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Стратегические направления в развитии конкурентоспособности фирмы

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Ana aieaa i/aaeaeiui noaiiaeony oi, /oi aeaaiie oa?aeoa?ie /a?oie
iiauo nenoai aioo?eoe?iaiiiai oi?aaeaiey aeieaeia noaoue i?eaioaoeey ia
aeieain?i/ioth ia?niaeoeao, i?iaaaeaiea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee,aeeaa?neoeeaoeeth iia?aoeee,eiiiaaoeeiiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue, iaeneiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe
ia?niiaea. Aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey, nie?auaiea o?iaiae a aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey,
i?iaeaeaeaiea ?aaioieeia e eo iieaoa a caaeneiinoe io ?aaeueiuo
?acoeueoaoia noaioo iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie eciaiaiee a aiia?aoa
oi?aaeaiey.

Aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii aeinoeaeaiey aunieiai o?iaiy eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe,
eae ioia/aaony ai iiiaeo enneaaeiaaieyo, inoaaony eiioeaio?aoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa, /oi iiaeeyao ia nie?auaiea oaiaeaioeee e ia?aciaaieth
aeaaioneeo i?iiuoeaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee.

Ia?yaeo n eiioeaio?aoeeae o?iaaiue eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny oaeeie oaeoi?aie, eae ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee e noeioee?iaaiea noaiiaeaiey iiauo iio?aaiinoae. N ieie
naycaiu oaiaeaioeee i?iaeieaeaiey ?inoa cao?ao ia enneaaeiaaoaeueneea e
iiuoiua ?ac?aaioee,?aeeaio e ia?eaoeia.

Eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao aiaeec eiie?aoiuo oaaia e aeaenoaee, eioi?ua
i?aaei?eieiatho i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e oaoie/aneea eeaea?u auniei ?acaeouo
ainoaea?noa aeeyoiai, /oiau inouanoaeoue i/a?aaeiie ?uaie a“ai?ueaa ca
eeaea?noai”.

Yoi i?aaeaea anaai ioiineony e iinoiyiiiio iaiiaeaieth anni?oeiaioa
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, aacinoaiiai/iie ?ac?aaioea e auno?iio inaiaieth
iiauo ia?acoeia ecaeaeee e iaeiia?aiaiiiio ia?aueaaieth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, iiauoaieth aeaeinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
yooaeoeaiinoe, nieaeaieth anao aeaeia ecaea?aeae e cao?ao. Iniaia ianoi
caieiaao iaania/aiea noaaeeueiiai ?inoa ea/anoaa e iaaeaaeiinoe iiauo
ecaeaeee i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii nieaeaiee oeai ia iiaua aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee.
Eo?n aa?aony ia iiauoaiea i?iecoaiaenoaaiiie, oai?/aneie ioaea/e e
aeoeaiinoe ia?niiaea i?e i?eaioaoeee ia oaeaeueiia nie?auaiea
/eneaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aaioieeia. Ana yoi
i?aeoe/anee icia/aao auione eae iiaeii aieueoaai eiee/anoaa iiauo,
iieuecothueony iiauoaiui ni?nii ecaeaeee, oeaiu ia eioi?ua aoaeoo ieaea,
/ai o eiieo?aioia, a ea/anoaaiiua e yenieoaoaoeeiiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e
iaaeaaeiinoue- auoa. Ia aeeaeaeoea 10-15 eao iiiaea e?oiiua eiiiaiee
oaea aua?aee oo “aieoaaioth iaei/eo”,eioi?ay, ii eo iiaieth, iicaieeo a
e?ao/aeoea n?iee iaania/eoue oneiaey aeey ?aceiai iiauoaiey o?iaiy
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe. Aeey ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e i?aaeiieaaaaony

inouanoaeoue oeaeue eiiieaen oaoie/aneeo, e i?aaiecaoeeiiii-

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oi?aaeai/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee. Eo ?aaeecaoeey e aeieaeia ii?aaeaeyoue aanue
eo?n aeaenoaee a iaic?eiii ia?eiaea.

Eiia/iui ?acoeueoaoii aeieaeii noaoue nicaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
nenoai iiaiai iieieaiey, eioi?ua aoaeoo ?aaioaoue a ?aaeeia oae
iacuaaaiiai iiaiaaaaeai/aneiai eiiaaea?a. Nooue yoiai iiaeoiaea
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau iaoeaeeoue i?aaei?eyoey, ai-ia?auo, ia
iinoiyiiia aiaae?aiea a i?iecaiaenoai iiauo, aieaa niaa?oaiiuo ecaeaeee;
ai-aoi?uo, ia iaoeeiiiia nie?auaiea anao aeaeia cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoeee; a-o?aoueeo, ia iiauoaiea ea/anoaaiiuo e iio?aaeoaeueneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee i?e nieaeaiee oeai ia auioneaaiua ecaeaeey.

