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Сравнительная характеристика малого предпринимательства в России и за рубежом

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?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

“N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?innee e
ca ?oaaaeii”

Ieine 1999

Iniaaiiinoe iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee

a ae?oaeo no?aiao

Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey noaee iaiouaieaiie /anoueth yeiiiieee aieueoeinoaa
i?iiuoeaiii-?acaeouo no?ai. Iie auiieiytho ?yae aaaeiaeoeo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ooieoeee, oaeeo eae iaania/aiea caiyoinoe,
oi?ie?iaaiea eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu, iiaeaea?aeaiea eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeoeaiinoe, niya/aiea nioeeaeueiiai ia?aaainoaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a no?aiao AN ian/eouaaaony ii?yaeea 16 iei.
i?aaei?eyoee, eneeth/ay naeueneioicyenoaaiiue naeoi?. Ia ieo caiyoi
ieiei 101 iei. /aeiaae. (Iauay caiyoinoue a no?aiao-/eaiao AN – 150 iei.
/aeiaae.). Niaieoiiue iai?io i?aaei?eyoee no?ai-o/anoieoe AN ninoaaee
ii?yaeea 11 636 o?eeeeiiia yeth.

A no?aiao AN 99% i?aaei?eyoee eiatho /enei caiyouo ia aieaa 250 /aeiaae.
Aieaa 90% io iauaai /enea i?aaei?eyoee no?ai-/eaiia AN (ieiei 15 iei.
aaeeieoe) i/aiue iaeaiueeea. Ia eaaeaeii ec ieo ?aaioaao ia aieaa 10
/aeiaae.

Iieiaeia i?aaei?eyoee a AN yaeythony “one-men businesses”, aaea ?aaioaao
oieueei aeaaeaeaoe e, aiciiaeii, iaeioi?ua /eaiu aai naiuee. Aua 43%
i?aaei?eyoee eiatho /enei ?aaioathueo ia aieaa 10 /aeiaae. Acyoua
aianoa, yoe i/aiue iaeaiueeea i?aaei?eyoey i?aaeinoaaeytho o?aoue
?aai/eo iano a no?aiao AN e iaania/eaatho /aoaa?oue niaieoiiiai iai?ioa.
Iiea aeayoaeueiinoe yoeo i?aaei?eyoee – no?ieoaeuenoai, oi?aiaey,
aecian-oneoae. Aieaa 70% ?aaioathueo ia yoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo caiyou a
oi?aiaea e oneoaao.

Ieiei 1,1 iei. i?aaei?eyoee eiatho /enei ?aaioathueo io 10 aei 249
/aeiaae. Yoe i?aaei?eyoey ioiinyony e ?ac?yaeo iaeuo e n?aaeieo. Iie
i?aaeinoaaeytho ?aaioo o?aoe ?aaioathuaai ianaeaiey e i?iecaiaeyo ii/oe
40% io noiia?iiai iai?ioa.

Ieiei 1 iei. i?aaei?eyoee ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee iaeuo (10-49 /aeiaae
?aaioathueo). Iie i?aaeinoaaeytho ieiei 119 iei. ?aai/eo iano. A
n?aaeiai, ia iaeiii i?aaei?eyoee yoiai eeanna ?aaioaao 20 /aeiaae. Aieaa
iieiaeiu anao ?aaioathueo ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo (55%) caiyou a oi?aiaea
e oneoaao. Inoaeueiua 45% caiyouo ?aaioatho a no?ieoaeuenoaa e ?acee/iuo
io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

N?aaeieie i?aaei?eyoeyie n/eoathony oa, ia eioi?uo ?aaioaao io 50 aei
249 ?aaioieeia. Iiae yoi ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeiaaeaao ieiei 1% i?aaei?eyoee
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Ia n?aaeieo i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aaioaao ieiei 15% anao
caiyouo a yeiiiieea, iie aeatho iyooth /anoue iauaai iai?ioa. N?aaeiee
?acia? i?aaei?eyoey aeaiiiai eeanna – 100 /aeiaae.

