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Виды предпринимательской деятельности. Спрос и предложение

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I E A I .

Aaaaeaiea.

Niaea?aeaiea e aeaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea.

Caeeth/aiea.

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaa neiaa “i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai” e “?uiie” naycaiu n ia?ac?uaiuie
ocaie. Naiia e?aoeia e aieia ii?aaeaeaiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee cao/eo
i?inoi : ”Yeiiiieea naiaiaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa” . ?uii/iay,
eaieoaeenoe/aneay yeiiiieea anaaaea oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue eae ie? aeciana.
A aecian e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai – ii nooe iaeii e oi aea. Ia?aoiae
?inneeneie eae e ethaie ae?oaie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi
iaecaaaeii naycai ni noaiiaeaieai e ?acaeoeai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Oae
/oi, aiai?y ia yeiiiieee aiiaua e i ?uii/iie yeiiiieea a /anoiinoe, 
iaecaaaeii i?eoiaeeony eiioeaio?e?iaaoue aieiaiea ia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eae iaiouaieaiie ninoaaiie /anoe yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Niaea?aeaiea e aeaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao naienoaaiiu iauea /a?ou ethaie yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy iii oa?aeoa?ecoaony ii?aaeaeaiiui
niaea?aeaieai, iai?aaeaiiinoueth, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth i?ioeaaeo?,
i?iaiaeeiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeai. ?anniio?ei iauoth noaio
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, aeathuoth i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, eae iii
inouanoaeyaony.

Nianoaaiieee, O O
Iio?aaeoaee

iaeaaeaoaee I?aaei?e-
oiaa?a-eiia/iiai

oaeoi?ia i?aae- ieiaoaeue i?iaeoeoa
i?aaei?e-

i?eieiaoaeueneie Aeo Aeo
ieiaoaeueneie

aeayoaeueiinoe
aeayoaeueiinoe

?en.1 Iauay noaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeue i?ecaai oaeiaeaoai?eoue cai?inu ii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa
iio?aaeoaeae a eiia/iii i?iaeoeoa, i?iaeaaay ei oiaa? O e iieo/ay ca yoi
aeaiaaeioth au?o/eo Aeo. Eiia/iue i?iaeoeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ?aaeecoaiue iio?aaeoaeth a aeaea oiaa?a iiaeao auoue
naiui ?aciiia?aciui. Yoi ana oi , a /ai ioaeaeaaony iio?aaeoaeue e /oi
niiniaai i?iaeaoue aio i?aaei?eieiaoaeue: Caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey, aeeeuea,
eiouanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe, iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u, eioi?iaoeey,
eioaeeaeooaeueiue i?iaeoeo, aeaiueae, aaethoa, oeaiiua aoiaae, ana aeaeu
oneoa, no?ieoaeueiua e ae?oaea ?aaiou.

*oiau ?aaeeciaaoue oiaa?, iaaei aai eiaoue. Iiyoiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeue
i?eia?aoaao, iieo/aao eee nai i?iecaiaeeo oiaa? e inouanoaeyao aai
i?iaeaeaeaiea aeey i?iaeaaee iio?aaeoaeth, iieoiaoaeth. I?ioeann
iieo/aiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeai i?iaeoeoa, iaiaoiaeeiiai iio?aaeoaeth,
o?aaoao aeey inouanoaeaiey iaee/ey ?yaea oaeoi?ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi ana oi, /oi eniieuecoao i?aaei?eieiaoaeue a naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe , oi anoue n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey oiaa?ia a
aeaea ?aai/ae neeu, iaoa?eaeueiuo, eioi?iaoeeiiiuo, oeiainiauo ?ano?nia,
eniieuecoaiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa, o?ainii?oe?iaaiey, i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia.
*anoe/ii i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iiaeao nai iaeaaeaoue oaeeie oaeoi?aie. Anee
aea ii eie ia iaeaaeaao, oi i?eia?aoaao oaeoi?u O o eo iaeaaeaoaeae,
nianoaaiieeia ca aeaiaaeioth noiio Aeo e n eo iiiiuueth i?iecaiaeeo ,
iieo/aao, aeinoaao e i?iaeaao iio?aaeoaeth oiaa? O.

A i?inoaeoai neo/aa, eiaaea oaeoi?u naie e anoue ioaeiua iio?aaeoaeth
oiaa?u, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue i?eia?aoaao eo e i?iaeaao iio?aaeoaeth. A
iiaeiaiie neooaoeee ii noaiiaeony oi?aiaui iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo
aeaaeaeueoeai oiaa?ia e iio?aaeoaeai. Eae neaaeoao ec ?anniio?aiiiai,
noaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia a aeaea
eiae/aneie oi?ioeu : AeO – O – O – AeO. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue i?eia?aoaao ca
aeaiueae Aeo n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe O, caoai
i?aia?acoao eo a oiaa?u O e ?aaeecoao eo, iieo/aao a eoiaa aeaiueae Aeo.
Au?o/aiiua, iieo/aiiua a eoiaa aeaiueae Aeo aeieaeiu auoue aieueoa
aeaiaa Aeo, cao?a/aiiuo ia oaeoi?u, n oai, /oiau eiaoue i?eaueue.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecoaony oaeei ia?acii, /oiau
ana aeaenoaey inouanoaeyeenue ca ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, aeey yoiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao iaiaoiaeei aunieee o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iia?aoeee ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia aa
yooaeoeaiinoue, i?eaueueiinoue. Iau/ii /ai ei?i/a ia?eiae naeaeee, oai
auoa aa yooaeo aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey. N iaeiie noi?iiu, nieaeathony
cao?aou, a n ae?oaie – oaaee/eaaaony iai?a/eaaaiinoue aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa e iioiio iaiueoa aeaiaa naycuaaaony a ia?auaiee. Oaeei ia?acii,
anoue iniiaaiey ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi e a?aiy anoue oaeoi?
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaieoiiinoue
iineaaeiaaoaeueii eee ia?aeeaeueii, iaeiia?aiaiii i?iaiaeeiuo
iia?aoeee. Eaaeaeay aecian-iia?aoeey – yoi iaeei caaa?oaiiue oeeee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Ii ioiioaieth e oaeie iia?aoeee aeiionoeii
i?eiaiyoue oa?iei “aecian-naeaeea”. I?e yoii naeaeea iiieiaaony aiana
ia eae oaeiue i?ioeaicaeiiiue naiai?. A aeciana iiae naeaeeie
iiieiaaony iniiaaiiia ia ienueiaiiii aeiaiai?a eee onoiii niaeaoaiee
acaeiiaeaenoaea aeaoo eee ianeieueeeo oicyenoaaiiuo noauaeoia, eeoe a
eioa?anao iieo/aiey acaeiiie auaiaeu.