Ii nouanoao noaaeony caaea/a iauaaeeieoue a ?aieao oicyenoaaiiuo
eiiieaenia iiaiai oeia iaeeinoue e aaeaioeaiinoue iaeeina?eeiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa ieceeie ecaea?aeeaie e aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoueth
o?oaea ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. N/eoaaony, /oi oaeia ni/aoaiea iicaieeo
iaania/eoue ia oieueei noaaeeecaoeeth, ii e nieaeaiea ecaea?aeae ai anao
caaiueyo i?iecaiaenoaaiii – nauoiaie oeaii/ee i?e iinoiyiiii aiaae?aiee
a na?eeiia i?iecaiaenoai iiauo ecaeaeee, ?anoe?aiee iiiaieeaoo?u
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee e eciaiaiee anni?oeiaioa, /oi e aeieaeii a eoiaa
nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey iiaaaeu a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa.

Aeey oiai /oiau a iaeaieaa ei?ioeea n?iee n ieieiaeueiuie aeiaeaieyie
aueoe ia iaia/aiiua ?oaaaee, iiiaea eiiiaiee niae?athony nin?aaeioi/eoue
oneeey ia o?ao aeaaiuo iai?aaeaieyo: eiiieaeniie aaoiiaoecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia; niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?i e iaoiaeia
oi?aaeaiey, aeeth/ay i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa e ?acaeoea
oaoiieiae/aneie aacu; ?acaeoee eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii
iiauoaiee eaaeeoeeaoeee, aeoeaiinoe e eiyeueiinoe eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea.
Eiaiii oaeay eiieo?aioeey ?ano?nia n/eoaaony iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiie aeey
oiai, /oiau nicaeaoue aaeaioeaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua nenoaiu iiaiai
iieieaiey.

Iioeann iiaeeoeeaoeee i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey,
eiie?aoiuo oi?i e iaoiaeia ?oeiaiaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaaiii-nauoiauie
iia?aoeeyie ii nooe aeaea oaea ia/aeny e ?acaeaaaony ii ?yaeo eiie?aoiuo
iai?aaeaiee. A ea/anoaa iniiaiuo ec ieo iiaeii iacaaoue neaaeothuea.

Ai-ia?auo, inouanoaeaiea aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e
nauoiauo iia?aoeee. N yoie oeaeueth a ?aieao e?oiiaeoeo eaiiaiee oaea
nicaeaiu eee nicaeathony iieoaaoiiiiiua eee aaoiiiiiua ioaeaeaiey,
iieiinoueth ioaa/athuea ca i?eauee e oauoee. Ia yoe ioaeaeaiey
aiceaaaaony any iieiioa ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca i?aaiecaoeeth
i?iecaiaenoaaiii – nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. A ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoii
i?aaia ei?ii?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey eiioeaio?e?oaony ?aoaiea oieueei
no?aoaae/aneeo aii?inia ?acaeoey,naycaiiuo n e?oiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie.

Eaaeaeia ioaeaeaiea iieiinoueth oeiaine?oao naith aeayoaeueiinoue,
anooiaao

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ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa a ia?oia?neea ioiioaiey n ethauie i?aaiecaoeeyie.

Ai-aoi?uo, iiaiaaaaeai/aneay yeniainey, iiene iiauo ?uieia e
aeeaa?neoeeaoeey iia?aoeee. Yoi iai?aaeaiea ?aaeecoaony /a?ac nicaeaiea
a ?aieao e?oiiuo eaiiaiee iiaiaaaaeai/aneeo oe?i, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia
i?iecaiaenoai e naiinoiyoaeueiia i?iaeaeaeaiea ia ?uieao iiauo ecaeaeee
e oaoiieiaee e aeaenoaothueo ia i?eioeeiao “?eneiaiai oeiaine?iaaiey”.
“Oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiie i?aeoeeie e?oiiuo eaiiaiee noaiiaeony nicaeaiea
a iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo iaeanoyo iaaieueoeo i?aaei?eyoee, iaoeaeaiiuo
ia caaiaaaiea a e?ao/aeoea n?iee i?i/iuo iiceoeee ia ?uiea1”.

Yoe i?aaei?ayoey iiaoo nicaeaaaoueny eae naiinoiyoaeueiuie, oae e ii
niaeaoaieth n ae?oaeie eiiiaieyie, eae au ia “eiiia?aoeaiuo” ia/aeao. A
oeacaiiuo annioeeaoeeyo iiaoo i?eieiaoue o/anoea nioie oe?i.