E?oiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie n/eoathony oa, ia eioi?uo ?aaioaao 250 eee aieaa
?aaioieeia. A eaoaai?eth e?oiiuo aoiaeyo anaai 30 000 i?aaei?eyoee,
eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeytho 34 iei. ?aai/eo iano e aeatho 4 000 o?eeeeiia
yeth iai?ioa. Eo iauaa eiee/anoai – ii?yaeea 0,2% io /enea anao
i?aaei?eyoee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aaioaao o?aoue
anao caiyouo a no?aiao-/eaiao AN, iie i?iecaiaeyo o?aoue io iauaai
iai?ioa.

A n?aaeiai, ia e?oiiii i?aaei?eyoee ?aaioaao 1000 ?aaioieeia. E?oiiua
i?aaei?eyoey aeiieie?otho a eaieoaeiaieie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e a oaeeo
“e?oiiuo” oneoaao, eae o?ainii?o, aaieianeay aeayoaeueiinoue,
no?aoiaaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?ani?aaeaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee a no?aiao AN i/aiue
ia?aaiiia?iia: 1% i?aaei?eyoee (n?aaeiea e e?oiiua) ian/eouaatho aieaa
iieiaeiu anao caiyouo e iaania/eaatho aieaa iieiaeiu noiia?iiai iai?ioa.
Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey, aeaaiaea?y naiae ia?iiiie /eneaiiinoe, oaeaea
iaania/eaatho ieiei iieiaeiu iauae caiyoinoe e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eiatho
cia/eoaeueiue aan a yeiiiieea.

Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey ?ani?ino?aiaiu ai anao naeoi?ao yeiiiieee. N?aaeiea
i?aaei?eyoey – iii?a ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aieueoea
i?aaei?eyoey aeiieie?otho a eaieoaeiaieeo i?iecaiaenoaao e “e?oiiuo”
oneoaao (big service suppliers).

Oniaoiia ?acaeoea iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana a no?aiao n ?acaeoie
yeiiiieeie iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi e?oiiia i?iecaiaenoai ia
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony iaeeiio, a i?iaiaeeony i?eioeei eiiia?e?iaaiey
e?oiiuo e iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee, i?e/ai e?oiiua iauaaeeiaiey ia
iiaeaaeytho iaeue aecian, acaeiiaeiiieiyy ae?oa ae?oaa, iniaaiii a noa?a
niaoeeaeecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa e a eiiiaaoeeiiiuo ?ac?aaioeao.

E?oiiia i?iecaiaenoai a aieueoae noaiaie i?eaioe?oaony ia ianniaue,
ioiineoaeueii iaeii?iaeiue ni?in. Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey oniaoii
ooieoeeiie?otho ia iaaieueoeo ?uii/iuo naaiaioao, i?eaeaaay oicyenoao
aeaeinoue, iiaeeueiinoue, niiniaiinoue e auno?ui no?oeoo?iui e
oaoie/aneei naeaeaai.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua eciaiaiey ai aeonao iio?aaeoaeae, oaoiieiaeyo,
oi?aaeai/aneeo iaoiaeao, oeiainiauo ?uieao aeatho iaeiio aeciano
i?aeiouanoai iaae e?oiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie. Eo ia ath?ie?aoe/aneea
no?oeoo?u, aianoa n eiioeaio?aoeeae i?aaa i?eiyoey ?aoaiey a ?oeao
aeaaeaeueoea, iicaieytho iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi ecaeaeaoue auaiaeo ec
aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua iiyaeythony io eciaiaiee a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.

Iauanoaaiiia iiaaaeaiea i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
iniiaaii ia i?yiie caaeneiinoe io ianoiuo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania e n
neeo yoiai iiioaeaeaao eo a iianaaeiaaiie aeecie e oi?i/aieth naycae ni
naieie iinoiyiiuie e iioaioeeaeueiuie eeeaioaie ec ?acee/iuo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii.