A caaeneiinoe io niaea?aeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe e aa
nayce n iniiaiuie noaaeeyie aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna ?acee/atho
?aciua aeaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa: i?iecaiaenoaaiiia, eiiia?/aneia,
oeiainiaia, iin?aaeie/aneia, no?aoiaia.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai iacuaaaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiui, anee nai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii, eniieuecoy a ea/anoaa
oaeoi?ia i?oaeey e i?aaeiaou o?oaea, i?iecaiaeeo i?iaeoeoeeth, oiaa?u,
oneoae, ?aaiou, eioi?iaoeeth, aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe aeey iineaaeothuae
i?iaeaaee iio?aaeoaeyi, iieoiaoaeyi, oi?aiaui i?aaiecaoeeyi. Oaeei
ia?acii ooieoeey i?iecaiaenoaa a yoii aeaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa –
iniiaiay, ii?aaeaeythuay.

A eiiia?/aneii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aunooiaao a ?iee
eiiia?naioa, oi?aiaoea, i?iaeaaay aioiaua oiaa?u, i?eia?aoaiiua ei o
ae?oaeo eeoe, iio?aaeoaeth, iieoiaoaeth. A oaeii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
oaeoi?ii O yaeyaony nai oiaa? O , a i?eaueue i?aaei?eieiaoaey ia?acoaony
iooai i?iaeaaee oiaa?a ii oeaia, i?aauoathuae oeaith i?eia?aoaiey.
Ioiaoei, /oi anee oiaa? i?eia?aoaaony ia caeiiiuo iniiaaieyo, oi
oi?aiai-eiiia?/aneia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai ia neaaeoao iacuaaoue
niaeoeyoeeae e ia yoii iniiaaiee inoaeaeaoue. Oieueei eiaaea
iaaethaeaaony i?ioeaicaeiiiay, n ia?ooaieai i?aaee oi?aiaee
ia?ai?iaeaaea, iiaeii aiai?eoue i cai?aoiie, i?anooiiie niaeoeyoeee.

Oeiainiaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai anoue iniaay oi?ia eiiia?/aneiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, a eioi?ii a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoa eoiee-i?iaeaaee
aunooiatho aeaiueae e oeaiiua aoiaae, i?iaeaaaaiua i?aaei?eieiaoaeai
iieoiaoaeth eee i?aaeinoaaeyaiua aio a e?aaeeo.

Iin?aaeie/anoaii iacuaatho i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, a eioi?ii
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue nai ia i?iecaiaeeo e ia i?iaeaao oiaa?, a aunooiaao a
?iee iin?aaeieea, naycothuaai aiacaea a i?ioeanna oiaa?iiai iaiaia, a
oiaa?ii- aeaiaaeiuo iia?aoeeyo. Aeaaiay caaea/a e i?aaeiao
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe iin?aaeieea – niaaeeieoue aeaa
caeioa?aniaaiiua ai acaeiiie naeaeea noi?iiu. Oae /oi anoue iniiaaiey
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iin?aaeie/anoai ninoieo a ieacaiee oneoa eaaeaeie ec
yoeo noi?ii. Ca ieacaiea iiaeiaiuo oneoa i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iieo/aao
aeioiae, i?eaueue.

No?aoiaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aa?aioe?oao no?aoiaaoaeth eiouanoaa, oeaiiinoe, aeecie
ca ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo eiiiainaoeeth aiciiaeiiai oua?aa a ?acoeueoaoa
iai?aaeaeaeaiiiai aaaenoaey. No?aoiaaiea eiouanoaa, caei?iauey, aeecie
anoue iniaay oi?ia oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
caeeth/athuayny a oi /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iieo/aao no?aoiaie aciin,
auiea/eaay no?aoiaeo oieueei i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao. Oae eae
aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey oaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoa iaaaeeea,  oi
inoaaoayny /anoue aciinia ia?acoao i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee aeioiae.

I?e ?aciiia?acee aeaeia e niiniaia inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
ethaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie iia?aoeee naienoaaiii iaee/ea ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?ioeaaeo?, auiieiyaiuo a iaeioi?ie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa oa?aeoa?iu oaeaea aeinoaoi/ii oeie/iua
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie inouanoaeaiey
iia?aoeee.

Eco/ei i?iaiaeeiua i?aaei?eieiaoaeai aeaenoaey e ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea
a oiaea inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ia i?eia?a iaeiie iia?aoeee
(naeaeee) .

?anniio?ei i?eioeeieaeueioth noaio i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie iia?aoeee, ia
eioi?ie ecia?aaeaiu aa o/anoieee e aicieeathuea iaaeaeo ieie a i?ioeanna
iia?aoeee nayce, ioiioaiey, oiaa?iua e aeaiaaeiua iioiee, iaiaiu (?en.
2).

