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NOIEIINOUe AINI?IECAIAeNOAA

“Noieiinoue anyeiai oiaa?a, – a neaaei-

aaoaeueii e oiaa?a, ec eioi?iai ninoi-

eo eaieoae, – ii?aaeaeyaony ia oai ?a-

ai/ei a?aiaiai, eioi?ia caeeth/aaony a

iai naiii, a ?aai/ei a?aiaiai iaiaoi-

aeeiui aeey aai aini?iecaiaenoaa”

E.Ia?en
“Eaieoae”

A o?aoueai oiia “Eaieoaea”, ec eioi?iai acyoa i?aaenoaaeaiiay a
yiea?aoa auaea?aeea, E.Ia?en ia?aniio?ae naia ii?aaeaeaiea
noieiinoe, aeaiiia ei a ia?aii oiia yoiai o?oaea, a oi/iaa aaae aua
iaeii iiiyoea noieiinoe. Yoi aue auioaeaeaiiue oaa, naycaiiue n oai,
/oi aai nianoaaiiua aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey a oai?ee noieiinoe
iieacaee ianiioaaonoaea nicaeaiiie ei oai?ee noieiinoe aeeciaiiui
aeeaeeyi.

E.Ia?en aue i/aiue aeecie e iiieiaieth naiae ioeaee, ii no?aieaiea
ethaui iooai iiaeoaa?aeeoue aa?iinoue nicaeaiiie oai?ee i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe oaaee aai enneaaeiaaoaeueneee oaeaio a noi?iio io enoeiu.

Eae e 2 noieiinoe A.Nieoa, iaa noieiinoe E.Ia?ena ia iiiiaee iaeoe
i?aeoe/aneiai auoiaea aeey oai?ee o?oaeiaie noieiinoe.

Eeanneeai iaoaei ionoonoaea caeii/aiiie oai?ee o?oaea. Aeoaeeci
o?oaea (ii ia oio, i eioi?ii aiai?ee E.Ia?en, a oio, eioi?ue naycai n
aeoaeeciii iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a*), aai iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea
ii?aaeaeyee aeoaeeci e iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea noieiinoe. E
o?e aeaea noieiinoe, niioaaonoaothuea o?ai yoaiai iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea,
oioy e iiae/eiythony caeiiai noieiinoe e nio?aiaiey noieiinoe,
aeaenoaeoaeueii, eiatho niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou.

* Ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee iaaei neacaoue, /oi E.Ia?en, eae e
A.Nieo, auee aeecee e i?aaeeueiiio iiieiaieth aeoaeecia o?oaea. Oae,
E.Ia?en ?anniao?eaae aeaa aeaea o?oaea, ia?aue ec eioi?uo ii iacuaae
aano?aeoiui, aoi?ie – eiie?aoiue. Ia?aue – ii naycuaae n oece/aneeie
cao?aoaie /aeiaaea, aoi?ie – n nicaeaieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo iio?aaeoaeueneeo
naienoa i?iaeoeoia o?oaea, o.a. oi?iu, no?oeoo?u e o.ae. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeaa aeaea o?oaea E.Ia?ena – yoi aeaa aai noi?iiu, naycaiiua
iaeia – n yia?aaoe/aneei i?iyaeaieai iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a, ae?oaay – n
eioi?iaoeeiiiui. Iaeiaei ionoonoaea oai?ee o?oaea, aace?othuaeny ia
oai?ee eioi?iaoeee ia iicaieeea E.Ia?eno ?acaeoue yoo oai?eth,
i?aaeeueii aa eniieueciaaoue.

Aiai?y i noieiinoe aini?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaeaea anaai iu aeieaeiu
ioiaoeoue oio oaeo, /oi naii iiiyoea aini?iecaiaenoai, iiiyoea aieaa
oe?ieia, /ai oi, eioi?ia aeeth/aao a naay aoi?ie yoai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, eae iu aai o?aeoiaaee ai II aeaaa.

Aini?iecaiaenoai – yoi aini?iecaiaenoai anae nicaeaiiie
/aeiaaeii eioi?iaoeee. Yoi – ia oieueei aini?iecaiaenoai nicaeaiiuo a
i?ioeanna o?oaea iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa aeey iaania/aiey
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ia oieueei aini?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa; yoi – aini?iecaiaenoai noieiinoe o?oaea, o.a.
iiaeaioiaea e iao/aiea ethaeae, niiniaiuo ?aaioaoue ia aeinoeaiooii
iao/ii-oaoie/aneii o?iaia; yoi – aini?iecaiaenoai ciaiee eae iaueo,
oae e niaoeeaeueiuo, eioi?ua naaiaeiy o?aiyony, eae i?aaeei ia

aoiaaeiuo iineoaeyo; yoi – aini?iecaiaenoai oaoieee iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee; yoi – aini?iecaiaenoai o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, neeaaeia e
o.ae. Yoi, a oii /enea, – aini?iecaiaenoai yia?aee, aac eioi?ie naii
aini?iecaiaenoai iaaiciiaeii.

*aeiaa/anoai ca a?aiy naiaai nouanoaiaaiey nicaeaei ai anao
iaeanoyo naiae o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia?iiiua iauaiu eioi?iaoeee, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii e aeaaioneea noieiinoe. Aeanyoee iieieaiee ethaeae
o?oaeeeenue iaae nicaeaieai yoiai iaua/aeiaa/aneiai aiaaonoaa, a yoi,
anoanoaaiii, icia/aao ia?iiiua noieiinoiua cao?aou, eioi?ua
nio?aiythony e i?iaeieaeatho ?anoe a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii nio?aiaiey
noieiinoe.

N o/aoii ana onei?ythuaainy i?ia?anna, iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
?aaiethoeee, ii?iaeeaoae eioi?iaoeeiiiue ac?ua, aiciiaeiinoue
aini?iecaiaenoaa anae nicaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee eaaeaony aanueia
i?iaeaiaoe/iie.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee au iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiia a?aiy aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?iaoeee e iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiia a?aiy aeey aa
aini?iecaiaenoaa, o.a. noieiinoue eioi?iaoeee e noieiinoue
aini?iecaiaenoaa eioi?iaoeee auee au ?aaiu, oi i?ioeann ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, iaaa?iia au oaea inoaiiaeeny, eai ana
/aeiaa/anoai auei au caiyoi i?inoui aini?iecaiaenoaii, a aeey
nicaeaiey iiauo iao/iuo e oaoie/aneeo ciaiee i?inoi au ia oaaoeei
iauanoaaiiuo o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.

Ii aeaei ana a oii, /oi iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiua cao?aou a?aiaie ia
aini?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia o?oaea ia oieueei ia yeaeaaeaioiu
noieiinoe nicaeaiey yoeo i?iaeoeoia o?oaea, ia oieueei, eae i?aaeei,
ninoaaeytho aaee/eio iaiueooth ia ianeieueei ii?yaeeia, ii e eiatho
niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou, eioi?ua e ii?aaeaeytho aiciiaeiinoe yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey iauanoaa.

E yoi ia i?ioeai?a/eo o?aaiaaieyi caeiia nio?aiaiey noieiinoe. E,
anee iio?aaeoaeue iieo/aao oo naioth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay auea
ia?aiia/aeueii nicaeaia, – ii iieo/aao oo aea naioth noieiinoue, eai ia
aa nicaeaiea iauanoai cao?aoeei eiaiii yoi iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiia
a?aiy. Yoi e anoue iio?aaeoaeueneay noieiinoue, i eioi?ie aiai?ee
A.Nieo, eee, eae iu aa iacuaaee aaniethoiay noieiinoue.

Ii iauanoaaiiay noieiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa eioi?iaoeee, eae
i?aaeei, cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa, /ai aaniethoiay noieiinoue, o.a. a
i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii noieiinoe, ia?yaeo
n nio?aiaieai aaniethoiie noieiinoe, aicieeaao iiaue aeae noieiinoe, –
noieiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa , eioi?oth iu aoaeai iacuaaoue
ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoueth. Aaaeue aini?iecaiaenoai – yoi n
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oi/ee c?aiey oe?aaee?iaaiea, ?aciiiaeaiea oaea
nicaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee, a iiaay ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue – yoi
noieiinoue yoiai oe?aaee?iaaiey, eee ?aciiiaeaiey.

A iniiaa nie?auaiey a?aiaiiuo cao?ao iauanoaa i?e aini?iecaiaenoaa
eioi?iaoeee eaaeeo aa caia/aoaeueiia naienoai iacaaeneiinoe io a?aiaie,
a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai aicieeaao aiciiaeiinoue naeaoey eioi?iaoeee i?e
aa eniieueciaaiee aeey o?ainoi?iaoeee aoi?e/iie eioi?iaoeee a
ia?ae/ioth, /oi e

i?ienoiaeeo i?e oe?aaee?iaaiee eioi?iaoeee. Yoi naienoai iu oaea
?aiaa iacaaee eiii?anneae. Eiaiii eiii?anney eioi?iaoeee iicaieyao
iai i?e aini?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoia o?oaea ?acei nie?aoeoue iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiua a?aiaiiua cao?aou, a cia/eo e ioiineoaeueioth noieiinoue ii
n?aaiaieth n aaniethoiie.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iiiyoue eae oi?ie?oaony ioiineoaeueiay
noieiinoue, aa?iainy e iiaeaee oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea o?oaea, eae
iniiaiiio ninoaaeythuaio yeaiaioo aini?iecaiaenoaa ethaiai i?iaeoeoa
o?oaea. (?en N 4-1).

?en. 4-1.

Iiiyoii, /oi ii i?aaeeo oi?ie?iaaiey noieiinoe

Ni = N1 + N2 + No + Ny0; (4-1), aaea

Ni – aaniethoiay eee iio?aaeoaeueneay noieiinoue i?iaeoeoa o?oaea;

N1 – aaniethoiay noieiinoue i?aaeiaoa o?oaea;

N2 – aaniethoiay noieiinoue i?oaeey o?oaea;

Ny0 – aaniethoiay noieiinoue yia?aee aiaoiaai enoi/ieea.

No – noieiinoue o?oaea /aeiaaea, oi?aaeythuaai i?oaeeai o?oaea.

I?eia/aiea: noieiinoe, aicieeathuea a ?acoeueoaoa caaa?oaiey
oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea, iu aoaeai icia/aoue iaeaiueeeie aoeaaie aeey
oiai, /oiau ioee/aoue io noieiinoae, ia?acothueony a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii
e yeiiiie/aneii oeeeeao, eioi?ua anaaaea yaeythony noiiie noieiinoae,
niioaaonoaothueo oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeia.

?anniio?ei, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay eaaeaeay ninoaaeythuay
noiia?iie noieiinoe Ni.

Noieiinoue i?aaeiaoa o?oaea ai iiiaii caaeneo io oiai, eaeie
eiaiii oeeee o?oaea a ninoaaa i?iecaiaenoaa iu ?anniao?eaaai e ia
eaeii yoaia yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea iaoiaeeony ?anniao?eaaaiia
i?iecaiaenoai.

Anee yoi yoai nu?ueaaie, e iu ?anniao?eaaai ia?aue oeeee o?oaea,
oi i?aaeiao o?oaea, eae i?aaeei, ia eiaao noieiinoe aiiaua.

Iai?eia?, anee iu ?anniao?eaaai ia?aue oeeee o?oaea ii
ecaioiaeaieth aea?aayiiuo yueeia, i eioi?ii oae ?acaiai? ai aoi?ie
aeaaa, oi a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoa o?oaea aunooiaao aea?aai a eano,
eioi?ia aoaeao ?oaeoue eani?oa. Iiiyoii, /oi aea?aai ia eiaao
noieiinoe, o.e. ia yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii o?oaea /aeiaaea. Aea?aai – yoi
oiaea ia?ae/iay eioi?iaoeey, ii nicaeaiiay i?e?iaeie.

Oi/ii oae aea ia eiatho noieiinoe caiey, aiaea, iieaciua
eneiiaaiua, aeeei?anoouea ?anoaiey, o.a. ana, /oi nicaeaea ia Caiea
i?e?iaea.

Ii eae oieueei eani?oa n?oaee aea?aai, o yoiai n?oaeaiiiai
aea?aaa iiyaeyaony noieiinoue a no?iaii niioaaonoaee n caeiiii
noieiinoe.