E /eneo iaaeinoaoeia iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa neaaeoao ioianoe
n?aaieoaeueii ieceoth aeioiaeiinoue, aunieoth eioaineaiinoue o?oaea,
neiaeiinoe n aiaae?aieai iiauo oaoiieiaee, ia?aie/aiiinoue nianoaaiiuo
?ano?nia e iiauoaiiue ?ene a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
iinoiyiiiio iaiiaeaieth a naeoi?a iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
aneaaenoaea ianniauo aaie?ionoa. Oae ec aiiaue i?aaiecoaiuo iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee /a?ac aiae inoaaony ieiei 50%, /a?ac 3 aiaea – 7-8%, /a?ac
5 eao inoaaony ia aieaa 3%. Aianoa n oai, iauaa /enei iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee, eae i?aaeei, ?anoao eee inoaaony iaeciaiiui, ia ianoi
eeeaeaee?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee iinoiyiii ?iaeaeathony iiaua.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea:

Oaaeeoea 1. Oa?aeoa?enoeee II

OA?AEOA?ENOEEEIIENAIEA OA?AEOA?ENOEE?acia? oe?iuIaea ii
?acia?o.Anni?oeiaioIonoonoaea ouaoaeueii nieaie?iaaiiiai e
naaeaine?iaaiiiai anni?oeiaioa.Oeiaine?iaaieaNoaniaiu iaaeinoaoeii
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.Oeaiiia?aciaaieaI?e ?ac?aaioea oeaiiaie iieeoeea ia
eniieuecothony neiaeiua no?aoaaee. Oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa
naaanoieiinoe.Ioiioaiey n ?uieiiIa eiatho eiio?iey iaae ?uieii. Oycaeiu
ia?aae eiieo?aioeeae e iaaeaaii?eyoiuie eciaiaieyie ia ?uiea. Aeaeia
?aaae?iaaiea ia eciaiaiea ni?ina.Oi?aaeaieaAeaeea i?aaieciaaiiua
no?oeoo?u, i?aeiouanoai eiiaiaeiie ?aaiou. ?aoaiey i?eieiathony iaeiei
/aeiaaeii (aeaaeaeueoeai oe?iu) e caaenyo io aai ee/iuo ea/anoa.Iiene
eioi?iaoeeeI?aaeii/oaiea ioaeatho ee/iiio nai?o aeaiiuo ii naiei naycyi.

?inneeneia iaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai

a oeeo?ao

Ii ninoiyieth ia 1 ieoya?y 1997 aiaea ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee aeaenoaiaaei 844 ouny/e iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee (II).

Iauay /eneaiiinoue caiyouo ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo – 8.3 iei. /aeiaae.
Yoi ninoaaeyao 13% io iauaai /enea caiyouo a ?inneeneie yeiiiieea.

Aieaa 43% iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee caiyoi a noa?a oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai
ieoaiey, 17% a no?ieoaeuenoaa, 16% a i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A ia?aii iieoaiaeee 1997 aiaea eie auei i?iecaaaeaii i?iaeoeoeee e
ieacaii oneoa ii anai aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe ia noiio 125,6 o?ei. ?oaeae,
/oi ninoaaeei ii/oe 7% auionea i?iaeoeoeee e ieacaiey oneoa ai anao
io?aneyo yeiiiieee ?innee.

A n?aaeiai ii ?innee, ia iaeiii iaeii i?aaei?eyoee ?aaioaao 10 /aeiaae.

Eioaa?e?iaaiiua iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ninoiyiea iaeuo e n?aaeieo
i?aaei?eyoee a ?aciuo no?aiao:

No?aiuEie-ai INI (oun)Eiee/.IIN ia 1000 aeeoaeaeCaiyoi a IIN
(iei./ae)Aeiey INI a iauae /eneaiiinoe caiyouo (%)Aeiey INI a AAI
(%)Aaeeeia?eoaiey26304613.64950-53Aa?iaiey22903718.54650-52Eoaeey3920681
6.87357-60O?aioeey19803515.25455-62No?aiu
AN1577045687263-67NOA1930074.270.25450-52ssiiiey645049.639.57852-55?inne
y8445.658.31310-11

Eeoa?aoo?a

[1] Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey (Noauaeou iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee): I?aaiaua iniiau aeayoaeueiinoe. Aooaaeoa?neee
o/ao. Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea. Io/aoiinoue. – I.:”Inue-89″, 1996. – 96 n.

[2] A?oceiia A.I. Yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai:
O/aaiia iiniaea. – I.:”NIOEO”, 1994. – 494 n.

[3] I?eeooeeee Eaiieae. Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey: ?aaeno?aoeey.
Eeoeaice?iaaiea. Oi?iuaiiay oi?ia o/aoa e io/aoiinoe.
Eueaiou.-I.:Inue-89, 1997. –146 n.

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