Ecia?aaeaiiay noaia i?aaenoaaeyao aeaoaeece?iaaiioth iauoth noaio
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ecia?aaeaiioth auoa ia ?en.1.

*oiau ?aaeeciaaoue iia?aoeeth, caeeth/athuothny a eoiaa a i?iaeaaea
iio?aaeoaey, iieoiaoaeyi oiaa?a O ca aeaiueae Aeo, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue,
eae oaea oiiieiaeinue , aeieaeai ia?aiia/aeueii iaeaaeaoue oaeoi?aie,
n?aaenoaaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. *anoe/ii iie iiaoo
auoue o iaai a iaee/ee, /anoe/ii aio i?eoiaeeony i?eia?aoaoue eo.
Iniiaiui oaeoi?ii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa eae e ethaiai ae?oaiai aeaea
aeayoaeueiinoe yaeyaony e ?aai/ay neea. Ia?yaeo n nianoaaiiui o?oaeii
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue i?eaeaeaao ?aai/oth neeo ?N a aeaea iaaiiuo
?aaioieeia, eioi?ui oiea/eaaao ca eo o?oae aeaiaaeiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea,
ca?aaioioth ieaoo Ae? ( Aeeth/ay io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea
?aaioieeia).

A aieueoeinoaa aeaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aeey auiieiaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie iia?aoeee ioaeiu iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu a aeaea
nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, yia?aee, aioiauo oiaa?ia. I?eia?aoay iaaeinoathuea
iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu I e o eo iaeaaeaoaeae, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue
oiea/eaaao ei aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa Aei, oi anoue iieo/aao iaoa?eaeu a
iaiai ia aeaiueae. Eiiaaea iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu i?eia?aoathony iooai
aa?oa?iiai iaiaia. I?e eiiia?/aneii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa i?eia?aoaiiua
iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu iiaoo auoue a aeaea aioiaiai oiaa?a.

O?aoee aaaeiaeoee aeae iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa oaeoi?ia,
n?aaenoa i?aaenoaaeytho iniiaiua oiiaeu a aeaea caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee,
iiiauaiee , iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey, aiia?aoo?u, au/eneeoaeueiie e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oaoieee . Ionoonoaothuea o i?aaei?eieiaoaey iniiaiua
oiiaeu Io i?eoiaeeony i?eia?aoaoue, a?aiaeiaaoue o eo iaeaaeaoaeae ca
aeaiueae Aei.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey aieueoeinoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo iia?aoeee ioaeia
eioi?iaoeey a aeaea naaaeaiee, aeaiiuo, /a?oaaeae, oaoiieiaee,
i?iaeoia, ciaiee, aeieoiaioia. Eioi?iaoeey a iaoa a?aiy oiaea noieo
aeaiaa. *oiau iieo/eoue iaaeinoathuoth eioi?iaoeeth E,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aeieaeai caieaoeoue ca iaa aeaiueae Aee.

Ia?yaeo n oiiiyioouie oaeoi?aie i?aaei?eieiaoaeth iiaoo iiiaaeiaeony
?aaiou e oneoae , eioi?ua ii ia niiniaai auieieoue nianoaaiiuie neeaie.
Ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea oneoa O iaaei oieaoeoue aeaiueae Aeo. I?iaiaey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth iia?aoeeth, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue cao?a/eaaao e
nianoaaiiua ?ano?nu a aeaea naiae ?aai/ae neeu, iaoa?eaeia, aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, eioi?iaoeee. Yoi aioo?aiiea cao?aou, ii e iie noiyo aeaiaa,
iauay noiia eioi?uo ?aaia Aeai.

E?iia anao oeacaiiuo ?ano?nia e oi?i eo iieo/aiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeth
ca/anooth i?eoiaeeony i?eaaaaoue e i?eia?aoaieth ioaeaeueiuo ?ano?nia a
aeiea, a aeaea caeia. Aaaeue aio ioaeiu ?ano?nu, n?aaenoaa aua aei oiai,
eae iie aoaeoo aiciauaiu, ieoieaiu a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia e
iieo/aiey aeaiaaeiie au?o/ee Aeo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii i?aaei?eieiaoaeth
iaiaoiaeei ia/aeueiue eaieoae. Anee oaeiai eaieoaea iao, oi i?eoiaeeony
aai caeinoaiaaoue.

Caeinoaiaaiea iiaeao eiaoue ianoi a iaoo?aeueiie, aauanoaaiiie e
aeaiaaeiie oi?iao.

I?aaeinoaaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeth iaoa?eaeueiuo n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a aeaea caeaiee, iiiauaiee,
iai?oaeiaaiey, iaoei, ae?oaeo aeaeia iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia
ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy e ia oneiaeyo aianaiey ieaou iacuaatho a?aiaeie.
Eiiaaea aeiaiai? a?aiaeu caeeth/aaony n i?aaii iineaaeothuaai aueoia
a?aiaeaoi?ii a?aiaeoaiiai eiouanoaa.

