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Создание предпринимательской фирмы и рассмотрение эффективности ее работы на примере печатного цеха

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I. AAAAeAIEA

A i?aaenoaaeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa iieacai iooue ii nicaeaieth

i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie oe?iu. A aeaiiii neo/aa yoi aoaeao Iauanoai n

Ia?aie/aiiie Ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

Ia?aua oaae i?e nicaeaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie oe?iu – yoi

/aoeia ii?aaeaeaiea oiai, /ai aoaeao oe?ia caieiaoueny a aoaeouai.

A /anoiinoe iiae yoei iiieiaaony :

1. Auai? oicyenoaaiiie ieoe.

a) ianoi ?aniieiaeaiey oe?iu ;

a) a?aiy aa ?aaiou.

2. Auai? ?uii/iie ieoe.

a) ioeaiea aoaeoueo iio?aaeoaeae ;

a) ioeaiea naieo oainia ;

a) ioeaiea naieo oaoiieiaee, ioeaiea aa iiaeciu ;

a) ioeaieoue aeieth ?uiea ;

ae) ioeaieoue naie i?aaeaeu.

3. Auai? ia?oia?ia ,eioi?ua noaioo o/?aaeeoaeyie i?aaei?ey-

oey,eiia/ii oieueei a oii neo/aa,eiaaea o/?aaeeoaeai iauanoaa n

ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ia yaeyaony iaeei /aeiaae.

Oae aea neaaeoao i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea aaea e ia eaeea n?aaenoaa

aoaeao a?aoueny iai?oaeiaaiea aeey oe?iu e iaieiaoueny ?aaioie-

ee. *anoi auaaao oae, /oi ia ia?auo oaaao o o/?aaeeoaeae aoaeoua-

ai i?aaei?eyoey ia i/aiue iiiai aeaiaa,oae /oi ia ia/aeueiie noa-

aeee iai?oaeiaaiea /anoi aa?aony ia oneiaeyo eeceiaa o oe?iu –

a?aiaeiaeaoaey.A caaeneiinoe io noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu aiiiaeii

iaiyoue ,e i?eia?o,o?oaeiniiniaiuo eiaaeeaeia,o.e. i?aaei?eyoea ia

eioi?ii ?aaioatho oaeea ethaee iieuecoaony iaeiaiauie eueaioaie.A

aiiaua iiaeii i?inoi ?aaioaoue a iooi?iie ciia.

Iinea anaai yoiai neaaeoao o?e yoaia iinea caaa?oaiey ei-

oi?uo iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth n/eoaaony nic-

aeaiiui ioeoeeaeueii. Yoe yoaiu:

1. Nicaeaiea o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a.

2. Nicaeaiea onoaaa iauanoaa.

3. ?aaeno?aoeey iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

I?aaaea anee iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth o/-

?aaeaeaaony iaeiei eeoeii oi aai o/?aaeeoaeueiui aeieoiaioii yaeyaony

eeoue onoaa.

A o/a?aaeeoaeueiii aeiaiai?a O/anoieee i?eieiatho ia naay

iaycaoaeuenoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth,ii?aaeaeytho ii?y-

aeie niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ii aai nicaeaieth,oneiaey ia?aaea/e

aio eiouanoaa e o/anoey a aeayoaeueiinoe,a oaeaea oneiaey e ii?y-

aeie ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie i?eauee e oauoeia,oi?aaea-

iey aeayoaeueiinoueth e auoiaea o/anoieeia ec iauanoaa.

II. NICAeAIEA I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNEIE OE?IU

1. IAUEA IIEIAEAIEss

O/anoieee:

O/anoieeaie iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ii-

aoo aunooiaoue a?aaeaeaia e th?eaee/aneea eeoea,a oaeaea aino-

aea?noaaiiua i?aaiu e i?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

Caeiiii iiaeao auoue cai?auaii eee ia?aie/aii o/anoea a ia-

uanoaao n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ioaeaeueiuo eaoaai?ee

a?aaeaeai.Oaeiauie iiaoo auoue,iai?eia?,aeieaeiinoiua eeoea i?aaiia

ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey.

A ioiioaiee th?eaee/aneeo eeoe A?aaeaeaineee Eiaeaen (aeaeaa AE)

i?aaeoniao?eaaao oaeaea ianeieueei ia?aie/aiee ia o/anoea a ia-

uanoaao n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

Ai-ia?auo,oeiaine?oaiua nianoaaiieeii o/?aaeaeaiey iiaoo

aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa o/anoieeia iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie io-

aaonoaaiiinoueth eeoue a oii neo/aa,anee nianoaaiiee eo eiouanoaa

aeaao ia yoi ?ac?aoaiea,eeai anee ?ac?aoaiea niaea?aeeony a caei-

ia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu e i?aaiu ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey

iiaoo aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa o/anoieeia iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie

ioaaonoaaiiinoueth eeoue a oii neo/aa,anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii

caeiiii.

Ieieiaeueiia /enei o/anoieeia iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie io-

aaonoaaiiinoueth – 1 o/anoiee,iaeneiaeueiia /enei o/anoieeia

aeieaeii auoue onoaiiaeaii Caeiiii ia iauanoaao n ia?aie/aiiie

ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.Aianoa n oai AE enoiaeeo ec oiai,/oi yoi /enei

ia aeieaeii auoue cia/eoaeueiui.I?e i?aauoaiee onoaiiaeaiiiai Ca-

eiiii i?aaeaea iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth iiaeea-

aeeo a oa/aiea oiai aea aiaea i?aia?aciaaieth a aeoeeiia?iia ia-

uanoai,a ii enoa/aiea aiaea – eeeaeaeaoeee.

Anee o/anoieeii yaeyaony oece/aneia eeoei,oeacuaathony nea-

aeothuea aeaiiua:oaieeey,eiy,io/anoai,a?aaeaeainoai,aeaoa e ianoi

?iaeaeaiey,ianii?oiua aeaiiua,ianoi i?iienee,iiia? oaeaoiia.

Anee o/anoieeii yaeyaony th?eaee/aneia eeoei,oeacuaathony

neaaeothuea aeaiiua:th?eaee/aneee aae?an n eiaeaenii,iiia? oaeaoi-

ia,ia iniiaa eaeiai aeieoiaioa e a /ueai eeoea aeaenoaoao.

Oe?iaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea Iauanoaa:

Oe?iaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea ia aeieaeii iiaoi?youe oe?iaiiuo iae-

iaiiaaiee ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee,a oaeaea niaea?aeaoue iaicia/aiee,ei-

oi?ua iiaoo aaanoe a caaeoaeaeaiea.I?e yoii niaiaaeathueie n/eoa-

thony iaeiaiiaaiey n niaiaaeathuae i?aaiecaoeeiiii – i?aaiaie oi?-

iie e e?aoeei iaeiaiiaaieai (anee iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie io-

aaonoaaiiinoueth e aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai eiatho iaeii e oiaea e?ao-

eia iaeiaiiaaiea,iai?eia? ” Iaye”,oi eo iaeiaiiaaiey ia aoaeoo

n/eoaoueny niaiaaeathueie).

Iniaia aieiaiea i?e auai?a oe?iaiiiai iaeiaiiaaiey neaaeo-

ao ia?aoeoue ia eniieueciaaiea a iai neiaa ” ?inney” e i?iecaiae-

iuo io iaai,a oaeaea iacaaiee ?anioaeee,ai?iaeia,enoi?e/aneeo

iaiyoieeia e o.ae.,/oi iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue niaoeeaeueiiai ?ac?aoa-

iey,a oaeaea oieaou ii?aaeaeaiiiai nai?a.

Ia?yaeo n niaethaeaieai iaycaoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee ?aeiiaiaeoai

i?e auai?a iaeiaiiaaiey enoiaeeoue ec oiai,/oi iii:

– aeieaeii auoue aeaaicao/iui ia ?onneii ycuea e ?ani?ino?a-

iaiiuo eiino?aiiuo ycueao (neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo,/oi iaeo?aeue-

iia neiai iaeiiai ycuea iiaeao cao/aoue eae iaoeaico?iia ia ae?oaii

ycuea);

– ia aeieaeii o?aaiaaoue ia?aaiaea (anee o i?aaei?eyoey aoaeao

iaeii iacaaiea ia ?onneii ycuea,aoi?ia – ia eiino?aiiii,iinoi-

yiii aoaeao aicieeaoue aii?in,n eaeei aea iacaaieai auoiaeeoue ia

aiaoiee ?uiie).

– ia aeieaeii ninoiyoue aieaa,/ai ec 180 ciaeia (aeeth/ay

i?iaaeu), o.e. a i?ioeaiii neo/aa aicieeatho i?iaeaiu n aai aa-

oiiaoe/aneie ia?aaioeie i?e ?aaeno?aoeee.

Ianoi iaoiaeaeaiey iauanoaa:

Ii iiaiio AE (i.2 no.54) ianoi iaoiaeaeaiey iauanoaa n ia?aie-

/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ii?aaeaeyaony aai ainoaea?noaaiiie ?a-

aeno?aoeeae.Yoi nouanoaaiiia ioee/ea io noa?iai AE,a niio-

aaonoaee ni no.30 eioi?iai ianoii iaoiaeaeaiey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea

i?eciaaaeinue ianoi iaoiaeaeaiey aai iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuaai i?aa-

ia.

N?ie aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa:ia ia?aie/ai.

TH?eaee/aneee noaoon iauanoaa:

Iauanoai yaeyaony th?eaee/aneei eeoeii ii ?inneeneiio caei-

iiaeaoaeuenoao.Aai i?aaiaie noaoon ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaothuei ia

oa??eoi?ee ?O caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii,ianoiyuei Aeiaiai?ii e Onoa-

aii.Iauanoai i?eia?aoaao i?aaa th?eaee/aneiai eeoea n aeaou aai

ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee.

Iauanoai ioaa/aao ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai anai i?eiaaeea-

aeauei aio eiouanoaii.Iauanoai ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii iay-

caoaeuenoaai naieo O/anoieeia.O/anoieee ia ioaa/atho ii iayca-

oaeuenoaai Iauanoaa e ianoo ?ene oauoeia,naycaiiuo n aeayoaeue-

iinoueth Iauanoaa,a i?aaeaeao noieiinoe naieo aeeaaeia a Onoaaiie

eaieoae Iauanoaa.

OeAEUe E I?AAeIAO AeAssOAEUeIINOE

Oeaeueth aeayoaeueiinoe Iauanoaa yaeyaony ianuuaiea ?inneenei-

ai e ca?oaaaeiiai ?uieia oiaa?aie e oneoaaie,i?iecaiaeeiuie e

i?aaeinoaaeyaiuie Iauanoaii,a oaeaea iieo/aiea i?eauee.

A niioaaonoaee ni noa?ui AE (no.26,48,49,50) th?eaee/aneia

eeoei iaeaaeaao a?aaeaeaineeie i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie eeoue a ?ai-

eao i/a?/aiiiai a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao,i?eciaaaeanue ia

aeaenoaeoaeueiie.Ana iieo/aiiia ii yoie naeaeea eaaeaeay noi?iia

auea iaycaia aa?iooue ae?oaie noi?iia.Anee aea naeaeea ieacuaaeanue

i?ioeai?a/auae eioa?anai ainoaea?noaa e iauanoaa,ana iieo/aiiia

ii iae iiaei auoue acuneaii a aeioiae ainoaea?noaa.

Enoiaey ec iiaiai AE (no.49) eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee (ca

eneeth/aieai oieoa?iuo i?aaei?eyoee),a neaaeiaaoaeueii e iauanoaa

n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth,yaeythueany ?aciiaeaeiinoueth eii-

ia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee,ai?aaa inouanoaeyoue ethaua aeaeu aeayoaeue-

iinoe,ia cai?auaiiua caeiiii.I?e yoii oeacaiey a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo

aeieoiaioao i?aaeiaoa e oeaeae aeayoaeueiinoe ia o?aaoaony.Iaeiaei

anee i?aaeiao e oeaee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeoniio?aiu o/?aaeeoaeueiuie

aeieoiaioaie, aeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaa aeieaeia oeeaaeuaaoueny a eo

?aiee.

Onoaaiie eaieoae iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth

ninoieo ec aeeaaeia aai o/anoieeia e ?anniao?eaaaony AE eae ie-

ieiaeueiue ?acia? eiouanoaa iauanoaa,aa?aioe?othuee eioa?anu aai

e?aaeeoi?ia.A yoie nayce anee ii ieii/aiee aoi?iai oeiainiaiai

aiaea noieiinoue /enouo aeoeaia iauanoaa ieaaeaony iaiueoa onoaa-

iiai eaieoaea,iauanoai iaycaii iauyaeoue ia oiaiueoaiee naiaai

onoaaiiai eaieoaea e ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue yoi oiaiueoaiea.Anee noi-

eiinoue /enouo aeoeaia noaiiaeony iaiueoa onoaiiaeaiiiai ieie-

iaeueiiai ?acia?a onoaaiiai eaieoaea,iauanoai iiaeeaaeeo eeeaeaea-

oeee.Iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ?aaoee?iaaiea iai?aaeaii ia eneeth/aiea

i?aeoeee nicaeaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe oeeoeaiuo iauanoa,ia?aceoe?o-

thueo ia aeeaaeao o/anoieeia.

Aeiioneaaony oaeaea oaaee/aiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea,ii eeoue

iinea aianaiey anaie o/anoieeaie naieo aeeaaeia.

?acia? onoaaiiai eaieoaea iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie io-

aaonoaaiiinoueth ia iiaeao auoue iaiueoa noiiu,ii?aaeaeaiiie Caeiiii

ia iauanoaao n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.Ieieiaeueiue ?ac-

ia? aai onoaaiiai eaieoaea ia iiaeao auoue iaiaa 100 – e?aoiiai

?acia?a ieieiaeueiie iieaou o?oaea a ianyoe.

Iaeneiaeueiue ?acia? onoaaiiai eaieoaea iauanoaa n ia?aie-

/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ia onoaiiaeai.I?e yoii neaaeoao,iaeia-

ei,eiaoue a aeaeo,/oi a neo/aa i?aauoaiey ei ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?a-

aeaea oneiaeiyaony i?ioeaaeo?a ?aaeno?aoeee iauanoaa.

Ninoaa onoaaiiai eaieoaea ii?aaeaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n

i.6 no.66 AE,enoiaey ec eioi?ie aeeaaeii a onoaaiie eaieoae ii-

aoo anooiaoue aeaiueae,oeaiiua aoiaae,ae?oaea aaue eee eiouanoaai-

iua i?aaa eeai eiua i?aaa,eiathuea aeaiaaeioth ioeaieo.

Ioeaiea aeeaaeia inouanoaeyaony ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe o/anoie-

eia,iaeiaei caeii iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue aa iacaaeneiie yenia?oecu.

Ia iiiaio ?aaeno?aoeee iauanoaa onoaaiue eaieoae aeieaeai

auoue iiea/ai ia iaiaa,/ai ia iieiaeio.Inoaaoayny /anoue iiaeea-

aeeo iieaoa a oa/aiea ia?aiai aiaea aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa.

Iiaue AE i?aaeiieaaaao,/oi a oa/aiea aiaea ni aeiy ?aaeno?a-

oeee oi?ie?iaaiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie

ioaaonoaaiiinoueth aoaeao caaa?oaii.Anee yoiai ia i?iecieaeao,ia-

uanoai aeieaeii iauyaeoue ia oiaiueoaiee naiaai onoaaiiai eaieoa-

ea,eeai i?ae?aoeoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue iooai eeeaeaeaoeee.

