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Объекты интеллектуальной собственности

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Niaea?aeaiea

no?.

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaaa 1. Iiiyoea e aeaeu iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe

(1. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue eae iauaeo a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa

(2. Aeaeu iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ii ?inneeneiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao

(3. Iiiyoea e aeaeu eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a ca?oaaaeiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa

Aeaaa 2. Niaoeeoeea ?aaoee?iaaiey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia iauaeoia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe

(1. Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa

1. Iauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa

2. I?iecaaaeaiey ia io?aiyaiua aaoi?neei i?aaii

3. Aeaeu iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa

4. Noauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa

5. I?aaa aaoi?ia i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa

6. Io?aia i?aa eniieieoaeae, i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiiia?aii, i?aaiecaoeee
yoe?iiai e eaaaeueiiai aauaiey (niaaeiua i?aaa)

(2. Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iaoaioiiai i?aaa

1. Iauaeou iaoaioiiai i?aaa

2. Noauaeou iaoaioiiai i?aaa

3. I?aaa aaoi?ia ecia?aoaiee, iieaciuo iiaeaeae e i?iiuoeaiiuo
ia?acoeia

(3. Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a ioiioaiee n?aaenoa
eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee o/anoieeia a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa e i?iecaiaeeiie
eie i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa)

1. I?aaiaay io?aia oe?iaiiuo iaeiaiiaaiee

2. I?aaiaay io?aia oiaa?iuo ciaeia, ciaeia ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeiaiiaaiee
iano i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia

(4. Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey io?aiu iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo
iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe

1. I?aaiaay io?aia ioe?uoee

2. I?aaiaay io?aia neoaeaaiie e eiiia?/aneie oaeiu

3. I?aaiaay io?aia oiiieiaee eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai

4. I?aaiaay io?aia naeaeoeeiiiuo aeinoeaeaiee

5. I?aaiaay io?aia ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neeo i?aaeeiaeaiee

Aeaaa 3. A?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaua niiniau caueou iauaeoia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe

(1. Caueoa aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa

(2. Caueoa i?aa aaoi?ia e iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeae

(3. Caueoa i?aaa ia oe?iaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea, oiaa?iue ciae, ciae
ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeiaiiaaiea ianoa i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?a

(4. Caueoa i?aaa ia iao?aaeeoeeiiiua iauaeou eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia

AAAAeAIEA

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo iieacaoaeae oeeaeeeciaaiiinoe iauanoaa ai ana a?aiaia
auei e i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny nae/an oi, eaeia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony a
iai ?acaeoeth iaoee, eoeueoo?u e oaoieee. Io oiai, ianeieueei cia/eoaeai
eioaeeaeooaeueiue iioaioeeae iauanoaa e o?iaaiue aai eoeueoo?iiai
?acaeoey, caaeneo a eiia/iii n/aoa e oniao ?aoaiey noiyueo ia?aae iei
yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai. A naith i/a?aaeue iaoea, eoeueoo?a e oaoieea
iiaoo aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaaoueny oieueei i?e iaee/ee niioaaonoaothueo
oneiaee, aeeth/ay iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaiaua i?aaeiinueee. E eo /eneo,
aaconeiaii, neaaeoao ioianoe caeiiiaeaoaeueiia cae?aieaiea oaeeo
ii?iaoeaiuo i?aaee, eioi?ua aaeaeaaoiu neeaaeuaathueiny a iauanoaa
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiui ioiioaieyi.

?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe caieiatho iniaia
ianoi n?aaee iauaeoia a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa e o?aaeeoeeiiii
iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaa iniiaiua noa?u i?aa: aaoi?neia i?aai e
i?iiuoeaiioth nianoaaiiinoue.

O?oaeii aeaoue oi/iua aeaiiua a ioiioaiee /enea eeoa?aoo?iuo e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, nicaeaiiuo ai anai ie?a. Iaeiaei
ecaanoii, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaeaaiaeii ioaeeeoaony ieiei 1 000 000
eiea (?aciuo iacaaiee), auioneaaony ieiei 5000 oeeueiia, a /enei
aaeaaiaeii ?aaeecoaiuo eiiee oiiia?aii ninoaaeyao aieaa 3 ieeeea?aeia.
Ana yoe iauaeou, a oaeaea eiua i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e
eneonnoaa, eniieiaiey, iinoaiiaee e ia?aaea/e i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai eee
eaaaeueiiai aauaiey ioiinyony e iauaeoai aaoi?neiai i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aa.

Iauaeou i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe eniieuecothony iauanoaii aeey
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, iiaea?iecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiaen/eoaii, /oi oieueei a 1994 a. ai anai ie?a auei auaeaii ieiei 670
000 iaoaioia, inouanoaeaii ieiei 1,1 ieeeeiia ?aaeno?aoeee ciaeia. Ii
aeaiiui AIEN, ia eiiaoe 1994 a. ai anai ie?a ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 4
ieeeeiiia aeaenoaothueo iaoaioia, aieaa 8 ieeeeiiia aeaenoaothueo
?aaeno?aoeee ciaeia. Ecia?aoaiey, iieaciua iiaeaee, i?iiuoeaiiua
ia?acoeu, a oaeaea n?aaenoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee oiaa?ia, oneoa e
o/anoieeia eiouanoaaiiiai iai?ioa yaeythony iauaeoaie i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe.

Aeaaiay caaea/a aaoi?neiai i?aaa e i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe
(eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe) – caueoa i?aa aaoi?ia e
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeae e i?ana/aiea iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee.

Ia?aoiae ?innee e /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea n
iauaeoeaiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iio?aaiaae ?aoi?ie?iaaiey a yoii aea
iai?aaeaiee i?aaiaie aacu oao iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, eioi?ua naycaiu n
io?aiie e eniieueciaaieai ?acoeueoaoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
I?aaeiaa ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ioiinyuaany e ?anniao?eaaaiie
iaeanoe, oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue ?yaeii iaaaoeaiuo iiiaioia.

I?aaeaea anaai a ?innee, eae e ai anai auaoai Niaaoneii Nithca,
ionoonoaiaaee niaoeeaeueiua caeiiu ia io?aia eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe, e i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ioiioaiee a ?anniao?eaaaiie
noa?a iaania/eaaeinue a iniiaiii iiaecaeiiiuie aeoaie.

N?ie io?aiu aaoi?neeo i?aa ia i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e
eneonnoaa ninoaaeye anaai 25 eao iinea nia?oe aaoi?a (aei 1973 a.—15
eao); i?aaa eniieieoaeae e eiuo iaeaaeaoaeae niaaeiuo i?aa caeiiii
aiiaua ia io?aiyeenue; nicaeaoaee ecia?aoaiee e i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia
ai iiiaeo neo/ayo auee eeoaiu aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey iaoaioia ia naie
?ac?aaioee e o.i.

A aaoi?neii i?aaa yoi i?iyaeyeinue a nouanoaiaaiee oae iacuaaaiuo
oeiiauo aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia, eiaaoeo aeey noi?ii ii?iaoeaiue oa?aeoa?;
a no?iaie ?aaeaiaioaoeee ainoaea?noaii noaaie aaoi?neiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e o.i.

Iniiaiie oi?iie io?aiu ecia?aoaiee e i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia aue ia
iaoaio, a aaoi?neia naeaeaoaeuenoai (naeaeaoaeuenoai), eioi?ia
cae?aieyei eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia eniieueciaaiea oaoie/aneeo e
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aoaiee ia ca eo nicaeaoaeyie, a ca
ainoaea?noaii.

Aaoi?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?ac?aoaei naiaiaeii eniieueciaaoue
auiouaiiua a naao i?iecaaaeaiey a eeii, ia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiee, a
aacaoao e o.ae. E aaoi?neia, e ecia?aoaoaeueneia i?aai aeiioneaee
i?eioaeeoaeueiue aueoi noauaeoeaiuo i?aa ia oai?/aneea aeinoeaeaiey o
iaeaaeaoaeae oaeeo i?aa, aiciiaeiinoue auaea/e i?eioaeeoaeueiuo
?ac?aoaiee ia eo eniieueciaaiea e o.i.

I?aaeoniio?aiiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii naieoeee, eioi?ua auee aanueia
iacia/eoaeueiu naie ii naaa, ?aaeeciauaaeenue ia i?aeoeea n aieueoeie
o?oaeiinoyie aaeaeo neiaeiinoe e aeeeoaeueiinoe noaeaaiie i?ioeaaeo?u,
ionoonoaey caeioa?aniaaiiinoe aaeaieaoia a aaaeaiee iiaeiaiuo aeae e
o.ae. A ?acoeueoaoa i?e ianniauo ia?ooaieyo aaoi?neeo, ecia?aoaoaeueneeo
e iaoaioiuo i?aa eiee/anoai noaeaaiuo aeae aeaiiie eaoaai?ee auei i/aiue
iacia/eoaeueiui.

?aoi?ia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iinayuaiiiai io?aia eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe, ia/aeanue aua a ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey NNN?. A 1991 a.
auee i?eiyou iiaua Iniiau a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e
?anioaeee, eiaaoea a naiai ninoaaa ?acaeaeu, iinayuaiiua aaoi?neiio
i?aao, i?aao ia ecia?aoaiea e ae?oaea ?acoeueoaou oai?/anoaa,
eniieuecoaiua a i?iecaiaenoaa, Caeii NNN? «Ia ecia?aoaieyo a NNN?»,
Caeii NNN? «I i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeao», Caeii NNN? «I oiaa?iuo ciaeao e
ciaeao ianeoaeeaaiey», a oaeaea iaeioi?ua ec ?acaeaathueo eo iieiaeaiey
iiaecaeiiiuo aeoia. Oioy i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea, iaania/eaaaiia
iacaaiiuie caeiiaie e eiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie, ioee/aeinue iaeioi?ie
iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth e iaiieiioie, a oeaeii eo i?eiyoea ciaiaiiaaei
niaie ?aoeoaeueiue ia?aai?io a ?anniao?eaaaiie noa?a.

A ?innee e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie a iniiaiii caaa?oaia ?aoi?ia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia io?aia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. A
1992—1993 aa. a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?eiyo aeie caeiiia ii io?aia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, a oii /enea Iaoaioiue caeii ?O io 23
naioya?y 1992 a., Caeii ?O «I oiaa?iuo ciaeao, ciaeao ianeoaeeaaiey e
iaeiaiiaaieyo iano i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia» io 23 naioya?y 1992 a.,
Caeii ?O «I i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii aeey yeaeo?iiii-au/eneeoaeueiuo
iaoei e aac aeaiiuo» io 23 naioya?y 1992 a., Caeii ?O «Ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» io 9 ethey 1993 a., Caeii ?O «I naeaeoeeiiiuo
aeinoeaeaieyo» io 6 aaaonoa 1993 a. Iieiaeaiey oeacaiiuo caeiiia
iieo/eee ?acaeoea a oeaeii ?yaea iiaecaeiiiuo aeoia, i?eiyouo
i?aceaeaioii ?O, i?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O, Iaoaioiui aaaeiinoaii ?O e
iaeioi?uie ae?oaeie i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Iieiinoueth
nicaeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu aoaeao caaa?oaii oiaaea, eiaaea aoaeoo
i?eiyou caeiiu i neoaeaaiuo ?ac?aaioeao, i ii?yaeea ?aaeno?aoeee e
eniieueciaaiey oe?iaiiuo iaeiaiiaaiee, ieii/aoaeueii o?aaoee?iaaiu
aii?inu i i?aaiaii ?aaeeia ioe?uoee e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neeo i?aaeeiaeaiee,
a oaeaea i?eiyou iaeioi?ua iiaecaeiiiua aeou ii ioaeaeueiui aniaeoai
aaoi?neeo, iaoaioiuo e eiuo ioiioaiee.

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie a iniiaiii caaa?oaii nicaeaiea aaeeiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoaioiie neoaeau ai aeaaa n Iaoaioiui aaaeiinoaii ?O.
A yoii ieaia ?inney, eiia/ii, ieacaeanue a cia/eoaeueii eo/oai
iieiaeaiee ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie auaoeie ?anioaeeeaie Niaaoneiai
Nithca, iineieueeo ana iniiaiua nithciua iaoaioiua i?aaiu e oiiaeu auee
nin?aaeioi/aiu a Iineaa e eiaiii ia eo aaca auea nicaeaia ?inneeneay
iaoaioiay neoaeaa. Ca ei?ioeee ia?eiae a?aiaie a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
aiciee einoeooo iaoaioiuo iiaa?aiiuo, eioi?ue i?iaeieaeaao nae/an
aeoeaii ?acaeaaoueny. Iaeaieaa aeooaeueiie i?iaeaiie a ?anniao?eaaaiie
iaeanoe yaeyaony aii?in i nicaeaiee Aunoae iaoaioiie iaeaou eee eiiai
iacaaeneiiai io Iaoaioiiai aaaeiinoaa i?aaia, i?ecaaiiiai ?ac?aoaoue
iiiaea aaaeiua iaoaioiua aii?inu e nii?u, eioi?ua oeacaiu a Iaoaioiii
caeiia ?O.

Nicaeaii ?inneeneia aaaionoai ii i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii aeey YAI, aac
aeaiiuo e oiiieiaee eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai.

A noa?a io?aiu naeaeoeeiiiuo aeinoeaeaiee ooieoeee iaoaioiiai aaaeiinoaa
aiceiaeaiu ia nicaeaiioth a yoeo oeaeyo Ainoaea?noaaiioth eiienneth
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii eniuoaieth e io?aia naeaeoeeiiiuo
aeinoeaeaiee.

Neacaiiia, ?acoiaaony, ia neaaeoao ?anoeaieaaoue eae auaiae i oii, /oi a
?anniao?eaaaiie iaeanoe ?aoaiu ana iniiaiua i?iaeaiu. Aii?inia, eioi?ua
aua oieueei i?aaenoieo ?aoeoue, aieaa /ai aeinoaoi/ii. E aeaaiui ec ieo
yaeyaony caaea/a ii aiieiuaieth a ?aaeueioth aeeciue oao cae?aieaiiuo
?inneeneeie caeiiaie ia io?aia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
i?aaeienaiee, eioi?ua aia?aua a enoi?ee ?innee niioaaonoaotho
o?aaiaaieyi oeeaeeeciaaiiiai iauanoaa. Ia nae?ao, /oi eiaiii nae/an,
eiaaea i?eiyo oeaeue aeie ioaa/athueo nia?aiaiiui o?aaiaaieyi caeiiia, a
iaoae no?aia iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiue ?ino /enea ia?ooaiee aaoi?neeo
e iaoaioiuo i?aa.

Aaconeiaii, iaeiie ec i?e/ei oaeiai iieiaeaiey yaeyaony e neaaia ciaiea
naieo i?aa aaoi?aie, ecia?aoaoaeyie, iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeyie e eiuie
eeoeaie, nicaeathueie e eniieuecothueie iauaeou eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Iiaia ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia io?aia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, eae i?aaeei, ieioi inaiaii e th?enoaie,
eioi?ua iau/ii ecaaaatho a?aoueny ca aaaeaiea aeiaieueii neiaeiuo aeae
aeaiiie eaoaai?ee.

I?e yoii iieee eieaeiuo iaaaceiia caaaeaiu aanueia niiieoaeueiuie ii
ea/anoao e ia?aaeei aeaaea aacuiyiiuie i?aeoe/aneeie iiniaeyie,
neaaeiaaiea niaaoai eioi?uo ca/anooth i?inoi iianii.

A naiae ?aaioa y iinoa?aeny naeaeaoue aeoeaio ia i?aeoe/aneii aiaeeca
aeaenoaothuaai ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia io?aia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

AEAAA 1. IIIssOEA E AEAeU IAUAEOIA EIOAEEAEOOAEUeIIE NIANOAAIIINOE.

( 1. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue eae iauaeo a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa.

N?aaee iauaeoia a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa, o.a. oao iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeooiaiuo
aeaa, ii iiaiaeo eioi?uo noauaeou a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa anooiatho iaaeaeo
niaie a i?aaiaua ioiioaiey, no. 128 A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee (aeaeaa — AE ?O) iacuaaao ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a oii /enea eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia ieo. Iaeiia?aiaiii
caeiiiaeaoaeue eniieuecoao aeey eo iaicia/aiey oaeia niae?aoaeueiia
iiiyoea, eae eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue. A iaiauaiiii aeaea
niaea?aeaiea aeaiiiai iiiyoey ?ane?uaaao no. 138 AE ?O, oeacuaathuay,
/oi «a neo/ayo e a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiuo ianoiyuei Eiaeaenii e
ae?oaeie caeiiaie, i?eciaaony eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai (eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue) a?aaeaeaieia eee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea ia ?acoeueoaou
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe e i?e?aaiaiiua e iei n?aaenoaa
eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaiiuo ?aaio eee oneoa (oe?iaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea,
oiaa?iue ciae, ciae ianeoaeeaaiey e o.i.). Aieaa aeaoaeueii iiiyoea
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe aoaeao ?ane?uoi, ii anae aeaeeiinoe, a
o?aoueae /anoe AE ?O, i?iaeo eioi?ie ?ac?aaaouaaaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.

Iaeiaei iacaaeneii io oiai, a eaeie eiie?aoiie oi?ia yoi aoaeao
naeaeaii, oaea nae/an a ioa/anoaaiiie th?eni?oaeaioeee, ?aaii eae e a
ca?oaaaeiie th?eaee/aneie iaoea, iaiaoeeenue aeaa iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea e
?anniao?eaaaiiio iiiyoeth. Iaeie o/aiua i?eaaonoaotho cae?aieaiea a
caeiia aeaiiiai iiiyoey e ia oniao?eaatho a eniieueciaaiee
caeiiiaeaoaeai oa?ieia «eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue» eaeeo-eeai
yeaiaioia iaiao/iiai iiaeoiaea. Ii iiaieth ae?oaeo o/aiuo, aeaiiue
oa?iei yaeyaony ecia/aeueii iaoi/iui e iaiao/iui, a nayce n /ai ii
iiaeao i?eiaiyoueny eeoue a iieeoe/aneeo aeoao, ii ieeae ia a i?aaiauo
ii?iao, eiathueo i?aeoe/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaiiue nii? aiciee ia naaiaeiy, a ooiaeeo
naieie ei?iyie aua e eiioeo XIX aaea. Oaea oiaaea iiiyoea
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e aai ninoaaeythuea — eeoa?aoo?iay
(ooaeiaeanoaaiiay) e i?iiuoeaiiay nianoaaiiinoue — eioi?ua oe?iei
eniieueciaaeenue a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iiiaeo no?ai ie?a e a aaaeiaeoeo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiiaaioeeyo, iiaeaa?aaeenue ?aceie e?eoeea ni noi?iiu
?yaea ecaanoiuo o/aiuo. Iaeiaei i?aaeaea /ai ia?aoeoueny e aiaeeco
aeiaiaeia, i?eaiaeeiuo iau/ii noi?iiieeaie e i?ioeaieeaie
?anniao?eaaaiiai iiiyoey e, iaaei neacaoue, iaei eciaieaoeony ca
i?ioaaeoaa noieaoea, oeaeaniia?acii oioy au ae?aooea inaaoeoue aaiacen
iiiyoey «eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue».

I?ienoiaeaeaiea naiiai oa?ieia «eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue» iau/ii
naycuaaaony n o?aioeocneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eiioea XVIII aaea, /oi ai
iiiaii yaeyaony ni?aaaaeeeaui. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, o?aaeeoeey
i?ii?eaoa?iiai iiaeoiaea e aaoi?neiio e iaoaioiiio i?aao ia oieueei
?iaeeeanue ai O?aioeee, ii e iie?aeanue a naiae iniiaa ia oai?eth
anoanoaaiiiai i?aaa, eioi?ay iieo/eea naia iaeaieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiia
?acaeoea eiaiii a o?oaeao o?aioeocneeo oeeinioia-i?inaaoeoaeae
(Aieueoa?, Aeeae?i, Aieueaao, Aaeueaaoeee, ?onni).

Oae, ai aaiaeiie /anoe o?aioeocneiai iaoaioiiai caeiia io 7 yiaa?y 1791
a. aiai?eeinue, /oi «anyeay iiaay eaeay, i?iaicaeaoaiea e inouanoaeaiea
eioi?ie iiaeao auoue iieaciui aeey iauanoaa, i?eiaaeeaaeeo oiio, eoi aa
nicaeae, e auei au ia?aie/aieai i?aa /aeiaaea ia ?anniao?eaaoue iiaia
i?iiuoeaiiia ecia?aoaiea eae nianoaaiiinoue aai oai?oea». Eiae/aneei
neaaenoaeai oaeiai iiaeoiaea noaei cae?aieaiea ai o?aioeocneii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iiiyoee eeoa?aoo?iie e i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe.
Ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee ioaeii, iaeiaei, ioiaoeoue, /oi aua ?aiueoa eaeay
ia aaoi?neii i?aaa eae «naiii nayuaiiii aeaea nianoaaiiinoe» auea
aiieiuaia a caeiiao iaeioi?uo ooaoia NOA. Oae, a caeiia ooaoa
Ianna/onaon io 17 ia?oa 1789 a. oeacuaaeinue, /oi «iao nianoaaiiinoe,
i?eiaaeeaaeauae /aeiaaeo aieaa, /ai oa, eioi?ay yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
aai oinoaaiiiai o?oaea»1 . Aiaeiae/iua eiino?oeoeee auee cae?aieaiu
oaeaea a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Naeniiee, I?onnee, Aeaiee, Ii?aaaee e ?yaea
ae?oaeo no?ai.

?iaeeiie ia?auo aaoi?neiai e iaoaioiiai caeiiia a eo nia?aiaiiii niunea
ii i?aao n/eoaaony Aiaeey. Eiaiii caeanue aua a 1623 a. i?e ei?iea
sseiaa Notha?oa aue i?eiyo «Noaooo i iiiiiieeyo», eioi?ui
i?iaicaeaoaeinue eneeth/eoaeueiia e iacaaeneiia io aiee ei?iey i?aai
eaaeaeiai, eoi nicaeano e i?eiaieo oaoie/aneia iiaoanoai, iiiiiieueii
iieueciaaoueny a oa/aiea 14 eao auaiaeaie e i?aeiouanoaaie,
aeinoaaeyaiuie oaeei iiaoanoaii. A 1710 a. a Aiaeee iiyaeyaony e ia?aue
aaoi?neee caeii, ecaanoiue iiae iacaaieai «Noaooo ei?ieaau Aiiu»,
eioi?ui aaoi?o i?aaeinoaaeyeinue eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia ioaeeeaoeeth
i?iecaaaeaiey a oa/aiea 14 eao n iiiaioa aai nicaeaiey n aiciiaeiinoueth
i?iaeeaiey yoiai n?iea aua ia 14 eao i?e aeecie aaoi?a. Aneaae ca
Aiaeeae iaoaioiua e aaoi?neea caeiiu auee i?eiyou a ?yaea ae?oaeo
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai e a NOA.

Ioeaieaay cia/aiea yoeo ia?auo caeiiia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iniiaiie
eo oeaeueth auei ia?aaeaeaiea eioa?ania ecaeaoaeae e i?iiuoeaiieeia. Eae
i?aaeei, eiaiii iie, a ia aaoi?u e ecia?aoaoaee auiineee ia ?uiie
?acoeueoaou oai?/aneiai o?oaea e iioiio ioaeaeaeenue a iiiiiieee ia eo
?aaeecaoeeth.

Iiaeoiae e aaoi?neiio e iaoaioiiio i?aao eae e nianoaaiiinoe iieo/ee
iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea a XIX aaea. Aaoi?neea e iaoaioiua caeiiu
aieueoeinoaa aa?iiaeneeo no?ai a oie eee a eiie noaiaie i?e?aaieaaee
i?aaa nicaeaoaeae oai?/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee e i?aao nianoaaiiinoe, a
eiiaaea e i?yii ioiineee eo e aeaeaeeiiio eiouanoao. A 1883 a. auea
i?eiyoa Ia?eaeneay eiiaaioeey ii io?aia i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe,
eioi?ay i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny aaaeiaeoei iaaeaeoia?iaeiui niaeaoaieai
a iaeanoe io?aiu i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aa. O?aaeeoeey i?ii?eaoa?iiai iiaeoiaea
e aaoi?neiio e iaoaioiiio i?aao aeinoaoi/ii neeueia e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy.
Oa?iei «eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue» oe?iei eniieuecoaony a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a e a i?aeoeea iiiaeo no?ai. A
1967 a. a Noieaieueia auea iiaeienaia Eiiaaioeey, o/?aaeaeathuay
Anaie?ioth i?aaiecaoeeth eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe (AIEN), a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie iauaeoaie io?aiu yaeythony i?aaa, ioiinyueany e
eiie?aoiui ?acoeueoaoai oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie,
iao/iie e ooaeiaeanoaaiiie iaeanoyo.

Iaeiaei, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ianiio?y ia naia oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea,
iiiyoea eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe i?aeoe/anee n?aco aea n iiiaioa
naiaai iiyaeaiey iiaeaa?aeinue e?eoeea ni noi?iiu iiiaeo o/aiuo.
I?ioeaieee aeaiiiai iiiyoey iau/ii oeacuaaee e i?iaeieaeatho
iiae/a?eeaaoue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, /oi iaeuecy ioiaeaeanoaeyoue i?aaiaie
?aaeei iaoa?eaeueiuo aauae e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia, eaeiauie
yaeythony ii naiae nooe aaoi?neea i?iecaaaeaiey e ?acee/iua oaoie/aneea
iiaoanoaa; /oi a ioee/ea io i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ia a i?eioeeia
aann?i/ii e ia iiaeaa?aeaii eaeei-eeai oa??eoi?eaeueiui ia?aie/aieyi,
i?aaa aaoi?ia, ecia?aoaoaeae e eo i?aaii?aaiieeia ecia/aeueii ia?aie/aiu
ai a?aiaie e a i?ino?ainoaa; /oi aaoi?neea e iaoaioiua i?aaa caueuathony
n iiiiuueth niaa?oaiey eiuo i?aaiauo n?aaenoa ii n?aaiaieth n oaie,
eioi?ua i?eiaiythony aeey caueou i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe; /oi i?aai ia
oai?/aneee ?acoeueoao ia?ac?uaii naycaii n ee/iinoueth aai nicaeaoaey e
o.i. ?aaae?oy ia yoe a iauai-oi ni?aaaaeeeaua caia/aiey, noi?iiieee
oai?ee eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe noaee iiae/a?eeaaoue, /oi ?a/ue a
aeaiiii neo/aa eaeao i nianoaaiiinoe iniaiai ?iaea, eioi?ay o?aaoao
niaoeeaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a aeaeo aa iaiaoa?eaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a2 ,
ec-ca oiai, /oi iauaeoaie i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe aeaaeaeueoeaa iaoaioia,
noauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa e oiaa?iuo ciaeia yaeythony iainycaaiua e
aanoaeaniua aaue3 .

Naia eiae/aneia caaa?oaiea iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae iaoae a oai?ee
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo i?aa, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie i?aaa aaoi?ia,
ecia?aoaoaeae, iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeae e o.ae. aeieaeiu auoue i?eciaiu
i?aaaie sui generis, o.a. i?aaaie iniaiai ?iaea, iaoiaeyueieny aia
eeanne/aneiai aeaeaiey a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa ia aauiua, iaycaoaeueiua e
ee/iua. Oai?ey iniauo eioaeeaeooaeueiuo i?aa, iiiaea noi?iiieee eioi?ie
aiiaua aunooiatho i?ioea eniieueciaaiey oa?ieia «eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue», yaeyaony a iaoe aeie iaeiie ec iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo.

A yoie nayce iaaacuioa?anii i?ineaaeeoue ca oai, eae iaiyeinue ioiioaiea
e iiiyoeth eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a ioa/anoaaiiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e a th?eaee/aneie iaoea. ?inneeneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai XIX aaea i?yii ioiineei i?aaa aaoi?ia, ecia?aoaoaeae,
aeaaeaeueoeaa oaa?e/iuo ?enoieia e iiaeaeae e o.ae. e i?aao
nianoaaiiinoe. A /anoiinoe, niaea?aeaiea i?aa aaoi?ia ?ane?uaaeinue a
i?eia/aiee e no. 420 o. O /. 1 Naiaea caeiiia ?inneeneie Eiia?ee,
eioi?ay aeaaaea iauoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. Iiiuoee
iiaeaanoe i?aaa ia oai?/aneea aeinoeaeaiey iiae aauiia i?aai
i?aaei?eieiaeenue oaeaea i?e ninoaaeaiee i?iaeoia A?aaeaeaineiai
Oeiaeaiey e niaoeeaeueiuo caeiiia ia io?aia i?aa ia oai?/aneea
?acoeueoaou, eioi?ua ?ac?aaaouaaeenue a ?innee a eiioea XIX — ia/aea XX
aaeia1 . Iaeiaei oaea oiaaea oaeie iiaeoiae aue ioaa?aioo, oae eae
aieueoeinoai o/aiuo auneacuaaeinue a iieueco eniieueciaaiey a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aieaa oi/iiai oa?ieia «eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa»2.
Iiiyoey eeoa?aoo?iie e i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe i?aeoe/anee ia?anoaee
i?eiaiyoueny aeey iaicia/aiey aaoi?neeo, ecia?aoaoaeueneeo e iaoaioiuo
i?aa, a anee e eniieueciaaeenue, oi a iniiaiii a ea/anoaa iauaeoa aeey
e?eoeee. Ioiioaiea e iiiyoeth eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a
niaaoneee ia?eiae ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa auei
iaeiicia/ii io?eoeaoaeueiui. Iiieii nnueie ia aai iaoi/iinoue,
aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia iiae/a?eeaaee aua e ao?aeoacioth, yenieoaoaoi?neoth
nouiinoue aeaiiiai iiiyoey. Aaeeinoaaiiia eneeth/aiea a yoii ieaia
ninoaaeyee ii?iu aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eioi?ua auee nin?aaeioi/aiu a
niaoeeaeueiii caeiia, a n na?aaeeiu 60-o aiaeia — a iniaii ?acaeaea
A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?NON? 1964a.

Aia?aua iinea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?a?uaa oa?iei «eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue» iiyaeeny a Caeiia NNN? «I nianoaaiiinoe a NNN?» io 6
ia?oa 1990 a.3 A no. 2 aeaiiiai caeiia, iinayuaiiie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i
nianoaaiiinoe, auei oeacaii, /oi «ioiioaiey ii nicaeaieth e
eniieueciaaieth ecia?aoaiee, ioe?uoee, i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u,
eneonnoaa e ae?oaeo iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
?aaoee?othony niaoeeaeueiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Nithca NN?, nithciuo e
aaoiiiiiuo ?anioaeee». I?eiyoue anei?a Caeii ?NON? «I nianoaaiiinoe a
?NON?» io 24 aeaeaa?y 1990 a.4 ia?yaeo n iiaoi?aieai a i. 4 no. 1, a
nouiinoe, oie aea iunee, a /. 2 i. 4 no. 2 aeiiieieoaeueii ?acuyniye,
/oi «iauaeoaie eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe yaeythony i?iecaaaeaiey
iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u, eneonnoaa e ae?oaeo aeaeia oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa, a oii /enea ioe?uoey, ecia?aoaiey,
?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neea i?aaeeiaeaiey, i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu, i?ia?aiiu aeey
YAI, aacu aeaiiuo, yenia?oiua nenoaiu, iio-oao, oi?aiaua nae?aou,
oiaa?iua ciaee, oe?iaiiua iaeiaiiaaiey e ciaee ianeoaeeaaiey». Inoaaeyy
a noi?iia aii?inu ia oianoiinoe iiiauaiey aeaiiie ii?iu a Caeiia i
nianoaaiiinoe e ei??aeoiinoe ia?a/iy iacaaiiuo a iae iauaeoia i?aaiaie
io?aiu, ioiaoei eeoue, /oi n naiiai ia/aea e nithciia, e ?inneeneia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai enoiaeeee ec oiai, /oi eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue ia ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e eiua
i?e?aaiaiiua e iei iauaeou, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e nianoaaiiinoue ia
eiouanoai, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, yaeythony oioy e aeeceeie, ii ?aciuie
i?aaiauie einoeoooaie5 .

Iniiau a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e ?anioaeee io 31
iay 1991 a. oioy e aeeth/aee a naie ninoaa aeaa niaoeeaeueiuo ?acaeaea,
iinayuaiiua aaoi?neiio i?aao e i?aao ia ecia?aoaiea e ae?oaea
?acoeueoaou oai?/anoaa, eniieuecoaiua a i?iecaiaenoaa, iiiyoeai
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ia iia?e?iaaee.

Iaeiaei ei a?aiaie aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea Iniia a?aaeaeaineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (4 aaaonoa 1992
a.) iiiyoea eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe oaea i?i/ii aioei a
th?eaee/aneee iai?io, o.a. oe?iei eniieueciaaeinue a ?acee/iuo
iiaecaeiiiuo aeoao e a ioaeeeaoeeyo ia th?eaee/aneea oaiu. I?aaaea, ec
i?eiyouo a 1992—1993 aa. caeiiia ia io?aia ?acoeueoaoia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe i nianoaaiiinoe ia aeinoeaiooue
?acoeueoao, aea e oi a oneiaiii, niae?aoaeueiii niunea, aiai?eeinue
eeoue a iaeiii ec ieo, a eiaiii a Iaoaioiii caeiia ?O.

Ieii/aoaeueii oa?iei «eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue» aue ocaeiiai
iiaie Eiinoeoooeeae ?O io 12 aeaeaa?y 1993 a. Oioy noaouey 44
Eiinoeoooeee ?O, iinayuaiiay naiaiaea eeoa?aoo?iiai, ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai,
iao/iiai, oaoie/aneiai e ae?oaeo aeaeia oai?/anoaa, e ia ?ane?uaaao
niaea?aeaiea aeaiiiai iiiyoey, ii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi «eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue io?aiyaony caeiiii».

( 2. Aeaeu iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ii ?inneeneiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, iiaue AE ?O, eioi?ue oaeaea iia?e?oao aeaiiui
iiiyoeai, ?ane?uaaao a iauai aeaea aai niaea?aeaiea a no. 138. Aiaeec
oeacaiiie noaouee iicaieyao naeaeaoue aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiue auaiae i oii,
/oi iiae eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth a ?inneeneii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iiieiaaony ia /oi eiia, eae niaieoiiinoue
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a
oaeaea iaeioi?ua eiua i?e?aaiaiiua e iei iauaeou, a /anoiinoe n?aaenoaa
eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee o/anoieeia a?aaeaeaineiai iai?ioa e i?iecaiaeeiie
eie i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa). Ia?a/iy eiie?aoiuo iauaeoia i?aaiaie
io?aiu, iiaeiaaeathueo iiae iiiyoea eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe,
eiaeaen ia niaea?aeeo. Iaeiaei ec no. 138 AE ?O iaeiicia/ii neaaeoao,
/oi niioaaonoaothuay i?aaiaay io?aia ?acoeueoaoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e ae?oaeo i?e?aaiaiiuo e iei iauaeoia iaania/eaaaony
eeoue «a neo/ayo e a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiuo ianoiyuei Eiaeaenii e
ae?oaeie caeiiaie». Yoi icia/aao, /oi aeey ioianaiey oiai eee eiiai
?acoeueoaoa eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe eee eiiai iauaeoa e
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe o?aaoaony i?yiia oeacaiea caeiia.

Iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue i?aaenoaaeyaony ii?aaaeaiiui,
iineieueeo, ai-ia?auo, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aua ionoonoaotho ?aaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey iaania/aiey i?aaiaie io?aiu ethauo eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
aeinoeaeaiee, e, ai-aoi?uo, i?aaeinoaaeaiea io?aiu iaeioi?ui
?acoeueoaoai a?yae ee oeaeaniia?acii ii /enoi i?aeoe/aneei
niia?aaeaieyi. Oae, ia aucuaaao niiiaiee i?aaiia?iinoue iinoaiiaee
aii?ina i aaaaeaiee i?aaiaie io?aiu iao/iuo eaeae, aeiioac, oai?ee e
eiuo iiaeiaiuo iao/iuo ?acoeueoaoia1 . I?iaeaia, iaeiaei, ninoieo a oii,
eae nicaeaoue niioaaonoaothuee i?aaiaie iaoaieci, ia i?eaaaay e ei?aiiie
eiiea neiaeeaoeony i?aaiauo einoeoooia e ia noaay i?aiyonoaee aeey
?acaeoey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Iiea iiiuoee ioaeaeueiuo o/aiuo
e caeiiiaeaoaeae ?aoeoue yoo i?iaeaio eaeeie-eeai cia/eoaeueiuie
oniaoaie ia oaai/aeenue. I?eia?ii iauaeoa, io?aia eioi?iai aiieia iiaeao
auoue iaania/aia a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ?aieao, ii a?yae ee
oeaeaniia?acia ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia, iiaeao neoaeeoue aeaeaicaienue. A
i?eioeeieaeueiii ieaia aeaeaicaiene ie/ai ia ioee/athony io
caoeicaienae, io?aiyaiuo a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec iauaeoia niaaeiuo i?aa, e
n oai?aoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, aaconeiaii, aeieaeiu auoue i?e/eneaiu e
/eneo iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Iaeiaei a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy a aieueoeinoaa no?ai, i?aaeoniao?eaathueo io?aio niaaeiuo i?aa,
aeaeaicaiene iauaeoaie niaaeiuo i?aa ia i?eciathony. Ia iaania/eaaaony
eo io?aia e Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiaaioeeae ia io?aia eioa?ania
a?oenoia-eniieieoaeae, i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiiia?aii e aauaoaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeee. A yoeo oneiaeyo aaaaeaiea a ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
niaoeeaeueiie io?aiu aeaeaicaienae1 i?aaenoaaeyaony iaoeaeaniia?aciui,
oai aieaa n o/aoii oiai, /oi ia ieo ?ani?ino?aiythony iauea ii?iu
aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Ionoonoaea a AE ?O oeacaiey ia eiie?aoiua aeaeu io?aiyaiuo iauaeoia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue iooai
i?eiyoey niioaaonoaothueo caeiiia eee aianaiey a ieo eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee ioiineoue e eo /eneo oa eee eiua ?acoeueoaou
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. aieaa iia?aoeaii e ia iaiyy
naiiai AE ?O ?aoaoue ana yoe aii?inu. Eae iieacuaaao ie?iaie iiuo
iineaaeieo aeaoo-o?ao aeanyoeeaoee, /enei e aeaeu io?aiyaiuo
?acoeueoaoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe iinoiyiii ?anoe?ythony.
Oae, oieueei ca iineaaeiea iyoue eao e?oa io?aiyaiuo a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe iiiieieeny
iieaciuie iiaeaeyie, iaeiaiiaaieyie iano i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia,
oiiieiaeyie eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai, i?ia?aiiaie aeey YAI, aacaie
aeaiiuo, neoaeaaiie e eiiia?/aneie oaeiie, iauaeoaie niaaeiuo i?aa.
Iai?ioea, oaeea ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eae
ioe?uoey e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neea i?aaeeiaeaiey, eeoeeenue i?aeoe/aneie
io?aiu, oioy aii?in i ieo a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ieaia aei neo ii? iiea
ieii/aoaeueii ia ?aoai. Oae eee eia/a, eiie?aoiue ninoaa iauaeoia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe ia iaoiaeeony a canouaoai ninoiyiee, a,
iai?ioea, iinoiyiii ooi/iyaony e eiie?aoece?oaony.

( 3. Iiiyoea e aeaeu eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a ca?oaaaeiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

Oa?aeoa?ecoy iiiyoea eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, iaeuecy iaieoe
aieiaieai e aii?in i oii, /oi aeeaaeuaaaony a iaai aaaeiaeoeie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie niaeaoaieyie, oai aieaa, /oi a niioaaonoaee n
Eiinoeoooeeae ?O oa ec ieo, a eioi?uo o/anoaoao ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey,
yaeythony ninoaaiie /anoueth ?inneeneie i?aaiaie nenoaiu (i. 4 no. 15).
Iaeaieaa iieiui ia?acii iiiyoea eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe
?ane?uaaaony a ioieoa VIII no. 2 Eiiaaioeee, o/?aaeaeathuae Anaie?ioth
i?aaiecaoeeth eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, io 14 ethey 1967 a. A iae
oeacuaaaony, /oi eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue aeeth/aao i?aaa,
ioiinyueany e: eeoa?aoo?iui, ooaeiaeanoaaiiui e iao/iui i?iecaaaeaieyi;
eniieieoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a?oenoia, caoeicaiene, ?aaeei- e
oaeaaeceiiiui ia?aaea/ai; ecia?aoaieyi ai anao iaeanoyo /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe; iao/iui ioe?uoeyi; i?iiuoeaiiui ia?acoeai; oiaa?iui
ciaeai, ciaeai ianeoaeeaaiey, oe?iaiiui iaeiaiiaaieyi e eiiia?/aneei
iaicia/aieyi; caueoa i?ioea iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee; a oaeaea ana
ae?oaea i?aaa, ioiinyueany e eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, iao/iie, eeoa?aoo?iie e ooaeiaeanoaaiiie iaeanoyo.

Iao?oaeii caiaoeoue, /oi a iacaaiiie eiiaaioeee, eae e a AE ?O, oa?iei
«eioaeeaeooaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue» eniieuecoaony a niae?aoaeueiii
niunea, iaicia/ay niaie ana i?aaa ia ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e iaeioi?ua i?e?aaiaiiua e iei iauaeou. Niaea?aeaueeny a
eiiaaioeee ia?a/aiue eiie?aoiuo aeaeia eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa iineo
i?eia?iue oa?aeoa? e iiaeao auoue eaaei aeiiieiai eiuie ?acoeueoaoaie
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. I/aaeaeiui yaeyaony e oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ia /eaiia AIEN ia iaeaaaaony iaycaoaeuenoai
iaania/eoue a naieo no?aiao io?aio anao ia?a/eneaiiuo a eiiaaioeee i?aa
e iie naie ii?aaeaeytho e?oa io?aiyaiuo iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe. Iaeiiaoe, aeaaea i?e neeoeii neeueiii aeaeaiee a
i?eaaaeaiiii auoa ii?aaeaeaiee o?oaeii oniio?aoue eaeoth-eeai naycue
(e?iia /enoi oa?ieiieiae/aneiai noiaenoaa) iiiyoey eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe e i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe a aai o?aaeeoeeiiiii niunea.

Iiaeaiaey ii?aaeaeaiiue eoia neacaiiiio, iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi e
nia?aiaiiia ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua niaeaoaiey
iiieiatho iiae eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth niaieoiiinoue
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa eae ee/iiai, oae e eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a ia
?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea ia iaeioi?ua eiua i?e?aaiaiiua e iei iauaeou,
eiie?aoiue ia?a/aiue eioi?uo onoaiaaeeaaaony caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
niioaaonoaothuae no?aiu n o/aoii i?eiyouo aai iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
iaycaoaeuenoa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oa?iei «eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue» eeoue a enoi?e/aneii ieaia naycai n oai?eae
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe eiioea XVIII — ia/aea XIX aaeia e ia
oaeo a naaa ieeaeie ?aaeueiie iianiinoe a /anoe aaaaeaiey a
caaeoaeaeaiea ioiineoaeueii th?eaee/aneie i?e?iaeu oao i?aa, aeey
iaicia/aiey eioi?uo ii iau/ii eniieuecoaony. Iiyoiio aeey aai i?eiaiaiey
e a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, e a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iao ieeaeeo
na?ueaciuo i?ioeaiiieacaiee.

AEAAA 2. NIAOeEOEEA ?AAOEE?IAAIEss IOAeAEUeIUO AEAeIA IAUAEOIA
EIOAEEAEOOAEUeIIE NIANOAAIIINOE.

( 1. Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Eae oaea iaiaeiie?aoii ioia/aeinue, iiiyoea «eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue» yaeyaony iaiauathuei ii ioiioaieth e oaeei eniieuecoaiui
a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iiiyoeyi, eae
«eeoa?aoo?iay e ooaeiaeanoaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue». Iineaaeiaa iaicia/aao,
niioaaonoaaiii, aaoi?neia i?aai, aeaenoaea eioi?iai ?ani?ino?aiyaony
oaeaea eae ?acoeueoaou iao/iiai oai?/anoaa («iao/iay nianoaaiiinoue»).

Ei ?aaoee?othony ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a nayce n nicaeaieai e
eniieueciaaieai i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa (aaoi?neia
i?aai), oiiia?aii, eniieiaiee, iinoaiiaie, ia?aaea/ i?aaiecaoeee
yoe?iiai e eaaaeueiiai aauaiey (niaaeiua i?aaa). Iauaaeeiaiea a aaeeiii
einoeoooa, eioi?ue a aeaeueiaeoai aeey e?aoeinoe aoaeao eiaiiaaoueny
i?inoi aaoi?neei i?aaii, aeaoo oeacaiiuo a?oii ii?i iauyniyaony
oaniaeoae caaeneiinoueth aicieeiiaaiey e inouanoaeaiey niaaeiuo i?aa io
i?aa aaoi?ia oai?/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee, a oaeaea o?aaoee?iaaiiinoueth
niioaaonoaothueo ioiioaiee aaeeiui caeiiii.

A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo caaea/ (ooieoeee) aaoi?neiai i?aaa /aua anaai a
th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iacuaatho aeaa neaaeothuea caaea/e. N iaeiie
noi?iiu, aaoi?neia i?aai aeieaeii noeioee?iaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue ii
nicaeaieth i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa. A yoeo oeaeyo
aaoi?neia i?aai niinianoaoao nicaeaieth oneiaee aeey caiyoey oai?/aneei
o?oaeii, iaania/eaaao i?aaiaia i?eciaiea e io?aio aeinoeaioouo
oai?/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia, cae?aieaiea ca aaoi?aie i?aa ia eniieueciaaiea
nicaeaiiuo eie i?iecaaaeaiee e iieo/aiea aeioiaeia e o.ae. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, caaea/ae aaoi?neiai i?aaa n/eoaaony nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey
oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee a eioa?anao iauanoaa. Eiuie
neiaaie, iiauoaiea o?iaiy io?aiu i?aa aaoi?ia ie a eiai neo/aa ia
aeieaeii i?aiyonoaiaaoue eniieueciaaieth eo i?iecaaaeaiee a oeaeyo
ia?aciaaiey e i?inaauaiey eee neoaeeoue iiiaoie a no?aieaiee naiie
oe?ieie aoaeeoi?ee /eoaoaeae, c?eoaeae, neooaoaeae ciaeiieoueny n ieie.

Oeacaiiua caaea/e aaoi?neiai i?aaa oaniui ia?acii naycaiu n aai
i?eioeeiaie. I?eioeeiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa — yoi aai iniiaiua ia/aea,
ioi?aaiua eaeae, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho oieaa?naeueiinoueth, aunoae
eiia?aoeaiinoueth e iauacia/eiinoueth. Iie eae au i?iiecuaatho
niaea?aeaiea anae nenoaiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa, i?aaeii?aaeaeytho anth
th?enaeeeoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue e aiieiuathony a noauaeoeaiuo i?aaao
e iaycaiiinoyo o/anoieeia aaoi?neeo i?aaiioiioaiee. Ia aoaeo/e
cae?aieaiiuie a eiie?aoiuo noaoueyo caeiia, i?eioeeiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa
auaiaeyony ec aiaeeca anae niaieoiiinoe aaoi?nei-i?aaiauo ii?i. Ciaiea
i?eioeeiia iicaieyao i?eaioe?iaaoueny a iaoe?iii aaoi?neii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?aaeeueii oieeiaaoue e i?eiaiyoue ia i?aeoeea
ioaeaeueiua aai ii?iu, a oaeaea ?aoaoue aii?inu, ia eioi?ua iao i?yiiai
ioaaoa a aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi e /eneo iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia ?inneeneiai aaoi?neiai
i?aaa, io?aaeaiiuo a niaea?aeaiee aai ii?i ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia
?acaeoey, ioiinyony neaaeothuea iieiaeaiey.

Ai-ia?auo, i?eioeeiii aaoi?neiai i?aaa iiaeao e aeieaeai n/eoaoueny
i?eioeei naiaiaeu oai?/anoaa, eioi?ue i?yii cae?aieai noaoueae 44
Eiinoeoooeee ?O. Aeaiiue i?eioeei, eeoue iaaeaaii iaiieiaiiue ?aaeueiui
niaea?aeaieai, i?iiecuaaao niaie ana aaoi?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai e
eiie?aoece?oaony a oeaeii ?yaea aai ii?i. Oae, ecaanoii, /oi naiaiaea
oai?/anoaa ianiaianoeia n oeaico?ie i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e
eneonnoaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeaico?a a ?innee cai?auaia a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea. Iai?eia?, no. 33 Caeiia ?O «I n?aaenoaao
iannie eioi?iaoeee» io 27 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi
«o?aaiaaiea io ?aaeaeoeee n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee ni noi?iiu
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia, o/?aaeaeaiee eee
iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii niaeaniauaaoue niiauaiey e
iaoa?eaeu (e?iia neo/aaa, eiaaea aeieaeiinoiia eeoei yaeyaony aaoi?ii
eee eioa?auethe?oaiui), a ?aaii iaeiaeaiea cai?aoa ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
niiauaiee e iaoa?eaeia, eo ioaeaeueiuo /anoae, — ia aeiioneathony»1 .

Iaania/eaay naiaiaeo oai?/anoaa, aaoi?neia i?aai io?aiyao ana
i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa iacaaeneii io eo iacia/aiey,
aeinoieinoa e niiniaa au?aaeaiey. A yoeo aea oeaeyo caeii ia
ia?aie/eaaao e?oa io?aiyaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee eaeei-eeai ia?a/iai e
io?aiyao ethaua ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, nouanoaothuea a
iauaeoeaiie oi?ia. Oai?oeu i?iecaaaeaiee naiaiaeiu a auai?a oaiu,
nthaeaoa, aeai?a e oi?iu aiieiuaiey nicaeaaaaiuo eie iiiyoee eee
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ia?acia, a oaeaea naiinoiyoaeueii ?aoatho aii?inu i
auionea naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey a naao, i?eaeaiee i?iecaaaeaieth
ieii/aoaeueiie oi?iu e o.i.

Ai-aoi?uo, i?eioeeiii aaoi?neiai i?aaa yaeyaony ni/aoaiea ee/iuo
eioa?ania aaoi?a n eioa?anaie iauanoaa. Oioy aeaiiue i?eioeei,
aaconeiaii, i?iyaeyaony e a ae?oaeo einoeoooao i?aaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe e a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa a oeaeii, a aaoi?neii i?aaa ii
eiaao iniaia cia/aiea. Iauaecaanoii, /oi a iniiaa aaoi?neiai i?aaa
eaaeeo i?eciaiiia ca aaoi?ii iiiiiieueiia i?aai ia eniieueciaaiea
nicaeaiiiai ei i?iecaaaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiea ?acoiiuo a?aieoe yoie
iiiiiieee ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia yaeyeinue iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai
aaoi?neiai i?aaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oaea ieeoi ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
aaoi?u aeieaeiu eiaoue iaia?aie/aiiue eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaieai naieo
i?iecaaaeaiee. Ie/ai ia ia?aie/aiiay iiiiiieey iaiaoiaeeia e aiciiaeia
eeoue a ioiioaiee iaiaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. Anee aea
i?iecaaaeaiea n niaeaney aaoi?a noaei aeinooiii aeey anaiauaai
naaaeaiey, aai i?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaiea ia iiaoo auoue noieue iaoe?iuie,
/oiau iieiinoueth eaii?e?iaaeenue eioa?anu ae?oaeo a?aaeaeai e iauanoaa
a oeaeii. Caeiiu aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iauanoaa ia oieueei aa?aioe?otho
io?aio eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, ii e cae?aieytho i?aai /eaiia
iauanoaa ia o/anoea a eoeueoo?iie aeecie e iieueciaaiea aeinoeaeaieyie
eoeueoo?u (i. 2 no. 44 Eiinoeoooeee ?O).

A-o?aoueeo, a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec i?eioeeiia ?inneeneiai aaoi?neiai
i?aaa iiaeao auoue auaeaeiooi iieiaeaiea i iaio/oaeaeaaiinoe ee/iuo
iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa aaoi?a. A yoii ninoieo iaeii ec nouanoaaiiuo
ioee/ee ?inneeneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa io aaoi?neiai i?aaa ?yaea
ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. Ii ?inneeneiio aaoi?neiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa aaoi?a (i?aai aaoi?noaa, i?aai ia eiy e i?.) ia
iiaoo ia?aeoe e ae?oaei eeoeai, oioy au nai aaoi? e au?acee ia yoi naia
niaeanea. Iiaeiaiia niaeaoaiea ia aoaeao eiaoue th?eaee/aneie neeu e
yaeyaony iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui. Iiyoiio aeaaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
i?iecaaaeaiea nicaeaii a ii?yaeea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey,
ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa nio?aiythony ca aaoi?ii e aeieaeiu auoue ai
anao neo/ayo iaania/aiu. Yoeie aea niia?aaeaieyie i?iaeeeoiaaiu ii?iu
?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, onoaiaaeeaathuea, /oi i?aai aaoi?noaa,
i?aai ia aaoi?neia eiy, i?aai ia caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a ia ia?aoiaeyo
ii ianeaaenoao, /oi a neo/ayo oae iacuaaaiiai «naiaiaeiiai»
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee iaycaoaeueii oeacaiea eiaie aaoi?a e o.ae.
*oi eanaaony eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa aaoi?ia, oi iie iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny
ae?oaei eeoeai ii aaoi?neiio aeiaiai?o, a ii?yaeea ianeaaeiaaiey, a
oaeaea a neeo caeiia (naiaiaeiia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee).

A-/aoaa?ouo, aeey nia?aiaiiiai ?inneeneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa
oa?aeoa?ai i?eioeei naiaiaeu aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a. Aeaiiue i?eioeei
caiaiee niaie i?enouee ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoaio aaoi?neiio i?aao i?eioeei
ii?iaoeaiie ?aaeaiaioaoeee iniiaiuo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae noi?ii ii
aaoi?neei aeiaiai?ai. Iaeaieaa y?eei au?aaeaieai iineaaeiaai auei
nouanoaiaaiea oae iacuaaaiuo oeiiauo aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia
(ecaeaoaeueneeo, noeaia?iuo, 1 iinoaiiai/iuo e ae?.), eioi?ua eiaee
ii?iaoeaiia cia/aiea e iiae?iaii ?aaeaiaioe?iaaee ioiioaiey aaoi?ia e
iieueciaaoaeae i?iecaaaeaiee. Eiia/ii, auei au iaaa?ii naiaeeoue ?ieue
oeiiauo aeiaiai?ia eeoue e ia?aie/aieth naiaiaeu noi?ii a ?anii?yaeaiee
i?eiaaeeaaeaueie ei i?aaaie. Eae ecaanoii, iaeiie ec aeaaiuo ooieoeee
oeiiauo aeiaiai?ia auei ia?aaeaeaiea aaoi?ia io i?iecaiea iieueciaaoaeae
i?iecaaaeaiee, no?aieaiea aa?aioe?iaaoue aaoi?ai ii?aaeaeaiiue
ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue i?aa. Oneiaey eiie?aoiuo aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia,
oooaeoathuea iieiaeaiea aaoi?ia ii n?aaiaieth n niioaaonoaothuei oeiiaui
aeiaiai?ii, i?eciaaaeenue iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie e caiaiyeenue oneiaeyie,
cae?aieaiiuie a oeiiaii aeiaiai?a.