A-o?aoueeo aeaath?ie?aoecaoeey, iinoiyiiia iiauoaiea oai?/aneie e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ioaea/e ia?niiaea. Aeey yoiai i?eieiathony naiua
?aciiia?aciua ia?u, aeeth/ay ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeoeee n?aaee ia?niiaea e
ia?aciaaiea i?aaei?eyoee, iaoiaeyueony a eieeaeoeaiie nianoaaiiinoe eo
?aaioieeia.

____________________________________________________

1. Aeaeaenii A?aenii ieaaeoee, Ea?ea I’Aeaee- “Aiia?eeaineee

iaiaaeaeiaio ia ii?aa XXI aaea”I.,Yeiiiieea 1991

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INIIAIss *ANOUe

I Iiaeoiaeu e oi?ie?iaaieth iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey

Eiioeaioeey no?aoaae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyao no?aoaae/aneia
oi?aaeaiea a aeaea aaaeiaeoae ninoaaeythuae aeecie nia?aiaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee, eanathuaeny o?ao oaeeo aeeciaiii aaaeiuo, eeth/aauo noa?
i?aaiecaoeee, eae au?aaioea e inouanoaeaiea no?aoaaee ?acaeoey e
iiaaaeaiey ai aiaoiae noa?a, au?aaioea e inouanoaeaiea no?aoaaee a
ioiioaiee nicaeaaaaiiai i?aaiecaoeeae i?iaeoeoa e, iaeiiaoe, au?aaioea e
?aaeecaoeey no?aoaaee a ioiioaiee ia?niiaea i?aaiecaoeee.

Ii?aaeaeaiea no?aoaaee aeey oe?iu i?eioeeieaeueii caaeneo io
eiie?aoiie neooaoeee, a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony oe?ia. Iaeiaei nouanoaotho
iauea iiaeoiaeu e oi?ioee?iaaieth no?aoaaee e iaeioi?ua iauea ?aiee, a
eioi?ua aienuaathony no?aoaaee.

Eae auei neacaii auoa, a naiii iauai aeaea no?aoaaey yoi aaia?aeueiia
iai?aaeaiea aeaenoaey i?aaiecaoeee, neaaeiaaiea eioi?iio a aeieain?i/iie
ia?niaeoeaa aeieaeii i?eaanoe aa e oeaee. Oaeia iiieiaiea no?aoaaee
ni?aaaaeeeai oieueei i?e ?anniio?aiee aa?oiaai o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey
aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy a ea?a?oee no?aoaaey aa?oiaai o?iaiy i?aa?auaaony a
oeaeue, oioy aeey aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy iia yaeyaony n?aaenoaii. I?e
ii?aaeaeaiee no?aoaaee oe?iu ?oeiaiaenoai noaeeeaaaony n o?aiy iniiaiuie
aii?inaie, naycaiiuie n iieiaeaieai oe?iu ia ?uiea:

– eaeie aecian i?ae?aoeoue;

– eaeie aecian i?iaeieaeeoue;

– a eaeie aecian ia?aeoe;

Yoi cia/eo, /oi no?aoaaey eiioeaio?e?oao aieiaiea e naycaia n oai:

– /oi i?aaiecaoeey aeaeaao e /aai ia aeaeaao;

– /oi aieaa aaaeii e /oi iaiaa aaaeii a inouanoaeyaiie i?aaiecaoeeae
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nouanoaotho o?e iniiaiua iaeanoe au?aaioee no?aoaaee oe?iu ia ?uiea.

Ia?aay iaeanoue naycaia n eeaea?noaii a ieieiecaoeee ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeaiiue oei no?aoaaee naycai n oai, /oi eaiiaiey
aeiaeaaaony naiuo ieceeo ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee naiae
i?iaeoeoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai iia iiaeao ca n/ao ieceeo oeai ia
aiaeiae/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth aeiaeoueny caaiaaaiey aieueoae aeiee ?uiea.
Oe?iu, ?aaeecothuea oaeie oei no?aoaaee, aeieaeiu eiaoue oi?iooth
i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa e niaaaeaiey, oi?iooth oaoiieiae/aneoth e
eiaeaia?ii-eiino?oeoi?neoth aaco, a oaeaea oi?iooth nenoaio
?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee, o.a. , /oiau aeiaeaaoueny iaeiaiueoeo
ecaea?aeae,

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ia aunieii o?iaia aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny ana oi, /oi naycaii n

naaanoieiinoueth i?iaeoeoeee. Ia?eaoeia aea i?e aeaiiie no?aoaaee ia
aeieaeai auoue auniei ?acaeo.