I?e ?aoaiee aii?ina ia oiaiueoaiee onoaaiiai eaieoaea nea-

aeoao eiaoue a aeaeo,/oi:

– ai – ia?auo,onoaaiue eaieoae ia iiaeao auoue oiaiueoai aei

?acia?a iaiaa ieieiaeueii aeiionoeiiai a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoao-

thuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii;

– ai – aoi?uo,oiaiueoaiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea aeiioneaaony

eeoue n oaaaeiieaieai anao e?aaeeoi?ia iauanoaa,iinea eioi?iai

iie a i?aaa iio?aaiaaoue aein?i/iiai i?ae?auaiey eee eniieiaiey

niioaaonoaothueo iaycaoaeuenoa iauanoaa e aiciauaiey ei oauoeia.

Inaiaiaeaeaiea o/anoieea iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie io-

aaonoaaiiinoueth io iaycaiiinoe aianaiey aeeaaea a onoaaiie eaie-

oae,a oii /enea – iooai ca/aoa o?aaiaaiee e iauanoao,ia aei-

ioneaaony.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue o/anoieeia iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie io-

aaonoaaiiinoueth ca iaaianaiea eee ianaiaa?aiaiiia aianaiea

aeeaaea a onoaaiue eaieoae ii?aaeaeyaony a aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo ieie.

Aiai?y ia iaycaiiinoe o/anoieeia aianoe aanue naie aeeaae a

oa/aiea aiaea ni aeiy ?aaeno?aoeee iauanoaa,neaaeoao eiaoue a ae-

aeo,/oi naii iauanoai ia ai?aaa i?aaeuyaeyoue e o/anoieeai a no-

aeaaiii ii?yaeea o?aaiaaiee i aianaiee aeeaaeia.Yoi,iaeiaei,ia ic-

ia/aao,/oi iiaeiaiiai ?iaea o?aaiaaiee naie o/anoieee ia iiaoo

i?aaeuyaeyoue ae?oa e ae?oao.

Eiouanoai iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth i?e-

iaaeeaaeeo aio ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe.Oi anoue,anee o/anoiee a

ea/anoaa aeeaaea a onoaaiue eaieoae iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie io-

aaonoaaiiinoueth aiineo eiiiuethoa?,yoio eiiiuethoa? ia?anoaao auoue

aai nianoaaiiinoueth e noaiiaeony nianoaaiiinoueth iauanoaa.

I?AAA E IAssCAIIINOE O*ANOIEEIA

A niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei aeiaiai?ii O/anoieee Iauanoaa

iaycothony auiieiyoue neaaeothuea iaycaoaeuenoaa:

– aiineoue aeeaaeu a Onoaaiie eaieoae a ii?yaeea, ?acia-

?ao,niiniaaie e a n?iee,i?aaeoniio?aiiua a Aeiaiai?a;

– ia ?acaeaoaoue eiioeaeaoeeaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth i aeayoaeueiinoe

Iauanoaa.

Iauai eiioeaeaoeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony niaeaoaieai

iaaeaeo O/anoieeaie eee Aee?aeoi?ii Iauanoaa;

Ia?aaea/a eiioeaeaoeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee o?aoueei eeoeai,iioaee-

eiaaiea eee eiia ?acaeaoaiea oaeie eioi?iaoeee,a oii /enea a

oa/aiea iyoe eao iinea i?ae?auaiey aeaenoaey ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai-

?a,iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny oieueei n niaeaney ae?oaeo O/anoieeia

iacaaeneii io i?e/ei i?ae?auaiey aeaenoaey ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai-

?a.I?e yoii O/anoieee ai?aaa ?ane?uaaoue eiioeaeaoeeaeueioth eioi?-

iaoeeth o?aoueei eeoeai eeoue a neo/aa i?eaea/aiey eo e aeayoaeue-

iinoe,o?aaothuae ciaiey oaeie eioi?iaoeee,e oieueei a oii iau-

aia,eioi?ue iaiaoiaeei aeey ?aaeecaoeee oeaeae e caaea/ Iauanoaa.

Ia?aie/aiey a ioiioaiee ?acaeaoaiey eioi?iaoeee ia io-

iinyony e iauaaeinooiiie eioi?iaoeee eee e eioi?iaoeee,noaaoae

ecaanoiie O/anoieeo ec eiuo enoi/ieeia aei eee iinea aa iieo/a-

iey io ae?oaiai O/anoieea eee io Iauanoaa.

– i?eieiaoue o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee Iauanoaii a niioaaonoaee

n iieiaeaieyie ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai?a e Onoaaii Iauanoaa;

O/anoieee Iauanoaa ai?aaa:

– o/anoaiaaoue a oi?aaeaiee aeaeaie Iauanoaa;

– iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth i aeayoaeueiinoe Iauanoaa,a oaeaea

ciaeiieoueny n aooaaeoa?neeie eieaaie e eiie aeieoiaioaoeeae Ia-

uanoaa;

– o/anoaiaaoue a ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?eauee Iauanoaa a niio-

aaonoaee n Aeiaiai?ii;

I?aai ia o/anoea a ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?eauee – iaeii ec ooiaei-

iaioaeueiuo i?aa o/anoieea,?aaee eioi?iai,eae i?aaeei,ii anooiae

a iauanoai.

– a ethaie iiiaio aueoe ec Iauanoaa,iieo/ea a niioaaonoaee

n ianoiyuei Aeiaiai?ii noieiinoue eiouanoaa,niioaaonoaothuoth aai

aeiea;

– iieo/aoue a neo/aa eeeaeaeaoeee Iauanoaa i?e/eoathuothny ia

aai aeieth a onoaaiii eaieoaea Iauanoaa /anoue eiouanoaa,inoaaoo-

thny iinea oaeiaeaoai?aiey o?aaiaaiee e?aaeeoi?ia.

2. Oi?aaeaiea e eiio?ieue

I?AAIU OI?AAEAIEss E EIIO?IEss

I?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey Iauanoaa yaeythony:

– iauaa nia?aiea o/anoieeia Iauanoaa;

– aee?aeoi? Iauanoaa.

Aunoei i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey Iauanoaii yaeyaony Iauaa nia?a-

iea O/anoieeia Iauanoaa,ninoiyuaa ec anao O/anoieeia eeai eo

i?aaenoaaeoaeae (ii iaeiiio io eaaeaeiai O/anoieea).

O/anoieee Iauanoaa iaeaaeatho eiee/anoaii aieinia i?iii?oee-

iiaeueii ?acia?o eo aeieae a Onoaaiii eaieoaea Iauanoaa.

Eiiiaoaioeey Iauaai nia?aiey O/anoieeia e ii?yaeie i?eiyoey

ei ?aoaiee ii?aaeaeythony Onoaaii Iauanoaa.

?oeiaiaenoai oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoueth Iauanoaa e eniieiaiey

?aoaiee Iauaai nia?aiey inouanoaeyaony Aee?aeoi?ii Iauanoaa,ec-

ae?aaiui Iauei nia?aieai O/anoieeia.Aee?aeoi? inouanoaeyao ?o-

eiaiaenoai oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoueth Iauanoaa ia iniiaa aaeeiiia/a-

eey a ?aieao eiiiaoaioeee,ii?aaeaeyaiie Onoaaii Iauanoaa.

Eiio?ieue ca oeiainiaie e oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth Aee-

?aeoi?a Iauanoaa inouanoaeyao ?aaeceiiiay eiienney.?aaeceiiiay

eiienney ia?acoaony e aeaenoaoao a ii?yaeea,ii?aaeaeaiiii a Onoa-

aa Iauanoaa.

AUOIAe O*ANOIEEA EC IAUANOAA

O/anoiee Iauanoaa ai?aaa aueoe ec Iauanoaa iacaaeneii io

niaeaney ae?oaeo o/anoieeia,a ethaia a?aiy, iai?aaea ia yoii

ienueiaiiia oaaaeiieaiea ae?oaei O/anoieeai ii eo aae?anai,oeacai-

iui a Aeiaiai?a.

Auoiae O/anoieea ec Iauanoaa ?anniao?eaaaony eae ?anoi?aea-

iea O/anoieeii ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai?a.

Auoiae ec Iauanoaa ia inaiaiaeaeaao O/anoieea io iayca-

oaeuenoa ia?aae Iauanoaii,eioi?ua aicieeee aei iiiaioa aai auoiaea.

A neo/aa auoiaea O/anoieea ec Iauanoaa aio aeieaeia auoue

auiea/aia noieiinoue /anoe eiouanoaa,niioaaonoaothuae aai aeiea a

Onoaaiii eaieoaea Iauanoaa.O/anoiee ia ai?aaa i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia

auaea/o aio eiouanoaa a iaoo?a.Oeacaiiay auieaoa inouanoaeyaony

Iauanoaii a oa/aiea o?ao ianyoeaa iinea ieii/aiey oeiainiaiai

aiaea,a eioi?ii i?iecioae auoiae O/anoieea ec Iauanoaa.Niinia e

n?iee yoie auieaou eceaaathony a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao ia-

uanoaa e aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu Caeiiii ia iauanoaao n ia-

?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth.

a. O/anoieee

IOAAONOAAIIINOUe O*ANOIEEIA

O/anoieee iaycothony auiieiyoue oneiaey ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai?a

a iieiii iauaia e a niaeaniaaiiua n?iee. a neo/aa iaeniieiaiey

eee iaiaaeeaaeauaai eniieiaiey iaeiei ec O/anoieeia naieo iayca-

oaeuenoa ii ianoiyuaio Aeiaiai?o ii iaycai aicianoeoue Iauanoao

i?e/eiaiiua a nayce n yoei oauoee.

Iiae oauoeaie iiieiathony i?iecaaaeaiiua ?anoiaeu,oo?aoa eee

iia?aaeaeaiea eiouanoaa,iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaoneiaeaiiua ia?ooaieai

ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai?a O/anoieeii,oiouaiiay Iauanoaii auaiaea.

Iiieii aiciauaiey oauoeia O/anoiee iaycoaony oieaoeoue Ia-

uanoao oo?ao.

A neo/aa ia?ooaiey naiaai iaycaoaeuenoaa a ioiioaiee n?i-

eia aianaiey aeeaaeia O/anoiee iaycoaony oieaoeoue oo?ao ia

oieueei Iauanoao,ii e eaaeaeiio ec O/anoieeia.

Iauanoai a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiie aeaenoaothuei ia

oa??eoi?ee ?O caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iiaenoaeiinoueth ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue

i?eioaeeoaeueiiai eniieiaiey O/anoieeaie naieo iaycaoaeuenoa a

niioaaonoaee n ianoiyuei Aeiaiai?ii,a oaeaea aiciauaiey i?e/e-

iaiiiai iaeniieiaieai eee iaiaaeeaaeauei eniieiaieai yoeo iayca-

oaeuenoa oua?aa e oieaou oo?aoiuo naieoeee.

O/anoieee iiaoo auoue inaiaiaeaeaiu io ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca

/anoe/iia eee iieiia iaeniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa a niioaaonoaee

n ianoiyuei Aeiaiai?ii a neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey ianoiyoaeuenoa

iai?aiaeieeiie neeu,oi anoue ianoiyoaeuenoa,iaoiaeyueony aia ?a-

coiiiai eiio?iey O/anoieeia.E iacaaiiui ianoiyoaeuenoaai io-

iinyony,a /anoiinoe: caieao?ynaiea,iaaiaeiaiea, iiaea?, o?aaai,

aieia,aiaiiua aeaenoaey,aeieaaea,caaanoiaea,cai?auaiea yenii?oa,

eee eiii?oa e ae?oaea ia?aie/aiey,noaaoea ?acoeueoaoii aeaenoaee

ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia.

Oaeo iaee/ey ianoiyoaeuenoa iai?aiaeieeiie neeu aeieaeai auoue

iiaeoaa?aeaeai caeeth/aieai eiiiaoaioiie iaeo?aeueiie i?aaiecaoeee.

ANOOIEAIEA AeIAIAI?A A NEEO

Ianoiyuee Aeiaiai? anooiaao a neeo n aeaou aai iiaeienaiey

anaie O/anoieeaie.

Eiaiii n yoie aeaou O/anoieee i?eieiatho ia naay i?aaeoniio-

?aiiua a Aeiaiai?a iaycaoaeuenoaa.I?e/ai iaycaoaeuenoaa,auoaeath-

uea ec aeiaiai?a,iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeoue ia aeaa aeaea:

– ai- ia?auo,iiaeeaaeauea auiieiaieth n iiiaioa anooieaiey

aeiaiai?a a neeo;

– ai- aoi?uo,iiaeeaaeauea auiieiaieth eeoue iinea aino-

aea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee Iauanoaa.Iineaaeiaai ?iaea ianoiyoaeueno-

aa,anoanoaaiii,aiceaaathony ia o/anoieeia eeoue i?e ianooieaiee

iaiaoiaeeiiai oneiaeth aeey eo auiieiaiey – ?aaeno?aoeee Iauanoaa.

Neaaeoao,enoaoe,ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi,/oi Onoaa Iauanoaa

anooiaao a neeo n iiiaioa ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee Iauanoaa.

I?IAEO ONOAAA III

Anee iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth o/?aaeaeaaony

iaeiei eeoeii,aai o/?aaeeoaeueiui aeieoiaioii yaeyaony eeoue onoaa.

Onoaa iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth aeieaeai ni-

aea?aeaoue ioaao ia aii?in,/oi i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay iauanoai eae

th?eaee/aneia eeoei ii ?inneeneiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao.I?e yoii ia-

?auaao ia naay aieiaiea ethaiiuoiay iiae?iaiinoue: iiaue AE ia

niaea?aeeo iieiiai ia?a/iy eioi?iaoeee,eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue ioia-

aeaia a Onoaaa.Eiaaony eeoue o?aaiaaiea e o/?aaeeoaeueiui aeieoiai-

oai iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth,eioi?ua aeieaeiu

niaea?aeaoue eae ieieioi neaaeothuea naaaeaiey:

– iaeiaiiaaiea;

– ianoi iaoiaeaeaiey;

– ?acia? onoaaiiai eaieoaea;

– ?acia? aeieae o/anoey;

– ?acia?,ninoaa,n?iee e ii?yaeie aianaiey aeeaaeia a onoaa-

iue eaieoae; ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea iaycaiiinoe ii

aianaieth aeeaaeia;

– ninoaa e eiiiaoaioeey i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey e ii?yaeie i?e-

iyoey eie ?aoaiee;

Ec iacaaiiuo naaaeaiee iaycaoaeueiia io?aaeaiea a Onoaaa

aeieaeiu iaeoe eeoue naaaeaiey,eanathueany oi?aaeaiey Iauanoaii.Ii-

ieii yoiai,anee o/anoieee caoioyo i?aaeoniio?aoue eiia yoi oiaea

aeieaeii iaeoe io?aaeaiea a Onoaaa Iauanoaa.

Anee i?eaaaeaiiua naaaeaiey oaea niaea?aeaony a o/?aaeeoaeueiii

aeiaiai?a AE ia o?aaoao iiaoi?youe eo a Onoaaa.

IAUEA IIEIAEAIEss

Onoaa yaeyaony aeieoiaioii, eioi?ue /anoi i?eoiaeeony iiea-

cuaaoue aiaia.Ii yoei niia?aaeaieyi n o/aoii iaiaoiaeeiinoe a io-

aeaeueiuo neo/ayo nio?aiaiey eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe a ioiioaiee

o/anoieeia iauanoaa,eiaia o/anoieeia a onoaaa iiaeii ia oeacu-

aaoue,oai aieaa,/oi iie oeacaiu a O/?aaeeoaeueiii aeiaiai?a.

a. TH?eaee/aneee noaoon

Iauanoai yaeyaony th?eaee/aneei eeoeii ii ?inneeneiio caei-

iiaeaoaeuenoao.Aai i?aaiaie noaoon ii?aaeaeyaony aeaenoaothuei ia

oa??eoi?ee ?O caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii,O/?aaeeoaeueiui aeiaiai?ii e

Onoaaii.Iauanoai i?eia?aoaao i?aaa th?eaee/aneiai eeoea n aeaou

aai ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee.

Iauanoai eiaao naiinoiyoaeueiue aaeain e aeaenoaoao ia

iniiaa iieiiai oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa,naiioeiaine?iaaiey e na-

iiieoiaaiinoe.