Aianoa n oai i?enoonoaea a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?aaee, aeaoaeueii
?aaoee?othueo noa?o ioiioaiee, eioi?ay a i?eioeeia aeieaeia
ii?aaeaeyoueny i?aaeaea anaai naiaiaeiui aieaecuyaeaieai naieo noi?ii,
o?oaeii i?eciaoue ii?iaeueiui yaeaieai. A yoie nayce iiaia ?inneeneia
aaoi?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ioeacaeinue io aeanoeie ?aaeaiaioaoeee
ioiioaiee noi?ii aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a. A iai cae?aieythony eeoue
aiciiaeiua oeiu aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia, a oaeaea oeacuaathony oneiaey,
eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea niaeaniaaiu noi?iiaie.
*oi eanaaony caeiiiuo eioa?ania aaoi?ia, oi iie iaania/eaathony, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, cai?aoii aeeth/aoue a aaoi?neea aeiaiai?u yaii
eaaaeueiua aeey aaoi?ia oneiaey, iai?eia?, oneiaea i ia?aaea/a i?aa ia
i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua aaoi? iiaeao nicaeaoue a aoaeouai, e, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, i?aaeeaie, i?aaeinoaaeythueie aaoi?ai ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaa,
iai?eia?, ii ?anoi?aeaieth aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a ii enoa/aiee iyoe eao n
aeaou aai caeeth/aiey, anee eiie?aoiue n?ie aeiaiai?a noi?iiaie ia
ii?aaeaeai, eee iaeaaathueie ia iieueciaaoaeae i?iecaaaeaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiua iaycaiiinoe, iai?eia? ii auieaoa aaoi?o aaaina ii
aeiaiai?o caeaca. E?iia yoeo e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo oeacaiiuo a caeiia
ia?aie/aiee, noi?iiu naiaiaeiu a ii?aaeaeaiee niaea?aeaiey e eiuo
oneiaee aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a.

1. Iauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa

Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia niaea?aeeo eaaaeueiiai ii?aaeaeaiey
iiiyoey i?iecaaaeaiey, oioy oeacuaaao ia oa i?eciaee, eioi?uie iii
aeieaeii iaeaaeaoue, /oiau iieueciaaoueny i?aaiaie io?aiie. Niaeanii no.
6 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao», aaoi?neia i?aai
?ani?ino?aiyaony ia i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa,
yaeythueany ?acoeueoaoii oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iacaaeneii io
iacia/aiey e aeinoieinoa i?iecaaaeaiey, a oaeaea niiniaa aai au?aaeaiey.
E?iia oiai, iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi caeiiii io?aiythony eae iaia?iaeiaaiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey, oae e iaiaia?iaeiaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, nouanoaothuea a
eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia.

I?iecaaaeaiea eae ?aaeueii nouanoaothuaa yaeaiea ie?oaeathuaai ian ie?a
aunooiaao eae eiiieaen eaeae e ia?acia, iieo/eaoeo naia iauaeoeaiia
au?aaeaiea a aioiaii o?oaea1 , eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia e iaiiaoi?eiia
io?aaeaiea iauaeoeaiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. I?iecaaaeaiea yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, a /aeiaa/aneee iica
iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue oieueei iaiaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou.

A nayce n yoei anaaaea aaaeii ?acee/aoue naii i?iecaaaeaiea, eiathuaa
iaiaoa?eaeueioth nouiinoue, e oi?io aai aiieiuaiey, o. a. oo
aauanoaaiioth oi?io, eioi?ay yaeyaony iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai
i?iecaaaeaiey, iai?eia? ?oeiienue, ?enoiie, ,iioiay caienue e o. ae.
Naycue i?iecaaaeaiey ni naiei iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai iiaeao auoue
ia?ac?uaiie. Oae, ea?oeia e neoeueioo?a eae ?acoeueoao o?oaea
ooaeiaeieea ianoieueei oanii naycaiu n oi?iie, a eioi?oth iie iaea/aiu,
/oi ninoaaeytho n iae iaeii ia?acaeaeeiia oeaeia.

Iaoa?eaeueiua i?aaeiaou — «iineoaee» i?iecaaaeaiee — iiaoo auoue
oieeaeueiu. Ii aaoi?neia i?aai io?aiyao i?iecaaaeaiea eae nenoaio eaeae,
iuneae e ia?acia eiaiii a nayce n aiciiaeiinoueth aai aini?iecaaaeaiey.
Iiyoiio aaoi?neia i?aai ia i?iecaaaeaiea iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa
nio?aiyaony aeaaea a neo/aa aeaaee oiai iaoa?eaeueiiai iineoaey, a
eioi?ii iii auei aiieiuaii. Eiia/ii, i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea yoi eiaao
eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea, iai?eia?, nio?aieeanue eiiey eee ?ai?iaeoeoeey
oo?a/aiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa, eiaaea eeoa?aoo?iia eee
iocueaeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea iiaeao auoue eai-eeai aini?iecaaaeaii ii
iaiyoe e o. ae.

Aaoi?neia i?aai ia i?iecaaaeaiea ia naycaii n i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe ia
iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo, a eioi?ii iii au?aaeaii. Iiyoiio ia?aoiae i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo eee i?aai aeaaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiui
iauaeoii naie ii naaa ia aeaeoo ca niaie ia?aoiaea aaoi?neeo i?aa ia
i?iecaaaeaiea eae aeaai iaiaoa?eaeueiia. Aaeeinoaaiiia eneeth/aiea a
yoii ieaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaeei, eanathuaany i?iecaaaeaiee
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa. I?e ia?aaea/a i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe (i?aaa
aeaaeaiey) ia i?iecaaaeaiea ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa e i?eia?aoaoaeth
ia?aoiaeyo e ioaeaeueiua aaoi?neea i?aaa, iai?eia?, i?aai iiiauaoue
i?iecaaaeaiea ia ioaee/iuo aunoaaeao aac auieaou iniaiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey aaoi?o, i?aai ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?iecaaaeaiey e o.ae.
Aaoi?o i?iecaaaeaiey ia?yaeo n aaconeiaiie io?aiie aai ee/iuo
iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa iaania/eaaaony eeoue i?aai aeinooia, a niioaaonoaee
n eioi?ui ii ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue io nianoaaiieea i?iecaaaeaiey
i?aaeinoaaeaiey aiciiaeiinoe inouanoaeaiey i?aaa ia aini?iecaaaeaiea
naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey (no. 17 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao»).

Oaeei ia?acii, i?iecaaaeaieyie yaeythony «ia iaoa?eaeueiua, i?iaeoeou, a
oai?/aneay iuneue, noaaoay a ieo iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoueth»1 . Iaeiaei
ia anyeia i?iecaaaeaiea eae ?acoeueoao iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea io?aiyaony ii?iaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa
i?eciathony eeoue oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho
i?aaeoniio?aiiuie caeiiii i?eciaeaie. Oaeeie i?eciaeaie yaeythony
oai?/aneee oa?aeoa? i?iecaaaeaiey e iauaeoeaiay oi?ia aai au?aaeaiey.

Oai?/aneee oa?aeoa? i?iecaaaeaiey. A naiii caeiia i?eciae oai?/anoaa ia
?ane?uaaaony, a neie n /ai a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a aeaaony iaiaei aai
ii?aaeaeaiee.

Iieacaoaeai oai?/aneiai oa?aeoa?a i?iecaaaeaiey, ii iiaieth aieueoeinoaa
?inneeneeo o/aiuo, yaeyaony aai iiaecia. Iiaecia a aeaiiii neo/aa
?anniao?eaaaony eae neiiiei i?eaeiaeueiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey. Iia iiaeao
au?aaeaoueny a iiaii niaea?aeaiee, a iio)e oi?ia i?iecaaaeaiey, a iiaie
eaeaa, a iiaie iao/iie eiioeaioeee e o.i. A yoii niunea anyeia
oai?/aneia i?iecaaaeaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?eaeiaeueiinoueth, iiaeciie,
iaiiaoi?eiinoueth e oieeaeueiinoueth.

Iiaecia eae naiinoiyoaeueiue i?eciae io?aiiniiniaiiai iauaeoa
iaiaoiaeeia eeoue a iaoaioiii i?aaa, iineieueeo a ?aaoee?oaiie ei noa?a
iauaeoeaii aiciiaeii niaiaaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia ?ac?aaioie ?acee/iuo eeoe.
A yoie nayce aieueoia cia/aiea caeanue i?eaeaaony iiiyoeth i?ei?eoaoa,
eioi?ia niaa?oaiii iaecaanoii aaoi?neiio i?aao. A aaoi?neii i?aaa,
io?aiythuai oi?io i?iecaaaeaiey, i?eciae iiaeciu eae naiinoiyoaeueiue
e?eoa?ee aai io?aiu yaeyaony eceeoiei, iineieueeo ii iieiinoueth
iiaeiuaaony i?eciaeii oai?/anoaa.

Iauaeoeaiay oi?ia e aini?iecaiaeeiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey. I?iecaaaeaiea eae
?acoeueoao oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aaoi?a noaiiaeony iauaeoii
aaoi?neiai i?aaa eeoue i?e oneiaee, /oi iii au?aaeaii a eaeie-eeai
iauaeoeaiie oi?ia.

*oiau oai?/aneee ?acoeueoao i?eia?ae iauanoaaiioth cia/eiinoue e
oa?aeoa? iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa, ii aeieaeai auoue aiieiuai a
eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia: ienueiaiiie (?oeiienue, iaoeiiienue,
iioiay caienue e o.ae.), onoiie (ioaee/iia i?iecianaiea, ioaee/iia
eniieiaiea e o.ae.), caoei- eee aeaeaicaiene (iaoaie/aneie, iaaieoiie,
oeeo?iaie, iioe/aneie e o.ae.), ecia?aaeaiey (?enoiie, yneec, ea?oeia,
ieai, /a?oaae, eeii-, oaea-, aeaeai- eee oioieaae? e o.ae.),
iauaiii-i?ino?ainoaaiiie (neoeueioo?a, iiaeaeue, iaeao, nii?oaeaiea e
o.ae.) eee ae?oaie oi?ia. Eiuie neiaaie, i?iecaaaeaiea aeieaeii
nouanoaiaaoue a oi?ia, eioi?ay ioaeaeaia io ee/iinoe aaoi?a e i?eia?aea
naiinoiyoaeueiia auoea. I?e yoii aeey i?eciaiey i?iecaaaeaiey iauaeoii
aaoi?neiai i?aaa aiana ia o?aaoaony caaa?oaiiinoe ?aaiou. Caeii a ?aaiie
noaiaie io?aiyao eae caeii/aiiua, oae e iacaaa?oaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, a
/anoiinoe yneecu, ieaiu e eiua i?iiaaeooi/iua ?acoeueoaou, eniieuecoaiua
aaoi?aie i?e nicaeaiee i?iecaaaeaiee.

Iauaeoeaiay oi?ia au?aaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey oaniui ia?acii naycaia n
aiciiaeiinoueth aai aini?iecaaaeaiey.

Caeii ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao», ia?aie/eaaaony
oeacaieai ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eaeaiey i?iecaaaeaieth iauaeoeaiie oi?iu
e, a ioee/ea io no. 475 AE ?NON? 1964 a. e no. 134 Iniia a?aaeaeaineiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa 1991 a., ia oiiieiaao i?e yoii i oii, /oi aeaiiay
oi?ia aeieaeia iicaieyoue aini?iecaiaeeoue ?acoeueoao oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe aaoi?a (i. 2 no. 6). Eiuie neiaaie, caeiiiaeaoaeue
iaeiicia/ii i?eciae, /oi aaoi?neei i?aaii io?aiythony ethaua au?aaeaiiua
aiaia i?iecaaaeaiey, a oii /enea e oa, iauaeoeaiay oi?ia eioi?uo ia
naycaia n iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai. Eiia/ii, caueoa iiaeiaiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee, iai?eia?, ioaee/ii i?iecianaiiuo, ii ieaaea ia
caoeene?iaaiiuo ?a/ae, eaeoeee, aeieeaaeia, iniaaiii caueoa eo io
eneaaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeyaony aieaa neiaeiie, /ai caueoa i?iecaaaeaiee,
naycaiiuo n eaeei-eeai iaoa?eaeueiui iineoaeai. Ii a i?eioeeia iia
iiaeao auoue iaania/aia, a nayce n /ai eneeth/aiea ec caeiia
niaoeeaeueiiai oiiieiaiey i aiciiaeiinoe aini?iecaaaeaiey ?acoeueoaoa
oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eae iniaiai i?eciaea io?aiyaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey
i?aaenoaaeyaony ii?aaaeaiiui.

Iacia/aiea e aeinoieinoaa i?iecaaaeaiey. A niaaoneie th?eaee/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a auei auneacaii iiaiea, /oi iaeiei ec e?eoa?eaa
io?aiiniiniaiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey aeieaeia n/eoaoueny aai iauanoaaiiay
iieaciinoue1 . Iaeiaei yoa iiceoeey iiaeaea?aeee a iaoea ia iieo/eea e
auea ioaa?aiooa iiaeaaeythuei aieueoeinoaii o/aiuo. Ie , i?aaeiaa, ie
iuia aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai oaeiai o?aaiaaiey e i?iecaaaeaieyi
ia niaea?aeaei e ia niaea?aeeo. Aieaa oiai, no. 8 Caeiia ?O «Ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» i?yii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi aaoi?neia
i?aai ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana i?iecaaaeaiey, iacaaeneii io eo iacia/aiey
, e aeinoieinoa. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aaoi?neei i?aaii a ?aaiie noaiaie
io?aiythony eae aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, oae e oa
i?iecaaaeaiey, ooaeiaeanoaaiiua aeinoieinoaa eioi?uo iaauniee.

Auiieiaiea oi?iaeueiinoae. Aeey aicieeiiaaiey, inouanoaeaiey e io?aiu
aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia o?aaoaony ?aaeno?aoeee i?iecaaaeaiey, eiiai
niaoeeaeueiiai ioi?ieaiey i?iecaaaeaiey eee niaethaeaiey eaeeo-eeai eiuo
oi?iaeueiinoae. Yoi i?eioeeieaeueiay iiceoeey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?innee,
a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie aaoi?neia i?aai ii?iaeaeaao nai oaeo nicaeaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey (i. 1 no. 9 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao»). E?iia oiai, caeii ia o?aaoao iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey iaee/ey o
i?iecaaaeaiey i?aaeoniio?aiiuo e?eoa?eaa, o.a. iaiaoiaeeiinoe eaeie-eeai
eaaeeoeeaoeee i?iecaaaeaiey eae oaeiaiai aeey i?eciaiey aai iauaeoii
aaoi?neiai i?aaa. A oii neo/aa, anee aicieeoee nii? ii iiaiaeo aaoi?neeo
i?aa naycai n aii?inii i i?eciaiee oiai eee eiiai ?acoeueoaoa
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaaaeaieai, io?aiyaiui aaoi?neei
i?aaii, ii ?aoaaony noaeii enoiaey ec iaee/ey eee ionoonoaey
?anniio?aiiuo auoa e?eoa?eaa io?aiiniiniaiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey.

Oeacuaay ia ionoonoaea oi?iaeueiinoae eae oneiaey io?aiiniiniaiinoe
i?iecaaaeaiey, neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey NNN? a
1973 a. e Anaie?iie eiiaaioeee ia aaoi?neii i?aaa 1952 a. ia anao
ia/aoiuo ecaeaieyo (eieaao, aeo?iaeao, eiiaa?oao a?aiieanoeiie e
iaaieoioiiiuo caienae e o. i.) noae i?inoaaeyoueny ciae io?aiu
aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eioi?ue ninoieo ec o?ao yeaiaioia: eaoeineie aoeau «n»
a ie?oaeiinoe: ©; eiaie (iaeiaiiaaiey) iaeaaeaoaey eneeth/eoaeueiuo
aaoi?neeo i?aa; aiaea ia?aiai iioaeeeiaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey. Ii?yaeie e
oneiaey i?inoaaeaiey ciaea io?aiu iiae?iaii ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiu ?yaeii
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia2 . Eniieueciaaiea ciaea io?aiu, eioi?ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii i. 1 no. 9 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao», ia icia/aao aaaaeaiey a ?inneeneia i?aai o?aaiaaiey i
auiieiaiee oi?iaeueiinoae eae oneiaey aicieeiiaaiey io?aiu.

I?eiaiaiea ciaea io?aiu caaeneo io oniio?aiey iaeaaeaoaey
eneeth/eoaeueiuo aaoi?neeo i?aa. I?aaiaie io?aiie a ?aaiie noaiaie
aoaeoo iieueciaaoueny eae i?iecaaaeaiey, ia eioi?uo i?inoaaeai ciae
io?aiu, oae e i?iecaaaeaiey aac oaeiai ciaea.

Aiaeiae/iia cia/aiea eiaao e i?aaeoniio?aiiay no. 13 Caeiia ?O «I
i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii aeey YAI e aac aeaiiuo» ?aaeno?aoeey
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa a ?inneeneii aaaionoaa ii i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii
aeey YAI, aac aeaiiuo e oiiieiaee eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai. ?aaeno?aoeey
i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa inouanoaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii ii aeaeaieth
i?aaiiaeaaeaoaey, ae ia i?eaeaaony ieeaeiai i?aaiia?acothuaai cia/aiey,
ii oaeo ?aaeno?aoeee iiaeao nua?aoue iieacioth ?ieue i?e ?ac?aoaiee
nii?a ia aaoi?noaa ia i?ia?aiio eee aa iacaeiiiii eniieueciaaiee.

I?aaiaia cia/aiea ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia i?iecaaaeaiey. Iauaeoii
aaoi?neiai i?aaa yaeyaony ia oieueei i?iecaaaeaiea a oeaeii, ii e /anoue
i?iecaaaeaiey (aeeth/ay aai iacaaiea), eioi?ay yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii
oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia naiinoiyoaeueii
(i. 3 no. 6 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»). A yoie
nayce aieueoia cia/aiea aeey iiieiaiey nouiinoe i?aaiaie io?aiu
i?iecaaaeaiee ii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao eiaao i?eiyoia a
eeoa?aoo?a auaeaeaiea o i?iecaaaeaiey «th?eaee/anee aac?acee/iuo» e
«th?eaee/anee cia/eiuo» yeaiaioia. A ?inneeneie th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
yoa i?iaeaia iaeaieaa aeoaiei enneaaeiaaia a ?aaioao A. ss. Eiiana1 ,
eioi?ue ia inoaiiaeeny ia o?aaeeoeeiiiii auaeaeaiee o i?iecaaaeaiee
oi?iu e niaea?aeaiey, a aeaoaeueii ?anniio?ae ana ninoaaeythuea eo
no?oeoo?iua yeaiaiou. A eoiaa ei auee i?aaeeiaeaiu aeaa a?oiiu yeaiaioia
i?iecaaaeaiey. E th?eaee/anee aac?acee/iui, o. a. iaio?aiyaiui,
yeaiaioai i?iecaaaeaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u auee ioianaiu oaia,
iaoa?eae i?iecaaaeaiey, nthaeaoiia yae?i, eaeaeiia niaea?aeaiea. A
oai?ee eeoa?aoo?u yoe yeaiaiou iacuaatho niaea?aeaieai i?iecaaaeaiey. Eo
caeinoaiaaiea ia iaeaaaao ia iieueciaaoaeae ieeaeeo iaycaiiinoae, o. a.
ia yaeyaony ia?ooaieai aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

A i?eioeeia aiaeiae/ii ?aoaaony aii?in n io?aiie nthaeaoiiai yae?a
i?iecaaaeaiey. Enoi?ey eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa ciaao iaiaei oai?aiee, a
eioi?uo eniieuecothony noiaeiua nthaeaoiua oiaeu e iaeei e oio aea
enoiaeiue iaoa?eae.

Oaeie aea iiceoeee i?eaea?aeeaaaony noaeaaiay i?aeoeea.

E niaea?aeaieth i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ia eae oaeiaia ia caueuaaony Oe?iaie
aaoi?neiai i?aaa, ioiineony e oaeie yeaiaio i?iecaaaeaiey, eae aai
iacaaiea (caaieiaie). Iaeiaei anee iacaaiea yaeyaony i?eaeiaeueiui e
io?aaeaao oai?/aneoth naiiauoiinoue aaoi?a, iii iieuecoaony i?aaiaie
io?aiie.

E th?eaee/anee cia/eiui (io?aiyaiui) yeaiaioai i?iecaaaeaiey ioiinyony
ia?acu ycue i?iecaaaeaiey. Iiae ooaeiaeanoaaiiui ia?acii iiieiaaony
niaoeeoe/aneay aeey eneonnoaa oi?ia io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e
au?aaeaiey iaeae e /oanoa ooaeiaeieea. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ia?ac
?iaeaeaaony a aiia?aaeaiee ooaeiaeieea, aiieiuaaony a nicaeaaaaiii ei
i?iecaaaeaiee a oie eee eiie iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia (ieanoe/aneie,
caoeiaie, aeanoi-ie-ie/aneie, neiaaniie) e ainnicaeaaony aiia?aaeaieai
aini?eieiathuaai eneonnoai c?eoaey, neooaoaey, /eoaoaey2 . A iaoea
aaoi?neiai i?aaa nicaeaiiua ooaeiaeieeii ia?acu eiaiothony aioo?aiiae
oi?iie i?iecaaaeaiey. Iia iieuecoaony i?aaiaie io?aiie, oae eae yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e io?aaeaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue
naiaai oai?oea. N/eoaaony, /oi a i?eioeeia ia?acu i?iecaaaeaiey iiaoo
auoue caeinoaiaaiu aeey nicaeaiey iiaiai, oai?/anee naiinoiyoaeueiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey i?e oneiaee i?eaeaiey ei iiaie aiaoiae oi?iu. A yoii
neo/aa, iaeiaei, caeii o?aaoao iaycaoaeueiiai niaeaney aaoi?a
ia?aiia/aeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey e oeacaiey enoi/ieea caeinoaiaaiey.

Aiaoiae oi?iie i?iecaaaeaiey yaeyaony ycue i?iecaaaeaiey, iiae eioi?ui
iiieiathony naienoaaiiua aaoi?o n?aaenoaa e i?eaiu nicaeaiey
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ia?acia, o. a. niaieoiiinoue eniieuecoaiuo ei
ecia?aceoaeueii-au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa. sscue i?iecaaaeaiey caeinoaiaai
auoue ia iiaeao, a oaeii neo/aa eniieuecoaony oeeoe?iaaiea n oeacaieai
enoi/ieea.

Oai?aoe/aneia ?aca?aie/aiea yeaiaioia i?iecaaaeaiey ia io?aiyaioth
caeiiii oi?io e ia io?aiyaiia niaea?aeaiea i?iaiaeeony a ioiioaiee ia
oieueei ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo, ii e iao/iuo i?iecaaaeaiee. Oae, n/eoaaony,
/oi oaeea ia?acothuea niaea?aeaiea iao/iiai i?iecaaaeaiey yeaiaiou, eae
iinoaiiaea iao/iie i?iaeaiu, iaoiae iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey, iao/iua
oaeou, eioa?i?aoaoeey, nenoaiaoecaoeey, aeiioaca e oai?ey e ae?.,
naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?aaiaiai cia/aiey ia eiatho e ia io?aiythony naie ii
naaa, aia ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?iu1 . A iainiiaaiea yoiai ni?aaaaeeeai
oeacuaaaony, /oi iao/iia ioe?uoea, ninoaaeythuaa yeaiaio niaea?aeaiey
iao/iiai i?iecaaaeaiey e ia iieo/eaoaa a ea/anoaa yoiai yeaiaioa
i?aaiaie io?aiu, auei auaeaeaii eae naiinoiyoaeueiue iauaeo
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa. Anee au ioe?uoea iieo/aei aeinoaoi/ioth i?aaiaoth
io?aio ii aaoi?neiio i?aao, oi ia auei au ioaeaeu a nicaeaiee
naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?aaiaiai einoeoooa a aeaea i?aaa ia ioe?uoea2 .

*oi aea eanaaony io?aiyaiuo yeaiaioia iao/iiai i?iecaaaeaiey, oi e iei
ioiinyony: 1) aiaoiyy oi?ia, o.a. aai ycue, aeeth/athuee iniaua iao/iua
ciaee e neiaieu, e 2) aioo?aiiyy oi?ia, eioi?oth ia?acotho i?eiyoay
aaoi?ii iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eceiaeaiey iao/iuo iiiyoee, eiaeea,
nenoaia ?ane?uoey iao/iuo eaeae e ?aniieiaeaiea iaoa?eaea.

A nayce n oai, /oi aaoi?neia i?aai io?aiyao oi?io i?iecaaaeaiey, aeey
onoaiiaeaiey neo/aaa ia?ooaiey aaoi?neeo i?aa iooai caeinoaiaaiey
?aoathuaa cia/aiea eiatho aoeaaeueiua niaiaaeaiey, aeey onoaiiaeaiey
eioi?uo ninoaaeythony oaaeeoeu niaiaaeaiee («oaeno ia oaeie-oi no?aieoea
a iaeiii i?iecaaaeaiee niioaaonoaoao oaenoo ia oaeie-oi no?aieoea a
ae?oaii i?iecaaaeaiee»)3 .

2. I?iecaaaeaiey, ia io?aiyaiua aaoi?neei i?aaii

E /eneo iauaeoia, ia io?aiyaiuo aaoi?neei i?aaii, ioiinyony i?aaeaea
anaai oa ec ieo, eioi?ua ia iaeaaeatho oioy au iaeiei ec i?eciaeia
i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa. Oae, anee eeoeii a oiaea
i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou aeinoeaioo ia oai?/aneee, a /enoi oaoie/aneee
?acoeueoao, ii ii?iaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia io?aiyaony. E oaeiai ?iaea
?acoeueoaoai ioiinyony, a /anoiinoe, oaeaoiiiua ni?aai/ieee, ?anienaiey
aeaeaeaiey, aae?aniua eieae e o. i. i?e oneiaee, /oi ninoaaeoaeai ia
auea i?eiaiaia i?eaeiaeueiay nenoaia eceiaeaiey ni?aai/iuo aeaiiuo. A
nii?iuo neo/ayo iaee/ea oai?/aneiai aeeaaea onoaiaaeeaaaony yenia?oecie,
i?iaiaeeiie niioaaonoaothueie niaoeeaeenoaie.

A nayce n oai, /oi aeieo?eia ?inneeneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?aaeiieaaaao
io?aio eeoue oi?iu i?iecaaaeaiey, a ia aai niaea?aeaiey, a eeoa?aoo?a
/iaeciaiii ioia/aeinue, a iuia iaoei i?yiia io?aaeaiea a i. 4 no. 6
Caeiia , «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
aaoi?neia i?aai ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia eaeae, iaoiaeu, i?ioeannu,
nenoaiu, niiniau, eiioeaioeee, i?eioeeiu, ioe?uoey, oaeou. Iaeioi?ua ec
ia?a/eneaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe io?aiythony a
?aieao eiuo einoeoooia , i?aaa, iai?eia? iaoaioiiai i?aaa; aii?inu
io?aiu ae?oaeo oai?/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia ianoaeaeathony a iao/iuo e?oaao.
Ii naie ii naaa eaeae, i?eioeeiu, oaeou e iiaeiaiua ei ?acoeueoaou
oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aaoi?neia i?aai ia io?aiyao.

Ia?yaeo n iiaeiaiuie iauaeoaie nouanoaotho i?iecaaaeaiey, iaeaaeathuea
anaie iaiaoiaeeiuie i?eciaeaie, ii ia io?aiyaiua aaoi?neei i?aaii a neeo
i?yiiai oeacaiey caeiia. E eo /eneo ioiinyony neaaeothuea /aou?a
eaoaai?ee i?iecaaaeaiee.

Ai-ia?auo, ia iieuecothony i?aaiaie io?aiie i?iecaaaeaiey, ia eioi?ua
enoae n?ie aeaenoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Caeanue aea ioiaoei, /oi
enoa/aiea n?iea io?aiu ieeae ia aeeyao ia io?aio aaoi?noaa, eiaie aaoi?a
e iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey.

Ai-aoi?uo, ec noa?u i?aaiaie io?aiu eneeth/aiu ioeoeeaeueiua aeieoiaiou,
eo ioeoeeaeueiua ia?aaiaeu, a oaeaea ainoaea?noaaiiua neiaieu e ciaee. E
/eneo ioeoeeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia ioiinyony caeiiu e eiua aeou
ii?iaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a — eino?oeoeee, oeacaiey, noaiaea?ou,
iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, onoaau th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e o. i.,
noaeaaiua ?aoaiey e eiua aeou i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuo i?aaiia —
iaaeieoaeueiua caeeth/aiey, i?aaenoaaeaiey i?ieo?aoo?u, aeou i?aaiia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai neaaenoaey e o.i., a oaeaea eiua ioeoeeaeueiua
aeieoiaiou, enoiaeyuea io i?aaiecaoeee e aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, — io/aou,
ni?aaee, iaoaioiua iienaiey, enee e o. i. Ainoaea?noaaiiuie neiaieaie e
ciaeaie n/eoathony oeaae, aa?au, aeiiu, i?aeaia, aeaiaaeiua ciaee e o.i.

Yoi e iiiyoii, oae eae oeacaiiua iauaeou iiaoo yooaeoeaii auiieiyoue
naith ?ieue eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee iie eniieuecothony oe?iei e aac
eaeeo-eeai ia?aie/aiee.

A-o?aoueeo, a neeo i?yiiai oeacaiey caeiia ia io?aiythony aaoi?neei
i?aaii i?iecaaaeaiey ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa. E iei ioiinyony
i?iecaaaeaiey oieueeei?a — /anoooee, iiaiai?ee, aiaeaeiou, oaioeu e o.
i. i?iecaaaeaiey ia?iaeiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iiuneia, ia?iaeiua
einothiu, o?aaeeoeeiiiay a?oeoaeoo?a e o. i. I?e yoii eiathony a aeaeo
i?aaeaea anaai i?iecaaaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa,
iineieueeo auaeaeaiea a iniaoth a?oiio ?aiaa nicaeaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee
oaeiai ?iaea ia eiaei au aieueoiai niunea, eai iie ia io?aiythony
aaoi?neei i?aaii a neeo enoa/aiee n?iea io?aiu.

A-/aoaa?ouo, ia i?eciathony iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa niiauaiey i
niauoeyo e oaeoao, eiathuea eioi?iaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? (no. 8 Caeiia ?O
«Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»).

Aaeeinoaaiiia, ia /oi ai?aaa i?aoaiaeiaaoue aaoi? niiauaiey eee aia?aua
iioaeeeiaaaoee aai i?aai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, — yoi o?aaiaaoue oeacaiey
ae?oaeie i?aaiaie ia/aoe, niiauathueie aeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth, ia
enoi/iee aa ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaia?iaeiaaiey. Oae, niaeanii no. 23 Caeiia
?O «I n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee», i?e ?ani?ino?aiaiee niiauaiee e
iaoa?eaeia eioi?iaoeeiiiiai aaaionoaa ae?oaei n?aaenoaii ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee nnueea ia eioi?iaoeeiiiia aaaionoai iaycaoaeueia.
Iaycaoaeueiinoue nnueee ia ae?oaea (e?iia eioi?iaoeeiiiuo aaaionoa)
n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea eiie?aoiuo eeoe, ia?auie
iieo/eaoeo oo eee eioth eioi?iaoeeth, eiaaony eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea oaeay
i?inueaa eee oneiaey i?yii au?aaeaiu yoei i?aaiii eee aaoi?ii
eiie?aoiiai niiauaiey. A oao aea neo/ayo, eiaaea niiauaiea i oii eee
eiii niauoee nii?iaiaeaeaaony aaoi?neei eiiiaioa?eai, ioeaieaie
cia/eiinoe i?ienoaaeoaai, i?iaiicaie, aiaeecii eee eiie eioa?i?aoaoeeae,
iii i?eia?aoaao ?aaeei iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Aeineiaiia
aini?iecaaaeaiea oaeeo niiauaiee aeiioneaaony n iaycaoaeueiui oeacaieai
eiaie aaoi?a, anee oieueei aaoi?ii yoi niaoeeaeueii ia cai?auaii (i. 3
no. 19 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»).

Ia oae aeaaii a ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea aeinoaoi/ii ino?i anoae aii?in i
oii, io?aiythony ee aaoi?neei i?aaii i?ia?aiiu oaea- e ?aaeeiia?aaea/ e,
niioaaonoaaiii, iiaoo ee aacaou eo naiaiaeii ia?aia/aouaaoue. No?anoe ii
yoiio iiaiaeo iniaaiii iaeaeeeenue iinea i?eiyoey 19 iay 1994 a.
Noaeaaiie iaeaoie ii eioi?iaoeeiiiui nii?ai i?e I?aceaeaioa ?O
?aeiiaiaeaoeee «I i?aaiaie i?e?iaea i?ia?aii oaea- e ?aaeeiia?aaea/,
ioaeeeoaiuo a ia?eiaee/aneeo ia/aoiuo ecaeaieyo»1 .

Noaeaaiay iaeaoa auneacaeanue a iieueco i?eciaiey i?ia?aii ia?aaea/
iauaeoaie eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, i?aai ?anii?yaeaiey eioi?uie,
a oii /enea ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?ia?aii, i?eiaaeeaaeeo oaea?aaeeieiiiaieyi.
Oaeia ?aoaiea aii?ina aucaaei e?aeia iaaaoeaioth ?aaeoeeth iiiaeo
ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee, a oaeaea iieaieeo ia no?aieoeao ia/aoe2 . I?e
yoii eae noi?iiieee, oae e i?ioeaieee i?eiyoie Noaeaaiie iaeaoie
?aeiiaiaeaoeee nnueaeenue ia niioaaonoaothuea i?eia?u ec i?aeoeee, a
oaeaea aiaeee?iaaee e oaea ninoiyaoeiny noaeaaiui i?ioeannai,
caaa?oeaoeiny i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie ?aoaieyie.

Anee aea ia?aoeoueny e nouanoao aeaea, oi aai iiaeii naanoe e aeaoi
oanii acaeiinaycaiiui aii?inai, a eiaiii: 1) niioaaonoaotho ee i?ia?aiiu
ia?aaea/ o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeuyaeyaiui e iauaeoai aaoi?neiai i?aaa e 2)
anee iie ia yaeythony iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa, oi iiaoo ee
oaea?aaeeieiiiaiee ia?aaeaaaoue eo ia?eiaee/aneei ecaeaieyi ca ieaoo.

Oeacaiiua eioaeeaeooaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey a neo/aa, anee iie au?aaeaiu a
aeinooiiie aeey aini?eyoey oi?ia, yaeythony iaeiie ec ninoaaeythueo
niaea?aeaiey aaoi?neeo i?iecaaaeaiee. Ii aaoi?neia i?aai a neeo i?enoueo
aio ia?aie/aiiuo aiciiaeiinoae io?aiyao eeoue oi?io, a ia niaea?aeaiea
i?iecaaaeaiee.

Aica?auaynue iaiin?aaenoaaiii e i?ia?aiiai ia?aaea/, iaiaoiaeeii
caiaoeoue, /oi nooue oneeee ninoaaeoaeae naoee aauaiey caeeth/aaony a
oai?/aneie ?ac?aaioea eiaiii niaea?aeaoaeueiie /anoe oaeiai ?acoeueoaoa
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eae i?ia?aiia. Oi, eae niioiinyony
iaaeaeo niaie ia?aaea/e ?acee/iuo aeaeia e aeai?ia, eaeie eaoaai?ee
neooaoaeae e c?eoaeae iie aae?aniaaiu, a eaeia a?aiy iie ia?aaeathony a
yoe? — yoi e iiiaia ae?oaia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. A yoii niunea i?ia?aiiu ia?aaea/ n?iaeie nai?ieeai e
ae?oaei ninoaaiui i?iecaaaeaieyi, eioi?ua i?eciathony iauaeoaie
aaoi?neiai i?aaa a neeo oiai, /oi aeeth/aiiue a ieo iaoa?eae ?aniieiaeai
ii eaeie-eeai i?eaeiaeueiie noaia. Eae e ii ioiioaieth e nai?ieeai,
i?eiaieoaeueii e i?ia?aiiai ?aaeei- e oaeaia?aaea/ i?aaiia?ia iinoaiiaea
aii?ina i iaaeiionoeiinoe caeinoaiaaiey oie i?eaeiaeueiie nenoaiu,
eioi?ay iieiaeaia a iniiao i?ia?aiiu eae niaieoiiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiuo
iaoa?eaeia, ia?aaeaaaaiuo a yoe?.

Io i?ia?aiiu ia?aaea/ eae niaieoiiinoe ia?aaeaaaaiuo a yoe? iaoa?eaeia
iaiaoiaeeii ioee/aoue i?ia?aiio ia?aaea/ eae aeiaiaeeioth aei neooaoaeae
(c?eoaeae) eioi?iaoeeth i oao ia?aaea/ao, eioi?ua aoaeoo ia?aaeaiu a
yoe?. Aeaiiay eioi?iaoeey, anee oieueei iia ia iiaeaaony a eaeie-eeai
i?eaeiaeueiie oi?ia, ieeaeiai naiinoiyoaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey ia
ia?acoao. A oaeii naiai iiieiaiee i?ia?aiia ia?aaea/ iiaeiaaeaao iiae
niiauaiea i niauoeyo e oaeoao, eiathuaa eioi?iaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? e ia
yaeythuaany iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa (no. 8 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»). Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi eioi?iaoeey i
i?ia?aiiao ia?aaea/ iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny ethauie caeioa?aniaaiiuie
eeoeaie, a oii /enea aacaoaie, naiaiaeii, o.a. aac ?ac?aoaiey
oaea?aaeeieiiiaiee e aac auieaou eaeiai-eeai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey1 .

Neacaiiia, iaeiaei, aiana ia icia/aao, /oi iaaeaeo i?aaiecaoeeyie
yoe?iiai aauaiey e aacaoaie ia iiaoo caeeth/aoueny aeiaiai?u i ia?aaea/a
eioi?iaoeee i i?ia?aiiao ia?aaea/ aeey eo ia/aoaiey a aacaoao. A
nia?aiaiiii ie?a eioi?iaoeey oaea aeaaii i?eia?aea oiaa?iue oa?aeoa? e
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa iniaiai iauaeoa aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee, naycaiiuo n
aa nai?ii, o?aiaieai, iieneii, ia?a?aaioeie, ?ani?ino?aiaieai e
eniieueciaaieai a ?acee/iuo noa?ao /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe2 . A yoii
ieaia i?ia?aiia ia?aaea/ eae iniaue eioi?iaoeeiiiue i?iaeoeo iiaeao
ia?aaeaaaoueny ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo ethaui caeioa?aniaaiiui eeoeai.

Eiuie neiaaie, i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai aauaiey iiaoo i?iaeaaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth i i?ia?aiiao naieo ia?aaea/, ii oieueei oai aacaoai,
eioi?ua caeioa?aniaaiu a aa i?eia?aoaiee aeey iieo/aiey oao eee eiuo
i?aeiouanoa. Oa aea aacaou, eioi?ua iieo/atho yoo eioi?iaoeeth caeiiiui
iooai ec ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia, iai?eia?, ociaaay aa ec aacao, oaea
iioaeeeiaaaoeo i?ia?aiiu ia?aaea/, iiaoo aeaeaoue yoi naiaiaeii, oae eae
ieeaeiai ia?ooaiey aaoi?neeo i?aa caeanue ia i?ienoiaeeo.

3. Aeaeu iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa

E?oa io?aiyaiuo caeiiii i?iecaaaeaiee aeinoaoi/ii oe?ie e iiiaiia?acai.
I?iecaaaeaiey ?acee/athony ii iauaeoeaiie oi?ia, niiniaai eo
aini?iecaaaeaiey, noaiaie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, aeaeai eniieueciaaiey e
oeaeiio ?yaeo ae?oaeo iniiaaiee. Anoanoaaiii, /oi ?acee/ey, eiathueany
iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie aeaeaie i?iecaaaeaiee, o/eouaathony i?e eo io?aia e
neacuaathony ia eo i?aaiaii ?aaeeia. A nayce n yoei auaeaeaiea
ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia i?iecaaaeaiee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia oieueei
oai?aoe/aneee, ii e aieueoie i?aeoe/aneee eioa?an.

I?aaeaea anaai caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey aii?in i aeaeaiee io?aiyaiuo
caeiiii i?iecaaaeaiee ia i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa.

Oae, i?iecaaaeaiey eeoa?aoo?u, anee iiae eeoa?aoo?ie iiieiaoue ethaua
i?iecaaaeaiey, au?aaeaiiua a neiaaniie (ycueiaie) oi?ia, a caaeneiinoe
io eo niaea?aeaiey yaeythony i?iecaaaeaieyie eeai iaoee, eeai eneonnoaa.
Niaoeeaeueiia auaeaeaiea eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee eiaao niune eeoue a
oii neo/aa, anee eie ioaaouaaaony iniaay a?oiia i?iecaaaeaiee, ia
iiaeiaaeathueo iiae i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee eee eneonnoaa.

N o/aoii neacaiiiai i?iecaaaeaieyie iaoee, ii niuneo caeiia, yaeythony
ethaua i?iecaaaeaiey, iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea eioi?uo ninoieo a au?aaioea
e nenoaiaoecaoeee iauaeoeaiuo ciaiee i aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aeeth/ay
i?iecaaaeaiey iao/iie eeoa?aoo?u. I?iecaaaeaieyie eeoa?aoo?u i?eciathony
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, au?aaeaiiua a neiaaniie oi?ia. E
i?iecaaaeaieyi eneonnoaa ioiinyony ana inoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa, aeeth/ay i?iecaaaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?u,
aeeaiiene, a?aoeee, neoeueioo?u, aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa,
iocuee, eeii e oaao?a e o.ae.

A ?inneeneie th?eaee/aneie iaoea aue iinoaaeai aii?in i oii, aoaeao ee
iieueciaaoueny i?aaiaie io?aiie i?iecaaaeaiea, iaeaaeathuaa anaie
i?eciaeaie iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa, ii ia ioiinyuaany i?yii e noa?a
iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa, iai?eia? i?iecaaaeaiea oaoie/aneiai
oai?/anoaa1 . Ioaa/ay ia iaai, Y. I. Aaa?eeia i?eoae e ni?aaaaeeeaiio
auaiaeo, eioi?ue ?acaeaeyaony e nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeeie, /oi io?aiie ii
aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao iieuecothony ethaua i?iecaaaeaiey, a
eioi?uo i?iyaeyaony oai?/anoai e eioi?ua iaeaaeatho anaie
i?aaeoniio?aiiuie caeiiii i?eciaeaie iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Iiyoiio ana i?iecaaaeaiey, ?ane?uaathuea niaea?aeaiea oaoie/aneeo
?aoaiee aei eo eaaeeoeeaoeee a ea/anoaa ecia?aoaiee e eiuo iauaeoia
iaoaioiiai i?aaa, aeieaeiu iieueciaaoueny aaoi?nei-i?aaiaie io?aiie eae
i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee.

No. 7 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» ioiineo e
iauaeoai aaoi?neiai i?aaa oe?ieee e?oa i?iecaaaeaiee oai?/anoaa. Ii
n?aaiaieth n ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii (no. 475 AE 1964
a.) e?oa io?aiyaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, ai-ia?auo, cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ai ca
n/ao aeeth/aiey a ninoaa iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa iiauo aeaeia
i?iecaaaeaiee, a /anoiinoe i?iecaaaeaiee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai eneonnoaa,
aeecaeia, ea?oia?aoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee, i?ia?aii aeey YAI e ae?.
Ai-aoi?uo, ii noae aieaa oii?yaei/aiiui, iineieueeo iino?iai n o/aoii
?acee/ee, nouanoaothueo iaaeaeo niiniaaie au?aaeaiey ?acee/iuo
?acoeueoaoia oai?/anoaa. Eiia/ii, e nae/an iaeioi?ua aeaeu
i?iecaaaeaiee, auaeaeaiiua iniai, oeaeeeii iiaeiuathony ae?oaeie aeaeaie
i?iecaaaeaiee. Oae, iai?eia?, ia?aaiaeu e nai?ieee iiaeiaaeatho iiae
iiiyoea eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee. Iaeiaei iniiaiia iacia/aiea
cae?aieaiiiai a caeiia ia?a/iy io?aiyaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ninoieo ia a
oii, /oiau aeaoue eo eaeaaeueioth eeanneoeeaoeeth, a a oii, /oiau
io?aceoue a ioiineoaeueii oii?yaei/aiiii aeaea eo iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiua aeaeu.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi cae?aieaiiue caeiiii ia?a/aiue io?aiyaiu)
i?iecaaaeaiee iineo eeoue i?eia?iue, i?eaioe?iai/iue oa?aeoa?. Ane1 oio
eee eiie oai?/aneee ?acoeueoao ia iiaeiaaeaao ie iiae iaeei ec
ia?a/eneaiiuo a caeiia aeaeia i?iecaaaeaiee, ii ioaa/aao anai o?aaoaiui
ii caeii: oneiaeyi, ii i?eciaaony i?iecaaaeaieai e iieuecoaony oaeie aea
io?aiie eae e i?yii iacaaiiua a caeiia iauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Eeoa?aoo?iua i?iecaaaeaiey. A naiai cia/aiee eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea
ioaaouaaao niaie ia oieueei eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiua, ii e iao/iua,
o/aaiua, ioaeeoeenoe/aneea e eiua ?aaiou. I?e yoii naii eeoa?aoo?iia
i?iecaaaeaiea iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny a onoiie, ienueiaiiie eee eiie
iauaeoeaiie oi?ia, aeiioneathuae aiciiaeiinoue aini?eyoey aai o?aoueeie
eeoeaie. Iii iiaeao auoue eae caoeene?iaaii ia aoiaaa, ieaiea,
a?aiieanoeiea, iaaieoiii aeenea eee eiii iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea, oae e
au?aaeaii a onoiie oi?ia, a /anoiinoe ioaee/ii i?iecianaii eee
eniieiaii.

a) ?a/e, eaeoeee, aeieeaaeu e eiua onoiua aunooieaiey. Caeii ?O «Ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» a ioee/ea io AE ?NON? 1964 a. ia
oiiieiaao iniai ia io?aia oaeeo eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee, eae ?a/e,
eaeoeee, aeieeaaeu e eiua onoiua i?iecaaaeaiey. Iaeiaei, iineieueeo
caeii niaea?aeeo iauaa oeacaiea ia oi, /oi i?aaiaie io?aiie iieuecothony
e i?iecaaaeaiey, au?aaeaiiua a onoiie oi?ia, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae,
/oi ii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?a/e, i?iiiaaaee, aunooieaiey e
iiaeiaiua ei i?iecaaaeaiey io?aiythony.

Eeoei, i?aoaiaeothuaa ia io?aio naieo aaoi?neeo i?aa, aeieaeii
aeieacaoue oaeo ia?ooaiey. Yoi aanueia o?oaeii . naeaeaoue aaoi?o,
eioi?ue ioaee/ii i?iecian eee eniieiee naia eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea,
ii ia iicaaioeeny i i?eaeaiee i?iecaaaeaieth aieaa onoie/eaie oi?iu.
Oaeia i?iecaaaeaiea i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii caueoeoue io eneaaeaiey e
i/aiue o?oaeii — io iai?aaiia?iiai eniieueciaaiey. Ia neo/aeii iiyoiio
?inneeneie noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ia ecaanoiu nii?u ii iiaiaeo ia?ooaiee
aaoi?neeo i?aa ia onoiua i?iecaaaeaiey1 .

a) Ienueia, aeiaaieee, ee/iua caiaoee. E /eneo io?aiyaiuo caeiiii
eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee, aaconeiaii, ioiinyony ienueia, aeiaaieee,
ee/iua caiene e eiua aiaeiae/iua aeieoiaiou ee/iiai oa?aeoa?a, oioy
caeii e ia auaeaeyao eo iniai n?aaee ae?oaeo eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee.
I?iaeaia io?aiu i?aa a?aaeaeai, nicaeathueo eee o?aiyueo oeacaiiua
aeieoiaiou, eiaao o?e aniaeoa. Ia?aue ec ieo naycai n oai, /oi yoe
ee/iua aeieoiaiou ?anniao?eaathony eae i?iecaaaeaiey, io?aiyaiua
aaoi?neei i?aaii. A yoie nayce i?aai ia ienueia, aeiaaieee, caienee,
caiaoee e o. i. i?eiaaeeaaeeo eo aaoi?o, oieueei n niaeaney eioi?iai e
iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaii eo iioaeeeiaaiea. Aoi?ie aniaeo aeaiiie
i?iaeaiu ninoieo a oii, /oi oeacaiiua aeieoiaiou, eae i?aaeei, iinyo
/anoiue oa?aeoa? e cao?aaeaatho ee/ioth noa?o /aeiaa/aneie aeecie.

Iiyoiio i?aaiaay io?aia ienai, aeiaaieeia e eiuo iiaeiaiuo aeieoiaioia
naycaia n iaania/aieai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa a?aaeaeai ia io?aio eo
/anoiie aeecie. Niaeanii no. 23—24 Eiinoeoooeee ?O «eaaeaeue eiaao i?aai
ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue aai /anoiie aeecie, ee/ioth e naiaeioth oaeio, ia
oaeio ia?aienee, oaeaoiiiuo ia?aaiai?ia, oaeaa?aoiuo e eiuo niiauaiee…
Nai?, o?aiaiea, eniieueciaaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee i /anoiie
aeecie eeoea aac aai niaeaney ia aeiioneaaony».

Oaeia aeieoiaioia ee/iiai oa?aeoa?a io?aiyaony iacaaeneii io oeaiiinoe
niaea?aeaueony a ieo naaaeaiee.

A neo/aa nia?oe eiai-eeai ec oeacaiiuo eeoe iiaeiaiua aeieoiaiou iiaoo
ioaeeeiaaoueny n niaeaney ia?aaeeaoaai noi?oaa e aeaoae oia?oaai.

O?aoee aniaeo aeaiiie i?iaeaiu naycai n i?aaii nianoaaiiinoe ia
ienueiaiiua aeieoiaiou, niaea?aeauea naaaeaiey i /anoiie aeecie. Oae,
nianoaaiieeii ienueia, oaeaa?aiiu eee eiiai niiauaiey yaeyaony eeoei,
eioi?iio iie aae?aniaaiu. Eae nianoaaiiee, ii a i?eioeeia iiaeao ii
naiaio oniio?aieth ?anii?yaeeoueny i?eiaaeeaaeauei aio aeieoiaioii eae
iaoa?eaeueiui i?aaeiaoii, iai?eia?, iiaeao aai oie/oiaeeoue, iiaea?eoue,
i?iaeaoue a ea/anoaa aaoia?aoa e o.i. Iaeiaei a yoii neo/aa ii ianao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aiciiaeiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea niaea?aeaueony a
aeieoiaioa naaaeaiee /anoiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Anee iaoa?eaeu aeiaaieeia, caiaoie, ienai aac ?ac?aoaiey aaoi?a eee aai
?iaenoaaiieeia aioiayony e iioaeeeiaaieth, oi yoe eeoea iiaoo
ia?aoeoueny a noae n eneii i cai?auaiee iioaeeeiaaiey, ia ecuyoee ec
ia?auaiey oaea ecaeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia, a oaeaea i aiciauaiee iaianaiiiai
ii?aeueiiai a?aaea.

a) Eioa?aueth, aeeneonnee, ienueia a ?aaeaeoeeth. Iiae eioa?aueth
iiieiaaony ano?a/a, a i?ioeanna eioi?ie ienaoaeue, ?aii?oa? eee
eiiiaioaoi? iieo/aao io niaanaaeieea eioi?iaoeeth aeey iioaeeeiaaiey.
Iaeiaei cia/aiea eioa?aueth ia a i?inoii auyniaiee naaaeaiee, aeey
iieo/aiey eioi?uo eiathony ae?oaea enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee, a a aeeaii
iauaiee n ethaeueie, iicaieythuai ociaoue eo iiaiey, ioeaiee oao eee
eiuo niauoee, i?e/eiu iinooieia e o. i. E?iia oiai, eioa?aueth aeieaeii
io?aaeaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua, iaiiaoi?eiua /a?ou aa?iaa, eo oa?aeoa?u,
iniaaiiinoe iiaaaeaiey e o. ae.1 . Anaai yoiai iiaeii aeinoe/ue eeoue a
oii neo/aa, anee eioa?aueth yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e ia naiaeeony e i?inoiio iaoaie/aneiio aini?iecaaaeaieth
ioaaoia ia i?iecaieueii ninoaaeaiiua aii?inu. ?acoiaaony, eioa?auetha?
aeieaeai iaeneiaeueii oi/ii aeiaiaeeoue aei /eoaoaeae, c?eoaeae,
neooaoaeae ioaaou e noaeaeaiey niaanaaeieea. A /anoiinoe, eoith?u e
iiioaae aeiioneathony eeoue n niaeaney eioa?auethe?oaiiai e i?e oneiaee,
/oi iie ia eneaaeatho iniiaiuo auneacaiiuo iuneae. Iaeiaei eioa?aueth
noaiiaeony io?aiyaiui caeiiii i?iecaaaeaieai, anee iii i?eia?aoaao
i?eaeiaeueioth oi?io aeaaiaea?y ouaoaeueii i?ieiiaiiie eiiiiceoeee e
naiaio eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio noeeth.

Aii?in ia aaoi?noaa ia eioa?aueth i?aaenoaaeyao ecaanoioth neiaeiinoue e
ia i?aaeiieaaaao iaeiicia/iiai ioaaoa.

Oai?/aneee aeeaae aeo?iaeenoa ninoieo i?aaeaea anaai a iiaeai?a,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe e oi?ioee?iaea aii?inia. Ia?aaeei aeo?iaeeno ia
oieueei ni?aoeaaao, ii e nai /oi-oi ooaa?aeaeaao, caaeaaay oii anaio
eioa?aueth e iai?aaeyy eioa?auethe?oaiiai ia ?acaeoea 1 ii?aaeaeaiiie
iunee eee aa inia?eaaiea. E?iia oiai, ia?aaeei caaea/ae aeo?iaeenoa
yaeyaony i?eaeaiea ioaaoai niaanaaeieea iaaeeaaeauae eeoa?aoo?iie oi?iu,
inaiaiaeaeaiea ioaaoia io iaioaeiiai aaeeanoa e o. i. Oaeei ia?acii,
oai?/aneia o/anoea aeo?iaeenoa a nicaeaiee eioa?aueth niiiaiee ia
aucuaaao.

Anee eioa?auethe?oaiue eeoue ia?aie/eaaaony ioaaoaie ia aii?inu, eioi?ua
noaaeo aio eioa?auetha?, e ia ea?aao a eioa?aueth aeoeaiie ?iee, aai
aeeaae ia iineo oai?/aneiai oa?aeoa?a e iioiio ia iiaeao neoaeeoue
iniiaaieai aeey i?aoaicee ia aaoi?noai. A yoii neo/aa eioa?auethe?oaiue
ai?aaa eeoue o?aaiaaoue, /oiau aai ioaaou ia auee eneaaeaiu i?e
iioaeeeiaaiee, e iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoue ia aaeeiia?aiaiiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca aeaiiia ei eioa?aueth, anee yoei auei iaoneiaeaii
aai niaeanea ia iaai. Iai?ioea, anee eioa?auethe?oaiue aian oai?/aneee
aeeaae a nicaeaiea eioa?aueth, eioi?ue iiaeao au?aaeaoueny eae a
niaianoiie n aeo?iaeenoii ?aaioa iaae eiiiiceoeeae eioa?aueth, oae e a
i?eaeiaeueiie oi?ioee?iaea ioaaoia, oi eiathony ana iniiaaiey aeey
i?eciaiey aai niaaoi?ii aeaiiiai eeoa?aoo?iiai i?iecaaaeaiey. A
niioaaonoaee ni neiaeeaoaeny i?aeoeeie oaeia niaaoi?noai ioi?ieyaony
iiaeienueth aeo?iaeenoa e aecie eioa?auethe?oaiiai.

Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ?aoaaony a i?eioeeia e aii?in ia aaoi?noaa ia oaeie
iniaue aeae eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee, eae aeeneonney.

Naiaia?aciui i?aaiaui ?aaeeiii iaeaaeaao oaeie aeae eeoa?aoo?iuo
i?iecaaaeaiee, eae ienueia a ?aaeaeoeeth. A ioee/ea io ienai /anoiiai
oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua, eae ioia/aeinue, ia i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
iioaeeeiaaiey, ienueia, iai?aaeaiiua a ?aaeaeoeee aacaou aeo?iaeia,
iiaoo auoue iineaaeieie iioaeeeiaaiu, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, eiaaea a
ienueiao niaea?aeeony i?yiie cai?ao ia ioaeeeaoeeth.

Ienueii a ?aaeaeoeeth anaaaea eiaao aaoi?a, iacaaeneii io oiai, oeacae
ee ii naia eiy, iiaeienaeny ee inaaaeiieiii eee i?eneae ienueii aac
iiaeiene. Aaconeiaii, iii yaeyaony iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa, oae eae
o?aaoao oai?/aneiai aeeaaea aeey aai ninoaaeaiey. A iai iniaia cia/aiea
eiatho aaoi?neay iiceoeey, aaoi?neia iiaanoaiaaiea, aaoi?neia
?acaeoiuea, eiiiaioa?ee, ioeaiea oaeoia — ana caeanue neioace?iaaii,
aeeth/ay e naiaia?acea eeoa?aoo?ii-noeeenoe/aneeo n?aaenoa1 .