A yoi icia/aao, /oi aaee/eia N1 aoaeao aic?anoaoue ii ia?a
i?iaeaeaeaiey i?aaeiaoa o?oaea ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio oeeeeo aei oao ii?
iiea i?aaeiao o?oaea ia ia?anoaiao ia?aoiaeeoue a i?iiaaeooi/iue
i?iaeoeo o?oaea e ia noaiao i?aaeiaoii iio?aaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii,
noieiinoue i?aaeiaoa o?oaea, eae e naiiai i?iaeoeoa o?oaea, oi?ie?oaony
a oa/aiee anaai yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea e caaeneo io oiai ianoa,
eioi?ia i?aaeiao o?oaea caieiaao a yoii oeeeea, a ia a oeeeea
i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e ?anniio?aiee aaniethoiie noieiinoe i?oaeey o?oaea
(N2) iu aeieaeiu enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi i?oaeea o?oaea, eae iu iieacaee
a ae.II, iaania/eaaao i?aia?aciaaiea aoi?e/iie eioi?iaoeee a ia?ae/ioth
e eiii?anneth eioi?iaoeee i?e o?ainoi?iaoeee aoi?e/iie eioi?iaoeee a
ia?ae/ioth.

Eiii?anney aeinoeaaaony, eae iu iiieiaai, i?aaeaea anaai ca n/ao
eniieueciaaiey aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?aee, ii eiaiii i?oaeea o?oaea
?aaeecoao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?aee.
I?e/ai o?ainoi?iaoeey inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?ae/iie
eioi?iaoeee i?oaeee o?oaea, o.a. aai oi?iu, no?oeoo?u, ninoaaa,
iai?aaeaiiinoe aeaeaeaiey eiii?annee ca n/ao aiaoiae yia?aee. Oae,
iai?eia?, ia?aaioea aea?aayiiie eee iaoaeee/aneie aeaoaee ia oiea?iii
noaiea ii?aaeaeyaony eae

ono?ienoaii naiiai noaiea, eioi?ue i?aia?acoao yeaeo?e/aneoth yia?aeth
aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey ai a?auaoaeueioth iaoaie/aneoth
yia?aeth ia?aaaouaaaiie aeaoaee, oae e oi?iie, no?oeoo?ie ?acoea,
eioi?ui aaaeaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiay ia?aaioea.

Oaeei ia?acii aaniethoiay noieiinoue N2 aeeth/aao a naay e
noieiinoue aoi?e/iie eioi?iaoeee ia i?oaeea o?oaea, o.a. ana ciaiey i
aiciiaeiinoe aai nicaeaiey, e noieiinoue ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee, o.a.
noieiinoue ?aaeecaoeee yoeo ciaiee.

I?e yoii ?aaeecaoeey ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee – nicaeaiea i?oaeee
o?oaea – i?ienoiaeeo oaeaea a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeao
n iiiiuueth ae?oaeo i?oaeee o?oaea.

Ii a iaoai neo/aa, eiaaea iu oieueei eniieuecoai i?oaeea o?oaea,
a noieiinoiii ioiioaiee – yoi eaeay-oi iinoiyiiay aaniethoiay (e
ioiineoaeueiay) noieiinoue, aaee/eia eioi?ie a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii
nio?aiaiey noieiinoe inoaiaony iaeciaiiie a oa/aiee anaai
oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea o?oaea. O.a. aeey ian a oaoiieiae/aneeo
oeeeeao aini?iecaiaenoai anaaaea N2 = const.

Eiia/ii, ia ca?a ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa ia?aua i?oaeey o?oaea,
oaeaea eae eoe, eaiaiiue oiii? e ae?., nicaeaaaeenue /aeiaaeii aaci
anyeeo i?oaeee o?oaea, i?inoi ?oeaie, ii eiaiii ioooaea e aaaeao naia
ia/aei aaniethoiay noieiinoue, a aneaae ca iae e ioiineoaeueiay, eai
ia/aeny i?ioeann aini?iecaiaenoaa eoeia e eaiaiiuo oiii?ia. Eioa?anii,
/oi ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue iiaea ii naiae aaee/eia aeaaea
i?aainoiaeeoue aaniethoioth, o.e. ia auei ie i?oaeee o?oaea, ie
aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?aee, aea e ia eaaeaeue

ec iaoeo aeaeaeeo i?aaeeia aue niiniaai e auno?iio iao/aieth. O.a. aei
inaiaiey /aeiaaeii aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?ainiaaaeaiey, oioy
aaniethoiay noieiinoue i?iaeoeoia o?oaea iai?a?uaii aic?anoaea,
?acieoea iaaeaeo aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoyie inoaaaeanue
i/aiue iacia/eoaeueiie e

ii?aaeaeyeanue oaie iaaueaie a aini?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua ia?aaeaaaeenue
ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea.

Iieiaeaiea eciaieeinue iinea ia/aea eniieueciaaiey ethaeueie a
i?ioeanna naiaai o?oaea i?oaeee o?oaea i?eaiaeeiuo a aeaenoaea n
iiiiuueth oece/aneie neeu aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo eee ae?oaeo aiaoieo
enoi/ieeia yia?aee.

?aoathuaa cia/aiea a onei?aiee ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea e
iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna a oeaeii eiaei eniieueciaaiea eioaaee a
naeueneii oicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa.

Caieaaeaeea, eae iu aiai?eee, yaeyeinue iniiaie iacaaeneiinoe
/aeiaaea io eai?ecia i?e?iaeu, oioy e aeaeaei ia iieiie. Iiyoiio
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea a caieaaeaeee ea?aea ?aoathuaa cia/aiea
aeey /aeiaa/aneiai i?ia?anna.

Caieaaeaeue/aneee o?oae ii au?aueaaieth ca?ia a naiae
i?inoaeoae, ia?aiauoiie oi?ia aeeth/ae o?e oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeea –
iaoaoo, nayiea e ai?iiiaaiea. Eniieueciaaiea a aeaoo ec ieo eioaaee
iicaieeei iiauneoue yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoue o?oaea i?eia?ii a 8-10 ?ac.
A yoi icia/aei, /oi iaeei /aeiaae iia i?iei?ieoue ia oieueei naay e
naith naiueth, ii e iieo/aoue ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai ca?ia aeey
oiaa?iiai iaiaia. Iaeiia?aiaiii iauanoai a ?acoeueoaoa aunaiaiaeaeaiey
ethaeae ec iaeanoe caieaaeaeey iieo/eei /aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu aeey
i?aaiecaoeee ae?oaeo aeaeia o?oaea.

?en. 4-2.

?anniio?ei, eae oi?ie?iaaeanue noieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee caieaaeaeey
ia i?eia?a ia?aiai caieaaeaeue/aneiai oeeeea o?oaea. (Ni. ?en. 4-2).

A ia?aii oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea ii ia?aaioea caiee, o.a. a oeeeea
iaoiou, ?ino yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe a 8-10 ?ac ia icia/aao aiaeiae/iue
?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, o.e. iaaei o/eouaaoue EIAe ieoaa, a
e?iia oiai naia eioaaeue o?aaiaaea io aa aeaaeaeueoea aeiiieieoaeueiuo
cao?ao o?oaea ii aa niaea?aeaieth. Eioaaeue, eae i?iaeoeo i?e?iaeu,
noieiinoe ia eiaao, a cia/eo e yia?aey eioaaee, eniieuecoaiay a o?oaea
ii?aaeaeyaony noieiinoueth o?oaea iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey
niaea?aeaiey eioaaee, yoio o?oae o?aaoao io aeaaeaeueoea cia/eoaeueiuo
a?aiaiiuo cao?ao.

A i?eia?a n ia?aui caieaaeaeue/aneei oeeeeii o?oaea iniaaiii
y?ei i?ineaaeeaaaony iauanoaaiiuo oa?aeoa? o?oaea e iauanoaaiiuo
oa?aeoa? noieiinoe. Caeanue iu noaeeeaaainy aua n iaeiie iniaaiiinoueth
a oi?ie?iaaiee noieiinoe.

?acoeueoao caieaaeaeue/aneiai o?oaea a ia?aii oaoiieiae/aneii
oeeeea, o.a. iieo/aiiay ia?ae/iay eioi?iaoeee – aniaoaiiay caiey. I?e
nicaeaiee caieaaeaeey, eae aeaea o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, /aeiaae
?uoeee caieth iiaeoiaeyuae aeey yoie oeaee /anoueth aea?aaa, o.a.
i?oaeeai o?oaea i?aeoe/anee ia eiathuei noieiinoe. Oiaaea a au?aaeaiee
(4-1) N1 = 0; N2 = 0; Ny0 = 0.

Yoi icia/aei, /oi i?e ?o/iii caieaaeaeee, a eioi?ii ia auei aiaoieo
enoi/ieeia yia?aiiaania/aiey o?oaea Ni = No = Na, (4-2) o.a.
noieiinoue i?iaeoeoia caieaaeaeue/aneiai o?oaea ii?aaeaeyeanue o?oaeiaui
aeeaaeii caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa. Eiaiii a caieaaeaeee noieiinoue o?oaea e
noieiinoue i?iaeoeoia o?oaea i/aiue auee aeecee ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo
aaeia aua e iioiio, /oi ca?ii, eae i?iaeoeo caieaaeaeey naii ii
naaa oiaea ia eiaao noieiinoe. (Ia c?y A.Nieo iuoaeny ii?ie?iaaoue o?oae
eiaiii ?acoeueoaoaie o?oaea caieaaeaeueoea – noieiinoueth ca?ia).

Eniieueciaaiea yia?aee aeiiaoieo aeeaioiuo oaaee/eei ia oieueei
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, ii e noieiinoue, o.a. au?aaeaiea (4-1)
i?eia?aei ana naie eiiiiiaiou, e?iia N1

Ni = N2 + No + Ny0 (4-3), aaea

N2 – aaniethoiay noieiinoue i?oaeey o?oaea (ieoaa e oi?yaee);

Ny0 – iuoa/iay neea eioaaee;

No = Na + Nia, aaea Nia – iao/aiea /aeiaaea iaoioa n
eniieueciaaieai eioaaee.

A i?ioeanna ?acaeoey o?oaea eciaiyeenue aiaoiea enoi/ieee yia?aee
e i?oaeey o?oaea /aeiaaea. Ia niaio eioaaee a eiaeono?eaeueioth yiioo
o?oaea i?eoae o?aeoi?, iiiaie?aoii oaaee/eaoee yia?aaoe/aneea
aiciiaeiinoe a naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa. Eciaieeny e ieoa ii
iaoa?eaeo, ec eioi?iai aai noaee ecaioaaeeaaoue, oi?ia, n oeaeueth
iiauoaiey EIAe eniieueciaaiey yia?aee, eiee/anoao eaiaoia. Ii
eioi?iaoeeiiiue ?acoeueoao o?oaea inoaeny i?aaeiee – aniaoaiiay caiey.
Ia ia?aue acaeyae yoi icia/aao, /oi aaniethoiay noieiinoue o?oaea
inoaaaeanue i?aaeiae.

E ooo iu aeieaeiu aa?iooueny e oiio, i /ai iu aiai?eee a
i?aaeuaeouae aeaaa, eiaaea iauyaeyee iiiyoea noieiinoe. *aeiaa/aneee
o?oae i?ioaeaao ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa. Iu iiea ?anniao?eaaee
oieueei a?aiy, oaia?ue ii?a aniiiieoue e i i?ino?ainoaa.

A caieaaeaeee /aeiaae auioaeaeai eniieueciaaoue i?aaeaea anaai
ia?ae/ioth eioi?iaoeeth nicaeaiioth i?e?iaeie. Yoa eioi?iaoeey –
ieiaeu caieaaeaeey – oi?ie?oaony i?e?iaeie ia iniiaaiee aoi?e/iie
eioi?iaoeee nicaeaiiie naiie i?e?iaeie. *aeiaae oieueei iiiiaaao (eee
iaoaao) i?e?iaea a yoie aa aeay-

oaeueiinoe.