Eiouanoai Iauanoaa ninoieo ec:

– aeieaauo aeeaaeia aai o/anoieeia (Onoaaiie eaieoae);

– i?iaeoeoeee,i?iecaaaeaiiie iauanoaii a i?ioeanna oi-

cyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– iieo/aiiuo aeioiaeia,a oaeaea eiiai eiouanoaa,i?eia?aoai-

iiai ei ia ae?oaeo iniiaaieyo,aeiioneaaiuo aeaenoaothuei ia oa??e-

oi?ee ?O caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Iauanoai inouanoaeyao aeaaeaiea, iieueciaaiea e ?anii?yaea-

iea naiei eiouanoaii a niioaaonoaee n oeaeyie naiae aeayoaeue-

iinoe e iacia/aieai eiouanoaa.

Iinoieueeo iineieueeo eiouanoai yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth ia-

uanoaa,ca o/anoieeaie nio?aiythony eeoue iaycaoaeueiua i?aaa;

– i?aai ia o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee iauanoaii;

– i?aai ia iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa;

– i?aai ia o/anoea a ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?eauee;

– i?aai ia iieo/aiea aaeaeaaoiie naiae aeiea noiiu i?e au-

oiaea ec iauanoaa.

– i?aai ia o/anoea a ?ani?aaeaeaiea inoaoea eiouanoaa

iauanoaa i?e aai eeeaeaeaoeee.

Iauanoai ioaa/aao ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai anai i?eiaaeea-

aeauei aio eiouanoaii.

Iauanoai ia ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii iaycaoaeuenoaai naieo

O/anoieeia.

O/anoieee ia ioaa/atho ii iaycaoaeuenoaai Iauanoaa e ianoo

?ene oauoeia,naycaiiuo n aeayoaeueiinoueth Iauanoaa,a i?aaeaeao

noieiinoe naieo aeeaaeia a Onoaaiie eaieoae Iauanoaa.

A neo/aa i?aaeuyaeaiey e?aaeeoi?aie o?aaiaaiee e Iauanoao

O/anoieee,ia iieiinoueth aianoea aeeaaeu,ianoo nieeaea?ioth io-

aaonoaaiiinoue ii aai iaycaoaeuenoaai a i?aaeaeao noieiinoe iaii-

ea/aiiie /anoe aeeaaeia eaaeaeiai ec O/anoieeia.

Ainoaea?noai e aai i?aaiu ia ioaa/atho ii iaycaoaeuenoaai

Iauanoaa.

Iauanoai ia ioaa/aao ii iaycaoaeuenoaai ainoaea?noaa e aai

i?aaiia.

O/anoieee iauanoaa,ia iieiinoueth aianoea aeeaae a aai

onoaaiue eaieoae,ianoo nieeaea?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii iayca-

oaeuenoaai iauanoaa a i?aaeaeao noieiinoe iaiiea/aiiie /anoe

aeeaaea eaaeaeiai ec o/anoieeia.Nieeaea?iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aae-

iieaaaao i?aai e?aaeeoi?a o?aaiaaoue eniieiaiey eae io anao

aeieaeieeia niaianoii,oae e io ethaiai a ioaeaeueiinoe,i?e/ai eae

iieiinoueth oae e /anoe/ii.Eniieiaiea nieeaea?iie iaycaiiinoe iae-

iei aeieaeieeii inaiaiaeaeaao ae?oaeo aeieaeieeia io aa eniieiaiey

e?aaeeoi?o.Aeieaeiee, eniieieaoee nieeaea?ioth iaycaiiinoue,eiaao

i?aai ?aa?aniiai o?aaiaaiey e inoaeueiui aeieaeieeai a ?aaiuo aei-

eyo ca eneeth/aieai aeiee,iaaeathuae ia iaai naiiai.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey onoaiiaeaiiuo oeaeae naiae aeayoaeueiinoe Ia-

uanoai ai?aaa io naiaai eiaie caeeth/aoue ethaua aeiionoeiua caei-

iii naeaeee,i?eia?aoaoue eiouanoaaiiua e iaeiouanoaaiiua i?aaa e

ianoe iaycaiiinoe,auoue enoeii e ioaao/eeii a noaea,a?aeo?aaeiii e

o?aoaeneii noaea.

Iauanoai naiinoiyoaeueii oi?ie?oao i?iecaiaenoaaiioth i?ia-

?aiio,auae?aao iinoaaueeia e iio?aaeoaeae naiae i?iaeoeoeee,na-

iinoiyoaeueii onoaiaaeeaaao ia iaa oeaiu.

Iauanoai naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyao aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth

aeayoaeueiinoue.Iii ai?aaa niaa?oaoue yenii?oii – eiii?oiua iia?a-

oeee,auoaeathuea ec i?aaeiaoa aai aeayoaeueiinoe,iaiin?aaenoaaiii

eee ia aeiaiai?iie iniiaa /a?ac ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee.

Iauanoai iiaeao iieueciaaoueny e?aaeeoaie, caeiaie e ae?oaeie

oi?iaie oeiaine?iaaiey, iieo/aiiuie a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea eae

a ?O, oae e ca ?oaaaeii, a oaeaea i?eia?aoaoue ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea

eiino?aiioth aaethoo ca ?oaee e ?oaee ca eiino?aiioth aaethoo

n o/aoii o?aaiaaiee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeaenoaothuei ia oa??eoi?ee

?O caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

A onoaiiaeaiiii aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ii?yaeea Ia-

uanoai ai?aaa auioneaoue oeaiiua aoiaae e ?ani?ino?aiyoue eo.

Iauanoai ai?aaa nicaeaaaoue ia oa??eoi?ee ?O e ca ?oaaaeii

oeeeaeu e i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. Oeeeaeu e i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa Ia-

uanoaa aeaenoaotho io aai eiaie ia iniiaaiee Iieiaeaiee i ieo,

ooaa?aeaeaaiuo Iauanoaii.

Iauanoai n o/aoii o?aaiaaiee aeaenoaothuaai ia oa??eoi?ee

?O caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ai?aaa ?acaeaaoue oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeue-

iinoue iooai nicaeaiey ca ?oaaaeii i?aaei?eyoee (n o/anoeai a eo

eaieoaea e i?aaiao oi?aaeaiey), a oaeaea iooai inouanoaeaiey

eiaanoeoeee a aeioiaeiua aeoeau (oeaiiua aoiaae) eiino?aiiuo

i?aaei?eyoee ia ca?oaaaeiuo oiiaeiauo e oiaa?iuo ae?aeao.

Iauanoai ai?aaa auoue o/anoieeii ae?oaiai i?aaei?eyoey,a

oaeaea aoiaeeoue a iauaaeeiaiey th?eaee/aneeo eeoe.

Iauanoai ai?aaa eiaoue ia/aoue,ooaii e aeaiee ni naiei iae-

iaiiaaieai e oe?iaiiui ciaeii,?an/aoiue e eiua n/aoa a o/?aae-

aeaieyo aaieia.

Iauanoai a oeaeyo ?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie,nioeeaeue-

iie,yeiiiie/aneie e iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue

ca nio?aiaiea aeieoiaioia; iaania/eaaao ia?aaea/o ia aino-

aea?noaaiiia o?aiaiea a a?oeau aeieoiaioia,eiathueo iao/ii –

enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea,o?aieo e eniieuecoao a onoaiiaeaiiii ii-

?yaeea aeieoiaiou ii ee/iiio ninoaao.

Iauanoai auiieiyao a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaea-

oaeuenoaii ainoaea?noaaiiua ia?ii?eyoey ii iiaeeecaoeeiiiie iiae-

aioiaea.

a. Aeiey o/anoey

IA?AAeA*A AeIEE O*ANOEss

Eaaeaeue O/anoiee Iauanoaa iiaeao ia?aaeaoue naith aeieth a

Onoaaiii eaieoaea Iauanoaa,iaeiiio eee ianeieueeei O/anoieeai,a

oaeaea i?iaeaoue aa o?aoueei eeoeai.

Ia?aaea/a o?aoueei eeoeai aeiee eiay,i?iaeaaea (ca eneeth/aieai

ia?aoiaea aeiee eee aa /anoe e ianeaaeieeai e i?aaii?aaiieeai)

cai?auaaony.

O/anoieee Iauanoaa iieuecothony i?aeiouanoaaiiui i?aaii ii-

eoiee aeiee onooiathuaai O/anoieea i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eo aeieyi a

Onoaaiii eaieoaea Iauanoaa.

Onoaaii eee niaeaoaieai o/anoieeia iiaeao auoue i?aaeoniio-

?ai eiie ii?yaeie inouanoaeaiey yoiai i?aaa.

Yoei i?aaii o/anoieee iiaoo ainiieueciaaoueny a oa/aiea 30

aeiae n aeaou iieo/aiey ienueiaiiiai niiauaiey onooiathuaai aeieth

O/anoieea.

Onoaaii Iauanoaa eee niaeaoaieai o/anoieeia iiaeao auoue

i?aaeoniio?ai eiie n?ie.

Onooiaaiay aeiey ia iiaeao auoue i?iaeaia o?aoueaio eeoeo ia

aieaa eueaioiuo oneiaeyo,/ai oa,ia eioi?uo iia i?aaeeaaaeanue ia-

eaaeaoaeyi i?aeiouanoaaiiiai i?aaa.

Aeiey O/anoieea Iauanoaa iiaeao auoue i?iaeaia aei aa iieiie

iieaou eeoue a oie /anoe,a eioi?ie iia oaea iiea/aia.

I?e i?iaeaaea aeiee o?aoueaio eeoeo i?ienoiaeeo iaeiia?aiaiiue

ia?aoiae e iaio niioaaonoaothueo i?aa e iaycaiiinoae,i?eiaaeeaaea-

ueo O/anoieeo,onooiathuaio aa iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii.Ia?aaea/a

aeiee o?aoueaio eeoeo aiciiaeia eeoue i?e oneiaee i?eiyoey o?aoueei

eeoeii iaycaoaeuenoaa niaethaeaoue ana oneiaey Onoaaa Iauanoaa e

O/?aaeeoaeueiiai Aeiaiai?a.

IANEAAeIAAIEA AeIEE E I?AAII?AAINOAI A IOIIOAIEE AeIEE

Aeiee a onoaaiii eaieoaea iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie io-

aaonoaaiiinoueth ia?aoiaeyo e ianeaaeieeai a?aaeaeai e i?aaii?aaiie-

eai th?eaee/aneeo eeoe,yaeyaoeony o/anoieeaie Iauanoaa.

O/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie Iauanoaa iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ia?a-

oiae iiaeao auoue iinoaaeai a caaeneiinoue io niaeaney inoaeueiuo

o/anoieeia.A yoii neo/aa ioeac a niaeanee aea/ao iaycaiiinoue

iauanoaa auieaoeoue ianeaaeieeai o/anoieea aeaenoaeoaeueioth noie-

iinoue aeiee eee auaeaoue ei a iaoo?a eiouanoai ia oaeoth noieiinoue.

OICssENOAAIIAss AeAssOAEUeIINOUe

OIIAeU,AICIAUAIEA OAUOEIA,?ANI?AAeAEAIEA

I?EAUEE,OICssENOAAIIAss AeAssOAEUeIINOUe

Iauanoai nicaeaao ?aca?aiue oiiae a ?acia?a iyoiaaeoeaoe i?i-

oeaioia onoaaiiai eaieoaea.Oi?ie?iaaiea ?aca?aiiai oiiaea ino-

uanoaeyaony iooai aaeaaiaeiuo io/eneaiee aei aeinoeaeaiey oiiaeii

iacaaiiuo ?acia?ia.?acia? aaeaaiaeiuo io/eneaiee ninoaaeyao 5%

io i?eauee Iauanoaa.

Ii ?aoaieth Aee?aeoi?a a Iauanoaa iiaoo nicaeaaaoueny oaeaea :

– oiiae iaoa?eaeueiiai iiiu?aiey;

– ae?oaea oiiaeu,iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeayoaeueiinoe Iauanoaa.

Oiiaeu iaoiaeyony a iieiii ?anii?yaeaiee Iauanoaa.Iacia/a-

iey,?acia?u,enoi/ieee ia?aciaaiey e ii?yaeie eniieueciaaiey oii-

aeia ii?aaeaeyaony Aee?aeoi?ii Iauanoaa.I?e yoii iauee ?acia? io-

/eneaiee ai ana yoe oiiaeu ia iiaeao i?aauoaoue 10% io i?eauee

Iauanoaa,inoaaoaeny iinea iaeiaeaiey iaeiaii ia i?eaueue.

Oauoee Iauanoaa iie?uaathony ca n/ao ?aca?aiiai oiiaea.

I?e iaaeinoaoea n?aaenoa ?aca?aiiai oiiaea aeey iie?uoey

oauoeia ?aoaiea ia enoi/ieeao eo iie?uoey i?eieiaao Iauaa nia-

?aiea O/anoieeia Iauanoaa.

I?eaueue Iauanoaa ca au/aoii noii ii ?an/aoai n athaeaea-

oii,eiuo iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae e noii,iai?aaeaiiuo ia nicaeaiea

e iiiieiaiea oiiaeia Iauanoaa,?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo aai O/anoie-

eaie i?iii?oeeiiaeueii aeieyi o/anoey a Onoaaiii eaieoaea Iauano-

aa.

Iauanoai inouanoaeyao naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia iniiaa ooaa?ae-

aeaiiuo Iauei nia?aieai oaeoueo e ia?niaeoeaiuo ieaiia.Oeiaini-

aay aeayoaeueiinoue Iauanoaa inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa oeiainiauo

ieaiia.Oeiainiaua ieaiu ninoaaeythony ia oeiainiaue aiae,eioi?ue

niaiaaeaao n eaeaiaea?iui aiaeii.

?acoeueoaou oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe onoaiaaeeaathony ia

iniiaa aiaeiaiai aooaaeoa?neiai io/aoa.

Iauanoai aaaeao iia?aoeaiue aooaaeoa?neee e noaoenoe/aneee

o/ao a niioaaonoaee n ii?yaeeii,onoaiiaeaiiui a ?O.

Ana aaethoiua ?anoiaeu,naycaiiua n inouanoaeaieai Iauanoaii

oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe,iaania/eaathony ca n/ao aaethoiie au-

?o/ee Iauanoaa,a oaeaea ca n/ao ae?oaeo ?ac?aoaiiuo aeaenoaothuei

ia oa??eoi?ee ?O caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii enoi/ieeia iieo/aiey eiino-

?aiiie aaethou.

Iauaa nia?aiea

NINOAA IAUAAI NIA?AIEss

Iauaa nia?aiea ninoieo ec anao O/anoieeia eee eo i?aaenoa-

aeoaeae.I?aaenoaaeoaee iiaoo auoue iinoiyiiuie eee iacia/aiiuie

ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie.

O/anoiee iiaeao a ethaie iiiaio caiaieoue naiaai i?aaenoaae-

oaey ia Iauai nia?aiee,iinoaaea ia yoii a ecaanoiinoue ae?oaeo

O/anoieeia.

A ea/anoaa i?aaenoaaeoaey O/anoieea ai?aaa aunooiaoue ae?o-

aie O/anoiee.

Iaeii eeoei ai?aaa i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?anu ianeieueeeo O/ano-

ieeia.

E?iia aiciauaiey ?anoiaeia,naycaiiuo n ia?aacaeaie,eiiaiaee-

?iai/iuo e ae?oaeo ?anoiaeia a ?acoiiuo ?aieao,i?eiyouo ia naay

a nayce n eniieiaieai iaycaiiinoae /eaia Iauaai nia?aiey,e ia

eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu ii?aaaeaoaeueiua aeieoiaiou,/ea-

iu Iauaai nia?aiey iieo/atho aiciaa?aaeaeaiea io Iauanoaa ca

eniieiaiea naieo iaycaiiinoae a aeaea aaeeiia?aiaiiiai aiciaa-

?aaeaeaiey ca n/ao Iauanoaa ii ?aoaieth Iauaai nia?aiey.