Iaeiaei iaeuecy na?anuaaoue ni n/aoia e oi, /oi ienueia a ?aaeaeoeeth,
eae i?aaeei, i?iecaaaeaiey iai?ioanneiiaeueiua.

Iiyoiio a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia?aae iioaeeeiaaieai ioia?aiiua ienueia
iiaeaa?aathony ?aaeaeoi?neie ia?aaioea.

Anee iinea ?aaeaeoeeiiiie ia?aaioee o ?aaeaeoeee aicieeatho eaeea-eeai
niiiaiey, ai ecaaaeaiea aiciiaeiiai eiioeeeoa n aaoi?ii oeaeaniia?acii
iciaeiieoue aai n eiia/iui aa?eaioii ienueia e ca?o/eoueny ienueiaiiui
niaeaneai aaoi?a ia aai iioaeeeiaaiea.

a) Ia?aaiaeu. Naiinoiyoaeueiui aeaeii eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee,
io?aiyaiuo aaoi?neei i?aaii, yaeyaony ia?aaiae i?iecaaaeaiey ia ae?oaie
ycue.

Aeey iaai ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea eiaao ia?aaea/a noeeenoe/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae e ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai naiaia?acey ia?aaiaeeiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, eeoa?aoo?iie iaia?u e oai?/aneie iaiiaoi?eiinoe ee/iinoe
aai aaoi?a. Eiuie neiaaie, i?e ia?aaiaea i?ienoiaeeo oai?/aneia
ainnicaeaiea ia?aaiaeeiiai i?iecaaaeaiey a iiaie ycueiaie oi?ia2 .

O?iaaiue ia?aaiaea ii?aaeaeyaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oiaieai
ia?aaiae/eea iaeneiaeueii oi/ii ia?aaeaoue niaoeeoeeo ia?aciiai noeey
aaoi?a i?eaeiaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. Iaeiaei niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi a
ethaii oai?/anee auiieiaiiii ia?aaiaea iaecaaaeii io?aaeaaony e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue ee/iinoe naiiai ia?aaiae/eea. Anee, iaeiaei, o?oae
ia?aaiae/eea ia yaeyaony oai?/aneei e naiaeeony eeoue e aeineiaiiio
ia?aaiaeo aac iaaeeaaeauae iao/iie e eeoa?aoo?iie ia?aaioee, oaeie
ia?aaiae iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia i?eciaaony.

Oi/ii oaeoth aea caaea/o auiieiyao oae iacuaaaiue «iaoeiiue» ia?aaiae,
eioi?ue aeaeatho nia?aiaiiua yeaeo?iiiua eeiaaenoe/aneea nenoaiu. Ie o
eiai ia aicieeaao niiiaiee a ionoonoaee oai?/anoaa a aeayoaeueiinoe YAI.
E?iia oiai, iiaeno?i/iue ia?aaiae, eae i?aaeei, neoaeeo eeoue
i?iiaaeooi/iie oi?iie nicaeaiey eeoa?aoo?iiai ia?aaiaea e iiyoiio eae au
«?anoai?yaony» a iineaaeiai. Oaeei ia?acii, iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa
yaeyaony eeoue oai?/anee ia?aaioaiiue eeoa?aoo?iue ia?aaiae.

Ia i?eciaaony iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia?aaiae ioeoeeaeueiuo
aeieoiaioia, anee nai ia?aaiae eiaao ioeoeeaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Ii iaeiiio
ec aeae Noaeaaiay eieeaaey ii a?aaeaeaineei aeaeai Aa?oiaiiai Noaea
?innee, ?anniio?aa o?aaiaaiey aaoi?a ia?aaiaea aaaeiinoaaiiie
eino?oeoeee i auieaoa aio aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca aa ia?aecaeaiea, oeacaea,
/oi «ia ia?aaiae ioeoeeaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia (caeiiia, aaaeiinoaaiiuo
eino?oeoeee, noaeaaiuo ?aoaiee e o. i.), eioi?ue oaeaea eiaao
ioeoeeaeueiue oa?aeoa?, aaoi?neia i?aai ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony e o?oae
ia?aaiae/eea a yoii neo/aa iiea/eaaaony ia ii ii?iai aaoi?neiai i?aaa, a
ii o?oaeiaiio niaeaoaieth»3 .

ae) I?ia?aiiu aeey YAI. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee, eae e ai anai ie?a,
aeai?eoiu e i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI i?eia?aee cia/aiea oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee.
Yoa i?iaeoeoeey niaaeeiyao a naaa ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
oai?/anoaa e eiaeono?eaeueiiai o?oaea aieueoie neiaeiinoe. Ecaanoii, /oi
cao?aou ia nicaeaiea i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa ai iiiai ?ac i?aauoatho
cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai naieo YAI. Iaeiaei a aaoi?neii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?innee aei naiiai iineaaeiaai a?aiaie ia auee
ii?aaeaeaiu ie oa?aeoa? e iauai i?aa ?ac?aaio/eeia i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa,
ie niiniau eo io?aiu.

Aia?aua yoi ?aoaiea auei caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaii a Iniiaao
a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa 1991 a., eioi?uie i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI e
aacu aeaiiuo auee ioianaiu e iauaeoai aaoi?neiai i?aaa (no. 134), e a
Caeiia NNN? «Ia ecia?aoaieyo a NNN?» 1991 a., eioi?ue oeacae, /oi
aeai?eoiu e i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI ia i?eciathony ecia?aoaieyie (no. 1). A
iineaaeothuai aeaiiay iiceoeey auea aini?eiyoa ?inneeneei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e iaoea /aoeia io?aaeaiea a Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» (no. 7), a Caeiia ?O «I i?aaiaie io?aia
i?ia?aii aeey YAI e aac aeaiiuo» (no. 2) e Iaoaioiii caeiia ?O (no. 4).

Auei o/oaii, /oi aaoi?nei-i?aaiaay io?aia i?ia?aii aeey YAI yaeyaony
aieaa iia?aoeaiie, aeaoaaie e aeaiie?aoe/iie ii n?aaiaieth n eo io?aiie
ii ii?iai iaoaioiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Neiaeiinoue yenia?oecu i?ia?aii
ia ie?iaoth iiaecio, aeeeoaeueiinoue i?ioeaaeo?u iaoaioiaaiey,
iaoeaeaniia?aciinoue a ?aaea neo/aaa ioaeeeaoeee iienaiey i?ia?aii — yoe
e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea, noiaeiua n yoeie ianoiyoaeuenoaa neeiieee auai? a
iieueco aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eioi?ia ia auaeaeaaao eaeeo-eeai oi?iaeueiuo
o?aaiaaiee aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey io?aiu. Iaeiiaoe, aieueoia cia/aiea
nua?ae e oio oaeo, /oi aaoi?nei-i?aaiaie aa?eaio io?aiu i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey oaea aue eca?ai aieueoeinoaii ?acaeouo ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai.

Iaiaoiaeeii n?aco iiae/a?eiooue, /oi oaeoo ?aaeno?aoeee i?ia?aiiu aeey
YAI ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia i?eaeaao eiinoeoooeaiiai cia/aiey.
A no. 4 Caeiia ?O «I i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii aeey YAI e aac aeaiiuo»
niaoeeaeueii oeacuaaaony, /oi aeey i?eciaiey e inouanoaeaiey aaoi?neiai
i?aaa ia i?ia?aiio aeey YAI eee aaco aeaiiuo ia o?aaoaony
aeaiiie?iaaiey, ?aaeno?aoeee eee niaethaeaiey eiuo oi?iaeueiinoae.
?aaeno?aoeey inouanoaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii ii aeaeaieth
i?aaiiaeaaeaoaey n oeaeueth iaeaa/aiey aeieacuaaiey aai i?aa ia
i?ia?aiio e nicaeaiey aiciiaeiinoae aeey aieaa oe?ieiai aa
eniieueciaaiey.

Ia?yaeo n io?aiie i?ia?aii aeey YAI a iineaaeiea aiaeu i?eia?ae
aeooaeueiinoue aii?in ia io?aia i?iecaaaeaiee, nicaeaiiuo i?e iiiiue
YAI. Anee ia?aiia/aeueii a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ainiiaenoaiaaei
iiaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio nicaeaiiue YAI i?iaeoeo ia iiaeao n/eoaoueny
oai?/aneei i?iecaaaeaieai, a cia/eo, e iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa, oi
nae/an iiae aeeyieai aeinoeaiooiai i?ia?anna aeaiiay iiceoeey
?acaeaeyaony aeaeaei ia anaie o/aiuie.

?acoiaaony, aaoi?aie oaeeo i?iecaaaeaiee aeieaeia i?eciaaaoueny ia YAI,
a nicaeaoaee i?ia?aiiu, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie aeinoeaioo aeaiiue
?acoeueoao. Ai?i/ai, neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aeaiiia iiaiea — eeoue
iaeii ec auneacaiiuo a eeoa?aoo?a noaeaeaiee ia nouanoai aeaiiie
i?iaeaiu. Iiiaea niaoeeaeenou ianoaeaatho ia oii, /oi io?aiyaiui caeiiii
iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa iiaeao auoue eeoue naia i?ia?aiia, a ia
aeinoeaiooue n aa iiiiuueth ?acoeueoao. A ?inneeneeo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
e noaeaaiie i?aeoeea aeaiiay i?iaeaia ?ac?aoaiey iiea ia iieo/eea.

Ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey. Iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?eciathony
ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey ai anao eo aeai?iauo ?aciiaeaeiinoyo,
iaoiaeao noeaie/aneiai aiieiuaiey e oi?iao iauaeoeaiiai au?aaeaiey.

Ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey aanueia aeecee e i?iecaaaeaieyi eeoa?aoo?u
e aiieia iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec eo aeaeia ia?yaeo
n i?iecaaaeaieyie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie, iao/iie, o/aaiie e eiie eeoa?aoo?u.
Eo auaeaeaiea a iniaue aeae io?aiyaiuo caeiiii i?iecaaaeaiee, ii anae
aeaeeiinoe, iaoneiaeaii i?enouae ei niaoeeoeeie ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa e oi?iie eniieueciaaiey. A /anoiinoe, oaeno ae?aiaoe/aneeo
i?iecaaaeaiee a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aeaeia eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee
ninoieo ec aeeaeiaia e iiiieiaia ia?niiaaeae, a naii i?iecaaaeaiea
i?aaeiacia/aii a iniiaiii aeey eniieiaiey ia noeaia, o.a. ioaee/iiai
eniieiaiey.

Iocueaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey n oaenoii e aac oaenoa,
iocueaeueii-ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey. Ii?aaeaeaiea. Caeii ia
niaea?aeeo ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey «iocueaeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea», eioi?ia
?ane?uaaaony eeoue a oai?ee aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iocueaeueiui i?eciaaony
i?iecaaaeaiea, a eioi?ii ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ia?acu au?aaeathony n
iiiiuueth caoeia. Caoe eae iniiaa iocueaeueiie ia?aciinoe e
au?aceoaeueiinoe eeoai niuneiaie eiie?aoiinoe neiaa e ia aini?iecaiaeeo
oeene?iaaiiuo, aeaeeiuo ea?oei ie?a, eae a aeeaiiene. Aianoa n oai ii
niaoeeoe/aneei ia?acii i?aaieciaai e eiaao eioiiaoeeiiioth i?e?iaeo.

Eioiiaoeey e aeaeaao iocueo cao/auei eneonnoaii, eae au aae?ay a naay
iiiaiaaeiaie ?a/aaie iiuo e iiuo ?eoie/aneeo aeaeaeaiee.1

Ia?a/iy io?aiyaiuo iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee caeii oaeaea ia aeaao,
ia?aie/eaaynue iauei oeacaieai ia iocueaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey n oaenoii e
aac oaenoa, a oaeaea iocueaeueii-ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey. Iau/ii
auaeaeythony oaeea aeaeu iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, eae iia?u, aaeaou,
iia?aoou, ithceeeu, neioiiee, i?aoi?ee, eaioaou, ntheou, oaa?oth?u,
oaioacee e o.ae. ?acoiaaony, aeey oiai /oiau iieueciaaoueny i?aaiaie
io?aiie, oeacaiiua iocueaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey aeieaeiu iineoue
oai?/aneee oa?aeoa? iacaaeneii io eo iacia/aiey e aeinoieinoa.

Iocueaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey iiaoo auoue aini?eieiaaiu eae
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia neoo i?e eo eniieiaiee, oae e n iiiiuueth
niioaaonoaothueo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa — a?aiieanoeiie, iaaieoioiiiuo
caienae e o.ae. Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi n oi/ee c?aiey nia?aiaiiiai
?inneeneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa io?aiyaiuie yaeythony ethaua ioaee/ii
eniieiaiiua iocueaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey, aeeth/ay e oa, eioi?ua ia eiatho
eaeie-eeai iaoa?eaeueiie oi?iu.

a) Iaeiaeey. E n?aaenoaai au?aceoaeueiinoe a iocuea i?eiaaeeaaeao oaeea
noi?iiu e eiiiiiaiou iocueaeueiie oi?iu, eae iaeiaeey, oaeoo?a,
iieeoiiey, aa?iiiey, ?eoi, eiiiiceoeey e ae?. N?aaee iacaaiiuo
eiiiiiaioia iniaia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeiaeee, eae au?aaeaiiie
iaeiiaieinii iocueaeueiie iunee. Caeii i aiciiaeiinoe io?aiu iaeiaeee
oiae/eaaao.

?yae aaoi?ia, ni?aaaaeeeai n/eoay iaeiaeeth iniiaiui yeaiaioii
iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, iieaaatho, /oi aoaeo/e eniieiaiiie,
iaeiaeey ia?aoaao iauaeoeaioth oi?io e iiaeao auoue aini?iecaaaeaia e
i?enaiaia ae?oaeie eeoeaie. Iiyoiio iie ?anniao?eaatho iaeiaeeth a
ea/anoaa iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eioi?ue aeieaeai io?aiyoueny
naiinoiyoaeueii, aacioiineoaeueii e io?aia iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey a
oeaeii2 . Ii iiaieth ae?oaeo o/aiuo, iaeiaeey eae oaeiaay io?aia ia
iiaeeaaeeo, iineieueeo iia iaio?uaia io ae?oaeo yeaiaioia iocueaeueiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, a /anoiinoe aa?iiiee e ?eoia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, auaeaeeoue
iaeiaeeth eae naiinoiyoaeueiue iauaeo io?aiu, nouanoaothuee aia nayce n
ae?oaeie yeaiaioaie i?iecaaaeaiey, iaaiciiaeii3 .

Iia iiaeeaaeeo caueoa, ii aianoa n ae?oaeie yeaiaioaie iocueaeueiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey. Iiyoiio o iaa io?eoeathony ia ea/anoaa iauaeoa aaoi?neiai
i?aaa aiiaua, a eeoue ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiiai iauaeoa4 .

Yoei, ii anae aeaeeiinoe, e iieuecothony iiiaea aaoi?u nia?aiaiiinoe,
oae iacuaaaiie “iiiiocuee”, eiaaea o aieaa noa?ie iaeiaeee, iaienaiiie
ae?oaei aaoi?ii, caeinoaothony oeaeua, aiieia ociaaaaiua /anoe. Ii yoi
ia iaoaao ei iiaeienuaaoue oaeoth “oai?/aneoth” ?aaioo oieueei naiei
eiaiai.

a) A?aiaee?iaea, i?eano?iaea, aa?eaoeee. Iiae a?aiaee?iaeie iiieiaaony
ia?aeiaeaiea iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, iaienaiiiai aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
aieinia, eino?oiaioia eee ainaiaeae, iai?eia? ia?aeiaeaiea i?eano?iaiai
i?iecaaaeaiey ia oi?oaieaii eee i?eano?iaea, o.a. ia?aeiaeaiea
iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, iaienaiiiai aeey iaeiiai iocueaeueiiai
eino?oiaioa, aeey eniieiaiey i?eano?ii.

Io?aiyaony aaoi?neei i?aaii e oaeia naiaia?aciia iocueaeueiia i?i-.
ecaaaeaiea, eae aa?eaoeee, o. a. oaeay ia?aaeaeea iocueaeueiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, i?e eioi?ie iniiaiay iocueaeueiay oaia ia?aiia/aeueiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey ; inoaaony ociaaaaiie. N/eoaaony, /oi nicaeaoaeue
aa?eaoeee, iaiyy ?eoi e oaeo, eciaiyy iaia?o e oiiaeueiinoue,
inouanoaeyao oai?/aneia aicaeaenoaea ia aa?iiieth e iaeiaee/aneee no?ie
i?iecaaaeaiey, /oi i?eaiaeeo e nicaeaieth oioy e ianaiinoiyoaeueiiai, ii
io?aiyaiiai aaoi?neei i?aaii i?iecaaaeaiey.

Noeaia?iua i?iecaaaeaiey. N?aaee iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa iacaaiu
noeaia?ee, ii eioi?ui noaayony oeeueiu, aaeaoiua niaeoaeee, ianniaua
i?aaenoaaeaiey e o.ae. A caaeneiinoe io aeaea noaayueony i?iecaaaeaiee
?acee/athony e naie noeaia?ee.

Noeaia?ee, iacaaeneii io oiai, yaeyaony ee ii i?eaeiaeueiui eee
nicaeaiiui a ?acoeueoaoa ia?a?aaioee /oaeiai iiaanoaiaaoaeueiiai eee
ae?aiaoe/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiey, aeieaeai n/eoaoueny io?aiyaiui iauaeoii
aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Aoaeeiaecoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey. Aoaeeiaecoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey
ioaaouaatho niaie oe?ieee e?oa eeii-, oaea- e aeaeaii?iecaaaeaiee,
eioi?ua ?ann/eoaiu ia iaeiia?aiaiiia neooiaia e c?eoaeueiia aini?eyoea
aoaeeoi?eae. Nthaea ioiinyony i?aaeaea anaai eeii-, oaea- e
aeaeaioeeueiu, iacaaeneii io eo aeai?a e iacia/aiey (ooaeiaeanoaaiiua,
aeieoiaioaeueiua, iao/ii-iiioey?iua, o/aaiua, ioeueoeieeeaoeeiiiua e
o.ae.), iauaia (iieiiiao?aaeiua, ei?ioeiiao?aaeiua, iiiaina?eeiua e
o.ae.), eniieiaiey (caoeiaua, iaiua., /a?ii-aaeua, oeaaoiua,
oe?ieiye?aiiua e o. ae.), neaeae-oeeueiu, aeeaoeeueiu, ae?oaea eeii- e
oaeai?iecaaaeaiey.

Oae, oai?/aneee aeeaae a nicaeaiea oaeiai eiiieaeniiai i?iecaaaeaiey,
eae eeii- e oaeaoeeueiu, aiinyo noeaia?eno, ooaeiaeiee, eiiiiceoi?,
iia?aoi?, aeoa?u e eiua eeoea, o?oae eioi?uo neioaoe/anee iauaaeeiyaony
eneonnoaii ?aaeenna?a a iiaia ooaeiaeanoaaiiia oeaeia. I?e yoii
iaeioi?ua eiiiiiaiou oeeueia, oaeea, eae noeaia?ee, a oii /enea
?aaeenna?neee, iocuea, oioia?aoe/aneea ecia?aaeaiey (eaae?u), yneecu,
?enoiee e iaeaou aeaei?aoeee, einothiia, ?aeaeceou e o. i., iiaoo
nouanoaiaaoue e eniieueciaaoueny ioaeaeueii io oeeueia e eiatho cia/aiea
naiinoiyoaeueiuo iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Ae?oaea eiiiiiaiou, a
/anoiinoe oai?/aneee aeeaae ?aaeenna?a, iia?aoi?a, a?oenoa e iaeioi?uo
ae?oaeo eeoe, iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu eeoue oai?aoe/anee, ii i?aeoe/anee
ia iiaeaeathony iainiaeaieth io oeeueia a oeaeii e ia iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu naiinoiyoaeueii1 .

I/aaeaeii, /oi oeeuei, eae e ae?oaea aoaeeiaecoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey,
nicaeaaony oai?/aneeie oneeeyie iiiaeo eeoe, /oi aeaao oai?aoe/aneea
iniiaaiey aeey i?eciaiey eo niaaoi?aie. Iaeiaei e a i?aaeiai, e a iuia
aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aeaiiue aii?in ?aoai eiui ia?acii.
Niaeanii no. 486 AE. ?NON? 1964 a., aaoi?neia i?aai ia ethaua oeeueiu
(ca eneeth/aieai ethaeoaeueneeo) i?eiaaeeaaeaei i?aaei?eyoeyi,
inouanoaeaoei eo nuaieo. Ca aaoi?aie i?iecaaaeaiee, aioaaeoeo ninoaaiie
/anoueth a niioaaonoaothuee oeeuei, i?eciaaaeinue eeoue aaoi?neia .
i?aai ia nicaeaiiua eie i?iecaaaeaiey, ii ia ia oeeuei a oeaeii.

A niioaaonoaee ni no. 13 Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao” aaoi?aie aoaeeiaecoaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey i?eciaiu o?e eeoea:
?aaeenna?-iinoaiiauee, noeaia?eno e aaoi? iocuee, niaoeeaeueii
nicaeaiiie aeey yoiai aoaeeiaecoaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. Eiua eeoea,
aianoea oai?/aneee aeeaae a nicaeaiea aoaeeiaecoaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey
(iia?aoi?-iinoaiiauee, ooaeiaeiee-iinoaiiauee e ae?.), iieuecothony
aaoi?neei i?aaii eaaeaeue ia naia i?iecaaaeaiea, ii ia eiatho aaoi?neeo
i?aa ia aoaeeiaecoaeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea a oeaeii. A yoii ii ?inneeneiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i?iyaeyaony iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo iniaaiiinoae
i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee.

Aiai?y i oaeaaeceiiiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo eae naiinoiyoaeueiie
?aciiaeaeiinoe io?aiyaiuo caeiiii aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, caeii
eiaao a aeaeo eeoue oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiu
aeey iieaca ii oaeaaeaeaieth. Iao ieeaeeo iniiaaiee aeey ioianaiey e eo
/eneo i?iecaaaeaiee eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa, eioi?ua auee iioaeeeiaaiu
?aiaa e eniieueciaaiu oaeaaeaeaieai aac ia?a?aaioee. A yoii neo/aa eo
iieac ii oaeaaeaeaieth aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoueny oieueei eae niinia eo
eniieueciaaiey. Iiyoiio, iai?eia?, oaao?aeueiue niaeoaeeue, ia?aaeaiiue
ii oaeaaeaeaieth, ia noaiiaeony a neeo yoiai iniaui oaeai?iecaaaeaieai.

I?iecaaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai e aeaei?aoeaiiai eneonnoaa. Caiaoiia
ianoi n?aaee iauaeoia aaoi?neiai i?aaa caieiatho i?iecaaaeaiey
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa. Caeii iiiyoey i?iecaaaeaiey
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa ia ?ane?uaaao, a a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
oeacuaaaony, /oi naeaeaoue yoi i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii aaeaeo aieueoiai
?aciiia?acey oi?i e oaoie/aneeo niiniaia au?aaeaiey oai?/aneie iunee a
i?iecaaaeaieyo oaeiai ?iaea.

Iiaecaeiiiua aeou e i?aeoeea ioiinyo e iei i?iecaaaeaiey aeeaiiene,
neoeueioo?u, a?aoeee, aeecaeia, eiieenu, a?aoe/aneea ?anneacu,
i?iecaaaeaiey iiioiaioaeueiiai eneonnoaa e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
i?iecaaaeaiey aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa.

Niaeanii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ia?aoiae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia
i?iecaaaeaiea ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa ia icia/aao iaeiia?aiaiiie
onooiee aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eioi?ia nio?aiyaony ca aaoi?ii, e?iia
ia?aoiaeyueo e nianoaaiieeo i?aa, a /anoiinoe i?aaa aeaiiino?e?iaaoue
i?iecaaaeaiea ia ioaee/iuo aunoaaeao. Nio?aiaiea ca nicaeaoaeai
i?iecaaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia?aie/eaaao,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaa nianoaaiieea ea?oeiu, yneeca, neoeueioo?u. Oae,
nianoaaiiee iaycai iaania/eoue iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa, e iiyoiio ii ia ai?aaa aiineoue eaeea-eeai
eciaiaiey a oio iaoa?eaeueiue iauaeo, a eioi?ii iii aiieiuaii.
Nianoaaiiee, aeaeaa, aeieaeai i?aaeinoaaeyoue aaoi?o aiciiaeiinoue
inouanoaeyoue naie aaoi?neea i?aaiii/ey a ioiioaiee i?iecaaaeaiey,
iai?eia? eiie?iaaoue aai, aeey /aai aeieaeai auoue iaania/ai aeinooi e
i?iecaaaeaieth.

I?eiaaeeaaeauaa aaoi?o i?aai iieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiui iauaeoii,
iaoiaeyueiny a nianoaaiiinoe ae?oaiai eeoea, anoue i?aai ia /oaeoth
aauue, eioi?ia iiaeao eiaoue oieueei aauiue oa?aeoa?. A niioaaonoaee ni
no. 12 AE aaoi? iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue caueou aai i?aaa ia iieueciaaiea
naiei i?iecaaaeaieai. Noae iiaeao a naiai ?aoaiee onoaiiaeoue oneiaey e
ii?yaeie inouanoaeaiey aaoi?neeo iieiiii/ee, iaania/eaathuea
nio?aiiinoue i?iecaaaeaiey e ae?oaea caeiiiua i?aaa e eioa?anu
nianoaaiieea1 .

A th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a a yoie nayce ia?aaeei i?eaiaeeony noaeaaiia
aeaei ii eneo ooaeiaeieea O. O. Oaaei?ianeiai e Oaao?aeueiiio iocath
eiaie A. A. Aao?ooeia e Niaaoneie oeeaoaeenoe/aneie annioeeaoeee ii
iiaiaeo ecaeaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ioe?uoie, ecia?aaeathueo iinoaiiaeo a
Aieueoii oaao?a Nithca NN? ioaeaeueiuo noeai ec iia?u «Ai?en Aiaeoiia».
O. O. Oaaei?ianeee aue aaoi?ii ?enoieia, aeaei?aoeee e einothiia.
Oioinuaiea ioaeaeueiuo noeai auea i?iecaaaeaia i?e aai o/anoee; iaeiaei
auione ioe?uoie ii yoei nuaieai aue naeaeai aac niaeaney ooaeiaeieea.
Ioaao/eee a ii?aaaeaiea naieo aeaenoaee nineaeenue ia oi. /oi ecaeaiea
ioe?uoie auei ?ai?iaeoeoeeae ioaee/iiai c?aeeua e /oi naii ecaeaiea
ioe?uoie yaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiui i?iecaaaeaieai. Aa?oiaiue Noae NNN?
i?eciae, ai-ia?auo, /oi ?enoiee ooaeiaeieea nio?aiytho oa?aeoa?
naiinoiyoaeueiiai iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa e iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny aeey
aini?iecaaaeaiey ioaeaeueii io anaai niaeoaeey a oeaeii, e, ai-aoi?uo,
ca ooaeiaeieeii nio?aiythony aaoi?neea i?aaa ia nicaeaiiia ei
i?iecaaaeaiea, oioy iii e ia?aoei a nianoaaiiinoue ae?oaeo eeoe2 .

Eiiee i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa. I?iecaaaeaiey
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa a i?eioeeia iiaoo (ca eneeth/aieai
aaeeie/iuo neo/aaa) ia oieueei aini?iecaiaeeoueny a aeaea ?ai?iaeoeoeee,
oioia?aoee, neaeaeia e o.ae., iie ainnicaeaaaoueny a naiae i?eaeiaeueiie
i?aaeiaoiie oi?ia. Aii?in i i?aaiaii ?aaeeia eiiee i?iecaaaeaiee
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa i?yiiai ?ac?aoaiey a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
iieo/ee e aeieaeai ?aoaoueny n o/aoii iaueo iieiaeaiee aaoi?neiai i?aaa.
I/aaeaeii, /oi niyoea eiiee n oaeeo i?iecaaaeaiee aeiioneaaony eeoue n
niaeaney aaoi?a eee aai i?aaii?aaiieeia, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo n
niaeaney nianoaaiieea, iai?eia? iocaeiiai o/?aaeaeaiey. I?iecaaaeaiey
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa, iai?eia? neoeueioo?a, onoaiiaeaiiay a
ioaee/iii ianoa, a ioiioaiee eioi?ie enoaeee n?iee io?aiu, iiaoo
eiie?iaaoueny aac /ueaai-eeai ?ac?aoaiey.

Noaeaaiie i?aeoeea ecaanoii ?aoaiea, eioi?ui auei oaeiaeaoai?aii
o?aaiaaiea aaoi?a, nicaeaaoaai eiieth iaio?aiyaiiai neoeueioo?iiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, oeacaoue aai eiy i?e ecaeaiee oioiaeueaiia, a eioi?ii
aini?iecaiaeeeinue ecia?aaeaiea aai i?iecaaaeaiey. Oaeia ?aoaiea
aii?ina, ?aaii eae e i?eciaiea ca nicaeaoaeai eiiee i?iecaaaeaiey
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa eiuo aaoi?neeo i?aa, i?aaenoaaeyaony
niaa?oaiii ni?aaaaeeeaui.

I?iecaaaeaiey aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa e aeecaeia.
I?iecaaaeaiey aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa (aeaeaa —AeIE)
yaeythony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa,
oioy a caeiia iie, aaeaeo naiae cia/eiinoe e i?enoueo ei iniaaiiinoae,
auaeaeaiu a iniaoth a?oiio. Oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie i?iecaaaeaiee AeIE
yaeythony ooeeeoa?iinoue e ooaeiaeanoaaiiinoue eo eniieiaiey.

Iie iiaoo auoue oieeaeueiuie, oaeoe/anee iaiiaoi?eiuie, ii aieueoeinoai
ec ieo oe?aaee?oaony a ianniaii eiee/anoaa aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
eoeueoo?iuo e auoiauo iio?aaiinoae a?aaeaeai.

Caeii ii?aaeaeaiey i?iecaaaeaieth AeIE ia aeaao, oeacuaay a eo/oai
neo/aa i?eaioe?iai/iue ia?a/aiue ecaeaeee eoeueoo?ii-auoiaiai
iacia/aiey, eioi?ue aeeth/aao thaaee?iua, aaeaioa?aeiua, iaoaeee/aneea
ecaeaeey, ecaeaeey ec eiaee, einoe, ieanoiannu, ea?ooee, cia/ee,
noaaie?u e o.i. A eeoa?aoo?a i?iecaaaeaiey AeIE ii?aaeaeythony eae
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ecaeaeey auoiaiai iacia/aiey, iaeaaeathuea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuie e ynoaoe/aneeie ea/anoaaie, a oaeaea ia oieueei
oaeiaeaoai?ythuea i?yiua i?aeoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe, ii e yaeythueany
oe?aoaieai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e /aeiaaea1 .

?aoaiea ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai niaaoa eeoue auiieiyao ooieoeeth ioeaiee
aeinoieinoa i?iecaaaeaiey n oi/ee c?aiey i?iiuoeaiiiai eniieueciaaiey e
yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey auieaou aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. A neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeia ?aoaiea iiaeao auoue caiaiaii eiui aeieoiaioii, a
/anoiinoe ?aoaieai noaea2 .

Iniiaiay oai?aoe/aneay e i?aeoe/aneay i?iaeaia, naycaiiay n
i?iecaaaeaieyie AeIE, ninoieo a eo ioa?aie/aiee io io?aiyaiuo iaoaioiui
i?aaii i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia.

Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi ioee/aao ?anniao?eaaaiua iauaeou ae?oa io ae?oaa, —
yoi oi, /oi noaoon i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea iieo/aaony a ioeoeeaeueiii
ii?yaeea ii ?acoeueoaoai iaoaioiie yenia?oecu ia niioaaonoaea
cayaeaiiiai iauaeoa onoaiiaeaiiui a caeiia o?aaiaaieyi. Aei oiai, eae
iauaeo aoaeao i?eciai i?iiuoeaiiui ia?acoeii, ii io?aiyaony a ea/anoaa
iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa. A oaeii iieiaeaiee, ia iao acaeyae, iao ie/aai
iaii?iaeueiiai, eai aaoi?neia i?aai io?aiyao ethaua oai?/aneea
?acoeueoaou, aiieiuaiiua a iauaeoeaioth oi?io.

*oi aea eanaaony niaoeeaeueiiai oiiieiaiey i?iecaaaeaiee aeecaeia n?aaee
io?aiyaiuo aaoi?neei i?aaii iauaeoia, oi yoi iiaeii oieueei
i?eaaonoaiaaoue. Ionoonoaea oaeiai oeacaiey a i?aaeiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii?iaeaeaei nii?u, iineieueeo iaeioi?ua iieueciaaoaee
ioeacuaaeenue n/eoaoue i?iecaaaeaiey aeecaeia iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai
i?aaa.

Oioia?aoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oioia?aoee e eiua i?iecaaaeaiey, iieo/aiiua niiniaaie,
aiaeiae/iuie oioia?aoee, i?eciathony iauaeoaie aiai?neiai i?aaa aac
eaeeo-eeai ecuyoee e aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneiaee. Oaeia iieiaeaiea aicieeei
aeaeaei ia n?aco.

O?oae oioia?aoa i?e?aaieaathony e oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e ia
io?aiyeny ii?iaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iaeiaei oaea oiaaea i?eciaaaeinue,
/oi yoi auei iani?aaaaeeeai ii ioiioaieth e oai oioia?aoe/aneei
i?iecaaaeaieyi, eioi?ua aannii?ii niaea?aeaee a naaa oai?/aneee yeaiaio.

A iineaaeothuai Iniiau aaoi?neiai i?aaa 1928 a. e AE ?NON? 1964 a.
aeeth/eee oioia?aoee a e?oa io?aiyaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, ii a ea/anoaa
oneiaey eo io?aiu aaaee o?aaiaaiea iaycaoaeueiiai oeacaiey ia eaaeaeii
yecaiiey?a eiaie aaoi?a, ianoa e aiaea auionea i?iecaaaeaiey a naao. A
iniiaa iiaeiaiiai iiaeoiaea eaaeaea eaeay, /oi nai oioia?ao aeieaeai
?aoeoue, neaaeoao ee ?anniao?eaaoue aai oioia?aoeth a ea/anoaa
oai?/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiey eee iao.

Aiiaue i?eiyoia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aaoi?neii i?aaa eneeth/eei
oiiieiaiea i auiieiaiee eaeeo-eeai oi?iaeueiinoae a ioiioaiee
oioia?aoee, i?eciaa eo oaeei ia?acii iieiioeaiiuie iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai
i?aaa. Ia?yaeo n oioia?aoeyie aaoi?neia i?aai io?aiyao i?iecaaaeaiey
aieia?aoee, o. a. iauaiiua ecia?aaeaiey iauaeoia, neaeaeu e eiua
i?iecaaaeaiey, iieo/aiiua niiniaaie, aiaeiae/iuie oioia?aoee.

Io?aia i?aa eeoea, ecia?aaeaiiiai ia i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa. Caeii onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi iioaeeeiaaiea, aini?iecaaaeaiea e
?ani?ino?aiaiea i?iecaaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa, ia eioi?ii
ecia?aaeaii ae?oaia eeoei, aeiioneaaony eeoue n niaeaney ecia?aaeaiiiai,
a iinea aai nia?oe — n niaeaney aeaoae e ia?aaeeaoaai noi?oaa (no. 514
AE ?NON? 1964 a.). A th?eaee/aneie iaoea oeacaiiia i?aai eiaioaony
i?aaii eeoea ia nianoaaiiia ecia?aaeaiea eee, /oi oi aea naiia, i?aaii
ia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue aiaoiaai iaeeea. Aeaiiia i?aai ioiineony e
iaeiiio ec ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa a?aaeaeai. Iii ia aoiaeeo a
einoeooo aaoi?neiai i?aaa, ii ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia
inouanoaeaiea aaoi?neeo i?aaiii/ee. Aeaiiia i?aai nii?yaeaii n ecaanoiui
ia?aie/aieai i?aa aaoi?a ii eniieueciaaieth naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey. Aieaa
oiai, naii iaia?iaeiaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey, o. a. aai aeiaaaeaiea aei
iaii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa eeoe, aiciiaeii eeoue n niaeaney ecia?aaeaiiiai,
eioi?ia aeieaeii auoue iieo/aii aei niaa?oaiey yoeo aeaenoaee.

Iinea nia?oe ecia?aaeaiiiai ia i?iecaaaeaiee eeoea niaeanea ia
iaia?iaeiaaiea e eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey ai?aaa aeaaaoue oieueei
oeacaiiua a caeiia eeoea, e eioi?ui ioiinyony aeaoe e ia?aaeeaoee
noi?oa. E ae?oaei ianeaaeieeai aeaiiia i?aai ia ia?aoiaeeo, e iioiio a
neo/aa ionoonoaey aeaoae e ia?aaeeaoaai noi?oaa i?iecaaaeaiea iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny naiaiaeii, aac /ueaai-eeai niaeaney.

Caeiiii, iaeiaei, i?aaeoniao?eaathony aeaa neo/ay, eiaaea niaeaney
ecia?aaeaiiiai eeoea eee aai aeeceeo ia iaia?iaeiaaiea,
aini?iecaaaeaiea, ?ani?ino?aiaiea e eiia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey ia
o?aaoaony. Ai-ia?auo, yoi aeiioneaaony, eiaaea ecia?aaeaiiia eeoei
iice?iaaei ca ieaoo. Ai-aoi?uo, yoi iiaeao auoue naeaeaii, eiaaea a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eee iauanoaaiiuo eioa?anao inouanoaeyaony
?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee ia ecia?aaeaiiii eeoea. *oi eiaiii neaaeoao
caeanue iiieiaoue iiae ainoaea?noaaiiuie eee iauanoaaiiuie eioa?anaie, a
caeiia ia ?ane?uaaaony.

Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth yoeo e eiuo iiaeiaiuo neo/aaa yaeyaony oi,
/oi eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee i?iecaiaeeony n oeaeueth eioi?iaoeee
iauanoaa i eeoea, a ia i i?iecaaaeaiee, ia eioi?ii iii ecia?aaeaii.

A?aaeaeaiei, i?aaa eioi?iai ia?ooaiu, iiaeao ainiieueciaaoueny ethaie ec
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo no. 12 AE ia? caueou, a /anoiinoe iio?aaiaaoue io
ioaao/eea niyoue ecia?aaeaiea n aeo?eiu, cai?aoeoue aeaiiino?aoeeth
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eaae?ia oeeueia, ecuyoue oe?aae aacaou eaee aeo?iaea e o.
ae.

I?iecaaaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?u, a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa, naaeiai-ia?eiaiai
eneonnoaa. I?iecaaaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?u e a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea
aia?aua niaoeeaeueii oiiiyiooua a iiaii caeiia i?iecaaaeaiey
naaeiai-ia?eiaiai eneonnoaa iaeaaeatho ecaanoiie niaoeeoeeie ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa. I?aaeaea anaai iie,
iiaeiaii i?iecaaaeaieyi aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa, eiatho
aeaieiia iacia/aiea.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, iie neoaeao oaeiaeaoai?aieth ii?aaeaeaiiuo
iaoa?eaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae ethaeae, a n ae?oaie — aunooiatho eae
i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa e i?aaeiacia/aiu aucuaaoue o ethaeae /oanoai
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey. I/aaeaeii, /oi aaoi?nei-i?aaiaie
io?aia iiaeeaaeeo eiaiii ooaeiaeanoaaiiay noi?iia i?iaeoia, caeaiee,
nii?oaeaiee e o. ae. Iiyoiio, iai?eia?, iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa
i?eciaaony ia aanue i?iaeo ni anaie aai oaoie/aneeie e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie
?aoaieyie a?oeoaeoo?iuo eaeae a iaoo?a, a eeoue aai a?oeoaeoo?iay
/anoue.

Aeaeaa, aaoi?neei i?aaii io?aiythony eae i?iecaaaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?iie
a?aoeee e ieanoeee: yneecu, oanaaeu, ia?niaeoeau, i?iaeou cano?ieee,
?acia?u, ?enoiee, ieaiu icaeaiaiey, iiaeaee, iaeaou e o.i., oae e
nianoaaiii i?iecaaaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?u, a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa e
naaeiai-ia?eiaiai eneonnoaa a aeaea caeaiee, nii?oaeaiee, eaa?oaeia
cano?ieee, naaeia, ia?eia e o. ae. A th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ia?aaeei
iiaeii ano?aoeoue ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi iauaeoeaiie oi?iie a?oeoaeoo?iuo
i?iecaaaeaiee yaeythony eeoue /a?oaaee e yneecu, ii ia naie iauaeou,
eioi?ua ii iei nicaeaiu1 . Niaeaneoueny n iiaeiaiui ooaa?aeaeaieai,
eiia/ii, iaeuecy. Anee /aoei ?acee/aoue i?iecaaaeaiea eae aeaai
iaiaoa?eaeueiia e aai iaoa?eaeueiue iineoaeue, oi niiiaiee ioiineoaeueii
i?eciaiey caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee io?aiyaiuie caeiiii a?oeoaeoo?iuie
i?iecaaaeaieyie aicieeaoue ia aeieaeii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaiiue aii?in
iieo/ee /aoeia ?ac?aoaiea a no. 16 Caeiia ?O «Ia a?oeoaeoo?iie
aeayoaeueiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee», aaea iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi
iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?u yaeythony eae
nai a?oeoaeoo?iue i?iaeo, oae e ?ac?aaioaiiay ia aai iniiaa
aeieoiaioaoeey aeey no?ieoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea a?oeoaeoo?iue iauaeo, o. a.
caeaiea, nii?oaeaiea, eo eioa?uea?, iauaeou aeaaiono?ienoaa e o. ae.,
nicaeaiiua ia iniiaa a?oeoaeoo?iiai i?iaeoa.

Iaeiiaoe, a ioiioaiee a?oeoaeoo?iuo e aiaeiae/iuo ei i?iecaaaeaiee
neaaeoao oaeaea /aoei ?acee/aoue aaoi?neea i?aaa eo nicaeaoaeae e i?aaa
ii aeaaeaieth, iieueciaaieth e ?anii?yaeaieth caeaieyie e nii?oaeaieyie
eae iaoa?eaeueiuie iauaeoaie. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, a /anoiinoe, ia
aa?aioe?oao aaoi?o a?oeoaeoo?iiai i?iecaaaeaiey aai iieioth
iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue, oae eae aeaaeaeaoe caeaiey a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iiaeao aiineoue a iaai eciaiaiey e ia?aaeaeuaaoue aai a niioaaonoaee ni
naieie ioaeaeaie. Iaeiaei yoi iiaeao aeaeaoueny eeoue i?e niaethaeaiee
oneiaee, onoaiiaeaiiuo no. 21 Caeiia ?O «Ia a?oeoaeoo?iie aeayoaeueiinoe
a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee», a /anoiinoe, iiae eiio?ieai i?aaia
a?oeoaeoo?u e a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa, auaeaaoaai
a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iia caaeaiea.

I?iecaaaeaiey oi?aia?aoee e iaioiieiu. Oioy i?iecaaaeaiey oi?aia?aoee e
iaioiieiu ecaeaaia i?eciaaaeenue niaaoneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
naiinoiyoaeueiuie iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa, aei naiiai iineaaeiaai
a?aiaie iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai eo io?aiu auei iaee/ea ienueiaiiuo eee
caoeene?iaaiiuo eiui niiniaii oeacaiee ioiineoaeueii eo iinoaiiaee. A
th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a aeaaea ano?a/aeenue ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi iauaeoii
io?aiu a aeaiiii neo/aa yaeyaony ia iinoaiiaea oaioea eae oaeiaay, a
eeoa?aoo?iia i?iecaaaeaiea, eiathuaa oeaeueth inouanoaeoue iinoaiiaeo ia
noeaia2 . Iaeiaei, ii iiaieth aieueoeinoaa o/aiuo, iauaeoii aaoi?neiai
i?aaa yaeyeinue ana-oaee naii oi?aia?aoe/aneia i?iecaaaeaiea.

Nia?aiaiiua oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa iicaieytho caoeene?iaaoue
oi?aia?aoe/aneia i?iecaaaeaiea eee iaioiieio cia/eoaeueii aieaa
aeaoaeueii, /ai ethaua naiua iiae?iaiua ienueiaiiua oeacaiey
iinoaiiaueea. Iaeiaei e aac oeenaoeee oi?aia?aoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee ia
eaeii-eeai iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea iiiaea ec ieo ia?aaeei iiaoo auoue
aanueia oi/ii aini?iecaaaeaiu, /oi aeaeaao aeooaeueiie caaea/o eo io?aiu
n iiiaioa iaia?iaeiaaiey. Oaeoth io?aio caeii ei aa?aioe?oao, ii i?e
oneiaee, /oi nicaeaoaee oi?aia?aoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee noiatho
aeieacaoue naie aaoi?neea i?aaa ia ioaee/ii eniieiaiiua, ii ieaaea ia
caoeene?iaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey.

Ea?oia?aoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey. E /eneo ea?oia?aoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee
ioiinyony aaia?aoe/aneea, aaieiae/aneea e ae?oaea ea?ou, ieaiu, yneecu e
ieanoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey, ioiinyueany e aaia?aoee, oiiia?aoee e
ae?oaei iaoeai. Iniiaiie aii?in, eioi?ue aicieeaao i?eiaieoaeueii e
io?aia oaeiai ?iaea i?iecaaaeaiee, ninoieo a oii, yaeythony ee iie
?acoeueoaoii oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeaoue iaeiicia/iue ioaao ia
aeaiiue aii?in a?yae ee aiciiaeii. Aaconeiaii, ia anyeay ea?oa eaee ieai
iiaoo auoue aaciaiai?i/ii ioianaiu e iauaeoai aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Eie, a
/anoiinoe, a?yae ee iiaeii i?eciaoue oaeoth ea?oo eee ieai, eioi?ua
ninoaaeaiu eneeth/eoaeueii n iiiiuueth oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, iai?eia?
iooai ay?ieinie/aneie nuaiee, ?acoeueoaou eioi?ie ia?aaioaiu
eiiiuethoa?ii.

Nai?ieee e ae?oaea ninoaaiua i?iecaaaeaiey. Iniaui iauaeoii aaoi?neiai
i?aaa i?eciathony ii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao nai?ieee e ae?oaea
ninoaaiua i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua nicaeathony iooai oai?/aneiai
niaaeeiaiey a aaeeiia oeaeia i?iecaaaeaiee, aaoi?ii eioi?uo ninoaaeoaeue
ia yaeyaony. Nooue oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ninoaaeoaey caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi ii naiinoiyoaeueii ioae?aao iaiaoiaeeiue iaoa?eae, ?aniieaaaao
aai ii i?eaeiaeueiie nenoaia e ca/anooth iiaeaa?aaao aai ia?aaioea,
iai?eia?, aaeaioe?oao ae?aaiee oaeno e nia?aiaiiui o?aaiaaieyi,
niaaaeaao aai eiiiaioa?eai, ionueeaie, i?aaeiaoiui e eiaiiui oeacaoaeyie
e o.i.

?acoiaaony, i?inoay oaoie/aneay ?aaioa, iai?eia? iiaeaioiaea nai?ieea
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a o?iiieiae/aneii ii?yaeea, oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth ia i?eciaaony e aaoi?nei-i?aaiaie io?aiie ia
iieuecoaony.

Aiieia iiiyoii, /oi aaoi?neia i?aai ninoaaeoaey ?ani?ino?aiyaony eiaiii
ia nai?iee eae oaeiaie, ii ieeae ia ia i?iecaaaeaiey, aeeth/aiiua a
nai?iee. Iineieueeo i?iecaaaeaieai yaeyaony eeoue naia nenoaia
?aniieiaeaiey iaoa?eaea eee aai ia?aaioea, yoi ia i?aiyonoaoao ae?oaei
eeoeai iiaeaa?aiooue oio aea iaoa?eae eiie nenoaiaoecaoeee e ia?aaioea e
oai naiui nicaeaoue iiaia i?iecaaaeaiea.

I?aaiaie ?aaeei nai?ieea eiaao e oaeie iauaeo aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eae aaca
aeaiiuo, iiae eioi?ie iiieiaaony iauaeoeaiay oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiey e
i?aaiecaoeee niaieoiiinoe aeaiiuo (noaoae, ?an/aoia e o.ae.),
nenoaiaoece?iaaiiuo oaeei ia?acii, /oiau yoe aeaiiua iiaee auoue
iaeaeaiu e ia?aaioaiu n iiiiuueth YAI. Eae e ai anyeii nai?ieea,
?acoeueoao oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe caeanue au?aaeaaony a iniaii
iiaeai?a e i?aaiecaoeee aeaiiuo, iacaaeneii io oiai, yaeythony ee naie
yoe aeaiiua iauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Iaia?iaeiaaiiua (iioaeeeiaaiiua) e iaiaia?iaeiaaiiua (iaiioaeeeiaaiiua)
i?iecaaaeaiey. Aaaeiaeoaa cia/aiea eiaao aeaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiee ia
iaia?iaeiaaiiua e iaiaia?iaeiaaiiua, a oaeaea aeeceia e iaio, ii ia
niaiaaeathuaa n iei — ia iioaeeeiaaiiua e iaiioaeeeiaaiiua. N?aco
iaiai?einy, /oi aaoi?neei i?aaii io?aiythony e oa e ae?oaea
i?iecaaaeaiey, /oi niaoeeaeueii iiae/a?eeaaaony a no. 6 Caeiia ?O «Ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao». Iaeiaei anee iaiaia?iaeiaaiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey io?aiythony caeiiii aac eaeeo-eeai ecuyoee,
iaia?iaeiaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey a iaeioi?uo i?yii i?aaeoniio?aiiuo a
caeiia neo/ayo iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu caeioa?aniaaiiuie eeoeaie aac
niaeaney aaoi?a e aeaaea aii?aee aai aic?aaeaieyi. Aiaeiae/iua ?acee/ey
nouanoaotho iaaeaeo iioaeeeiaaiiuie e iaiioaeeeiaaiiuie i?iecaaaeaieyie.
A neeo yoiai iiiyoey «iaia?iaeiaaiea» e «iioaeeeiaaiea» ea?atho a
aaoi?neii i?aaa ?innee aanueia cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue.

Iiiyoea «iaia?iaeiaaiea» oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie iniiaiuie
iiiaioaie. Ai-ia?auo, a eaeie au oi?ia ie inouanoaeyeinue
iaia?iaeiaaiea, iii ioaaouaaao niaie aeaenoaey, eioi?ua aia?aua aeaeatho
i?iecaaaeaiea aeinooiiui aeey anaiauaai naaaeaiey. A yoie nayce
iaia?iaeiaaoue i?iecaaaeaiea, ii iauaio i?aaeeo, iiaeii eeoue iaeei ?ac,
anee oieueei aaoi? ia ainiieuecoaony naiei i?aaii ia iocua oaea
iaia?iaeiaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey (no. 15 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao»), a caoai aiiaue naeaeaao naia i?iecaaaeaiea aeinooiiui
aeey ioaeeee.

Ai-aoi?uo, aeiaaaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey aei naaaeaiey o?aoueeo eeoe eeoue
oiaaea i?eia?aoaao th?eaee/aneia cia/aiea iaia?iaeiaaiey, eiaaea yoi
naeaeaii n niaeaney aaoi?a eee aai i?aaii?aaiieeia.

Anee i?iecaaaeaiea iaia?iaeiaaii iiieii aai aiee, iii n th?eaee/aneie
oi/ee c?aiey nio?aiyao ?aaeei iaiaia?iaeiaaiiiai. Ia yoii iniiaaiee
aaoi? ai?aaa aini?aiyonoaiaaoue naiaiaeiiio eniieueciaaieth
i?iecaaaeaiey, eiaaea caeii yoi aeiioneaao; ii iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue
ecuyoey yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey ec ia?auaiey, iiaeao iaycaoue
ia?ooeoaey iioaeeeiaaoue a ia/aoe niiauaiea i ia?ooaiee aai i?aa e o. i.

A-o?aoueeo, iaia?iaeiaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaii n
iiiiuueth ethauo aeaenoaee, eioi?ua aeaeatho i?iecaaaeaiea aeinooiiui
aeey ioaeeee, a oii /enea iooai aai iioaeeeiaaiey, ioaee/iiai iieaca,
ioaee/iiai eniieiaiey, ia?aaea/e a yoe? eee eiui niiniaii. Ii niuneo
caeiia aeey iaia?iaeiaaiey aiieia aeinoaoi/ii iaeiiai yecaiiey?a
i?iecaaaeaiey.

A-/aoaa?ouo, caeii ia naycuaaao oeacaiiua auoa niiniau aeiaaaeaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey aei naaaeaiey o?aoueeo eeoe n aceiaieai ieaou ca yoi.
Iaia?iaeiaaieai aoaeao n/eoaoueny, iai?eia?, eae aanieaoiay
aeaiiino?aoeey i?iecaaaeaiey, oae e ieaoiue aai iieac. E?iia oiai, caeii
ia o?aaoao, /oiau i?iecaaaeaiea auei iai?aiaiii oaeoe/anee aeiaaaeaii
aei naaaeaiey o?aoueeo eeoe; aaaeii eeoue, /oi aeey ciaeiinoaa n
i?iecaaaeaieai auea nicaeaia ?aaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue. Iai?eia?,
aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie, eioi?ay a niioaaonoaee n
onoaiiaeaiiuie o?aaiaaieyie iiiauaaony a aeaeeioaea ii e?aeiae ia?a ca
ianyoe aei caueou, aoaeao n/eoaoueny iaia?iaeiaaiiie, aeaaea anee ieeoi,
e?iia ioeoeeaeueiuo iiiiiaioia, n iae oaeoe/anee ia iciaeiieeny.

A-iyouo, iaia?iaeiaaieai i?eciaaony nicaeaiea aiciiaeiinoe iciaeiieoueny
n i?iecaaaeaieai aeey iaii?aaeaeaiiiai e?oaa eeoe. A aeaiiii neo/aa
i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi a i?eioeeia eaaeaeue aeaeathuee iiaeao
iciaeiieoueny n i?iecaaaeaieai.

A-oanouo, iaia?iaeiaaiea, aeaaea anee iii inouanoaeaii naiei aaoi?ii eee
n aai niaeaney, iiaeao auoue aiioee?iaaii aaoi?ii iooai iocuaa
i?iecaaaeaiey. A yoii neo/aa i?iecaaaeaiea aiiaue i?eia?aoaao ?aaeei
iaiaia?iaeiaaiiiai ni anaie auoaeathueie ionthaea iineaaenoaeyie.

A ioee/ea io iaia?iaeiaaiey iioaeeeiaaiea naycuaaaony ?inneeneei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eeoue n oaeeie aeaenoaeyie, eioi?ua icia/atho auione
• a ia?auaiea yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey. Eiuie neiaaie, ?a/ue eaeao ia
ecaioiaeaiee e auionea a ia?auaiea eiiee i?iecaaaeaiey, ecaioiaeaiiuo a
ethaie iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia. I?e yoii oeacaiiua aeaenoaey aeieaeiu auoue
oaeaea, eae e aeaenoaey ii iaia?iaeiaaieth, niaa?oaiu n niaeaney aaoi?a
i?iecaaaeaiey, a eiee/anoai auiouaiiuo yecaiiey?ia aeieaeii auoue
aeinoaoi/iui aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ?acoiiuo iio?aaiinoae ioaeeee enoiaey
ec oa?aeoa?a i?iecaaaeaiey.