Aoi?ay iaeanoue au?aaioee no?aoaaee naycaia ni niaoeeaeecaoeeae a
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee. A yoii neo/aa oe?ia aeieaeia inouanoaeyoue

aunieiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e ia?eaoeia aeey oiai, /oiau
noaiiaeoueny eeaea?ii a i?iecaiaenoaa naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
oiio, /oi iio?aaeoaee auae?atho aeaiioth ia?eo, aeaaea anee oeaia e
aeinoaoi/ii aunieay. Oe?iu ?aaeecothuea yoio oei no?aoaaee eiatho
aunieee iioaioeeae aeey i?iaaaeaiey IEIE?, eiatho i?ae?aniuo
aeecaeia?ia, i?ae?anioth nenoaio iaania/aiey aunieiai ea/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea ?acaeooth nenoaio ia?eaoeiaa.

O?aouey iaeanoue ii?aaeaeaiey no?aoaaee ioiineony e oeenaoeee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea e eiioeaio?aoeee oneeee oe?iu ia aua?aiiii
?uii/iii naaiaioa. A yoii neo/aa oe?ia ia no?aieoueny ?aaioaoue ia anai
?uiea, a ?aaioaao ia aai /aoei ii?aaeaeaiiii naaiaioa, aeineiiaeueii
auyniyy iio?aaiinoe ?uiea a ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeia i?iaeoeoeee. A aeaiiii
neo/aa oe?ia iiaeao no?aieoueny e nieaeaieth ecaea?aeae eeai aea
i?iaiaeeoue iieeoeeo niaoeeaeecaoeee a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoa.
Aiciiaeii e niaiauaiea yoeo aeaoo iiaeoiaeia. Iaeiaei niaa?oaiii
iaycaoaeueiui aeey i?iaaaeaiey no?aoaaee o?aoueaai aeaea yaeyaony oi,
/oi oe?ia no?ieo naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia aiaeeca iio?aaiinoae eeeaioia
ii?aaeaeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea, o.a., aeieaeia a naieo iaia?aieyo
enoiaeeoue ia ec iio?aaiinoae ?uiea aiiaua, a ec iio?aaiinoae aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eee aeaaea eiie?aoiuo eeeaioia.

Iaoiaeynue a eiieo?aioiii ie?oaeaiee, oe?iu i?eaaaatho e iiiaeanoao
?acee/iuo oi?i e iaoiaeia eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau, ca/anooth aeaeaei
auoiaeyueo ca i?aaeaeu o?aaeeoeeiiiie eiieo?aioeee i?iaeoeoii. Iaeiaei
cia/aiea e ?ieue eiieo?aioeee i?iaeoeoii a iauae eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa
oe?iu ia oiaiueoaaony. Aieaa oiai, eiaiii eiieo?aioeey i?iaeoeoii a
eiia/iii n/aoa yaeyaony ?aoathuae aeey aeieain?i/iiai auaeeaaiey oe?iu.

Ia?aoeiny e eiie?aoiui i?eia?ai.

Aeieaia a?aiy n/eoaeinue, /oi noia?ei?ii?aoeey “Aeaeaia?ae iioi?n” ia
iiaeao auoue iecaa?aiooa ieeaeeie neeaie, ?acaa /oi oieueei iiuueth
ainoaea?noaa. “N/eoaeinue, /oi “Aeaeaia?ae iioi?n” ianoieueei iiuia, /oi
ae ia no?aoia ieeaeay eiieo?aioeey. Yeiiiie/aneay iiuue eiiiaiee
iicaieyea ae iacia/aoue oeaiu ia eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee, aeecaee,
a?ociaeee, oieiaeeeueieee e i?i/ea i?aaeeaaaaiua ath oiaa?u e auoue
oaa?aiiie, /oi ieeaeie iieoiaoaeue ia a ninoiyiee ie/aai eciaieoue,
ioeacaaoenue io a? oneoa2”. E aio oaia?ue “Aeaeaia?ae iioi?n” ieacaeanue
ia a?aie

2. I.N. Aeoaineee – “No?aoaae/aneia oi?aaeaiea” – Ecaeaoaeuenoai
Iineianeiai Oieaa?neoaoa 1995

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eaoano?iou. E aia?eeaineia ainoaea?noai iuoaaony nianoe a? io iieiiai
e?aoa. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie oaeie iaoaii?oicu ninoieo a oii, /oi
i?iaeoeoeey oe?iu onooieea a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa oiaa?ai yiiineeo
aaoiiiaeeueiuo oe?i.