I?e yoii i?e?iaea, eae iu aiai?eee ai aoi?ie aeaaa, ia?aie/aia a
aeayoaeueiinoe a yia?aaoe/aneii ioiioaiee e eniieuecoao oieueei oo
yia?aeth, eioi?oth aeaao ae Nieioea. Yoi iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo i?e/ei, ii
eioi?ie iia auioaeaeaia ia?aeoe e i?ino?ainoaaiiiio iaoiaeo
?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa naiae i?iaeoeoeee. A neeo yoiai
naeueneioicyenoaaiiue o?oae /aeiaaea noae ia i?inoi o?oaeii ii
ia?aaioea caiee, a o?oaeii ii i?ino?ainoaaiiie ia?aaioea caiee, a
aaee/eia i?ino?ainoaa noaea iineoue eioi?iaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?acoeueoaoii o?oaea a caieaaeaeee noaei ia i?inoi
ia?aaioaiiay caiey, a ia?aaioaiiia caiaeueiia i?ino?ainoai a aaeeieoeo
a?aiaie, a i?aaeiaoii o?oaea iaia?aaioaiiia caiaeueiia i?ino?ainoai.
Aaaeue i?ino?ainoai – iiiyoea eioi?iaoeeiiiia. Ia yoii iu aiai?eee a
ia?aie aeaaa. I?e iiyaeaiee iiauo aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?aee,
nea/eiia?acii iaiyeenue aiciiaeiinoe ii i?ino?ainoaaiiie ia?aaioea
caiee, a yoi icia/aao, /oi nea/eiia?acii eciaiyeanue eioi?iaoeey ia
aoiaea e auoiaea oaoii-

eiae/aneiai oeeeea, o.a. eciaiyeanue aaniethoiay noieiinoue ia?aaioee
caiee.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a ea/anoaa iiaiai n?aaenoaa aiaoiaai
yia?ainiaaaeaiey a caieaaeaeue/aneii oeeeea noae o?aeoi?. Nai o?aeoi?
iiyaeeny a ?acoeueoaoa ecia?aoaiey iiaiai oaoie/aneiai n?aaenoaa
i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee – aeaeaaoaey aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey. Eae
aeaeaaoaeue aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey, oae e o?aeoi?, nicaeaaaeenue aia
yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea caieaaeaeey e i?aaeiacia/aeenue ia oieueei aeey
yoiai aeaea o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. A caieaaeaeue/aneii oeeeea iie
noaee eniieueciaaoueny iinea i?aaiecaoeee na?eeii-

ai i?iecaiaenoaa e, oioy iauanoaaiiay aaniethoiay noieiinoue (aeey
anao iio?aaeoaeae) o?aeoi?a inoaaony iaeeiaeiaie, a yeiiiie/aneii oeeeea
caieaaeaeey o?aeoi? iiyaeeny ni naiae aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie
noieiinoueth, a yoi icia/aao, /oi iiaay aaniethoiay noieiinoue ia?aaioee
caiee – yoi iiaay eioi?iaoeey, eiathuay iiaoth noieiinoue, eioi?ay
oa?aeoa?ecoao oaaee/aiioth aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaioee caiee n iiiiuueth
o?aeoi?a.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?acaeoea caieaaeaeey ii?aaeaeyeinue e ii?aaeaeyaony
ia naieie oaoiieiae/aneeie oeeeeaie caieaaeaeey, a nicaeaieai iiauo
i?oaeee o?oaea e eniieueciaaieai aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?ainiaaaeaiey,
o.a. ?acaeoeai ae?oaeo io?aneae o?oaea. I?e yoii ca n/ao iauanoaaiiuo
cao?ao o?oaea a yoeo io?aneyo aaniethoiay noieiinoue ?acoeueoaoia
caieaaeaeue/aneiai o?oaea iai?a?uaii aic?anoaea.

Ii ian eioa?anoao nae/an ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue. *ai yoi
noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony a ioee/ee io aaniethoiie?

Eiaiii ia ia?aii oaoiieiae/aneii nu?ueaaii oeeeea iaeaieaa i?inoi
i?ineaaeeoue eae ia?acoaony e ca n/ao /aai caaeneo noieiinoue
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Iu iiiiei, /oi oeeee iioiio e iacaai oeeeeii, /oi ii a
i?ioeanna o?oaea ia?eiaee/anee iiaoi?yaony, auaeaaay oai naiui iiaue
i/a?aaeiie i?iaeoeo o?oaea. *ai aieueoa iiaoi?aiee – oai aieueoa
auoiaeiie i?iaeoeoeee, oai aieueoa anoanoaaiii ia?acoaony
aini?iecaaaeaiiie noieiinoe. Eae aeeytho ?acee/iua yeaiaiou,
ia?acothuea oeeee ia yoio ?ino noieiinoe?

Aaaaeai iiiyoea ia/aeueiay noieiinoue oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea. Yoa
oa noieiinoue, eioi?oth ia?acotho ana ninoaaeythuea yeaiaiou oeeeea aei
ia/aea auiieiyaiuo a oeeeea ?aaio.

N = N + N + N + N : (4-4)

I?e ia?aii nu?ueaaii oeeeea: N = 0;

N = const

C = Ca + Cia;

ii, o.e. I?ioeann o?oaea aua ia ia/eiaeny Na = 0 e No = Nia =
const. O.a. a ia/aeueiie noieiinoe noieiinoue o?oaea anoue aaee/eia
iinoiyiiay ?aaiay noieiinoe, cao?a/aiiie iauanoaii ia iiaeaioiaeo
niaoeeaeenoa, oi?aaeythuaai niioaaonoaothuei oaoiieiae/aneei oeeeeii:

Ny = Ny + Ny , ii o.e. ?aaiou aua ia ia/aou

Ny = 0 e Ny = Ny = const.

Iinea caaa?oaiey ia?aiai oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea aicieeaao
noieiinoue i?iaeoeoa o?oaea, eae

N = N + N + No + Ny ; i?e yoii

N =N ; N = N = 0; No = Na + Nia i?e Nia = Nia;

Ny = Ny + Ny i?e Ny = N ;

Oiaaea oaaee/aiea noieiinoe a ?acoeueoaoa caaa?oaiey ia?aiai
nu?ueaaiai oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea

Naeia = N1 – N0 = Na + Ny (4-7)

Iao?oaeii iieacaoue, /oi aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea, ninoiyuaai
ec “I” oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeia iu iieo/ei ioiineoaeueioth noieiinoue

Nioi = Naeia = Na + Ny.

eee, caiaiyy Na e Ny, ia Na e Ny, niioaaonoaaiii iieo/aai

(5-8)

N aeia – yoi aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue eee ioiineoaeueiay
noieiinoue nicaeaaaaiay a oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea aini?iecaiaenoaa.
Aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue nicaeaaaaiay a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa anoue ?acoeueoao noiie?iaaiey aeiaaaeaiiuo
noieiinoae, iieo/aiiay a oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea. Aeey yeiiiie/aneiai
oeeeea ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai oeeeea aunooiaao
eae aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue.

Au?aaeaiea (5-8) i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay caeii oi?ie?iaaiey
ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, eioi?ue iu aoaeai oaeaea iacuaaoue
caeiiii aini?iecaiaenoaa. Aai iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue oae: ioiineoaeueiay
noieiinoue, ia?acoaiay a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa, ii?aaeaeyaony
yia?aaoe/aneeie cao?aoaie a oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeao e ninoieo ec
noiia?iiai o?oaeiaiai aeeaaea ethaeae, caiyouo a oaoiieiae/aneeo
oeeeeao, e noiia?iuo cao?ao a ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey aiaoieo
enoi/ieeia yia?aee a i?ioeanna o?oaea.

I?e yoii a naiii oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue
ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei Na, o.e. Ny – yia?aey, eioi?ay au?aaaouaaaony
enoi/ieeii aiaoiaai yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey aia naiiai oeeeea, a iai
eniieuecoaony eae aioiaue i?iaeoeo ae?oaiai yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea.

Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aeaeeiui enoi/ieeii aeiaaaeaiiie
noieiinoe aunooiaao oieueei o?oaeiaie aeeaae /aeiaaea, iiyoiio Nioi iu
aoaeai iacuaaoue oaeaea aeaeeiie aeiaaai/iie noieiinoueth e iaicia/aoue
Na.

Aeaeeiue oa?aeoa? Na eae aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe a i?iaeoeoao
o?oaea aucuaaao iiiaeanoai nioeeaeueiuo iaaei?acoiaiee. Aieueoeinoai
?aaioathueo, io?aaioaa iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiue ?aai/ee aeaiue, e.
iaaethaeay ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea,
iieaaatho, /oi noieiinoue, nicaeaiiie ia aai ?aai/ai ianoa i?iaeoeoeee,
ii?aaeaeyaony eiaiii aai o/anoeai, a neaaeiaaoaeueii ii?aaeaeytho eo
ca?aaioioth ieaoo, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue oai aieueoa, /ai aieueoa
auiouaii i?iaeoeoeee a yoii oeeeea.

Aeaaea yeiiiienou, a n?aaee ieo aue e E.Ia?en, n/eoaee aeaeeioth
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, iieo/aaioth a oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea, e aa
noiia?ioth aaee/eio, iieo/aaioth a oeeeea i?iecaiaenoaa , enoi/ieeii
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, /oi i?eaiaeeei e na?ueaciui yeiiiie/aneei e
iieeoe/aneei ioeaeai.

A ia?aie aeaaa iu aiai?eee i oii, /oi anyeia oi?aaeaiea, eae aunoay
oi?ia acaeiiaeaenoaey a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa, a i?ioeanna naiaai
?acaeoey iaieioaii ia?aoaao ea?a?oe/aneia iino?iaiea, i?e/ai
iioeiaeueiia /enei o?iaiae, iaeaeaiiia i?e?iaeie a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee
iaoa?ee, ?aaii o?ai.

A yeiiiieea a i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey oaeaea
ia?aciaaeinue o?e o?iaiy: oaoiieiae/aneee o?iaaiue – yoi
oaoiieiae/aneee oeeee i?iecaiaenoaa, aaea /aeiaae, oi?aaeyy i?oaeeai
i?iecaiaenoaa, niaa?oaao i?ioanneiiaeueiua iia?aoeee, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
nicaeaiey eaeiai-oi i?iaeoeoa o?oaea; i?iecaiaenoaaiiue o?iaaiue – yoi
oeeee i?iecaiaenoaa caeii/aiiiai i?iaeoeoa o?oaea, ninoiyuee ec
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaai?a oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeia, a eioi?ii nenoaia
oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii oi?aaeyao iioieaie iaoa?eaeia, yia?aee e
eioi?iaoeee, iaania/eaay auione aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee; e iaeiiaoe,
yeiiiie/aneee o?iaaiue, iauaaeeiythuee ?acee/iua i?iecaiaenoaa a
yeiiiie/aneea oeeeeu, ia?acothuea yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio ainoaea?noaa.

Ia?aue o?iaaiue iu oaea iiae?iaii ?anniio?aee. I?aaaea, iu, i?e
ecia?aaeaiee iiaeaee oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea, ia i?eaaee aa e
noaiaea?oiie oi?ia oi?aaeai/aneie iiaeaee, ia caieioee eioi?iaoeeiiiua
nayce, o.a. ecia?aceee yoo iiaeaeue a oi?iuaiiie oi?ia ooieoeeiiaeueiie
noaiu, a eioa?anao oi?iuaiey eceaaaaiiai iaoa?eaea. Aeey yeiiiie/aneie
ioeaiee i?ienoiaeyueo a iiaeaee i?ioeannao iai yoiai auei aeinoaoi/ii.

Ia ?en. N 4-13 iu i?eaaee yoo iiaeaeue oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea e
iiaeaee oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea oi?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei iu ia niae?aainy
i?iaiaeeoue aiaeec yoiai o?iaiy oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii n iiceoeee
oai?ee oi?aaeaiey. Iu i?eaaee yoo iiaeaeue aeey oiai, /oiau i?ineaaeeoue
i?aainoaaiiinoue i?e ia?aoiaea io iaeiiai o?iaiy oi?aaeaiey e
ae?oaiio, iieacaoue, /oi nai ii naaa oeeee oaoiieiae/aneiai oi?aaeaiey
ia niiaeao ii?iaeueii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue aac niioaaonoaothuaai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iaania/aiey. Oaeea nenoaiu iaania/aiey, nicaeaiiua ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii o?iaia oi?aaeaiey i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?en. N 4-4 a
ninoaaa iiaeaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae eaaeaony, /oi ia?iiiia oneiaeiaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa, naycaiiui n ia?aoiaeii io oaoiieiae/aneiai o?iaiy
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio, iia?aoeaiiio o?iaith oi?aaeaiey
iiaeao na?ueacii ineiaeieoue aiaeec noieiinoiuo iieacaoaeae.