*aua caeinoaiaaiea i?ienoiaeeo a oi?ia iieo/aiey aeaiaaeiiai e?aaeeoa o
iaeaaeaoaeae aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, neaaeai a aaiea. Iieo/ea e?aaeeo,
caoai i?eaeaony aai aa?iooue a noiia Aea, i?aauoathuae Aee, oi anoue
oieaoeoue i?ioeaiou ca nnoaeo Aen. I/aaeaeii /oi

Aen = Aea -Aee

A eoiaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ianao aeaiaaeiua cao?aou Aec ia inouanoaeaiea
iia?aoeee, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony iooai noiie?iaaiey anao ecaea?aeae

Aec = Ae? + Aei + Aei + Aee + Aeo + Aeai + Aen

Anee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue inouanoaeyao iia?aoeeth oniaoii e iieo/aao
au?o/eo ca i?iaeaiiue oiaa? Aeo, i?aauoathuoth cao?aou Aec, oi a eoiaa
iia?aoeee ia?acoaony i?eaueue I?, en/eneyaiay

I? = Aeo – Aec

Iaeiaei, yoa i?eaueue eioi?oth iacuaatho aaeiaie i?eaueueth eee
aeioiaeii, ia aeinoaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeth iieiinoueth. Ii iieo/aao
oieueei /anoue aa, eai iaaei aua oieaoeoue iaeiae, aianoe ieaoaaee
oeiainiaui i?aaiai a iauae noiia Aei. Yoi, eae iu oaea ciaai ec ?aiaa
eco/aiiiai, ec aeecie ?aciiia?aciua iaeiae, ieaoaaee, oaeea eae iaeia ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, iaeia ia i?eaueue e o.ae. Aaee/eia iaeiaia e
ieaoaaeae caaeneo io aeaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
eniieuecoaiuo ?ano?nia, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo eueaio. A eoiaa /enoay,
inoaoi/iay i?eaueue I?/, eioi?oth iieo/aao i?aaei?eieiaoaeue a eoiaa
iia?aoeee, ?aaia

I?/ = Aeo – Aec – Aei

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai iau/ii n/eoaaony oeaeaniia?aciui, anee aaeiaay
i?eaueue ninoaaeyao ia iaiaa 20% io o?iaiy cao?ao.

N /aai ia/eiaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai ?

I?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi au iiaeaoa noaoue
oi?ioei aecianiaiii, iaeaaeaaoa iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey yoiai iaeeiiiinoyie,
niiniaiinoyie, oii?noaii e eieoeeaoeaie. A i?eioeeia, iioaioeeaeueiui
aecianiaiii niiniaai noaoue eaaeaeue, aeey yoiai ia ioaeiu iniaua
oaeaiou.

Ii aeaeaei ia anai neaaeoao noaiiaeoueny aecianiaiii. Anee au ia
iaeaaeaaoa auaea?aeeie, aunieie ?aaioiniiniaiinoueth, oiaieai ia oieueei
auea?uaaoue, ii e i?iea?uaaoue, anee au ethaeoa niieieioth, ?acia?aiioth
aeeciue, ec aan oi?ioaai aecianiaia ia iieo/eony.

Eoae, aecian aeieaeai ia/eiaoueny n naiiiiciaiey, onoaiiaeaiey naiae
ineoieiae/aneie i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoe e yoie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aeaeaa aai iaaeeaaeeo aua?aoue aeae i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ui
oeaeaniia?acii caiyoueny. Caeanue oaea aaaeiu ia oieueei niiniaiinoe,
ii e ciaiey, iaee/ea oioue iaaieueoiai iiuoa. Iaeiei ec aeaeia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiue. E?iia yoiai eiathony
eiiia?/aneee, oeiainiaue, oi?aiaue aecian, iin?aaeie/aneay, a?iea?neay,
e iaeea?neay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Ecae?ay oio eee eiie aeae aeciana, iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue aeaeu oiaa?ia
e oneoa, eioi?ua noaioo iauaeoii i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aeaeaa aoaeouaio i?aaei?eieiaoaeth iaaeeaaeeo ii?aaeaeeoue, aoaeao ee ii
aunooiaoue eae oece/aneia eeoei, caieiaoueny eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui aecianii
eee ioi?ieoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue eae th?eaee/aneia eeoei,
ca?aaeno?e?oao i?aaei?eyoea n ii?aaeaeaiiui iacaaieai , ioe?iao
?an/aoiue n/ao a aaiea. *oiau ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue i?aaei?eyoea, iaaei
/oiau o iaai auee o/?aaeeoaee a aeaea oece/aneeo eee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe.

I?aaeaea /ai nicaeaoue e ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue i?aaei?eyoea, ioeoeeaeueii
ioe?uoue naia aeaei, iaaei aua?aoue i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaoth oi?io
i?aaei?eyoey. Yoi iiaeao auoue /anoiia i?aaei?eyoea, oiaa?euanoai,
eiiia?aoea, aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai e o.i.

Aeey ?acaa?ouaaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeei noa?oiaue eaieoae.
Yoi oaeoi?u i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, n?aaenoaa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa , aeaiueae. A ea/anoaa noa?oiaiai eaieoaea iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue e?aaeeo, caeiu eee onoaaiie oiiae, eioi?ue aiinyo
o/?aaeeoaee i?aaei?eyoey.

A no?aieaiee i?iaeaoue naie oiaa? e iieo/eoue i?eaueue a oneiaeyo
naiaiaeiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aicieeaao yeiiiie/aneia ni?aaiiaaiea,
ninoycaiea, eiaioaiia eiieo?aioeeae.

Eiieo?aioeey aicieeaao ia oieueei ia ?uiea oiaa?ia e oneoa, ii e ia
?uiea o?oaea e ?aai/ae neeu. Caeanue ?aaioieee eiieo?e?otho, /oiau
caiyoue e nio?aieoue ca niaie ?aai/aa ianoi. Ia ?uiea eaieoaea aai
nianoaaiieee ai?thony ca iieo/aiea eo/oeo enoi/ieeia aai yooaeoeaiiai
i?eeiaeaiey. Eiieo?aioeey eiaao ianoi iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie ,
oe?iaie, a ii aieueoiio n/aoo – aeaaea iaaeaeo io?aneyie, oa??eoi?eyie e
ainoaea?noaaie.