A oaia?ue n/eoath aiciiaeiui e oeaeaniia?aciui i?eaanoe i?eia?
eiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e?oiiiai ?inneeneiai eiiia?/aneiai aaiea
“?inneeneee e?aaeeo”.

A no?aoaaee ?acaeoey ?anoouaai eiiia?/aneiai aaiea “?inneeneee
e?aaeeo” aieueoia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony ?anoe?aieth naoe oeeeaeia aaiea.
Ca ia?eiae n ia?oa 1993 a. naoue oeeeaeia aaiea aic?inea aei o?eaeoeaoe
iaeiiai. Iniiaiay /anoue oeeeaeia ?aniieaaaaony a Iineaa. Iaeiaei aaie
eiaao 12 oeeeaeia a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao ?innee, a eiaiii a Iiaeiineiauea
Ai?iiaaea, I?ea, A?aonea, Iiaineae?nea, No?aooa e Iaaaaeaia. Oeeeaeu
ioe?uee 9201 n/ao i?aaiecaoeeyi e 17060 n/aoia oece/aneei eeoeai. A
niioaaonoaee n iieeoeeie aaiea ?aaioo n ianaeaieai aaaeoo oieueei
oeeeaeu.

A iniiaiii aaiee no?aiyony ioe?uaaoue oeeeaeu a oao ?aaeiiao, aaea
“e?ooyony” aieueoea aeaiueae e aaea iiaeii iaeoe e?oiiuo eeeaioia, o.a.,
iie auoiaeyo ia oi?ioea a oeiainiaii niunea ?uiee e iuoathony iaeoe ia
yoeo ?uieao eeeaioia.

Ioee/eoaeueiie aea iniaaiiinoueth iiaeoiaea aaiea “?inneeneee
e?aaeeo” e nicaeaieth ?aaeiiaeueiie naoe oeeeaeia yaeyaony oi, /oi
oeeeaeu ioe?uaathony a caaeneiinoe io iio?aaiinoe aaaeoueo ?aaeiiaeueiuo
eeeaioia aaiea eee aea aai aeoeeiia?ia, yaeythueony a iniiaiii e?oiiuie
i?iiuoeaiiuie no?oeoo?aie. I?e yoii aaie ia oieueei ioe?uaaao oeeeaeu a
ianoao ?aniieiaeaiey e?oiiuo eeeaioia ii e ioaeaao ?oeiaiaenoai yoeie
oeeeaeaie ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi i?aaei?eyoee, e ianeoaeeaaieth eioi?uo
i?eaycuaaeinue nicaeaiea yoiai oeeeaea. Oaeei ia?acii aaie nicaeaao ia
oieueei i?i/ioth oieth n aaaeoueie ?aaeiiaeueiuie eeeaioaie, ii e ni
naycaiiuie n ieie iinoaaueeaie, iio?aaeoaeyie e ae?oaeie aeaeiauie
ia?oia?aie.

A niioaaonoaee ni no?aoaaeae ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey aaiea
“?inneeneee e?aaeeo” oeeeaeu iaeaaeatho oe?ieeie i?aaaie a i?iaaaeaiee
naiae ?aaiou. A /anoiinoe, iie iaaeaeythony oe?ieeie i?aaaie a
inouanoaeaiee e?aaeeoiaaiey, oioy a oi aea a?aiy eo aeayoaeueiinoue ii
i?eaea/aieth aeaiiceoia e iaaeaaieianeeo e?aaeeoia aeieaeia auoue /aoei
neii?aeeie?iaaia n iieeoeeie aaiea a yoie iaeanoe.

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II Iniiaiua iiiaiou iiaeeecaoeee ?ano?nia

Ia?yaeo ni no?aoaae/aneeie eciaiaieyie e nicaeaieai a i?aaiecaoeee
iaiaoiaeeiiai eeeiaoa aaaeiie caaea/ae, i?eoiaeeony ?aoaoue ?oeiaiaenoao
i?aaiecaoeee ia noaaeee auiieiaiey no?aoaaee, yaeyaony oi?ie?iaaiea e
iiaeeecaoeey ?ano?nia i?aaiecaoeee e aa /aeiaa/aneiai iioaioeeaea aeey
inouanoaeaiey no?aoaaee.