Iaeiaei yoi ia oae. Eaaeaeay ec nenoai, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia ?en.
N4-17, aeeth/ay naio nenoaio oi?aaeaiey iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia a
aeaea iaai?a noaiaea?oiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeia, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia
?en. N 4-3.

Oae, ia ?en. N 4-3 iieacaii, /oi oaoiieiae/aneee oeeee ia iiaeao
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue aac o?ainii?oiiai iaania/aiey, o.a. aac aeinoaaee
e i?oaeeth o?oaea i?aaeiaoia o?oaea ec ninaaeiaai oaoiieiae/aneiai
oeeeea, aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, anee yoi iaiaoiaeeii ii
oaoiieiaee, eae e auaica aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii eaaeaeue ec
eaaae?aoia, iaicia/athuee o?ainii?oioth nenoaio ia ?en. N 4-3,
i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay iauee eee aeaa ?acaeaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo
oeeeea ( iiyoiio iie e ioaeaeaiu ioieoe?ii io

iniiaiiai oeeeea a nenoaia oi?aaeaiey). Yoi iiaeao auoue, iai?eia?,
?aai/ee, eniieuecothuee ?o/ioth oaeaaeeo aeey iiaeaica aeaoaeae e
iaoa?eaeia e auaica aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, e oiaaea a oeeeea
o?ainii?oe?iaee ia o?aaoaony aiaoiee enoi/iee yeaeo?iniaaaeaiey. Yoi
iiaeao auoue ?aai/ee ia yeaeo?iea?a e oiaaea iiyaeyaony aua iaeei
enoi/iee yia?aiiaania/aiey – aeeoioeyoi?u ea?u. Yoi iiaeao auoue
o?ainii?oa?, ieoathueeny io iaeiie yeaeo?inaoe n i?oaeeai o?oaea iaoaai
oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea, n eioi?iai /aei-

aae, ianeoaeeaathuee i?oaeea o?oaea, nai aoaeao a?aoue iaiaoiaeeiua aio
aeaoaee e iaoa?eaeu e ioi?aaeyoue ia iai aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth.

Oi/ii oae aea iiaeii ?acaeoue ia oaoiieiae/aneea oeeeeu ana
inoaeueiua nenoaiu ii i?eioeeio: iaeei /aeiaae – iaeei oaoiieiae/aneee
oeeee. I?aaaea, naaiaeiy n o/aoii nicaeaiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai
oi?aaeaiey noaiiayony aiciiaeiuie oeeeeu, a eioi?uo iao /aeiaaea, oae
aea eae i?e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee ia i?eieoeaiii o?iaia aiciiaeiu
oaoiieiae/aneea oeeeeu, a eioi?uo iao i?oaeee o?oaea, a oi/iaa oeeeeu,
a eioi?uo a ea/anoaa i?oaeee o?oaea aunooiaao /aeiaa/aneee iica.
Iaeiaei yoi ia iaiyao nouanoaa aeaea: ai anao oeeeeao
aini?iecaiaenoaa nicaeaaony aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue ii iaeiiio e oiio
aea caeiio:

N aeia = Na + Ny .

Oieueei a oeeeeao, a eioi?uo ionoonoaotho aiaoiea enoi/ieee
yia?aee eee aiiaua i?oaeey i?iecaiaenoaa Ny = 0, a a oeeeeao, aaea
ionoonoaoao /aeiaae eae oi?aaeythuaa caaii – Na = 0.

Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi iacaaeneii io oeiia i?iecaiaenoaa e aeaeia
i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee, anee i?e yoii a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa
ia nicaeaaony iiaay aoi?e/iay eioi?iaoeey, noieiinoue, nicaeaaaaiay a
i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue, eioi?ay ia?acoaony ii caeiio aini?iecaiaenoaa. I?aai
oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ue i?aaiecoao i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee e oi?aaeyao yoei
i?iecaiaenoaii, iaania/eaay e eii?aeeie?oy ?aaioo oaoiieiae/aneeo
oeeeeia, iu aoaeai iacuaaoue

i?iecaiaeeoaeai aoi?iai o?iaiy, a ioee/ee io ethaeae, caiyouo a
oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeao, eioi?ua aoaeoo iacuaaoueny i?iecaiaeeoaeyie
ia?aiai o?iaiy.

Aeey yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue eee
aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa ?aaia noiia?iiio o?oaeiaiio
aeeaaeo anao ethaeae, o/anoaothueo a aini?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee iethn
noieiinoue yia?aee anao enoi/ieeia aiaoiaai yia?ainiaaaeaiey,
eniieuecoaiuo ai anao oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeao i?iecaiaenoaa, ca a?aiy,
cao?a/aiiia ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoia o?oaea.

Aaaeiaeoaa neaaenoaea, eioi?ia neaaeoao ec caeiia
aini?iecaiaenoaa aeaneo:

Ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue, nicaeaaaaiay a i?ioeanna
aini?iecaiaen oaa, ia caaeneo io eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa nicaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee e ano?iiiie/aneiai a?aiaie, cao?a/aiiiai ia
aini?iecaiaenoai, e ii?aaeaeyaony oieueei noiia?iui o?oaeiaui
aeeaaeii ethaeae e ?anoiaeii yia?aee aiaoiaai yia?aiiaania/aiey o?oaea.

Ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue – yoi aaeeinoaaiiay noieiinoue, eioi?ay
?aaeueii nicaeaaony a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa, e ieeaeie ae?oaie
?aaeueiie noieiinoe a yoie noa?a aicieeiooue ia iiaeao.

Iaeiaei ethaie i?iecaiaeeoaeue aoi?iai o?iaiy n/eoaao, /oi
nicaeaaaaiay a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii oeeeea noieiinoue eiaao ae?oaia
cia/aiea, o.e. yoi neaaeoao ec aai noieiinoiuo cao?ao. Oaeei ia?acii,
nouanoaoao aua aeaeeiay ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaey aoi?iai
o?iaiy.

Yoi i?ienoiaeeo, iioiio /oi i?iecaiaeeoaeue aoi?iai o?iaiy ia
iiaeao ia o/eouaaoue noieiinoiuo cia/aiee ia/aeueiuo oneiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eiaaea iu aaaee iiiyoea ia/aeueiie noieiinoe oaoiieiae/aneiai
oeeeea iu iieiaeeee N1 = 0, o.e. aeey oi?iuaiey ?anniio?aiey aua?aee
nu?ueaaie oaoiieiae/aneee oeeee, a N2 = nonst , ia ?anniao?eaay
aaee/eio naiie noieiinoe.

Ii aeey aieueoeinoaa i?iecaiaeeoaeae N1 0, o.e. nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu
e iieooaa?eeaou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa, i?iecaiaeeoaeue
aoi?iai o?iaiy aeieaeai i?eia?aoaoue o ae?oaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae –
iinoaaueeia.

I?eia?aoaao ii oaeaea i?oaeey e n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, eiaaea
i?aaiecoao i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee, o.a. eiaaea aaiaeeo a no?ie
oaa?eeo, caaiae eee i?iecaiaenoaaiioth eeieth. A yoi icia/aao, /oi N2
aeey iaai eiaao aiieia eiie?aoioth noieiinoioth aaee/eio. I?aaaea, anee
N1 aio iaiaoiaeeii ainiieiyoue ?aaoey?ii, a eaaeaeii iiaii
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii oeeeea, oi N2 ii i?aeoe/anee eniieuecoao aei iieiiai
oece/aneiai eciina eee ii?aeueiiai noe?aiey, o.a. a oa/aiea anaai
a?aiaie nouanoaiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiyoiio aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey aoi?iai o?iaiy aeaeeiay
ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay

N ioi = Ni + Naeia + EN2 (4-9), aaea

N ioi – aeaeeiay ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue i?iecaiaeeoaey
aoi?iai o?iaiy;

Ni – noieiinoue nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e iieooaa?eeaoia;

E N2 = Nai – noieiinoue aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee, eioi?oth
ii?aaeaeyao i?iecaiaeeoaeue aoi?iai o?iaiy naiinoiyoaeueii eee ia iniiaa
ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ainoaea?noaa n oeaeueth aiciauaiey naieo cao?ao ia
i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iiiyoue a /ai ninoieo “aeaeeiinoue” N ioi,
iaaei i?aaeaea anaai oynieoue, /oi e Ni e N2 i?eia?aoathony
i?iecaiaeeoaeai aoi?iai o?iaiy ii ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe. E yoi ia
i?ioeai?a/eo iaoaio auaiaeo caeiia aini?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa
aaniethoiuo noieiinoae Ni e N2, o.e. iaa aeaea noieiinoe nouanoaotho
iaeiia?aiaiii e i?iecaiaeeoaeue aoi?iai o?iaiy i?eia?aoaao aaniethoiua
iio?aaeoaeueiua noieiinoe ii ioiineoaeueiui noieiinoyi ec
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii oiaaea e Ni e E N2 iiaoo aaoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a ioiineoaeueiie
oi?ia eae N aeia = Na + Ny.

Aeey yeiiiieee a oeaeii, oaeei ia?acii, a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa
nouanoaoao i?iaeoeoeey eiathuay noieiinoue oieueei a ioiineoaeueiie
oi?ia

N ioi = Na + Ny .

A yoi icia/aao, /oi iauanoai eae iieueciaaoaeue yeiiiieee a oeaeii
e i?iecaiaeeoaeue aoi?iai o?iaiy eae yeaiaio yeiiiieee iaeie e oa aea
?acoeueoaou o?oaea ioeaieaatho ii-?aciiio. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e na?ueaciui
yeiiiie/aneei ioeaeai i?e iino?iaiee yeiiiie/aneeo oai?ee ia iniiaa
?anniio?aiey oieueei aoi?iai o?iaiy oi?aaeaiey aac aiaeeca yeiiiieee a
oeaeii eae nenoaiu, a oaeaea e ecaanoiiio yeiiiienoai “aeaieiiio
n/aoo” i?e ioeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea e aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa.

Aieaa iiae?iaii nouiinoue Ni, N2 e Nai iu ?anniio?ei a
neaaeothuae aeaaa.

* * *

Iaeiia?aiaiiia nouanoaiaaiea aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie
noieiinoe i?iaeoeoia o?oaea aiai?eo i oii, /oi iauanoai a ?acoeueoaoa
iaiueoeo cao?ao o?oaea i?e oe?aaee?iaaiee eioi?iaoeee iieo/aao
eaeoth-oi i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue. Yoo i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue ?aaioth
?aciinoe iaaeaeo aaniethoiie

e ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoueth iu aoaeai iacuaaoue aaniethoiie
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoueth.

Naa = Naa – Nioi (4-10);

Aeey iiieiaiey nouiinoue Naa ?ane?iai cia/aiea Naa e Nioi, o.a.

Naa =

Nioi =

I?e yoii iu iiaeai a iauai neo/aa n aieueoie aeinoiaa?iinoueth
n/eoaoue, /oi

Ca >> Ca ; N >> N;

Oiaaea Naa = Naa – Nioi = Nia + N ; (4-11)

Aaniethoiay i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue oi?ie?oaony a iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
noa?a o?oaea e ii?aaeaeyaony iiaeaioiaeie niaoeeaeenoia, ?aaioathueo a
yoie noa?a e o?iaiai eniieueciaaiey yoeie niaoeeaeenoaie ciaiee,
iaeiieaiiuo oeeaeeecaoeeae. Oioy aaniethoiay i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue
oi?ie?oaony a iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?a, iia iaania/eaaao yeiiiieth
iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea i?aaeaea anaai a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa, o.e.
eiaiii oai iauanoai iieo/aao i?iaeoeou o?oaea n eo aaniethoiuie
noieiinoyie ii ioiineoaeueiui noieiinoyi. Yoi yeaeaaeaioii yeiiiiee a
noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa aeeaiai o?oaea.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aaniethoiay i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue iicaieyao
yeiiiieoue aeeaie o?oae, nicaeaaay yeiiiieth yoiai o?oaea a ?acia?a No,
o.a.