Ii i?yiiio oeacaieth eiiaaioeee iioaeeeiaaieai n/eoaaony auione oieueei
oaeeo yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
/eoaoaeueneiai eee c?eoaeueneiai aini?eyoey. A /anoiinoe, ia i?eciaaony
iioaeeeiaaieai niaeanii Anaie?iie eiiaaioeee auione a ia?auaiea
a?aiieanoeiie e eiuo caoeicaienae eeoa?aoo?iuo, iocueaeueiuo e ethauo
eiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, oae eae iie i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey neooiaiai
aini?eyoey. ?inneeneee aaoi?neee caeii iiaeiaiuo ia?aie/aiee ia
niaea?aeeo e n/eoaao iioaeeeiaaieai auione a ia?auaiea ethauo
yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey, iacaaeneii io oiai, a eaeie eiie?aoiie
iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia iie au?aaeaiu e a eaeie oi?ia aini?eieiathony
ioaeeeie. Iaeeoei yaiia ?anoiaeaeaiea iaaeaeo iieiaeaieyie,
cae?aieaiiuie iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ii e aioo?aiiei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Anee o/anoue, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea «auione a naao» noi?ioee?iaaii a
eiiaaioeee eae aiieia caaa?oaiiia, o. a. ia aeaeathuaa ionueeo e
aioo?aiiaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao eaaeaeie no?aiu, o/anoaothuae a
eiiaaioeee, a /aoei ii?aaeaeaii naiie eiiaaioeeae, oi iii e aeieaeii
i?eiaiyoueny noaeaie e eiuie i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiuie i?aaiaie ?innee. Eiia
?aoaiea aii?ina ia niaeanoaony n i?eioeeiaie i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa, i
aeaeaiee nicaeaoue eioi?ia oae iiiai aiai?eony a ?innee a iineaaeiea
aiaeu.

I?iecaaaeaiey i?eaeiaeueiua e i?iecaiaeiua. Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea eae a
?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, oae e a aeieo?eia aaoi?neiai i?aaa
iaoiaeeo iiae?acaeaeaiea io?aiyaiuo caeiiii i?iecaaaeaiee ia
i?eaeiaeueiua (naiinoiyoaeueiua) e i?iecaiaeiua (caaeneiua).

I?eaeiaeueiui yaeyaony oaeia i?iecaaaeaiea, ana iniiaiua io?aiyaiua
yeaiaiou eioi?iai nicaeaiu naiei aaoi?ii. Iaiiiiei, /oi a niioaaonoaee n
nia?aiaiiie aeieo?eiie ?inneeneiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa io?aiyaiuie
yeaiaioaie i?eciathony aai ycue (aiaoiyy oi?ia) e nenoaia ia?acia
(aioo?aiiyy oi?ia). Niaea?aeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey aia nayce n oi?iie
caeiiii ia io?aiyaony. Iiyoiio i?iecaaaeaiea, eioi?ia caeinoaoao
yeaiaiou niaea?aeaiey ae?oaiai i?iecaaaeaiey (oaia, nthaeaoiia yae?i,
iaoa?eae e o.ae.), ii eiaao iiaoth oi?io (aiaoithth e aioo?aiithth),
i?eciaaony i?eaeiaeueiui. Iai?eia?, naiinoiyoaeueiui o?oaeii yaeyaony
ea?oeia ooaeiaeieea TH, Iai?eioeaaa «Ioaeuo iinea aiy», oioy
iauai?eciaia aa oaniay naycue n iiyiie A. O. Oaa?aeianeiai «Aaneeee
Oa?eei».

Caeii, iaeiaei, i?eciaao iauaeoii aaoi?neiai i?aaa e oae iacuaaaiua
i?iecaiaeiua, eee caaeneiua, i?iecaaaeaiey, i?e nicaeaiee eioi?uo
/anoe/ii caeinoaothony io?aiyaiua yeaiaiou /oaeiai i?iecaaaeaiey.
Iniiaiui e?eoa?eai aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey ei io?aiu yaeyaony o?aaiaaiea
oai?/aneie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n i?eaeiaeii.

Aoi?ui iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai aicieeiiaaiey aaoi?neeo i?aa ia oaeia
i?iecaaaeaiea yaeyaony niaethaeaiea aai nicaeaoaeai i?aa aaoi?a
i?iecaaaeaiey, iiaeaa?aoaainy ia?aaiaeo, ia?aaeaeea, a?aiaee?iaea eee
ae?oaie ia?a?aaioea.

E /eneo i?iecaiaeiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ioiinyony ia?a?aaioee, iai?eia?,
ia?aaeaeea iiaanoaiaaoaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee a ae?aiaoe/aneea,
noeaia?iua, eee iaiai?io, ia?aaiaeu ia ae?oaie ycue, a?aiaee?iaee e
i?eano?iaee, aini?iecaaaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiee aeeaiiene n?aaenoaaie
aayiey, aiiioaoeee, ?aoa?aou, ?acthia, iaci?u e o. i.

Neoaeaaiua e ianeoaeaaiua i?iecaaaeaiey. Aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia aeeyiea
ia iauai aaoi?neeo i?aaiii/ee e ?aaeei eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey
ieacuaaao i?eciaiea aai neoaeaaiui. Iiiyoea «neoaeaaiua i?iecaaaeaiey»
caeii ia ?ane?uaaao, ioiiny e eo /eneo i?iecaaaeaiey, nicaeaiiua a
ii?yaeea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae eee neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey
?aaioiaeaoaey (no. 14 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»).
TH?eaee/aneay iaoea e noaeaaiay i?aeoeea aiinyo a yoi iiiyoea aieueooth
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue e noaayo aai a ecaanoiua ?aiee. A /anoiinoe,
ioia/aaony, /oi i?iecaaaeaiea iiaeao n/eoaoueny nicaeaiiui a ii?yaeea
auiieiaiey neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea niaea?aeaieai
oaeiai caaeaiey yaeyaony eiaiii nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey. Anee
niaea?aeaiea neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey caeeth/aeinue, iai?eia?, a nicaeaiee
oaoie/aneie ?ac?aaioee aac ioi?ieaiey aa ?acoeueoaoa a aeaea
i?iecaaaeaiey — iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa — iii ia iiaeao n/eoaoueny
nicaeaiiui a ii?yaeea neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey1 .

Ia?aaeei i?eciaeii neoaeaaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee yaeyaony ioianaiea eo e
ieaiiaui ?aaioai niioaaonoaothueo iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
o/?aaeaeaiee e aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee.

Ia?yaeo n ieaiiauie ?aaioaie neoaeaaiuie iau/ii i?eciathony
i?iecaaaeaiey, nicaeaaaaiua a ii?yaeea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiuo
iaycaiiinoae ooaoiuie nio?oaeieeaie ?aaeaeoeee aacao e aeo?iaeia,
eeiinooaeee e ?aaeeiaauaoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee e o. ae. Anee aea
i?iecaaaeaiea ooaoiiai nio?oaeieea ia naycaii iaiin?aaenoaaiii n aai
o?oaeiauie iaycaiiinoyie, iii neoaeaaiui ia yaeyaony.

Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia neoaeaaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee
caeeth/athony a neaaeothuai. Ai-ia?auo, ?inneeneia aaoi?neia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai enoiaeeo ec oiai i?eioeeieaeueiiai iieiaeaiey, /oi
aaoi?neia i?aai ia iaai i?eiaaeeaaeeo aai aaoi?o.

Aaoi?neia i?aai ?innee eneeth/aao caeanue i?aaii?aainoai ?aaioiaeaoaey e
nio?aiyao ana iniiaiua aaoi?neea i?aaiii/ey ca iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
nicaeaoaeai.

Iaeiaei i?aaiii/ey aaoi?a ia iinyo iaia?aie/aiiiai oa?aeoa?a.
O/eouaaaony, /oi ?aaioiaeaoaeue ii?o/ae aaoi?o nicaeaoue i?iecaaaeaiea
aeey oiai, /oiau iii iiaei auoue eniieueciaaii aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oeaeae. Iiyoiio oioy ca aaoi?ii a niioaaonoaee n ainiiaenoaothuae
aeieo?eiie nio?aiyaony aiciiaeiinoue ?aoaoue aii?in i aioiaiinoe
i?iecaaaeaiey e iaia?iaeiaaieth, n/eoaaony, /oi ii iaycai aeaoue oaeia
?ac?aoaiea, oae eae eia/a aai ioeac aoaeao ?anoeaiai eae ia?ooaiea
o?oaeiauo iaycaiiinoae. Oi/ii oae aea aaoi? ia iiaeao aini?aiyonoaiaaoue
oiio, /oiau ia oeooeueiii eenoa eee a auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo auee oeacaiu
iaeiaiiaaiea eee ioeoeeaeueiue neiaie i?aaiecaoeee, a ?aieao eioi?ie
nicaeaii i?iecaaaeaiea.

Ai-aoi?uo, nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey ii caaeaieth ?aaioiaeaoaey naiui
nouanoaaiiui ia?acii aeeyao ia ?aaeei aai eniieueciaaiey. Niaeanii i. 2
no. 14 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»,
eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea neoaeaaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey
i?eiaaeeaaeao eeoeo, , n eioi?ui aaoi? ninoieo a o?oaeiauo ioiioaieyo
(?aaioiaeaoaeth), anee a aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo iei e aaoi?ii ia
i?aaeoniio?aii eiia. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aaoi? ia ai?aaa aac niaeaney
?aaioiaeaoaey ia?aaeaoue nicaeaiiia ei i?iecaaaeaiea aeey eniieueciaaiey
ae?oaei eeoeai. Iai?ioea, ?aaioiaeaoaeue iiaeao eae eniieueciaaoue oaeia
i?iecaaaeaiea a naieo nianoaaiiuo eioa?anao, oae e auaeaaaoue ?ac?aoaiey
ia aai eniieueciaaiea o?aoueei eeoeai.

Iaiiiiei, /oi ?aiaa ?aaioiaeaoaeue aaoiiaoe/anee i?eia?aoae i?aai ia
eniieueciaaiea neoaeaaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey eeoue niiniaii, iaoneiaeaiiui
oeaeueth neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey e a auoaeathueo ec iaai i?aaeaeao.
Iai?eia?, eeiinooaeey iiaea eniieueciaaoue nicaeaiiua ii aa caaeaieth
einothiu e aeaei?aoeee aeey iinoaiiaee oeeueia, ii /oiau eniieueciaaoue
eo aeey ecaeaiey aeueaiia ?ai?iaeoeoeee, iia aeieaeia auea iieo/eoue ia
yoi iniaia ?ac?aoaiea aaoi?a. E?iia oiai, i?eiyoua a 1991 a. Iniiau
a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia?aie/eee i?aaa ?aaioiaeaoaey ia
eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey 3 aiaeaie n iiiaioa i?aaenoaaeaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey (no. 140). Iaeiiaoe, nai aaoi? ia eeoaeny aiciiaeiinoe
eniieueciaaoue naith ?aaioo niiniaaie, ia iaoneiaeaiiuie oeaeueth
neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey. Iai?eia?, ooaoiue aeecaeia?, ii yneecai eioi?iai
?aaioiaeaoaeue auioneae i?iecaaaeaiea AeIE, iia caeeth/eoue aeiaiai? ia
ecaeaiea naieo ?aaio, anee oieueei cai?ao ia oaeea aeaenoaey ia
niaea?aeaeny a aai aeiaiai?a n ?aaioiaeaoaeai.

A-o?aoueeo, iniaui ia?acii ?aoaaony aii?in i aiciaa?aaeaeaiee ca
eniieueciaaiea neoaeaaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. A iiaii aaoi?neii caeiia
oeacuaaaony, /oi ?acia? aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca eaaeaeue aeae
eniieueciaaiey neoaeaaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey e ii?yaeie aai auieaou
onoaiaaeeaathony aeiaiai?ii iaaeaeo aaoi?ii e ?aaioiaeaoaeai (i. 2 no.
14).

Ii anee iaaeaeo noi?iiaie aicieeaao ii yoiio iiaiaeo nii? e iie ia iiaoo
i?eeoe e niaeaoaieth, aaoi? iiaeao aeiaeaaoueny caueou naieo i?aa a
noaeaaiii ii?yaeea. I?e/ai aaoi? ai?aaa i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iieo/aiea
iniaiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca eaaeaeue aeae eniieueciaaiey naiaai
i?iecaaaeaiey.

A-/aoaa?ouo, ?inneeneia aaoi?neia i?aai enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo aaoi?aie, nicaeathueie i?iecaaaeaiey a ii?yaeea auiieiaiey
neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae eee neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey ?aaioiaeaoaey, e eo
?aaioiaeaoaeyie ?aaeaiaioe?othony caeeth/aiiui iaaeaeo ieie o?oaeiaui
aeiaiai?ii eee eiio?aeoii.

Ia ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ?aaioieeii e ?aaioiaeaoaeai ia ?ani?ino?aiythony oa
o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ua i?aaeuyaeythony caeiiii e aaoi?neei aeiaiai?ai, a
/anoiinoe i?aaeei i oii, /oi i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a ia iiaoo auoue i?aaa
ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua aaoi? iiaeao nicaeaoue a
aoaeouai (i. 5 no. 31 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»).

A-iyouo, i?eiaieoaeueii e nicaeaiiui a ii?yaeea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiuo
iaycaiiinoae eee neoaeaaiiai caaeaiee ?aaioiaeaoaey yioeeeeiiaaeeyi,
yioeeeeiiaaee/aneei neiaa?yi, ia?eiaee/aneei e i?iaeieaeathueiny
nai?ieeai iao/iuo o?oaeia, aacaoai, aeo?iaeai e ae?oaei ia?eiaee/aneei
ecaeaieyi caeii onoaiaaeeaaao aieaa aeanoeee i?aaiaie ?aaeei ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie neoaeaaiuie i?iecaaaeaieyie. A aeaiiii neo/aa
aeaenoaoao i?aaeei, onoaiiaeaiiia /. 1 i. 2 no. II Caeiia ?O «Ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao», a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui ecaeaoaeyi
oeacaiiuo ecaeaiee i?eiaaeeaaeao eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia
eniieueciaaiea oaeeo ecaeaiee.

I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi eo oai?/aneee o?oae, iieaoa eioi?iai iau/ii oaycaia
n eiee/anoaii ia?aaeaiiiai eie aacaoa iaoa?eaea, oaea iieiinoueth
iiea/ai aacaoie, e iineaaeiyy i?eia?aea eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia
eniieueciaaiea yoiai iaoa?eaea.

Ethaie aaoi?, a oii /enea e iaoiaeyueeny a ooaoa ?aaioiaeaoaey, eioi?ue
ia?aaeae naia i?iecaaaeaiea aeey eniieueciaaiey a aacaoa, aeo?iaea,
i?iaeieaeathuainy nai?ieea e o.i., ia eeoaaony i?aaa eniieueciaaoue naia
i?iecaaaeaiea a eiie oi?ia e eiui niiniaii, eioi?ua ia niaiaaeatho n
oi?iie e niiniaii eniieueciaaiey aai i?iecaaaeaiey ecaeaoaeai aacaou,
aeo?iaea e ae?oaiai ia?eiaee/aneiai eaee i?iaeieaeathuaainy ecaeaiey.
Iai?eia?, ooaoiue aeo?iaeeno aacaou eiaao i?aai ecaeaoue iioaeeeiaaiiua
ei a aacaoa iaoa?eaeu a aeaea ioaeaeueiie eieae eee ia?a?aaioaoue naith
noaoueth a i?iecaaaeaiea ae?oaiai aeai?a; o/aiue, iioaeeeiaaaoee naia
i?iecaaaeaiea a i?iaeieaeathuainy iao/iii nai?ieea aoca, a eioi?ii ii
?aaioaao, iiaeao aeeth/eoue aai a ea/anoaa ninoaaiie /anoe a naith
iiiia?aoeth, e o. i. Aeaiiia iiieiaiea caeiia iieiinoueth niaeanoaony n
aeaaii neiaeeaoaeny a ?innee i?aeoeeie.

Ia?aaeee neo/ae, eiaaea oieueei /anoue i?iecaaaeaiey nicaeaaony a
ii?yaeea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey. A iiaeiaiie neooaoeee aai
i?aaiaie ?aaeei i?eciaaony niaoaiiui, a aai aaoi?u eiatho iaiaeeiaeiaua
i?aaa. Iai?eia?, ii aeaeo, ?anniio?aiiiio a 1984 a. iaeiei ec noaeia a.
Iineau, auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi enoaoe i?eieiae o/anoea a iiaeaioiaea
eieeaeoeaiie ?aaiou, i?aaenoaaeaiiie ecaeaoaeuenoao «Iaoea» a ea/anoaa
ieaiiaie ?aaiou io Einoeoooa enoi?ee AI NNN?. Enoaoe ia aue ?aaioieeii
yoiai einoeoooa, a naiae i?aaiecaoeee iiaeaioiaea aeaiiie ?aaiou aio ia
ii?o/aeanue, i /ai ii i?aaenoaaee niioaaonoaothuea aeieoiaiou. Ioaao/ee
— ecaeaoaeuenoai «Iaoea» — aic?aaeae i?ioea oaeiaeaoai?aiey enea,
nnueaynue ia oi, /oi eieaa auiouaia iaaieueoei oe?aaeii e iioiio
yaeyaony aeey ecaeaoaeuenoaa oauoi/iie, a oaeaea ia oi, /oi iia auea
cayaeaia Einoeoooii enoi?ee AI NNN? eae ieaiiaay ?aaioa. Noae ioeeiiee
ana aeiaiaeu ioaao/eea, oeacaa, /oi caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao
en/a?iuaathuee ia?a/aiue iniiaaiee aeey aacaiii?a?iiai eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiee. ?aaioa, i?aaenoaaeaiiay enooeii, ia yaeyeanue ieaiiaie e
iioiio aeieaeia auoue iiea/aia ii ooaa?aeaeaiiui noaaeai1 .

4. Noauaeou aaoi?neiai i?aaa

Aaoi?u i?iecaaaeaiee. Noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa yaeythony eeoea,
eioi?ui i?eiaaeeaaeeo noauaeoeaiia aaoi?neia i?aai a ioiioaiee
i?iecaaaeaiey. Niaeanii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, iaeaaeaoaeyie
noauaeoeaiuo aaoi?neeo i?aa iiaoo auoue ?inneeneea a?aaeaeaia e
eiino?aioeu, eo ianeaaeieee, eiua i?aaii?aaiieee, a oaeaea ?inneeneia
ainoaea?noai a oeaeii. I?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaiea aeey eaaeaeie eaoaai?ee
noauaeoia aicieeatho a nayce n ?acee/iuie th?eaee/aneeie oaeoaie —
nicaeaieai i?iecaaaeaiey, ia?aoiaeii aaoi?neeo i?aa ii ianeaaenoao,
aaoi?neiio aeiaiai?o e o. ae.

Aaaeiaeoeie noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa yaeythony aaoi?u i?iecaaaeaiee
iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa. Aaoi?aie i?eciathony eeoea, oai?/aneei
o?oaeii eioi?uo nicaeaii i?iecaaaeaiea.

Aaoi?neea i?aaa o nicaeaoaey i?iecaaaeaiey aicieeatho n?aco, eae oieueei
aeinoeaiooue oai?/aneee ?acoeueoao iaeaeaaony a iauaeoeaioth oi?io,
iaania/eaathuoth aai aini?eyoea eiuie eeoeaie. I?e yoii ia eiaao
cia/aiey, iaia?iaeiaaii i?iecaaaeaiea eee iao, yaeyaony ee iii
iieiinoueth caeii/aiiui eee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eeoue yneec eee
iaa?inie. Ia aeeytho ia i?eciaiea eeoea aaoi?ii oi?ia, iacia/aiea e
aeinoieinoaa nicaeaiiiai ei i?iecaaaeaiey. Aeey i?eciaiey eeoea aaoi?ii
io iaai ia o?aaoaony auiieiaiey eaeeo-eeai oi?iaeueiinoae, /ueaai-eeai
niaeaney eee eaeiai-eeai niaeaoaiey.

Aaoi?aie i?eciathony ia oieueei oai?oeu i?eaeiaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, ii
e nicaeaoaee i?iecaiaeiuo (caaeneiuo) i?iecaaaeaiee, a /anoiinoe
ia?aaiaeia, ia?a?aaioie, eiiee i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa
e o.ae. I?e yoii aeey aicieeiiaaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia i?iecaiaeiia
i?iecaaaeaiea ia eiaao cia/aiey, io?aiyaony ee caeiiii ia?aiia/aeueiia
i?iecaaaeaiea. ?acoiaaony, anee ia?aiia/aeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea caeiiii
io?aiyaony, aeieaeii auoue iieo/aii niaeanea aai aaoi?a eee eiiai
iaeaaeaoaey i?aa ia i?iecaaaeaiea aeey eniieueciaaiey nicaeaiiiai ia aai
iniiaa i?iecaiaeiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. Oaeia niaeanea iiaeao auoue e ia
aeaii, iaeiaei yoi aoaeao i?aiyonoaiaaoue eeoue eniieueciaaieth
i?iecaaaeaiey.

Aiciiaeiinoue ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e iaaeaaniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai eiaoue
i?aaa aaoi?ia ia aucuaaao eaeeo-eeai niiiaiee ie a th?eaee/aneie iaoea,
ie ia i?aeoeea. Naia yoa aiciiaeiinoue aoiaeeo a niaea?aeaiea
a?aaeaeaineie i?aainiiniaiinoe, a iineaaeiyy ia caaeneo ie io aic?anoa,
ie io ninoiyiey caei?iauey /aeiaaea. Aeey i?aa?auaiey yoie aano?aeoiie
aiciiaeiinoe a eiie?aoiia noauaeoeaiia aaoi?neia i?aai iaiaoiaeei
th?eaee/aneee oaeo. ?ieue oaeiai oaeoa auiieiyao nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey
iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa, o. a. aeaenoaea oaeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, a
ia naeaeea.

Iineoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa a ioiioaiee nicaeaiiuo eie i?iecaaaeaiee
yaeythony naie ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea e iaaeaaniiniaiua eeoea.

Ii-eiiio ianoieo aeaei n inouanoaeaieai i?aa ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo e
iaaeaaniiniaiuo. Ca iaeieaoieo, o. a. ca eeoe, ia aeinoeaoeo 14 eao, a
oaeaea iieiinoueth iaaeaaniiniaiuo a?aaeaeai aaoi?neea i?aaa
inouanoaeytho eo ?iaeeoaee eee iiaeoiu eae eo caeiiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee
(no. 28 AE). A /anoiinoe, eiaiii ?iaeeoaee (iiaeoiu) caeeth/atho io
eiaie iaeieaoieo aaoi?ia aeiaiai?u, aunooiatho a caueoo eo i?aa a neo/aa
i?aaiia?ooaiey e o. ae. Yoi, iaeiaei, ia icia/aao, /oi ?iaeeoaee
i?eieiatho ia naay eaeea-eeai iaycaiiinoe ii yoei aeiaiai?ai e ianoo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eo eniieiaiea. Noi?iiie ii aeiaiai?o yaeyaony nai
iaeieaoiee, a ?iaeeoaee (iiaeoiu) eeoue aunooiatho io aai eiaie.

A?aaeaeaia, eioi?ua aneaaenoaea ceioiio?aaeaiey nie?oiuie iaieoeaie eee
ia?eioe/aneei n?aaenoaaie noaayo naith naiueth a oyaeaeia iaoa?eaeueiia
iieiaeaiea e i?eciaiu a nayce n yoei ia?aie/aiii aeaaniiniaiuie, iiaoo
inouanoaeyoue naie aaoi?neea i?aaa eeoue n niaeaney iacia/aiiuo ei
iiia/eoaeae (no. 30 AE).

Iiia/eoaeue ia ono?aiyao aeaenoaee naiiai iiaeiia/iiai, a aeaenoaoao
aianoa n iei e a aai eioa?anao.

Ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea, o. a. eeoea a aic?anoa io 14 aei 18 eao,
inouanoaeytho naie aaoi?neea i?aaa niaa?oaiii naiinoiyoaeueii (no. 26
AE).

Iaee/ea oaeiai ionooieaiey aiieia ii?aaaeaiii, oae eae a aeaiiii
aic?anoa iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue aeinoaoi/ioth c?aeinoue
ianiaa?oaiiieaoieo aeey ?acoiiiai ?anii?yaeaiey aeinoeaioouie eie
oai?/aneeie ?acoeueoaoaie.

Ia?yaeo n oece/aneeie eeoeaie iaeaaeaoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa ia
i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa ii ?inneeneiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao aunooiatho th?eaee/aneea eeoea. Anee iineaaeiea
yaeythony i?aaii?aaiieeaie nicaeaoaeae i?iecaaaeaiee, eo aiciiaeiinoue
aue. iineoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa ia aucuaaao ieeaeeo niiiaiee. Oae,
th?eaee/aneia eeoei iiaeao i?eia?anoe ioaeaeueiua aaoi?neea i?aaiii/ey
ii aeiaiai?o n aaoi?ii, a neeo oiai, /oi i?iecaaaeaiea nicaeaii aaoi?ii
a ii?yaeea auiieiaiey neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey, aaoi?neia i?aai iiaeao
ia?aeoe e th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo ii caaauaieth aaoi?a e o.ae. Ai anao yoeo
neo/ayo th?eaee/aneia eeoei noaiiaeony iaeaaeaoaeai i?iecaiaeiiai
aaoi?neiai i?aaa, eioi?ia ia?aiia/aeueii aicieeei ia noi?iia aaoi?a, ii
ia?aoei e th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo ii oeacaiiui a caeiia iniiaaieyi.

Ii iiaieth o/aiuo, th?eaee/aneia eeoei ii naiie naiae i?e?iaea ia iiaeao
noaoue noauaeoii ia?aiia/aeueiiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iie enoiaeeee ec
oiai, /oi oai?eoue, nicaeaaaoue iiaia iiaoo eeoue aeeaua ethaee. Iiyoiio
eae au ie iiaeeyei th?eaee/aneia eeoei ia nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey, naii
nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey yaeyaony aeaeii ioaeaeueiuo oece/aneeo eeoe.
Auyaeoue aea eaeoth-eeai iniaoth oai?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, ia ioaaouaaaioth oai?/anoaii eiie?aoiuo oece/aneeo
eeoe, iaaiciiaeii. I?aaiia?ii eeoue Aiai?eoue ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, i nicaeaiee ei iaoa?eaeueiie aacu
aeey oai?/anoaa oece/aneeo eeoe e o.ae., iaeiaei oeacaiiua aeaenoaey ia
yaeythony iniiaaieai aeey i?eciaiey ca th?eaee/aneei eeoeii
ia?aiia/aeueiiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa1 .

Noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?eciathony ii oieueei a?aaeaeaia ?innee, ii
e eiino?aioeu, a oaeaea eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa. Iaeiaei anee
i?iecaaaeaiey ?inneeneeo aaoi?ia io?aiythony iacaaeneii io ianoa eo
iaia?iaeiaaiey eee iaoiaeaeaiey a eiie iauaeoeaiie oi?ia, oi io?aia
i?iecaaaeaiee eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia caaeneo io ?yaea cae?aieaiiuo a caeiia
oneiaee. I?aaeaea anaai i?eciathony e io?aiythony aaoi?neea i?aaa
eiino?aioeaa ia oa eo i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua iaia?iaeiaaiu ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee eeai ia iaia?iaeiaaiu, ii iaoiaeyony ia aa oa??eoi?ee a
eaeie-eeai iauaeoeaiie oi?ia (i. 1 no. 5 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao»). A aeaiiii neo/aa i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea eiino?aiiuo
aaoi?ia ia eiaao ieeaeeo ioee/ee io i?aaiaiai iieiaeaiey ?inneeneeo
aaoi?ia. Oeacaiiia i?aaeei au?aaeaao oa??eoi?eaeueiue i?eioeei,
ecaanoiue aaoi?neiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao iiiaeo no?ai e cae?aieaiiue
aaaeiaeoeie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie eiiaaioeeyie.

Anee i?iecaaaeaiea eiino?aiiiai aaoi?a iaia?iaeiaaii eee iaoiaeeony a
iauaeoeaiie oi?ia ca i?aaeaeaie ?O, aai io?aia a iaoae no?aia
inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeiaiai?aie ?innee.
Oae, niaeanii Anaie?iie eiiaaioeee ia aaoi?neii i?aaa ia oa??eoi?ee
?innee io?aiythony ana i?iecaaaeaiey a?aaeaeai no?ai — o/anoieoe
Anaie?iie eiiaaioeee, a oaeaea ethaua i?iecaaaeaiey, aia?aua
iioaeeeiaaiiua ia eo oa??eoi?ee. Aaaeii eeoue, /oiau iie auoee a naao
iinea 27 ethey 1973 a. — aeaou i?eniaaeeiaiey NNN? e Anaie?iie
eiiaaioeee.

Caeii ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» aaae i?aaeei, ?aiaa
niaaoneiio aaoi?neiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao iaecaanoiia, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ui i?iecaaaeaiea oaeaea n/eoaaony iioaeeeiaaiiui a ?O, anee a
oa/aiea 30 aeiae iinea ia?aiai iioaeeeiaaiey ca i?aaeaeaie ?O iii auei
iioaeeeiaaii ia oa??eoi?ee ?O.

Niaaoi?noai. Aaoi?neia i?aai ia i?iecaaaeaiea, nicaeaiiia niaianoiui
o?oaeii aeaoo e aieaa eeoe (niaaoi?noai), i?eiaaeeaaeeo niaaoi?ai
niaianoii, iacaaeneii io oiai, ia?acoao ee oaeia i?iecaaaeaiea iaeii
ia?ac?uaiia oeaeia eee ninoieo ec /anoae, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo eiaao
oaeaea e naiinoiyoaeueiia cia/aiea (no. 10 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa
e niaaeiuo i?aaao»). Aicieeiiaaiea niaaoi?noaa aeieo?eia e noaeaaiay
i?aeoeea naycuaatho n ?yaeii oneiaee, eioi?ua auaiaeyony ec
aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. I?aaeaea anaai i niaaoi?noaa iiaeii
aiai?eoue eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee a ?acoeueoaoa niaianoiuo oneeee
ianeieueeeo eeoe nicaeaii aaeeiia eieeaeoeaiia i?iecaaaeaiea.

Anee ecuyoea ec eieae eeethno?aoeee ia iiaeao iiaeeyoue ia eeoa?aoo?iua
aeinoieinoaa iioaeeeiaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, iineieueeo oaeno e
eeethno?aoeee e iaio ia ninoaaeytho a naiae niaieoiiinoe aaeeiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, oi ienaoaeue e ooaeiaeiee ia aunooiatho a aeaiiii neo/aa
eae niaaoi?u.

Aoi?ui iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai aicieeiiaaiey niaaoi?noaa yaeyaony nicaeaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey niaianoiui oai?/aneei o?oaeii ianeieueeeo eeoe. I?e yoii
iiae niaianoiui oa?aeoa?ii o?oaea iiieiaaony, eiia/ii, ia niaianoiue
i?ioeann o?oaea, a niaianoii aeinoeaiooue ?acoeueoao.

Aaaeii ia oi, eae, a eaeie oi?ia o?oaeeeenue iaae i?iecaaaeaieai aai
nicaeaoaee, a oi, /oi i?iecaaaeaiea yaeeinue ?acoeueoaoii eo niaianoiuo
oneeee.

Ionoonoaoao niaianoiay oai?/aneay ?aaioa iaae i?iecaaaeaieai e a ?yaea
ae?oaeo neo/aaa, eiaaea iaeii eeoei a neeo naieo neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae
eee ii ae?oaei iniiaaieyi ieacuaaao iiiiuue nicaeaoaeth i?iecaaaeaiey,
ii ?acoeueoaou aai o?oaea ia iaoiaeyo i?yiiai io?aaeaiey a
i?iecaaaeaiee. Oae, ieeoi ia noaaeo iiae niiiaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoue,
iieaciinoue e aeaaea oai?/aneee oa?aeoa? o?oaea ?aaeaeoi?a. Iaeiaei anee
?aaeaeoi? ia auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu naieo iaycaiiinoae, ii ia iiaeao
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia niaaoi?noai.

Aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai niaaoi?noaa yaeyaony oaeaea oi, /oi aeeaae eeoe,
i?aoaiaeothueo ia niaaoi?noai, aeieaeai iineoue oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?.
Aa?oiaiue Noae iaiaeiie?aoii oeacuaae, /oi «ia aeaao iniiaaiee aeey
i?eciaiey niaaoi?noaa ieacaiea aaoi?o eee niaaoi?ai oaoie/aneie iiiiue
(iiaeai? iaoa?eaeia, au/a?/eaaiea noai, aeeaa?aii, a?aoeeia e o. i.)»1 .

Iaeiiaoe, oneiaeai i?eciaiey oao eee eiuo eeoe niaaoi?aie i?iecaaaeaiey
yaeyaony iaee/ea niaeaoaiey i aicieeiiaaiee niaaoi?noaa. I?e yoii iiae
niaeaoaieai neaaeoao iiieiaoue acaeiiia aieaecuyaeaiea aaoi?ia,
iai?aaeaiiia ia niaianoioth oai?/aneoth ?aaioo iaae i?iecaaaeaieai. Iii
iiaeao auoue au?aaeaii a ethaie oi?ia e ia ethaie noaaeee ?aaiou iaae
i?iecaaaeaieai. Aieaa oiai, i?aaeiaoii niaeaoaiey iiaeao auoue
aei?aaioea oaea caeii/aiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, anee aicieeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aianoe a iaai eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey oai?/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a. Aaaeii eeoue, /oiau niaaoi?noai auei aeia?iaieueiui e ia
ia?ooaei ie/ueeo io?aiyaiuo caeiiii aaoi?neeo i?aa.

Aiai?y i niaeaoaiee eae oneiaee aicieeiiaaiey niaaoi?noaa, neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi ie a i?aaeiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ie a Caeiia ?O «Ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» oaeia o?aaiaaiea ia caoeene?iaaii.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaeaoaiey i niaaoi?noaa onoaiiaeaia Aa?oiaiui Noaeii
NNN? a iinoaiiaeaiee io 18 ai?aey 1986 a. «I i?eiaiaiee noaeaie
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?e ?anniio?aiee nii?ia, aicieeoeo ec aaoi?neeo
i?aaiioiioaiee”2 . Aa?oiaiue Noae oeacae, /oi ii niuneo caeiia
«niaaoi?noai aeaoo eee aieaa eeoe ia i?iecaaaeaiea iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e
eneonnoaa : aicieeaao a neo/ayo, eiaaea eaaeaeue ec ieo ii acaeiiiio
niaeaneth aian a yoi i?iecaaaeaiea naie oai?/aneee aeeaae.

Aaoi?neia i?aai ia eieeaeoeaiia i?iecaaaeaiea i?eiaaeeaaeeo anai aaoi?ai
niiaua, iacaaeneii io noaiaie oai?/aneiai aeeaaea eaaeaeiai ec niaaoi?ia
e oa?aeoa?a i?iecaaaeaiey. Caeii oa?aeoa?ecoao i?aaa niaaoi?ia eae
niaianoiua (i. 1 no. 10 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao»), /oi niioaaonoaoao onoaiiaeaoaiony a iaoea acaeyaeo ia
aaoi?neia i?aai niaaoi?ia eae iaaeaeeiia i?aai3 .

Ec yoiai auoaeaao aaaeiue i?aeoe/aneee auaiae. Aii?in ia eniieueciaaiee
eieeaeoeaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey ?aoaaony ai anao neo/ayo anaie niaaoi?aie
niiaua, ia iniiaa aaeeiiaeaney, a ia ii aieueoeinoao aieinia. Anee
niaaoi?u ia iiaoo aeinoeaiooue a yoii aii?ina niaeaney, ii ia?aaeaaony
ia ?ac?aoaiea noaea.

A neo/aa, anee iaaeaeo niaaoi?aie ieeaeiai iniaiai niaeaoaiey i ii?yaeea
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey ia caeeth/aeinue, ana i?aaa inouanoaeythony
ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth. A /anoiinoe, i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi niaaoi?u
eiatho ?aaiua i?aaa ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, eo eiaia oeacuaathony a
aeoaaeoiii ii?yaeea e o. i. Anee i?iecaaaeaiea niaaoi?ia ia?acoao iaeii
ia?ac?uaiia oeaeia, oi ie iaeei ec niaaoi?ia ia ai?aaa aac aeinoaoi/iuo
e oiio iniiaaiee cai?aoeoue eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey.

Caeii auaeaeyao aeaa aeaea eieeaeoeaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee e, niioaaonoaaiii,
aeaa aeaea niaaoi?noaa — ia?acaeaeueiia e ?acaeaeueiia. I?e
ia?acaeaeueiii niaaoi?noaa i?iecaaaeaiea, nicaeaiiia aeaoiy e aieaa
niaaoi?aie, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeiia ia?ac?uaiia oeaeia, /anoe
eioi?iai ia eiatho naiinoiyoaeueiiai cia/aiey.

I?e ia?acaeaeueiii niaaoi?noaa ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneiai o?oaea eeoe,
i?eieiaaoeo o/anoea a nicaeaiee i?iecaaaeaiey, ia iiaoo auoue
i?aeoe/anee auaeaeaiu ec aaeeiiai iauaeoa aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

I?e ?acaeaeueiii niaaoi?noaa eieeaeoeaiia i?iecaaaeaiea yaeyaony
aaeeiui, iaeiaei iii ninoieo ec /anoae, eiathueo naiinoiyoaeueiia
cia/aiea, e i?e yoii ecaanoii, eai ec niaaoi?ia nicaeaiu yoe /anoe.
I?eia?ii ?acaeaeueiiai niaaoi?noaa iiaeao neoaeeoue
iocueaeueii-ae?aiaoe/aneia i?iecaaaeaiea, o/aaiee eee eieeaeoeaiay
iiiia?aoey, iaienaiiua ianeieueeeie eeoeaie n oeacaieai aaoi?ia
ioaeaeueiuo aeaa.

I?eciaiea niaaoi?noaa ia?acaeaeueiui icia/aao, /oi aaoi?neea i?aaa eae
ia i?iecaaaeaiea a oeaeii, oae e ia ethaoth aai /anoue inouanoaeythony
niaaoi?aie oieueei niiaua.

Anee eoi-eeai ec niaaoi?ia ia?ooaao naie iaycaoaeuenoaa ii nicaeaieth
i?iecaaaeaiey, ana noi?iiu ianoo ca yoi ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

I?e ?acaeaeueiii niaaoi?noaa eniieueciaaiea eieeaeoeaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey
a oeaeii oaeaea inouanoaeyaony ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth anao niaaoi?ia.
Iaeiaei eaaeaeue niaaoi? ai?aaa naiinoiyoaeueii, aac niaeaney ae?oaeo
niaaoi?ia, ?anii?yaeeoueny naiae /anoueth i?iecaaaeaiey.

Io ?acaeaeueiiai niaaoi?noaa iaiaoiaeeii ioee/aoue niaianoiia
eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua nicaeaiu iacaaeneii ae?oa io
ae?oaa e oioy e acaeiinaycaiu, ii ia ianoieueei, /oiau ninoaaeoue
aaeeiia i?iecaaaeaiea. Iai?eia?, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ienaoaeue e
ooaeiaeiee ia noaiiayony niaaoi?aie io oiai, /oi eieaa niaaaeaaony
eeethno?aoeeyie, anee oieueei ?a/ue ia eaeao i niaoeeaeueiuo
eieaeeao-ea?oeieao aeey aeaoae. Iai?ioea, oioii/a?e, ?enoiee e
ea?eeaoo?u n iiynieoaeueiui oaenoii e o.ae. ia?acotho aaeeiia
i?iecaaaeaiea, e iioiio anee nieiie (?enoiie) e oaeno naeaeaiu ?aciuie
eeoeaie, iie i?eciathony niaaoi?aie.

Ianeaaeieee e eiua i?aaii?aaiieee. Noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa iinea
nia?oe aaoi?a noaiiayony aai ianeaaeieee. Ianeaaeiaaiea aaoi?neeo i?aa a
niioaaonoaee n iauei i?aaeeii iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny eeai ii caeiio,
eeai ii caaauaieth. I?e ianeaaeiaaiee ii caeiio ianeaaeieeaie aaoi?neeo
i?aa iiaoo noaoue oieueei a?aaeaeaia, eioi?ua aoiaeyo a oo eee eioth
i/a?aaeue caeiiiuo ianeaaeieeia. Anee oia?oee aaoi? ia eiae caeiiiuo
ianeaaeieeia e ia inoaaee caaauaiey, aai aaoi?neea i?aaa, a ioee/ea io
eiie ianeaaenoaaiiie iannu, e ainoaea?noao ia ia?aoiaeyo, a
i?ae?auathony (no. 552 AE). I?e ianeaaeiaaiee ii caaauaieth aaoi?neea
i?aaa iiaoo auoue ia?aaeaiu ethaiio a?aaeaeaieio, iacaaeneii io aai
a?aaeaeainoaa e iaee/ey ?iaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee n oia?oei, eee
th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo, iacaaeneii io i?ioeey aai aeayoaeueiinoe e
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai — e aaoi?neia,
e ianeaaenoaaiiia — ia niaea?aeeo /aoeie ?aaeaiaioaoeee aaoi?neeo i?aa 1
ianeaaeieeia. Iiyoiio eiie?aoiua i?aaeea i?eoiaeeony auaiaeeoue iooai
oieeiaaiey iiiaeo ii?i caeiia, a oaeaea aiaeeca neiaeeaoaeny noaeaaiie e
iioa?eaeueiie i?aeoeee.

Inoaiiaeiny ae?aooea ia oao iniaaiiinoyo ianeaaeiaaiey aaoi?neeo i?aa,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho iaeaieueoee i?aeoe/aneee eioa?an.

A ioee/ea io i?aa ia i?iecaaaeaiea naieo aaoi?ia, eioi?ua iinyo
iiaeeciaiiue oa?aeoa?, aaoi?neea i?aaa ianeaaeieeia ia?aie/aiu
onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiii n?ieii. Ii iuia aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao
aaoi?neea i?aaa ianeaaeieeia aeaenoaotho a oa/aiea 50 eao iinea nia?oe
aaoi?a, n/eoay n 1 yiaa?y aiaea, neaaeothuaai ca aiaeii aai nia?oe.

Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth ianeaaeiaaiey aaoi?neeo i?aa yaeyaony oi, /oi
noauaeoeaiua aaoi?neea i?aaa ia?aoiaeyo e ianeaaeieeai a aacaeieaaii
ii?yaeea. Eiuie neiaaie, aaoi?neia i?aai ianeaaeoaony eae aaeeiia
oeaeia, ia iiaeeaaeauaa ie auaeaeo, ie ?acaeaeo. ?anii?yaeaiea
ia?aoaaeoei ii ianeaaenoao i?iecaaaeaieai inouanoaeyaony ianeaaeieeaie
niaianoii e oieueei ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth. I?e ionoonoaee oaeiai
niaeaney, iai?eia? i?e ioeaca eiai-eeai ec ianeaaeieeia aeaoue niaeanea
ia ia?aecaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey, nii? ianeaaeieeia ?anniao?eaaaony a
noaea. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeyao, iaeiaei, ia?aoiaeyuaa ii ianeaaenoao
i?aai ia iieo/aiea aiii?a?a. Aiii?a? iiaeao aeaeeoueny iaaeaeo
ianeaaeieeaie a ethaie i?iii?oeee a niioaaonoaee n caaauaoaeueiui
?anii?yaeaieai eeai niaeaoaieai ianeaaeieeia i ?acaeaea ianeaaenoaa.

Ia?yaeo n aaoi?aie e ianeaaeieeaie noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa
aunooiatho eiua i?aaii?aaiieee. Oeacaiey ia ieo eae ia iniauo iineoaeae
aaoi?neiai i?aaa iiyaeeenue a ?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eeoue a 1974
a. iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey Niaaoneiai Nithca e Anaie?iie eiiaaioeee ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa. Yoi iiaiaaaaeaiea aucaaei iiey?iua ioeaiee a
th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a e a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iaeeaeei aeaaieoiee nii?
i aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaea/e aaoi?neeo i?aa ae?oaiio eeoeo a ii?yaeea
i?aaii?aainoaa. Iineieueeo aeaiiay aeeneonney i?yii naycaia n i?e?iaeie
aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a, aa nouiinoue aoaeao ?ane?uoa a aeaaa 6. Nae/an
eeoue ioiaoei, /oi auaeaeaiea ia?yaeo n ianeaaeieeaie eiuo
i?aaii?aaiieeia aaoi?ia auoaeaei ia oieueei ec iiaeienaiey Niaaoneei
Nithcii AEaiaaneie eiiaaioeee, ii e ec i?aaee aioo?aiiaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia anaaaea i?aaeoniao?eaaei aiciiaeiinoue
ia?aonooiee ioaeaeueiuo aaoi?neeo i?aaiii/ee eiui noauaeoai.

A ?iee oaeeo eiuo noauaeoia i?aaeaea anaai aunooiatho ecaeaoaeuenoaa,
oaao?u, eeiinooaeee e eiua i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueany eniieueciaaieai
i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa. Iie i?eia?aoatho aaoi?neea
i?aaa ia iniiaaiee caeeth/aiiuo n aaoi?aie e eo ianeaaeieeaie aaoi?neeo
aeiaiai?ia. Noaiiaynue iaeaaeaoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa, yoe i?aaiecaoeee
eniieuecotho i?iecaaaeaiey e ?anii?yaeathony eie oaie niiniaaie, eioi?ua
i?aaeoniio?aiu eiie?aoiuie aeiaiai?aie e a eo i?aaeaeao.

?acoiaaony, e i?aaii?aaiieeai aaoi?neea i?aaa ia?aoiaeyo ia a iieiii
iauaia. Oae, ia iiaoo ia?aeoe ie ii ianeaaenoao, ie ii aeiaiai?o, ie ii
ae?oaei oeacaiiui a caeiia iniiaaieyi oaeea ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua
i?aaa, eae i?aai aaoi?noaa e i?aai ia eiy. Iauai eiuo ia?aoiaeyueo e
i?aaii?aaiieeai i?aa ii?aaeaeyaony eeai caeiiii, eeai aeiaiai?ii e
caaeneo io oeia iineaaeiaai.

I?aaii?aaiieeaie ?inneeneeo aaoi?ia iiaoo auoue eae ?inneeneea, oae e
eiino?aiiua th?eaee/aneea eeoea e a?aaeaeaia. I?e yoii aeiaiai?u n
iineaaeieie iiaoo caeeth/aoueny eae i?e iin?aaeie/anoaa
aaoi?nei-i?aaiauo i?aaiecaoeee, oae e iai?yioth. I?aaiia?ii
i?eia?aoaiiua aaoi?neea i?aaa i?aaii?aaiieeia i?eciathony e io?aiythony
ia?aaia n i?aaaie naieo aaoi?ia.

I?aaiecaoeee, oi?aaeythuea eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie aaoi?a ia eieeaeoeaiie
iniiaa. Aaaeiuie noauaeoaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa yaeythony i?aaiecaoeee,
oi?aaeythuea eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie aaoi?ia e iaeaaeaoaeae niaaeiuo i?aa
ia eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa. A niioaaonoaee ni no. 44 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» oaeiai ?iaea i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo nicaeaaaoueny
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaeaaeaoaeyie aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa a oeaeyo
iaania/aiey yoeo i?aa a neo/ayo, eiaaea eo i?aeoe/aneia inouanoaeaiea a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ii?yaeea cao?oaeiaii (ioaee/iia eniieiaiea, a oii
/enea ia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiee, aini?iecaaaeaiea iooai iaoaie/aneie,
iaaieoiie e eiie caiene, ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiea e ae?oaea neo/ae).

Ooieoeee ii ?aaeno?aoeee ioaee/iiai eniieiyaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, nai?o e
auieaoa aiii?a?a ca eo eniieueciaaiea auiieiyeenue Ananithciui
aaaionoaii ii aaoi?neei i?aaai (AAAI), a a iineaaeothuai — ?inneeneei
aaaionoaii eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe (?AEN). Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O
?10 «I ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeea a iaeanoe io?aiu aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo
i?aa» io 7 ieoya?y 1993 a.1 ?AEN auei oi?acaeiaii e iaeia?aii nicaeaiea
aaoi?aie, eiathueie aeiaiai?u n ?AEN ia oi?aaeaiee eo eiouanoaaiiuie
i?aaaie. ?inneeneiai aaoi?neiai iauanoaa (?AI) n oeaeueth ?aaeecaoeee e
caueou aaoi?neeo i?aa. ?inneeneia aaoi?neia iauanoai i?eciaii
i?aaii?aaiieeii ?AEN a ioiioaiee eiouanoaa e aiaathaeaeaoiuo oeiainiauo
n?aaenoa ia anao ?oaeaauo e aaethoiuo n/aoao, a oaeaea, n niaeaney
noi?ii, ii aeiaiai?ai, caeeth/aiiui ?AEN eee ia?aoaaeoei e ?AEN a
ii?yaeea i?aaii?aainoaa n ?inneeneeie e ca?oaaaeiuie aaoi?aie, ii
niaeaoaieyi n ca?oaaaeiuie aaoi?nei-i?aaiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie e eiuie
th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie.

?acoiaaony, ia?yaeo n ?AI iiaoo auoue nicaeaiu e ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee,
oi?aaeythuea eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie aaoi?ia ia eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa.
Caeii ia?aaeaao ?aoaiea yoiai aii?ina ia oniio?aiea naieo aaoi?ia e
iaeaaeaoaeae niaaeiuo i?aa.

I?aaiecaoeee, oi?aaeythuea eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie aaoi?ia ia
eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa, aeaenoaotho a i?aaeaeao iieo/aiiuo io aaoi?ia
iieiiii/ee ia iniiaa onoaaa, ooaa?aeaeaaiiai a ii?yaeea, onoaiiaeaiiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Iie ia ai?aaa caieiaoueny eiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth e naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyoue eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiee e iauaeoia niaaeiuo i?aa, iieo/aiiuo aeey oi?aaeaiey ia
eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa. Aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee, oi?aaeythueo
eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie ia eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa, inouanoaeyaony a
eioa?anao iaeaaeaoaeae aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oaeie
i?aaiecaoeee. A ioee/ea io i?aaiecaoeee, i?eia?aoathueo aaoi?neea i?aaa
ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee ia iniiaaiee aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia e
noaiiayueony a neeo yoiai iieiii?aaiuie iaeaaeaoaeyie yoeo i?aa,
i?aaiecaoeee, oaaaeythuea eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie ia eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa,
aeaaeaeueoeaie aaoi?neeo i?aa ia noaiiayony. A ioiioaieyo n o?aoueeie
eeoeaie iie aunooiatho eae i?aaenoaaeoaee aaoi?ia e aeaenoaotho io eo
eiaie e a eo eioa?anao.

Ia?yaeo n iieiiii/eyie, iieo/aiiuie io iaeaaeaoaeae aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo
i?aa ia iniiaaiee caeeth/aiiuo aeiaiai?ia, i?aaiecaoeee, oi?aaeythuea
eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie aaoi?ia ia eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa, a niioaaonoaee n
i. Cao. 45 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» ai?aaa
aunooiaoue oaeaea io eiaie oao aaoi?ia e iaeaaeaoaeae niaaeiuo i?aa,
eioi?ua ia ia?aaeaee i?aaiecaoeee iieiiii/ey ia oi?aaeaiea
i?eiaaeeaaeaueie ei i?aaaie.

N?aaee ooieoeee i?aaiecaoeee, oi?aaeythueo eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie ia
eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa, eioi?ua cae?aieaiu noaoueae 46 Caeiia ?O «Ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao», iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e iniiaiua.
I?aaeaea anaai yoe i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeinoaaeytho eeoeaicee iieueciaaoaeyi
ia niioaaonoaothuea niiniau eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee e iauaeoia
niaaeiuo i?aa. I?e yoii a caeiia iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi oneiaey oaeeo
eeoeaicee aeieaeiu auoue iaeeiaeiauie aeey anao iieueciaaoaeae iaeiie
eaoaai?ee, a ioeac a auaea/a eeoeaicee aac aeinoaoi/iuo iniiaaiee ii
aeiioneaaony. Aeaeaa, caaea/ae i?aaiecaoeee, oi?aaeythueo eiouanoaaiiuie
i?aaaie ia eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa, yaeyaony nai? aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca
eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee e iauaeoia niaaeiuo i?aa. Iaeiiaoe,
aaaeiaeoae ooieoeeae iiaeiaiuo i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony ?ani?aaeaeaiea e
?aaoey?iay auieaoa nia?aiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey iaeaaeaoaeyi aaoi?neeo e
niaaeiuo i?aa. Ec nia?aiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey au/eoathony noiiu ia
iie?uoea oaeoe/aneeo ?anoiaeia ii nai?o, ?ani?aaeaeaieth e auieaoa
oaeiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, a oaeaea noiiu, eioi?ua iai?aaeythony a
niaoeeaeueiua oiiaeu, nicaeaaaaiua yoeie i?aaiecaoeeyie n niaeaney e a
eioa?anao i?aaenoaaeyaiuo eie iaeaaeaoaeae aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa.
Any inoaaoayny /anoue nia?aiiuo noii ?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo aaoi?aie e
iaeaaeaoaeyie niaaeiuo i?aa i?iii?oeeiiaeueii oaeoe/aneiio
eniieueciaaieth i?iecaaaeaiee e iauaeoia niaaeiuo i?aa. Iaeiia?aiaiii n
auieaoie aiciaa?aaeaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee i?aaenoaaeytho iaeaaeaoaeyi
aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aa io/aou, niaea?aeauea naaaeaiey ia
eniieueciaaiee eo i?aa.

5. I?aaa aaoi?ia i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa

A ?acoeueoaoa nicaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa aai
aaoi? i?eia?aoaao ?yae noauaeoeaiuo i?aa eae ee/iiai iaeiouanoaaiiiai,
oae e eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Yoe i?aaa a aeaenoaothuai aaoi?neii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e a aeieo?eia o?aaeeoeeiiii eiaiothony
eneeth/eoaeueiuie. Oai?ey eneeth/eoaeueiinoe aaoi?neeo i?aa auea
aeaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaia aua a ?onneie aei?aaiethoeeiiiie eeoa?aoo?a1 e
aiieioeeanue a caeiia 1911 a. Oioy i?e?iaea eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa
i?iaeieaeaea aucuaaoue nii?u, ii iiaieth aieueoeinoaa o/aiuo, yoa
eiino?oeoeey iaicia/aea i?aaeaea anaai iiiiiieeth iaeaaeaoaey aaoi?neiai
i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey(. A niaaoneee ia?eiae ioeaiea
eneeth/eoaeueiinoe aaoi?neeo i?aa nouanoaaiii eciaieeanue. Ai iiiaeo
?aaioao i?ineaaeeaaeinue i?aaeoaaaeaeaiiia ioiioaiea e yoie /a?oa
aaoi?neeo i?aa, eioi?ay, iaeiaei, iaoea io?aaeaiea a Iniiaao aaoi?neiai
i?aaa 1925 e 1928 a. Aieueoeinoai niaaoneeo th?enoia niouaei oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi oa?iei «eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa» eniieuecoaony a
aaoi?neii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai. A nayce n yoei a
niaaoneie th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iiae/a?eeaaeinue, /oi
eneeth/eoaeueiue oa?aeoa? aaoi?neiai i?aaa a niaaoneii a?aaeaeaineii
i?aaa, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e a ao?aeoaciii a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa, n ae?oaie,
ia eiatho iaaeaeo niaie ie/aai iauaai, e?iia iacaaiey3 .

Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai cae?aieyao ca nicaeaoaeyie
i?iecaaaeaiee aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieee e?oa aa?aioe?iaaiiuo ainoaea?noaii
aiciiaeiinoae. A ?aciuo noaoueyo Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao» yoe aiciiaeiinoe eiaiothony oi aaoi?neei i?aaii a
oeaeii, oi aaoi?neeie i?aaaie, oi ioaeaeueiuie aaoi?neeie i?aaiii/eyie.
A yoie nayce a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a ionoonoaoao aaeeiue iiaeoiae e
iiieiaieth eiino?oeoeee noauaeoeaiiai aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Aieueoeinoai
niaoeeaeenoia n/eoaao, /oi nicaeaoaee i?iecaaaeaiee iaeaaeatho aaeeiui
aaoi?neei i?aaii, eioi?ia, iiaeiaii i?aao nianoaaiiinoe, yaeyaony
neiaeiui ii ninoaao e ninoieo ec ioaeaeueiuo aaoi?neeo i?aaiii/ee1 . E
/eneo oaeeo i?aaiii/ee ioiinyony i?aai aaoi?noaa, i?aai ia eiy, i?aai ia
caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a, i?aai ia iaia?iaeiaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey e o.ae.
Ii iiaieth ae?oaeo o/aiuo, aaoi?o i?iecaaaeaiey i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?yae
eiie?aoiuo noauaeoeaiuo i?aa, e i aaeeiii aaoi?neii i?aaa a noauaeoeaiii
niunea iiaeii aiai?eoue oieueei oneiaii.