Nouanoaoao aeaa i/aiue aaaeiuo iiiaioa a aii?ina no?aoaaee
eniieueciaaiey /aeiaa/aneiai iioaioeeaea. Ai-ia?auo, aaaeiaeoei oneiaeai
inouanoaeaiey no?aoaaee yaeyaony i?eaa?aeaiiinoue, i?aaeaiiinoue /eaiia
i?aaiecaoeee oiio aeaeo, eioi?ia aaaeao i?aaiecaoeey, a /anoiinoe aeaeo
inouanoaeaiey no?aoaaee, ?aaeecoaiie i?aaiecaoeeae. ?acaeoue /oanoai
i?eaa?aeaiiinoe aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii. Ia noaaeee auiieiaiey no?aoaaee
?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii noa?aoueny naeaeaoue ana, /oiau o /eaiia
i?aaiecaoeee au?aaioaeinue eae iiaeii aieaa onoie/eaia aini?eyoee
no?aoaaee i?aaiecaoeee eae naiaai ee/iiai aeaea. Ai-aoi?uo, oniao
inouanoaeaiey no?aoaaee ai iiiaii caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei /eaiai
i?aaiecaoeee i?enoua no?aieaiea e aeinoeaeaieth ia naiai ?aai/ai ianoa
iaeeo/oeo ?acoeueoaoia. Oiaiea oi?ioi ?aaioaoue e no?aieaiea ?aaioaoue
eo/oa yaeythony oaie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ethaeae, eioi?ua anaaaea aeieaeiu
iaoiaeeoueny a oeaio?a aieiaiey ?oeiaiaenoaa e, a /anoiinoe, aeieaeiu
auoue i?aaeiaoii iniaiai aieiaiey ia noaaeee auiieiaiey no?aoaaee.

“I?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey iiaeeecaoeee ?ano?nia ia/eiaaony n oiai, /oi
iaoaieci eniieueciaaiey ?ano?niiai iioaioeeaea i?aaiecaoeee i?eaiaeeony
a niioaaonoaea n inouanoaeyaiie no?aoaaeae aeey oiai, /oiau aunoaa
?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii auei i?eaanoe oa?aeoa? e iai?aaeaiiinoue
aeayoaeueiinoe ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee a niioaaonoaea n
caaea/aie ?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee.”3 Aei ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee,
inouanoaeythueo ?oeiaiaenoai aeaeaeaiea ?ano?nia aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee,
aeieaeiu auoue aeiaaaeaiu iiaua caaea/e. Ii ia oieueei. Aaaeii
ono?aieoue nii?ioeaeaiea n eo noi?iiu, aicieeathuaa a nayce n
i?iaaaeaieai eciaiaiey, e oaaaeeoue eo a iaiaoiaeeiinoe yooaeoeaiiai
o/anoey a inouanoaeaiee no?aoaaee e i?iaaaeaiey aeey yoiai
niioaaonoaothuae iiaeaioiaeoaeueiie ?aaiou e eciaiaiee.

Iniiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ii iiaeeecaoeee ?ano?nia yaeyaony ?ani?aaeaeaiea
?ano?nia i?aaiecaoeee ii ioaeaeueiui ninoaaeythuei no?aoaaee. Aaaeiaeoei
oneiaeai yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia e niioaaonoaaiii
yooaeoeaiiai inouanoaeaiey no?aoaaee yaeyaony eo

__________________________________________

3. I.N. Aeoaineee – “No?aoaae/aneia oi?aaeaiea” – Ecaeaoaeuenoai
Iineianeiai Oieaa?neoaoa 1995

7

i?aaeeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ai a?aiaie. Oae eae aiaoiyy n?aaea aeeiaie/ia

oiio, /oi i?aaiecaoeey iioa?ieo e?ao n ?aaeecaoeeae naiae no?aoaaee,
aeaaea anee iia auea i/aiue oi?ioi ?ac?aaioaia. Iiyoiio aeey oiai, /oiau
ecaaaeaoue i?iaaea i?e ?aaeecaoeee no?aoaaee ia noaaeee aa auiieiaiey,
?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii i?aaieciauaaoue i?aaeeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia i?aaiecaoeee – oaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea, i?e eioi?ii
anaaaea a ioaeiue iiiaio eiaeenue au iaiaoiaeeiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa.

Aeey yoiai ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii onoaiiaeoue no?aoaae/aneea i?eaioe?u
eniieueciaaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua oeene?otho oi, ia eaeea
oeaee iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny cao?aou, e oi, eoaea aeaiueae ia neaaeoao
aeeaaeuaaoue. Aeaeaa ia noaaeee auiieiaiey aeieaeia auoue
i?iaiaeece?iaaia iio?aaiinoue a aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao ioaeaeueiuo /anoae
i?aaiecaoeee aeey ?aoaiey ioaeaeueiuo caaea/ e auiieiaiey ooieoeee,
ii?aaeaeaiu i?ei?eoaou a ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa. I?ei?eoaou
onoaiaaeeaathony oaeei ia?acii, /oiau oeiaine?iaaiea a iaeaieueoae ia?a
niinianoaiaaei inouanoaeaieth no?aoaaee.