No = Na + Nia;

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e iaeeiaeiauo cao?aoao ia iao/aiea, i?eieiay

No = Naa;

iu iieo/aai Na = N (4-12);

Aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa aaniethoiie
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey iaeiieaiiuo iauanoaii
ciaiee i?ienoiaeeo aunaiaiaeaeaiea aeeaiai o?oaea ec noa?u
aini?iecaiaenoaa a aaniethoiie oi?ia, o.a. aac eaeeo eeai
aeiiieieoaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo cao?ao a

noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa. A yoii i?iyaeyaony iniaaiiinoue aaniethoiie
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe – iia i?iyaeyaony ai anao noa?ao
aini?iecaiaenoaa, ia o?aaoy aeiiieieoaeueiuo cao?ao, iaania/eaay
i?eaaai/ioth noieiinoue a eioa?anao anaai iauanoaa.

Yoei iia ioee/aaony io ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe,
eioi?ay iiyaeyaony oieueei oai, aaea eniieuecothony aiaoiea enoi/ieee
yia?aee

Nioi = Naeia – Na = N (4-13)

Ioiineoaeueiay i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony noiia?iie
noieiinoueth eniieueciaaiiie a i?ioeanna o?oaea aiaoiae yia?aee,
au?aaeaiiie a aaeeieoeao iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai o?oaea.

Ioiineoaeueiay i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue – yoi yeiiiiey iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiiai o?oaea ca n/ao yeiiiiee a?aiaie o?oaea a ?acoeueoaoa
eiii?annee eioi?iaoeee i?e o?ainoi?iaoeee. Yoa yeiiiiey a ioee/ee io
aaniethoiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe anaaaea o?aaoao yia?aaoe/aneeo
cao?ao, aini?iecaiaenoaa naiie yia?aee, o.a. yeiiiiey o?oaea a iaeiie
io?anee o?aaoao oaaee/aiey cao?ao a iaeanoe yia?aaoeee, a iioiio
iiaeao e ia icia/aoue yeiiiiee a ianooaaa yeiiiieee a oeaeii.
Ioiineoaeueiay i?eaa-

ai/iay noieiinoue ia iiaeao caiaieoue /aeiaaea a oaoiieiae/aneii
oeeeea, iia i?eaiaeeo e nie?auaieth eiee/anoaa naieo oaoiieiae/aneeo
oeeeeia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa
i?iaeoeoia o?oaea, o.a. iiauoaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, e oai
naiui ieacuaaao aiaeiae/iia aaniethoiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe
aicaeaenoaea ia noa?o aini?iecaiaenoaa – nie?auaao aeeaie o?oae a yoie
noa?a.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu iiyoue noaeeeaaainy n aeoaeeciii o?oaea:
ioiineoaeueiay e aaniethoiay noieiinoue iaeeiaeiai i?iyaeythony a
i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, iaania/eaay yeiiiieth iauanoaaiiiai
o?oaea a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa e nicaeaaay iauoth i?eaaai/ioth
noieiinoue.

Niau = Naa + Nioi ; (4-14);

I?e yoii yeiiiiey aeeaiai o?oaea, iaania/eaaao

No = Niau; (4-15);

*oi i?e ?aaainoaa noieiinoiuo cao?ao ia iao/aiea, aeaao

Na = Na = N + N ; (4-16), aaea Na = Na – yeiiiiey
noieiinoue aeeaiai o?oaea.

Au?aaeaiea (4-16) – yoi caeii i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa: Anyeee i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa
iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, eae ?acoeueoao nyeiiiieaiiiai iauanoaii a?aiaie
aeeaiai o?oaea a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa e ii?aaeaeyaony noieiinoueth
eniieuecoaiuo a i?ioeanna o?oaea ciaiee e yia?aiiniauaiiinoueth
o?oaea.

Aaaeii iiiyoue, /oi caeii i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa –
yoi ia caeii noieiinoe i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa. Noieiinoue i?eaaai/iiai
i?iaeoeoa – yoi anaaaea ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue, o.a.

Nioi = Na + N

e iia ia caaeneo io caeiia i?iecaiaenoaa i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa.

Au?aaeaiea (4-16) iieacuaaao, eiaaea i?eaaai/iue i?iaeoeo iiyaeyaony
ca n/ao yeiiiiee aeeaiai o?oaea, o.a. /oi iauanoai iiaeao yeiiiieoue
aeeaie o?oae iaania/eaay aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue. Yoi
i?eioeeieaeueiia iieiaeaiea aeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa.

Au?aaeaiea (4-15) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o?aaiaiea i?eaaai/iiai
aaeaina. Iii ?ane?uaaao iai nooue aeaenoaey i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe,
eioi?ay ia?auaynue a i?eaaai/iue o?oae iicaieyao aunaiaiaeeoue
ethaeae ec noa?u aini?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?eaaai/iue aaeain
iicaieyao iai ia?aeoe io au/eneaiey cia/aiee iauae i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe e ioiineoaeueiui cia/aieyi nyeiiiieaiiiai o?oaea e
iaiai?io. Ii aeey yoiai iai i?eaeaony aaanoe iiiyoea aaniethoiie e
ioiineoaeueiie ii?iu i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

Ii?ia aaniethoiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoao ioiioaiea
iauae i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe e iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiiio o?oaeiaiio
aeeaaeo iauanoaa ai anao noa?ao iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea ( Na ), o.a.

Naa = (4-17), aaea

Naa – ii?ia aaniethoiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

Aniiiieoa, /oi iaeneiaeueiue o?oaeiaie aeeaae, i?e onoaiiaeaiiii
iauanoaii iaycaoaeueiii aeey anao caiyoeyo a iauanoaaiiii o?oaea
iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiii a?aiaie ?aaiou, a aaeeieoeao iauanoaaiii
iaiaoiaeeiiai o?oaea aeey iaeiiai ?aaioathuaai ?aaiui “E” ninoaaeyao

Na = EI , aaea I – iauaa eiee/anoai
o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey,

Na – iaeneiaeueiue o?oaeiaie aeeaae aiciiaeiue
ai anao noa?ao iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.

Niioaaonoaaiii aunaiaiaeaeaaiue ec noa?u aini?iecaiaenoaa
aeeaie o?oae, aeaaiaea?y iiyaeaieth iauae i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue eae

Na = EN , aaea N – eiee/anoai aunaiaiaeaeathueony
ethaeae ec noa?u aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Oiaaea Na = Na – Na = EI – EN; a n o/aoii (4-15) e (4-16)

EI – EN M – N

Naa = = (4-18)

KM M

Eee oi aea au?aaeaiea a i?ioeaioao

M – N

Naa = 100% ; (4-19).

M

Oaeei ia?acii, ciay iauaa eiee/anoai o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey e
eiee/anoai ethaeae, caiyouo a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa, iu iiaeai ia
i?eaaaay e au/eneaieyi aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iuo
noieiinoae ii?aaeaeeoue ii?io aaniethoiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe a
yeiiiieea no?aiu.

Ii?ia aaniethoiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoao ?acaeoea yeiiiieee
no?aiu a oeaeii.

Oae, iai?eia?, anee a no?aia eiaaony 150 iei /aeiaae
o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey, a a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa caiyoi oieueei
50 iei /aeiaae, oi

150 – 50

Naa = * 100% = 66,6% (4-20).

150

Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi aeinoeaiooue i?ia?ann a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa iicaieyao ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoue iauanoaaiiua o?oaeiaua
?ano?nu oaeei ia?acii, /oi a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa aoaeao caiyoa
oieueei iaeia o?aoue ianaeaiey no?aiu.

Anee, iai?eia?, a NOA o?e /aoaa?oe ianaeaiey ?aaioatho a noa?a
oneoa, oi ii?ia aaniethoiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe a yoie no?aia ia
iaiaa 75%.

A ?innee yoio iieacaoaeue, e niaeaeaieth, cia/eoaeueii ieaea.

Ii?ia ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoao
cia/eiinoue aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?aiiaania/aiey i?e oi?ie?iaaiee
ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa e au?aaeaaony
ioiioaieai ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe( Ny ) ei anae
ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe Nioi =

= Naeia.

Aeey eo/oaai iiieiaiey cia/eiinoe ii?iu ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe aaaaeai iiiyoea yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe, eioi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony
ioiioaieai iauae iiuiinoe enoi/ieeia yia?aee, eniieuecoaiie a
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee oie eee eiie io?aneueth e /eneo ?aaioathueo a
iae ethaeae, au?acea aa a aae. III (aaeeieoea iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiie
iiuiinoe).

Ya = aae III (4-21),

N

aaea N – eiee/anoai ?aaioathueo a io?anee ethaeae;

? – iiuiinoue eniieuecoaiuo aiaoieo enoi/ieeia
yia?aiiaania/aiey; o.e. a niioaaonoaee n au?aaeaieai ( 3-13) a oao aea
aae.

Ny = 8 ?e.n. * Oi?, oi au?aaeay aa /a?ac yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoue
iieo/aai:

Ny = Na N Oi? (4-22).

O/eouaay, /oi Oi? – yoi eiee/anoai iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiuo
?aai/eo aeiae, io?aaioaiiuo iai?oaeiaaiea, oi ca yoio ia?eiae iauee
o?oaeiaie aeeaae “N” ?aaioaaoeo ninoaaeo Na = N Oi?

Ny Ya N Oi?
Ya

Oiaaea Nioi = = =
* 100%

Naeia NO + Ya N Oi? Ya
+ 1

(4-23)

Aeey i?eia?a, yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a NNN? a 1988 a. ninoaaeyea 34,3 en ia iaeiiai
?aaioathuaai eee 274,3 aae III.

Oaeei ia?acii

274,4

Nioi = * 100% = 99,63% (4-24)

275,4

A yoi cia/eo, /oi i?aeoe/anee any aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue
ii?aaeaeyeanue ?aaioie iaoei.

I?e yoii ?ino yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe a naeueneii oicyenoaa aue
aeinoaoi/ii aunie. Oae, ca ia?eiae n 1980 a. ii 1988 a. yoa aaee/eia
aic?anea ia 34%, o.a. cia/eoaeueii iia?aaeaea ?ino
yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe a ae?oaeo io?aneyo. Oae, a i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii
ninoaaee 16%, a a no?ieoaeuenoaa 24%.

Iaeiaei, ?ino yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe a naeueneii oicyenoaa, a cia/eo
e ii?iu ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, ia aeaaae oaaee/aiey
iauae i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, o.e. eiee/anoai caiyouo a yoii aeaea
aini?iecaiaenoaa ca yoio ia?eiae i?aeoe/anee inoaaaeinue iaeciaiiui,
/oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iayooaeoeaiii eniieueciaaiee yia?aiiaania/aiey a
io?anee. I/aaeaeii, i?e/eiu iaiaoiaeeii auei eneaoue, i?aaeaea anaai, a
eioi?iaoeeiiiie noi?iia o?oaea, /aai, e niaeaeaieth, ia aeaeaeinue.

?ino yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe io?anee aac aunaiaiaeaeaiey caiyouo a
iae ethaeae – aeaaiue i?eciae iai?aaeeueiiai ?acaeoey eee canoiy,
eioi?ue iaieioaii aoaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny ?inoii ioiineoaeueiie
noieiinoe, /oi aac nie?auaiey aeeaiai o?oaea ia aeano yeiiiiee
iauanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiiai a?aiaie, a cia/eo e i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.
Oaeie ?ino ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe i?eaaaeao e iaieioaiiio
oaei?iaeaieth auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, eai ethaua yia?aaoe/aneea
cao?aou o?oaea o?aaotho eo iieiiai iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa.
Yoi noaiao iiiyoiui, anee iu aua ?ac aa?iainy e caeiio aini?iecaiaenoaa

Nioi = Na + Ny .