EIIIAOAIOeEss IAUAAI NIA?AIEss

A eiiiaoaioeeth Iauaai nia?aiey aoiaeeo ?aoaiea neaaeothueo

aii?inia:

– eciaiaiea Onoaaa Iauanoaa,eciaiaiea ?acia?a aai Onoaa-

iiai eaieoaea,i?eai a Iauanoai iiauo O/anoieeia,eciaiaiea ?ac-

ia?ia aeieae O/anoieeia a Onoaaiii eaieoaea;

– eca?aiea Aee?aeoi?a e aein?i/iia i?ae?auaiea aai iieiiii-

/ee;

– ooaa?aeaeaiea aiaeiauo io/aoia e aooaaeoa?neeo aaeainia

Iauanoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiea aai i?eaueae e oauoeia,ooaa?aeaeaiea

io/aoia e caeeth/aiee ?aaeceiiiie eiienee;

– i?eiyoea ?aoaiee ia enoi/ieeao iie?uoey oauoeia Iauano-

aa;

– eca?aiea ?aaeceiiiie eiiennee Iauanoaa;

– ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe Iauano-

aa,ooaa?aeaeaiea aai ieaiia e io/aoia ia eo eniieiaiee;

– nicaeaiea,?ai?aaiecaoeey e eeeaeaeaoeey oeeeaeia e i?aaenoa-

aeoaeuenoa,ooaa?aeaeaiea Iieiaeaiee i ieo;

– ooaa?aeaeaiea Iieiaeaiey i ?aaeceiiiie eiiennee,Iieiaeaiey

i ia?niiaea;

– onoaiiaeaiea ?acia?ia,oi?i e ii?yaeea aianaiey O/anoie-

eaie aeiiieieoaeueiuo aciinia;

– ?aoaiea aii?ina i i?eia?aoaiee Iauanoaii aeiee O/anoieea;

– ooaa?aeaeaiea oiaa?iuo ciaeia Iauanoaa;

– i?eiyoea ?aoaiey i iieo/aiee aeieain?i/iuo e?aaeeoia;

– i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i ?ai?aaiecaoeee e eeeaeaeaoeee Iauano-

aa,iacia/aiea eeeaeaeaoeeiiiie eiiennee,ooaa?aeaeaiea eeeaeaeaoeeii-

iiai aaeaina.

CANAAeAIEss IAUAAI NIA?AIEss

I/a?aaeiua canaaeaiey Iauaai nia?aiey nicuaathony aeaa ?aca a

aiae n iaycaoaeueiui ia?a?uaii a 9 ianyoeaa.

Aiai/a?aaeiua nia?aiey nicuaathony I?aaenaaeaoaeai Iauaai

nia?aiey:

– ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa;

– ii o?aaiaaieth Aee?aeoi?a eee ?aaeceiiiie eiiennee;

– ii o?aaiaaieth O/anoieeia,iaeaaeathueo a niaieoiiinoe ai-

eaa /ai 20% aieinia.

I?EIssOEA ?AOAIEE IA CANAAeAIEssO IAUAAI NIA?AIEss

Ethaie o/anoiee ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue ?anniio?aiey aii?ina ia

Iauai nia?aiee a oii neo/aa,anee ii iinoaaeai ia iicaeiaa /ai

ca 25 aeiae aei ia/aea Iauaai nia?aiey.

Iauaa nia?aiea n/eoaaony i?aaiii/iui,anee ia iai

i?enoonoaotho O/anoieee,iaeaaeathuea a niaieoiiinoe 60% aieinia.

Eiee/anoai aieinia eaaeaeiai O/anoieea i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ?ac-

ia?o aai aeiee a Onoaaiii eaieoaea Iauanoaa.

?aoaiey Iauaai nia?aiey i?eieiathony i?inoui aieueoeinoaii

aieinia i?enoonoaothueo ia Iauai nia?aiee eee aaeeiiaeaneai.

Aaeeiiaeanea o?aaoaony aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey eneeth/eoaeueii

ii neaaeothuei aii?inai:

– ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe Iauanoaa;

– aianaiea eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a Onoaa Iauanoaa;

– i?eai iiauo O/anoieeia;

– eciaiaiea ?acia?ia aeieae O/anoieeia a Onoaaiii eaieoaea;

– aeia?iaieueiay ?ai?aaiecaoeey eee eeeaeaeaoeey Iauanoaa.

A neo/aa ?aaainoaa aieinia aiein I?aaenaaeaoaey Iauaai nia-

?aiey yaeyaony ?aoathuei.

I?AAeNAAeAOAEUe IAUAAI NIA?AIEss

Iauaa nia?aiea aicaeaaeyao I?aaenaaeaoaeue,eioi?ue ecae?a-

aony Iauei nia?aieai n?ieii ia o?e aiaea.

Iaeii e oi aea eeoei ia iiaeao auoue eca?aii I?aaenaaeaoaeai Ia-

uaai nia?aiey e Aee?aeoi?ii Iauanoaa.

I?aaenaaeaoaeue Iauaai nia?aiey:

– inouanoaeyao iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai aeayoaeueiinoueth Iauanoaa;

– nicuaaao Iauaa nia?aiea;

– i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaoao ia canaaeaieyo Iauaai nia?aiey;

– i?aaiecoao aaaeaiea i?ioieieia canaaeaiee Iauaai nia?aiey;

– inouanoaeyao eiua iieiiii/ey,aiceiaeaiiua ia iaai Iauei

nia?aieai.

I?e aeaeaiee o/?aaeeoaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie iiaeao auoue i?a-

aeoniio?aia i/a?aaeiinoue i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaiaaiey o/anoieeia a ae-

oaaeoiii eee eiii ii?yaeea.

AeE?AEOI? IAUANOAA

Eniieieoaeueiui i?aaiii Iauanoaa yaeyaony Aee?aeoi?,ino-

uanoaeythuee ?oeiaiaenoai oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoueth Iauanoaa e

eniieiaiea ?aoaiee Iauaai Nia?aiey,eioi?iio ii iiaeio/aoai.

Aee?aeoi? i?eieiaao ?aoaiey ii anai aii?inai aeayoaeueiinoe

Iauanoaa e?iia oao,eioi?ua aoiaeyo a eiiiaoaioeeth Iauaai nia?a-

iey.

Iauaa nia?aiea iiaeao auianoe ?aoaiea i ia?aaea/a /anoe

naieo i?aa a eiiiaoaioeeth Aee?aeoi?a.

Aee?aeoi?,a /anoiinoe,aeaenoaoao aac aeiaa?aiiinoe io eiaie

Iauanoaa,i?aaenoaaeyao aai eioa?anu, ?anii?yaeaaony eiouanoaii

Iauanoaa,caeeth/aao aeiaiai?u,auaeaao aeiaa?aiiinoe,ioe?uaaao a

aaieao ?an/aoiua e ae?oaea n/aoa,iieuecoaony i?aaii ?anii?yaeaiey

aeaiaaeiuie e eiuie iaoa?eaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie,ecaeaao i?eeacu e

?anii?yaeaiey,iaycaoaeueiua aeey anao ?aaioieeia Iauanoaa,auiineo

?aoaiey i i?eaea/aiee e iaoa?eaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeieaeiino-

iuo eeoe Iauanoaa,ii?aaeaeyao i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o Iauano-

aa,ooaa?aeaeaao ooaoiia ?anienaiea e ii?aaeaeyao oneiaey iieaou

o?oaea ?aaioieeia Iauanoaa,aai oeeeaeia e i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa,?a-

oaao aii?inu i anooieaiee Iauanoaa a iauaaeeiaiey th?eaee/aneeo

eeoe,ii?aaeaeyao aeae e iauai eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee.

Aeieaeiinoiua iaycaiiinoe Aee?aeoi?a e o?aaiaaiey,i?aaeuyaey-

aiua e iaio,ii?aaeaeythony a Iieiaeaiee i Aee?aeoi?a,ooaa?aeaeaaiii

Iauei nia?aieai.

AE i?aaeoniao?eaaao,ii nooe aeaea,o?e aa?eaioa eniieieoaeue-

iiai i?aaia:

– eieeaaeaeueiue;

– aaeeiiee/iue;

– eieeaaeaeueiue a ni/aoaiee n aaeeiiee/iui.

I?e nicaeaiee eeoue eieeaaeaeueiiai i?aaia iaiaoiaeeii a

onoaaa ii?aaeaeeoue aai eiee/anoaaiiue ninoaa,a oaeaea ii?yaeie

i?eiyoey ei ?aoaiee.Iiieii yoiai iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue,eai

aoaeoo niaa?oaoueny aeaenoaey io eiaie Iauanoaa aiaia.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue,/oi aa?eaio eeoue eieeaaeaeueiiai i?aaia

a?yae ee iieo/eo ?ani?ino?aiaiea a ?innee,oae eae ii ia nianai

oeeaaeuaaaony a i?eau/iua ?aiee,a ionoonoaea o iauanoaa aaeeiiai

?oeiaiaeeoaey iiaeao auoue iai?aaeeueii iiiyoi aai eiio?aaaioaie,a

oaeaea ?acee/iiai ?iaea eiio?iee?othueie einoaioeeyie.

A neo/aa nicaeaiey eniieieoaeueiiai i?aaia,ninoiyuaai eae

au ec aeaoo /anoae (aee?aeoeey e aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi?),a onoaaa

iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniio?aoue /aoeia ?aca?aie/aiea eo eiiiaoaioeee.

Aaeeiiee/iue eniieieoaeueiue i?aai iiaeao ecae?aoueny ia ec

/enea o/anoieeia iauanoaa.A eieeaaeaeueiue i?aai oaeaea iiaoo

aoiaeeoue ia o/anoieee,ii i?aaeiieaaaaony,/oi a aai ninoaa aieaeoo

oaeaea e o/anoieee.

?AAECEIIIAss EIIENNEss

Eiio?ieue ca aeayoaeueiinoueth Aee?aeoi?a inouanoaeyaony ?aae-

ceiiiie eiienneae,iacia/aaiie Iauei nia?aieai.?aaeceiiiay ei-

ienney nicaeaaony a ninoaaa o?ao /aeiaae ec /enea O/anoieeia

Iauanoaa e /eaiia o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa.Aee?aeoi? ia iiaeao auoue

/eaiii ?aaeceiiiie eiiennee.

?aaeceiiiay eiienney ecae?aaony ec /enea o/anoieeia ia-

uanoaa e i?aaenoaaeoaeae o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa.I?e yoii /eaiu

eniieieoaeueiiai i?aaia ia iiaoo auoue /eaiaie ?aaeceiiiie ei-

iennee.

?aaeceiiiay eiienney nicaeaaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeey i?i-

aa?ee aeayoaeueiinoe eniieieoaeueiiai i?aaia iauanoaa.

I?iaa?ee iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny ath:

– ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa;

– ii ii?o/aieth aunoaai i?aaia;

– ii o?aaiaaieth o/anoieeia.

*eaiu ?aaeceiiiie eiiennee ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue io aeieaeiino-

iuo eeoe iauanoaa i?aaeinoaaeaiey ei anao iaiaoiaeeiuo aeieoiaioia

e iaoa?eaeia,a oaeaea ee/iuo iauyniaiee.Iie oaeaea ai?aaa

i?enoonoaiaaoue n niaauaoaeueiui aieinii ia canaaeaiee eniieie-

oaeueiiai i?aaia iauanoaa.

?acoeueoaou i?iaa?ie iai?aaeythony ?aaeceiiiie eiienneae

aunoaio i?aaio iauanoaa.

?aaeceiiiay eiienney ninoaaeyao caeeth/aiea ii aiaeiaui io-

/aoai e aaeainai.Aac yoiai caeeth/aiey aaeain ia iiaeeaaeeo oo-

aa?aeaeaieth aunoei i?aaiii iauanoaa.

5. AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss ?AAENO?AOeEss

Iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth n/eoaaony nic-

aeaiiui n iiiaioa aai ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee.

Aeieoiaiou aeey ?aaeno?aoeee

Aeey ?aaeno?aoeee o/?aaeeoaeyi iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaioiaeoue neaaeo-

thuea aeieoiaiou:

Eaaeaeue o/?aaeeoaeue a ioaeaeueiinoe :

– eiiee naieo o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia (oeacaiiia o?aai-

aaiea i?aaeuyaeyaony eeoue e iauanoao n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaai-

iinoueth,nicaeaaaaiui iaeiei th?eaee/aneei eeoeii;

– eiieth naeaeaoaeuenoaa i ?aaeno?aoeee o/?aaeeoaey (ia eaaeaeia

th?eaee/aneia eeoei,yaeythuaany o/?aaeeoaeai).

Iaa o/?aaeeoaey:

– cayaeaiea o/?aaeeoaeae n i?inueaie i ?aaeno?aoeee,caiieiy-

aiua ii onoaiiaeaiiui oi?iai;

– o/?aaeeoaeueiue aeiaiai? iauanoaa (2 yecaiiey?a).I?aaenoaa-

eyaony i?e eiee/anoaa o/?aaeeoaeae aieaa iaeiiai;

– onoaa iauanoaa,ooaa?aeaeaiiue o/?aaeeoaeyie (2 yecaiiey-

?a);

– i?ioieie o/?aaeeoaeueiiai nia?aiey (i?aaenoaaeyaony i?e

eiee/anoaa o/?aaeeoaeae aieaa iaeiiai);

– ?aaeno?aoeeiiioth ea?oi/eo onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu (2 yecaii-

ey?a);

– ni?aaeo,iiaeoaa?aeaeathuoth iaiiaoi?yaiinoue iaeiaiiaaiey;

– aeieoiaiou, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuea iieaoo ainiioeeiu e ?aaeno?a-

oeeiiiiai nai?a;

– aeieoiaio,iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee iieaoo 50% onoaaiiai eaieoa-

ea,oeacaiiiai a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao.

II?ssAeIE AINOAeA?NOAAIIIE ?AAENO?AOeEE III A IINEAA

– iieaoa ?aaeno?aoeeiiiiai nai?a;

– i?aaenoaaeaiea aeieoiaioia a Iineianeoth ?aaeno?aoeeiiioth

iaeaoo (I?I);

– iieo/aiea a?aiaiiiai naeaeaoaeuenoaa i ?aaeno?aoeee e ca-

?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a (I?I) o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia;

a?aiaiiia naeaeaoaeuenoai aeaenoaeoaeueii a oa/aiea 45 nooie.

– iieo/aiea eiaeia a Aineiinoaoa;

– ecaioiaeaiea ia/aoe;

– iinoaiiaea ia o/ao a iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee;

– iinoaiiaea ia o/ao a Iaineiiiii oiiaea;

– iinoaiiaea ia o/ao a oiiaea iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey;

– ioe?uoea n/aoia a aaiea;

– i?aaenoaaeaiea a I?I:

ni?aaee ec aaiea i aaieianeeo ?aeaeceoao;

ni?aaee ec iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee i iinoaiiaea ia o/ao;

ni?aaee ec Aineiinoaoa i i?enaiaiee eiaeia;

a?aiaiiiai naeaeaoaeuenoaa;

aeaeea?aoeee ia ia/aoue;

– auaea/a acaiai a?aiaiiiai iinoiyiiiai naeaeaoaeuenoaa i

?aaeno?aoeee;

– aianaiea a Ainoaea?noaaiiue ?aano?,eioi?ue aaaeaony ?a-

aeno?aoeeiiiie iaeaoie i?e Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee ?O.

EIAAeA AICIIAEAI IOEAC A ?AAENO?AOeEE

Ioeac a ?aaeno?aoeee iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaii-

iinoueth aiciiaeai eeoue a aeaoo neo/ayo :

– a neo/aa ia?ooaiey onoaiiaeaiiiai ii?yaeea ia?aciaaiey

th?eaee/aneiai eeoea;

– a neo/aa ianiioaaonoaey o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia i?aaeu-

yaeyaiui e iei a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa o?aaiaaieyi.

