIACIIAI IOOE”.

EAEO ?EIII*A. “INIIAAIEA AOAeAeEENEIE IAAeEOAOeEE”.

Aeaenaiae? Aa?cei. OEAAONEEE AOAeAeECI

?aaeoa Aa?ia “Ia?aaeienu aeooiaiiai ieaia”

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