Caeii aini?iecaiaenoaa ia naycai n eiee/anoaaiiuie iieacaoaeyie
auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Iu ia iiaeai onoaiiaeoue eaeoth-oi
caeiiiia?iinoue iaaeaeo noieiinoueth e eiee/anoaii auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, o.e. aeey yoiai iai au i?eoeinue iaeoe caeiiiia?iinoue
iaaeaeo eiee/anoaii eioi?iaoeee e eiee/anoaii yia?aee , /oi, eae iu
ciaai, i?eioeeieaeueii iaaiciiaeii. Iu ia ciaai neieueei yia?aee
neaaeoao ec?anoiaeiaaoue “ii caeiio” aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiie
eioi?iaoeee. Iu iiaeai oieueei ii?aaeaeeoue yoi iiuoiui iooai. A
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii oeeeea iu aeaaea ia ciaai eaeiaa ?aaeueiay
noieiinoue nicaeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa o?oaea, o.e. iia iiaeao auoue
ii?aaeaeaia oieueei ii ?acoeueoaoai yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea o?oaea.

Iu iiaeai oaaee/eoue eiee/anoai auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ca n/ao
aeiiieieoaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?aee, /oi
i?eaaaeao e eiii?annee eioi?iaoeee, ii e e eiii?annee noieiinoe, o.a.
oaaee/aieth aeiaaai/iie noieiinoe, anee i?e yoii ia aunaiaiaeaeaaony
/aeiaa/aneee o?oae Na.

Oieueei aunaiaiaeaeaiea aeeaiai o?oaea, oiaiueoaiea o?oaeiaiai
aeeaaea Na, eae iu iieacaee, aaaeao e iiyaeaieth i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa,
a cia/eo oieueei a yoii neo/aa iiaeii aiai?eoue ia oaaee/aiee
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Ionthaea auoaeaao caeii iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea aeey
iauanoaaiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa: Na = N (4-25)

Ethaia iiauoaiea iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa
i?ienoiaeeo oieueei ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?aee
i?e yoii oaaee/aiea noieiinoe eniieueciaaiey aiaoieo enoi/ieeia
yia?aee aeieaeia iaycaoaeueii nii?iaiaeaeaoueny nie?auaieai
noieiinoe o?oaeiaiai aeeaaea ethaeae a ?aaiuo eee aieueoeo noieiinoiuo
ia?ao: i?e yoii iaaei iiieiaoue, /oi yoio caeii ni?aaaaeeea eiaiii aeey
noa?u aini?iecaiaenoaa, eai eae iu iieacaee ai aoi?ie aeaaa, aiciiaeai
e eioi?iaoeeiiiue iooue iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, ii ii
?aaeecoaony oieueei a iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?a iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.

Caeii iiauoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a noa?a
aini?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony /anoiui neo/aai iauaai caeiia i?iecaiaenoaa
aeiaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa.

Iaa yoe caeiia iauyniytho iauaeoeaiue oa?aeoa? aunaiaiaeaeaiey
ethaeae ec i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie noa?u, i /ai iu aoaeai aiai?eoue a
iineaaeothueo aeaaao yoie eieae.

* * *

A ioee/ee io noa?u aini?iecaiaenoaa oi?ie?iaaiea noieiinoe a noa?a
oneoa eiaao naie niaoeeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iiiyoue yoo niaoeeoeeo ?anniio?ei oi?ie?iaaiea
noieiinoe a oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeao o?oaea eiaiii yoie noa?u.

Oaeeie oa?aeoa?iuie oeeeeaie aeey yoie noa?u o?oaea, a
niioaaonoaee n ?en N 2-6 ae 2, yaeythony oeeeeu o?ainii?oe?iaee,
o?aiaiey e ianeoaeeaaiey.

Ia ?en N 4-4 i?aaenoaaeaia ooieoeeiiaeueiay iiaeaeue
oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea o?ainii?oe?iaee.

?en 4-4

Oioy ia ia?aue acaeyae ooieoeeiiaeueii o?ainii?oiue
oaoiieiae/aneee oeeee o?oaea aiaoia i/aiue iioiae ia oa, eioi?ua iu
?anniao?eaaee a ia?auo aeaoo noa?ao o?oaea, ii ei?aiiui ia?acii
ioee/aaony io ieo. Aeaei a oii, /oi o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai ia yaeyaony
i?oaeeai o?oaea a oii niunea, /oi iii ia niaa?oaao ieeaeeo
i?aia?aciaaiee o?ainii?oe?oaiiai i?iaeoeoa, ia eniieuecoao aoi?e/iie
eioi?iaoeee aeey nicaeaiey ia?ae/iie, a iioiio eioi?iaoeey ia aoiaea e
ia auoiaea oeeeea inoaaony iaeciaiiie, a yoi icia/aao, /oi N1 = N2.

Ii a i?ioeanna naiiai o?ainii?oe?iaaiey nicaeaaony iiaay ia?ae/iay
eioi?iaoeey – iai?aaeaiiia aeaeaeaiea o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa.
Eioi?iaoeeth yoiai aeaea iu iacuaaee i?eieoeaiie, o.e. iia ia oieueei
i/aiue i?inoay ecia/aeueii, ii e nouanoaoao oieueei a i?ioeanna
aeaeaeaiey e en/acaao aianoa n i?ae?auaieai aeaeaeaiey. Yoa eioi?iaoeey
ia caiiieiaaony, a iioiio ia nio?aiyaony. Ii iia o?aaoao yia?aaoe/aneeo
cao?ao e aoi?e/iie eioi?iaoeee – eioi?iaoeee oi?aaeaiey – aeey naiaai
nicaeaiey. E?iia oiai, yoi aeaeaeaiea iaaiciiaeii aac eniieueciaaiey
o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, eioi?ia aunooiaao a o?ainii?oiii oeeeea a
aeaea ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee noa?u aini?iecaiaenoaa, eiathuae noieiinoue
?aaioth aeiaaai/iie noieiinoe aai nicaeaiey. A iioiio noieiinoue
nicaeaaaaiie ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii nio?aiaiey
noieiinoe ?aaia

No = Ny + No + E Naeia ; (4-26),

aaea E Naeia – aii?oecaoeeiiiia en/eneaiea aeiaaai/iie noieiinoe
a nayce n oai, /oi o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai a o?ainii?oiii
oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea aeieaeii aini?iecaiaeeoueny.

Oaeei ia?acii, noieiinoue o?ainii?oe?iaee ia caaeneo io noieiinoe
ia?aaiceiiai i?iaeoeoa o?oaea e ia eciaiyao aai noieiinoue, ii
ia?acoao aeiiieieoaeueioth noieiinoue, o.e. aucuaaao aeiiieieoaeueiua
noieiinoiua cao?aou iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.

A ioee/ee io aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe noieiinoue
a noa?a oneoa, a o./. e noieiinoue o?ainii?oe?iaee ia nio?aiyaony,
o.e. ia nio?aiyaony nicaeaaaaiay eioi?iaoeey, iia en/acaao aianoa n
i?ae?auaieai naiie o?ainii?oe?iaee. Iaeiaei, iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa
iauanoaaiiuo o?oaeiauo cao?ao o?aaoao o/aoa yoie noieiinoe, a
iioiio, aiaeiae/ii aii?oecaoeeiiiui io/eneaieyi, a eioa?anao
aini?iecaiaenoaa ?aaiou o?ainii?oiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeia yoe
cao?aou eneonnoaaiii aeiaaaeythony e

noieiinoe ia?aaiceiiai i?iaeoeoa. Oaeea aeaeu noieiinoe iu aoaeai
iacuaaoue noieiinoueth oaei?iaeaiey.

A i?ioeanna nicaeaiey noieiinoe oaei?iaeaiey ia iiaeao auoue
nicaeaii ie aaniethoiie, ie ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, ii
iiaeao auoue nicaeaia yeiiiiey iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea iooai oiaiueoaiey
noieiinoe oaei?iaeaiey.

Ianeieueei eia/a ianoieo aeaei ni noieiinoueth aicieeathuae a
i?ioeanna o?aiaiey. No?iai aiai?y i?e o?aiaiee aiiaua ieeaeie noieiinoe
ia aicieeaao. Ii ii?aaeaeaiiua cao?aou i?e o?aiaiea iauanoai ianao. Iie
naycaiu n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nicaeaiey e yenieoaoaoeee o?aieeeu, a iioiio
ii?aaeaeythony aii?oecaoeeiiiuie io/eneaieyie:

No = E Naeia (4-27)

I?aaaea, o?aieeeua ianeoaeeaathony ethaeueie, ii yoi oaea o?aoee
oei cao?ao, aicieeathueo a noa?a oneoa – /enoua cao?aou /aeiaa/aneiai
o?oaea, o.a.

No = No = Na + Nia (4-28)

A iauai neo/aa nicaeaaaaiay a noa?a oneoa noieiinoue iiaeao
auoue ?aaii

No = No + No + No (4-29)

Ana 3 eiiiiiaioa noieiinoe, nicaeaaaaiie a noa?a oneoa,
iaeaaeatho aua iaeiie iniaaiiinoueth, eioi?ay caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
iauanoaaiiua cao?aou ia iao/aiea e iiaeaioiaeo ethaeae e o?oaeo ia
yaeythony, eae a ia?aie e aoi?ie noa?a, enoi/ieeii i?eaaai/iie
noieiinoe, a iioiio aoiaeyo a noieiinoue cao?ao iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea eae
noieiinoue oaei?iaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii noa?a oneoa ia iiaeao yaeyoueny enoi/ieeii
i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, a cia/eo e i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa.

Ii iauanoai ia iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny aac noa?u oneoa: ia?aaicea,
o?aiaiea, ianeoaeeaaiea, aeinoaaea i?iaeoeoia iio?aaeoaeyi, eae e
ae?oaea ooieoeee yoie noa?u, – naaiaeiy niaa?oaiii iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?iaeoeoa iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea. Ii aaee/eia
nicaeaaaaiie i?e yoii noieiinoe oaei?iaeaiey iiaeao auoue ?acee/iie e ai
iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony iiaaaeaieai o/anoieeia noa?u oneoa. Iauanoai
caeioa?aniaaii a ieieiecaoeee yoie noieiinoe oaei?iaeaiey e iiieiaiea
aa i?e?iaeu iicaieyao aicaeaenoaiaaoue a yoii iai?aaeaiee.

I?e yoii iu aeieaeiu aua ?ac iiae/a?eiooue, /oi nicaeaiea naieo
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, o?aieeeu, ono?ienoa aeey ianeoaeeaaiey
i?aaeiaoia o?oaea n yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey ia eiaao ieeaeiai
ioiioaiey e noa?a oneoa e iiae/eiyaony anai noieiinoiui caeiiai,
eceiaeaiiui ?aiaa, aeaenoaothuei

a ia?aie e aoi?ie noa?a o?oaea, o.e. eiaiii oai ana yoe n?aaenoaa
nicaeathony e aini?iecaiaeyony.

* * *

Oaia?ue, eae iu iaauaee, iu aeieaeiu ioaeaeueii inoaiiaeoueny ia
aini?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee aiaoiaai yia?aiiaania/aiey.

I?e yoii ioaeii iiieiaoue, /oi ?a/ue eaeao ia i oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoaao aini?iecaiaenoaa aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?aiiaania/aiey, o.a.
ia i aini?iecaiaenoaa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa yia?aiiaania/aiey,
aini?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo no?iai iiae/eiyaony caeiio aini?iecaiaenoaa, a
eiaiii i aini?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee eae oece/aneie aaee/eiu.

Iaiiiiei, /oi nianoaaiii yia?aey eae oi?ia nouanoaiaaiey iaoa?ee
noieiinoe ia eiaao, eai ia nicaeaaony o?oaeii /aeiaaea, a nouanoaoao a
i?e?iaea aa/ii e aaneiia/ii oieueei ia?aoiaey ec iaeiie oi?iu yia?aee
a ae?oaoth.

Iioiio, aiai?y i i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee eee oi/iaa i aa
aini?iecaiaenoaa, iu i?aeoe/anee aiai?ei i i?aia?aciaaiee iaeiiai
aeaea yia?aee a ae?oaie, ii?aaeaeyy a noieiinoiii ioiioaiee eiaiii
noieiinoue i?aia?aciaaiey.

Oaoiieiae/aneee oeeee i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii
eee yeiiiie/aneii oeeeea aa aini?iecaiaenoaa ecia?aaeai ia ?en. 4-5.