I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi aeaiiue nii? iineo a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
iaaeoiaiiue oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi
caeiiiaeaoaeue eniieuecoao oa?iei «aaoi?neia i?aai» a ?aciuo noaoueyo
caeiia a ?acee/iii cia/aiee. *aua anaai ei ioaaouaathony ana
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua aaoi?o aiciiaeiinoe, a ae?oaeo neo/ayo a iaai
aeeth/athony iaeioi?ua aaoi?neea i?aaiii/ey (iai?eia?, eiaaea caeii
aiai?eo ia aaoi?neeo i?aaao i?aaii?aaiieeia aaoi?a), eiiaaea ii neoaeeo
aeey iaicia/aiey ioaeaeueiuo aaoi?neeo i?aa, iai?eia?, i?aaa ia
ia?aaiae, i?aaa ia iaia?iaeiaaiea e o.ae. Iiyoiio niaea?aeaiea, eioi?ia
aeeaaeuaaao caeiiiaeaoaeue a aeaiiue oa?iei, iaiaoiaeeii eaaeaeue ?ac
onoaiaaeeaaoue iooai oieeiaaiey caeiia. Oaeia aea iieiaeaiea
iaaethaeaaony a aaoi?neii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ae?oaeo no?ai, a oaeaea a
aaaeiaeoeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiiaaioeeyo.

A ?inneeneie th?eaee/aneie iaoea ionoonoaoao oaeaea aaeeiia iiieiaiea
oa?ieiia «aaoi?neia i?aai» e «aaoi?neia i?aaiii/ea».

Eiiaaea, iaeiaei, i?aaiii/eyie i?aaeeaaaaony eiaiiaaoue eeoue oa
cae?aieaiiua ca aaoi?aie aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua naycaiu n niaa?oaieai
naieie iineoaeyie aaoi?neeo i?aa ii?aaeaeaiiuo iieiaeeoaeueiuo
aeaenoaee2 .

Iiaia aaoi?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee niaea?aeeo cia/eoaeueii aieaa
iieiue ia?a/aiue noauaeoeaiuo aaoi?neeo i?aa ii n?aaiaieth n ?aiaa
aeaenoaiaaaoei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Ai-ia?auo, oa ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa, eioi?ua, ia
ia?aue acaeyae, ia?a/eneaiu a no. 15—16 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao» en/a?iuaathuei ia?acii, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e?oa
aaoi?neeo i?aa ia ia?aie/eaatho. Oio aea Caeii oeacuaaao, a /anoiinoe,
ia i?aai aeinooia e i?aai neaaeiaaiey, eioi?ua cae?aieythony ca aaoi?aie
i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa (no. 17), ia i?aai aaoi?a
iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey ia iieo/aiea iniaiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca
ioaee/iia eniieueciaaiea aai iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey i?e ioaee/iii
eniieiaiee aoaeeiaecoaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey (no. 13) e o.ae.

Ai-aoi?uo, naii ii naaa iaoeacaiea a caeiia ia eiie?aoiia noauaeoeaiia
i?aai aua ia icia/aao ionoonoaey naiiai i?aaa. Iai?eia?, eae ecaanoii, a
oa/aiea iiiaeo eao a niaaoneii aaoi?neii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia auei
i?yii cae?aieaii iaeii ec iniiaiuo i?aa nicaeaoaeae oai?/aneeo
i?iecaaaeaiee — i?aai aaoi?noaa. Iaeiaei e a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a, e ia
i?aeoeea iaee/ea aeaiiiai i?aaa i?aeoe/anee ieeai ia noaaeeinue iiae
niiiaiea.

A-o?aoueeo, iaeuecy, aaconeiaii, ?anoeaieaaoue eae en/a?iuaathuee
niaea?aeaueeny a caeiia ia?a/aiue eiie?aoiuo aeaenoaee ii
eniieueciaaieth i?iecaaaeaiee. A i. 2 no. 16 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» ia?a/eneythony eeoue iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua
niiniau eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee. I?eioeeieaeueii aea aii?in ?aoai a
ia?aii ioieoa oie aea noaouee, eioi?ue cae?aieyao ca aaoi?aie i?aai ia
eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey a ethaie oi?ia e ethaui niiniaii. A yoie
nayce iiaeii aiai?eoue i oii, /oi caeii cae?aieyao ca aaoi?aie ia
oieueei oa niiniau eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua nouanoaotho a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ii e oa, eioi?ua iiaoo iiyaeoueny a aeaeueiaeoai. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeaenoaothuaa aaoi?neia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai oioy e niaea?aeeo
aanueia iieiue ia?a/aiue eiie?aoiuo aaoi?neeo i?aa, ii ia iienuaaao eo
en/a?iuaathuei ia?acii.

Aeaeu aaoi?neeo i?aa. Naiie ?ani?ino?aiaiiie e a oi aea a?aiy naiie
nii?iie eeanneoeeaoeeae aaoi?neeo i?aa yaeyaony aeaeaiea eo ia ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua e eiouanoaaiiua.

Iiaue Caeii ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» oeacuaaao ia oi,
eaeea ec aaoi?neeo i?aa iinyo ee/iue iaeiouanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, a eaeea
eiatho eiouanoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea. A niioaaonoaee nino. 15 Caeiia e
ee/iui iaeiouanoaaiiui i?aaai ioiinyony i?aai aaoi?noaa, i?aai ia eiy,
i?aai ia iaia?iaeiaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey, aeeth/athuaa i?aai ia aai iocua,
a oaeaea i?aai ia caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a. Eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie
aaoi?a yaeythony aai i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey a ethaie
oi?ia e ethaui niiniaii, eioi?ua aeeth/atho i?aai ia aini?iecaaaeaiea,
i?aai ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, i?aai ia eiii?o, i?aai ia ioaee/iue iieac,
i?aai ia ioaee/iia eniieiaiea, i?aai ia ia?aaea/o a yoe?, i?aai ia
niiauaiea aeey anaiauaai naaaeaiey ii eaaaeth, i?aai ia ia?aaiae e i?aai
ia ia?a?aaioeo (no. 16 Caeiia). Aaconeiaii, cae?aieaiea caeiiii
iiae?acaeaeaiey aaoi?neeo i?aa ia ee/iua e eiouanoaaiiua n oai?aoe/aneeo
iiceoeee o?oaeii i?eciaoue aacoi?a/iui. I?aeoe/anee ethaia ec aaoi?neeo
i?aa aeeth/aao a naay eae ee/iua, oae e eiouanoaaiiua yeaiaiou.

Oae, ia?ooaiea iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey, a /anoiinoe nie?auaiea
aai iauaia aac niaeaney aaoi?a, iiaeao cao?aaeaaoue eae ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua, oae e eiouanoaaiiua eioa?anu aaoi?a.

Caeii enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa ai anao neo/ayo
i?eiaaeeaaeao eeoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio nicaeaoaeth i?iecaaaeaiey. Iie
yaeythony iaio/oaeaeaaiuie io ee/iinoe aaoi?a e ia iiaoo ia?aaeaaaoueny
ae?oaei eeoeai. A eo/oai neo/aa yoe eeoea, e i?aaeaea anaai ianeaaeieee,
i?eia?aoatho i?aai ia io?aio ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa, iaeaaeaoaeai
eioi?uo aue oia?oee aaoi?. I?aai aaoi?noaa, i?aai ia eiy e i?aai ia
caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a io?aiythony aann?i/ii.

Iai?ioea, eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey iiaoo
naiaiaeii ia?aoiaeeoue e ae?oaei eeoeai ia iniiaaiee aaoi?neeo
aeiaiai?ia. A neo/ayo, i?yii oeacaiiuo a caeiia, i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey ecia/aeueii aicieeatho ia o eo aaoi?ia, a o ae?oaeo eeoe,
a /anoiinoe o ?aaioiaeaoaey (no. 14), ecaeaoaey aacao, aeo?iaeia e
ae?oaeo ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee (no. II), ecaioiaeoaey aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee (no. 13). Eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa iinyo n?i/iue oa?aeoa?, oae
eae ia?eiae eo aeaenoaey ia?aie/eaaaony n?ieii aeecie aaoi?a e 50
aiaeaie iinea aai nia?oe.

Ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa aaoi?ia. Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo i?aa,
aicieeathueo o aaoi?a a nayce n nicaeaieai i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee,
eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa, yaeyaony i?aai aaoi?noaa. A th?eaee/aneie iaoea
i?aai aaoi?noaa iau/ii oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae th?eaee/anee iaania/aiiay
aiciiaeiinoue eeoea n/eoaoueny aaoi?ii i?iecaaaeaiey e auoaeathuay
ionthaea aiciiaeiinoue o?aaiaaoue i?eciaiey aeaiiiai oaeoa io . ae?oaeo
eeoe.

I?aai aaoi?noaa yaeyaony iaioaeaeeiui io ee/iinoe aaoi?a.

I?aai aaoi?noaa yaeyaony i?aaii aaniethoiui, iineieueeo aio
ei??aniiiaee?otho iaycaiiinoe anao e eaaeaeiai aicaea?aeeaaoueny io
ia?ooaiey aeaiiiai i?aaiii/ey aaoi?a.

I?aai aaoi?noaa io?aiyaony i?ioea anyeiai ia?ooaiey, iacaaeneii io oiai,
ciae eee ia ciae ia?ooeoaeue i oii, /oi niaa?oaao iai?aaiia?iua
aeaenoaey.

I?aai aaoi?noaa, ia?ac?uaii naycaiiia n ee/iinoueth nicaeaoaey
i?iecaaaeaiey, aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea anae aeecie aaoi?a e i?ae?auaaony n
aai nia?oueth. Iii i?eciaaony e io?aiyaony e iinea nia?oe aaoi?a, ii
oaea ia eae noauaeoeaiia i?aai, a eae iauanoaaiiue eioa?an,
ioaeaeathueeny a i?eciaiee e caueoa.

I?aai aaoi?noaa yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei i?aaiii/eai aaoi?a aua e iioiio, /oi
io iaai i?iecaiaeiu ana ae?oaea i?aaa eae ee/iiai iaeiouanoaaiiiai, oae
e eiouanoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Eiuie neiaaie, ana inoaeueiua i?aaa
i?aaeinoaaeythony aaoi?o eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ii eiaao i?aai
aaoi?noaa.

N i?aaii aaoi?noaa oanii naycaii i?aai ia aaoi?neia eiy, niaea?aeaiea
eioi?iai ?ane?uaaaony a no. 15 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao». Niaeanii aeaiiie noaouea aaoi? iiaeao eniieueciaaoue eee
?ac?aoaoue eniieueciaaoue i?iecaaaeaiea iiae naiei iiaeeeiiui eiaiai,
iiae oneiaiui eiaiai (inaaaeiieiii) eee aac iaicia/aiey eiaie
(aiiieiii).

I?aai ia aaoi?neia eiy yaeyaony ee/iui iaeiouanoaaiiui i?aaii aaoi?a,
eioi?ia iineaaeiee ia iiaeao ia?aaeaoue eiio au oi ie auei.

I?aai ia aaoi?neia eiy aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea anae aeecie aaoi?a, a iinea
aai nia?oe io?aiyaony ianeaaeieeaie, aaoi?nei-i?aaiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie
eee ainoaea?noaii a ea/anoaa iauanoaaiii cia/eiiai eioa?ana.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, caeii oeacuaaao ia o?e aiciiaeiuo niiniaa, n
iiiiuueth eioi?uo aaoi? ?aaeecoao i?eiaaeeaaeauaa aio i?aai ia aaoi?neia
eiy. *aua anaai nicaeaoaee i?iecaaaeaiee iaicia/atho naia aaoi?noai
iooai oeacaiey iiaeeeiiiai eiaie.

I?e iioaeeeiaaiee i?iecaaaeaiee, nicaeaiiuo ianeieueeeie eeoeaie, eiaia
niaaoi?ia oeacuaathony a iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, iaiai?aiiie niaaoi?aie.
I?aaii ia oeacaiea naiaai eiaie iieuecothony ana niaaoi?u, iacaaeneii io
?acia?a aianaiiiai a i?iecaaaeaiea oai?/aneiai aeeaaea.

I?e eniieueciaaiee a ?innee i?iecaaaeaiee eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia eo eiaia
i?eaiaeyony a ?onneie o?aine?eioeee, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue niaeaniaaia
n aaoi?ii i?eaeiaea. I?e oaeii niiniaa eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey, eae
ecaeaiea, eiaia eiino?aiiuo aaoi?ia ia?aaeei oeacuaathony e ia ycuea
i?eaeiaea ia iai?ioa oeooeueiiai eenoa.

Ia?ooaieai i?aaa ia eiy i?e aeaiiii niiniaa aai ?aaeecaoeee aoaeao
iaoeacaiea eiaie aaoi?a, a oaeaea aai eneaaeaiea.

Neaaeothuee niinia iaicia/aiey aaoi?neiai eiaie e ?aaeecaoeee
?anniao?eaaaiiai i?aaa — aunooieaiea aaoi?a iiae auiuoeaiiui eiaiai
(inaaaeiieiii). Ii oaeaea ia?aaeei eniieuecoaony ia i?aeoeea.

Caeii ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao eaeeo-eeai oneiaee eee ii?yaeea aeey
i?eia?aoaiey i?aaa ia inaaaeiiei. N?ie e iauai eniieueciaaiey
inaaaeiieia oaeaea ii?aaeaeythony naiei aaoi?ii. Inaaaeiiei, eae e
iiaeeeiiia eiy aaoi?a, ia aeieaeai eneaaeaoueny.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?aai aaoi?a aunooiaoue iiae inaaaeiieiii iiaeao
auoue ia?aie/aii. Oae, aaeaa ee aeiionoeii iieueciaaoueny oaeei
inaaaeiieiii, eioi?ue ia?ooaao ii?iu i?aanoaaiiinoe eee iineo
inei?aeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. A ?aaiie ia?a aaoi? ia iiaeao eca?aoue oaeie
inaaaeiiei, eioi?ue yaii aaiaeeo ioaeeeo a caaeoaeaeaiea, iai?eia?,
eiaaea ii niaiaaeaao n eiaiai, iiae eioi?ui aeaaii aunooiaao ae?oaie
aaoi?.

I?aai ia aaoi?neia eiy iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaaii iooai iioaeeeiaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey aac oeacaiey eiaie nicaeaoaey i?iecaaaeaiey, o. a.
aiiieiii. A aeaiiii neo/aa aiey aaoi?a iai?aaeaia ia oi, /oiau ia
naycuaaoue nicaeaiiia ei i?iecaaaeaiea ni naiei eiaiai.

I?iaeaia ninoieo eeoue a oii, /oiau aeieacaoue aaoi?noai ia aiiieiii
iioaeeeiaaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea. Eae e inaaaeiiei, aiiiei iiaeao auoue
?ane?uo aac niaeaney aaoi?a oieueei ii cai?ino noaea.

Ia?yaeo n iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie nicaeaoaeyie i?iecaaaeaiee i?aaii ia
iaicia/aiea naiaai eiaie iieuecothony i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey e
i?aaiecaoeee, ii neoaeaaiiio caaeaieth eioi?uo nicaeaii i?iecaaaeaiea
(no. 3 i. 14 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»). Oae,
o/aaiia caaaaeaiea eee iao/iia o/?aaeaeaiea iiaeao ianoaeaaoue ia oii,
/oiau eo iaeiaiiaaiea auei iaicia/aii ia i?iecaaaeaieyo, nicaeaiiuo eo
nio?oaeieeaie a ?aieao ii?o/aiiie ei ?aaiou.

N iiiaioa nicaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey ca aai aaoi?ii cae?aieyaony i?aai ia
caueoo i?iecaaaeaiey, aeeth/ay aai iacaaiea, io anyeiai eneaaeaiey eee
eiiai iinyaaoaeuenoaa, niiniaiiai iaianoe oua?a /anoe e aeinoieinoao
aaoi?a (no. 15 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»).

Niaea?aeaiea aeaiiiai i?aaa ninoieo a oii, /oi i?e ecaeaiee, ioaee/iii
eniieiaiee eee eiii eniieueciaaiee i?iecaaaeaiey aini?auaaony aac
niaeaney aaoi?a aiineoue eaeea-eeai eciaiaiey eae a naii i?iecaaaeaiea,
oae e a aai iacaaiea e, e?iia oiai, a iaicia/aiea eiaie aaoi?a.
Aini?auaaony oaeaea aac niaeaney aaoi?a niaaaeaoue i?iecaaaeaiea i?e aai
ecaeaiee eeethno?aoeeyie, i?aaeeneiaeyie, iineaneiaeyie, eiiiaioa?eyie e
eaeeie au oi ie auei iiyniaieyie.

I?aai ia caueoo i?iecaaaeaiey io eneaaeaiey, aicieeathuaa n iiiaioa aai
nicaeaiey e i?ae?auathuaany ni nia?oueth aaoi?a, eiaao iniaia cia/aiea
ia noaaeee iiaeaioiaee i?iecaaaeaiey e iaia?iaeiaaieth.

I?aai ia caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a, eae e anyeia noauaeoeaiia i?aai,
eiaao naie i?aaeaeu. Caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioaeaeueiua neo/ae, eiaaea
ia?ooaiea oeaeinoiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey ia ?anoeaieaaaony eae iieooaiea ia
aai iai?eeiniiaaiiinoue. Iai?eia?, aeiioneaaony oeeoe?iaaiea a i?eaeiaea
e a ia?aaiaea a iao/iuo, enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo, iieaie/aneeo e
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oeaeyo ec i?aaiia?ii iaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee a
iauaiao, ii?aaaeaiiuo oeaeueth oeeoe?iaaiey. Aiciiaeii aini?iecaaaeaiea
a iaci?ao oaeoueo niauoee a eeii, ia ?aaeei e ii oaeaaeaeaieth
auiouaiiuo a naao eeoa?aoo?iuo e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee a
iauaia, niioaaonoaothuai eioi?iaoeeiiiui oeaeyi. Ai anao neo/ayo
i?iecaaaeaiey eniieuecothony ia a oii aeaea, eioi?ue ei i?eaeai
aaoi?aie, iaeiaei ia?ooaieai i?aaa ia caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a yoi, ii
i?yiiio oeacaieth caeiia, ia n/eoaaony. Ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae ia?ooaiea
aeaiiiai i?aaa e oai?/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey i?iecaaaeaiey eniieieoaeai
eaee ?aaeenna?ii-iinoaiiaueeii, anee i?e yoii ia aiineony eciaiaiee a
oi?io e niaea?aeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey. Aaoi? ia iiaeao, nnueaynue ia
i?eiaaeeaaeauaa aio i?aai ia caueoo ?aiooaoeee, aini?aiyonoaiaaoue
nicaeaieth ae?oaeie eeoeaie niioaaonoaothueo ia?iaeee e noeeecaoeee, a
oaeaea i?aa?aaeeoue aei?iao e?eoeeai e eiiiaioaoi?ai.

No. ( 29 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» iiae/a?eeaaao,
/oi i?aai ia caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a, eae e i?aai aaoi?noaa, e i?aai ia
eiy, ia ia?aoiaeyo ii ianeaaenoao, ii ianeaaeieee ai?aaa inouanoaeyoue
caueoo oeacaiiuo i?aa.

Ia i?aeoeea ianeaaeieee, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueii iacia/aiiua aaoi?ii aeey
io?aiu iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe eeoea auoiaeyo ca ?aiee /enoi io?aieoaeueiuo
ooieoeee e auaeatho ?ac?aoaiey ia aianaiea a i?iecaaaeaiea eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee. A eeoa?aoo?a naeaeai auaiae, /oi oaeay i?aeoeea ia
i?ioeai?a/eo niuneo caeiia, anee oieueei i?e yoii ia i?ienoiaeeo
ei?aiiia eciaiaiea oai?/aneiai caiunea nicaeaoaey i?iecaaaeaiey1 .

Ianeieueei eia/a ?aoaaony aii?in ia io?aia iai?eeiniiaaiiinoe oao
i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua i?aaeiacia/aiu a iniiaiii aeey ooeeeoa?iiai
eniieueciaaiey. Oae, aeaaeaeueoeu caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee, i?iecaaaeaiee
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa e aeecaeia iiaoo aiineoue a ieo
eciaiaiey a niioaaonoaee ni naieie ?acoiiuie iio?aaiinoyie. Eeoue a oii
neo/aa, anee aoaeao onoaiiaeaii, /oi nianoaaiiee niaa?oaao yoe
aeaenoaey niaoeeaeueii a oeaeyo ia?ooaiey i?aa aaoi?a, yoi iiaeao auoue
i?eciaii ceioiio?aaeaieai i?aaa, e aaoi? i?eia?aoao i?aai ia caueoo.

I?aai aaoi?a ia iaia?iaeiaaiea i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo aaaeiaeoeo aai
i?aa, iineieueeo iii iaania/eaaao aio aiciiaeiinoue ?aoaoue aii?in i
aioiaiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey aeey auianaiey ia noae ioaeeee, a oaeaea i?yii
cao?aaeaaao aai eiouanoaaiiua eioa?anu. E?iia oiai, ?aaeecaoeey i?aaa ia
iaia?iaeiaaiea i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio eciaiaieth i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia
i?iecaaaeaiey.

I?aai ia iaia?iaeiaaiea eae au?aaeathuaa iniaue io?aiyaiue caeiiii
eioa?an aaoi?a yaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiui i?aaii nicaeaoaey
i?iecaaaeaiey. &ai ianoiyoaeuenoai iaiaoiaeeii niaoeeaeueii
iiae/a?eiooue a nayce n oai, /oi ?anniao?eaaaiia i?aai anaaaea
?aaeecoaony iaeiia?aiaiii n eaeei-eeai ae?oaei i?aaii aaoi?a. A naiii
aeaea, iaia?iaeiaaoue i?iecaaaeaiea, o.a. naeaeaoue aai aeinooiiui aeey
anaiauaai naaaeaiey, iaeuecy, ia ?aaeeciaaa eaeia-eeai eiia i?aai
aaoi?a., iai?eia?, i?aai ia iioaeeeiaaiea, i?aai ia ioaee/iue iieac,
i?aai ia ioaee/iia eniieiaiea e o.ae. A anee, iai?eia?,
iioaeeeiaaiea inouanoaeyaony iooai ecaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey, iaeiia?aiaiii
inouanoaeythony i?aaa ia aini?iecaaaeaiea e ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey. Iaeiaei i/aaeaeii, /oi iacaaiiua i?aaiii/ey
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie, oioy e oanii acaeiinaycaiiua, ii niaa?oaiii
naiinoiyoaeueiua i?aaa. Eaaeaeia ec ieo au?aaeaao naiinoiyoaeueiue
eioa?an aaoi?a e eaaeaeia iiaeao auoue ia?ooaii aacioiineoaeueii e
ia?ooaieth ae?oaeo i?aaiii/ee.

Nouanoaaiiui iiaiaaaaeaieai Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao» yaeyaony cae?aieaiea a iai i?aaa ia iocua i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ia
ionoonoaiaaei a ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Niaeanii i. 2
no. 15 yoiai caeiia, aaoi? eiaao i?aai ioeacaoueny io ?aiaa i?eiyoiai
?aoaiey ia iaia?iaeiaaiee i?iecaaaeaiey eeai, anee i?iecaaaeaiea oaea
auei iaia?iaeiaaii, iiaeao aeacaaoe?iaaoue aeaenoaey ii aai aeiaaaeaieth
aei anaiauaai naaaeaiey, ioaee/ii iiiaanoea i aai iocuaa. A ea/anoaa
aaeeinoaaiiiai oneiaey ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai i?aaa caeii onoaiaaeeaaao
aiciauaiea iieueciaaoaeth i?e/eiaiiuo oaeei ?aoaieai oauoeia, aeeth/ay
oiouaiioth auaiaeo.

Ia i?aeoeea ?anniao?eaaaiia i?aai iiaeao anooieoue a eieeeceth n i?aaaie
eeoe, eioi?ua i?eia?aee i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia iaoa?eaeueiua iineoaee
i?iecaaaeaiee, iiaeeaaeaueo iocuao. Eae i?aaenoaaeyaony, aeaenoaothuaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia i?aaeinoaaeyao aaoi?o i?aaa ia ecuyoea oaeeo
iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae, eioi?ua noaee iauaeoaie i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe
ae?oaeo eeoe, oioy au i?e yoii ei e auiea/eaaeanue niioaaonoaothuay
eiiiainaoeey. Io. 15 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»
aiai?eo eeoue i aiciauaiee oauoeia iieueciaaoaeyi i?iecaaaeaiee,
iiae?acoiaaay iiae iineaaeieie eeoe, i?eia?aoathueo i?aaa ia iniiaaiee
aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia. Iiyoiio, iai?eia?, aaoi? ia iiaeao eno?aaiaaoue
nicaeaiioth ei ea?oeio eee neoeueioo?o o eo aeaaeaeueoeaa, nnueaynue ia
naia i?aai iocuaa.

A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa, i?aai ia
iaia?iaeiaaiea niiniaii ia?aoiaeeoue e ae?oaei eeoeai, /oi aua ?ac
iiae/a?eeaaao oneiaiinoue aeaeaiey aaoi?neeo i?aa ia ee/iua
eiouanoaaiiua e iaeiouanoaaiiua. A /anoiinoe, iii ia?aoiaeeo e
ianeaaeieeai aaoi?a, /oi ieeai ia noaaeony iiae niiiaiea.

Iaeiei ec noauaeoeaiuo i?aa, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo nicaeaoaeyi oai?/aneeo
i?iecaaaeaiee, a ?inneeneii aaoi?neii i?aaa o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eciaaaeinue
i?aai ia iioaeeeiaaiea. Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, iiaue aaoi?neee caeii i
iai iniai ia oiiieiaao. Iacaaeneii io oiai, yaeyaony ee yoi
?acoeueoaoii oiouaiey ninoaaeoaeae i?iaeoa caeiia eee
au?aaeaieai eo niciaoaeueiie iiceoeee, i?aai ia iioaeeeiaaiea
i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny a /enea aaaeiaeoeo aaoi?neeo i?aaiii/ee1 .

?anniao?eaaaiia i?aai neaaeoao ioianoe e /eneo ee/iuo iaeiouanoaaiiuo
i?aa aaoi?a, oioy a iai aieaa, /ai a eaeii-eeai eiii ee/iii i?aaa
aaoi?a, i?aaenoaaeaiu eiouanoaaiiua yeaiaiou. Ii ana aea iniiaiia aai
niaea?aeaiea ninoieo a naiinoiyoaeueiii ?aoaiee aaoi?ii aii?ina i
auionea a ia?auaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae i?iecaaaeaiey. Aac niaeaney
aaoi?a ieeoi, a oii /enea e ?aaioiaeaoaeue, anee ?a/ue eaeao i
neoaeaaiii i?iecaaaeaiee, ia iiaeao niaa?oaoue iiaeiaiuo aeaenoaee.

?aaeecaoeey i?aaa ia iioaeeeiaaiea eiaao naiei iineaaenoaeai eciaiaiea
i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia i?iecaaaeaiey. N iiiaioa auionea a naao yecaiiey?ia
i?iecaaaeaiey iii iiaeao aac niaeaney aaoi?a e aac auieaou aaoi?neiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, ii n iaycaoaeueiui oeacaieai eiaie aaoi?a e enoi/ieea
caeinoaiaaiey ?ai?iaeooee?iaaoueny a aaeeie/iuo yecaiiey?ao
aeaeeioaeaie, a?oeaaie, o/aaiuie caaaaeaieyie (no. 28 Caeiia ?O «06
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»), ioaeaeueiua aeaeu i?iecaaaeaiee
iiaoo aini?iecaiaeeoueny a aacaoao, ia?aaeaaaoueny a yoe? (i. 3 no. 19
oiai aea caeiia) e o.ae.

Eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa aaoi?ia. I?aai ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey anoue
ia /oi eiia, eae aiciiaeiinoue aaoi?ia naiei ?aoaoue ana aii?inu,
naycaiiua n i?aaeinoaaeaieai o?aoueei eeoeai aeinooia e i?iecaaaeaieyi e
n eo eniieueciaaieai. Ioe?uaay o?aoueei eeoeai aeinooi e i?iecaaaeaieth,
aaoi? ii?aaeaeyao e oa niiniau, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo aai i?iecaaaeaiea
aoaeao eniieueciaaii. I?e yoii i?iecaaaeaiea iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii
eae a naiae ia?aiia/aeueiie, oae e a eciaiaiiie oi?ia (iai?eia?, a
ia?aaiaea eee a ia?a?aaioaiiii aeaea), n aini?iecaaaeaieai oie
iaoa?eaeueiie oi?iu, n eioi?ie naycaii i?iecaaaeaiea (iai?eia?,
ia?aecaeaiea eieae), eee aac oaeiaiai aini?iecaaaeaiey (iai?eia?,
ioaee/iia eniieiaiea) e o.ae.1

A niioaaonoaee n i. 2 no. 16 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao» eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa aaoi?a ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey
icia/atho i?aai inouanoaeyoue eee ?ac?aoaoue inouanoaeyoue neaaeothuea
aeaenoaey:

— aini?iecaiaeeoue i?iecaaaeaiea;

— ?ani?ino?aiyoue yecaiiey?u i?iecaaaeaiey ethaui niiniaii;

— eiii?oe?iaaoue yecaiiey?u i?iecaaaeaiey a oeaeyo ?ani?ino?aiaiey;

— ioaee/ii iieacuaaoue i?iecaaaeaiea;

— ioaee/ii eniieiyoue i?iecaaaeaiea;

— niiauaoue i?iecaaaeaiea aeey anaiauaai naaaeaiey iooai ia?aaea/e a
yoe? e iineaaeothuae ia?aaea/e a yoe?;

— niiauaoue i?iecaaaeaiea aeey anaiauaai naaaeaiey ii eaaaeth, i?iaiaeai
eee n iiiiuueth eiuo aiaeiae/iuo n?aaenoa;

— ia?aaiaeeoue i?iecaaaeaiea;

— ia?aaeaeuaaoue, a?aiaee?iaaoue eee ae?oaei ia?acii ia?a?aaaouaaoue
i?iecaaaeaiea.

Eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa aaoi?a ia eniieueciaaiea aeecaeia?neiai,
a?oeoaeoo?iiai, a?aaeino?ieoaeueiiai e naaeiai-ia?eiaiai i?iaeoia
aeeth/atho oaeaea i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaeecaoeeth oaeeo i?iaeoia.

Ia?a/aiue eiie?aoiuo aaoi?neeo i?aaiii/ee, eiie?aoece?othuee
i?eiaaeeaaeauea aaoi?o eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey, ioaaouaaao niaie eeoue oeie/iua neo/ae eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiee e, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ia iineo en/a?iuaathuaai
oa?aeoa?a. Ethaua ae?oaea niiniau eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee, eae
nouanoaothuea iuia, oae e oa, eioi?ua iiaoo iiyaeoueny a aeaeueiaeoai,
aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoueny eeoue n niaeaney aaoi?a eaee aai i?aaii?aaiieeia.

I?aai ia aini?iecaaaeaiea. N i?eiyoeai Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao» iiiyoea aini?iecaaaeaiey nouanoaaiii eciaieeinue e
naaeinue eeoue e ecaioiaeaieth iaeiiai eee aieaa yecaiiey?ia
i?iecaaaeaiey eee aai /anoe a ethaie iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia. Ioaee/iia
eniieiaiea, ia?aaea/a a yoe? e eiua niiniau eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey, ia naycaiiua n aai iiaoi?iie oeenaoeeae ia iaoa?eaeueiii
iineoaea, ?anniao?eaathony caeiiii a ea/anoaa iniauo i?aaiii/ee aaoi?a,
eaaeaueo ca ?aieaie aini?iecaaaeaiey.

I?aai ia aini?iecaaaeaiea /aua anaai ?aaeecoaony iaeiia?aiaiii n i?aaii
ia iioaeeeiaaiea, iaeiaei i?ienoiaeeo yoi ioithaeue ia anaaaea.
Aini?iecaaaeaieai a oi/iii niunea i?eciaaony naii ecaioiaeaiea eiiee
i?iecaaaeaiey a ethaie iaoa?eaeueiie oi?ia, iacaaeneii io oiai, aaea e
eiaaea iie aoaeoo auiouaiu a ia?auaiea e i?iecieaeao ee yoi aiiaua.
E?iia oiai, aeey aini?iecaaaeaiey ia o?aaoaony ecaioiaeaiey oaeiai
eiee/anoaa yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ia au oaeiaeaoai?yei ?acoiiua
iio?aaiinoe ioaeeee. Ei aoaeao n/eoaoueny ecaioiaeaiea ianeieueeeo eee
aeaaea iaeiie eiiee i?iecaaaeaiey.

Eiie?aoiua niiniau aini?iecaaaeaiey aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia
ia?a/eneyao, a /ai, nianoaaiii, e iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe, oae eae ei
i?eciaaony ethaay iiaoi?iay oeenaoeey i?iecaaaeaiey ia iaoa?eaeueiii
iineoaea.

Caeii ia ii?aaeaeyao oneiaee inouanoaeaiey e i?aaeaeia ?anniao?eaiiai
i?aaa, e?iia aaeeinoaaiiiai oeacaiey ia oi, /oi io nianoaaiieea
i?iecaaaeaiey iaeuecy o?aaiaaoue aeinoaaee i?iecaaaeaiey aaoi?o.

I?aai ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e i?aai ia eiii?o. Naiinoiyoaeueiui niiniaii
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey yaeyaony aai ?ani?ino?aiaiea. Iiae
?ani?ino?aiaieai, iiiyoea eioi?iai a ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia ?ane?uaaeinue, aieueoeinoai ?inneeneeo o/aiuo
iiieiaei ione a a?aaeaeaineee iai?io oao iaoa?eaeueiuo iineoaeae
i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ua ?aciiiaeaiu ia iniiaa i?eiaaeeaaeauaai aaoi?o
i?aaa ia aini?iecaaaeaiea1 .

Caeii ?O «Ia aaoi?neeo e niaaeiuo i?aaao» ii?aaeaeyao ?anniao?eaaaiia
i?aai i/aiue neoii, oeacuaay eeoue ia oi, /oi aaoi? iiaeao
?ani?ino?aiyoue yecaiiey?u i?iecaaaeaiey ethaui niiniaii, a /anoiinoe
i?iaeaaaoue, naeaaaoue a i?ieao e o. ae. (i. 2 no. 16). Ii, iie?aynue
aeaaea ia yoo oi?ioee?iaeo, iiaeii naeaeaoue iaeioi?ua auaiaeu. I?aaeaea
anaai caeii naycuaaao ?ani?ino?aiaiea oieueei n oaie i?iecaaaeaieyie,
eioi?ua caoeene?iaaiu ia iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea, &oi neaaeoao oioy au ec
oiai, /oi i?iaeaoue e naeaoue a i?ieao iiaeii eeoue nai iaoa?eaeueiue
iineoaeue, ia eioi?ii caoeene?iaaii i?iecaaaeaiea, a ia naii
i?iecaaaeaiea eae oaeiaia. Iiyoiio ioaee/iia eniieiaiea, ioaee/iue
iieac, ia?aaea/a a yoe? e eiua aiaeiae/iua niiniau eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiaieai ia yaeythony.

Aeaeaa, ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea eiiee i?iecaaaeaiey,
eioi?ua e ioneathony a a?aaeaeaineee iai?io.

Iiaue caeii iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi anee yecaiiey?u i?aaiia?ii
iioaeeeiaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey aaaaeaiu a a?aaeaeaineee iai?io
iin?aaenoaii eo ^i?iaeaaee, oi aeiioneaaony eo aeaeueiaeoaa
?ani?ino?aiaiea aac niaeaney ‘aaoi?a e aac auieaou aaoi?neiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey (i. 3 no. 16).

Ia?yaeo n i?aaii ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea Caeii «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao» iniai auaeaeyao eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai aaoi?a eiii?oe?iaaoue
yecaiiey?u i?iecaaaeaiey a oeaeyo ?ani?ino?aiaiey, aeeth/ay yecaiiey?u,
ecaioiaeaiiua n ?ac?aoaiey iaeaaeaoaey eneeth/eoaeueiuo aaoi?neeo i?aa
(i?aai ia eiii?o). A aeaiiii neo/aa eiaaony a aeaeo cae?aieaiiay ca
aaoi?ii aiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue ca aaicii ia oa??eoi?eth
aeaenoaey aai aaoi?neeo i?aa yecaiiey?ia nicaeaiiiai ei i?iecaaaeaiey,
eioi?ua ecaioiaeaiu ca a?aieoeae. Iniiaaieai aeey niaoeeaeueiiai
auaeaeaiey i?aaa ia eiii?o yaeyaony oa??eoi?eaeueiay ia?aie/aiiinoue
noa?u aeaenoaey aaoi?neeo i?aa. I?iecaaaeaiea, eioi?ia ia io?aiyaony ia
oa??eoi?ee oie eee eiie no?aiu, iiaeao oai naiaiaeii eniieueciaaoueny.
Iaeiaei anee yecaiiey?u yoiai i?iecaaaeaiey aoaeoo aeinoaaeaiu a oeaeyo
?ani?ino?aiaiey a no?aio, ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?ie i?iecaaaeaiea
io?aiyaony, yoi aoaeao ia?ooaieai aaoi?neeo i?aa. ?a/ue eaeao,
?acoiaaony, eeoue i i?iecaaaeaieyo, caoeene?iaaiiuo ia iaoa?eaeueiuo
iineoaeyo e aini?iecaaaeaiiuo oioy au a ianeieueeeo eiieyo.

I?aai ia ioaee/iue iieac e i?aai ia ioaee/iia eniieiaiea. A iiaii
aaoi?neii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa niaea?aeaiea ?anniao?eaaaiuo i?aa
ianeieueei eciaieeinue. Iiae iieacii i?iecaaaeaiey iiieiaaony
aeaiiino?aoeey i?eaeiaea eee yecaiiey?a i?iecaaaeaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiii
eaee ia ye?aia n iiiiuueth ieaiee, aeeaiiceoeaa, oaeaaeceiiiiai eaae?a
eee eiuo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea aeaiiino?aoeey ioaeaeueiuo
eaae?ia aoaeeiaecoaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey aac niaethaeaiey eo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. Eniieiaieai i?iecaaaeaiey i?eciaii aai
i?aaenoaaeaiea iin?aaenoaii ea?u, aeaeeaiaoeee, iaiey, oaioea a aeeaii
eniieiaiee eee n iiiiuueth oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, a oaeaea iieac eaae?ia
aoaeeiaecoaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey a eo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe (n
nii?iaiaeaeaieai eee aac nii?iaiaeaeaiey caoeii).

Ioaee/iue iieac e ioaee/iia eniieiaiea eiatho ianoi eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea
iieac eee eniieiaiea inouanoaeythony a ianoa, ioe?uoii aeey naiaiaeiiai
iinauaiey, eee a ianoa, aaea i?enoonoaoao cia/eoaeueiia /enei eeoe, ia
i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e iau/iiio e?oao naiuee. Aeaiiino?aoeey i?iecaaaeaiey
ia?aae niaoeeaeenoaie eee aai eniieiaiea aeey eca?aiiiai e?oaa aeeceeo
ae?ocae ia ia?acotho ioaee/iiai iieaca e ioaee/iiai eniieiaiey e,
niioaaonoaaiii, ia aeaeoo i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii i?aaiauo
iineaaenoaee.

I?aai ia ia?aaea/o a yoe? e i?aai ia niiauaiey aei anaiauaai naaaeaiey
ii eaaaeth. I?aai ia ia?aaea/o a yoe? eae iniaia eiouanoaaiiia
i?aaiii/ea aaoi?a oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothueie iniiaiuie iniaaiiinoyie.
I?aaeaea anaai aeaiiiio i?aao, eae ieeaeiio ae?oaiio, naienoaai yeaiaio
ioaee/iinoe. I?iecaaaeaiea aeiaiaeeony aei anaiauaai naaaeaiey
iin?aaenoaii niaoeeaeueiuo ?aaeeineaiaeia (?aaeeiaiei), eioi?ua
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey i?eaia naiie oe?ieie ioaeeeie. Aoaeeoi?ey aua aieaa
?anoe?yaony i?e ia?aaea/a i?iecaaaeaiey a yoe? /a?ac niooiee. Iiae oaeie
ia?aaea/ae iiieiaaony i?eai neaiaeia n iacaiiie noaioeee ia niooiee e
ia?aaea/a neaiaeia ni niooieea, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo i?iecaaaeaiea
aeiaiaeeony aei anaiauaai naaaeaiey. I?e yoii ai aieiaiea i?eieiaaony
naia aiciiaeiinoue aini?eyoey i?iecaaaeaiey ioaeeeie, iacaaeneii io
oiai, inouanoaeyaony ee iia oaeoe/anee.

I?aai ia ia?aaiae e i?aai ia ia?a?aaioeo i?iecaaaeaiey. Oi?iaie
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee yaeythony eo ia?aaiae ia ae?oaie ycue eee
ia?a?aaioea a ae?oaie aeae e aeai?. Eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia ia?aaiae e
ia?a?aaioeo cae?aieythony ca aaoi?ii eee aai i?aaii?aaiieeaie. A
noauaeoeaiia i?aai ia ia?aaiae aoiaeeo aiciiaeiinoue aaoi?a naiiio
ia?aaiaeeoue e eniieueciaaoue ia?aaiae naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey, a oaeaea
aai i?aai aeaaaoue ?ac?aoaiea ia ia?aaiae e eniieueciaaiea ia?aaiaea
ae?oaeie eeoeaie. Ia i?aeoeea aaoi?u aeiaieueii ?aaeei ia?aaiaeyo
i?iecaaaeaiea naie, iineieueeo yoa ?aaioa o?aaoao iniauo ciaiee e
iaaueia. Iiyoiio oaeoe/anee i?aai ia ia?aaiae naiaeeony e i?aao aeaaaoue
niaeanea ia eniieueciaaiea ia?aaiaea. Cai?aoeoue ia?aaiae i?iecaaaeaiey
a oeaeyo ee/iiai eniieueciaaiey aaoi? ia iiaeao ie oaeoe/anee, ie
th?eaee/anee.

Naia niaeanea ia ia?aaiae aaoi? iau/ii au?aaeaao iooai caeeth/aiey
aeiaiai?a n oie i?aaiecaoeeae, eioi?ay iaia?aia eniieueciaaoue aai
i?iecaaaeaiey a ia?aaiaea.

Iinea nia?oe aaoi?a a oa/aiea n?iea aeaenoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?aai
aeaaaoue niaeanea ia ia?a?aaioeo inouanoaeyaony aai ianeaaeieeaie.
Ieeaeeo eiuo a?aiaiiuo eee ae?oaeo ia?aie/aiee aeaiiiai i?aaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao.

Eiua i?aaa aaoi?ia. Ia?yaeo n ?anniio?aiiuie auoa i?aaiauie
aiciiaeiinoyie aaoi?u i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa
iaeaaeatho e eiuie i?aaaie, naycaiiuie n eniieueciaaieai eo
i?iecaaaeaiee. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo i?aa iaiin?aaenoaaiii oeacaiu a Caeiia
«Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao», ae?oaea oioy i?yii e ia iacaaiu,
ii neaaeotho ec iaai, oae eae iineaaeiee enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi aaoi?o
i?eiaaeeaaeao eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey a
ethaie oi?ia e ethaui niiniaii (i. 1 no. 16).

I?eiaieoaeueii e eniieueciaaieth i?iecaaaeaiee a?oeoaeoo?u,
a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa, naaeiai-ia?eiaiai eneonnoaa e aeecaeia Caeii «Ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» iniai auaeaeyao eiouanoaaiiia i?aai
aaoi?ia ia i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaeecaoeeth niioaaonoaothueo i?iaeoia. Aai
nooue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi anyeia i?aeoe/aneia aiieiuaiea a aeeciue
i?iecaaaeaiee a?oeoaeoo?iie (a?aaeino?ieoaeueiie, aeecaeia?neie) a?aoeee
e ieanoeee (yneecia, /a?oaaeae, ieaiia, ?enoieia, iaeaoia e o. i.)
iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny oieueei n niaeaney eo aaoi?ia.

Aaoi?neee iaaeci? inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaaiee iniaiai
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?a, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony iaaeaeo
caeac/eeii e ?ac?aaio/eeii i?iaeoa.

Aaoi?u i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa iaeaaeatho i?aaii
neaaeiaaiey.

Nouiinoue aeaiiiai i?aaa ninoieo a oii, /oi a eaaeaeii neo/aa ioaee/iie
ia?ai?iaeaaee i?iecaaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa ii oeaia,
i?aauoathuae i?aaeuaeouoth ia iaiaa, /ai ia 20%, aaoi? eiaao i?aai ia
iieo/aiea 5% io ia?ai?iaeaaeiie oeaiu (i. 2 no. 17 Caeiia).

Ii ?inneeneiio aaoi?neiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i?aao neaaeiaaiey
naienoaaiiu neaaeothuea iniiaiua i?eciaee.

Ai-ia?auo, ei iaeaaeatho oieueei aaoi?u i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa.

Ai-aoi?uo, ?anniao?eaaaiia i?aai eanaaony oieueei ioaee/iie
ia?ai?iaeaaee i?iecaaaeaiee. I?eciae ioaee/iinoe icia/aao ?aaeecaoeeth
i?iecaaaeaiee /a?ac aoeoeeii, aaea?ath ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiue naeii, iaaacei e o.ae. A neo/aa /anoiie ia?ai?iaeaaee
i?iecaaaeaiey i?aaa aeieaaiai o/anoey o aaoi?a ia aicieeaao.

A-o?aoueeo, i?aai neaaeiaaiey aeaenoaoao oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea
i?iecaaaeaiea ?aaeecoaony ii oeaia, i?aauoathuae i?aaeuaeouoth ia iaiaa
/ai ia 20%.

A-/aoaa?ouo, oioy aeaiiia i?aai iineo, aaconeiaii, eiouanoaaiiue
oa?aeoa?, caeii iiae/a?eeaaao aai iniaoth naycue n ee/iinoueth aaoi?a.
Oeacaiiia i?aai yaeyaony iaio/oaeaeaaiui e ia?aoiaeeo oieueei e
ianeaaeieeai aaoi?a ii caeiio ia n?ie aeaenoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa.

Niaea?aeaiea i?aaa ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi
nicaeaoaeth i?iecaaaeaiey i?aaeinoaaeyaony iaania/aiiay caeiiii
aiciiaeiinoue o?aaiaaoue, /oiau i?e ia?aaea/a ei i?aa ia eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey aio anaaaea auiea/eaaeinue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, e?iia
neo/aaa, niaoeeaeueii oeacaiiuo a caeiia.

Iaeaieueoaa i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiaao i?aaeoniio?aiiia iiaui aaoi?neei
caeiiii i?aai ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea aaoi?ia neoaeaaiuo i?iecaaaeaiee.

Oeacaiiia i?aaeei auei au iaaa?ii o?aeoiaaoue eae ia/oi iaiau/iia.
Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ?aoai aeaiiue aii?in ai anao aiiaue i?eiyouo
?inneeneeo caeiiao, iinayuaiiuo i?aaiaie io?aia iauaeoia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.1

E eiouanoaaiiui i?aaai, i?yii ia iacaaiiui a Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao», ii auoaeathuei ec iaai, iiaoo auoue ioianaiu
ana i?aaa, naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai aaoi?neeo i?iecaaaeaiee a oao
oi?iao e oaie niiniaaie, eioi?ua a caeiia ia ia?a/eneaiu. I?eia?ii
iiaeao neoaeeoue oaeia aeiaaaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey aei naaaeaiey ioaeeee n
iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, eioi?ia a no?iaii niunea
ia iiaeiaaeaao ie iiae ia?aaea/o a yoe?, ie iiae niiauaiea aeey
anaiauaai naaaeaiey ii eaaaeth. Iai?eia?, ia?aaeei a iiacaeao,
naiieaoao, ainoeieoeao e o. ae. iin?aaenoaii aioo?aiieo aeonoe/aneeo e
aeaeainenoai aeey iannaaee?ia e i?iaeeaathueo ia?aaeathony niaoeeaeueii
iiaeaioiaeaiiua i?ia?aiiu. Aia anyeiai niiiaiey, a aeaiiii neo/aa eiaao
ianoi aeiiieieoaeueiia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey, iineieueeo iii
niiauaaony iiaie aoaeeoi?ee. Oaeiai ?iaea eniieueciaaiea io?aiyaiuo
caeiiii i?iecaaaeaiee iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue oieueei n niaeaney aaoi?ia e
n auieaoie ei aeiiieieoaeueiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

Naiaiaeiia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee. A eioa?anao iauanoaa, a
/anoiinoe aeey iaania/aiey aeinooia e ciaieyi e ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eioi?iaoeee i oaeoueo niauoeyo, caeii onoaiaaeeaaao neo/ae oae
iacuaaaiiai “naiaiaeiiai” eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee. Ai-ia?auo,
ecuyoey ec i?aaee io?aiu eanathony eeoue i?aaiia?ii iaia?iaeiaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee. Anee i?iecaaaeaiea aua ia naeaeaii aaoi?ii aeinooiiui
aeey anaiauaai naaaeaiey eee anee yoi i?iecioei aac aai niaeaney, iii
iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny oieueei n ?ac?aoaiey aaoi?a.

Ai-aoi?uo, ecuyoey ec aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia cao?aaeaatho ee/iuo
iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aaiii/ee aaoi?ia. Eiuie neiaaie, i?e ethaii
eniieueciaaiee i?iecaaaeaiey aai nicaeaoaeth aa?aioe?oaony io?aia i?aaa
aaoi?noaa, i?aaa ia eiy e i?aaa ia caueoo ?aiooaoeee aaoi?a.

A-o?aoueeo, naiaiaeiia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiee aeiioneaaony eeoue
i?e oneiaee, /oi yoei ia iaiineony oua?a eo ii?iaeueiiio eniieueciaaieth
e ia ouaieythony caeiiiua eioa?anu aaoi?ia.

A-/aoaa?ouo, onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii ia?aie/aiey aaoi?neeo i?aa iinyo
en/a?iuaathuee oa?aeoa?. A Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao» aeaiiiio aii?ino oaeaeaii ioiineoaeueii iiiai ianoa (no. 18—26),
/oi iauyniyaony no?aieaieai caeiiiaeaoaey iaeneiaeueii oi/ii iienaoue a
caeiia ana aiciiaeiua (/anoiua) neo/ae naiaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiee. Iie ia iiaeeaaeao ie ?anoe?eoaeueiiio oieeiaaieth, ie
aeiiieiaieth iiaecaeiiiuie aeoaie eee noaeaaiie i?aeoeeie.

Onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiii ecuyoey ec aaoi?neiai i?aaa ioee/athony ii iauaio,
cao?aaeaatho ?aciue e?oa i?iecaaaeaiee e niiniaia eo eniieueciaaiey.

I?aaeaea anaai aeiioneaaony oeeoe?iaaiea a i?eaeiaea e a ia?aaiaea n
iao/iie, enneaaeiaaoaeueneie, iieaie/aneie, e?eoe/aneie eee
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeaeueth ec i?aaiia?ii iaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee a
iauaia, ii?aaaeaiiii oeaeueth oeeoe?iaaiey, aeeth/ay aini?iecaaaeaiea
io?uaeia ec aacaoiuo e aeo?iaeueiuo noaoae a oi?ia iaci?ia ia/aoe (i. 1
no. 19 Caeiia).

Oneiaey aeiionoeiiai oeeoe?iaaiey ii aeaenoaothuaio ?inneeneiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao iiaoo auoue naaaeaiu e neaaeothuaio. Ai-ia?auo, aac
niaeaney aaoi?a io?uaee aai i?iecaaaeaiey a aeaea oeeoao iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny oieueei a iao/iuo, e?eoe/aneeo e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oeaeyo, a oaeaea a iaci?ao ia/aoe. Ai-aoi?uo, oeeoe?iaaoueny iiaoo
io?uaee ec i?iecaaaeaiee, iaia?iaeiaaiiuo ethaui aeiioneaaiui caeiiii
niiniaii. A-o?aoueeo, oeeoe?iaaiea . aeiioneaaony eeoue a iauaia,
ii?aaaeaiiii oeaeueth oeeoe?iaaiey.

E ?anniio?aiiiio neo/ath aeecei i?eiueaao ?ac?aoaiiia caeiiii
eniieueciaaiea i?aaiia?ii iaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee e io?uaeia ec
ieo a ea/anoaa eeethno?aoeee a ecaeaieyo, a ?aaeei- e oaeaia?aaea/ao,
caoei e aeaeaicaienyo o/aaiiai oa?aeoa?a a iauaia, ii?aaaeaiiii
iinoaaeaiiie oeaeueth (i. 2 no. 19 caeiia).

Aeaeaa, ?ac?aoaaony aini?iecaaaeaiea a aacaoao, ia?aaea/a a yoe? eaee
niiauaiea ii eaaaeth aeey anaiauaai naaaeaiey i?aaiia?ii iioaeeeiaaiiuo
a aacaoao eee aeo?iaeao noaoae ii oaeouei yeiiiie/aneei, iieeoe/aneei,
nioeeaeueiui e ?aeeaeiciui aii?inai eee ia?aaeaiiuo a yoe? i?iecaaaeaiee
oaeiai aea oa?aeoa?a a neo/ayo, eiaaea oaeea aini?iecaaaeaiea, ia?aaea/a
a yoe? eee niiauaiea ii eaaaeth ia auee niaoeeaeueii cai?auaiu aaoi?ii
(i. 3 no. 19 Caeiia).

Neaaeothuee neo/ae naiaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee ioaaouaaao
niaie aini?iecaaaeaiea eee niiauaiea aeey anaiauaai naaaeaiey a iaci?ao
oaeoueo niauoee n?aaenoaaie oioia?aoee, iooai ia?aaea/e a yoe? eee
niiauaiey aeey anaiauaai naaaeaiey ii eaaaeth i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua
noaiiayony oaeaeaiiuie eee oneuoaiiuie a oiaea oaeeo niauoee, a iauaia,
ii?aaaeaiiii, eioi?iaoeeiiiie oeaeueth (i. 5 no. 19 caeiia).

Niaoeeaeueiia i?aaeei Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»
iinayuaii ?ac?aoaiiiio eniieueciaaieth i?iecaaaeaiee, iinoiyiii
?aniieiaeaiiuo a ianoao, ioe?uouo aeey naiaiaeiiai iinauaiey. A
niioaaonoaee ni no. 21 aeiioneathony aac niaeaney aaoi?a e aac auieaou
aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey aini?iecaaaeaiea, ia?aaea/a a yoe? eee
niiauaiea aeey anaiauaai naaaeaiey ii eaaaeth i?iecaaaeaiee a?oeoaeoo?u,
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa, oioia?aoee, eioi?ua iinoiyiii ?aniieiaeaiu
a ianoao, ioe?uouo aeey naiaiaeiiai iinauaiey.

Iaeiiaoe, e ?anniao?eaaaiie a?oiia neo/aaa naiaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiee iiaeii n iaeioi?ie aeieae oneiaiinoe ioianoe
aini?iecaaaeaiea i?aaiia?ii iaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee aac ecaea/aiey
i?eauee ?aeueaoii-oi/a/iui o?eooii eee ae?oaeie niaoeeaeueiuie niiniaaie
aeey neaiuo, e?iia i?iecaaaeaiee, niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiuo aeey oaeeo
niiniaia aini?iecaaaeaiey (i. 6 no. 19 caeiia). I?eia?ii oaeiai
eniieueciaaiey iiaeao neoaeeoue ecaeaiea o?eooii A?aeey iaia?iaeiaaiiuo
eeoa?aoo?iuo i?iecaaaeaiee.

Aoi?oth a?oiio ecuyoee ec noa?u aaoi?neiai i?aaa ninoaaeytho neo/ae
naiaiaeiiai ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiey i?aaiia?ii iioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee a
aaeeie/iii yecaiiey?a aac ecaea/aiey i?eauee (no. 20 Caeiia ?O «Ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»). Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, iiiyoeai
?ai?iaeooee?iaaiea ioaaouaaaony oioieiie?iaaiea, ena?ieiie?iaaiea e
ae?oaea niiniau oaeneieeueiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiee, i?e
eioi?uo aiaoiyy oi?ia eo au?aaeaiey inoaaony iaeciaiiie.