III. OA?AEOA?ENOEEA YEIIIIE*ANEEO I?IOeANNIA A I?IECAIAeNOAA IA I?EIA?A
IA*AOIIAI OeAOA

Eco/aaiui iauaeoii eo?niaie ?aaiou yaeyaony iieea?aoe/aneia

i?aaei?eyoea (iauaaeeiaiea) e aai no?oeoo?iua iiae?acaeaeaiey: oeaoe,

o/anoee, iioi/iua eeiee, ?aai/ea ianoa, neoaeau.

Eaaeaeia iieea?aoe/aneia i?aaei?eyoea iaycaii iaania/eaaoue

naiaa?aiaiiue auione aunieiea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a caieaie-

?iaaiiii iauaia i?e iaeiaiueoeo cao?aoao o?oaeiauo, iaoa?eaeue-

iuo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Yoo caaea/o iiaeii ?aoeoue oieueei

i?e ?aoeeiiaeueii i?aaieciaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannao.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoi-

iinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo o?oaeiauo e oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia,

iai?aaeaiiuo ia i?aa?auaiea iieea?aoe/aneeo iaoa?eaeia e ii-

eooaa?eeaoia a ecaeaoaeueneoth i?iaeoeoeeth (eieae, a?ioth?u, aeai-

ee, ieaeaou, aacaou, ioe?uoee e o.i.). Nia?aiaiiia iieea?a-

oe/aneia i?iecaiaenoai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiue i?ioeann

i?aa?auaiey i?aaeiaoia o?oaea a aioiaua ecaeaeey. A iieea?aoe-

/aneii i?iecaiaenoaa, eae e ethaii ae?oaii, iniiaiuie yeaiaioa-

ie i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna yaeythony: o?oae, o.a. oeaeaniia-

?aciay aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae; n?aaenoaa o?oaea – iaoa?eaeueii-oao-

ie/aneay iniiaa i?iecaiaenoaa; i?aaeiaou o?oaea – iieea?aoe/a-

neea iaoa?eaeu e iieooaa?eeaou, ec eioi?uo ecaioaaeeaathony

ia/aoiua ecaeaiey.

Caaea/aie i?aaiecaoeee iieea?aoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa ya-

eythony:

i?eiaiaiea yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee iniiaiuo e

aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia ia aaca nia?aiaiiie oaoieee e

i?ia?anneaiie oaoiieiaee;

oi?ie?iaaiea iioeiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oi?aaeai/aneeo

e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo no?oeoo? i?aaei?eyoee e eo iiae?acaeaeaiee;

anaia?iia nie?auaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai

oeeeea auionea ecaeaiee;

aiaae?aiea iioi/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/eaathuaai iae-

aunooth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea i?e iaeiaiueoeo iaoa?eaeueiuo

cao?aoao;

nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey ?eoie/iie ?aaiou anao caaiueaa i?i-

ecaiaenoaa;

i?eiaiaiea iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ea-

/anoaii i?iaeoeoeee;

oaaee/aiea ?aioaaaeueiinoe (aeioiaeiinoe) i?aaei?eyoee e eo

iiae?acaeaeaiee ia iniiaa iiauoaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/anei-

ai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa.

A aeaiiii eo?niaii i?iaeoa ?anniao?eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue

nie?aoeoue yeiiiie/aneea e a?aiaiiua iieacaoaee i?iecaiaenoaa

e ca n/ao yoiai nie?aoeoue cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai aac oua?aa

aeey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee.

1. I?IECAIAeNOAAIIIA IIAe?ACAeAEAIEA

 21. E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea aiciiaeiinoae i?eiaiyaiiai

 oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e oaoiieiae/aneiai

i?ioeanna

Ecaeaiea i?aaeiieaaaaony ia/aoaoue aunieei niiniaii ia/a-

oe. Aunieay ia/aoue oe?iei i?eiaiyaony aeey aini?iecaaaeaiey

oaenoa, oae eae iaania/eaaao aiieia oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia ea-

/anoai i?iaeoeoeee e aeinoaoi/ii yeiiiie/ia.

Niinia aunieie ia/aoe iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiai. Yoei nii-

niaii ia/aoaaony i?eia?ii 75% anae ia/aoiie i?iaeoeoeee, a oii

/enea aacaoiay, aeaii/iay, a oaeaea aieueoay /anoue eiea. E?iia

oiai, aunieei niiniaii ia/aoathony iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea,

eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiua e iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua aeo?ia-

eu.

A aunieie ia/aoe ia ?aeueaoii aunooiathuea ia/aoathuea

yeaiaiou  oi?iu  iaiineony e?anea  ?iaiui e i?eaeeceoaeue-

ii iaeeiaeiaui ii oieueiui neiai.

I?e ia/aoaiee iiae aeaaeaieai aunooiathuea ia/aoathuea yea-

iaiou oi?iu aaeaaeeaathony a aoiaao  e aeaeaeue , aucuaay i?e

yoii iiyaeaiea aieaa eee iaiaa y?ei au?aaeaiiiai ?aeueaoa ia

iai?ioa aoiaaeiiai eenoa. Eiioeaio?aoeey e?anee ia e?ayo ia/a-

oathueo yeaiaioia i?e ii?iaeueiii aa eiee/anoaa ia oi?ia e

ii?iaeueiii aeaaeaiee i?eaeaao aieueooth /aoeinoue eiioo?ai yea-

iaioia ecia?aaeaiey ia iooenea.

Ia iaeiinoi?iiieo eenoiauo ?ioaoeeiiiuo iaoeiao oeia IAE

ia/aoatho eieaeii-aeo?iaeueioth e iiiaie?ani/ioth ecia?aceoaeueioth

i?iaeoeoeeth. Iaoeiu IAE auioneatho a iaeii- e aeaooe?ani/iii en-

iieiaiee. Iaoeia  2IAE-70-2  ninoieo ec 2-o ia/aoiuo naeoeee ia-

oeiu IAE-70-1 e i?aaeiacia/aia aeey ia/aoaiey ca iaeei i?iaii –

aeaooe?ani/iie, ca ianeieueei i?iaiiia – iiiaie?ani/iie i?i-

aeoeoeee.

Iaoeia  2IAE-70-2  – aeaooe?ani/iay, iino?iaia ii naeoeeii-

iiio i?eioeeio. I?aaeiacia/aia aeey ia/aoaiey aunieiea/anoaai-

iie eieaeiie i?iaeoeoeee n eeouo noa?aioeiia oieueiie 5 ii. A

ninoaa iaoeiu aoiaeyo: eenoiieoathuaa ono?ienoai , aeaa ia-

/aoiua naeoeee, eenoiia?aaeathuee o?ainii?oa? e i?eaiii-au-

aiaeiia ono?ienoai. Eeno, iiaeaiiue naiiiaeeaaeii , au?aa-

ieaaaony nia/aea iaoaieciii i?aaeaa?eaoaeueiiai ?aaiaiey, a

caoai iaoaieciaie ia?aaeiaai e aieiaiai ?aaiaiey. Au?aaiaiiue

eeno ieaeiei oi?a?aeoa?ii e ia?aaeaoi/iui oeeeeiae?iie ia?a-

aeaaony ia ia/aoiue oeeeeiae? ia?aie ia/aoiie naeoeee, aaea

iaaeaeo oi?iiui  e ia/aoiui  oeeeeiae?aie iieo/aaony iooene. N

ia?aie ia/aoiie naeoeee ai aoi?oth eeno ia?aaeaao oeaiiie o?ain-

ii?oa? , eiathuee iaoaieciu oeene?iaaiey ea?aoie a iiiaio

i?eaia e ia?aaea/e eenoa. Iooene auaiaeeony eenoiauaiaeiui oeai-

iui o?ainii?oa?ii ia aunieinoaiaeueioth i?eaieo.

Noaia

 I?aaieaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey

 i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iiae?acaeaeaieai (n ia/.oeaoii)

Ia/aeueiee oeaoa

Noa?oee Oeaoiaie

ianoa? Eeaaeiauee iaoaiee

Ianoa? o/anoea ?aiiioiay Iaeaae/eee

iao.aunieie ianoa?neay

ia/aoe

neana?e ?aiiioieee

a?eaaaee?

*eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo: 32 /ae.

Ii “Aaeeiui ii?iai a?aiaie e au?aaioee ia i?ioeannu iieea?a-

oe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa” ii?aaeaeyai /eneaiiinoue ?aaioathueo.

1) Iiaeaioiaea oi?iiuo oeeeeiae?ia ia i?eaiaei/iii noaiea: 1

a?oiiu – 1 /ae.

2) I?ei?aaea e ia/aoaiea – 2 /ae o 10 iao. = 20 /ae.

ia/aoiee – 1 /ae.

iiiiuiee ia/aoieea – 1 /ae.

3) Ia/aeueiee oeaoa – 1 /ae.

4) Noa?oee ianoa? – 1 /ae.

5) Ianoa? o/-ea iaoeiu aunieie ia/aoe – 2 /ae.

6) A?eaaaee? – 1 /ae.

7) Eeaaeiauee – 1 /ae.

8) Oeaoiaie iaoaiee – 1 /ae.

9) Iaeaae/ee – 2 /ae.

10) ?aiiioiee – 1 /ae.

11) Neana?ue – 1 /ae.

EOIAI: 32 /aeiaaea

7.  2 Aeieaeiinoiua iaycaiiinoe oeaoiaiai iaoaieea

Oeaoiaie iaoaiee ?oeiaiaeeo ?aaioie oeaoiaie ?aiiioiie

a?eaaaeu, ?ani?aaeaeyao ?aiiioiuo ?aai/eo ii iaoeiai, o/eouaa-

ao e eiio?iee?oao ?aaioo a?eaaaeu ii ?aiiioo iai?oaeiaaiey,

i?aaiecoao auiieiaiea i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ?aaio, ninoaaeyao

a?aoeee iaae?aiiioiiai ianeoaeeaaiey, ?aiiioiua ieaiu-a?aoeee,

aaaeiiinoe aeaoaeoia, o/anoaoao a ?aaioao ii inaiaieth iiaie

oaoieee e aiaae?aieth ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neeo i?aaeeiaeaiee, eino?oe-

oe?oao ?aai/eo oeaoa i i?aaeeao oaoie/aneie yenieoaoaoeee e

ooiaea ca iai?oaeiaaieai, iaania/eaaao aaciianioth e yooaeoea-

ioth ?aaioo aaa?aiiiai aio iieea?aoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey.

A neo/aa ia?ooaiey i?aaee oaoie/aneie yenieoaoaoeee

iai?oaeiaaiey eee oaoieee aaciianiinoe oeaoiaie iaoaiee eiaao

i?aai i?einoaiiaeoue ?aaioo iaoeiu e i?eiyoue ia?u e eo ono?a-

iaieth n aaaeiia ?oeiaiaenoaa oeaoa. Ii eiaao i?aai noaaeoue aii-

?in i niyoee i?aieaeueiuo ni neana?ae, aeiionoeaoeo ia?ooaiey

i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e o?oaeiaie aeenoeeieeiu, e oiaeaoaenoaiaaoue i

iiiu?aiee ioee/eaoeony ?aiiioiuo ?aai/eo. I?e ia?ooaiee ian-

eoaeeaathuei ia?niiaeii i?aaee oaoie/aneie yenieoaoaoeee iai?o-

aeiaaiey ii eiaao i?aai o?aaiaaoue niyoey n ieo i?aieaeueiuo.

Oeaoiaie iaoaiee aoiaeeo a ooao i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeaoa e

aaeieieno?aoeaii iiae/eiai iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia/aeueieeo oeaoa, a

iaoiaee/anee – aeaaiiio iaoaieeo i?aaei?eyoey.

8.  Ieaie?iai/iua o?aaiaaiey

Ieaie?iai/iua o?aaiaaiey i?aaeoniao?eaatho auiieiaiea

neaaeothueo oneiaee:

a) iiae?acaeaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, aniiiiaaoaeueiiai e

ianeoaeeaathuaai iacia/aiey aeieaeiu ?aciauaoueny i?e ieieiaeueiuo

iaaeoeaoiauo o?ainii?oiuo e ethaeneeo iioieao;

a) iiae?acaeaeaiey nicaeathuea ooi e aea?aoeeth ia aeieaeiu ni-

naaenoaiaaoue n i?iecaiaenoaaie, a eioi?uo oaoiieiae/aneea i?i-

oeannu e iai?oaeiaaiea o?aaotho niieieiuo oneiaee aeey ?aaiou;

a) iiae?acaeaeaiey ni cia/eoaeueiuie auaeaeaieyie a?aaeiin-

oae neaaeoao ?aniieaaaoue n o/aoii ?icu aao?ia – noaiu, oa?ae-

oa?ecothuae ainiiaenoaothuaa iai?aaeaiea aao?ia a oaieia a?aiy

aiaea;

a) iiae?acaeaeaiey, iniauaiiua oyaeaeui e?oiiiaaaa?eoiui

iai?oaeiaaieai, i?e eiiiiiiaea i?iecaiaenoaa a iiiaiyoaaeiii

caeaiee neaaeoao ?aciauaoue a ieaeiai yoaaea;

ae) iiae?acaeaeaiey, e eioi?ui i?aaeuyaeythony noiaeiua oao-

iieiae/aneea o?aaiaaiey e iaeii?iaeiua ii aioo?aiiaio ?aaeeio,

neaaeoao eiiiiiiaaoue ii ai?eciioaee.

9.  Ieaie?iaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee

Ieaie?iaea oeaoa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ieai ?aniieiaeaiey

i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, iiaeuaiii-o?ainii?oiiai e ae?oaiai iai?oaei-

aaiey, i?iecaiaenoaaiiie iaaaee, ?aai/eo iano, i?iacaeia e

i?ioiaeia.

I?e ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa ieaie?iaee aeieaeiu auoue o/oaiu

neaaeothuea iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey:

1. Iai?oaeiaaiea e ?aai/ea ianoa neaaeoao ?aciauaoue a ni-

ioaaonoaee n iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth auiieiaiey iia?aoeee oaoii-

eiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, eiio?iey e naea/e iieooaa?eeaoia eee

aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

2. Ieaie?iaea aeieaeia iaania/eaaoue oaeianoai e aaciian-

iinoue i?e ?aaioa ia iaoeiao e eo ianeoaeeaaiee, aiciiaeiinoue

iiioaaea, aeaiiioaaea e ?aiiioa iai?oaeiaaiey, oaeianoai iiaea/e e

iai?oaeiaaieth iaoa?eaeia e iieooaa?eeaoia e auaica i?iaeoeoeee,

o/eouaaoue o?aaiaaiey IIO ia ?aai/ai ianoa.

3. Ieaie?iaea aeieaeia auoue oaycaia n i?eiaiyaiuie o?ain-

ii?oiuie n?aaenoaaie, i?aaeoniao?eaaoue iaeaieaa ei?ioeea

o?ainii?oiua iooe, ia aeiioneaoue aica?aoiuo ia?aiauaiee a?o-

cia, ia?ana/aiee a?ociiioieia iaaeaeo niaie e n iooyie, i?aae-

iacia/aiiuie aeey aeaeaeaiey ethaeae.

4. Ieaie?iaea aeieaeia auoue aeaeie, o.a. iaania/eaaoue

aiciiaeiinoue ia?aieaie?iaee i?e caiaia iai?oaeiaaiey, eciaia-

iee oaoiieiaee eee i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna.