?en. 4-5

Eae aeaeii ec ?enoiea, ia ono?ienoai i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee
iinooiaao iioaioeeaeueiay eee eeiaoe/aneay yia?aey, eioi?ay caoai
i?aia?acoaony a ioaeioth iai oi?io. Ioee/ey enoi/ieeia yia?aee
ii?aaeaeytho iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiau/e niioaaonoaothuaai nu?uey,
iai?eia?, iaooe, oaey, aaca e o.ae., eeai eniieueciaaiey ono?ienoaa
i?aia?aciaaiey, ?aciauaiiiai iaiin?aaenoaaiii a eeiaoe/aneie n?aaea.
Iai?eia?, aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee, i?eeeaiua, aao?yiua e o.i. enoi/ieee
yia?ainiaaaeaiey. Yoi aaaeao e ec-

iaiaieth ninoaaa yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea aini?iecaiaenoaa, ii ia iaiyao
nouanoaa ?aaiou oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea.

Iniaaiiinoueth ?aaiou oeeeea yaeyaony oi, /oi i?aia?aciaaiea
yia?aee eaeao aac iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey /aeiaaea, o.e. aai
inouanoaeyao naia i?e?iaea, a iioiio a iiaeaee ionoonoaoao naycue
iaaeaeo ono?ienoaii i?aia?aciaaiey e /aeiaaeii eae ono?ienoaii
oi?aaeaiey. A eo/oai neo/aa /aeiaae i?iecaiaeeo ianeoaeeaaiea ono?ienoaa
i?aia?aciaaiey, /oi auoiaeeo ca noa?o aini?iecaiaenoaa e ioiineony e
noa?a oneoa. Oioy a i?eioeeia i?ioeann i?aia?aciaaiey iiaeao
i?ioiaeeoue e i?e iieiii ionoonoaee /aeiaaea a oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea.

Oeacaiiay iniaaiiinoue ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaiyao noieiinoiia
ioiioaiea e /anoe/iiio eniieueciaaieth yia?aee, au?aaaouaaaiie
ono?ienoaii i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee aeey nianoaaiiuo ioaeae.
Eniieueciaaiea yia?aee a oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea oieueei oiaaea iaeaaeaao
noieiinoiuie iieacaoaeyie,

eiaaea yoi eniieueciaaiea iaania/eaaao aunaiaiaeaeaiea oece/aneeo
cao?ao ethaeae, o.a. Na. A oae eae /aeiaae a ono?ienoaa i?aia?aciaaiey
yia?aee oaeiai oeia i?eioeeieaeueii ia iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue,
eniieuecoaiay aeey aioo?aiieo ioaeae yia?aey ia eiaao noieiinoe, oae aea
eae ia eiaao, iai?eia?, noieiinoe i?e eniieueciaaiee iieaciuie ethaeyi
?anoaieyie nieia/iay yia?aey, o.a. Ny = 0.

Anee iu aicueiai a ea/anoaa i?aia?aciaaoaey yia?aee
aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeeth, oi e N1 = 0.

Oiaaea ii caeiio nio?aiaiey noieiinoe noieiinoue
aini?iecaiaenoaayia?aee yeaeo?inoaioeee

Ny ioi = E Naeia (4-30), o.a.

ii?aaeaeyaony aii?oecaoeeae noieiinoe naiie yeaeo?inoaioeee,
eae oaoie/aneiai ono?ienoaa, nicaeaiiiai a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa eee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?a.

Iieiay noieiinoue yia?aee iiaeao auoue
ii?aaeaeaia

oieueei a yeiiiie/aneii oeeeea
aini?iecaiaenoaa, eioi-

?ue i?aaenoaaeai ia ?en 4-7. Iiiyoii,
/oi yoi iieiay

noieiinoue aoaeao ?aaia

Ny ioi = Naeia nu? + No + E Naeia y
(4-31)

aaea:

Naeia nu? – aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue
eniieueciaaiiiai

a i?ioeanna nu?uey;

No = No + No – o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu ia
ia?aaic-

eo nu?uey e ianoo eniieueciaaiey e
o?ainii?oe?iaeo

yeaeo?iyia?aee iio?aaeoaeyi;

E Naeia y – noieiinoue i?aia?aciaaiey
yia?aee ia

yeaeo?inoaioeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, anee iiuiinoue
yeaeo?inoaioeee ?aaia

? e.n., oi iu n/eoaee, /oi Ny = 8 ?e.n.
* Oi?, aaea

Ny i – iioaioeeaeueiaua noieiinoiua
aiciiaeiinoe enoi/-

ieea yia?aee.

Iaeiaei n o/aoii noieiinoiuo cao?ao ia
aini?iecaiaenoai

yia?aee, iaaei o/eouaaoue ?aaeueioth
noieiinoioth aiciiaeiinoue

Ny = Ny – Ny ioi.

Anee aaanoe iiiyoea yooaeoeaiinoe
eniieueciaaiey aiao-

ieo enoi/ieeia yia?aee, eae Ny , oi iu
iieo/ei

Ny

eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe
aini?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee.

Ny – Ny ioi Ny ioi

Yo = = 1 –
(4-32)

?en 4-7 Ny Ny

Iaeiaei, a neo/aa, eiaaea Ny >> Ny ioi, /oi
aiieia ?aaeueii

Yo = 1, a Ny? = Ny.

Yooaeoeaiinoue a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa aeieaeia aic?anoaoue
eee ii e?aeiae ia?a ia nieaeaoueny, /oi aeinoeaaaony nicaeaieai ana
aieaa aeaoaauo enoi/ieeia yia?aee e eo aeieaiaa/iinoueth.

A naith i/a?aaeue yooaeoeaiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee ia
neaaeoao iooaoue n yooaeoeaiinoueth eniieueciaaiey yia?aee, eioi?ay
ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoiy ?anniio?aiiuie ?aiaa iieacaoaeyie –
yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoueth e ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoueth,
eioi?ua, eae iu aeaeaee, naycaiu iaae-

aeo niaie.

E niaeaeaieth iu ia iiaeai i?eioeeieaeueii aaanoe oaeie aaaeiue
iieacaoaeue, eae ?anoiae yia?aee ia aaeeieoeo nicaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee,
/oi ii?aaeaeeo ia?aoiae e eioi?iaoeeiiiui oaoiieiaeyi. Ia iiaeai, o.e.
nicaeaiiay i?iaeoeoeey – eioi?iaoeey, a aaeeieoeu ecia?aiey eioi?iaoeee
iao e ia iiaeao auoue.

Iiyoiio anth yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey yia?aee iu
ii?aaeaeyai oieueei ioiineoaeueii o?oaea. Ii nooe aeaea iaoa
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey yia?aee – yoi yooaeoeaiinoue caiaiu
i?eieoeaiiai o?oaea ethaeae ?aaioie iaoei.

Yooaeoeaiinoue aea eniieueciaaiey yia?aee aeey nicaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeaia iiuoiui iooai, i?e eioi?ii, eae
iu aiai?eee, aeaaiui yoaeiiii aeey ian yaeyaony i?e?iaea, e iooai
eiio?iey ca iinoiyiiui nieaeaieai ?anoiaeia yia?aee a yeiiiie/aneeo
oeeeeao aac oiaiueoaiey eiee/anoaaiiuo iieacaoaeae a auionea
i?iaeoeoeee.

* * *

A ia/aea yoie aeaau iu oaea aiai?eee, /oi aini?iecaiaenoai aieaa
oe?ieia iiiyoea, a oii niunea, /oi iii ioaaouaaao ia oieueei noa?o ia
oa?eaeueiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa, o.a. aoi?ie yoai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, ii ana inoaeueiua noa?u o?oaea. Yoi ioiineony e e
aini?iecaiaenoao o?oaea.

Ana i?iecaiaenoai ciaiee inouanoaeyaony a niaoeeoe/aneeo
oaoiieiae/aneeo oeeeeao noa?u iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai o?oaea i?aaenoaaeaiiuo
ia ?en. N 4-8 e 4-9. Ia ?en. N 4-8 i?aaenoaaeai o?aaeeoeeiiiue
oaoiieiae/aneee oeeee iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?u, nouanoaiaaaoee ouny/e
eao, a eioi?ii ciaiey nicaeaaaeenue oieueei oiaie ethaeae. A
nia?aiaiiii oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea o ?aaioieeia iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?u
iiyaeeinue naia “i?oaeea o?oaea” – YAI (?en. N 4-9). I?e yoii
eciaieeinue cia/aiea nicaeaaaaiie aaniethoiie noieiinoe iiauo ciaiee.
Ia ?en N 4-9 iieacaii, /oi YAI eiaao iaeiia?aiaiii e ioiineoaeueioth e
aaniethoioth noieiinoue, ii i?e nicaeaiee iiauo ciaiee nicaeaaony
aaniethoiay noieiinoue, a cia/eo ii caeiio oi?ie?iaaiea aaniethoiie
noieiinoe aiiaue nicaeaiiua ciaiey aeieaeiu aeeth/aoue a naith
noieiinoue aaniethoioth noieiinoue YAI. Naia YAI nicaeaaaeanue a noa?a
aini?iecaiaenoaa e auea iinoaaeaia a noa?o oneoa ii naiae
ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe, eioi?ay cia/eoaeueii ieaea aaniethoiie. A
naith i/a?aaeue anee iiaua ciaiey, iieo/aiiua a oaoiieiae/aneii
oeeeea, i?aaenoaaeaiiii ia ?en. N 4-9, aoaeoo iinoaaeyoueny a noa?o
aini?iecaiaenoaa, oi iie aoaeoo iinoaaeaiu ii noieiinoe
aini?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ay ie/oiaeii iaea ii n?aaiaieth n aaniethoiie
noieiinoueth.

Oaeea neiaeiua noieiinoiua acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo noa?ie
aini?iecaiaenoaa e noa?ie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie a i?ioeanna iauanoaaiiiai
o?oaea ia eiatho nenoaiu naii?aaoee?iaaiey, a iioiio aeieaeiu
oi?aaeyoueny niaoeeaeueiuie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie ainoaea?noaa.

Ia iaiaa neiaeiua acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo noa?ie aini?iecaiaenoaa
e ae?oaeie noa?aie o?oaea a aii?inao aini?iecaiaenoaa naiiai o?oaea.

Eiia/ii, i?iaeaia aini?iecaiaenoaa o?oaea aeeth/aao a naay e
oeaeue eiiieaen aeieiae/aneeo, oeceieiae/aneeo, nioeeieiae/aneeo
i?iaeai. Ii iu aoaeai caeanue ?anniao?eaaoue oieueei yeiiiie/aneoth
noi?iio aii?ina. O.a. iu iieaaaai, /oi iauanoai eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiia
eiee/anoai iiaeaioiaeaiiuo e o?oaeo ethaeae, noiia?iue o?oaeiaie aeeaae
eioi?uo ?aaai

No = Na + Nia (4-33)

*oi cia/eo iaania/eoue aini?iecaiaenoai o?oaea n yeiiiie/aneie
oi/ee c?aiey? Yoi cia/eo iaania/eoue aini?iecaiaenoai noieiinoe
o?oaea No a iauaia, iaiaoiaeeiii aeey iaania/aiey i?iecaiaenoaa oaeiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa N , i?e eioi?ii aoaeao
iaania/aii eae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue anao noa? o?oaea, oae e eo
iaoa?eaeueiia iaania/aiea i?oaeeyie e n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa.

O.a., anee No = No + No , aaea

No – noieiinoue o?oaea a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa;

No – Noieiinoue o?oaea aia noa?u aini?iecaiaenoaa,

oi N = No + No = No + Na (4-34).

Yoi icia/aao, /oi a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa aeieaeai
i?iecaaeeoueny aeiiieieoaeueiue i?iaeoeo, eioi?ue iaania/eo
aini?iecaiaenoai o?oaea aia noa?u aini?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi, eae iu
ciaai, iaania/eaaaony iauae i?eaaai/iie noieiinoueth, a aa
aeinoaoi/iinoue ii?aaeaeyaony ii?iie aaniethoiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

Au?aaeaiea N = No + Na (4-35)

iu aoaeai iacuaaoue o?aaiaieai yeiiiie/aneiai aaeaina eee aeey
e?aoeinoe i?inoi o?aaiaieai aaeaina.