Caeii ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» iinayoee ?anniao?eaaaiie
i?iaeaia niaoeeaeueioth noaoueth, eioi?ay aeaao aieaa /aoeia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i noauaeoao, oeaeyo e ianooaaao aeiionoeiiai
?ai?iaeooee?iaaiey.

Ai-ia?auo, ii ?inneeneiio aaoi?neiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?ac?aoaaony
?ai?iaeooee?iaaoue eeoue i?aaiia?ii iioaeeeiaaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey.

Ai-aoi?uo, i?e ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiee iaycaoaeueii oeacuaaaony eiy aaoi?a,
i?iecaaaeaiea eioi?iai eniieuecoaony, e enoi/iee caeinoaiaaiey.

A-o?aoueeo, ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiea aiciiaeii eeoue a aaeeie/iii yecaiiey?a.
Aeaiiia oneiaea noaaeo caneii ianniaiio aini?iecaaaeaieth io?aiyaiuo
caeiiii i?iecaaaeaiee a iaoiae nouanoaothueo i?aaee.

A-/aoaa?ouo, i?e inouanoaeaiee ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiey ia iiaoo
i?aneaaeiaaoueny eiiia?/aneea oeaee. ?acoiaaony, ia cai?auaii aceiaoue
ieaoo ca ecaioiaeaiea eiiee i?iecaaaeaiey.

A-iyouo, aeiioneaaiia ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiea naiaeeony caeiiii e o?ai i?yii
oeacaiiui a iai neo/ayi. I?aaeaea anaai yoi ?ac?aoaaony aeaeaoue
aeaeeioaeai e a?oeaai aeey ainiieiaiey, caiaiu oo?a/aiiuo e enii?/aiiuo
yecaiiey?ia, a oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeaiey yecaiiey?ia i?iecaaaeaiey ae?oaei
aeaeeioaeai, oo?aoeaoei ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai i?iecaaaeaiey ec naieo
oiiaeia (i. 1 no. 20 caeiia). Aeaeaa, aeaeeioaee e a?oeau iiaoo
?ai?iaeooee?iaaoue ioaeaeueiua noaouee e iaeiiauaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey,
eioi?ua iioaeeeiaaiu a nai?ieeao, aacaoao e ae?oaeo ia?eiaee/aneeo
ecaeaieyo, a oaeaea ei?ioeea io?uaee ec ienueiaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee (n
eeethno?aoeeyie e aac eeethno?aoeee), anee yoi aeaeaaony ii cai?inai
oece/aneeo eeoe a o/aaiuo e enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo oeaeyo (i. 2 no. 20
caeiia). Iaeiiaoe, ia?aciaaoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey aeey i?iaaaeaiey
aoaeeoi?neeo caiyoee iiaoo ?ai?iaeooee?iaaoue ioaeaeueiua noaouee e
iaeiiauaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, iioaeeeiaaiiua a nai?ieeao, aacaoao e
ae?oaeo ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaieyo, a oaeaea ei?ioeea io?uaee ec
ienueiaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee.

O?aouey a?oiia neo/aaa naiaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee
aeeth/aao ioaee/iia eniieiaiea iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee ai a?aiy
ioeoeeaeueiuo e ?aeeaeiciuo oea?aiiiee, a oaeaea iioi?ii a iauaia,
ii?aaaeaiiii oa?aeoa?ii oaeeo oea?aiiiee (no. 29 caeiia), e
aini?iecaaaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiee aeey noaeaaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a iauaia,
ii?aaaeaiiii yoie oeaeueth (no. 29 caeiia).

*aoaa?oay a?oiia ecuyoee ec noa?u aaoi?neiai i?aaa eanaaony iaeioi?uo
neo/aaa eniieueciaaiey i?ia?aii aeey YAI e aac aeaiiuo, a oaeaea
i?iecaiaenoaa caienae e?aoein?i/iiai iieueciaaiey, inouanoaeyaiuo
i?aaiecaoeeyie yoe?iiai aauaiey.

Iaeiiaoe, iyooth a?oiio neo/aaa naiaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee
ia?acoao eo eniieueciaaiea eneeth/eoaeueii a ee/iuo oeaeyo.

Aianoa n oai ii i?yiiio oeacaieth caeiia oieueei n niaeaney aaoi?a iiaoo
aini?iecaiaeeoueny aeaaea aeey eniieueciaaiey oieueei a ee/iuo oeaeyo:

— i?iecaaaeaiey a?oeoaeoo?u a oi?ia caeaiee e aiaeiae/iuo nii?oaeaiee;

— aacu aeaiiuo eee nouanoaaiiua /anoe ec ieo;: — i?ia?aiiu aeey YAI, ca
eneeth/aieai ?anniio?aiiuo auoa neo/aaa; — eieae (a iieiii iauaia) e
iioiua oaenou iooai ?ai?iaeooee?iaaiey.

Aoi?ie ec iacaaiiuo caeiiii neo/aaa eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey a
ee/iuo oeaeyo eanaaony aini?iecaaaeaiey aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee
e caoeicaienae, eioi?ia iiaeao aeaeaoueny aac niaeaney aaoi?a,
eniieieoaey e i?iecaiaeeoaey oiiia?aiiu, ii n auieaoie ei
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey (no. 26 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo
i?aaao»). Iineieueeo aeaiiue neo/ae oaea iiae?iaii ?anniao?eaaeny auoa
i?e aiaeeca i?aaa aaoi?a ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, a aai iiaoi?iii inaauaiee
iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

N?ie aeaenoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Ii iauaio i?aaeeo, aaoi?neia i?aai
aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea anae aeecie aaoi?a e 50 eao iinea aai nia?oe.
Oeacaiiue 50-eaoiee n?ie en/eneyaony n 1 yiaa?y aiaea, neaaeothuaai ca
aiaeii nia?oe aaoi?a, e niioaaonoaaiii enoaeaao a eiioea iineaaeiaai,
50-ai aiaea n?iea. Ec yoiai iauaai i?aaeea onoaiaaeeaaaony ?yae
eneeth/aiee. Ia?aia ec ieo eanaaony i?iecaaaeaiee, iaia?iaeiaaiiuo
aiiieiii eee iiae inaaaeiieiii. Ii iiiyoiui i?e/eiai n?ie eo io?aiu ia
iiaeao auoue iniiaai ia aeaoa nia?oe eo aaoi?ia. Iiyoiio aaoi?neia i?aai
ia oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea 50 eao, n/eoay n 1 yiaa?y
aiaea, neaaeothuaai ca aiaeii eo i?aaiia?iiai iaia?iaeiaaiey. Anee,
iaeiaei, aaoi? i?iecaaaeaiey, auiouaiiiai aiiieiii eee iiae
inaaaeiieiii, ?ane?iao naith ee/iinoue a oa/aiea oeacaiiiai n?iea eaee
aai ee/iinoue ia aoaeao aeaeaa inoaaeyoue niiiaiee, oi n?ie aeaenoaey
aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia yoi i?iecaaaeaiea aoaeao en/eneyoueny ii iauei
i?aaeeai.

Aoi?ia eneeth/aiea naycaii n i?iecaaaeaieyie, nicaeaiiuie a niaaoi?noaa.
Aaoi?neia i?aai ia oaeia i?iecaaaeaiea aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea anae aeecie
e 50 eao iinea nia?oe aaoi?a, ia?aaeeaoaai ae?oaeo aaoi?ia.

Iiaue aaoi?neee caeii onoaiiaee aua iaeii eneeth/aiea ec iaueo i?aaee
en/eneaiey n?ieia io?aiu aaoi?neeo i?iecaaaeaiee. A niioaaonoaee n i. 5
no. 27 oeacaiiiai caeiia aaoi?neia i?aai ia i?iecaaaeaiea, aia?aua
auiouaiiia a naao iinea nia?oe aaoi?a, aeaenoaoao a oa/aiea 50 eao iinea
aai auionea. E ?anniio?aiiiio neo/ath aeecea neooaoeey, eanathuayny
n?ieia io?aiu i?iecaaaeaiee ?ai?anne?iaaiiuo aaoi?ia. Anee aaoi? aue
?ai?anne?iaai e ?aaaeeeoe?iaai iinia?oii, oi 50-eaoiee n?ie io?aiu i?aa
ia i?iecaaaeaiea ia/eiaao aeaenoaiaaoue n 1 yiaa?y aiaea, neaaeothuaai
ca aiaeii ?aaaeeeoaoeee.

Iaeiiaoe, Caeii ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»
i?aaeoniao?eaaao oaaee/aiea ia 4 aiaea n?iea io?aiu aaoi?neeo i?aa ia
i?iecaaaeaiey oao aaoi?ia, eioi?ua o/anoaiaaee a Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieia eee ?aaioaee a yoio ia?eiae.

Ii enoa/aiee n?iea aeaenoaey aaoi?neiai i?aaa i?iecaaaeaiea n/eoaaony
ia?aoaaeoei a iauanoaaiiia aeinoiyiea. Oaeiai ?iaea i?iecaaaeaiey, ?aaii
eae e i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ui ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee ieeiaaea ia
i?aaeinoaaeyeanue io?aia, iiaoo naiaiaeii eniieueciaaoueny ethaui eeoeii
aac auieaou aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. I?e yoii, iaeiaei, aeieaeiu
niaethaeaoueny i?aai aaoi?noaa, i?aai ia eiy e i?aai ia caueoo
?aiooaoeee aaoi?a. A ioee/ea io ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
(no. 502 AE ?NON? 1964 a.) iiaue caeii ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao aiciiaeiinoe
iauyaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai enoae n?ie io?aiu,
aeinoiyieai ainoaea?noaa e ii?aaeaeaiey iniauo oneiaee aai
eniieueciaaiey. Ii i?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoueny neo/ae
auieaou niaoeeaeueiuo io/eneaiee ca eniieueciaaiea ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
i?iecaaaeaiee, ia?aoaaeoeo a iauanoaaiiia aeinoiyiea. Oaeea io/eneaiey
auiea/eaathony a i?ioanneiiaeueiua oiiaeu aaoi?ia, a oaeaea
i?aaiecaoeeyi, oi?aaeythuei eiouanoaaiiuie i?aaaie aaoi?ia ia
eieeaeoeaiie iniiaa, e ia iiaoo i?aauoaoue iaeiiai i?ioeaioa io i?eauee,
iieo/aiiie ca eniieueciaaiea oaeeo i?iecaaaeaiee.

Aaoi?neee aeiaiai?. Eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey aaoi?a ae?oaeie eeoeaie
(iieueciaaoaeyie) inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaaiee aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a,
e?iia neo/aaa, niaoeeaeueii oeacaiiuo caeiiii. Aeiaiai?iay oi?ia
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai eaeay-eeai ae?oaay,
iaania/eaaao ?aaeecaoeeth e io?aio eae ee/iuo, oae e eiouanoaaiiuo i?aa
aaoi?a. Ioaa/aao iia e eioa?anai iieueciaaoaeae, iineieueeo iie
i?eia?aoatho ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaa ii eniieueciaaieth i?iecaaaeaiee,
eioi?uo ia eiatho ae?oaea eeoea, e a nayce n yoei iiaoo ieoieoue naie
cao?aou ii aini?iecaaaeaieth e ?ani?ino?aiaieth i?iecaaaeaiee e
iieo/eoue i?eaueue.

I.E. Eeue ( aaoi?neee aeiaiai? ii?aaeaeeea eae niaeaoaiea aaoi?a e
i?aaiecaoeee-iieueciaaoaey ii iiaiaeo nicaeaiey e eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa.1 Aieaa niaea?aeaoaeueiia,
oioy e iaaeinoaoi/ii oi/iia ii?aaeaeaiea aeaii A. A. Aeici?oeaaui: ii
aaoi?neiio aeiaiai?o iaeia noi?iia — aaoi? ?ac?aoaao ae?oaie noi?iia —
iieueciaaoaeth eniieueciaaoue i?iecaaaeaiea eee i?aaeinoaaeyao ae i?aai
?anii?yaeeoueny i?iecaaaeaieai a oii eee eiii iauaia, a iieueciaaoaeue
iaycoaony caieaoeoue aaoi?o aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca eniieueciaaiea eee
i?aaeinoaaeaiea oaeiai i?aaa.2

A Iniiaao a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa 1991 a. aaoi?neee aeiaiai?
aue ii?aaeaeai eae aeiaiai?, ii eioi?iio aaoi? iaycai nicaeaoue a
niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii e ia?aaeaoue caeacaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea eee
ia?aaeaoue aioiaia i?iecaaaeaiea aeey eniieueciaaiey, a iieueciaaoaeue
iaycai eniieueciaaoue eee ia/aoue eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey
i?aaeoniio?aiiui aeiaiai?ii niiniaii a iaoneiaeaiiii ei iauaia e a
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie e oieaoeoue aaoi?o onoaiiaeaiiia aeiaiai?ii
noi?ioee?iaaoue neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea: ii aaoi?neiio aeiaiai?o aaoi?
ia?aaeaao eee iaycoaony ia?aaeaoue i?eia?aoaoaeth naie i?aaa ia
eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey a i?aaeaeao e ia oneiaeyo, niaeaniaaiiuo
noi?iiaie.

Ii iauaio i?aaeeo, aaoi?neee aeiaiai? iineo eiinainoaeueiue, acaeiiue e
aiciacaeiue oa?aeoa?.

Iuia aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iaiaeiie?aoii i?yii iiae/a?eeaaao
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea (ia?aaea/e) i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaaaeaiey io aaoi?a e ae?oaei eeoeai e, eae i?aaenoaaeyaony,
aeinoaoi/ii iaeiicia/ii ?aoaao aii?in i i?e?iaea aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a.

Ia?yaeo n i?aaeinoaaeaieai o/anoieeai aaoi?neeo ioiioaiee aiciiaeiinoe
naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyoue naie aeiaiai?iua i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, Caeii
?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» i?aaeuyaeyao e aaoi?neei
aeiaiai?ai ii?aaeaeaiiua o?aaiaaiey. Yoe o?aaiaaiey noi?ioee?iaaiu a
aeaea ?yaea cae?aieaiiuo caeiiii aeeniiceoeaiuo e eiia?aoeaiuo i?aaee.
Ia?aua ec ieo anooiatho a aeaenoaea oiaaea, eiaaea noi?iiaie aaoi?neiai
aeiaiai?a eiie?aoii ia ?aoaiu oa eee eiua aii?inu. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
iiaeii i?eaanoe i?aaeei i oii, /oi aeaenoaea ia?aaeaaaaiiai ii aeiaiai?o
i?aaa ia?aie/eaaaony oa??eoi?eae ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, anee a
aaoi?neii aeiaiai?a ionoonoaoao oneiaea i oa??eoi?ee, ia eioi?oth
ia?aaeaaony i?aai. Eiia?aoeaiua i?aaeea eeai cai?auatho aaiaeeoue a
aaoi?neea aeiaiai?u ii?aaeaeaiiua oneiaey, eeai i?aaeienuaatho ?aoaiea
ioaeaeueiuo aii?inia i?e auai?a noi?iiaie eiie?aoiiai aa?eaioa naieo
acaeiiioiioaiee ec /enea aiciiaeiuo. Iai?eia?, caeii ca?aiaa iauyaeyao
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui oneiaea aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a, eioi?ui aaoi?
ia?aie/eaaaony a nicaeaiee a aoaeouai i?iecaaaeaiee ia aeaiioth oaio eee
a aeaiiie iaeanoe.

Aaoi?neee aeiaiai? neaaeoao ioee/aoue io eiuo oi?i aeiaiai?iiai
?aaoee?iaaiey ioiioaiee ii nicaeaieth e eniieueciaaieth i?iecaaaeaiee
iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa. Oae, ia i?aeoeea ia?aaeei aicieeaao
aii?in i ?aca?aie/aiee aaoi?neiai e o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?ia, /oi eiaao
aieueoia cia/aiea aeey onoaiiaeaiey iauaia i?aa nicaeaoaey oai?/aneiai
i?iecaaaeaiey e aai iieueciaaoaey.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea caeeth/aiiue noi?iiaie aeiaiai?, a ?aieao eioi?iai
nicaeaii oai?/aneia i?iecaaaeaiea, ia niaea?aeeo /aoeiai oeacaiey ia aai
o?oaeiaie oa?aeoa?, auaiae ia yoii iiaeao auoue naeaeai eeoue i?e
iaee/ee ?yaea oneiaee. I?aaeaea anaai i?aaeiaoii o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a
yaeyaony o?oaeiaay aeayoaeueiinoue ?aaioieea, niioaaonoaothuay aai
aeieaeiinoe e eaaeeoeeaoeee. Iia iiaeao iineoue oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?,
eae, iai?eia?, ?aaioa ooaoiiai ia?aaiae/eea ecaeaoaeuenoaa eee ooaoiiai
oioia?aoa aeo?iaea, ii i?e yoii iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi ?a/ue eaeao ia
eniieiaiee ii?aaeaeaiiie o?oaeiaie ooieoeee, a ia i aeinoeaeaiee
eiie?aoiiai, ii?aaeaeaiiiai niaeaoaieai noi?ii oai?/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa.
A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo, iaeiaei, o?oaeiaie aeiaiai? iiaeao auoue caeeth/ai
e ia auiieiaiea oai?/aneie ?aaiou, naycaiiie n nicaeaieai eiie?aoiiai
oai?/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiey, iai?eia? ia auiieiaiea ioi?ieoaeueneeo eee
ea?oia?aoe/aneeo ?aaio. Caeanue aaaeii onoaiiaeoue, aue ee aeeth/ai
aaoi? a o?oaeiaie eieeaeoea caeac/eea, iiae/eiyeny ee ii i?aaeeai
aioo?aiiaai ?anii?yaeea e ?anii?yaeaieyi aaeieieno?aoeee, cae?aieyeenue
ee ca iei o?oaeiaua i?aaa e eueaiou, iieo/ae ee aaoi? ca naith ?aaioo
aaeaiany/iia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea e o. i. Anee ie/aai yoiai ia auei, oi aeey
eaaeeoeeaoeee ioiioaiee noi?ii eae o?oaeiauo iao ieeaeeo iniiaaiee.

Iaeiiaoe, eiaaea niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi noi?iiu auee naycaiu
o?oaeiaui aeiaiai?ii, iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue, aoiaeeei ee nicaeaiea
aeaiiiai oai?/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiey a o?oaeiaua iaycaiiinoe aai aaoi?a.
Anee i?iecaaaeaiea nicaeaii oioy e ooaoiui ?aaioieeii i?aaiecaoeee, ii
ia a nayce n eniieiaieai ei naieo o?oaeiauo iaycaiiinoae, aaoi?
i?iecaaaeaiey iieuecoaony anaie i?aaeoniio?aiiuie caeiiii i?aaaie,
aeeth/ay i?aai ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey.

Ia?aaeei, iniaaiii i?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?ia ia nicaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiee
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa, aicieeaao aii?in i ?aca?aie/aiee aaoi?neiai
aeiaiai?a e aeiaiai?a iiae?yaea.

?aca?aie/aiea aaoi?neiai e iiae?yaeiiai aeiaiai?ia i?iecaiaeeony
i?aaeaea anaai ii eo i?aaeiaoo. Anee i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a iiae?yaea
yaeyaony ?acoeueoao iau/iie, oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iiae?yae/eea, oi
i?aaeiaoii aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a yaeyaony i?iecaaaeaiea iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u
e eneonnoaa eae ?acoeueoao oai?/aneie ?aaiou aaoi?a.

Ii noauaeoiiio ninoaao aaoi?neea aeiaiai?u ioee/athony e io iaeioi?uo
ae?oaeo aeiaiai?ia, naycaiiuo n eniieueciaaieai i?iecaaaeaiee. Iai?eia?,
ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eeiinooaeeyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie, caieiathueieny
eeiii?ieaoii, no?iyony ii oeio aeiaiai?a eoiee-i?iaeaaee.

Eeanneoeeaoeey aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia. A ea/anoaa iniaiai oeia
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaiai aeiaiai?a aaoi?neee aeiaiai?, a naith i/a?aaeue,
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia iiiaeanoai ioaeaeueiuo ?aciiaeaeiinoae, eaaeaeay ec
eioi?uo eiaao

naie iniaaiiinoe. Nouanoaoao aeiaieueii iiiai e?eoa?eaa, iie?aynue ia
eioi?ua iiaeii i?iaanoe eeanneoeeaoeey nouanoaothueo aaoi?neeo
aeiaiai?ia. I?e yoii naiua ?aciua eeanneoeeaoeee ia eneeth/atho ae?oa
ae?oaa, anee eo iniiaaiey ia iaaeoiaiu e ia i?iecaieueiu, a iauaeoeaiu e
nouanoaaiiu.

Oae, aaoi?neea aeiaiai?u iiaoo iiae?acaeaeyoueny ia ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu a
caaeneiinoe io aeaea i?iecaaaeaiee, ii iiaiaeo eioi?uo iie
caeeth/athony. A nayce n yoei iiaoo auoue auaeaeaiu, a /anoiinoe,
aaoi?neea aeiaiai?u ia nicaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea eeoa?aoo?iuo,
iocueaeueiuo, aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo, a?oeoaeoo?iuo e ae?oaeo i?iecaaaeaiee.
Aeaaea anee yoe aeiaiai?u i?aaeoniao?eaatho iaeei e oio aea niinia
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee, aeae iineaaeieo ieacuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiia
aeeyiea ia niaea?aeaiea naiiai aeiaiai?a.

A caaeneiinoe io oiai, yaeyaony ee i?aaeiaoii aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a oaea
aioiaia i?iecaaaeaiea eee i?iecaaaeaiea, eioi?ia aua oieueei iaiaoiaeeii
nicaeaoue, ?acee/athony aaoi?neea aeiaiai?u caeaca e aaoi?neea aeiaiai?u
ia aioiaia i?iecaaaeaiea. Aaoi?neee aeiaiai? ia caeacaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea
iiae?iaii ?aaeaiaioe?oao o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e aoaeouaio
i?iecaaaeaieth, a /anoiinoe onoaiaaeeaaao aai aeai?, iacia/aiea, iauai e
ae?oaea ia?aiao?u, onoaiaaeeaaao n?iee e oi?iu i?aaenoaaeaiey ?aaiou
caeac/eeo, ii?yaeie ono?aiaiey caia/aiee e o. i. Aaoi? eiaao i?aai ia
iieo/aiea aaaina e ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiey i?eiyouo ia naay
iaycaiiinoae. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?aaeiaoii aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a
yaeyaony oaea aioiaia i?iecaaaeaiea, iii iau/ii ?anniao?eaaaony e
iaeia?yaony iieueciaaoaeai aei caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a.

Aaoi?neea aeiaiai?u iiaoo auoue naycaiu n eniieueciaaieai aua ia
iaia?iaeiaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey eee i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ia oaea
aeiaaaeaii aei anaiauaai naaaeaiey. Eae i?aaeei, yoi ieacuaaao
nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia oaeia oneiaea aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a, eae ?acia?
aiii?a?a e oi?ia aai auieaou. Aaoi?u iaiaia?iaeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee
iau/ii iieo/atho iniaia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea
iieueciaaoaeth i?aaa ia ia?aia , ciaeiinoai ioaeeee n i?iecaaaeaieai.

Aeaeaiea aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia a ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
ionoonoaiaaei e aia?aua cae?aieaii Caeiiii ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e
niaaeiuo i?aaao”. ?aiaa n/eoaeinue, /oi iieueciaaoaeue ai anao neo/ayo
i?eia?aoaao eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaiea. I?aaaea, iaeioi?ua
oeiiaua aaoi?neea aeiaiai?u, iai?eia? Oeiiaie ecaeaoaeueneee aeiaiai? ia
eeoa?aoo?iua i?iecaaaeaiey, i?aaeinoaaeyee aaoi?ai aiciiaeiinoue
auaeaaaoue ?ac?aoaiey ia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaaaeaiey i?yii oeacaiiui a
iai eeoeai, iai?eia? ?aaeaeoeeyi aacao e aeo?iaeia. Ia eneeth/aeinue
oaeaea aeeth/aiea a aeiaiai? i?yiie iaiai?ee i oii, /oi ca aaoi?ii
nio?aiyaony i?aai ia caeeth/aiea eiuo aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia a ioiioaiee
nicaeaiiiai ei i?iecaaaeaiey. Iaeiaei ana yoi ia eieaaaei iauaai
i?eioeeia ia eneeth/eoaeueiii oa?aeoa?a ia?aaeaaaaiuo ii aaoi?neiio
aeiaiai?o i?aa.

Iiaue aaoi?neee caeii onoaiaaeeaaao i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiia i?aaeei.
Niaeanii i. 4 no. 36 Caeiia «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»,
i?aaa, ia?aaeaaaaiua ii aaoi?neiio aeiaiai?o, n/eoathony
iaeneeth/eoaeueiuie, anee a aeiaiai?a i?yii ia onoaiiaeaii eiia. Oaeia
?aoaiea aii?ina caneoaeeaaao iieiie iiaeaea?aeee eae iiauoathuaa
o?iaaiue aaoi?nei-i?aaiaie io?aiu e niioaaonoaothuaa iauai?eiyoie
i?aeoeea.

Iaeiiaoe, aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiaao iiae?acaeaeaiea aaoi?neeo
aeiaiai?ia a caaeneiinoe io niiniaa eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey.

Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui aeaeii aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a yaeyaony
ecaeaoaeueneee aeiaiai?. A ?aieao aeaiiiai aeiaiai?a inouanoaeyaony
ecaeaiea e ia?aecaeaiea ethauo i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue
caoeene?iaaiu ia aoiaaa, o. a. i?iecaaaeaiee eeoa?aoo?u (iao/iuo,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo, o/aaiuo . e o. i.), ae?aiaoe/aneeo, noeaia?iuo,
iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa e
o. i.

Iinoaiiai/iue aeiaiai? caeeth/aaony oiaaea, eiaaea iniiaiui niiniaii
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey yaeyaony aai ioaee/iia eniieiaiea. Aai,
i?aaeiaoii iiaoo auoue ae?aiaoe/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey, iocuea eee eea?aooi
) iia?u, aaeaoa, iia?aoou, iocueaeueiie eiiaaeee, iocuea e.
ae?aiaoe/aneiio niaeoaeeth e o. i., eioi?ua eniieuecothony
oaao?aeueii-c?aeeuiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie (oaao?aie, oeea?iiieyie, oee?eaie,
eiioea?oiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e o.ae.) iooai iinoaiiaee ia noeaia.

Noeaia?iue aeiaiai? anoue aeiaiai?, ?aaeaiaioe?othuee ioiioaiey,
naycaiiua n eniieueciaaieai oaenoa, ii eioi?iio nieiaaony eeiioeeuei,
oaeaoeeuei, aeaeaaony ?aaeei- eee -oaeaia?aaea/a, i?iaiaeeony
ianniai-c?aeeuiia ia?ii?eyoea e o. ae. Noeaia?iue aeiaiai? aanueia
aeecie e iinoaiiai/iiio aeiaiai?o, ec ?aiie eioi?iai ii iinoaiaiii
auaeaeeeny a naiinoiyoaeueiue aeae. Eo iniiaiia ioee/ea caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi eeoa?aoo?iue noeaia?ee, a ioee/ea, iai?eia?, io ae?aiaoe/aneiai
i?iecaaaeaiey, eniieuecoaony ia a naiai iaeciaiiii aeaea, a neoaeeo
iniiaie aeey nicaeaiey aieaa i?eaeeaeaiiiai e ioaeaeai eeiaiaoia?aoa,
oaeaaeaeaiey, ?aaeei, ?aaeenna?neiai noeaia?ey, ii eioi?iio, nianoaaiii,
e noaaeony oeeuei eee aeaeaaony ia?aaea/a. A yoii niunea noeaia?iue
aeiaiai? i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi i?iecaaaeaiea (noeaia?ee) iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaii a eciaiaiiii aeaea.

Aeiaiai? i aeaiiie?iaaiee ?oeiiene ?aaoee?oao oneiaey e ii?yaeie
iioaeeeiaaiey e iineaaeothuaai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey, eioi?ia
iiiauaaony ia o?aiaiea a niaoeeaeueiue eioi?iaoeeiiiue i?aai. Iau/ii
iooai aeaiiie?iaaiey ioaeeeothony iao/iua i?iecaaaeaiey,
i?aaenoaaeythuea eioa?an eeoue aeey ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa niaoeeaeenoia.
Ii cai?ino caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe ei i?aaeinoaaeythony eiiee
aeaiiie?iaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee eee eo ioaeaeueiuo /anoae.

Aeiaiai? ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai caeaca iiin?aaeoao ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n
nicaeaieai i?iecaaaeaiee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa a oeaeyo eo
ioaee/iie aeaiiino?aoeee.

I?ae?auaiea aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a. I?ae?auaiea aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a
i?eaiaeeo e ioiaaeaieth i?aa e iaycaiiinoae aai o/anoieeia, a a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo — e aiceiaeaieth ia eiai-eeai ec ieo io?eoeaoaeueiuo
iineaaenoaee aeaiiiai th?eaee/aneiai oaeoa. Iniiaaiey, oneiaey e
iineaaenoaey i?ae?auaiey aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a ?aaoee?othony eae iaueie
iieiaeaieyie a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (aeaaa 26 AE ?O
«I?ae?auaiea iaycaoaeuenoa»), oae e niaoeeaeueiuie ii?iaie aaoi?neiai
i?aaa, a eioi?uo io?aaeathony iniaaiiinoe aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia.

Aieueoeinoai aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia i?ae?auaaony a ?acoeueoaoa enoa/aiey
n?iea eo aeaenoaey. Iau/ii ca yoio ia?eiae noi?iiu eniieiytho naie
iaycaiiinoe ii aeiaiai?o, /oi a niioaaonoaee ni no. 408 AE ?O yaeyaony
naiinoiyoaeueiui iniiaaieai i?ae?auaiey nouanoaiaaaoaai iaycaoaeuenoaa.

Enoa/aiea n?iea aeiaiai?a i?ae?auaao aai aeaenoaea e oiaaea, eiaaea
i?iecaaaeaiea oaeoe/anee ia eniieuecoaony caeac/eeii, iacaaeneii iooiai,
eaeeie i?e/eiaie yoi aucaaii. A ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
aeaiiue aii?in ?aoaeny aaoiiaoe/anee, e noi?iiu ia iiaee aeiaiai?eoueny
i i?iaeeaiee n?iea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a, aeaaea anee e aaoi?, e
iieueciaaoaeue au?aceee ia yoi naia niaeanea. I?e caeioa?aniaaiiinoe a
eniieueciaaiee i?iecaaaeaiey iie aeieaeiu auee caeeth/eoue iiaue
aeiaiai?, iaiai?ea a iai, a /anoiinoe, aii?in i auieaoa aaoi?o
aeiiieieoaeueiiai aaoi?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Iiyoiio i?iaeieaeaiea
?aaiou ii i?ae?aoeaoaiony a nayce n enoa/aieai n?iea aeiaiai?o
ni?aaaaeeeai ?anoeaieaaeinue a th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a a ea/anoaa
eiieethaeaioiuo aeaenoaee, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i caeeth/aiee iiaiai
aeiaiai?a ia oao aea oneiaeyo, eioi?ua niaea?aeaeenue a ?aiaa
caeeth/aiiii ienueiaiiii aeiaiai?a1 .

Iiaui aaoi?neei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aii?in i i?iaeeaiee n?iea aeaenoaey
aeiaiai?a ia?aaeai ia oniio?aiea naieo noi?ii. Iiyoiio, anee n?ie
aeiaiai?a enoae, ii noi?iiu i?iaeieaeatho ?aaioo ii iiaeaioiaea
i?iecaaaeaiey e eniieueciaaieth, ei neaaeoao caeeth/eoue
aeiiieieoaeueiia niaeaoaiea, a eioi?ii /aoei iaiaa?eaaeenue au ana
aii?inu, naycaiiua n noaeueaie aeiaiai?a. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa aicieeoee
nii? aoaeao ?aoaoueny noaeii.

Aaoi?neee aeiaiai? iiaeao i?aaeoniao?eaaoue aiciiaeiinoue aein?i/iiai
i?ae?auaiey aai aeaenoaey a nayce n ioeacii iieueciaaoaey io
aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey.

A ethaie iiiaio aaoi?neee aeiaiai? iiaeao auoue i?ae?auai ii acaeiiiio
niaeaoaieth noi?ii.

?aciiaeaeiinoueth niaeaoaiey i i?ae?auaiee aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a yaeyaony
iiaaoeey, o.a. niaeaoaiea i caiaia iaeiiai iaycaoaeuenoaa ae?oaei. Oae,
noi?iiu iiaoo a ethaie iiiaio aeiaiai?eoueny ia eciaiaiee i?aaeiaoa
aeiaiai?a, niiniaia eniieueciaaiey i?iecaaaeaiey, ia?aianaiee n?iea
i?aaenoaaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiey e o. i.

Aaoi?neee aeiaiai? iiaeao auoue i?ae?auai a nayce n iaaiciiaeiinoueth
eniieiaiey, anee iia aucaaia ianoiyoaeuenoaii, ca eioi?ia aeieaeiee ia
ioaa/aao (no. 416 AE ?O). E oeacaiiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai ioiineony,
iai?eia?, iai?aiaeieeiay neea, o.a. /?acau/aeiia e iai?aaeioa?aoeiia i?e
aeaiiuo oneiaeyo niauoea, a /anoiinoe iaeioi?ua noeoeeiua yaeaiey
i?e?iaeu (iaaiaeiaiea, caieao?ynaiea, iaaae e o.i.) e iaeioi?ua
iauanoaaiiua yaeaiey (cai?auathuea aeou i?aaiia aeanoe, aiaiiua
aeaenoaey, iauanoaaiiua aanii?yaeee e o. i.). Iaaiciiaeiinoue eniieiaiey
iiaeao auoue aucaaia e neo/aeiuie niauoeyie, ca eioi?ua aeieaeiee ia
ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iai?eia?, i?e neo/aeiie aeaaee oieeaeueiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa ooaeiaeiee ia iiaeao ianoe
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae caeac/eeii ca iai?aaenoaaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiey e
onoaiiaeaiiiio aeiaiai?ii n?ieo.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi iaaiciiaeiinoue eniieiaiey eae ianoiyoaeuenoai,
i?ae?auathuaa aeaenoaea aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a, aeieaeia iineoue
ieii/aoaeueiue, a ia a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?.

Iniiaaieai i?ae?auaiey aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a iiaeao auoue nia?oue aaoi?a
eee eeeaeaeaoeey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, aunooiaaoaai a ea/anoaa noi?iiu
aeiaiai?a (no. 418—419 AE. ?O). Nia?oue aaoi?a i?ae?auaao nouanoaothuaa
iaycaoaeuenoai iinoieueeo, iineieueeo eniieiaiea, o. a. nicaeaiea e
aei?aaioea i?iecaaaeaiey, ia iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii aac ee/iiai
o/anoey naiiai aaoi?a. Anee i?iecaaaeaiea oaea i?aeoe/anee aioiai aeey
eniieueciaaiey, aeey i?ae?auaiey aeiaiai?a iao aeinoaoi/iuo iniiaaiee.

A aeaiiii neo/aa i?ienoiaeeo i?inoia i?aaii?aainoai, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?iai oia?oaai aaoi?a caiauatho a aeiaiai?a aai ianeaaeieee. Eeoue a
oii neo/aa, anee oia?oee aaoi? ia eiae ianeaaeieeia ii caeiio e ia
inoaaee caaauaiey, aaoi?neee aeiaiai? aaoiiaoe/anee i?ae?auaaony,
iineieueeo caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?ae?auaiea aaoi?neiai i?aaa,
ia?aoiaeyuaai ii i?aao ianeaaeiaaiey e ainoaea?noao (no. 552 AE ?NON?
1964 a.).

Eeeaeaeaoeey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, iiae eioi?ie iiieiaaony aai
i?ae?auaiea aac i?aaii?aainoaa, aiioee?oao a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii
ii?yaeea ana iaycaoaeuenoaa aeaiiiai th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, aeeth/ay e
aicieeoea ec caeeth/aiiuo ei aaoi?neeo aeiaiai?ia. ?acoiaaony, yoi ia
inaiaiaeaeaao caeac/eea io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaeniieiaiea oao aai
iaycaiiinoae, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee auoue eniieiaiu ei ?aiaa. I?e
?ai?aaiecaoeee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea aaoi?neee aeiaiai? ia i?ae?auaaony e
aeieaeai auoue eniieiai i?aaii?aaiieeii.

Iaeiiaoe, a neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeiaiai?ii, ii iiaeao auoue
i?ae?auai ii iaeiinoi?iiiaio cayaeaieth oie eee ae?oaie noi?iiu a nayce
n ia?ooaieai eiio?aaaioii nouanoaaiiuo oneiaee aeiaiai?a, i /ai
iiae?iaii aiai?eee auoa.

Ii?yaeie i?ae?auaiey aaoi?neiai aeiaiai?a a nayce n ?anniio?aiiuie
oieueei /oi iniiaaieyie niaoeeaeueii aaoi?neei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia
?aaeaiaioe?iaai.

6. Io?aia i?aa eniieieoaeae, i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiiia?aii, i?aaiecaoeee
yoe?iiai e eaaaeueiiai aauaiey (niaaeiua i?aaa)

Ia?yaeo n io?aiie i?aa aaoi?ia i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e
eneonnoaa ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai io?aiyao i?aaa eniieieoaeae,
i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiiia?aii, a oaeaea i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai e eaaaeueiiai
aauaiey (niaaeiua i?aaa).

Eae ecaanoii, niaaeiua i?aaa aia?aua iieo/eee i?eciaiea a ?inneeneii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eeoue a 1992 a. a ?acoeueoaoa i?eiyoey Aa?oiaiui
Niaaoii ?O 14 ethey 1992 a. ?aoaiey i i?eiaiaiee ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
ai?aaeue aei i?eiyoey iiaiai A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?O Iniia
a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e ?anioaeee 1991 a. ?acaeae
IV Iniia aeeth/ae aeaa noaouee, aaiaeeaoea io?aio i?aa eniieieoaeae,
nicaeaoaeae caoei e aeaeaicaienae e i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai aauaiey.
Iaeiaei iineieueeo yoe noaouee iineee aeinoaoi/ii iauee oa?aeoa? e ia
aeaaaee ioaaoia ia iiiaea aii?inu, ?aaeueiie io?aiu niaaeiuo i?aa iie ia
aa?aioe?iaaee. A Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao», n
i?eiyoeai eioi?iai ?acaeae IV Iniia a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
oo?aoee neeo, niaaeiui i?aaai iinayuai niaoeeaeueiue ?acaeae,
iaania/eaathuee cia/eoaeueii aieaa iieiia eo ?aaoee?iaaiea. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi n i?eiyoeai yoiai caeiia eciaieeny e ninoaa io?aiyaiuo
niaaeiuo i?aa. Ec /enea noauaeoia niaaeiuo i?aa ieacaeenue eneeth/aiu
nicaeaoaee aeaeaicaienae, ii ia?yaeo n i?aaiecaoeeyie yoe?iiai aauaiey
iaeaaeaoaeyie niaaeiuo i?aa i?eciaiu i?aaiecaoeee eaaaeueiiai aauaiey.
Oeacaiiua eciaiaiey iaoneiaeaiu no?aieaieai naeeceoue i?aaiaia
?aaoee?iaaiea niaaeiuo i?aa a ?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa n iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiie ie?iaie i?aeoeeie e iieiaeaieyie ?eineie eiiaaioeee ia
io?aia i?aa a?oenoia-eniieieoaeae, ecaioiaeoaeae oiiia?aii e
aauaoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee 1961 a. *oi aea eanaaony aeaeaicaienae, oi eo
io?aia inouanoaeyaony ii?iaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa eae aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee.

Iiieii i?aa eniieieoaeae e niaaeiui i?aaai caeiiiaeaoaeue, neaaeoy
eiaeea ?eineie eiiaaioeee 1961 a., ioian i?aaa i?iecaiaeeoaeae
oiiia?aii, a oaeaea i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai e eaaaeueiiai aauaiey.
Oeacaiiuo noauaeoia iauaaeeiyao oi, /oi eiaiii aeaaiaea?y eo
aeayoaeueiinoe i?iecaaaeaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ioaee/iiai
eniieiaiey, noaiiayony aeinooiiuie ia oieueei iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
neooaoaeyi e c?eoaeyi, ii e aieaa oe?ieie ioaeeea, /oi aieueoae /anoueth
niioaaonoaoao eioa?anai naieo aaoi?ia.

Nouanoaaiiie iniaaiiinoueth aieueoeinoaa niaaeiuo i?aa yaeyaony eo
i?iecaiaeiinoue e caaeneiinoue io i?aa nicaeaoaeae oai?/aneeo
i?iecaaaeaiee. Eeoue a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eniieiyaony, caienuaaaony ia
oiiia?aiio eee ia?aaeaaony a yoe? eee ii eaaaeth ia io?aiyaiia caeiiii
i?iecaaaeaiea eeai iauaeo, aiiaua ia yaeythueeny ?acoeueoaoii oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, niaaeiua i?aaa iinyo naiinoiyoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Aeey aicieeiiaaiey e inouanoaeaiey niaaeiuo i?aa aeaenoaothuaa
?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia o?aaoao niaethaeaiey eaeeo-eeai
oi?iaeueiinoae. I?aaa ecaioiaeoaey oiiia?aiiu e eniieieoaey ii?iaeaeaao
nai oaeo nicaeaiey niioaaonoaothuae caoeicaiene. Aianoa n oai
nicaeaoaeue niaaeiuo i?aa aeey iiiaauaiey o?aoueeo eeoe i naieo i?aaao e
i?aaeioa?auaiey eo ia?ooaiey ai?aaa eniieueciaaoue ciae io?aiu niaaeiuo
i?aa, eioi?ue iiiauaaony ia eaaeaeii yecaiiey?a oiiia?aiiu e (eee) ia
eaaeaeii niaea?aeauai aa oooey?a. A ea/anoaa oaeiai ciaea i?eiyo
i?aaeoniio?aiiue ?eineie eiiaaioeeae ciae io?aiu, ninoiyuee ec o?ao
yeaiaioia:

— eaoeineie aoeau «R» a ie?oaeiinoe;

— eiaie (iaeiaiiaaiey) iaeaaeaoaey eneeth/eoaeueiuo niaaeiuo i?aa;

— aiaea ia?aiai iioaeeeiaaiey oiiia?aiiu.

Ionoonoaea ciaea io?aiu ia eeoaao iaeaaeaoaey niaaeiiai i?aaa
aiciiaeiinoe aai caueou, iaeiaei a ?yaea neo/aaa cao?oaeiyao i?ioeann
aeieacuaaiey i?e aai ia?ooaiee.

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy noa?a aeaenoaey niaaeiuo
(i?aa nouanoaaiii ia?aie/aia ii n?aaiaieth ni noa?ie aeaenoaey i?aa
aaoi?ia. ?inney iiea aua ia o/anoaoao a ?eineie eiiaaioeee 1961 a.,
oioy, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, i?eioeeieaeueiia ?aoaiea i i?eniaaeeiaiee
?innee e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nenoaia io?aiu niaaeiuo i?aa oaea i?eiyoi.1
I?aeoe/anee aioiai e yoiio e ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Iaeiaei
nae/an niaaeiua i?aaa eniieieoaeae i?eciathony eeoue a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea:

a) eniieieoaeue yaeyaony a?aaeaeaieiii ?O;

a) eniieiaiea, iinoaiiaea aia?aua eiaee ianoi ia oa??eoi?ee ?O;

a) eniieiaiea, iinoaiiaea caienaiu ia oiiia?aiio, eioi?ay io?aiyaony
caeiiii;

a) eniieiaiea, iinoaiiaea, ia caienaiiua ia oiiia?aiio, aeeth/aiu a
ia?aaea/o a yoe? eee ii eaaaeth, eioi?ua io?aiythony caeiiii.

I?aaa i?iecaiaeeoaey oiiia?aiiu io?aiythony a aeaoo neaaeothueo neo/ayo:
eeai anee ii yaeyaony a?aaeaeaieiii ?O eaee th?eaee/aneei eeoeii,
eiathuei ioeoeeaeueiia ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea ia oa??eoi?ee ?O, eeai anee
oiiia?aiia aia?aua iioaeeeiaaia ia oa??eoi?ee ?O. Ca i?aaiecaoeeyie
yoe?iiai e eaaaeueiiai aauaiey niaaeiua i?aaa i?eciathony oieueei
oiaaea, eiaaea i?aaiecaoeey eiaao ioeoeeaeueiia ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea ia
oa??eoi?ee ?O e inouanoaeyao ia?aaea/e n iiiiuueth ia?aaeao/eeia,
?aniieiaeaiiuo ia oa??eoi?ee ?O. E?oa eiie?aoiuo i?aaiii/ee, eioi?uie
iaeaaeatho iineoaee niaaeiuo i?aa, ianeieueei Oaea oiai e?oaa i?aa,
eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeao aaoi?ai i?iecaaaeaiee. I?e yoii eniieieoaee
i?iecaaaeaiee, /uey aeayoaeueiinoue iineo oai?/aneee oa?aeoa?, eiatho
eae ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua, oae e eiouanoaaiiua i?aaa. I?aaa
i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiiia?aii, i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai e eaaaeueiiai aauaiey,
/ae aeeaae yaeyaony oaoie/aneei, ioaaouaatho niaie eeoue eiouanoaaiioth
noa?o. Nouanoaaiii noaeaiu a?aiaiiua ?aiee aeaenoaey niaaeiuo i?aa. A
niioaaonoaee ni no. 43 Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao»
iie aeaenoaotho, ii iauaio i?aaeeo, a oa/aiea 50 eao n aeaou ia?aiai
eniieiaiey eee iinoaiiaee (i?aaa eniieieoaeae), ia?aiai iioaeeeiaaiey
oiiia?aiiu e aa ia?aie caiene, anee iia ia auea iioaeeeiaaia (i?aaa
i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiiia?aii), ia?aie ia?aaea/e a yoe? eee ii eaaaeth
(i?aaa i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai e eaaaeueiiai aauaiey). En/eneaiea
oeacaiiiai 50-eaoiaai n?iea io?aiu ia/eiaaony n 1 yiaa?y aiaea,
neaaeothuaai ca aiaeii, eiaaea eiae ianoi th?eaee/aneee oaeo,
yaeythueeny iniiaaieai aeey ia/aea oa/aiey n?iea. Iaeiaei anee
eniieieoaeue aue ?ai?anne?iaai e ?aaaeeeoe?iaai iinia?oii, n?ie io?aiu
aai i?aa ia/eiaao aeaenoaiaaoue n 1 yiaa?y aiaea, neaaeothuaai ca aiaeii
?aaaeeeoaoeee. Ia 4 aiaea oaaee/eaaaony e n?ie io?aiu i?aa oao
eniieieoaeae, eioi?ua ?aaioaee ai a?aiy Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu eee
o/anoaiaaee a iae. E ianeaaeieeai (a ioiioaiee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe — e
i?aaii?aaiieeai) eniieieoaey, i?iecaiaeeoaey oiiia?aiiu, i?aaiecaoeee
yoe?iiai eee eaaaeueiiai aauaiey ia?aoiaeeo i?aai ?ac?aoaoue
eniieueciaaiea eniieiaiey, iinoaiiaee, oiiia?aiiu, ia?aaea/e a yoe? eee
ii eaaaeth e ia iieo/aiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey a i?aaeaeao inoaaoaeny /anoe
n?ieia.

Ii?iai caeiia, eanathueiny io?aiu niaaeiuo i?aa, a niioaaonoaee n iauei
i?aaeeii ia i?eaeaaony ia?aoiay neea. Anee au ia yoii auea iinoaaeaia
oi/ea, oi aii?in i ia/aeueiii iiiaioa io?aiu niaaeiuo i?aa ia aucuaae au
eaeeo-oi iniauo neiaeiinoae. Ii a i. 3 Iinoaiiaeaiey «I ii?yaeea
aaaaeaiey a aeaenoaea Caeiia ?O “Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao”»
aiai?eony, /oi n?ie io?aiu, i?aaeoniio?aiiue no. 43 oeacaiiiai caeiia,
i?eiaiyaony ai anao neo/ayo, eiaaea 50-eaoiee n?ie aeaenoaey niaaeiuo
i?aa ia enoae e 1 yiaa?y 1993 a.

Iaeiaei aeaiiia iieiaeaiea aeey aieueoeinoaa iaeaaeaoaeae niaaeiuo i?aa
naiaeeony i?aeoe/anee ia iao oaie ia?aie/aieyie noa?u aeaenoaey niaaeiuo
i?aa, eioi?ua onoaiiaeaiu ioieoaie 2—3 no. 37, i. Cao. 40 e i. Cao. 41
Caeiia ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao». A ieo aiai?eony, /oi
eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa eniieieoaeae, i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai e eaaaeueiiai
aauaiey ia ?ani?ino?aiythony ia neo/ae, eiaaea ia?aiia/aeueiay caienue
eniieiaiey eee iinoaiiaee eeai caienue ia?aaea/e auea i?iecaaaeaia n
niaeaney eniieieoaey, i?aaiecaoeee yoe?iiai eee eaaaeueiiai aauaiey e
eiaaea aini?iecaaaeaiea eniieiaiey, iinoaiiaee, ia?aaea/e inouanoaeyaony
a oao aea oeaeyo, aeey eioi?uo auei iieo/aii niaeanea eniieieoaey eee
auea i?iecaaaeaia caienue. A ?acoeueoaoa i?aaiaay io?aia niaaeiuo i?aa a
ioiioaiee iauaeoia, nicaeaiiuo aei anooieaiey aeaiiiai caeiia a neeo,
?ani?ino?aiyaony eeoue ia i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiiia?aii, a oaeaea ia oao
eniieieoaeae e oa i?aaiecaoeee aauaiey, eioi?ua ia aeaaaee naiaai
niaeaney ia caienue e eniieueciaaiea nicaeaiiuo eie iauaeoia niaaeiuo
i?aa, eeai anee eciaiyaony oa?aeoa? eniieueciaaiey yoeo iauaeoia.

§ 2. Iniaaiiinoe i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iaoaioiiai i?aaa.

Aoi?ui i?aaiaui einoeoooii, iin?aaenoaii eioi?iai io?aiythony i?aaa ia
eioaeeaeooaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue, yaeyaony iaoaioiia i?aai. Iii
?aaoee?oao eiouanoaaiiua, a oaeaea naycaiiua n ieie ee/iua
iaeiouanoaaiiua ioiioaiey, aicieeathuea a nayce n nicaeaieai e
eniieueciaaieai ecia?aoaiee, iieaciuo iiaeaeae e i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia.
Iauaaeeiaiea o?ao iacaaiiuo iauaeoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a
?aieao aaeeiiai einoeoooa iaoaioiiai i?aaa iauyniyaony neaaeothueie
niia?aaeaieyie. Ai-ia?auo, ecia?aoaiey, iieaciua iiaeaee e i?iiuoeaiiua
ia?acoeu iaeaaeatho cia/eoaeueiui noiaenoaii ii ioiioaieth ae?oa e
ae?oao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io ae?oaeo iauaeoia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, n ae?oaie noi?iiu. Ana iie yaeythony
?acoeueoaoaie oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eiatho eiie?aoiuo nicaeaoaeae,
i?aaa eioi?uo i?eciathony e io?aiythony caeiiii, niaiaaeatho ae?oa n
ae?oaii ii ?yaeo i?eciaeia e o.ae. Ai-aoi?uo, eo io?aia inouanoaeyaony
iin?aaenoaii aaeeiie oi?iu, a eiaiii iooai auaea/e iaoaioa1 .
A-o?aoueeo, i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea naycaiiuo n yoeie o?aiy iauaeoaie
iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee eiaao ai?acaei aieueoa noiaenoaa, /ai ?acee/ee, e
e oiio aea inouanoaeyaony a ?innee aaeeiui caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoii, a
eiaiii Iaoaioiui caeiiii ?O. Ana neacaiiia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
o?aaeeoeeiiiia ia?aie/aiea ?aiie iaoaioiiai i?aaa eeoue noa?ie i?aaiaie
io?aiu ecia?aoaiee a?yae ee ii?aaaeaii.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi nai oa?iei «iaoaioiia i?aai» eeoue nianai
iaaeaaii aue aica?auai a ?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. Eae ecaanoii, a
oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie a ?innee, eae e ai anai auaoai Niaaoneii
Nithca, ecia?aoaiey e ae?oaea oaoie/aneea iiaoanoaa io?aiyeenue a
iniiaiii ia iaoaioaie, a aaoi?neeie naeaeaoaeuenoaaie.

Eae e aaoi?neia i?aai, iaoaioiia i?aai eiaao aeaei n io?aiie e
eniieueciaaieai iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa, yaeythueony i?iaeoeoaie
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai oai?/anoaa. Ecia?aoaiey, iieaciua iiaeaee,
i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu, eae e i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e
eneonnoaa, io?aiyaiua aaoi?neei i?aaii, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?acoeueoaou
iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eaeaaeueiua ?aoaiey oao eee eiuo
oaoie/aneeo eee ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiino?oeoi?neeo caaea/. Eeoue
aiineaaenoaee, a oiaea eo aiaae?aiey, iie aiieiuathony a eiie?aoiua
ono?ienoaa, iaoaieciu, i?ioeannu, aauanoaa e . o.i. Ia?yaeo ni
noiaenoaii n?aaieaaaiua iauaeou eiatho iaaeaeo niaie e nouanoaaiiua
?acee/ey.

A iauaeoao iaoaioiiai i?aaa oeaiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao naii niaea?aeaiea
oao ?aoaiee, eioi?ua i?eaeoiaiu ecia?aoaoaeyie. Eiaiii iie e noaiiayony
i?aaeiaoii io?aiu iaoaioiiai i?aaa.

I?aaeaea anaai, aaaeiaeoei ioi?aaiui ia/aeii iaoaioiiai i?aaa yaeyaony
i?eciaiea ca iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeai eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa ia
eniieueciaaiea caiaoaioiaaiiiai iauaeoa.

I?eciaiea e anaia?iay io?aia iaoaioiie iiiiiieee ia eneeth/atho,
iaeiaei, auiieiaiey iaoaioiui i?aaii e ooieoeee caueou iauanoaaiiuo
eioa?ania. Aieaa oiai, niaethaeaiea ?acoiiiai aaeaina eioa?ania
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e eioa?ania iauanoaa, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, aiieia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny a ea/anoaa aoi?iai enoiaeiiai
ia/aea (i?eioeeia) iaoaioiiai i?aaa. Iaeiei ec eiie?aoiuo aai i?iyaeaiee
neoaeeo ia?aie/aiea aeaenoaey iaoaioa ii?aaeaeaiiui n?ieii, iinea
enoa/aiey eioi?iai ?ac?aaioea iinooiaao ai anaiauaa iieueciaaiea. E?iia
oiai, oneiaeai i?aaeinoaaeaiey iaoaioii-i?aaiaie io?aiu oie eee eiie
?ac?aaioea yaeyaony aianaiea ?ac?aaio/eeii aeaenoaeoaeueiiai aeeaaea a
o?iaaiue oaoieee e oai naiui iaiaauaiea iauanoaaiiuo ciaiee.

Iaeiiaoe, a iauanoaaiiuo eioa?anao caeii onoaiaaeeaaao neo/ae oae
iacuaaaiiai naiaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey caiaoaioiaaiiuo ?ac?aaioie.
?aciaia ecaioiaeaiea eaea?noa a aioaeao ii ?aoeaioai a?a/a, i?iaaaeaiea
iao/iiai yenia?eiaioa e o.ae. — yoe e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea ecuyoey ec noa?u
iaoaioiie iiiiiieee, i?iaeeeoiaaiiua iauanoaaiiuie iio?aaiinoyie,
au?aaeatho acaaoaiiue aaeain eioa?ania iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey e iauanoaa.