Eiieo?aioeey neoaeeo iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo niiniaia iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe yeiiiie/aneie ?aaiou. Eiieo?aioeey anoue oeeaeeeciaaiiay
oi?ia ai?ueau ca auaeeaaiea. No?aieaiea iaieoe eiieo?aioa, ia ionoaoue
io iaai nicaeaao iiuiue noeioe yeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?anna,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Eiieo?aioeey anoue eiiieaeniia iiiyoea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yeiiiie/aneay
iaoea ?acee/aao ?yae aeaeia eiieo?aioeee.

Niaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey i?aaenoaaeyao eaeaaeueiue ia?ac eiieo?aioeee,
i?e eioi?ie i?iaeaaoeu e iieoiaoaee iaeaaeatho ianoieueei oe?ieie
naiaiaeie iiaaaeaiey, /oi ie iaeei ec ieo ia niiniaai aeeeoiaaoue
ae?oaiio /oi, eae, ii eaeie oeaia iieoiaoue. Iieoiaoaeth ia i?aaeony,
neaaeai, oiaa? eee oeaia o iaeiiai i?iaeaaoea – ii eaeao e ae?oaiio.
I?iaeaaaoe ia aeaeaao i?iaeaaaoue naie oiaa? ii oeaia, i?aaeeaaaaiie
iaeiei iieoiaoaeai, ii aeaeao ae?oaiai. Aaaeue a oneiaeyo niaa?oaiiie
eiieo?aioeee e i?iaeaaoeia, e iieoiaoaeae, e oiaa?ia – aaeeeia
iiiaeanoai. Oieueei ia oaeii ?uiea iieiinoueth aeaenoaoao caeii ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey, onoaiaaeeaaaony ?aaiiaaniay oeaia ia oiaa?u.

E niaa?oaiiie eiieo?aioeee, eae e eaeaaeo, iiaeii eeoue i?eaeeaeaoueny
a iieiie aea ia?a iia ia aeinoeaeeia. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia ethaii
?uiea eiaao ianoi ianiaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey.

?aaeueiay eiieo?aioeey auaaao ianiaa?oaiiie a neeo ?yaea i?e/ei.

Ai-ia?auo, eaaeaeue ec i?iaeaaoeia no?aieony naeaeaoue eee i?aaenoaaeoue
naie oiaa?, eae iniaue, eo/oee /ai o ae?oaeo. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ienoiaeeo
eae au i?iaeaaea ?aciuo oiaa?ia, e i?iaeaaoeu ia eiieo?e?otho iaaeaeo
niaie a iieiie ia?a. ?yae i?iaeaaoeia eiaao “naieo” iieoiaoaeae. A eoiaa
aicieeaao iniaay oi?ia iiiiiieecia i?e iaee/ee iiiaeo i?iaeaaoeia e
iieoiaoaeae, eiieo?aioeey noaiiaeony ia niaa?oaiiie. Eiieo?aioeeth i?e
eioi?ie i?iaeaaony iiiaeanoai oiaa?ia, ii eaaeaeue ec ieo ii-naiaio
oieeaeai, i?eiyoi iacuaaoue iiiiiieenoe/aneie.

A ?yaea neo/aaa ?uieii aeaaeatho ianeieueei e?oiiuo oe?i, iioiio /oi iie
noiaee neiioeaio?e?iaaoue a naieo ?oeao i?iecaiaenoai e i?iaeaaeo
oiaa?ia ,aeey auionea e ?aaeecaoeee eioi?uo iaiaoiaeei ia?iiiue eaieoae,
ionoonoaothuee o ae?oaeo oe?i. Yoi iieiaeaiea eiaao iacaaiea ieeaiiieey.

Naiue no?aoiue a?aa eiieo?aioeee – iiiiiieey. Iiiiiieey – yoi ?uiie
iaeiiai i?iaeaaoea, caoaaoeaoaai aai e auoanieaoaai ae?oaeo i?iaeaaoeia.
Iiiiiieeno niiniaai iacia/eoue ethaoth oeaio, noaaeo iieoiaoaey a
aaniethoioth caaeneiinoue io naay.

*oiau iaania/eoue aeaiiiiiieecaoeeth e oai naiui niinianoaiaaoue
eiieo?aioeee, iaiaoiaeeiu niaoeeaeueiua ia?u. Yoi ?an/eaiaiea e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeaiea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee e oeeeaeia, i?aaeinoaaeaiea
eueaio i?aaei?eyoeyi e i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi, anooiathuei a eiieo?aioeeth n
iiiiiieenoaie. Yoi e ioe?uoea naiaiaeiiai aeinooia ca?oaaaeiui oe?iai ia
aioo?aiiee ?uiie. Yoi e ia?u iaeiaiaiai oa?aeoa?a. Ana yoi iicaieyao
yooaeoeaii ai?ioueny n iiiiiieenoaie.

III. Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea.

Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec i?aaeeiaeaiey ni?ina yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui
n?aaenoaii, eioi?ia iiaeao auoue i?eiaiaii e oe?ieiio e?oao
?aciiia?aciuo i?iaeai. A eo /enea iiaeii iacaaoue: i?iaiic aeeyiey
iaiythueony ie?iauo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee ia ?uii/ioth oeaio e
yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa; ioeaiea aeeyiey i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ia? ii
eiio?ieth oeai, ieieiaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa e yeiiiie/aneea noeioeu,
aeeyiea iaeiaia, noaneaeee, iioeei ia eiii?o e eaio iio?aaeoaeae e
i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Ia/iai n aiaeeca a?aoeeia i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina, eniieuecoaiuo aeey
iienaiey ?uii/iiai iaoaiecia. Ecaanoii, /oi aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa
i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?aaeeiaeaiea e ni?in i?eaeoo a ?aaiiaanea, ia aaca
eioi?iai aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu ?uii/iay oeaia oiaa?a e aai iauee iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ii eaeei ia?acii oeaia e eiee/anoai oiaa?a caaenyo io
ioaeaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ? Eae iie aa?uee?otho
ai a?aiaie caaenyo io ?aaeoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina ia oaeea
ia?aiaiiua yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee, eae iauay yeiiiie/aneay
aeoeaiinoue, ecaea?aeee ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo e o.i., eioi?ua iinoiyiii
iaiythony ?