O?aaiaiea yeiiiie/aneiai aaeaina – ii?aaeaeyao ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
ethaie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, ia?ooaiea aaeaina aaaeao e ia?ooaieyi
?aaiou yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, i eioi?uo iu aua aoaeai aiai?eoue.

Aioo?aiiee iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (AII) N anaaaea eiaao aeaa
oi?iu noieiinoe – aaniethoioth eee iio?aaeoaeueneoth e ioiineoaeueioth.
A aaniethoiie oi?ia noieiinoe ii oi?ie?oaony a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii
nio?aiaiey noieiinoe

N aa = Na + Nia + Nci + Ny (4-36)

Yoi au?aaeaiea iieacuaaao, /oi aioo?aiiee iaoeeiiaeueiue
i?iaeoeo nicaeaaony e noa?ie aini?iecaiaenoaa e noa?ie iao/aiey e
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?ie. Yoio AII ninoieo ec aeaoo i?eioeeieaeueii
ioee/iuo /anoae – ec iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea e iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aiaaonoaa.

AII = Aeoi + Ia; (4-37)

Iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae nicaeaaony oieueei a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa,
o.a. aunooiaao a iauanoaa anaaaea a oi?ia ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe, e
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oa iio?aaeoaeueneea oiaa?u, eioi?ua
eniieuecothony aeey iaania/aiey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe anao o/anoieeia
iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, o.a. aeey aini?iecaiaenoaa o?oaea.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai nicaeaaony ai anao o?ao noa?ao o?oaea –
noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa, noa?a iao/aiey e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?a.

A noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa – yoi i?oaeey e n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa,
a oii /enea aeey ae?oaeo noa? o?oaea.

A iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?a – yoi ciaiey, eae iiaua, oae e
aini?iecaiaeeiua.

A noa?a iao/aiey – yoi eae aini?iecaaaeaiiua ciaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua
aeey iao/aiey ethaeae o?oaeo, oae e iiaeaea?aeaiea o?iaiy ciaiee o
anao o/anoieeia iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.

Ii aunooiaao nicaeaiiia a aaniethoiie noieiinoiie oi?ia
iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai anaaaea a oi?ia ioiineoaeueiie, a oi?ia
noieiinoe aini?iecaiaenoaa, ii ia aini?iecaiaenoaa naiiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa, a aini?iecaiaenoaa oie /anoe
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, eioi?ay oi?ie?oaony ca n/ao ?aaeecaoeee caeiia
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaieai yeiiiie/aneiai
aaeaina oae, /oi

Ia = Na (4-38).

Oaeei ia?acii, iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai, iaania/eaay
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea caeiia i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa, iiaeao iaania/eoue
naia nianoaaiiia i?inoia e ?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai oieueei i?e
oneiaee niaethaeaiey o?aaiaiey yeiiiie/aneiai aaeaina. Iinoiyiiia
auiieiaiea o?aaiaaiee o?aaiaiey yeiiiie/aneiai aaeaina – caaea/a
o?aoueaai o?iaiy oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie, eioi?ue iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue
a iineaaeothueo aeaaao.

Iiaeaaaeai eoiae neacaiiiai a yoie aeaaa.

* * *

1. Iu iieacaee, /oi iiiyoea aini?iecaiaenoai – yoi niaoeeoe/aneay
/anoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, aeeth/athuay a naay e aini?iecaiaenoai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa e aini?iecaiaenoai naiiai
iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea. I?e yoii iaa noi?iiu aini?iecaiaenoaa naycaiu
iaaeaeo niaie o?aaiaieai yeiiiie/aneiai aaeaina oae, /oi

N = No + Na , aaea

N – aioo?aiiee iaoeeiaeueiue i?iaeoeo

No – noieiinoue o?oaea /eaiia iauanoaa, caiyouo a noa?a
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Na – noieiinoue o?oaea ethaeae, caiyouo aia noa?u
aini?iecaiaenoaa.

2. Anyeia aini?iecaiaenoai iiae/eiyaony n oi/ee c?aiey noieiinoe
iauaeoeaiiio caeiio aini?iecaiaenoaa:

Nioi = Naeia = Na + Ny ;

Caeii aini?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeyao aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue,
aicieeathuoth a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?oth iu iacaaee
ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoueth.

3. A i?iecaiaenoaaiiii oeeeea ioiineoaeueiay noieiinoue aunooiaao
a niaoeeoe/aneii aeaea, iacaaiiii iaie aeaeeiie ioiineoaeueiie
noieiinoueth i?iecaiaeeoaey aoi?iai o?iaiy

Nioi = Ni + Naeia + E N , aaea

Ni – noieiinoue i?aaeiaoia o?oaea, iinooiathueo a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee ec aia;

N – noieiinoue n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, eniieuecoaiuo a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii oeeeea;

E – caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiaaeeaaaiue eiyooeoeeaio
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee.

4. Iiiyoea aini?iecaiaenoai ioaaouaaao ia oieueei nianoaaiioth
noa?o aini?iecaiaenoaa. Caeii aini?iecaiaenoaa aeaenoaoao e a noa?a
oneoa e iao/ii-oaoie/aneie noa?a.

I?e yoii aini?iecaiaenoao iiaeeaaeao e ciaiey, eniieuecoaiua a
i?ioeanna o?oaea ethaeae, e yia?aey.

5. E iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey noieiinoe a noa?a oneoa iu ioianee
oio oaeo, /oi a yoie noa?a noieiinoue o?oaea anaaaea iineo /enoi
cao?aoiue oa?aeoa?, o.e. caeanue ia iiaeao oi?ie?iaaoueny i?eaaai/iay
noieiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii yoa noa?a /aeiaa/aneiai o?oaea ia
o/anoaoao a nicaeaiee aeiaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa. Iia oi?ie?oao o?e
niaoeeoe/aneeo aeaea noieiinoe noa?u oneoa, oae /oi

No = No + No + No , aaea

No – iauay noieiinoue noa?u oneoa;

No = N + No + E Naeia – noieiinoue o?ainii?oiuo oneoa;

No = E Naeia – noieiinoue o?aiaiey;

No = Na + Nia noieiinoue ianeoaeeaaiey.

6. Noieiinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee iu ii?aaeaeyai eae

Ny ioi = Naeia nu? + No + E Naeia , aaea

Naeia nu? – aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue, eniieuecoaiie a i?ioeanna
aini?iecaiaenoaa yia?aaoe/aneiai nu?uey;

No – o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu aini?iecaiaenoaa;

E Naeia – noieiinoue i?aia?aciaaiey yia?aee.

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey yia?aee aiaoieo enoi/ieeia
ii?aaeaeyaony eiyooeoeeaioii yooaeoeaiinoe

Ny ioi

No yi = 1 –

Ny

7. Iu ii?aaeaeeee, /oi iauay i?eaaai/iay noieiinoue ninoieo ec
noiiu aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, o.a.

Niau = Naa + Nioi ; i?e yoii

Naa = Nia + Nci , a Nioi = Ny = 8 ?en * Oi?.

?aaeecaoeey i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe, o.a. i?iecaiaenoai
aeiiieieoaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa ii?aaeaeyaony o?aaiaieai i?eaaai/iiai
aaeaina

No = Niau;

O?aaiaiea i?eaaai/iiai aaeaina i?eaiaeeo ian e caeiio i?iecaiaenoaa
i?eaaai/iiai i?iaeoeoa:

Na = Nci + Ny,

eioi?ia aiai?eo i oii, /oi anyeee i?eaaai/iue iauanoaaiiue
i?iaeoeo ia?acoaony oieueei a ?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey a i?ioeanna
o?oaea iaeiieaiiuo /aeiaa/anoaii ciaiee, a oaeaea ca n/ao
eniieueciaaiey aiaoieo enoi/ieeia yia?ainiaaaeaiey.

*anoiui neo/aai yoiai caeiia yaeyaony caeii iiauoaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea aeey noa?u aini?iecaiaenoaa

Na ioi = Ny .

Ethaia iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a noa?a
aini?iecaiaenoaa i?ienoiaeeo oieueei ca n/ao eniieueciaaiey aiaoieo
enoi/ieeia yia?aee e a noieiinoiii ioiioaiee i?yiii?iii?oeeiiaeueii
noieiinoe cao?a/aiiie yia?aee.

8. O?aaiaiea i?eaaai/iiai aaeaina iicaieyao iai ia?aeoe io
au/eneaiey cia/aiee i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe e eniieueciaaieth
ioiineoaeueiuo niioiioaiee a yeiiiiee iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, /oi
aeinoeaaaony aaaaeaieai iiiyoey ii?ia i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe.

Aaniethoiay ii?ia i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe aeey no?aiu

I – N

Naa = * 100 % , aaea

I

I – iauaa eiee/anoai o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey no?aiu;

N – iauaa eiee/anoai ethaeae, caiyouo a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa.

Ioiineoaeueiay ii?ia i?eaaai/iie noieiinoe

Ya

Nioi = * 100 % ,
aaea

Ya – 1

Ya – yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoue o?oaea

8 ? e.n.
1 e.n.

Ya = aae. III, i?e 1 aae. III =

N
8

N – eiee/anoai ethaeae, caiyouo a i?ioeanna o?oaea.

?en – noiia?iay iiuiinoue aiaoieo enoi/ieeia
yia?aiiaania/aiey,eniieuecoaiuo a iauanoaaiii o?oaea.

9. Iu onoaiiaeee, /oi aioo?aiiee iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo anaaaea
aunooiaao a aeaoo oi?iao noieiinoe – aaniethoiie e ioiineoaeueiie, ii
iauanoaii aini?eieiaaony oieueei a ioiineoaeueiie oi?ia noieiinoe.

I?e yoii AII = Aeoi + Ia , aaea

Aeoi – iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, o.a. iaoa?eaeueiua n?aaenoaa,
nicaeaaaaiua a noa?a aini?iecaiaenoaa e eaeouea ia iaania/aiea
aini?iecaiaenoaa o?oaea anao o/anoieeia iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea.

Ia – iaoeeiiaeueiia aeinoiyiea, eioi?ia nicaeaaony a noa?a
aini?iecaiaenoaa eae aini?iecaiaenoai n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa e yia?aee;
a noa?a iao/aiey, eae aini?iecaiaenoai iiaeaioiaee ethaeae e o?oaeo,
a noa?a iao/ii-oaoie/aneie, eae i?iecaiaenoai e aini?iecaiaenoai ciaiee.

I?e yoii Ia = Na.

Iaoeeiiaeueiia aiaaonoai nicaeaaony a aaniethoiie noieiinoe, ii
aini?eieiaaony iauanoaii a ioiineoaeueiie noieiinoe, ?aaiie
aeiiieieoaeueiiio i?iaeoeoo eniieuecoaiiio aeey i?iecaiaenoaa e
aini?iecaiaenoaa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa.

I?aaeiao o?oaea

N 1

*aeiaae (nenoaia

oi?aaeaiey)

No

I?oaeea o?oaea

N 2

Aiaoiee enoi/iee

yia?aee

Ny 0

I?iaeoeo o?oaea

Ni

Caiey

N 1

*aeiaae

No

Ieoa

N 2

Eioaaeue

Ny 0

Ia?aaioaiiay caiey

Ni

N ioi = Na + Ny

O?ainii?oe?oaiue i?iaeoeo

Noieiinoue – N1

*aeiaae (nenoaia

oi?aaeaiey)

No

Aiaoiee enoi/iee

yia?aee

Ny

O?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai

Nioi = Naeia

I?iaeoeo iinea o?ainii?

oe?iaee

Noieiinoue N2

Enoi/iee eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee

Yia?aaoe/aneia nu?uea

(enoi/iee iioaioeeaeueiie yia?aee)

N 1

Ono?ienoai i?aia?aciaa-

iey yia?aee

Naeia

Aiaoiyy yia?aey

Ny

Ianeoaeeaaiea

(/aeiaae)

No

Yia?aey

Ny ioi

Aeiau/a yia?-

aiiineoaey

Naeia nu?

O?ainii?oe?iaaiea yia?aiiineoaeae

No

I?aia?aciaaiea yia?aee

Ny ioi

O?ainii?oe?iaaiea yia?aee

No

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