Neaaeothuei i?eioeeiii iaoaioiiai i?aaa yaeyaony i?aaeinoaaeaiea io?aiu
eeoue oai ?ac?aaioeai, eioi?ua a ioeoeeaeueiii ii?yaeea i?eciaiu
iaoaioiniiniaiuie ecia?aoaieyie, iieaciuie iiaeaeyie e i?iiuoeaiiuie
ia?acoeaie.

Anee cayaea ia auaea/o iaoaioa a Iaoaioiia aaaeiinoai ia iiaeaaaeanue,
?ac?aaioea, eioi?ay iauaeoeaii ioaa/aao anai e?eoa?eyi
iaoaioiniiniaiinoe, iauaeoii io?aiu ni noi?iiu iaoaioiiai i?aaa ia
noaiiaeony. A yoii ninoieo aua iaeii nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
iaoaioiui e aaoi?neei i?aaii.

Iaeiiaoe, a ea/anoaa i?eioeeia iaoaioiiai i?aaa iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny
iieiaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio caeiiii i?eciathony e io?aiythony i?aaa e
eioa?anu ia oieueei iaoaioiaeaoaeae, ii e aeaenoaeoaeueiuo nicaeaoaeae
ecia?aoaiee, iieaciuo iiaeaeae e i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia.

Iacaaiiua auoa i?eioeeiu ii?aaeaeytho eiie?aoiia niaea?aeaiea iniiaiuo
ii?i iaoaioiiai i?aaa, yaeythony aai enoiaeiuie ia/aeaie e neoaeao
‘i?aaeiinueeaie aai aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey. Ciaiea yoeo i?eioeeiia
iiiiaaao eo/oa iiiyoue niaea?aeaiea eiie?aoiuo iaoaioii-i?aaiauo ii?i,
niinianoaoao eo i?aaeeueiiio i?eiaiaieth ia i?aeoeea e aeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?eaioe?u aeey ?ac?aoaiey oao aeeciaiiuo neooaoeee,
eioi?ua i?yii ia o?aaoee?iaaiu aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

1. Iauaeou iaoaioiiai i?aaa

Iauaeou ecia?aoaiee. A niioaaonoaee n i. 2 no. 4 Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O
iauaeoaie ecia?aoaiee iiaoo yaeyoueny ono?ienoai, niinia, aauanoai,
ooaii iee?ii?aaiecia, eoeueoo?u eeaoie ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo, a oaeaea
i?eiaiaiea ecaanoiiai ono?ienoaa, niiniaa, aauanoaa, ooaiia ii iiaiio
iacia/aieth. Ethaia ?aoaiea caaea/e, cayaeyaiia a ea/anoaa ecia?aoaiey,
aeieaeii iiaeiaaeaoue iiae iaeei ec iacaaiiuo iauaeoia. Yoi iicaieyao,
ai-ia?auo, ioa?aie/eaaoue oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey io iaoaoie/aneeo e,
ai-aoi?uo, iaania/eaaao iauaeoeaioth aiciiaeiinoue eiio?iey ca
eniieueciaaieai io?aiyaiuo caeiiii ecia?aoaiee.

Iiae ono?ienoaii iiieiaaony nenoaia ?aniieiaeaiiuo a i?ino?ainoaa
yeaiaioia, ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii acaeiiaeaenoaothueo ae?oa n ae?oaii.
Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee ono?ienoa eniieuecothony eiino?oeoeaiua n?aaenoaa —
iaee/ea eiino?oeoeaiuo yeaiaioia, iaee/ea nayce iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie, eo
acaeiiia ?aniieiaeaiea, oi?ia auiieiaiey yeaiaioia eaee ono?ienoaa a
oeaeii, ia?aiao?u e ae?oaea oa?aeoa?enoeee yeaiaioia, iaoa?eae, eioi?iai
auiieiaiu yeaiaiou eee ono?ienoai a oeaeii, e o.i. E ono?ienoaai eae
iauaeoai ecia?aoaiee ioiinyony anaaiciiaeiua eiino?oeoeee e ecaeaeey —
iaoeiu, i?eai?u, iaoaieciu, eino?oiaiou, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa,
iai?oaeiaaiea, nii?oaeaiey e o.ae.

E niiniaai eae iauaeoai ecia?aoaiey ioiinyony i?ioeannu auiieiaiey
aeaenoaee iaae iaoa?eaeueiui iauaeoii n iiiiuueth iaoa?eaeueiuo
iauaeoia. Niinia — yoi niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia, auiieiyaiuo a
ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eee n niaethaeaieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aaee. Eae iauaeo ecia?aoaiey niinia oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaoiieiae/aneeie
n?aaenoaaie — iaee/eai ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaenoaey eee niaieoiiinoe
aeaenoaee, ii?yaeeii auiieiaiey oaeeo aeaenoaee (iineaaeiaaoaeueii,
iaeiia?aiaiii, a ?acee/iuo ni/aoaieyo e o.i.), oneiaeyie inouanoaeaiey
aeaenoaee, ?aaeeiii eniieueciaaiey aauanoa (enoiaeiiai nu?uey,
?aaaaioia, eaoaeecaoi?ia e o.ae.), ono?ienoa (i?eniiniaeaiee,
eino?oiaioia, iai?oaeiaaiey e o.ae.), ooaiiia iee?ii?aaieciia e o.ae.

Niiniau eae i?ioeannu auiieiaiey aeaenoaee iaae iaoa?eaeueiuie iauaeoaie
iau/ii iiae?acaeaeythony ia: 1) niiniau, iai?aaeaiiua ia ecaioiaeaiea
i?iaeoeoia (ecaeaeee, aauanoa e o.ae.); 2) niiniau, iai?aaeaiiua ia
eciaiaiea ninoiyiey i?aaeiaoia iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a aac iieo/aiey
eiie?aoiuo i?iaeoeoia (o?ainii?oe?iaea, ia?aaioea, ?aaoee?iaaiea e
o.ae.); 3) niiniau, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony ninoiyiea
i?aaeiaoia iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a (eiio?ieue, ecia?aiea, aeeaaiinoeea e
o.ae.). Niaoeeoeea ecia?aoaiee-niiniaia, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ecaioiaeaiea
i?iaeoeoia, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeaenoaea iaoaioa, auaeaiiiai ia
oaeie niinia, ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia i?iaeoeo, ecaioiaeaiiue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii yoei niiniaii (i. 2 no. 10 Iaoaioiiai caeiia). *oi
eanaaony niiniaia o?aoueae a?oiiu, oi n i?eiyoeai iiaiai caeiia iaoaiou
noaee auaeaaaoueny oaeaea ia niiniau i?ioeeaeoeee, aeeaaiinoeee e
ea/aiey caaieaaaiee, eioi?ua ?aiaa io?aiyeenue oieueei aaoi?neeie
naeaeaoaeuenoaaie.

E aauanoaai eae iauaeoai ecia?aoaiee ioiinyony: 1) eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey, e eioi?ui oaeaea oneiaii ioianaiu
aunieiiieaeoey?iua niaaeeiaiey e iauaeou aaiiie eiaeaia?ee; 2)
eiiiiceoeee (ninoaau, aiane); 3) i?iaeoeou yaea?iiai i?aa?auaiey.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua oeie/aneea niaaeeiaiey iiaoo cayaeyoueny a ea/anoaa
ecia?aoaiee oiaaea, eiaaea onoaiiaeai eo ea/anoaaiiue e eiee/anoaaiiue
ninoaa, a oaeaea naycue iaaeaeo aoiiaie e acaeiiia eo ?aniieiaeaiea a
iieaeoea, au?aaeaiiia oeie/aneie no?oeoo?iie oi?ioeie. Aeey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo niaaeeiaiee n iaonoaiiaeaiiie no?oeoo?ie, a /anoiinoe
aioeaeioeeia, a oaeaea iauaeoia aaiiie eiaeaia?ee, iaiaoiaeeii ?ane?uoea
eo oeceei-oeie/aneeo e eiuo oa?aeoa?enoee (a oii /enea i?eciaee niiniaa
eo iieo/aiey), iicaieythueo eo eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiiiceoeee (nieaau, ea?aieea, niane ethaiai
iacia/aiey e o.i.) eniieuecothony, a /anoiinoe, oaeea i?eciaee, eae
ea/anoaaiiue e eiee/anoaaiiue ninoaa eia?aaeeaioia, no?oeoo?a
eiiiiceoeee e eia?aaeeaioia e o.ae. Caueoa eiiiiceoeee iaonoaiiaeaiiiai
ninoaaa iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeaia, anee ii?aaeaeaiu eo
oeceei-oeie/aneea, oece/aneea e ooeeeoa?iua iieacaoaee e i?eciaee
niiniaa iieo/aiey.

I?iaeoeou yaea?iiai i?aa?auaiey oa?aeoa?ecothony, a /anoiinoe,
ea/anoaaiiui (ecioii) e eiee/anoaaiiui (/enei i?iaiiia e iaeo?iiia)
ninoaaii, a oaeaea iniiaiuie yaea?iuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie: ia?eiae
iieo?aniaaea, oei e yia?aey iieo/aiey (aeey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo ecioiiia).

Ooaii iee?ii?aaiecia, eoeueoo?u eeaoie ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo icia/aao
niaieoiiinoue eeaoie, eiathueo iauaa i?ienoiaeaeaiea e
oa?aeoa?ecothueony iaeeiaeiauie onoie/eauie i?eciaeaie. Ooaiiu
ninoaaeytho iniiao aeioaoiieiaee e i?eiaiythony a ea/aaiuo,
i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo oeaeyo, a ea/anoaa noeioeyoi?ia ?acaeoey ?anoaiee,
aeeaioiuo e o.ae. Nicaeaiea ooaiiia i?aaeiieaaaao iouneaiea ioaeiie
n?aaeu aeey iee?ii?aaieciia iioeiaeueiiai oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeia,
auyaeaiea n?aaenoa, niinianoaothueo eo ?inoo e nio?aiaieth, e o.ae. E
ooaiiai iee?ii?aaieciia, eoeueoo} eeaoie ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo ioiinyony
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ooaiiu (ooaiiu o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia —
aaeoa?ee, iee?ineiie/aneea a?eau ae?iaeaee e o.ae., ooaiiu
iee?ii?aaieciia, iiaeiaaeathueo iiae ii?aaeaeaiee «iee?ii?aaieci» —
i?inoaeoea iee?ineiie/aneea aiaei?inee, iee?ineiie/aneea eeoaeieee,
iee?ineiie/aneea aaniicaiii/iua aeeaioiua e o.ae. e eiini?oeeoiu
iee?ii?aaieciia, eoeueoo? eeaoie ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo (niaoaiiua ooaiiu
iee?ii?aaieciia, annioeeaoeee iee?ii?aaieciia niaoaiiua eoeueoo?u eeaoie
?anoaiee e (eee) aeeaioiuo e ae?.).

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ooaiiia iee?ii?aaieciia
eniieuecothony, a /anoiinoe, oaeea i?eciaee, eae
eoeueoo?ii-ii?oieiae/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea n oeacaieai oaiia?aoo?u
au?aueaaiey e aic?anoa eoeueoo?u, oeceei-aeioeie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea,
aeioaoie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea e o.ae. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ooaiiu eoeueoo?
?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo oa?aeoa?ecothony ?iaeineiaiie eoeueoo?,
noaiaea?oiuie oneiaeyie au?aueaaiey, aeaiiuie i aeaeiaie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e o.ae. Eiini?oeeoiu iee?ii?aaieciia aeiiieieoaeueii e
ia?a/eneaiiui aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai ooaiia i?eciaeai oa?aeoa?ecothony
i?ienoiaeaeaieai, oaeoi?aie e oneiaeyie aaeaioaoeee e naeaeoeee, /eneii
e aeiieie?othueie eiiiiiaioaie e o.ae.

I?eiaiaiea ecaanoiuo ?aiaa ono?ienoa, niiniaia, aauanoa, ooaiiia ii
iiaiio iacia/aieth ninoieo a oii, /oi ecaanoiia oaoie/aneia n?aaenoai
i?aaeeaaaaony eniieueciaaoue n eiie oeaeueth aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e,
eioi?ay ia eiaeanue a aeaeo ie aaoi?ii, ie ae?oaeie niaoeeaeenoaie,
eiaaea aia?aua noaee i?eiaiyoueny aeaiiia ono?ienoai, niinia, aauanoai
eee ooaii. ?aiaa ecaanoiia n?aaenoai ieacuaaaony niiniaiui
oaeiaeaoai?youe nianai eioth iio?aaiinoue, a nayce n /ai iii i?eia?aoaao
ooieoeeth, nouanoaaiii ioee/athuothny io oie, eioi?oth oaea eiaao1 .
Ecia?aoaiea ia i?eiaiaiea ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony ie eiino?oeoeaiuie, ie
oaoiieiae/aneeie, ie ea/anoaaiiuie (?aoeaioo?iuie) n?aaenoaaie. Aai
nooue caeeth/aaony a onoaiiaeaiee iiauo naienoa oaea ecaanoiuo iauaeoia
e ii?aaeaeaiee iiauo iaeanoae eo eniieueciaaiey. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee
ecia?aoaiee ia i?eiaiaiea eniieuecothony e?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea
i?eiaiyaiiai iauaeoa, aeinoaoi/iay aeey aai eaeaioeoeeaoeee, e oeacaiea
iiaiai iacia/aiey ecaanoiiai iauaeoa. E i?eiaiaieth ii iiaiio
iacia/aieth i?e?aaieaaaony ia?aia i?eiaiaiea ecaanoiuo aauanoa
(i?e?iaeiuo e eneonnoaaiii iieo/aiiuo) aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iauanoaaiiie
iio?aaiinoe.

Iauaeou, ia i?eciaaaaiua ecia?aoaieyie. Ia?yaeo n iauaeoaie ecia?aoaiee
a Iaoaioiii caeiia niaea?aeeony ia?a/aiue oai?/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia,
eioi?ua ia i?eciathony iaoaioiniiniaiuie ecia?aoaieyie (i. 3 no. 4). E
iei ioiinyony:

— iao/iua oai?ee e iaoaiaoe/aneea iaoiaeu;

— iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey oicyenoaii;

— oneiaiua iaicia/aiey, ?anienaiey, i?aaeea;

— iaoiaeu auiieiaiey oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee;

— aeai?eoiu e i?ia?aiiu aeey au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei;

— i?iaeou e noaiu ieaie?iaee nii?oaeaiee, caeaiee oa??eoi?ee;

— ?aoaiey, eanathueany oieueei aiaoiaai aeaea ecaeaeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea ynoaoe/aneeo iio?aaiinoae;

— oiiieiaee eioaa?aeueiuo iee?inoai;

— ni?oa ?anoaiee e ii?iaeu aeeaioiuo;

—?aoaiey, i?ioeai?a/auea iauanoaaiiui eioa?anai, i?eioeeiai aoiaiiinoe e
ii?aee.

Yoi ia icia/aao, /oi oeacaiiua iauaeou aiiaua eneeth/athony ec noa?u
i?aaiaie io?aiu. Iai?ioea, aieueoeinoai ec ieo i?e niioaaonoaee eo
onoaiiaeaiiui a caeiia e?eoa?eyi io?aiyaony i?aaii, iaeiaei ia a
ea/anoaa ecia?aoaiee, a eae eiua iauaeo eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Iniai neaaeoao inoaiiaeoueny ia ?aoaieyo, eioi?ui ia i?aaeinoaaeyaony
i?aaiaay io?aia aaeaeo eo i?ioeai?a/ey iauanoaaiiui eioa?anai,
i?eioeeiai aoiaiiinoe e ii?aee.

Iiaecia. a) Iiiyoea o?iaiy oaoieee.

Iiaecia ecia?aoaiey eae ia?aia e iai?aiaiiia oneiaea aai
iaoaioiniiniaiinoe anaaaea auea oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii ecia?aoaiee eae a
?innee, oae e ca ?oaaaeii.

A iiaii caeiia iiaecia ii?aaeaeyaony eae iaecaanoiinoue ecia?aoaiey ec
naaaeaiee ia o?iaia oaoieee.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee o?iaiy oaoieee eniieuecothony oaeiaeaoai?ythuea
oneiaeth iauaaeinooiiinoe naaaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeaiiua, a /anoiinoe, a
neaaeothueo enoi/ieeao eioi?iaoeee:

— iioaeeeiaaiiua iienaiey e io?aiiui aeieoiaioai, iioaeeeiaaiiua cayaee
ia ecia?aoaiey – n aeaou ioaeeeaoeee;

— ?inneeneea ecaeaiey – n aeaou iiaeienaiey a ia/aoue;

— eiua ecaeaiey – n aeaou auionea a naao, a i?e ionoonoaee aiciiaeiinoe
na onoaiiaeaiey n iineaaeiaai aeiy ianyoea eee n 31 aeaeaa?y oeacaiiiai
a ecaeaiee aiaea, anee a?aiy auionea a naao ii?aaeaeaii niioaaonoaaiii
eeoue ianyoeaie e (eee) aiaeaie;

— aeaiiie?iaaiiua ?oeiiene noaoae, iaci?ia, iiiia?aoee e ae?oaeo
iaoa?eaeia – n aeaou aeaiiie?iaaiey;

— io/aou i iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaioao, iiynieoaeueiua caienee e
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neei ?aaioai e ae?oaay eiino?oeoi?neay,
oaoiieiae/aneay e i?iaeoiay aeieoiaioaoeey, iaoiaeyuayny a i?aaiao
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eioi?iaoeee, – n aeaou iinooieaiey a yoe i?aaiu;

— ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneay aeieoiaioaoeey (AINO, OO e o.ae.) – n aeaou
?aaeno?aoeee aa a oiieiiii/aiiuo ia oi i?aaiao;

— iaoa?eaeu aeenna?oaoeee e aaoi?aoa?aou aeenna?oaoeee, ecaeaiiua ia
i?aaao ?oeiiene, – n aeaou iinooieaiey a aeaeeioaeo;

— i?eiyoua ia eiieo?n ?aaiou – n aeaou aueeaaeee eo aeey iciaeiieaiey,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiie aeieoiaioaie, ioiinyueieny e i?iaaaeaieth eiieo?na;

— aecoaeueii aini?eieiaaiua enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee (ieaeaou, i?iniaeou,
/a?oaaee, noaiu, oioinieiee, iiaeaee, ecaeaeey e o.i.) – n aeaou, eiaaea
noaei aiciiaeiui eo iaic?aiea i?e iaee/ee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey
ioeoeeaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie;

— yeniiiaou, iiiauaiiua ia aunoaaea, – n aeaou ia/aea eo iieaca,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiie ioeoeeaeueiui aeieoiaioii;

— onoiua aeieeaaeu, eaeoeee, aunooieaiey – n aeaou, eiaaea aue naeaeai
aeieeaae, i?i/eoaia eaeoeey, ninoiyeinue aunooieaiea, anee iie
caoeene?iaaiu aiia?aoaie caoeicaiene eee noaiia?aoe/anee a ii?yaeea,
onoaiiaeaiiii aeaenoaiaaaoeie ia oeacaiioth aeaoo i?aaeeaie i?iaaaeaiey
niioaaonoaothueo ia?ii?eyoee;

— niiauaiey iin?aaenoaii ?aaeei, oaeaaeaeaiey, eeii e o.i. – n aeaou
oaeiai niiauaiey, anee iii caoeene?iaaii ia niioaaonoaothuai iineoaea
eioi?iaoeee a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea, aeaenoaiaaaoai ia oeacaiioth
aeaoo;

— naaaeaiey i oaoie/aneii n?aaenoaa, noaaoea ecaanoiuie a ?acoeueoaoa
aai eniieueciaaiey a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna, a ecaioiaeyaiie eee
yenieoaoe?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee, a oii /enea a iiuoiii ia?acoea, ia?aaeaiiii
a yenieoaoaoeeth, eeai eiiai aaaaeaiey a oicyenoaaiiue iai?io, – n
aeaou, oeacaiiie a ioeoeeaeueiii aeieoiaioa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuai
iauaaeinooiiue oa?aeoa? oaeeo naaaeaiee.

a) I?ei?eoao ecia?aoaiey e i?aaeea aai ii?aaeaeaiey. Iiaecia ecia?aoaiey
onoaiaaeeaaaony ii ioiioaieth e o?iaith oaoieee, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyaony
ia aeaoo i?ei?eoaoa ecia?aoaiey. Ii iauaio i?aaeeo i?ei?eoao ecia?aoaiey
onoaiaaeeaaaony ii aeaoa iinooieaiey a Iaoaioiia aaaeiinoai cayaee,
niaea?aeauae cayaeaiea i auaea/a iaoaioa, iienaiea, oi?ioeo e /a?oaaee,
anee a iienaiee ia ieo eiaaony nnueea (i. 1 no. 19 Iaoaioiiai caeiia).
Eae aeaeei, aeey cae?aieaiey i?ei?eoaoa cayaeoaeue iiaeao iiaeaoue , a
Iaoaioiia aaaeiinoai cayaeo, a eioi?ie ionoonoaoao ?yae o?aaoaiuo ii
caeiio aeieoiaioia. Yoi iiaia iieiaeaiea a ?inneeneii iaoaioiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?ecaaiiia oi?inoeoue e onei?eoue i?ioeaaeo?o
cae?aieaiey i?ei?eoaoa.

Ia?yaeo n iauei i?aaeeii ii?aaeaeaiey i?ei?eoaoa Iaoaioiue caeii
niaea?aeeo ?yae niaoeeaeueiuo eueaioiuo i?aaee, eioi?ua iiaoo
i?eiaiyoueny i?e onoaiiaeaiee i?ei?eoaoa a neo/ayo, oeacaiiuo a caeiia.

a). Eueaioa ii iiaecia. ?anniio?aiea aii?ina i iiaecia ecia?aoaiey
aoaeao iaiieiui, anee ia einiooueny i?iaeaiu oae iacuaaaiie eueaiou ii
iiaecia. A niioaaonoaee n i. 1 no. 5 Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O ia i?eciaaony
ianoiyoaeuenoaii, i?aiyonoaothuei i?eciaieth iaoaioiniiniaiinoe
ecia?aoaiey, oaeia ?ane?uoea eioi?iaoeee, ioiinyuaeny e ecia?aoaieth,
aaoi?ii, cayaeoaeai eee ethaui eeoeii, iieo/eaoei io ieo i?yii eee
einaaiii yoo eioi?iaoeeth, i?e eioi?ii naaaeaiey i nouiinoe ecia?aoaiey
noaee iauaaeinooiiuie, anee cayaea ia ecia?aoaiea iiaeaia a Iaoaioiia
aaaeiinoai ia iicaeiaa oanoe ianyoeaa n aeaou ?ane?uoey eioi?iaoeee.
N?aaiaiea aeaiiie ii?iu n i?aaeeaie ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iieacuaaao, /oi i?iecioei nouanoaaiiia ?anoe?aiea
eueaiou, i?aaeinoaaeyaiie cayaeoaeth a nayce n i?aaeoanoaothuei cayaea
?ane?uoeai nouiinoe ecia?aoaiey.

Aeaiiay eueaioa i?aaeinoaaeyaony cayaeoaeth, ai-ia?auo, a oa/aiea
oanoeiany/iiai n?iea; ai-aoi?uo, iacaaeneii io oi?iu ?ane?uoey
eioi?iaoeee i nouiinoe ecia?aoaiey (iooai ioaeeeaoeee, onoiiai
niiauaiey, ioe?uoiai iieaca e o.i.); a-o?aoueeo, a neo/aa ?ane?uoey
eioi?iaoeee, ioiinyuaeny e ecia?aoaieth, eae naiei cayaeoaeai, oae e
ethaui ae?oaei eeoeii, iieo/eaoei io iaai eee io aaoi?a i?yii eee
einaaiii yoo eioi?iaoeeth. A neo/aa, eiaaea eioi?iaoeey ia ecia?aoaiee
?ane?uoa ia naiei cayaeoaeai, a o?aoueei eeoeii, cayaeoaeue aeieaeai
aeieacaoue, /oi eeai ii nai ?ac?aoee iaia?iaeiaaoue yoo eioi?iaoeeth,
eeai iioaeeeiaaiea i?iecioei aac aai aaaeiia, ii eioi?iaoeey iieo/aia io
iaai eeai io aaoi?a ecia?aoaiey.

Ecia?aoaoaeueneee o?iaaiue. Aoi?ui e?eoa?eai iaoaioiniiniaiinoe
ecia?aoaiey yaeyaony ecia?aoaoaeueneee o?iaaiue.

Iiyoiio a iaoaioiuo caeiiao iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa no?ai
i?enoonoaoao, oioy e iiae ?aciuie iacaaieyie (ecia?aoaoaeueneee
o?iaaiue, iai/aaeaeiinoue, ecia?aoaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue,
ecia?aoaoaeueneee oaa, nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey), e?eoa?ee, n iiiiuueth
eioi?iai io?aiiniiniaiia ecia?aoaiea ioa?aie/eaaaony io iau/iuo
eiaeaia?iuo ?ac?aaioie eee iauaeoia, e eioi?ui ia i?aaeuyaeythony
iiaeiaiua o?aaiaaiey.

Eciaiaiea iacaaiey aeaiiiai i?eciaea a ?inneeneii iaoaioiii i?aaa
iaoneiaeaii no?aieaieai naeeceoue aai n aiaeiae/iuie e?eoa?eyie
iaoaioiniiniaiinoe a iaoaioiuo caeiiao ae?oaeo aa?iiaeneie no?ai.
I?aaeeiaeaiey oaeiai ?iaea aeaaii auneacuaaeenue niaoeeaeenoaie1 .

I?iaa?ea ecia?aoaoaeueneiai o?iaiy i?iaiaeeony a ioiioaiee ecia?aoaiey,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaiiiai a iacaaeneiii ioieoa oi?ioeu, e aeeth/aao: —
ii?aaeaeaiea iaeaieaa aeeceiai aiaeiaa;

— auyaeaiea i?eciaeia, eioi?uie ioee/aaony cayaeaiiia ecia?aoaiea io
iaeaieaa aeeceiai aiaeiaa;

— auyaeaiea ec o?iaiy oaoieee ?aoaiee, eiathueo i?eciaee, niaiaaeathuea
n ioee/eoaeueiuie i?eciaeaie ?anniao?eaaaiiai ecia?aoaiey.

Ecia?aoaiea i?eciaaony niioaaonoaothuei oneiaeth ecia?aoaoaeueneiai
o?iaiy, anee ia auyaeaiu ?aoaiey, eiathuea i?eciaee, niaiaaeathuea n aai
ioee/eoaeueiuie i?eciaeaie, eee oaeea ?aoaiey auyaeaiu, ii ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaia ecaanoiinoue aeeyiey ioee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia ia
oeacaiiue cayaeoaeai oaoie/aneee ?acoeueoao. Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooa, /oi
ecaanoiinoue aeeyiey ioee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia cayaeaiiiai ecia?aoaiey ia
oaoie/aneee ?acoeueoao iiaeao auoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaia eae iaeiei, oae e
ianeieueeeie enoi/ieeaie eioi?iaoeee.

I?e aiaeeca nouanoaa e?eoa?ey «ecia?aoaoaeueneee o?iaaiue»
ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea eiaao o?aeoiaea iiiyoee «niaoeeaeeno» e
«i/aaeaeiinoue», /a?ac eioi?ua ii ii?aaeaeyaony. Ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey
«niaoeeaeeno» ie Iaoaioiue caeii, ie aeiiieiythuea aai iiaecaeiiiua aeou
ia aeatho. Iie?aynue ia iiuo oao no?ai, a iaoaioiuo caeiiao eioi?uo
eniieuecoaony yoa oneiaiay oeao?a, iiaeii naeaeae» auaiae, /oi iiae
oaeei niaoeeaeenoii iiae?acoiaaaaony eeoei, iaeaaeathuaa aeinooiiuie
n?aaeieie ciaieyie a oie iaeanoe, a eioi?ie ii ?aaioaao e e eioi?ie
ioiineony cayaeaiiia ecia?aoaiea. I/aaeaeii, /oi a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
iaeuecy auoue niaoeeaeenoii ai anao iaeanoyo ciaiey, «niaoeeaeenoii
aiiaua». Iiyoiio i?e i?iaaaeaiee yenia?oecu ecia?aoaoaeueneee o?iaaiue
aeieaeai i?iaa?youeny ii anai iauaaeinooiiui enoi/ieeai eioi?iaoeee,
iaeiaei a i?aaeaeao oie iaeanoe ciaiee, e eioi?ie ioiineony cayaeaiiia
ecia?aoaiea. Eiia ?aoaiea aii?ina anyeee ?ac noaaeei au yenia?oeco
ia?aae o?oaeii ?ac?aoeiie caaea/ae e cia/eoaeueii nie?aoeei au /enei
io?aiyaiuo ecia?aoaiee. Eiaiii e oaeiio iiaeoiaeo a oieeiaaiee iiiyoey
«niaoeeaeeno» neeiiyaony aieueoeinoai ?inneeneeo o/aiuo e
iaoaioiaaaeia-i?aeoeeia.1

*oiau auoue iaoaioiniiniaiui, ecia?aoaiea ia aeieaeii yaiui aeey
niaoeeaeenoa ia?acii neaaeiaaoue ec o?iaiy oaoieee, oi anoue auoue aeey
niaoeeaeenoa i/aaeaeiui.

I/aaeaeiia — yoi cia/eo ia auoiaeyuaa ca i?aaeaeu ii?iaeueiiai i?ia?anna
a oaoiieiaee, a naii niaie ?acoiathuaany eee aea eiae/anee auoaeathuaa
ec o?iaiy oaoieee, a oaeaea ia i?aaeiieaaathuaa eniieueciaaiea
ecia?aoaoaeueneiai oaeaioa, eioi?ue auoiaeee au ca i?aaeaeu
i?aaeiieaaaaiiai o?iaiy niaoeeaeenoa a ii?aaeaeaiiie iaeanoe oaoieee.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ana, /oi i?yii e eiae/anee auoaeaao ec o?iaiy oaoieee,
n/eoaaony i/aaeaeiui. E?iia oiai, i/aaeaeiui yaeyaony oi, /oi ia o?aaoao
i?iyaeaiee ciaiee e oiaiey, i?aauoathueo niiniaiinoe a ii?aaeaeaiiie
iaeanoe2 . Oaeei aea ia?acii iiaeao o?aeoiaaoueny iiiyoea i/aaeaeiinoe a
?inneeneii iaoaioiii i?aaa3 .

Ecia?aoaiea ia ?anniao?eaaaony eae ia niioaaonoaothuaa
ecia?aoaoaeueneiio o?iaith ec-ca aai eaaeouaeny i?inoiou e ?ane?uoey a
iaoa?eaeao cayaee iaoaiecia aeinoeaeaiey oai?/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa, anee
oaeia ?ane?uoea noaei ecaanoii ia ec o?iaiy oaoieee, a oieueei ec
iaoa?eaeia cayaee.

I?iiuoeaiiay i?eiaieiinoue. O?aoueei e?eoa?eai iaoaioiniiniaiinoe
ecia?aoaiey yaeyaony i?iiuoeaiiay i?eiaieiinoue.

Niaeanii i. 1 no. 4 Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O, ecia?aoaiea yaeyaony
i?iiuoeaiii i?eiaieiui, anee iii iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneii oicyenoaa, cae?aaiio?aiaiee e ae?oaeo io?aneyo
aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ioee/ea io i?eciaeia iiaeciu e ecia?aoaoaeueneiai o?iaiy e?eoa?ee
i?iiuoeaiiie i?eiaieiinoe i?yii ia naycuaaaony caeiiii n o?iaiai oaoieee
e aeaoie i?ei?eoaoa. Iaaeaeo oai oaeay naycue aaconeiaii eiaaony, oioa
iiaeoiae e eniieueciaaieth ecaanoiuo naaaeaiee, ioaaouaaaiuo iiiyoeai
«o?iaaiue oaoieee», yaeyaony eiui. Anee n oi/ee c?aiey iiaeciu e
ecia?aoaoaeueneiai o?iaiy cayaeaiiia ecia?aoaiea ia aeieaeii iiaoi?youe
oiai, /oi niaea?aeeony a o?iaia oaoieee eee neaaeiaaoue ec iaai, oi
anoue iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai eiaoue ianoi auoiae ca i?aaeaeu o?iaiy
oaoieee, oi i?e i?iaa?ea i?iiuoeaiiie i?eiaieiinoe aeey ioeaiee
aeinoaoi/iinoe eiathueony a cayaea naaaeaiee iiaeao auoue i?eaea/aii
oieueei oi, /oi oaea aioei a o?iaaiue oaoieee.

A caeiia ia oeacaii, ia eaeie iiiaio aeieaeia ioeaieaaoueny i?iiuoeaiiay
i?eiaieiinoue cayaeaiiiai ecia?aoaiey. Yoi i?aaeinoaaeyaony ia ?ooaieai
caeiiiaeaoaey, a aai niciaoaeueiie iiceoeeae.

N iiiaioii ii?aaeaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiie i?eiaieiinoe i?yii naycai aii?in i
iaoaioiniiniaiinoe oae iacuaaaiuo ia?niaeoeaiuo ecia?aoaiee, oi anoue
ecia?aoaiee, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ii
oeaeaniia?aciinoue e aiciiaeiinoue eo eniieueciaaiey a aoaeouai ia
aucuaatho niiiaiee. e auaea/o ia ieo

Iai?eia?, eaoaoaeueiua aiia?aou n ?aaeoeaiui aeaeaaoaeai auee
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu a NNN? eae io?aiiniiniaiua ecia?aoaiey a 20—30-o
aiaeao, a iaoee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea eeoue n 1947 aiaea; a 30-o
aiaeao, caaeieai aei ia/aea i?aeoe/aneeo iieaoia a einiin, aue i?eciai
ecia?aoaieai iniaue oei oethciauo eaia? einie/aneiai aiia?aoa; niinia
yeaeo?iene?iaie ia?aaioee iaoaeeia iieo/ee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea aieaa
/ai /a?ac 20 eao iinea aai nicaeaiey e o.ae.

Iaoaioiue caeii ?O ie/aai ia aiai?eo i aiciiaeiinoe io?aiu iiaeiaiuo
ecia?aoaiee. Ii iiaieth ?yaea niaoeeaeenoia, eo io?aia ia ioaeia, oae
eae, ai-ia?auo, ia i?aaenoaaeyaony i?aeoe/anee iaiaoiaeeiie e,
ai-aoi?uo, naiaeeo ia iao e?eoa?ee i?iiuoeaiiie i?eiaieiinoe1 .

Ioeaiea niioaaonoaey cayaeaiiiai ecia?aoaiey o?aaiaaieth i?iiuoeaiiie
i?eiaieiinoe aeeth/aao i?iaa?eo auiieiaiey neaaeothuae niaieoiiinoe
oneiaee:

— n?aaenoai, aiieiuathuaa cayaeaiiia ecia?aoaiea i?e aai inouanoaeaiee,
i?aaeiacia/aii aeey eniieueciaaiey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneii
oicyenoaa, cae?aaiio?aiaiee, ae?oaeo io?aneyo aeayoaeueiinoe;

— aeey cayaeaiiiai ecia?aoaiey a oii aeaea, eae iii ioa?aeoa?eciaaii a
iacaaeneiii ioieoa i?eiyoie e ?anniio?aieth oi?ioeu ecia?aoaiey,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaia aiciiaeiinoue aai inouanoaeaiey n iiiiuueth iienaiiuo a
cayaea eee ecaanoiuo aei aeaou i?ei?eoaoa n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia;

— n?aaenoai, aiieiuathuaa cayaeaiiia ecia?aoaiea i?e aai inouanoaeaiee,
niiniaii iaania/eoue aeinoeaeaiea oniao?eaaaiiai cayaeoaeai oaoie/aneiai
?acoeueoaoa.

Ia yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey auaiaea i ianiioaaonoaee cayaeaiiiai
ecia?aoaiey o?aaiaaieth i?iiuoeaiiie i?eiaieiinoe ianiaethaeaiea
eaeiai-eeai ec yoeo oneiaee aeey /anoiuo oi?i auiieiaiey ecia?aoaiey,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaiiuo a caaeneiuo ioieoao oi?ioeu ecia?aoaiey.

Iiiyoea e i?eciaee iieaciie iiaeaee. A ea/anoaa iieaciie iiaeaee
io?aiythony iiaua e i?iiuoeaiii i?eiaieiua ?aoaiey, ioiinyueany e
eiino?oeoeaiiio auiieiaieth n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeiaoia
iio?aaeaiey, a oaeaea eo ninoaaiuo /anoae (i. 1 no. 5 Iaoaioiiai caeiia
?O).

Iiiyoeai «iieaciay iiaeaeue» iau/ii ioaaouaathony oaeea oaoie/aneea
iiaoanoaa, eioi?ua ii naiei aiaoiei i?eciaeai i/aiue iaiiieiatho
iaoaioiniiniaiua ecia?aoaiey, iaeiaei yaeythony iaiaa cia/eoaeueiuie n
oi/ee c?aiey eo aeeaaea a o?iaaiue oaoieee. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai oao
no?ai, eioi?ua i?aaeoniao?eaatho iniaoth io?aio iiaeiaiuo iauaeoia,
onoaiaaeeaaao, eae i?aaeei, aieaa oi?iuaiiue ii?yaeie auaea/e ia ieo
i?aiiuo aeieoiaioia (eiiaaea eiaioaiuo iaeuie iaoaioaie), nie?auaiiue
n?ie eo aeaenoaey, iaiaa cia/eoaeueiua iioeeiu e o.i. *oi eanaaony e?oaa
io?aiyaiuo a ea/anoaa iieaciuo iiaeaeae iauaeoia, oi a ie?iaie i?aeoeea
iaiaoeeenue aeaa iiaeoiaea. A iaeieo no?aiao, a /anoiinoe a ssiiiee,
iiiyoea iieaciie iiaeaee oieeoaony ?anoe?eoaeueii e ioaaouaaao niaie
i?aeoe/anee oio aea ia?a/aiue iauaeoia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue i?eciaiu
ecia?aoaieyie, oi anoue ono?ienoaa, niiniau, aauanoaa e o.i. A ae?oaeo
no?aiao, a /anoiinoe a O?A, iiiyoeai «iieaciay iiaeaeue» ioaaouaathony
eeoue iauaeou, eiathuea i?ino?ainoaaiioth no?oeoo?o.

Iaoaioiue caeii ?O, eae aeaeii ec niaea?aeauaainy a iai ii?aaeaeaiey,
enoiaeeo ec oceiai iiiyoey iieaciie iiaeaee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaycaoaeueiui i?eciaeii iieaciie iiaeaee ii ?inneeneiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao yaeyaony oi, /oi ?aoaiea caaea/e caeeth/aaony a
i?ino?ainoaaiiii ?aniieiaeaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoia.

Iieaciay iiaeaeue, eae e ecia?aoaiea, yaeyaony oaoie/aneei ?aoaieai
caaea/e. Eo iniiaiua ?acee/ey caeeth/athony a aeaoo iiiaioao. Ai-ia?auo,
a ea/anoaa iieaciuo iiaeaeae io?aiythony ia ethaua oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey,
a eeoue oa, eioi?ua ioiinyony e oeio ono?ienoa, oi anoue
eiino?oeoi?neiio auiieiaieth n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeiaoia
iio?aaeaiey. Ai-aoi?uo, e iieaciui iiaeaeyi ia i?aaeuyaeyaony o?aaiaaiee
ecia?aoaoaeueneiai o?iaiy.

Aeey i?eciaiey ?aoaiey iieaciie iiaeaeueth iii aeieaeii iaeaaeaoue
iiaeciie e i?iiuoeaiiie i?eiaieiinoueth.

Eae e a ioiioaiee ecia?aoaiee, iiaecia iieaciie iiaeaee onoaiaaeeaaaony
/a?ac o?iaaiue oaoieee, oi anoue niaieoiiinoue iauaaeinooiiuo a ie?a
naaaeaiee. Iaeiaei nai yoio o?iaaiue oaoieee ii?aaeaeyaony ia nianai
iaeeiaeiai. Anee i?eiaieoaeueii e ecia?aoaieyi a iaai aeeth/athony
ethaua naaaeaiey, noaaoea iauaaeinooiiuie aei aeaou i?ei?eoaoa, oi a
ioiioaiee iieaciuo iiaeaeae a o?iaaiue oaoieee ia aoiaeyo naaaeaiey ia
ioe?uoii i?eiaiaiee ca i?aaeaeaie ?innee n?aaenoa, oiaeaeanoaaiiuo
cayaeyaiie iieaciie iiaeaee. Eiuie neiaaie, e iieaciui iiaeaeyi
i?aaeuyaeyaony o?aaiaaiea ia aaniethoiie, a ioiineoaeueiie ie?iaie
iiaeciu. Naaaeaiey ia ioe?uoii i?eiaiaiee oiaeaeanoaaiiiai oaoie/aneiai
n?aaenoaa ca ?oaaaeii iiaecio iieaciie iiaeaee ia ii?i/ao.

Iiaecia iieaciie iiaeaee onoaiaaeeaaaony ia aeaoo i?ei?eoaoa, eioi?ue
ii?aaeaeyaony ii oai aea i?aaeeai, /oi e i?ei?eoao ecia?aoaiey.

E?iia oiai, a neo/aa anee cayaeoaeue ainiieueciaaeny naiei i?aaii ia
i?aia?aciaaiea cayaee ia ecia?aoaiea a cayaeo ia iieacioth iiaeaeue (no.
28 Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O), nio?aiyao neeo i?ei?eoao ia?aie cayaee.

Iaeiiaoe, ia i?eciaaony ianoiyoaeuenoaii, aeeythuei ia iiaecio iieaciie
iiaeaee, ioaee/iia ?ane?uoea eioi?iaoeee, ioiinyuaeny e iieaciie
iiaeaee, aa cayaeoaeai, aaoi?ii eee ethaui eeoeii, iieo/eaoei io ieo
i?yii eee einaaiii yoo eioi?iaoeeth, anee cayaea ia iieacioth iiaeaeue
iiaeaia ia iicaeiaa oanoe ianyoeaa n aeaou ?ane?uoey (eueaioa ii
iiaecia).

Iieaciay iiaeaeue yaeyaony i?iiuoeaiii i?eiaieiie, anee iia iiaeao auoue
i?aeoe/anee eniieueciaaia a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneii oicyenoaa,
cae?aaiio?aiaiee e ae?oaeo io?aneyo aeayoaeueiinoe. Oeacaiiue e?eoa?ee
ii ioiioaieth e iieaciui iiaeaeyi eiaao oi/ii oaeia aea cia/aiea, eae e
ii ioiioaieth e ecia?aoaieyi. Iaeiaei i?iiuoeaiiay i?eiaieiinoue
iiae?acoiaaaao aiciiaeiinoue iaiaeiie?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey iieaciie
iiaeaee.

Iiiyoea e i?eciaee i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea. I?iiuoeaiiui ia?acoeii
yaeyaony ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiino?oeoi?neia ?aoaiea ecaeaeey,
ii?aaeaeythuaa aai aiaoiee aeae (i. 1 no. 6 Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O). Eae e
ecia?aoaiea, i?iiuoeaiiue ia?acaoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaiaoa?eaeueiia
aeaai, ?acoeueoao oai?/aneie oinoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ue iiaeao
auoue aiieiuai a eiie?aoiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo iauaeoao. Iaeiaei anee
ecia?aoaiea yaeyaony oaoie/aneei ?aoaieai caaea/e, oi i?iiuoeaiiui
ia?acoeii i?eciaaony ?aoaiea aiaoiaai aeaea ecaeaeey. Oioy a caeiia e
aeiiieiythueo aai aeoao yoi iiiyoea aieaa aeaoaeueii ia ?ane?uaaaony,
aai aiaeec iicaieyao naeaeae» neaaeothuea auaiaeu. Ai-ia?auo,
i?iiuoeaiiui ia?acoeii yaeyaony ?aoaiea caaea/e, niaea?aeauaa oeacaiea
eiie?aoiuo n?aaenoa e iooae ?aaeecaoeee oai?/aneiai caiunea aeecaeia?a.
Anee caaea/a eeoue iinoaaeaia, ii oaeoe/anee ia ?aoaia, i?iiuoeaiiue
ia?acaoe eae naiinoiyoaeueiue iauaeo aua ia nicaeai. Ai-aoi?uo, caaea/a,
?aoaaiay n iiiiuueth i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea, ninoieo a ii?aaeaeaiee
aiaoiaai aeaea ecaeaeey. Iiae ecaeaeeyie a aeaiiii neo/aa iiieiathony
naiua ?aciiia?aciua i?aaeiaou, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
/aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae, eioi?ua iiaoo aini?eieiaoueny aecoaeueii e
niiniaiu ioiineoaeueii nio?aiyoue naie aiaoiee aeae. Aiaoiee aeae
ecaeaeey iiaeao aeeth/aoue ?aciua i?eciaee, ii a eiia/iii n/aoa ii
ii?aaeaeyaony au?aceoaeueiinoueth e acaeiiui ?aniieiaeaieai iniiaiuo
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo yeaiaioia, oi?iie e oeaaoiaui eniieiaieai. A-o?aoueeo,
?aoaiea aiaoiaai aeaea ecaeaeey aeieaeii iineoue
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiino?oeoeaiue oa?aeoa?. Eiuie neiaaie, ai aiaoiai aeaea
ecaeaeey aeieaeiu ni/aoaoueny ooaeiaeanoaaiiua e eiino?oeoi?neea
yeaiaiou. Eniieueciaaiea iaeieo eeoue ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo n?aaenoa,
iai?eia? eciaiaiea oeaaoa ecaeaeey, ?aaii eae e iaeieo eiino?oeoi?neeo
n?aaenoa, iai?eia? eciaiaiea ?acia?a ecaeaeey, aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai
ia?acoea iaaeinoaoi/ii. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiua e eiino?oeoi?neea yeaiaiou
aeieaeiu aa?iiie/ii ni/aoaoueny e acaeiii aeiiieiyoue ae?oa ae?oaa.

Eoae, i?iiuoeaiiui ia?acoeii a oe?ieii niunea yaeyaony ethaia
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiino?oeoi?neia ?aoaiea ecaeaeey, ii?aaeaeythuaa aai
aiaoiee aeae. A yoii niunea i?iiuoeaiiuie ia?acoeaie iiaoo n/eoaoueny
?aoaiey aiaoiaai aeaea ethauo iiauo ecaeaeee, auioneaaiuo i?iiuoeaiii,
eioi?ua a naiae iiaeaaeythuae ianna ieaaea ia ?aaeno?e?othony e ieeae .
ia io?aiythony. I?aaiaay io?aia i?aaeinoaaeyaony oai i?iiuoeaiiui
ia?acoeii, eioi?ua yaeythony iiauie, i?eaeiaeueiuie e i?iiuoeaiii
i?eiaieiuie. Oeacaiiua e?eoa?ee iaoaioiniiniaiinoe, cae?aieaiiua iiaui
Iaoaioiui caeiiii ?O, niioaaonoaotho iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui a ie?iaie
i?aeoeea i?eciaeai io?aiyaiuo i?aaii i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia.

Eneeth/aiey ec noa?u io?aiu naaaeaiu e ieieioio e ia auoiaeyo ca ?aiee
iauai?eiyouo a ie?a ii?i. Oae, ia i?eciathony iaoaioiniiniaiuie
i?iiuoeaiiuie ia?acoeaie ?aoaiey:

– ecaeaeee, aiaoiee aeae eioi?uo iaoneiaeai eneeth/eoaeueii eo
oaoie/aneie ooieoeeae. E yoie eaoaai?ee ecaeaeee ioiinyony, iai?eia?,
aaeee, aieou, aeiou (e?iia aeaei?aoeaiuo), naa?ea e o.i.;

— iauaeoia a?oeoaeoo?u: aeeeuo caeaiee, i?iiuoeaiiuo, aeae?ioaoie/aneeo
e ae?oaeo noaoeeiia?iuo nii?oaeaiee. Oeacaiiua iauaeou i?e iaee/ee o ieo
o?aaoaiuo ii caeiio ea/anoa i?eciathony i?iecaaaeaieyie a?oeoaeoo?u e
io?aiythony a ?aieao aaoi?neiai i?aaa. Iaeiaei iaeua a?oeoaeoo?iua
oi?iu, iai?eia? ?aoaiey aiaoiaai aeaea eeineia, iaeaoie, ea?ueeia,
o?ainii?oiuo inoaiiaie, oaeaoiiiuo aoaeie e o.i., i?eciathony
i?iiuoeaiiuie ia?acoeaie a iauai ii?yaeea;

— ia/aoiie i?iaeoeoeee eae oaeiaie. Anaaiciiaeiay ia/aoiay i?iaeoeoeey:
eieae, aacaou, aeo?iaeu, i?iniaeou, aoeeaou, ?aeeaiiua eenoa, aoeoe e
o.i. — io?aiyaony ii?iaie aaoi?neiai i?aaa;

— iauaeoia iaonoie/eaie oi?iu ec aeeaeeeo, aaciia?aciuo, nuio/eo eee ei
iiaeiaiuo aauanoa. Eneeth/aiea oaeeo iauaeoia ec noa?u i?aaiaie io?aiu
aiieia iiiyoii, oae eae iaonoie/eainoue eo oi?iu ia iicaieyao ?aoeoue eo
aiaoiee aeae n iiiiuueth ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiino?oeoi?neeo n?aaenoa;

— ecaeaeee, i?ioeai?a/aueo iauanoaaiiui eioa?anai, i?eioeeiai aoiaiiinoe
e ii?aee. Iiae aeaiioth eaoaai?eth iauaeoia iiaeiaaeatho ecaeaeey,
i?ioeai?a/auea iauanoaaiiui eioa?anai, i?eioeeiai aoiaiiinoe e ii?aee
eae ii naiaio iniiaiiio iacia/aieth (iai?eia?, i?oaeey iuoie), oae e ii
naiaio aiaoiaio ioi?ieaieth (iai?eia?, ?enoiee eee iaaeiene
ii?iia?aoe/aneiai eee inei?aeoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a).

I?iiuoeaiiuie ia?acoeaie iiaoo auoue oeaeia aaeeie/iia ecaeaeea, aai
/anoue, eiiieaeo (iaai?) ecaeaeee, aa?eaiou ecaeaeey. Ecaeaeea eae
iauaeo i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea iiaeao auoue, a naith i/a?aaeue, iauaiiui
(iiaeaeue), ieineinoiui (?enoiie) eee ninoaaeyoue eo ni/aoaiea.

*anoue ecaeaeey iiaeao auoue cayaeaia a ea/anoaa i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea
a oii neo/aa, anee iia i?aaeiacia/aia aeey oieoeoee?iaaiiiai i?eiaiaiey,
o.a. iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia n oeaeui ?yaeii ecaeaeee, a oaeaea
iaeaaeaao naiinoiyoaeueiie ooieoeeae e caaa?oaiiie eiiiiceoeeae.

Eiiieaeo (iaai?) ecaeaeee iiaeao auoue cayaeai a ea/anoaa i?iiuoeaiiiai
ia?acoea, anee aoiaeyuea a ninoaa eiiieaeoa (iaai?a) yeaiaiou,
auiieiythuea naiua ?aciiia?aciua ooieoeee, ioee/iua ae?oa io ae?oaa,
iiae/eiaiu iauae caaea/a, ?aoaaiie eiiieaeoii (iaai?ii) a oeaeii.

I?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu neaaeoao ioee/aoue io noiaeiuo n ieie iauaeoia
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe, oaeeo, eae iieaciua iiaeaee, iauaiiua
oiaa?iua ciaee e i?iecaaaeaiey aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa.

Iaeioi?ua ecaeaeey, iai?eia? i?eaeiaeueiue oeaeii aeey aeooia, iiaoo
auoue a ?aaiie noaiaie i?eciaiu eae i?iiuoeaiiui ia?acoeii, oae e
iauaiiui oiaa?iui ciaeii.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, naiiio cayaeoaeth ia aica?aiyaony ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue
i?eiaaeeaaeauee aio oai?/aneee ?acoeueoao e eae i?iiuoeaiiue ia?acaoe, e
eae oiaa?iue ciae. Neaaeoao eeoue o/eouaaoue, /oi oeacaiiua iauaeou
auiieiytho ?acee/iua ooieoeee.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoaa a NNN?
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia aeiioneaei aeaieiie io?aiu iaeiiai e oiai aea
iauaeoa a ea/anoaa i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea e i?iecaaaeaiey AeIE. Oae, a
niioaaonoaee n Oeacaieyie ii ninoaaeaieth e iiaea/a cayaee ia
i?iiuoeaiiue ia?acaoe io 24 yiaa?y 1985 a.1 yenia?oeca ia i?eieiaea e
?anniio?aieth cayaee a ioiioaiee iauaeoia, ?aiaa i?eiyouo e ioeaiaiiuo a
onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea ii ii?iai aaoi?neiai i?aaa eae i?iecaaaeaiey
AeIE. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaiiia ia?aie/aiea, iineaoaa iaei??aeoiue
oa?aeoa? n oi/ee c?aiey iaueo iieiaeaiee aaoi?neiai i?aaa, a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ionoonoaoao.

E?eoa?eyie iaoaioiniiniaiinoe i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea, eae oaea
ioia/aeinue, yaeythony iiaecia, i?eaeiaeueiinoue e i?iiuoeaiiay
i?eiaieiinoue. Iineieueeo niaea?aeaiea oeacaiiuo e?eoa?eaa a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie niaiaaeaao n niaea?aeaieai aiaeiae/iuo e?eoa?eaa
iaoaioiniiniaiuo ecia?aoaiee e iieaciuo iiaeaeae, i?e eo aiaeeca iao
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiae?iaii ?ane?uaaoue ana ioiinyueany e iei iiiaiou.
Iniiaiia aieiaiea aoaeao oaeaeaii ?anniio?aieth eo iniaaiiinoae
i?eiaieoaeueii e i?iiuoeaiiui ia?acoeai.

Noauaeou iaoaioiiai i?aaa

Aaoi?u ecia?aoaiee, iieaciuo iiaeaeae e i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia. A
ioiioaieyo, naycaiiuo n nicaeaieai, ?aaeno?aoeeae e eniieueciaaieai
ecia?aoaiee, iieaciuo iiaeaeae e i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia, o/anoaoao
aieueoia /enei noauaeoia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo eae a?aaeaeaiaie, oae e
th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie. E eo /eneo ioiinyony nicaeaoaee oai?/aneeo
?aoaiee, iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaee, eo i?aaii?aaiieee. Iaoaioiia aaaeiinoai,
iaoaioiua iiaa?aiiua e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea eeoea, iaaeaeaiiua
niioaaonoaothueie i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie a ?anniao?eaaaiie noa?a.

Iaeiie ec oeaio?aeueiuo oeao? yaeyaony aaoi? oaoie/aneiai e
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiino?oeoi?neiai ?aoaiey. A niioaaonoaee n i. 1 no. 7
Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O aaoi?ii ecia?aoaiey, iieaciie iiaeaee,
i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea i?eciaaony oece/aneia eeoei, oai?/aneei o?oaeii
eioi?iai iie nicaeaiu. Aeey i?eciaiey eeoea aaoi?ii niioaaonoaothuaai
?aoaiey ia eiaao cia/aiey ie aai aic?ano, ie ninoiyiea aai
aeaaniiniaiinoe. Ianiaa?oaiiieaoiea a aic?anoa io 14 aei 18 eao ia
oieueei i?eia?aoatho, ii e naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeytho i?eiaaeeaaeauea
ei i?aaa, auoaeathuea ec oaeoa nicaeaiey ?ac?aaioee (no. 26 AE ?O). Ca
eeoe, ia aeinoeaoeo 14 eao, a oaeaea a?aaeaeai, i?eciaiiuo a
onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii ii?yaeea iaaeaaniiniaiuie, ana iaiaoiaeeiua
aeaenoaey ii inouanoaeaieth i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ei i?aa niaa?oatho eo
caeiiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee, o.a. ?iaeeoaee eee iiaeoiu (no. 28-29 AE ?O).