I?ioeann iiaeeecaoeee ?ano?nia ia noaaeee auiieiaiey no?aoaaee
i?aaeiieaaaao ia?yaeo n yooaeoeaiui ?ani?aaeaeaieai ?ano?nia oaeaea
ioeaieo e oaea?aeaiea enoi/ieeia iinooieaiey eaieoaea. ?oeiaiaenoai ia
oieueei aeieaeii ciaoue i oao enoi/ieeao, eioi?ua iii iiaeao
eniieueciaaoue aeey iieo/aiey aeaiaa, i aiciiaeiinoyo e ia?aie/aieyo ia
ec eniieueciaaiea, i noieiinoe eaieoaea, ii e aeaeaoue ana aiciiaeiia
aeey oiai, /oiau nio?aiyoue yoe enoi/ieee e ia?aoaoue iiaua, anee yoi
iaiaoiaeeii aeey inouanoaeaiey no?aoaaee.

Iniiaiui eino?oiaioii eniieuecoaiui aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia,
yaeyaony ninoaaeaiea e eniieiaiea athaeaeaoa, eioi?ue iiaeao eanaoueny
ia oieueei aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, ii e caiania, eaieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa,
i?iaeaae e o.ae.

Auiieiaiea anaaaea yaeyaony naiie neiaeiie noaaeeae a ethaii
i?ioeanna. Eeth/aaay ?ieue a auiieiaiee no?aoaaee i?eiaaeeaaeeo
?oeiaiaenoao i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao aeaa noia?caaea/e aeey
i?aaei?eyoey: i?iaaaeaiea no?aoaae/aneeo eciaiaiee e iiaeeecaoeeth
iioaioeeaea i?aaiecaoeee ia inouanoaeaiea no?aoaaee.

Oe?ia, a?inathuay aucia ?uii/iiio ie?oaeaieth, aeieaeia auoue
aeinoaoi/ii neeueiie, ii ia caieiathuae iiceoeee eeaea?a. Iniiaiay
no?aoaae/aneay oeaeue ?inoa oaeiai ?iaea oe?i – caoaao aeiiieieoaeueiuo
/anoae ?uiea ca n/ao ioai?auaaiey eo o ae?oaeo oe?i. I?e ia?aoiaea e
?aaeecaoeee aeaiiie oeaee oe?ia aeieaeia /aoei ii?aaeaeeoue aeey naay o
eiai iia niae?aaony ioaiaauaaoue /anoue ?uiea.

Aiciiaeiu aeaa auai?a:

– aoaea ia eeaea?a;

8

– aoaea ia aieaa neaaiai e iaeeiai eiieo?aioa;

Aoaeo ia eeaea?a oe?ia iiaeao ia/eiaoue oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee o
iaa eiathony yaiua eiieo?aioiua i?aeiouanoaa, a o eeaea?a iaaeinoaoee,
eioi?ua oe?ia iiaeao eniieueciaaoue a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa. I?e yoii
oe?ia ia iaycaoaeueii auae?aao eiaiaoth aoaeo. Aeey yoiai iieuecothony
oe?ieei niaeo?ii caaoaee?iaaiiuo ia?.

I?e aiaeeca niiniaia e ia? y au auaeaeee 5 iiaeoiaeia.

Ia?aue iiaeoiae ninoieo a oii, /oi /oi eiioi?a i?aaei?eieiaao ioe?uoue
i?yiie oaea? ii eeaea?o. A yoii neo/aa eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa eaeao ii
i?eioeeio “neea ia neeo”. Oe?ia i?aaei?eieiaao aoaeo ia a iai?aaeaiee
neaauo noi?ii eeaea?a, a a iai?aaeaiee neeueiuo, /oiau nie?ooeoue aai
oai, aaea ii n/eoaaony neeueiui e ii eeaee?oao. A oaeie noaaoea iau/ii
iiaaaeaeaao oio o eiai aieueoa ?ano?nia e eoi iaeaaeaao neeueiuie
i?aeiouanoaaie.

I?e aoi?ii iiaeoiaea oe?ia inouanoaeyao oeaiaiaoth aoaeo ia eeaea?a.
A aeaiiii neo/aa aoaea eaeao ii oai iai?aaeaieyi, ia eioi?uo o eeaea?a
eiathony neaainoe. Iau/ii oaeeie iai?aaeaieyie yaethaony, eeai ?aaeii, a
eioi?ii eeaea? ia iaeaaeaao neeueiuie iiceoeeyie, eeai iio?aaiinoue
eioi?oth ia iie?uaaao i?iaeoeo eeaea?a.