Ieaea iu ianoaeei oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina e ?anniio?ei,
eae iie iiaoo ?acee/aoueny ii ioaeaeueiui ?uieai. Caoai iu niiaeai
eniieueciaaoue caaeneiinoe i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina aeey ioaaoa ia
neaaeothuea aii?inu : ii/aio oeaiu ia iaeie oiaa?u oe?ieiai
iio?aaeaiey iaoeeiiii nieaeaeenue ia i?ioyaeaiee aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea,
a oi a?aiy eae ia ae?oaea eniuouaaee ?aceea eieaaaiey ; ii/aio ia
iaeioi?uo ?aieao neo/aaony iaoaaoea oiaa?ia; ii/aio iauyaeaiiua ca?aiaa
iniiau aoaeouae i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeea eee i?iaiic yeiiiie/aneeo
oneiaee iiaoo iiaeeyoue ia ?uiee caaeieai aei oiai, eae yoa iieeoeea eee
yoe oneiaey noaioo ?aaeueiinoueth?

Iiieii iiieiaiey ia ea/anoaaiiii o?iaia, eae ii?aaeaeyaony ?uii/iay
oeaia e eiee/anoai oiaa?a e eae iie iiaoo iaiyoueny ai a?aiai, aaaeii
ciaoue, eae iie iiaoo auoue i?iaiaeece?iaaiu n eiee/anoaaiiie oi/ee
c?aiey. Iu oaeaeei, eae ianeiaeiua ?an/aou iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny aeey
aiaeeca aeeiaieee ?uiea e aai ?aaeoeee ia aioo?aiiea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
iae?iyeiiiie/aneea eciaiaiey.

Ia/iai n e?aoeiai ?anniio?aiey iniiaiie aeeaa?aiiu “i?aaeeiaeaiea –
ni?in”, iieacaiiie ia ?en.3 . Ia ine i?aeeiao iaicia/aia oeaia aaeeieoeu
oiaa?a P a aeieea?ao. Yoi oeaia, eioi?oth i?iaeaaaoe iieo/aao ca
ii?aaeaeaiiia i?aaeeaaaaiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a e eioi?oth iieoiaoaeue
caieaoeo ca ii?aaeaeaiiia o?aaoaiia eiee/anoai yoiai oiaa?a. Inue
i?aeeiao iieacuaaao iauaa o?aaoaiia e i?aaeeaaaaiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a Q
a aeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie.

E?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey S iieacuaaao, eaeia eiee/anoai oiaa?a e ii eaeie
oeaia i?iecaiaeeoaey iiaoo i?iaeaoue ia ?uiea. E?eaay iiaeieiaaony
aaa?o, iioiio /oi, /ai auoa oeaia, oai aieueoaa /enei oe?i eiaao
aiciiaeiinoue i?iecaiaeeoue e i?iaeaaaoue oiaa?. Iai?eia?, aieaa aunieay
oeaia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaothuei oe?iai ?anoe?eoue iauai
i?iecaiaenoaa a ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie ca n/ao i?eaea/aiey
aeiiieieoaeueiie ?aai/ae neeu eee naa?oo?i/iuo ?aaio, a a aeeeoaeueiue
i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie – ca n/ao yenoaineaiiai ?acaeoey naiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aieaa aunieay oeaia iiaeao oaeaea i?eaea/ue ia ?uiie
iiaua oe?iu, o eioi?uo aua auniee ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeoeoeey
eioi?uo i?e ieceeo oeaiao yaeyaony ia?aioaaaeueiie.

E?eaay ni?ina D iieacuaaao, eaeia eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee iio?aaeoaee
aioiau i?eia?aoaoue ii eaaeaeie oeaia. E?eaay eaeao aiec, iioiio /oi
iio?aaeoaeue iau/ii i?aaeii/eoaao i?eia?aoaoue aieueoa, anee oeaia
ieaea. Iai?eia?, aieaa ieceay oeaia iicaieyao iieoiaoaeyi,
i?eia?aoathuei oiaa?, iieoiaoue aua aieueoaa eiee/anoai e aeano
aiciiaeiinoue iio?aaeoaeyi, eioi?ua ?aiaa ia iiaee iicaieeoue naaa
iieoieo, ia/aoue i?eia?aoaoue yoio oiaa?. Aeaa e?eaua ia?anaeathony a
oi/ea ?aaiiaaney ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, o.a. i?e ?aaiiaaniuo oeaia e
eiee/anoaa oiaa?a. I?e oeaia P0 aai i?aaeeaaaaiia e o?aaoaiia eiee/anoai
iaeeiaeiaa (Q0 ) . A yoie oi/ea iao ie aeaoeoeeoa, ie ecauoi/iiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey, a cia/eo, iao aeaaeaiey ia eciaiaiea oeaiu a
aeaeueiaeoai. I?aaeeiaeaiea e ni?in ia anaaaea o?aaiiaaoaiu ia ?uiea,
iai?eia? oiaaea, eiaaea iaiaeeaeaiii iaiythony oneiaey, ii o ?uieia
eiaaony oaiaeaioeey e ?aaiiaaneth.