Ia?yaeo n ?inneeneeie a?aaeaeaiaie aaoi?neeie i?aaaie ia ecia?aoaiey,
iieaciua iiaeaee e i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu a iieiie ia?a iieuecothony
eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa, i?iaeeaathuea ia oa??eoi?ee ?O. *oi eanaaony
eiino?aiiuo a?aaeaeai, a oaeaea eeoe aac a?aaeaeainoaa, i?iaeeaathueo ca
i?aaeaeaie ?innee, oi n o/aoii iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iaycaoaeuenoa ?innee iie
eiatho a ?O oaeea aea i?aaa, eae e ?inneeneea a?aaeaeaia, i?e oneiaee,
/oi caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa, a?aaeaeaiaie eioi?iai iie yaeythony
eee ia oa??eoi?ee eioi?iai iie eiatho ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea, i?aaeinoaaeyao
aiaeiae/iua i?aaa a?aaeaeaiai ?O eee eeoeai, eiathuei iinoiyiiia
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea a ?O (i?eioeei acaeiiinoe). E a?aaeaeaiai ainoaea?noa,
o/anoaothueo a Ia?eaeneie eiiaaioeee ii io?aia i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe, a oaeaea e a?aaeaeaiai, i?iaeeaathuei ia oa??eoi?ee yoeo
ainoaea?noa, i?eiaiyaony i?eioeei iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?aaeeia aac eaeeo-eeai
ecuyoee.

Anee a nicaeaiee iauaeoa i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe o/anoaiaaei
ianeieueei oece/aneeo eeoe, ana iie n/eoathony aai aaoi?aie. Eae
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao noaoenoeea, oaeaeueiue aan iauaeoia, nicaeaiiuo
niaianoiui oai?/aneei o?oaeii aeaoo e aieaa eeoe, iinoiyiii aic?anoaao e
e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie aeinoea 3/4 io iauaai /enea. Yoi iaoneiaeaii
aeaaiui ia?acii oai, /oi iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai iaoaioiniiniaiuo
?ac?aaioie nae/an nicaeaaony a nayce n auiieiaieai neoaeaaiiai caaeaiey
niaoeeaeenoaie, iauaaeeiaiiuie aeey ?aoaiey eaeeo-eeai eiie?aoiuo
iao/iuo, eiino?oeoi?neeo eee oaoiieiae/aneeo caaea/. Iniiaaieai aeey
aicieeiiaaiey niaaoi?noaa yaeyaony niaianoiue oai?/aneee o?oae
ianeieueeeo eeoe, au?aceaoeeny a ?aoaiee caaea/e.

Niaa?oaiii ia iaycaoaeueii, /oiau ana niaaoi?u aianee ?aaiue oai?/aneee
aeeaae a niaianoioth ?aaioo eee i?iaeaeaee aanue iooue io iinoaiiaee
eiie?aoiie caaea/e aei i?iaa?ee iieo/aiiiai ?acoeueoaoa. ?aaioa iiaeao
auoue ia/aea iaeiei eeoeii, i?iaeieaeaia ae?oaei, a caaa?oaia o?aoueei.
Ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui i?eciaeii niaaoi?noaa ?aaioa a iaeiii ianoa.

I?inoia oaoie/aneia niaeaenoaea, eaeei au aaaeiui aeey aeinoeaeaiey
?acoeueoaoa iii ie auei, ioiioaiey niaaoi?noaa ia ii?iaeaeaao. A
/anoiinoe, niaaoi?aie ia i?eciathony eeoea, ieacaaoea aaoi?o oieueei
oaoie/aneoth, i?aaiecaoeeiiioth eee iaoa?eaeueioth iiiiuue (ecaioiaeaiea
/a?oaaeae, oioia?aoee, iaeaoia e ia?acoeia, ioi?ieaiea aeieoiaioaoeee,
i?iaaaeaiea iiuoiie i?iaa?ee e o.i.), a oaeaea eeoea, inouanoaeyaoea
eeoue iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai ?ac?aaaouaaaiuie oaiaie, ii ia i?eieiaaoea
oai?/aneiai o/anoey a nicaeaiee ecia?aoaiey, iieaciie iiaeaee eee
i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeaaea oai?/aneia o/anoea a niaianoiie ?aaioa iaae
i?aaeeiaeaieai yaeyaony iaaeinoaoi/iui iniiaaieai aeey niaaoi?noaa. Oae,
iinoaiiaea caaea/e (oi?ie?iaaiea ecia?aoaoaeueneiai caiunea) e iieo/aiea
i?iiaaeooi/iuo ?acoeueoaoia yaeythony ninoaaiie /anoueth oai?/aneiai
i?ioeanna, ii ioiioaiee niaaoi?noaa ia ii?iaeaeatho.

Niaianoiay oai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue, i?eaiaeyuay e niaaoi?noao, iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny ia iniiaa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaoaiey anao o/anoieeia
oai?/aneiai i?ioeanna ia iauaaeeiaiee oneeee aeey ?aoaiey eiie?aoiie
caaea/e. Iaeiaei a ioee/ea io aaoi?neiai i?aaa a iaoaioiii i?aaa oaeia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia niaeanea i niaianoiie ?aaioa ia yaeyaony
iaycaoaeueiui. Aeey aicieeiiaaiey niaaoi?noaa aeinoaoi/ii naiiai
iauaeoeaiiai oaeoa, /oi ecia?aoaiea, iieaciay iiaeaeue eee i?iiuoeaiiue
ia?acaoe nicaeaiu oai?/aneeie oneeeyie ianeieueeeo eeoe.

A neo/aa anee a ninoaa niaaoi?ia ioeai/ii ia aeeth/ai eoi-eeai ec eeoe,
aianoeo oai?/aneee aeeaae a nicaeaiea iauaeoa i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe, eeai, iai?ioea, aeeth/aii eeoei, ia i?eieiaaoaa
oai?/aneiai o/anoey a oeacaiiie ?aaioa e iao nii?a ii yoiio iiaiaeo,
ninoaa niaaoi?ia iiaeao auoue eciaiai ii oiaeaoaenoao cayaeoaeae,
eioi?ua aeieaeiu iauynieoue i?e/eio iai?aaeeueiiai oeacaiey /enea
aaoi?ia.

Iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaee. Iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeai yaeyaony eeoei, aeaaeathuaa
iaoaioii ia ecia?aoaiea, iieacioth iiaeaeue1 eee i?iiuoeaiiue ia?acaoe e
auoaeathueie ec iaoaioa eneeth/eoaeueiuie i?aaaie ia eniieueciaaiea
oeacaiiuo iauaeoia. Ei iiaeao auoue aaoi? ?ac?aaioee, aai ianeaaeiee eee
eiie i?aaii?aaiiee.

Iaeiaei oeao?u aaoi?a e iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey niaiaaeatho aeaeaei ia
anaaaea. Iai?ioea, eae iieacuaatho noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua, a ?iee
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeae cia/eoaeueii /aua aunooiatho ia nicaeaoaee
?ac?aaioie, a eiua eeoea. E iei ioiinyony ianeaaeieee, a oaeaea ae?oaea
i?aaii?aaiieee, e eioi?ui niioaaonoaothuea i?aaa aaoi?ia ia?aoee ia
caeiiiuo iniiaaieyo.

Oae, Iaoaioiue caeii ?O i?aaeinoaaeyao aaoi?o aiciiaeiinoue onooieoue
i?eiaaeeaaeauaa aio i?aai ia iieo/aiea iaoaioa ethaiio oece/aneiio eee
th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo. Aeaiiay aiciiaeiinoue iiaeao aueue ?aaeeciaaia
aaoi?ii iooai i?inoiai oeacaiey a cayaea ia auaea/o iaoaioa eiaie
aoaeouaai iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey.

Iau/ii oaeay ia?aonooiea i?aaa ia iieo/aiea iaoaioa inouanoaeyaony ia
iniiaa niaoeeaeueiiai aeiaiai?a, caeeth/aiiiai iaaeaeo aaoi?ii e
aoaeouei iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeai. Aeaiiue aeiaiai? niaa?oaaony ii iauei
i?aaeeai, onoaiiaeaiiui a?aaeaeaineei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, e ia
ioaeaeaaony, a /anoiinoe, a iniaie ?aaeno?aoeee.

Aaoi? ?ac?aaioee, iieo/eaoee iaoaio ia naia eiy, iiaeao a ethaie iiiaio
onooieoue aai ia iniiaa caeeth/aiiiai aeiaiai?a anyeiio th?eaee/aneii
eee oece/aneiio eeoeo.

E a nithciii e a ?inneeneii caeiiao iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeyie a ioiioaiee
neoaeaaiuo ?ac?aaioie auee i?eciaiu ?aaioiaeaoaee (i. 2 no. 8 Iaoaioiiai
caeiia ?O).

Niaeanii iauaio i?aaeeo, cae?aieaiiiio i. 2 no. 8 Iaoaioiiai caeiia,
ethaay ?ac?aaioea, nicaeaiiay ?aaioieeii a nayce n auiieiaieai ei
neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae eee iieo/aiiiai io ?aaioiaeaoaey eiie?aoiiai
caaeaiey, n/eoaaony i?eiaaeeaaeauae ?aaioiaeaoaeth. Iniaue aeiaiai? ii
iiaiaeo iaoaioiuo i?aa ia

iiaeiaioth ?ac?aaioeo caeeth/aaony oiaaea, eiaaea ?aaioiee e
?aaioiaeaoaeue oioyo iaiai?eoue eiie ii?yaeie eniieueciaaiee
nicaeaaaaiuo ?ac?aaioie (nio?aiaiea anao iaoaioiuo i?aa ca aaoi?ii,
niaianoiia aeaaeaiea iaoaioiuie i?aaaie, onooiea iaoaioiuo i?aa aaoi?ii
?aaioiaeaoaeth ia iniiaa niaoeeaeueiiai niaeaoaiey e o.i.).

Anee ?aaioiaeaoaeue a oa/aiea /aou?ao ianyoeaa n aeaou oaaaeiieaiey aai
aaoi?ii i nicaeaiiii ecia?aoaiee, iieaciie iiaeaee eee i?iiuoeaiiiai
ia?acoea ia iiaeano cayaeo a Iaoaioiia aaaeiinoai, ia ia?aonooieo i?aai
ia iiaea/o cayaee ae?oaiio eeoeo e ia niiaueo aaoi?o i nio?aiaiee
niioaaonoaothuaai iauaeoa a oaeia, oi aaoi? eiaao i?aai iiaeaoue cayaeo
e iieo/ee» iaoaio ia naia eiy. A yoii neo/aa ?aaioiaeaoaeue eiaao i?aai
ia eniieueciaaiea niioaaonoaothuaai iauaeoa i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe a
nianoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa n auieaoie iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeth eiiiainaoeee,
ii?aaeaeyaiie ia aeiaiai?iie iniiaa. A neo/aa iaauieaou oeacaiiie
eiiiainaoeee eaee iaaiciiaeiinoe aeinoe/ue n ?aaioiaeaoaeai niaeaoaiey i
na ?acia?a aaoi? eiaao i?aai ia noaeaaioth caueoo.

Iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeyie a ?O iiaoo auoue ia oieueei ?inneeneea, ii e
eiino?aiiua oece/aneea e th?eaee/aneea eeoea. Eiino?aiiua
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaee, yaeythueany a?aaeaeaiaie ainoaea?noa—o/anoieeia
Ia?eaeneie eiiaaioeee ii io?aia i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe eeai eiathuea
ia oa??eoi?ee iaeiiai ec yoeo ainoaea?noa iinoiyiiia ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea,
iieuecothony a ?innee oai aea iauaiii i?aa, /oi e ?inneeneea
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaee. I?aaeinoaaeaiea aiaeiae/iuo i?aa a?aaeaeaiai e
th?eaee/aneei eeoeai ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa iinoaaeaii a caaeneiinoue io
oneiaey acaeiiinoe, o.a. ii?aaeaeyaony oai, iieuecothony ee ?inneeneea
a?aaeaeaia e th?eaee/aneea eeoea, a oaeaea eeoea, eiathuea iinoiyiiia
ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea ia oa??eoi?ee ?O, niioaaonoaothueie i?aaaie ia
oa??eoi?ee yoeo ainoaea?noa.

Ianeaaeieee. A neo/aa nia?oe aaoi?a ?ac?aaioee eee aeaaeaeueoea iaoaioa
noauaeoaie iaoaioiiai i?aaa noaiiayony eo ianeaaeieee. Ianeaaeiaaiea
ecia?aoaoaeueneeo e iaoaioiuo i?aa inouanoaeyaony a iauai ii?yaeea e
i?ienoiaeeo eae ii caeiio, oae e ii caaauaieth. Iaeiaei i?e
ianeaaeiaaiee aaoi?neeo i?aa e ianeaaeieeai ia?aoiaeyo ia ana i?aaa
aaoi?a niioaaonoaothuae ?ac?aaioee, a eeoue oa, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho
eiouanoaaiiua eioa?anu ianeaaeieeia. E iei ioiinyony i?aaa ia iiaea/o
cayaee, ia auaea/o iaoaioa e ia iieo/aiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eee
eiiiainaoeee, anee iaoaio ai?aaa iieo/eoue ?aaioiaeaoaeue oia?oaai
aaoi?a. Ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa nicaeaoaey ?ac?aaioee, a /anoiinoe
i?aai aaoi?noaa e i?aai ia aaoi?neia eiy, ii ianeaaenoao ia ia?aoiaeyo e
iiaaoathony nia?oueth aaoi?a. Yoi, eiia/ii, ia icia/aao, /oi aaoi?noai e
ae?oaea ee/iua iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa oia?oaai ecia?aoaoaey ia
io?aiythony iinea aai nia?oe. Iai?ioea, iie io?aiythony aann?i/ii, ii
oaea ia a ea/anoaa noauaeoeaiuo i?aa, a a ea/anoaa iauanoaaiii cia/eiiai
eioa?ana e caueuathony a neo/aa eo ia?ooaiey ii eneo i?ieo?i?a eee
iauanoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee, iauaaeeiythuae ecia?aoaoaeae.

A neo/aa ionoonoaey o aaoi?a (iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey) ianeaaeieeia ii caeiio
e iainoaaeaiey ei caaauaiey a ea/anoaa ianeaaeieea aunooiaao
ainoaea?noai. Aeaenoaothuaa ianeaaenoaaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia
i?aaeoniao?eaaao a yoii neo/aa i?ae?auaiey niioaaonoaothueo i?aa, eae
yoi onoaiiaeaii a ioiioaiee i?aa oia?oeo aaoi?ia i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee,
eeoa?aoo?u eee eneonnoaa, ia eiathueo ianeaaeieeia (no. 552 AE ?NON?
1964 a.). A ea/anoaa i?aaia, i?eia?aoathuaai ia?aoiaeyuea e ainoaea?noao
ecia?aoaoaeueneea e iaoaioiua i?aaa, aunooiaao Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae
ecia?aoaiee ?innee.

Ioi?ieaiea ianeaaenoaaiiuo i?aa a ?anniao?eaaaiie iaeanoe eiaao
iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n iauei ii?yaeeii. Iau/ii
ianeaaeieee a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea naiaai i?aaa i?aaenoaaeytho
naeaeaoaeuenoai i i?aaa ia ianeaaenoai, auaeaaaaiia iioa?eonii. Iaeiaei
aei auianaiey ?aoaiey i auaea/a iaoaioa iioa?eon ia ai?aaa auaeaoue
naeaeaoaeuenoai i i?aaa ia aai ianeaaeiaaiea.

I?e ia?aoiaea ii ianeaaenoao oaea auaeaiiiai iaoaioa ianeaaeieee iaycaiu
iieo/eoue o iioa?eona niaoeeaeueiia naeaeaoaeuenoai i i?aaa
ianeaaeiaaiey iaoaioa, a eioi?ii oaeaea aeieaeii auoue oeacaii, eoi e a
eaeie aeiea ianeaaeoao auoaeathuea ec iaoaioa i?aaa.

Ae?oaea o/anoieee iaoaioiie nenoaiu. Aaaeiue o/anoiee iaoaioiuo
ioiioaiee — Iaoaioiia aaaeiinoai ?O, eioi?ia yaeyaony oeaio?aeueiui
i?aaiii oaaea?aeueiie eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe, iaania/eaathuei
oi?ie?iaaiea e i?iaaaeaiea aaeeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a iaeanoe
i?aaiaie io?aiu i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. Iaoaioiia aaaeiinoai ?O —
yoi Eiieoao ?O ii iaoaioai e oiaa?iui ciaeai (nie?. — ?iniaoaio). A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aai i?aaiaie noaoon ii?aaeaeyaony noaoueae 2 Iaoaioiiai
caeiia ?O e Iieiaeaieai i Eiieoaoa ?O ii iaoaioai e oiaa?iui ciaeai,
ooaa?aeaeaiiui Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?O io 12 oaa?aey 1993 a. ? 223.1
?iniaoaio yaeyaony i?aaii?aaiieeii oi?acaeiaiiiai Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iaoaioiiai aaaeiinoaa NNN?,2 eioi?ia iinea i?eiyoey Caeiia NNN? «Ia
ecia?aoaieyo a NNN?» 1991 a. eiaiiaaeinue Ainiaoaioii NNN?, a ?aiaa —
Ainoaea?noaaiiui eiieoaoii NNN? ii aeaeai ecia?aoaiee e ioe?uoee (nie?.
— Aineiiecia?aoaiee NNN?).

A niioaaonoaee n iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 2 aaaonoa 1993 a. ?
747 «Aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee, aoiaeyueo a aaeeioth ainoaea?noaaiioth
iaoaioioth neoaeao»3 a ninoaa aeaiiie neoaeau aoiaeyo:

— Ana?inneeneee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo ainoaea?noaaiiie
iaoaioiie yenia?oecu;

— Aiaeeyoeeiiiay iaeaoa;

— ?inneeneay ainoaea?noaaiiay iaoaioiay aeaeeioaea;

— Ana?inneeneee einoeooo i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e eiiiaaoeee;

—Oi?aaeaiea i?aa i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe;

—Ana?inneeneee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo iaoaioiie
eioi?iaoeee;

—Oeaio? iaoaioii-eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ianeoaeeaaiey “Eioi?iiaoaio”;

—Aeiiiaeaaeianeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eiiieaen;

—i?iecaiaenoaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea “Iaoaio”.

Oeacaiiua i?aaiecaoeee a niaieoiiinoe ni no?oeoo?iuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie
oeaio?aeueiiai aiia?aoa ?iniaoaioa iaania/eaatho ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
aaeeiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoaioiie neoaeau.

A niioaaonoaee n eiioeaioeeae ?aoi?iu iaoaioiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
iaiouaieaiie /anoueth iaoaioiie nenoaiu ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aeieaeia
auea noaoue Aunoay iaoaioiay iaeaoa ?O, i?ecaaiiay aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa
iacaaeneiie einoaioeee ii ?ac?aoaieth iaoaioii-i?aaiauo nii?ia e
?aoaieth iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo aii?inia iaoaioiiai oa?aeoa?a. Nai Iaoaioiue
caeii ?O, iaeiaei, ie noaoon, ie ii?yaeie oi?ie?iaaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe
Aunoae iaoaioiie iaeaou ia ii?aaeaeyao, a eeoue ioiineo e aa
eiiiaoaioeee ?aoaiea ?yaea eiie?aoiuo aii?inia. E oaeiai ?iaea aii?inai
ioiinyony, a /anoiinoe, ?anniio?aiea oiaeaoaenoa caeioa?aniaaiiuo eeoe i
auaea/a i?eioaeeoaeueiuo eeoeaicee ia eniieueciaaiea iauaeoia
i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe (i. 4 no. 10 Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O);
?ac?aoaiea nii?ia ii oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a i ieaoaaeao, eiaaea iaaeaeo
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeai, naeaeaaoei cayaeaiea i i?aaeinoaaeaiee ethaiio
eeoeo i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea iauaeoa i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe
(ioe?uoay eeoeaicey), e caeioa?aniaaiiui eeoeii ia aeinoeaiooi
niaeaoaiey (i. Cao. 13); ?ac?aoaiea nii?ia i ?acia?a eiiiainaoeee a
neo/ayo, eiaaea ii ?aoaieth i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O iauaeo i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai aac niaeaney iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey
a eioa?anao iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe (i. 4 no. 13); ?anniio?aiea
aeaeia cayaeoaeae, ia niaeaniuo n ?aoaieai Aiaeeyoeeiiiie iaeaou
Iaoaioiiai aaaeiinoaa ia ioeaca a auaea/a iaoaioa ia iauaeo i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe (i. 9 no. 21); ?anniio?aiea aeaeia eeoe, ia niaeaniuo n
?aoaieai Aiaeeyoeeiiiie iaeaou ii aic?aaeaieth i?ioea auaea/e iaoaioa ia
iauaeo i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe (i. 3 no. 29). ?aoaiey Aunoae
iaoaioiie iaeaou ii oeacaiiui auoa aii?inai i?aaeiieaaaeenue
ieii/aoaeueiuie, oioy yoi i?yii iiae/a?eeaaeinue eeoue a aeaoo
iineaaeieo neo/ayo.

A ieii/aoaeueiii aeaea eiiiaoaioeey Aunoae iaoaioiie iaeaou, ii?yaeie aa
oi?ie?iaaiey e oneiaey aeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeiu auee auoue ii?aaeaeaiu
niaoeeaeueiui caeiiii, i?eiyoea eioi?iai i?aaeoniao?eaaeinue ioieoii 10
Iinoaiiaeaiey Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?O «I aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea Iaoaioiiai
caeiia ?O» io 23 naioya?y 1992 a.1

Iaeiaei i?ioei oaea /aou?a aiaea, ii aei neo ii? iao ie oeacaiiiai
caeiia, ie naiie Aunoae iaoaioiie iaeaou, a neeo /aai aeaenoaea oeaeiai
?yaea ii?i Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O oaeoe/anee ia?aeeciaaii.

Iiaui e aeinoaoi/ii naiaia?aciui noauaeoii iaoaioiuo ioiioaiee yaeyaony
Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae ecia?aoaiee ?innee (aeaeaa – Oiiae). Caaea/ae Oiiaea
yaeyaony ioai? ecia?aoaiee, iieaciuo iiaeaeae, i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia,
i?eia?aoaiea ia ieo i?aa iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey ia aeiaiai?iie iniiaa e
niaeaenoaea eo ?aaeecaoeee a eioa?anao ainoaea?noaa. Iiaeiaiay
i?aaiecaoeey nicaeaia a ?innee aia?aua.

Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae ecia?aoaiee ?innee aunooiaao a ?iee iieiii?aaiiai
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey a ioiioaiee oao ?ac?aaioie, i?aaa ia iieueciaaiea
eioi?uo i?eia?aoaiu ia aeiaiai?iie iniiaa ainoaea?noaii eee ia?aoee e
iineaaeiaio ii iniiaaieyi, oeacaiiui a caeiia, iai?eia? a ?acoeueoaoa
ianeaaeiaaiey. Enoi/ieeaie aai oeiaine?iaaiey yaeythony au?o/ea io
i?iaeaaee eeoeaicee ia iauaeou i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, iaoaiou ia
eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeao Oiiaeo, aeia?iaieueiua aciinu i?aaei?eyoee e
a?aaeaeai, a oaeaea n?aaenoaa ?anioaeeeaineiai athaeaeaoa ?O e eiua
iinooieaiey.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae ecia?aoaiee ?innee ia
aeieaeai ?anniao?eaaoueny a ea/anoaa eaeie-oi oieeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee,
eioi?ie iao aiaeiaia a ie?iaie i?aeoeea. Oae, ai O?aioeee n 1968 a. .
oniaoii ooieoeeiie?oao Iaoeeiiaeueiia aaaionoai ii i?aaiecaoeee
eniieueciaaiey ?acoeueoaoia iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Aaaeaiea aeae i auaea/a iaoaioia ia iauaeou i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e
?aoaiea eiuo iaoaioii-i?aaiauo aii?inia o?aaotho niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee
eae a niioaaonoaothuae iaeanoe iaoee e oaoieee, oae e a noa?a iaoaioiiai
i?aaa. Iiyoiio Iaoaioiue caeii ?O i?aaeinoaaeyao ecia?aoaoaeyi e eo
i?aaii?aaiieeai i?aai ia oieueei aunooiaoue a iaoaioiuo ioiioaieyo
ee/ii, ii e iieueciaaoueny oneoaaie ae?oaeo eeoe.

Iaoaioiui caeiiii ?O nicaeai iniaue einoeooo iaoaioiuo iiaa?aiiuo,
i?ecaaiiuo ieacuaaoue cayaeoaeyi eaaeeoeoee?iaaiioth iiiiuue ii
iaoaioiui aeaeai. ?aiaa noieue i?eau/iue aeey caiaaeiuo iaoaioiuo nenoai
yeaiaio, eae iaoaioiue iiaa?aiiue, a ?innee ionoonoaiaae.

Ioiioaiey, naycaiiua n i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth iaoaioiuo
iiaa?aiiuo ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee, ?aaoee?othony noaoueae 15 Iaoaioiiai
caeiia ?O, Iieiaeaieai i iaoaioiuo iiaa?aiiuo, ooaa?aeaeaiiui
iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa Ieieno?ia ?O io 12 oaa?aey 1993 a. ? 122,2 a
oaeaea i?eiyouie Iaoaioiui aaaeiinoaii 16 oaa?aey 1993 a. I?aaeeaie
i?iaaaeaiey aooanoaoeee e ?aaeno?aoeee iaoaioiuo iiaa?aiiuo.3

A niioaaonoaee n i. 2 Iieiaeaiey i iaoaioiuo iiaa?aiiuo a ea/anoaa
iaoaioiiai iiaa?aiiiai iiaeao auoue aooanoiaai e ca?aaeno?e?iaai
a?aaeaeaiei ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eioi?ue:

1) eiaao iinoiyiiia ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa a ?O, aunoaa ia?aciaaiea e ia
iaiaa /ai /aou?aoeaoiee iiuo i?aeoe/aneie ?aaiou a iaeanoe io?aiu
i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe eee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai i?aaiaiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa (aaeaieao eee eiia eeoei, iieo/eaoaa ?ac?aoaiea ia
caiyoea i?aaii?eiaieoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth); 2) iaeaaeaao ciaieai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e eiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ?O, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeiaiai?ia e niaeaoaiee, iaiaoiaeeiui aeey inouanoaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe
ii caueoa i?aa ia iauaeou i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, a iauaia,
ii?aaeaeyaiii ?iniaoaioii, e niioaaonoaothueie iaaueaie eo

i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiuie ?acoeueoaoaie
eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiai yecaiaia.

Acaeiiioiioaiey iaoaioiuo iiaa?aiiuo n eeeaioaie no?iyony ia
a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaie aeiaiai?iie iniiaa, a ea/anoaa eioi?ie iau/ii
aunooiaao aeiaiai? ii?o/aiey.

Ecia?aoaoaee, eae e ana a?aaeaeaia ?innee, eiatho i?aai iauaaeeiyoueny a
nithcu, iauanoaa, annioeeaoeee e eiua iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeyo
caueou naieo i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania, oaeiaeaoai?aiey
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae naieo /eaiia e ?acaeoey oaoie/aneiai
oai?/anoaa. Ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo eao a ?innee aeaenoaotho ?acee/iua
iao/ii-oaoie/aneea iauanoaa eae ana?inneeneiai, oae e ?aaeiiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a, aeoeaii o/anoaothuea a ecia?aoaoaeueneeo ioiioaieyo e
yaeythueany eo naiinoiyoaeueiuie noauaeoaie. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiie e iiuiie
i?aaiecaoeeae oaeiai ?iaea yaeyaony Ana?inneeneia iauanoai ecia?aoaoaeae
e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?ia (AIE?).

A niioaaonoaee n Onoaaii iniiaiuie caaea/aie AIE? yaeythony: — nicaeaiea
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo e i?aaiauo oneiaee aeey i?iyaeaiey e
?aaeecaoeee oai?/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae /eaiia iauanoaa, oneeaiey eo
nioeeaeueiie caueuaiiinoe;

— ieacaiea i?aeoe/aneie iiiiue ecia?aoaoaeyi e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?ai a
?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiee eo i?aaeeiaeaiee;

— caueoa i?aa e eioa?ania /eaiia iauanoaa a noa?a eo oaoie/aneiai
oai?/anoaa.

Iauanoai aeaenoaoao ia i?eioeeiao aeia?iaieueiinoe e ?aaiii?aaey aai
/eaiia, naiioeiaine?iaaiey, naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, naiioi?aaeaiey e
iacaaeneiinoe aai i?aaiecaoeee io iieeoe/aneeo, oicyenoaaiiuo e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia.

Aeey th?eaee/aneie caueou i?aa e caeiiiuo eioa?ania ecia?aoaoaeae AIE?
nicaeaia Iauanoaaiiay einiaeoeey ii eiio?ieth ca niaethaeaieai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a iaeanoe ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa.1 Iauanoaaiiay einiaeoeey
?anniao?eaaao aeaeiau e cayaeaiey ecia?aoaoaeae e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?ia,
eanathueany ecia?aoaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, niaeaenoaoao caueoa eo
i?aa, a oii /enea iooai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa eioa?ania aaoi?ia e
i?aaiecaoeee a noaeaaiuo i?aaiao, a oaeaea a Aiaeeyoeeiiiie iaeaoa
Iaoaioiiai aaaeiinoaa.

3.I?aaa aaoi?ia ecia?aoaiee, iieaciuo iiaeaeae e i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia

I?e n?aaiaiee iiaiai Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O n ?aiaa aeaenoaiaaaoeie a NNN?
ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie ii ecia?aoaoaeuenoao iiaeao ia ia?aue acaeyae
iieacaoueny, /oi caeiiiaeaoaeue aiiaua caaue i i?aaao naieo aaoi?ia
iiauo ?ac?aaioie, nin?aaeioi/ea ana aieiaiea ia i?aaao e iaycaiiinoyo
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeae. Ii, ai-ia?auo, auaeaeaeaiea ia ia?aue ieai a
Iaoaioiii caeiia oeao?u iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey yaeyaony aiieia anoanoaaiiui
oaaii e caeiiiia?ii auoaeaao ec ia?aoiaea e iaoaioiie oi?ia io?aiu
ecia?aoaiee e ae?oaeo iauaeoia i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. Ai-aoi?uo,
nicaeaoaeyi iaoaioiniiniaiuo oaoie/aneeo iiaoanoa aia?aua
i?aaeinoaaeaia ?aaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue naiei noaoue
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeyie. A-o?aoueeo, Iaoaioiue caeii «iiiieo» ia aaoi?ao,
aa?aioe?oy ei ana iniiaiua i?aaa, eioi?ua iau/ii i?aaeinoaaeythony
?ac?aaio/eeai iaoaioiui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?acaeouo no?ai.

Eiia/ii, iaeioi?uo i?aa e eueaio, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo i?aaeiei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, ecia?aoaoaeyi a iiaii caeiia ia i?aaeinoaaeaii.
Oae, Iaoaioiue caeii ?O ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?aaa aaoi?a ia i?enaiaiea
ecia?aoaieth eiaie aaoi?a eee niaoeeaeueiiai iacaaiey, ia oiiieiaao ia
iniauo i?aaao e eueaioao ecia?aoaoaeae a o?oaeiauo, aeeeeuiuo e eiuo
ioiioaieyo. Neaaeoao eeoue o/anoue, /oi iacaaiiua e aiaeiae/iua ei i?aaa
e eueaiou ?aiaa i?aaeinoaaeyeenue ecia?aoaoaeyi a ioaao ia onooieo eie
ainoaea?noao naiiai aeaaiiai—

eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa ia eniieueciaaiea ?ac?aaioee. Nae/an, eiaaea
aaoi? ?ac?aaioee nai ?anii?yaeaaony ?acoeueoaoaie naiaai oai?/aneiai
o?oaea, aai iio?aaiinoe e eioa?anu aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youeny ca n/ao
oiaeiai eniieueciaaiey e ?aaeecaoeee i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aio aaciauo i?aa.

I?aai ia iiaea/o cayaee. I?aaeaea anaai caeii i?aaeinoaaeyao aaoi?o
ecia?aoaiey, iieaciie iiaeaee eee i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?acoea i?aai iiaeaoue
cayaeo ia auaea/o iaoaioa e noaoue iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeai (i. 1 no. 8
Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O).

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?innee enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi iiaeaoue cayaeo ia
auaea/o iaoaioa iiaeao eeoue eeoei, oai?/aneei o?oaeii eioi?iai naeaeaia
niioaaonoaothuay ?ac?aaioea, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa, oeacaiiuo a
caeiia. I?e yoii a ioee/ea, iai?eia?, io iaoaioiiai i?aa NOA, ia
o?aaoaony, /oiau cayaeoaeue aue «aeaenoaeoaeueiui e ia?aui
ecia?aoaoaeai». Aiieia aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau cayaeoaeue aue ecia?aoaoaeai,
/oi e i?aaeiieaaaaony i?e iiaea/a cayaee.

Cae?aieyy ca ecia?aoaoaeai eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai ia iiaea/o cayaee,
caeii enoiaeeo ec oiai, /oi ?ac?aaio/eeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue ia aeinoeaiooue ei oai?/aneee ?acoeueoaou.

Aiai?y i i?aaa ia iiaea/o cayaee ia auaea/o iaoaioa, ioaeii anaaaea
?acee/aoue aeaa aai noi?iiu — i?ioeannoaeueii-i?aaiaoth e
iaoa?eaeueii-i?aaiaoth. I?aai ia cayaeo a i?ioeannoaeueiii niunea
icia/aao aiciiaeiinoue ethaiai eeoea ioi?ieoue e iiaeaoue a
onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea cayaeo ia auaea/o iaoaioa. Aeaiiiio i?aao
ei??aniiiaee?oao iaycaiiinoue Iaoaioiiai aaaeiinoaa i?eiyoue ethaoth
i?aaeeueii ioi?ieaiioth cayaeo, ?anniio?aoue na e auianoe ii iae ?aoaiea
a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeaie aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. I?aai ia
cayaeo a ?anniao?eaaaiii niunea ia caaeneo iooiai, niioaaonoaoao ee a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe cayaeyaiue iauaeo onoaiiaeaiiui caeiiii e?eoa?eyi
iaoaioiniiniaiinoe.

I?aai ia cayaeo a iaoa?eaeueiii ieaia icia/aao aiciiaeiinoue
aeaenoaeoaeueiiai nicaeaoaey ?ac?aaioee eee aai i?aaii?aaiieea
aeiaeoueny ioeoeeaeueiiai i?eciaiey aeinoeaiooiai oai?/aneiai
?acoeueoaoa iaeiei ec io?aiyaiuo iauaeoia i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e
cae?aieaiey ca niaie eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa ia aai eniieueciaaiea.

I?aai ia cayaeo a iaoa?eaeueii-i?aaiaii niunea iiaeao auoue oo?a/aii,
anee ?ac?aaioea ia?anoaao auoue iaoaioiniiniaiie.

A neo/ayo, i?yii oeacaiiuo caeiiii, i?aai ia iiaea/o cayaee
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia nicaeaoaeth ?ac?aaioee, a eiui eeoeai. A /anoiinoe,
oaeei eeoeii yaeyaony ?aaioiaeaoaeue, anee ?ac?aaioea iineo neoaeaaiue
oa?aeoa? eee auiieiaia ii aai eiie?aoiiio caaeaieth e anee aeiaiai?ii
iaaeaeo iei e aaoi?ii (aaoi?aie) ia i?aaeoniio?aii eiia.

Anee ?ac?aaioea nicaeaia oai?/aneeie oneeeyie aeaoo e aieaa eeoe, i?aai
ia iiaea/o cayaee i?eiaaeeaaeeo niaianoii anai niaaoi?ai.

I?aai aaoi?noaa e i?aai ia aaoi?neia eiy. A th?eaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
aeieaea aiaeu aeeneooe?oaony aii?in i iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey aeaiiiai
i?aaa. Iaeie o/aiua naycuaatho aai iiyaeaiea oieueei n oaeoii nicaeaiey
niioaaonoaothuae ?ac?aaioee e au?aaeaieai aa a iauaeoeaiie oi?ia,
aeinooiiie aeey aini?eyoey o?aoueeo eeoe. 1 Ae?oaea niaoeeaeenou
n/eoatho, /oi i?aai aaoi?noaa aicieeaao ec neiaeiiai th?eaee/aneiai
ninoaaa, a eioi?ue ia?yaeo n nicaeaieai ?ac?aaioee aoiaeyo iiaea/a
cayaee e ?aoaiea eiiiaoaioiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia i i?eciaiee
i?aaeeiaeaiey iaoaioiniiniaiui iauaeoii i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. 2 Ia
aaeaaaynue a a?aoiaiou noi?iiieeia oie eee ae?oaie oi/ee c?aiey,
ioiaoei, /oi caeii ai anyeii neo/aa i?eciaao e io?aiyao i?aaa
nicaeaoaeae ?ac?aaioie n iiiaioa aeinoeaeaiey oai?/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa e
au?aaeaiey aai a iauaeoeaiie oi?ia, iineieueeo eiaiii n yoiai a?aiaie
iiyaeyaony iianiinoue aai i?enaiaiey ae?oaeie eeoeaie.

I?aai aaoi?noaa iineo aaniethoiue e eneeth/eoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.
Aaniethoiue oa?aeoa? i?aaa aaoi?noaa auoaeaao ec i?aaeinoaaeyaiie aaoi?o
aiciiaeiinoe o?aaiaaoue io anao o?aoueeo eeoe i?eciaiey e oaaaeaiey oiai
oaeoa, /oi ii yaeyaony ?ac?aaio/eeii niioaaonoaothuaai iauaeoa.

Eneeth/eoaeueiinoue i?aaa aaoi?noaa icia/aao, /oi ieeoi ae?oaie, e?iia
naiiai aaoi?a, ia iiaeao auoue iineoaeai i?aaa aaoi?noaa ia
oiaeaeanoaaiiue iauaeo i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe.

I?aai aaoi?noaa yaeyaony iaio/oaeaeaaiui i?aaii, ii iaoneiaeaii aai
ee/iui oa?aeoa?ii. Iii ia iaaeao auoue ia?aaeaii ae?oaiio eeoeo ie i?e
aeecie ecia?aoaoaey, ie iinea aai nia?oe. Ia?aonooiea ecia?aoaoaeai i?aa
ia iieo/aiea iaoaioa eee naiiai iaoaioa o?aoueei eeoeai icia/aao eeoue
ia?aaea/o i?aa ia eniieueciaaiea ?ac?aaioee, ii ia ia?aaea/o i?aaa
aaoi?noaa. Yoi i?aai i?eiaaeeaaeeo ecia?aoaoaeth iiaeeciaiii e
i?ae?auaaony eeoue n aai nia?oueth.

N i?aaii aaoi?noaa oanii naycaii i?aai ia aaoi?neia eiy, eioi?ia ninoieo
a iaania/aiiie caeiiii aiciiaeiinoe ecia?aoaoaey o?aaiaaoue, /oiau aai
eiy eae nicaeaoaey ?ac?aaioee oiiieiaeinue a ethauo ioaeeeaoeeyo i
nicaeaiiii ei iauaeoa. Eiy aeaenoaeoaeueiiai aaoi?a a iaycaoaeueiii
ii?yaeea oeacuaaaony a cayaea ia auaea/o iaoaioa, eoi au ie aunooiae a
ea/anoaa cayaeoaey, a oaeaea a naiii iaoaioa. *oi eanaaony ioaeeeoaiuo a
ioeoeeaeueiii atheeaoaia.

Iaoaioiiai aaaeiinoaa naaaeaiee i auaeaiiii iaoaioa auoue oiiiyiooui a
ea/anoaa oaeiaiai (no. 25 Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O). Yoi iiaia iieiaeaiea a
?inneeneii iaoaioiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, oae eae i?aaeaea eiy
ecia?aoaoaey oeacuaaeinue ai anao neo/ayo. ?acoiaaony, eiy aaoi?a ia
aeieaeii eneaaeaoueny i?e ioaeeeaoeeyo. I?aai aunooiaoue iiae
inaaaeiieiii ecia?aoaoaeyi ia i?aaeinoaaeyaony.

I?aai ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. Oaeia i?aai aicieeaao o aeaoo eaoaai?ee
aaoi?ia. Ai-ia?auo, ei iaeaaeatho aaoi?u, nicaeaaoea ?ac?aaioeo a nayce
n auiieiaieai naieo neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae eee iiaeo/aiiiai io
?aaioiaeaoaey eiie?aoiiai caaeaiey.

Ii iauaio i?aaeeo, cae?aieaiiiio a Caeiia, aaoi? ?ac?aaioee iiaeao
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iieo/aiea iniaiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, i?aainoiaeyuaai
aai iau/ioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo e ni?acia?iiai auaiaea, eioi?ay iaaeao
auoue iieo/aia io eniieueciaaiey ?ac?aaioee. Iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai
iieo/aiey yoiai iniaiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey yaeyaony niaa?oaiea
?aaioiaeaoaeai iaeiiai ec ia?a/eneaiiuo a i. 2 no. 8 Iaoaioiiai caeiia
?O th?eaee/aneeo aeaenoaee, a eiaiii: iiaea/e cayaee ia auaea/o iaoaioa
ia naia eiy, a oii /enea e oaeie cayaee, ii eioi?ie ia aoaeao iieo/aii
iaoaioa ii i?e/eiai, caaenyuei io ?aaioiaeaoaey; ia?aaea/e i?aaa ia
iiaea/o cayaee ae?oaiio eeoeo; i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i nio?aiaiee
niioaaonoaothuae ?ac?aaioee a oaeia. Anee ie iaeii ec oeacaiiuo
aeaenoaee a oa/aiea /aou?ao ianyoeaa ia niaa?oaaony, i?aai ia iniaia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea o aaoi?a ?ac?aaioee ia aicieeaao, ii ii iieo/aao
aiciiaeiinoue iiaeaoue cayaeo e iieo/eoue iaoaio ia naia eiy.

?acia? e ii?yaeie auieaou ?anniao?eaaaiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
ii?aaeaeythony niaeaoaieai iaaeaeo aaoi?ii e ?aaioiaeaoaeai.

Anee aeinoe/ue niaeaoaiey ia oaeaaony, aii?in iiaeao auoue ia?aaeai ia
?anniio?aiea noaea. I?e yoii neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi a niioaaonoaee n
i. 6 iinoaiiaeaiey Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?O «I aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea
Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O» io 23 naioya?y 1992 a. aei i?eiyoay
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia ?O i ?acaeoee ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa e
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-eiino?oeoi?neiai oai?/anoaa ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee
i?eiaiythony ioieou 1, 3, 5 noaouee 32, noaouee 33 e noaouee 34 Caeiia
NNN? «Ia ecia?aoaieyo a NNN?», ioieo 1 noaouee 21, ioieou 1,3 noaouee 22
e noaouey 23 Caeiia NNN? “I i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeao». Oeacaiiua noaouee
niaea?aeao ii?iu, aa?aioe?othuea auieaoo ?ac?aaio/eeai ecia?aoaiee e
i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ia ieaea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a ieo
ieieioia.

Aeaenoaea oeacaiiuo auoa iieiaeaiee nithciiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee iiaeoaa?aeaeaii Iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa Ieieno?ia ?O io
14 aaaonoa 1993 a. ? 822 «I ii?yaeea i?eiaiaiey ia oa??eoi?ee ?O
iaeioi?uo iieiaeaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa auaoaai NNN? ia ecia?aoaieyo e
i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeao»1 i?eiyoiai ai eniieiaiea i. 6 Iinoaiiaeaiey
Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?O io 23 naioya?y 1992 a. «I aaaaeaiee a aeaenoaea
Iaoaioiiai caeiia ?O». Oeacaiiia iinoaiiaeaiea Niaaoa Ieieno?ia ?O ia
aianei eaeeo-eeai iiauo i?eioeeieaeueiuo iiiaioia a iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee
?anniio?aiiuo auoa ii?i. Iaeiaei n aai i?eiyoeai noaei i/aaeaeiui, /oi a
neo/aa ia aeinoeaeaiey niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo aaoi?ii ?ac?aaioee e
iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeai i ?acia?a i?e/eoathuaainy ?ac?aaio/eeo
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey nii? aeieaeai ?aoaoueny ia aaca oeacaiiuo auoa i?aaee.

E?iia oiai, i?aaii ia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea iieuecothony aaoi?u oao
ecia?aoaiee e i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia, eioi?ua ii-i?aaeiaio io?aiythony
ia oa??eoi?ee ?O aaoi?neeie naeaeaoaeuenoaaie NNN? e naeaeaoaeuenoaaie
NNN? a nayce n oai, /oi iineaaeiea ia iaiaiaiu ia iaoaiou ?O.

Ia?yaeo n aaoi?aie i?aai ia iieo/aiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eiatho eeoea,
niaeaenoaiaaaoea nicaeaieth e eniieueciaaieth ecia?aoaiee e i?iiuoeaiiuo
ia?acoeia. Niaeanii no. 34 Caeiia NNN? «Ia ecia?aoaieyo a NNN?» e i.
Cao. 21 Caeiia NNN? CAEETH*AIEA A nayce n ?aniaaeii NNN? ?aoi?ia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia io?aia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a ?aieao aaeeiiai nithciiai ainoaea?noaa ieacaeanue iacaaa?oaiiie. Aieueoeinoai iacaaiiuo auoa nithciuo caeiiia aeaaea ia oniaei anooieoue a aeaenoaea, /oi, aaconeiaii, ia eaeia-oi a?aiy caoi?iiceei i?ioeann ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ?anniao?eaaaiie iaeanoe. Ia?aae auaoeie nithciuie ?anioaeeeaie, a iuia — iacaaeneiuie ainoaea?noaaie anoaea caaea/a naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?acaeoey ia/aoiai i?ioeanna. Iaeaieueoeo oniaoia ia yoii iooe aeinoeaea ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey. Iaeiia?aiaiii n nicaeaieai ii?iaoeaiie aacu a 1992—994 aa. a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee auea i?iaeaeaia aieueoay ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth e ?aoi?ie?iaaieth nenoaiu i?aaiia, caieiathueony i?aeoe/aneie ?aaioie ii io?aia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a oeaeii i?aiaeieaia oa e?eceniay neooaoeey, eioi?ay aicieeea a iaeanoe io?aiu eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a nayce n ?aniaaeii NNN?. NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIUO ENOI*IEEIA. Ieeaiei A. I?aai ecia?aoaoaey NIa. 1902. O1. Acaoea aaoi?neiai i?aaa. I., THIANEI. 1982. Aaa?eeia Y.I. Niaaoneia aaoi?neia i?aai. Ieeeoeia II.I. Aaoi?neia i?aai ia i?iecaaaeaiey iaoee, eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa. Nia?aiea aeoia I?aceaeaioa e I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O 1993 a. ? 141, ? 34, ? 29. Eeue I.E. Io?aia eioa?ania noi?ii ii aaoi?neiio aeiaiai?o. E?aniiy?ne. 1987. A?aiaiei A.E. E?eoa?ee iaoaioiniiniaiinoe ii aa?iiaeneiio iaoaioiiio i?aao // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1989. ? 12. Iaoaiou e eeoeaicee 1995 ? 6. Oiaa?iua ciaee, ciaee ianeoaeeaaiey, iaeiaiiaaiea iano i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia: Ioeoeeaeueiue atheeaoaiue Eiieoaoa ?O ii iaoaioai e oiaa?iui ciaeai. 1995. ? 5. Na?aaaa A.I. I?aai eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe a ?O. I., "Oain" 1996. -704 n. Ni: Ieeaiei A. 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N. 64. 2 Ni., iai?.: Eino?oeoeey i ii?yaeea i?inoaaeaiey ciaea io?aiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia i?iecaaaeaieyo eeoa?aoo?u, iaoee e eneonnoaa, ecaeaaaaiuo a NNN?, ooaa?aeaeaiiay Aineiiecaeaoii NNN? 3 ethey 1989 a.// Atheeaoaiue ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa NNN?. 1990. ? 5. N. 41-42. 1 Eiian A. ss. 1) E?eoa?ee oai?/anoaa a aaoi?neii i?aaa e noaeaaiie i?aeoeea. I., 1963; 2) I?iecaaaeaiey oai?/anoaa a a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa. 2 " Yoeea: Neiaa?ue / Iiae ?aae. A.A. Aaeyaaa. I., 1989. N. 239. 1 Eiian A. ss. I?iecaaaeaiey oai?/anoaa a a?aaeaeaineii i?aaa. N. 87. 2 Aaa?eeia Y.I. Niaaoneia aaoi?neia i?aai. N. 90. 3 Aaa?eeia Y.I. Ecaeaoaeuenoai e aaoi?. I., 1991. 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N. 223), aieueoeinoai o/aiuo i?eoei e aiieia iainiiaaiiiio auaiaeo i oii, /oi yoe iiiuoee iineee eneonnoaaiiue oa?aeoa?. Aeaaea noi?iiieee i?eciaiey naeaeoeeiiiuo aeinoeaeaiee iaeiie ec ?aciiaeaeiinoae ecia?aoaiee n/eoaee, /oi ?a/ue a aeaiiii neo/aa iiaea eaeoe eeoue i i?e?aaieaaiee ?acoeueoaoia naeaeoeee e oaoie/aneei ?aoaieyi a neeo i?yiiai oeacaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa (ni. iai?.: Eiceiaa O.E. I?aaiaay io?aia iiauo ni?oia ?anoaiee a NNN?: Aaoi?ao. eaiae. aeen. E„ 1981. N. 13). Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u oaea oiaaea ni?aaaaeeeai i?eiaiyee e naeaeoeeiiiui aeinoeaeaieyi oa?iei «aeieiae/aneia ?aoaiea» (ni. iai?.: Eaaaaeaa A.TH. E?eoa?ee e i?eciaee io?aiiniiniaiinoe naeaeoeeiiiuo aeinoeaeaiee a aeeaioiiaiaenoaa // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1987. ? 4. N. 26). 1 Ni., iai?.: Eaa/aiei A.E. I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea naeaeoeee.//Niaaoneia ainoaea?noai e i?aai. 1981. ? 1. N. 59; Eaaaaeaa A.TH. Aii?inu aaoi?noaa a i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee naeaeoeee // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1989. ? 4. N. 17; Aoeaea A.E. I niaaoi?noaa ia naeaeoeeiiiua aeinoeaeaiey. // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1989. ? 9. N. 9 e ae?. 2 A yoie nayce iaeuecy ia ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia i?ioeai?a/ea, eiathuaany iaaeaeo /. 2 e /. 9 Caeiia ?O «I naeaeoeeiiiuo aeinoeaeaieyo». Anee ec /. 2 no. 5 iaeiicia/ii neaaeoao, /oi i?e ionoonoaee a aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo naeaeoeeiia?ii e ?aaioiaeaoaeai niaoeeaeueiuo oeacaiee ia oi, /oi i?aai ia iieo/aiea iaoaioa nio?aiyaony ca naeaeoeeiia?ii eeai inouanoaeyaony ei e ?aaioiaeaoaeai niaianoii, iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeai noaiiaeony ?aaioiaeaoaeue, oi /anoue 9 oie aea noaouee aiceaaaao ia ?aaioiaeaoaey, iiaeathuaai cayaeo ia auaea/o iaoaioa, iaycaiiinoue iiaeoaa?aeeoue iaee/ea aeiaiai?a, ioaa/athuaai o?aaiaaieth /. 2 no. 5, n aaoi?ii naeaeoeeiiiiai aeinoeaeaiey. Oeacaiiia i?ioeai?a/ea aeieaeii auoue iaeiicia/ii ?ac?aoaii a iieueco /. 2 no. 5 eae ioaa/athuae niuneo aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. 1 Ni.: I?aaeea ninoaaeaiey e iiaea/e cayaee ia auaea/o iaoaioa ia naeaeoeeiiiia aeinoeaeaiea, ooa. 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I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe. E. 1989. N. 19-20. 1 Ni. iai?.: Oeacaiey i ii?yaeea ninoaaeaiey, iiaea/e e ?anniio?aiey cayaeaiey ia ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neia i?aaeeiaeaiea, ooa. Aineiiecia?aoaiee NNN? 23 aeaeaa?y 1982 a. // Atheeaoaiue ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ieienoa?noaa e aaaeiinoaa NNN?. 1984. ? 8. N. 16-25. 1 Ni. iai?.: Eino?oeoeey i ii?yaeea auieaou aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca ioe?uoey, ecia?aoaiey e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neea i?aaeeiaeaiey, ooa. Aineiiecia?aoaiee NNN? 15 yiaa?y 1974 a. // Nai?iee ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ii ecia?aoaoaeuenoao e ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee. I., 1983. N. 315-324. 1 Ni., iai?.: Niaaoneia a?aaeaeaineia i?aai/Iiae ?aae. A.O. Ianeiaa, A.A. Iooeeia: A 2 /. *. 1. Oa?ueeia, 1993. N. 248 e ae?. 2 Ni., iai?.: Aeenaeeei I.O. I?aaiio?aieoaeueiua ii?iu: Iiiyoea, aeaeu, no?oeoo?a // Caueoa noauaeoeaiuo i?aa e a?aaeaeaineia noaeii?iecaiaenoai / Ioa. ?aae. I.O. Aeenaeeei. ss?ineaaeue, 1977; e ae?. 1 Aooiaa A. E.. E. iiiyoeth iaoaiecia caueou noauaeoeaiuo i?aa / Noauaeoeaiia i?aai: I?iaeaiu inouanoaeaiey e caueou. Aeaaeeainoie, 1983. N. 10. 1 Eeue I.E. Io?aia eioa?ania noi?ii ii aaoi?neiio aeiaiai?o. E?aniiy?ne,1987. N. 130. 1 Caeiiii ?O «I i?aaiaie io?aia i?ia?aii aeey YAI e aac aeaiiuo» ?acia? eiiiainaoeee onoaiiaeai a i?aaeaeao io 5000 aei 50000-e?aoiiai ?acia?a ieieiaeueiie ca?ieaou. Iineieueeo Caeii ?O «Ia aaoi?neii i?aaa e niaaeiuo i?aaao» i?eiyo iicaeiaa, neaaeoao enoiaeeoue ec onoaiiaeaiiiai ei ?acia?a eiiiainaoeee. 1 Ni„ iai?.: Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiiaaioeee ia aaoi?neii i?aaa: Eiiiaioa?ee. I., 1982; Aiaoneaaneee I.I. O/anoea NNN? a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa. I., 1974; Iaoaaaa TH.A. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiiaaioeee ii aaoi?neiio i?aao. I., 1978; aai aea. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa. I„ 1987; Eociaoeia I.I. Io?aia aeoa?neeo i?aa a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii /anoiii i?aaa. I., 1986 e ae?. 1 Iiae?. ni.: Iaoaaaa TH.A. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay io?aia aaoi?neeo i?aa. I., 1987. N. 149-159. 2 NI NNN?. 1990. ? 30. No. 143. 1 Ni., iai?.: Ne?eiei A. Io?aia i?aa ecia?aoaoaeae e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?ia. I„ 1982. N. 75-76. 2 Ni., iai?.: O?oaieeia I.ss. Caueoa i?aa ecia?aoaoaeae e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?ia a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1985. ? 4. N. 25; *o?eeia A.A. Neiai i?ieo?i?a // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1991. ? 5. N. 15—16. 1 Ni., iai?.: *a?oeia A.I. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiey i?aa iiaaoi?ia // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1987. ? 12. N. 15—16. 2 Ni., iai?.: Iaieioa E.Y. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiey i?aa ecia?aoaoaeae // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1986. ? 8. N. 17-18; A?aiaiei A.E. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiey a noa?a ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1990. ? 9. N. 8— 9; e ae?. 1 Ni.: Ai?eaiei N.A.: 1) Ia?eaeneay eiiaaioeey e i?aaiaay io?aia oeacaiee e iaeiaiiaaiee iano i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia // Aii?inu ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa. 1991. ? 5. N. 30; 2) I?aaiaay io?aia iaeiaiiaaiee iano i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia. I., 1994. N. 38. 1 E niaeaeaieth, Caeii ?O «I naeaeoeeiiiuo aeinoeaeaieyo», a?aoauee, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, iiiaeanoaii th?eaeeei-oaoie/aneeo iaaei?aaioie, aeaao i?ioeai?a/eaia ?aoaiea yoiai aii?ina, /oi aeaeii ec niiinoaaeaiey no. 21 e /. 3 no. 28. 2 Aa?iyoii, /oi oi aea naiia aeaeaee neacaoue ninoaaeoaee Caeiia ?O «I naeaeoeeiiiuo aeinoeaeaieyo», caienaaoea a /. 1 no. 23, /oi ethaia eeoei, eniieuecothuaa naeaeoeeiiiia aeinoeaeaiea n ia?ooaieai o?aaiaaiee caeiia, n/eoaaony aeiiaiui a ia?ooaiee i?aa iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaey. PAGE PAGE 42

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