O?aoee iiaeoiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi oe?ia i?aaei?eieiaao aoaeo
ii anai iai?aeaieyi. A yoii neo/aa eeaea?o i?eoiaeeony caueuaoue e naie
ia?aaeiaua iiceoeee e oueu, e oeaiae. Aeaiiue oei aoaee aeey oniaoiiai
caaa?oaiey o?aaoao iaiiiai aieueoa ?ano?nia o aoaeothuae oe?iu, oae eae
i?aaeiieaaaao aa i?iaeaeaeaiea ia ana ?uiee, aaea i?enoonoaoao eeaea?,
ii anai aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee, auioneaaiie eeaea?ii.

*aoaa?oue iiaeoiae – yoi iaoiaeiay aoaea. A yoii neo/aa oe?ia ia
iaiaaeaao ia eeaea?a iaiin?aaenoaaiii, a nicaeaao iiaue ?uiie ia eioi?ue
auiaieaaao eeaea?ae, iaeaaeay i?aeiouanoaaie ia yoii ?uiea, iiaaaeaeaao
aai. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui oeiii iaoiaeiie aoaee yaeyaony nicaeaiea
caiauathuaai i?iaeoeoa, eee ioe?uoea iiauo aaia?aoe/aneeo ?uieia. Oe?iei
eniieuecoaony iaoiaeiay aoaea a aeaea ?ac?aaioee e aaaaeaieth iiauo
oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoa.

Iyoui iiaeoiaeii e i?aaaeaieth eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaua ioiioaiee
eeaea?a yaeyaony “ia?oecaineay aieia”. Oa?aeoa?ia aeey oe?i iaaieueoiai
?acia?a, ii eiathueo a naaa iioaioeeae ia?aeeth/aoueny e
ia?aeaaeeoeoee?iaaoueny n iaeiiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe ia ae?oaie .
Aoaea i?ienoiaeeo a iiiaio a?aiiiuo ineaaeaiee iiceoeee neeueiaeoae
oe?iu ia ?uiea.

Ia?aoeiny e iaoiaeai /a?ac eioi?ua a iniiaiii ?aaeecothony
auoai?eaaaeaiiua iiaeoiaeu:

– onoaiiaeaiea aieaa ieceeo oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth, /ai oeaiu ia

i?iaeoeoeeth aoaeoaiiai;

– auaaaeaiea ia ?uiie iiaiai i?iaeoeoa e nicaeaieth iiauo

iio?aaiinoae;

– oeo/oaiea ianeoaeeaaiey eeeaioia, a iniaeaiiinoe nenoaiu

o?ainii?oe?iaee e aeinoaaee oiaa?ia;

– oeo/oaiea e ?anoe?aiea nenoaiu nauoa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey;

– oneeaiea e oeo/oaiea ?aeeaiu e nenoai i?iaeaeaeaiaey i?iaeoeoa.

Ia aeaiiii aea yoaia oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee a ?innee oi?ioi
caiaoii en/aciiaaiea e aaie?ionoai “neo/aeiuo” eiiiaiee, eioi?ua ia eiay
aeinoaoi/iuo naaeaiee i no?oeoo?a ?uiea ia eioi?ii iie iuoaeenue
i?aaieciaaoue aeayoaeueiinoue ia o/eouaay oaea neiaeeaoeony o?aaeeoeee
a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo ?aaioathueie a aeaiiie iaeanoe no?oeoo?aie. Aaeaeo
oiai, /oi iiaua i?iecaiaenonoaaiiua nayce e oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe
auoaeatho ec oaea neiaeeaoeony iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ?acaeoea aac
o/aoa eioa?ania yoeo no?oeoo?, iyaei aiai?y, cao?oaeiaii.

No?aoaaey eiieo?aioeee oe?i, ciathueo naia ianoi ia ?uiea,
neiioeaio?e?iaaia ia caoaaoa oao iano ia ?uiea, eioi?ua ia aucuaatho

eioa?ana, eeai aea neaai eioa?anotho aieueoeinoai oe?i. Aeey oiai /oiau
oniaoii aanoe aecian a yoeo iacaiyouo ieoao ?uiea, oe?ia aeieaeia eiaoue
i/aiue /aoeoth niaoeeaeecaoeeth, i/aiue aieiaoaeueii eco/aoue naie
o/anoie ia ?uiea, ?acaeaaoueny oieueei a i?aaeaeao /aoei auaa?aiiuo
aeiionoeiuo oaiiao ?inoa e eiaoue neeueiiai e aieyoaeueiiai
?oeiaiaeeoaey.

CAEETH*AIEA

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1.

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