*oiau iiiyoue, ii/aio yoi i?ienoiaeeo, i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi
ia?aiia/aeueiay oeaia auea auoa ?aaiiaaniiai o?iaiy, iai?eia? auea ?aaia
P1 (?en.3) . Oiaaea i?iecaiaeeoaee aoaeoo iuoaoueny ecaioiaeyoue e
i?iaeaaaoue aieueoa oiaa?a, /ai iio?aaeoaee aioiau aai eoieoue. Aoaeao
neaieeaaoueny eceeoae e /oiau ?ani?iaeaoue yoio eceeoae, i?iecaiaeeoaeai
neaaeoao nieceoue oeaio. Yoi nieaeaiea aoaeao i?iaeieaeaony aei oao ii?
, iiea ia aoaeao aeinoeaiooa oeaia ?aaiiaaney P0.

I?ioeaiiieiaeiay neooaoeey aicieeiao, anee oeaia ia?aiia/aeueii auea
ieaea ?0 , iieiaeei ?2 .Aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny aeaoeoeeo, iioiio /oi i?e
yoie oeaia iio?aaeoaee ia niiaoo eoieoue noieueei oiaa?ia, neieueei iie
oioaee au. Yoi nicaeano aeaaeaiea ia iiauoaiea oeaiu, eiaaea iio?aaeoaee
aoaeoo noa?aoueny iaieoe ae?oa ae?oaa, /oiau eoieoue oiaa?, a
i?iecaiaeeoaee io?aaae?otho ia yoi iiauoaieai oeai e ?anoe?aieai
i?iecaiaenoaa. A eiia/iii eoiaa oeaia iiyoue aeinoeaiao o?iaiy ?0 . Ana
yoi eiaao niune a oii neo/aa, anee ia ?uiea eiaaony naiaiaeiay
eiieo?aioeey. Anee aea i?aaeeiaeaiea eiio?iee?oaony iiiiiieenoii
(aaeeinoaaiiui i?iecaiaeeoaeai aeaiiiai oiaa?a), oi niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo
oeaiie e i?aaeeaaaaiui eiee/anoaii oiaa?a ia aoaeao. Iiyoiio iino?iaiiua
iaie e?eaua ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey eiatho aeaei n eiieo?aioiui ?uieii.

Ii, iiieii oeaiu, i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?in ii?aaeaeythony e ae?oaeie
oneiaeyie. Iai?eia?, eiee/anoai oiaa?a, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeoaee aioiau
i?iaeaoue, caaeneo ia oieueei io oeaiu, ii e io ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ni?in ia oiaa? caaeneo, eae io athaeaeaoa iio?aaeoaeae,
oae e io eciaiaiey yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaee eee iaeiaiaie iieeoeee. *oiau
naeaeaoue yoi, iu aeieaeiu iiiyoue , eae naeaeaathony e?eaua
i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina a ioaao ia eciaiaiey noaaee ca?ieaou,
eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao e aeioiaea.

Ia/iai n e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey S ia ?en.4. Iia iieacuaaao, eaeie iauai
oiaa?a i?iecaiaeeoaee aioiau i?iaeaoue a caaeneiinoe io oeaiu ia ?uiea.
Iai?eia?, i?e oeaia ?1 i?iecaiaeeiia e ?aaeecoaiia eiee/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee aoaeao ?aaii Q1. Oaia?ue i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi noieiinoue
nu?uey nieceeanue. Eae yoi iiaeeyao ia i?aaeeiaeaiea ?

Nieaeaiea noieiinoe nu?uey, oae aea eae e ethaia nieaeaiea cao?ao,
aeaeaao i?iecaiaenoai aieaa i?eaueueiui, noeioee?oy ?acaeoea
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeinoaaeyy iiaui oe?iai aiciiaeiinoue aueoe ia ?uiie
ni naiei oiaa?ii. Iiyoiio, anee oeaia ia ?uiea inoaaony ia o?iaia ?1, oi
iiaeii iaeeaeaoue aieueoaai auionea i?iaeoeoeee, /ai i?aaeaea. Ia ?en.4
yoi iieacaii eae ?ino io Q1 aei Q2 . Auione ?anoao iacaaeneii io oeaiu,
a iiyoiio any e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey naeaeaaaony ai?aai, /oi iieacaii ia
?en.4 eae niauaiea io S e S’.

Ae?oaie niinia i?ineaaeeoue aicaeaenoaea nieaeaiey noieiinoe nu?uey –
yoi i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oi i?iecaiaeeiia eiee/anoai inoaaony
oeene?iaaiiui Q1 , e i?eeeiooue, eaeoth oeaio iio?aaotho oe?iu, /oiau
i?iecaiaeeoue yoi eiee/anoai. Ec ca oiai /oi cao?aou ieaea, o?aaoaiay
oeaia oiaea aoaeao ieaea – ?2 ia ?en.4. Oae aoaeao ianoiyoue aeaei
iacaaeneii io eiee/anoaa i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iu iiyoue aeaeei,
/oi e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey aeieaeia naeaeiooueny ai?aai.

I?e nieaeaiee ecaea?aeae e oeaia e eiee/anoai iau/ii iaiythony, a oi
a?aiy eae iiaay e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eoiaeeo a ?aaiiaanea n e?eaie
ni?ina. Yoi iieacaii ia ?en.5, aaea e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey nianoeeanue n S
e S’, eae e ia ?en.4. A eoiaa ?uii/iay oeaia iaaeaao (n ?1 aei ?3) , a
iauaa i?iecaaaeaiiia eiee/anoai aic?anoaao (n Q1 aei Q3) . Eae e
neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, aieaa ieceea ecaea?aeee i?eaiaeyo e aieaa ieceei
oeaiai e oaaee/aieth nauoa.