?aaioa iaae ieaie?iaeie naiaeeony e iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueii-

io ?aciauaieth aaaa?eoia iai?oaeiaaiey e ?aai/eo iano ia eii-

iiiiai/iii ieaia oeaoa a niioaaonoaee n oeacaiiuie auoa o?a-

aiaaieyie. ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo ?aai/eie ianoaie e iaoeiaie,

iaaeaeo ieie e aeeaeaeoeie eiino?oeoeaiuie yeaiaioaie caeaiey, a

oaeaea oe?eia i?iacaeia e i?ioiaeia onoaiaaeeaathony ii?iaie

oaoiieiae/aneiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Aeaaiua i?ioiaeu aeieaeiu

eiaoue oe?eio ia iaiaa 1,5 i, a aniiiiaaoaeueiua – ia iaiaa 1

i. I?ioiaeu e i?iacaeu aeieaeiu auoue ii aiciiaeiinoe i?yiuie, aac

?aceeo iiai?ioia.

?annoaiiaea ia/aoiuo iaoei ii?aaeaeyaony oa?aeoa?ii caea-

iey, noaiie a?ociiioieia, aaaa?eoaie iai?oaeiaaiey, iaiaoiaee-

iinoueth ?aoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ?aai/aai ianoa. Ieiei ia/ao-

iuo iaoei aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu ieiuaaee aeey onoaiiaee

noaeeaaeae n aoiaaie e iooeneaie, eioi?ua o?aaotho aeiiieie-

oaeueiuo i?iaiiia.

11.  Oaoiieiae/aneay ea?oa caeaca

Cao?aou ia ecaioiaeaiea caeaca aeeth/atho cao?aou ia in-

iiaiua iaoa?eaeu e cao?aou ia i?yioth ca?aaioioth ieaoo ?aai-

/eo, ec?anoiaeiaaiioth ia ecaioiaeaiea caeaca, a oaeaea iaeeaae-

iua ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony ii aeaiiui iieea?aoe/aneeo

i?aaei?eyoee eee oneiaii 400% e i?yiie ca?aaioiie ieaoa ?aai-

/eo. I?yiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa ca aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaey-

aony iooai oiiiaeaiey /aniaie oa?eoiie noaaee ?aai/aai ia

ii?io a?aiaie, au?aaeaiioth a /anao.

2. OAOIIEIAE*ANEAss IIAeAIOIAEA

12. I?aaiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa

Oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa iaania/eaaao

?ac?aaioeo oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee, ia iniiaa eioi?ie

i?aaiecothony i?ioeann ecaioiaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey

e iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?iecaiaenoai ecaeaeee.

Oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann ii?aaeaeyao iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa

ecaioiaeaiey ecaeaeee, oa?aeoa?ecoao oaoie/aneee e i?aaieca-

oeeiiiue o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa. E?iia iaueo naaaeaiee i iinea-

aeiaaoaeueiinoe iia?aoeee, iaiaoiaeeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e oaoie-

/aneiai iniauaiey, aeathony ?ac?yaeu ?aaiou, ii?iu a?aiaie,

iiae?iaiua oeacaiey i ?aaeeiao ?aaiou e niiniaao eiio?iey i?i-

oeanna.

Niaoeeaeueiay inianoea aeey ecaioiaeaiey ecaeaeee i?iaeoe-

?oaony a caaeneiinoe io iniaaiiinoae ecaeaeee e iai?oaeiaaiey.

Ia noaaeee oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa cae-

eaaeuaathony iniiau ?aoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee anae i?iecaiaen-

oaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Oeiiaie oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann aeieaeai auoue ?aoeeiiaeai

a eiie?aoiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo e ?ac?aaaouaaoueny ia

iniiaa aiaeeca iiiaeanoaa aeaenoaothueo e aiciiaeiuo oaoiieiae-

/aneeo i?ioeannia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oeiiauo i?aaenoaaeoaeae

a?oii ecaeaeee.

Aeey ?ac?aaioee oaoiieiae/aneie ea?ou oeiiaiai i?ioeanna

iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue oaoiieiae/aneea eino?oeoeee ia i?i-

oeannu iieea?aoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ni?aai/ieee ii ii?iai

a?aiaie e au?aaioee, ii?iu ?anoiaeiaaiey iaoa?eaeia.

Cao?aou a?aiaie a ii?ii-/anao iooai aeaeaiey ia  2eai  0ia-

?aaiaeyony a iaoeii-/anu.

13.  Oaoiieiae/aneay ea?oa oeiiaiai i?ioeanna

Aeey ?ac?aaioee oaoiieiae/aneie ea?ou oeiiaiai i?ioeanna

iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue oaoiieiae/aneea eino?oeoeee ia i?i-

oeannu iieea?aoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ni?aai/ieee ii ii?iai

a?aiaie e au?aaioee, ii?iu ?anoiaeiaaiey iaoa?eaeia.

Iiaeaioiaea iaoeiu e ?aaioa

1. Onoaiiaea aeaeaey.

Aeaeaeue ia ia/aoiue oeeeeiae? onoaiaaeeaatho ia/aoiee e ii-

iiuiee ia/aoieea. Ninoaa aeaeaey, aai oieueio e aeanoeinoue

iiaeae?atho ?aaioieee eaai?aoi?ee. E ia/aeo ia/aoaiey oe?aaea

iie aeatho /aoeea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ia/aoieeo ii ninoaao aeaeaey.

Aeaeaeueiua iaoa?eaeu aeieaeiu auoue ?aaiiia?iuie ii oieueia e

iaeii?iaeiuie ii nooeoo?a, aac aeeth/aiey eii?iaeiuo oae. Ia/ao-

iee e iiiiuiee ia/aoieea ia?acatho aeaeaeueiua iaoa?eaeu ii

?acia?o ia/aoiiai oeeeeiae?a. Ia/aoiee neeaeaaao ii e?iiea

iiaeaioiaeaiiua eenou aoiaae e ianaaeeaaao eo ia eaeu a aa?o-

ithth auaieo ia/aoiiai oeeeeiae?a. Caoai onoaiaaeeaaao caoyaeiia

iieioii, cae?uaaao e caie?aao i?eaeeiioth ieaieo.

a) Onoaiiaea oi?iu.

Ia/aoiee ?annoaaeyao noa?aioeiu ia ?aai/ai noiea nia-

eanii noaia nionea. Niaianoii n iiiiuieeii ia/aoieea ii

?aneeth/aao e nieiaao ii i/a?aaee eaaeaeue noa?aioei io?aaioai-

iie oi?iu. Inaiaiaeeaoaany ianoi iiiiuiee ia/aoieea i?ioe?aao

aaoioueth, i/euaao io e?anee e i?eeeioae aoiaae.

a) I?eaiaeea oi?iu ioiineoaeueii aoiaaeiiai eenoa.

Ia/aoiee aeeaaeuaaao iiae caoyaeiie eeno aeaeaey ana oe?aae-

iua eenou, aeiaiaey aai aei aai o?aaoaiie oieueiu, e aianoa n

iiiiuieeii ia/aoieea caoyaeaaao eo. Onoaiaaeeaaao iaoeio a

?aai/aa iieiaeaiea, ?aaoee?oao n iiiiuueth oii?iiai aeioa iiei-

aeaiea ia?aaeieo oii?ia ioiineoaeueii eenoa e oi?a?aeoa?a. Aeey

aieiaiai ?aaiaiey eenoa ioiineoaeueii iaiiaeaeaeiiai aieiaiai

oii?a ia iaoeiao IAE i?eiaiyaony iaoaieci aieiaiai ?aaiaiey

?ioaoeeiiiiai oeia n i?eaiaeii io eoea/eiaiai aaea. Ia/aoiee

i?iaa?yao i?aaeeueiinoue caoaaoa eenoa oi?a?aeoa?ii e ia?aaea/o

aai e eeaiaiai ia?aaeaoi/iiai oeeeeiae?a.

a) I?eaiaeea iiein oaenoa ia/aoiie oi?iu.

Ia/aoiee iieo/aao iaeiinoi?iiiee iooene e naeaaao aai ii

eeieyi aieiaie e ei?aoeia. I?iaa?yao i?aaeeueiinoue ?aniieiaea-

iey iiein a oi?ia. Ia/aoiee eiio?iee?oao i?eaiaeeo iiein

oaenoa n iiiiuueth oeiiiao?e/aneie eeiaeee.

a) I?eaiaeea oi?iu ii iai?ioo.

Ia/aoiee iieo/aao aeaoonoi?iiiee iooene, i?iniao?eaaao

aai ia i?inaao e i?iaa?yao niaiaaeaiea eiioo?ia iiein ia ee-

oeaaie e iai?ioiie noi?iiao.

ae) I?eaiaeea eeethno?aoeeiiiuo oi?i.

Ia/aoiee iieo/aao iooene ia oe?aaeiie aoiaaa i?e ?aai/ae

nei?inoe iaoeiu. Ia/aoiee iieo/aao iooene, eiio?iee?oao ea-

/anoai i?eaiaeee. I?aaeeueiinoue i?eaiaeee oaeaea eiio?iee?oao

ianoa? o/anoea i?e iiiiue eeiaae e oaieueieea.

2. Iiaeaioiaea e?ani/iiai aiia?aoa.

Iiiiuiee ia/aoieea cae?uaaao e?ani/iue aiia?ao oiieei

neiai e?anee. Iauoth iiaea/o e?anee ia/aoiee ?aaoee?oao ecia-

iaieai oaea iiai?ioa aeoeoi?iiai oeeeeiae?a e?ani/iiai aiia?aoa

iaoeiu. Ieii/aoaeueii ?aaoee?oao iiaea/o e?anee i?e ia/aoaiee

ia?auo 200-300 i?iaiuo iooeneia. ?aaiiia?iinoue iiaea/e e?anee

ia/aoiee eiio?iee?oao /a?ac eaaeaeua 500 iooeneia.

3. I?ei?aaea oi?i.

a) Au?aaieaathuay i?ei?aaea iiae noa?aioei.

Ia/aoiee iiaeeeaaeuaaao iiae eeaiaiu ia/aoiiai oeeeeiae?a

eeno oe?aaeiie aoiaae e ia ?aai/ae nei?inoe iaoeiu iieo/aao

iooene, ?ac?acaao aai ii /eneo iiein e ia?acaao iiey ii eii-

oo?ai iaai?iie iieinu. Ia/aoiee iieo/aao iooene ia oe?aaeiie

aoiaaa e eiio?iee?oao ea/anoai i?ei?aaee.

a) I?ei?aaea ia aeaeaea.

Ia?aae i?ei?aaeie oi?iu iaiaoiaeeii i?e?aaioaoue aeaeaeue.

Caoai ia/aoiee auieiaao ec aeaeaey iiaeeiaeaiiua a i?ioeanna

i?eaiaeee eenou oe?aaeiie aoiaae, a aeaeaeue aiiaue cae?aieyao.

Aeey i?ei?aaee eeethno?aoeeiiiie oi?iu ia/aoiee auieiaao ec aea-

eaey niaiiue eeno e aianoi iaai iiae ieaieo onoaiaaeeaaao

eeno oe?aaeiie aoiaae. Iaoeio i?iai?a/eaatho ia iaeei iai?io e

ia iiaii aa?oiai eenoa aeaeaey ia/aoatho iooene. Ia/aoiee n

iiiiuieeii ia/aoieea aioiayo a?aaeaoeeiiiua i?ei?aai/iua ?aeue-

aou.

4. Iiaeaioiaea aoiaaii?iaiaeyuae nenoaiu.

Naiiiaeeaae e ?aaioa aioiayo ia/aoiee n iiiiuieeii ia-

/aoieea niaeanii oaoiieiae/aneie eino?oeoeee. Iaoyaeaiea oeaiae

eenoiauaiaeiiai o?ainii?oa?a ?aaoee?oao ia/aoiee ia?aiauaieai

“eiioeaauo” caacaei/ae i?eaiiiai ono?ienoaa a iacao noaiie.

Oneeea caaeeia eenoia caoaaoaie ea?aoie eenoiauaiaeiiai o?ain-

ii?oa?a ?aaoee?oao ia/aoiee ia eaaeaeii caoaaoa ioaeaeueii iiai-

?ioii oiiooeeia.

5. Iiaeaioiaea i?ioeaiioia?uaathuaai aiia?aoa.

Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ioia?uaaiey e?anie i?eaiiia ono?ien-

oai iaoeiu niaaaeaii i?ioeaiioia?uaathuei aiia?aoii oeia AeO-2.

A ea/anoaa i?ioeaiioia?uaathuaai ii?ioea ?aeiiaiaeoaony ioa-

/anoaaiiue iaeniaue e?aoiae aunoaai ni?oa n aeiaaaeaieai iee-

ne aethieiey aei 2-3% io iannu e?aoiaea. Eiee/anoai iiaeaaaaii-

ai ii?ioea iiaeii ?aaoee?iaaoue n iiiiuueth oi?noiie.

14.  Iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii

Iia?aoeaii-eaeaiaea?iia ieaie?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie

nenoaio ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia eiie?aoecaoeeth ia?niaeoeaiiai e

oaeouaai ieaia i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee. Eiie?aoecaoeey ieaiia

ai a?aiaie ia?aie/eaaaony aeey ioaeaeueiuo iieacaoaeae iany/iui

caaeaieai, a aeey ae?oaeo – aeaeaaeiuie, niaiiuie e ii/aniauie.

Yoio aeae ieaie?iaaiey niinianoaoao iia?aoeaiiio ?aao-

ee?aiaaieth i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ia caeeth/aaony a i?eiyoee ia?,

iai?aaeaiiuo ia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea e eeeaeaeaoeeth io?eoeaoaeueiuo

ioeeiiaiee a ?aaioa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaoia e ianeoaeeaathueo

eo iiae?acaeaeaiee. Iia?aoeaii-eaeaiaea?iia ieaie?iaaiea nii-

nianoaoao aeinoeaeaieth ?aaiiia?iie, ?eoie/iie ?aaiou anao

caaiueaa i?aaei?eyoey. Iia?aoeaii-eaeaiaea?iia ieaie?iaaiea in-

iiauaaaony ia ieaiiauo iieacaoaeyo, onoaiiaeaiiuo a oiaea

yeiiiie/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey. ?ac?aaioea e auiieiaiea iia?a-

oeaiuo ieaiia ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia yeiiiie/aneea ii-

eacaoaee ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey: ia auiieiaiea caeacia e ?aaee-

caoeeth i?iaeoeoeee, ia ?aoeeiiaeueioth caa?oceo iiuiinoae, eniieue-

ciaaiea ?aai/ae neeu, ia naaanoieiinoue auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee

e ?aioaaaeueiinoue ?iecaiaenoaa, ia nie?auaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe

i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea e onei?aiea iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?io-

iuo n?aaenoa.

Iniiaiay oeaeue iia?aoeaiiai ieaie?iaaiey . – iaania/aiea

?aaiiia?iie e ?eoie/iie ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii e aai io-

aeaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie a iea-

ia n?ieaie iinoaaee aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, iieo/aiey iaoa?eaeue-

ii-oaoie/aneeo ?ano?nia, inaiaiey iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

 Iia?aoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea  .- iniiaiay /anoue aioo?ecaaiaen-

eiai ieaie?iaaiey. Iniaaiiinoue aai ninoieo a oii, /oi iii

i?ecaaii ia eaaeaeii acaeiinaycaiiii o/anoea i?iecaiaenoaa

aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey ii?aaeaeeoue iauaiu auionea i?iaeoeoeee a

eiie?aoiie iiiaieeaoo?a e anni?oeiaioa eae ii eiee/anoao,

oae e ii ea/anoao e n?ieai eo ecaioiaeaiey. A yoeo oneiaeyo

caeeaaeuaathony iniiau auiieiaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai caaeaiey e

iinoaaie a niioaaonoaee n caeeth/aiiuie aeiaiai?aie.

?ac?aaioea iia?aoeaiiai ieaia ia/eiaaony n eiioea oaoii-

eiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, o.a. n ?aaiou a?ioth?iai/ii-ia?aieaoii-

ai oeaoa, /oi iicaieyao i?aaeeueii nieaie?iaaoue ?aaioo inoaeue-

iuo oeaoia e o/anoeia.

Iia?aoeaiue ieai ecaioiaeaiey e naea/e i?iaeoeoeee niaea?-

aeeo iaeiaiiaaiea ecaeaiee, eo oaoie/aneoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo e

i?iecaiaenoaaiiia ninoiyiea ia iiiaio ninoaaeaiey ieaia, iau-

ai ?aaiou, i?eiyoue a ieaia, a ouny/ao yecaiiey?ia e i?eaa-

aeaiiuo eenoao-iooeneao n aeaeaieai ia aeaeu ?aaio ii ioi?iea-

ieth, ioioneioth noieiinoue e ii?iaoeaioth naaanoieiinoue ii eaae-

aeiio iaeiaiiaaieth.

Iia?aoeaiue ieai ii aunieie ia/aoe aeieaeai aeeth/aoue ia-

?a/aiue ecaeaiee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiia ninoiyiea eaaeaeiai iaeiaii-

aaiey, oaoie/aneoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo, iauai ?aaio a i?eaaaeaiiuo

eenoao-iooeneao ii a?oiiai iaoei, ioioneioth noieiinoue e ii?-

iaoeaioth naaanoieiinoue eaaeaeiai caeaca. Iia?aoeaiue ieai caa-

?ocee ia/aoiiai oeaoa aeieaeai iaania/eoue iieioth caa?oceo anaai

ia?ea ia/aoiuo iaoei.

15.  Aeeniao/e?iaaiea

Aeeniao/e?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oeaio?aeeciaaiiue

iai?a?uaiue eiio?ieue e iia?aoeaiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oiaea i?iec-

aiaenoaa n oeaeueth iaania/aiey ?aaiiia?iiai e eiiieaeniiai au-

iieiaiey ieaia. Iniaia cia/aiea aeey ?eoie/iiai oiaea i?iec-

aiaenoaa e auiieiaiey ieaia eiatho ooieoeee i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiiai

eiio?iey ioeeiiaiee io onoaiiaeaiiiai a?aoeea e eiio?iey

iia?aoeaiie iiaeaioiaee iineaaeothueo niai.  _Aeeniao/e?iaaiea

 _aeeth/aao .: iai?a?uaiue o/ao e oaeouoth eioi?iaoeeth i oaeoe/an-

eii oiaea ?aaio ii auiieiaieth onoaiiaeaiiiai a?aoeea i?iec-

aiaenoaa e niaiii-nooi/iuo caaeaiee, i?eiyoea iia?aoeaiuo ia?

ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth e ono?aiaieth ioeeiiaiee io ieaia e ia?aai-

aa a oiaea i?iecaiaenoaa, auyaeaiea e aiaeec i?e/ei ioeeiiaiee

io onoaiiaeaiiuo ieaiia caaeaiee e eaeaiaea?iuo a?aoeeia i?i-

ecaiaenoaa; eii?aeeiaoeeth oaeouae ?aaiou acaeiinaycaiiuo caaiue-

aa i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeyo iaania/aiey ?eoie/iiai oiaea ?aaiou

ii onoaiiaeaiiiio a?aoeeo; i?aaiecaoeeiiiia ?oeiaiaenoai iia-

?aoeaiie iiaeaioiaeie anaai iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey auiieiaiey niai-

ii-nooi/iuo caaeaiee e eaeaiaea?iuo a?aoeeia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Nicaeaiea niaoeeaeueiie nenoaiu iia?aoeaiie eioi?iaoeee in-

iiauaaaony ia i?eiaiaiee nia?aiaiiuo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa,

iaania/eaathueo aaoiiaoecaoeeth iieo/aiey, ia?a?aaioee e ia?a-

aea/e eioi?iaoeee.

A i?ioeanna eiio?iey inouanoaeyaony iai?a?uaiia n?aaia-

iea auoiaeiie eioi?iaoeee n aoiaeiie ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo i?i-

ecaiaenoaa, i?e eioi?ii auyaeythony ioeeiiaiey e i?eieiathony

?aoaiey ia eo ono?aiaiee. Eniieueciaaiea YAI a iia?aoeaiii

ieaie?iaaiee iicaieyao aiineoue oaeouea ei??aeoeau a ?ac?aai-

oaiiua ieaiu-a?aoeee e niaiiua caaeaiey e oai naiui niaaaeaoue

i?aaiu aeeniao/e?iaaiey iaiaoiaeeiuie aeaiiuie aeey eiio?iey e

?aaoee?iaaiey oiaea i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iacaaeneii io oeia i?iecaiaenoaa iauaeoaie aeeniao/a?nei-

ai iaaethaeaiey aeieaeiu auoue eiio?ieue ca iaee/eai iaiaoiaeeiuo

iaoa?eaeia, aania?aaieiie ?aaioie iai?oaeiaaiey e ca auiieia-

ieai n?i/iuo caeacia.

A i?ioeanna naiae ?aaiou aeeniao/a?neay neoaeaa naycaia ni

anaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie e aniiiiaaoaeueiuie oeaoaie e neoaeaaie.

16.  I?aaiecaoeey oaoie/aneiai eiio?iey

 Oaoie/aneee eiio?ieue  .- ninoaaiay /anoue i?iecaiaenoaaiii-

ai i?ioeanna. Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue eiio?ieueiuo

iia?aoeee, i?iaiaeeiuo ia anao noaaeeyo i?iecaiaenoaa io iieo/a-

iey i?aaei?eyoeai nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia aei auionea aioiaie i?i-

aeoeoeee.

 Aeaaiuie caaea/aie oaoie/aneiai eiio?iey  .yaeythony: oeo/-

oaiea ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee; i?aaeioa?auaiea auionea i?iaeoeoeee,

ia niioaaonoaothuae o?aaiaaieyi noaiaea?oia, oaoie/aneeo onei-

aee, ooaa?aeaeaiiui ia?acoeai; oe?aieaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e

oaoiieiae/aneie aeenoeeieeiu; iiauoaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe anao

caaiueaa i?iecaiaenoaa ca ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee.

Oaoie/aneee eiio?ieue – iaaeaaeiia e aeaenoaaiiia i?oaeea

o?aaeaiey ea/anoaii. E iniiaiui iauaeoai oaoie/aneiai eiio-

?iey ia iieea?aoe/aneii i?aaei?eyoee ioiinyony:

iniiaiua e aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu;

iieooaa?eeaou, iieo/aaiua ni noi?iiu;

?oeiienue e i?eaeiae, iinooiathuea ec ecaeaoaeuenoa;

aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey;

iieooaa?eeaou, ia?aaeaaaaiua ec oeaoa a oeao eee n o/anoea

ia o/anoie;

oaoie/aneay aeieoiaioaoeey;

oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, iia?aoeee, ?aaeeiu eo auiieia-

iey;

niaethaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneie aeenoeeieeiu a i?ioeanna i?iec-

aiaenoaa;

ninoiyiea iai?oaeiaaiey e eino?oiaioia;

i?aaeeueiinoue oiaeiaee, o?aiaiey e o?ainii?oe?iaaiey ii-

eooaa?eeaoia a oeaoao e ia o/anoeao, aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e ia-

oa?eaeia ia neeaaeao.

 Eiio?iee?oaiuie i?eciaeaie  .a caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa

eiio?iey iiaoo auoue: ia?ea iaoa?eaea; aaiiao?e/aneea, oecoe-

ei-oeie/aneea, ooieoeeiiaeueiua ia?aiao?u; aiaoiea e aioo?ai-

iea aeaoaeou; ea/anoaaiiua e eiee/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee

oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna.

?aoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey oaoie/aneiai eiio?iey ia

i?aaei?eyoee i?aaeoniao?eaaao aai i?ioeeaeoe/aneoth ?ieue, oi/-

iinoue e iauaeoeaiinoue a ii?aaeaeaiee ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee e au-

yaeaiee a?aea, i?eaea/aiea e auiieiaieth ooieoeee eiio?iey ?a-

ai/eo e niaoeeaeenoia, o/anoaothueo a ecaioiaeaiee i?iaeoeoeee.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua iniaaiiinoe oaoie/aneiai eiio?iey ii?a-

aeaeytho ?acee/iua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oneiaey, caaenyuea io oeia

i?iecaiaenoaa, oa?aeoa?a i?iaeoeoeee e i?eiaiyaiie oaoiieiaee.

Iie i?iyaeythony ii neaaeothuei iai?aeaieyi: aeae eiio?iey

(aoiaeiie, iia?aoeeiiiue, i?eaii/iue), iieiioa ioaaoa ecaeaeee

eiio?ieai (nieioiie, auai?i/iue), noaiaiue nayce n iauaeoii

eiio?iey ai a?aiaie (eaoo/ee, ia?eiaee/aneee, iai?a?uaiue),

iacia/aiea eiio?iey (eiio?ieue aiaeiinoe ecaeaeee, eiio?ieue ea-

/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee, eiio?ieue onoie/eainoe i?ioeanna), ?aniiei-

aeaiea eiio?ieueiuo ioieoia (noaoeeiia?iue, neieuecyuee), oa?ae-

oa? eiio?iey (i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiue, caa?aaeeoaeueiue), iaoiae

eiio?iey (aecoaeueiue, aaiiao?e/aneee, oeceei-oeie/aneee,

yenia?eiaioaeueiue, noaoenoe/aneee).

Oaaeeoea 1

 Oaoie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?eiaiyaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey

N

i/i Oaoie/aneea ia?aiao?u iai?oaeiaaiey Cia/aiea ia?aiao?ia
iai?oaeiaaiey ii aa?eaioai ecaioiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee

Ia?ea iaoeiu 2 IAE-70-2 0

1. Iaeneiaeueiue oi?iao eenoa, ni 72 o 102

2. Iiieiaeueiue oi?iao eenoa, ni 70 o 100

3. Ieieiaeueiue oi?iao eenoa, ni 54 o 70

4. Oieueia oi?iu, ii 5 (0,8)

5. Iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue ?aaiou, ia// 7500 (10000)

6. Oaoie/aneay nei?inoue, oeeee/iei 145

7. E?ani/iinoue 2 (2; 1:1)

8. Aaaa?eoiua ?acia?u n naiiiaeeaaeii, i:

aeeeia 6,75 (6,93)

oe?eia 3,45

aunioa 2,02

9. Ianna n naiiiaeeaaeii, ea 14720 (16300)

10. Iauay iio?aaeyaiay iiuiinoue,eAo 22

Iacia/aiea – aeaonoi?iiiyy ia/aoue

oaenoiaie e eeethno?aoeeiiiie i?iaeoeoeee

Oaaeeoea 2

Aiaeiaay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay

iiuiinoue, oun.

Iaeiaiiaaiea Oe?aae, eenoi oece/ oece/ i?eaaae i?eaa

oun.yec. i?iaii ia/ao ia/ao ia/ao ia/ao

e-ioo e?-ioo e-ioo e?-io

1.Oi?iao iaoeiu 1 655 655 1310 852 1703

70 o 100

2.Eiyooeoeeaio i?. 3 1814 1814 3628 2358 4716

e o. 60 o 90 1,3

3.Eie-ai noi?ii, 5 2808 2808 5616 3650 7301

caia/aouaaaiuo

ca 1 i?iaii

4.Eiyo-o,o/eoua. 7 3669 36679 7338 4770 9539

oi?iaoiua aic-

iiaeiinoe

5.E?ani/iinoue 10 4764 4764 9528 6193 12386

6.Ii?ia au?aaio- 15 6205 6205 12410 8067 16133

ee,oun.e-i?ia//

3,968

7.Ii?ia a?.ia 20 7311 7311 14622 9504 19009

i?ei?aaeo, /

5,79

8.Oiiae a?aiaie 25 8186 8186 16372 10642 21284

iniiaiie ?aaiou,

/ 3959

30 8896 8896 17792 11565 23130

50 10764 10764 21528 13993 27986

17.  Eeanneoeeaoi? a?aea

I?iaeoeoeey, ea/anoaaiiua ia?aiao?u eioi?ie ia ioaa/atho

o?aaiaaieyi oaoie/aneeo oneiaee eee auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu aei-

ionoeiuo ioeeiiaiee, yaeyaony  _a?aeii .. Iiae  _i?e/eiie a?aea

iiae?acoiaaaaony ioeeiiaiea io ii?iaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo

oneiaee eee onoaiiaeaiiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna. Aeiia-

ieee a?aea – ?aai/ea, ?aaioieee oeaoia e ioaeaeia caaiaeioi?aa-

eaiey, /uee aeaenoaey i?eaaee e aicieeiiaaieth a?aea.

Oaaeeoea 8

Aeae a?aea I?e/eiu a?aea
Aeiiaiee a?aea

Ia?aoeneeaaiea Iaa?aaeiia auiieiaiea Iniiaiua
?aai/ea

iia?aoeee

?aciiiooaii/iay Aeaoaeou oi?iu
Eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/.

ia/aoue
?aaioieee oeaoa

Iai?iia/aoea Aeaoaeou iaeaaeee
?aaioieee i?iec-

iai?oaeiaaie
aiaenoaaiiiai ioae.

I?iaeaaiea e?anee Ia?ooaiea oaoiieiae- ?aaioieee
ioaeaea

/aneiai ?aaeeia
iao.oao.niaaaeaiey

Ia?ooaiea i?eaiaeee Aeaoaeou e?anee
?aaioieee caaiaen-

eie eaai?aoi?ee

Ia?aoee Aeaoaeou aoiaae
?aaioieee ioaeaea

oaoie/aneiai
eiio?iey

*?acia?iue iaoene Iaeni?aaiinoue
?aaioieee neoaeau

iai?oaeiaaiey
aeaaiiai iaoaieea

Iaiaeeiaeiaay oe?eia
?aai/ea aniiiiaao.

iaeieiaiiuo iieae

ia iooeneao

3. ?an/ao oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae

Naeaeaai ?an/aou:

  1 aa?eaio

1. A?aiy ecaioiaeaiey iaeiiai oe?aaea, /

F oe?.= _fi?+fia/ o Noe?

eai

fi? – ii?ia a?aiaie ia iaeio i?ei?aaeo, /

fia/- ii?ia a?aiaie ia ia/aoaiea aaeeieoeu ecia?aiey i?i-

aeoeoeee, /

Noe?- n?aaeiee oe?aae ecaeaiey a aaeeieoeao ecia?aiey i?-oeee

n o/aoii oe?aaeaonoie/eainoe ia/aoiie oi?iu

eai – eiyooeoeeaio auiieiaiey ii?i au?aaioee (1,1)

fi?=214 ‘=214:60=3,56/

fia/=19,6’=19,6:60=0,33/

Foe?= _3,56+0,33 o 20 . = 9,2 /

1,1

2. N?aaeiaaiaeiaie i?inoie iai?oaeiaaiey ia ?aiiioao, /

f? = _ [fe+fo(O?oe-2)] o Eni

O?oe-1

fe – ii?ia a?aiaie ia eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio,/

fo – ii?ia a?aiaie ia oaeouee ?aiiio,/

O?oe – n?ie neoaeau iai?oaeiaaiey (11 eao)

f?= _[184+56(11-2)] o 1 . = 68,8 /

11-1

3. I?inoie iai?oaeiaaiey ia oaoiieiae/aneeo inoaiiaeao,/

fo.i.= _ n o.i. . o (F?aae-f?-fi)

100

n o.i. – ii?iaoea i?inoiy iai?oaeiaaiey ia oaoiieiae/an-

eeo inoaiiaeao,%

F?aae – ?aaeeiiue oiiae a?aiaie

fi – aiaeiaia a?aiy i?inoiy iai?oaeiaaiey ia iniio?ao (11

iniio?ia a aiae)

fo.i. = _ 1,1 . (2095- 68,8-88) = 21,32 /

100

4. Aiaeiaia eiee/anoai i?ei?aaie ia iaeiie iaoeia

Ni? i = _ F?aae-(f?+fi+fo.i.)