Ia?aoeiny oaia?ue ?en.6 , aaea ooieoeey ni?ina iiia/aia aoeaie D. Eae
?ino aeioiaea iio?aaeoaeae aeeyao ia ni?in?

I?e aieueoai aeioiaea iio?aaeoaee iiaoo ?anoiaeiaaoue aieueoa aeaiaa ia
iieoieo oiaa?a. Anee au ?uii/iay oeaia inoaaaeanue iinoiyiiie – ?1 ,
iiaeii auei au iaeeaeaoue ?inoa iio?aaeyaiiai eiee/anoaa (n Q1 aei Q2) .
Yoi i?iecieaeao iacaaeneii io oiai, eaeiaa ?uii/iay oeaia, a iiyoiio
eoiaii aoaeao naeaea e?eaie ni?inia ai?aai. Ia ?en.6 yoi io?aaeaii eae
naeaea io D e D’. A ea/anoaa aeueoa?iaoeau iu iiaeai caaeaoue oaeie
aii?in: eaeoth oeaio iio?aaeoaee caieaoyo, /oiau i?eia?anoe
ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai oiaa?a Q1 ? I?e aieueoai ?aaeueiii aeioiaea iie
aoaeoo aioiau oieaoeoue aieaa aunieoth oeaio, neaaeai P2 aianoi ?1 ia
?en.6. Niiaa e?eaay ni?ina nianoeony ai?aai.

A oeaeii ie oeaia, ie eiee/anoai oiaa?a ia inoaioony iinoiyiiuie i?e
oaaee/aiee aeioiaea. Iiaua oeaia e eiee/anoai a eoiaa i?eaaaeoo e
?aaiiaaneth ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Eciaiaiea oeai ia acaeiinaycaiiua oiaa?u oaeaea aeeytho ia ni?in.
Iai?eia?, iaaeue e aethieiee yaeythony oiaa?aie – caiaieoaeyie. Ni?in ia
iaaeue aic?anoaao, anee oaaee/eony oeaia ia aethieiee. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, aaicei yaeyaony aeiiieieoaeueiui oiaa?ii ii ioiioaieth e
aaoiiiaeeth, o.a. iie eniieuecothony niaianoii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
nieaeaiea oeai ia aaicei oaaee/eaaao ni?in ia aaoiiaoeiu.

Ia aieueoeinoaa ?uieia e?eaua e ni?ina, e i?aaeeiaeaiey i?aoa?iaaatho
a?aiy io a?aiaie ii?aaeaeaiiua eciaiaiey. Aeioiae iio?aaeoaeae iaiyaony
ii ia?a yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa (eee nie?auaaony ai a?aiy niaaea) . Ni?in
ia iaeioi?ua oiaa?u eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io naciia (oiieeai,
eoiaeueiua i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, ciioeee) , a nayce n eciaiaieai oeai
acaeiicaiaiyaiuo oiaa?ia (?ino oeai ia iaooue oaaee/eaaao ni?in ia
i?e?iaeiue aac) eee i?inoi ec-ca iaiythueony iiaeu e aeonia.
Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii a?aiy io a?aiaie iaiythony ?acia? ca?ieaou,
eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey, oeaiu ia nu?uea, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie aeeyao ia
i?aaeeiaeaiey oiaa?ia.

Eoae, aiaeec e?eauo ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey yaeyaony iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
eino?oiaioia iee?iyeiiiieee. Ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea e?eaua i?aaeeiaeaiey
e ni?ina oeacuaatho, neieueei i?iaeoeoeee aoaeao i?iecaaaeaii oe?iaie e
eaeei aoaeao ni?in iio?aaeoaeae i?e ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaia. ?uii/iue
iaoaieci eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e ?aaiiaaneth, n oai, /oiau ia auei ie
ecauoi/iiai ni?ina, ie ecauoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. Eciaiaiea o?aaoaiiai
eiee/anoaa a i?ioeaioao a ?acoeueoaoa oaaee/aiey oeaiu ia 1% yaeyaony
yeanoe/iinoueth ni?ina io oeaiu. Yeanoe/iinoue oa?aeoa?ecoao ?aaeoeeth
i?aaeeiaeaiey e ni?ina ia eciaiaiea oeaiu, aeioiaea e ae?oaeo
ia?aiaiiuo. Ana yoi iicaieyao iai eo/oa iiiyoue oa?aeoa?enoeee e
iiaaaeaiea ?uiea.

Caeeth/aiea.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue – yoi i?aaeaea anaai
eioaeeaeooaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue yia?ae/iiai e eieoeeaoeaiiai /aeiaaea,
eioi?ue, aeaaeay eaeeie-eeai iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie eniieuecoao eo
aeey i?aaiecaoeee aeciana. Ecaeaeay iieueco aeey naiiai naay
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aeaenoaoao ia aeaai iauanoaa.

Ia?aoiae ?inneeneie yeiiiieee e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi iaecaaaeii naycai n
onoaiiaeaieai e ?acaeoeai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Oniao a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeinoeaaaony ciaieyie, i?aeoeeie ,
iaiaoiaeeiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie e ineoieiae/aneeie ea/anoaaie
ee/iinoe.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u.

?aecaa?a A.A. Iniiau yeiiiieee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

I.: OII ”Aan”, 1995.

Ai?enia A.O., Aieeia O.I. Iniiau yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee.

I. :
Auno.oe.,1994.

Ieiaeaee ?., ?oaeioaeueae Ae. Iee?iyeiiiieea.

I.:
“Yeiiiieea”, 1992.

N. Eiiiaaeia

PAGE

PAGE 18

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