Foe?

fo.i. – i?inoie iai?oaeiaaiey ia oaoiieiae/aneeo inoa-

iiaeao,/

Ni? i = _ 2095-( 68,8+88+21,32) . = 209

9,2

5. Aiaeiaia a?aiy i?inoiy iaeiie aaeeieoeu iai?oaeiaaiey ia

i?ei?aaeao,/

fi? i = _ fi? o Ni? i

eai

fi? i = _ 3,56 o 209  . = 676.4 /

1,1

6. Yooaeoeaiue oiiae a?aiaie ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey

Fae = F ?aae – (fp + fo + fo.i.)

Fae = 2095 – ( 68,8 + 88 + 21,32) = 1916,88 /

7. Yooaeoeaiue oiiae a?aiaie ?aaiou ia/aoiie iaoeiu,/

Fae ia/ = Fae – fi? i

Fae ia/ = 1916,88 – 676,4 = 1240,48 /

8. Aiaeiaay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia/aoiie iaoeiu a aaeeie-

oeao ecia?aiey i?iaeoeoeee

Iia ia/ = I/ o Fae ia/ o eai

Iia ia/ = 3,06 o 1240,48 o 1,1 = 4175,45

 

2 aa?eaio

Oaia?ue naeaeaai ?an/ao oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoa-

eae, oiaiueoea a?aiy ia ia/aoue ia 3%

fia/ = 0,33 – 3% = 0,3201 /

1. Foe? = _ 3,56+0,3201 o 20 . = 9,06 /

1,1

2. f? = 68,8 /

3. fo.i. = 21,32 /

4. Ni? i = _ 2095-( 68,8+88+21,32) . = 212,0

9,06

5. fi? i = _ 3,56 o 212,0 . = 684,7 /

1,1

6. Fae = 2095 – ( 68,8 + 88 + 21,32) = 1916,88 /

7. Fae ia/ = 1916,88 – 684,7 = 1232,18 /

8. Iia ia/ = 3,15 o 1232,18o 1,1 = 4271,9

 23. ?an/ao yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa

 1 aa?eaio

1. I?yiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa ?aai/eo, ?

Li? = Lo o fa o N

Lo – /aniaay oa?eoiay noaaea ?aai/aai niioaaonoaothuaai

?ac?yaea,?

fia/ – ii?ia a?aiaie ia ia/aoaiea aaeeieoeu ecia?aiey

i?iaeoeoeee,/

fi? – ii?ia a?aiaie ia iaeio i?ei?aaeo,/

N – iauai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaea-

iee a aaeeieoeao ecia?aiey i?iaeoeoeee

Li? ia/ = 580 o 0,33 o 4175,4 = 799171,56?

Li? i? = 580 o 3,56 o 209 = 431543,20 ?

Li? = Li? ia/ + Li? i?

Li? = 799171,56+ 431543,2 = 1230714,7 ?

2. Aeiiieieoaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa,?

Laeii = 0,6 o Li?

Laeii = 0,6 o 1230714,7 = 738428,85?

3. Io/eneaiey ia nioeno?ao,?

Lno? = 0,39(Li? + Laeii)

Lno? = 0,39 o(1230714,4 +738428,8) = 767965,98?

4. Cao?aou ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo ?aai/eo,?

Sl = Li? + Laeii

Sl = 1230714,4 + 738428,8 = 1969143,5 ?

5. Cao?aou ia iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu, ?

Si = qi o N o Oei

E?anea /a?iay oeiia?aoneay

qi – ii?ia ?anoiaea iaoa?eaea ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee

Oei – oeaia ca aaeeieoeo ecia?aiey iaoa?eaea,?

Si = 0,16 o 4175,45o 4190 = 2799221,6?

6. Cao?aou ia aii?oecaoeeth iai?oaeiaaiey,?

Sa = _ Ei o r

100

Ei = Oei o Ea – cao?aou ia i?eia?aoaiea iai?oaeiaaiey,?

Oei – oeaia iai?oaeiaaiey,?

Ea – eiyooeoeeaio aeiiieieoaeueiuo cao?ao ia iai?oaeiaaiea

r = 9,1%

Sa = _ 138000000o 9,1 . = 12558000 ?

100

7. Cao?aou ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth,?

Sy = E o n o Fae o Oey

E – iiuiinoue onoaiiaeaiiuo oieii?eaiieeia, eAo

n – eiyooeoeeaio iioa?ue iiuiinoe oieii?eaiieeia (0,73)

Oey – oeaia iaeiiai eAo-/,? (62 ?)

Sy = 22 o 0,73 o 1916,88 o 62 = 1908675,7 ?

8. Cao?aou ia oaeouee ?aiiio,?

S? = Eo.?. o Oo.?. o Lo.?.

Eo.?. – eiyooeoeeaio iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia ia oaeouee ?a-

iiio iai?oaeiaaiey (2,3)

Oo.?. – o?oaeiaieinoue oaeouaai ?aiiioa aaeeieoeu iai?oaei-

aaiey,i-/

Lo.?. – /aniaay oa?eoiay noaaea ?aiiioiiai ?aai/aai

/aoaa?oiai ?ac?yaea,?

S? = 2,3 o 300 o 250 = 172500 ?

9. Cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea e yenieoaoaoeeth iai?oaeiaaiey,?

Sia = (Sp + Sy + Sa) o 2 o w?

Sia = (172500+12558000+1908675,7 ) o2o1=29278351 ?

10. Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu,?

Sii = 0,6 o Li?

Sii = 0,6 o 1230714,7 = 738428,85?

11. Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu,?

Sio = 0,2(Si+Sl+Lno?+Sia+Sii)

Sio=(2799221,6+1969143,5+767965,98+29278351+738428,85)o0,2=

= 35553110 o 0,2 = 711062,1 ?

12. Aiai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu,?

Sa=0,02o(Si+Sl+Lno?+Sia+Sii+Sio)

Sa=(7110622,1+35553110)o0,02= 853274,64 ?

13. Iieiay naaanoieiinoue ecaioiaeaiey iauaia ?aaio,?

S=Si+Sl+Lno?+Sia+Sii+Sio+Sa

S = 43517006 ?

14. Naaanoieiinoue ecaioiaeaiey o/aoiie aaeeieoeu i?iaeoe-

oeee,?

Se = S/Na

Se = _ 435170060 . = 10422,111?

4175,45

15. I?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou,?

N = Se + Ai o Ee

Ai – ii?iaoeaiue eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo

aeiaeaiee, ?aaiue 0,15

Ee – oiiaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee,?/o/.aae.

Ee = Ei/Na

Ee = 138000000/4175,9= 33053,89 ?/o/.aae.

N = 10422,1 + 0,15 o 33053,89=15380,195 ?

 2 aa?eaio

1. Li? ia/ = 0,3201o580o4271,9=793112,41 ?

Li? i? = 580 o 3,56 o 212 = 437737,6 ?

Li? = 793112,41+ 437737,6 = 1230850 ?

2. Laeii = 0,6 o 1230850 = 738510 ?

3. Lno? = 0,39(1230850 + 738510 ) = 768050,4 ?

4. Sl = 1230850 + 738510 = 1969360 ?

5. Si = 0,16 o 4271,9 o 4190 = 2863881,7 ?

6. Sa = 12558000 ?

7. Sy = 1908675,7 ?

8. S? = 172500 ?

9. Sia =29278351 ?

10. Sii = 0,6 o L i? = 0,6 o 1230850 = 738510 ?

11. Sio = 0,2o(2863881,7+1969360+768050,4+29278351+

+738510) = 7123630,6 ?

12. Sa = 854835,67 ?

13. S = 43596619 ?

14. Se = 515636000/4271,9 = 10205,44 ?

15. N = 10205,44+0,15o32304,127 = 15051,059 ?

4 2. 0  2?ann/eoaai 0  2aiaeiaie yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo

1. Yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo,?

Ya = (Na – Ni) o Ni

Na,Ni – i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou ii aaciaiio (a) e iiaiio (i)

aa?eaioai,?

Ya = (15380,2 – 15051,059) o 4271,9 = 1406057,4 ?

2. Yeiiiiey io nieaeaiey cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai,?

Y = (Sea – Sei) o N

Sea = 10422,119 ?

Sei = 10205,44 ?

Y = (10422,119 – 10205,44) o 4271,9 = 925631,02 ?

3. Nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee,%

Se = _ Sea-Sei . o 100

Sea

Se = _ 10422,119-10205,44 . o 100 = 2,07%

10422,119

4. Oiiaeiioaea/a, o/.aae/?

Oi = N/Ei

Oi = _ 4271,9  . = 0,0000309557 o/.aae/?

138000000

5. Oiiaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee,?/o/.aae.

Ee = Ei/N

Ee = 32304,127 ?/o/.aae.

6. Nuai i?iaeoeoeee n eaaae?aoiiai iao?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie

ieiuaaee, o/.aae./i ea

Ns = N/Si?

Si? – i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ieiuaaeue, ea.i

Si? = l o w o Ks o wn

l = 6,75 i

w = 3,45 i

Es = 3

wn = 10

Si? = 6,75 o 3,45 o 3 o 10 = 698,625 ea.i

Ns = _ 4271,9 . = 6,11 o/.aae/ea.i

698,62

7. Oaoiieiae/aneay o?oaeiaieinoue ecaioiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee ia

iaoeiiuo iia?aoeeyo,/-/

ti? i = (F?aae – f?)wp o ?a?

?a? – /eneaiiinoue a?eaaaeu ia iaoeia,/ae.

?a? = 2

ti? i = (2095 – 68,8) o 2 = 4052,4 /-/

8. Oaoiieiae/aneay o?oaeiaieinoue ecaioiaeaiey o/.aaeeieoeu

i?iaeoeoeee, /-//o/.aae.

te = ti? i/N

te = _ 4052,4 . = 0,948 /-/

4271,9

9. *aniaay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ia iia?aoeeyo,o/.aae//-/

q/ = N/ti? i

q/ = _ 4271,9 . = 1,054 o/.aae//-/

4052,4

10. Eiee/anoai ?aai/eo,iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey auiieiaiey aiaeiaie

i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu ia iaoeiiuo iia?aoeeyo, /ae.

?ni = _ Fi? o w? o ? a?

F?

Fi? = F?aae – f? = 2095 – 68,8 = 2026,2 /

F? = Fi – Fioi – Fiaya = 2095-24-57 = 2014 /

?ni = _ 2026,2 o 10 o 2 . = 20,12 /ae

2014

Oaaeeoea 3

 5. 0  N?aaieoaeueiay oaaeeoea oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae

________________________________________________________________

NN Iaeiaiiaaiea Aae. A a ? e a i o u   Ioeeiiaiea

i/i iieacaoaeae eci. Aaciaue iiaue
oaaee/aiea(+)

oiaiueoaiea(-)

1 2 3 4 5
6

1. A?aiy ecaioiaeaiey / 9,2 9,06
– 0,14

iaeiiai oe?aaea

2. N?aaeiaaiaeiaie i?in- / 68,8 68,8

oie iai?-ey ia ?a-

iiioao

3. I?inoie iai?oaei- / 21,32 21,32

aaiey ia oaoiiei-

ae/aneeo inoaiiaeao

4. Aiaeiaia eiee/anoai 209 212
+ 3

i?ei?aaie

5. Aiaeiaia a?aiy / 676,4 684,7
+ 8,3

i?inoiy iaeiie aae.

iai?-ey ia i?ei?aaeao

6. Yooaeoeaiue oiiae a?. / 1916,88 1916,88

?aaiou ia/.iaoeiu

7. Yooaeoeaiue oiiae a?. / 1240,48 1232,18
– 8,3

?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey

8. Aiaeiaay i?iecaiaee- 4175,45 4271,9
+ 96,45

oaeueiinoue ia/. ia-

oeiu a aae.ecia?aiey

i?iaeoeoeee

 YEIIIIE*ANEEE YOOAEO 

1. I?yiay ca?aaioiay ? 30724,3 230850 + 125,7

ieaoa ?aai/eo

2. Aeiiieieoaeueiay ca- ? 38434,58 38510 + 75,42

?aaioiay ieaoa

3. Io/eneaiey ia ? 67971,96 68050,4 + 78,44

nioeno?ao

4. Cao?aou ia ca?a- ? 969158,8 969360 + 201,2

aioioth ieaoo ?aa.

5. Cao?aou ia iniia- ? 799221,6 863881,7 + 64660,1

iua iaoa?eaeu

6. Cao?aou ia aii?oe- ? 2558000 2558000

caoeeth iai?oaeiaaiey

7. Cao?aou ia ye/yi ? 908675,7 908675,7

8. Cao?aou ia oaeouee ? 72500 72500

?aiiio

9. Cao?aou ia niaea?aea ? 9278351 9278351

iea e yenieoaoaoeeth

iai?oaeiaaiey

10. Iauai?iecaiaenoaai- ? 38434,58 38510 + 75,42

iua ?anoiaeu

11. Iauaoicyenoaaiiua ? 110627,5 123630,6 + 13003,1

?anoiaeu

12. Aiai?iecaiaenoaai- ? 53275,31 54835,67 + 1560,36

iua ?anoiaeu

13. Iieiay naaanoie- ? 3517040 3596619 + 79579

iinoue eca-iey

iauaia ?aaio

14. Naaanoieiinoue ? 0422,119 10205,44 – 216,679

eca-iey o/.aae.

i?iaeoeoeee

15.I?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou ? 5380,2 5051,059 – 329,141

 A U A I Ae :

I?e oiaiueoaiee a?aiaie ia ia/aoue ia 3% oaaee/eeinue aiaei-

aia eiee/anoai i?ei?aaie ia 6,3 e aiaeiaia a?aiy i?inoiy iae-

iie aaeeieoeu iai?oaeiaaiey ia i?ei?aaeao ia 8,3 /. Yoi cia/eo,

/oi oaaee/eaaaony a?aiy ia eiiieaen iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo iia?a-

oeee a ia/aoiii i?ioeanna aunieie ia/aoe n oiaiueoaieai a?aiaie

ia ia/aoue. Oiaiueoeeinue a?aiy ia ecaioiaeaiea iaeiiai oe?aaea,

oiaiueoeeny yooaeoeaiue oiiae a?aiaie ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey ia

8,3 / oaaee/eeanue aiaeiaay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia/aoiie iaoe-

iu a aaeeieoeao ecia?aiey i?iaeoeoeee ia 96,45 /. Oaaee/eeenue

cao?aou ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo ?aai/ei, io/eneaiey ia nioeno?ao,

iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu, iauaoicyenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu,

aiai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu, ii i?e yoii nieceeanue naaanoie-

iinoue ecaioiaeaiey o/.aae. i?iaeoeoeee ia 216,679 ? e nieceeenue

i?eaaaeaiiua cao?aou ia 329,141 ?. Io nieaeaiey a?aiaie ia ia-

/aoue ia 3% yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo ninoaaee 1406057,4 ?. yeiii-

iey io nieaeaiey cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai – 925631,02 ?. Nieaea-

iea naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeei 2,07%. Cia/eo auae?aai

aoi?ie . aa?eaio oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna.

I?e oiaiueoaiee a?aiaie ia ia/aoue ia 3% iu aeinoeaee nie-

aeaiey cao?ao ia 2741328 ?. Cia/eo auae?aai  _aoi?ie  .aa?eaio

oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna.

 C A E E TH * A I E A

A aeaiiii eo?niaii i?iaeoa auee ?anniio?aiu 2 aa?eaioa

oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna. I?e yoii auei iieacaii eae ca

n/ao oiaiueoaiey ii?iu a?aiaie ia ia/aoue ia 3% aue aeinoeaioo

cia/eoaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo 2741328 ?.

Eo?niaie i?iaeo aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i aeenoeeieeia “I?aa-

iecaoeey iieea?aoe/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa”. ?anniio?aiu oaeea

aii?inu, eae iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii, aeeniao/e-

?iaaiea, oaoiieiae/aneee eiio?ieue, i?aaiecaoeey oaoiieiae/an-

eie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, ieaie?iaea oeaoa.

Eo?niaie i?iaeo aeaao i?anoaaeaiea i aeaiiii i?iecaiaen-

oaaiiii o/anoea – ia/aoiii oeaoa.

PAGE 1

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