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Совместные предприятия в России

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Aaaaeaiea

Ca iineaaeiaa a?aiy a ?innee neiaeeeanue aeiaieueii iai?inoay
iieeoe/aneay e yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey. *oiau ?aoeoue iiiaeanoai
iiyaeaoeony i?e yoii i?iaeai, iaiaoiaeeii ia?aniio?aoue e ia?aioeaieoue
aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee iaoaai ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, a oaeaea iaeoe e
eco/eoue iiaua ia?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey e oi?iu aeayoaeueiinoe. E
eiaiii nae/an, eiaaea noaiiaeony ?aaeueiui iaeeaeaiea iaoae yeiiiieee,
iniaaiii aeooaeueiuie noaiiayony i?eaea/aiea i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee e nicaeaiea niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee (NI) a no?aia.

Niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea – yoi iauaaeeiaiea eiaanoeoeee (eae i?aaeei, a
oi?ia th?eaee/aneiai eeoea), i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aeaoi e aieaa eeoeai
(oece/aneei eee th?eaee/aneei), iaeii ec eioi?uo yaeyaony iaianoiui eee
eiino?aiiui, a oaeaea eiino?aiiiio ainoaea?noao, i?iecaaaeaiiia ia
oa??eoi?ee i?eieiathuaai ainoaea?noaa aeey inouanoaeaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Io yenii?oa, aunooiathuaai a ea/anoaa iaeiie ec oi?i aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, niaianoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai ioee/aaony oai, /oi iii
oi?ie?oao ia?oia?noai eiino?aiiie e ianoiie oe?iu, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?iai nicaeathony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe. Anee aiaoiyy oi?aiaey
anoue yenii?o oiaa?a, oi niaianoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie yenii?o ca ?oaaae iaoeeiiaeueiiai eaieoaea.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey NI a ?innee iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi niaianoiia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai niinianoaoao aoiaeaeaieth no?aiu a nenoaio
ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai oicyenoaa, a oaeaea ea?aao cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue
a oi?ie?iaaiee ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Aeey NI oa?aeoa?iu aieaa
ia?aaeiaay oaoiieiaey, aunieay i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, aunieay
oiiaeiioaea/a e aunieee o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou, /oi ieacuaaao
iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee
niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?O, a oaeaea iooe nicaeaiey NI e eo
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony aeaenoaothuei ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee Caeiiii «Ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee» ? 1545-1 io 4 ethey 1991 a., a oaeaea ae?oaeie
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie, ieacuaathueie aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea e
?acaeoea aeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

I?aaiecaoeeiiii i?aaiaua oi?iu NI

Iiae i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iie ethaiai i?aaei?eyoey iiieiaaony
onoaiiaeaiiay a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?O i i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e
cae?aieyaiay a o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioao niaieoiiinoue i?eciaeia
i?aaiaiai ?aaeeia eiouanoaa e ii?yaeea oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai.

Aei i?eiyoey Caeiia «I i?aaei?eyoeyo» e Caeiia «Ia eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeeyo» NI ia?aciauaaeenue a oi?ia, aeeceie eeai yeaeaaeaioiie
oi?ia oiaa?euanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. A aeaeueiaeoai
ia?a/aiue i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i NI aue ?anoe?ai e, a
niioaaonoaee ni no. 12 Caeiia «Ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo», niaianoiua
i?aaei?eyoey iiaoo eiaoue i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu:

aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa;

niaoaiiiai oiaa?euanoaa;

oiaa?euanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth;

iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa.

Ia?a/aiue i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i, i?aaeoniio?aiiue no.12 Caeiia
«Ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo», ia iieii. A niioaaonoaee ni no.19
iicaeiaa aaaaeaiiuo a aeaenoaea ia oa??eoi?ee ?O «Iniia» e oicyenoaaiiui
iauanoaai e oiaa?euanoaai aeiiieieoaeueii e ia?a/eneaiiui auoa ioiineony
iauanoai n aeiiieieoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. Iiyoiio oi?iaeueii
o/?aaeeoaee NI iiaoo nicaeaoue naia i?aaei?eyoea a yoie
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?ia.

Aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai (aiae. – public eee joint-stock company)
ioee/aaony io inoaeueiuo aeaeia oicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?euanoa oai, /oi aai
eaieoae ?acaeo ia iaeioi?ia eiee/anoai ?aaiuo e iaaeaeeiuo /anoae
(iaaa-aeoeee). Iiiyoea aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa niaea?aeeony a no.12
Caeiia «I i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe». Aieaa
oaeiaiia e th?eaee/anee ei??aeoiia iiiyoea aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa aeaao
no.19.6 «Iniia», ii eioi?ie aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaii i?eciaaony iauanoai,
onoaaiue oiiae eioi?iai ?acaeaeai ia ii?aaeaeaiiia /enei aeoeee ?aaiie
iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe, ianouaa ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii naiei
iaycaoaeuenoaai oieueei nianoaaiiui eiouanoaii.

AI yaeyaony th?eaee/aneei eeoeii, aeaenoaoao ia iniiaaiee onoaaa,
ooaa?aeaeaaiiai aai o/anoieeaie, eiaao nianoaaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea n
oeacaieai i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu. A aeoeeiia?iuo eiiiaieyo eo
o/anoieee (aeoeeiia?u) ia eiatho i?aaa o/anoaiaaoue a oi?aaeaiee
oaeoueie aeaeaie i?aaei?eyoey; yoi – i?a?iaaoeaa aee?aeoi?a. Ooieoeee
aeoeeiia?ia ii oi?aaeaieth iauanoaii ia?aie/eaathony auai?aie /eaiia
i?aaeaiey (aee?aeoi?aoa) e aieiniaaieai ia aaeaaiaeiuo nia?aieyo
aeoeeiia?ia.

Eiouanoai AI oi?ie?oaony ca n/ao i?iaeaaee aeoeee a aeaea ioe?uoie
iiaeienee, iieo/aiiuo aeioiaeia e ae?oaeo caeiiiuo enoi/ieeia. Aeaaiue
enoi/iee oeiainiauo n?aaenoa AI – yienney oeaiiuo aoiaa (aeoeee). Ii
iauaio i?aaeeo aeoeee iiaoo naiaiaeii iaiaieaaoueny, i?iaeaaaoueny,
iieoiaoueny e io/oaeaeaoueny eiuie niiniaaie eai oaiaeii, eiio oaiaeii e
a eaeii oaiaeii eiee/anoaa, o.a. ninoaa o/anoieeia aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa
ianoaaeeai. Iiyoiio aeey AI oa?aeoa?ii iaee/ea nioai e aeaaea ouny/
o/anoieeia-aeoeeiia?ia. Eiaiii yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai i?aiyonoaoao oe?ieiio
eniieueciaaieth oi?iu aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa aeey nicaeaiey NI,
yaeythueony iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie oicyenoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie.

NI a oi?ia niaoaiiiai (eiiiaiaeeoiiai) oiaa?euanoaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
iieuecothuaany i?aaaie th?eaee/aneiai eeoea iauaaeeiaiea ianeieueeeo
oece/aneeo e (eee) th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, nicaeaiiia ia iniiaaiee aeiaiai?a
iaaeaeo ieie aeey niaianoiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe (no.10 Caeiia
«I i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe»).

O/anoieeaie niaoaiiiai oiaa?euanoaa yaeythony aeaenoaeoaeueiua /eaiu e
/eaiu-aeeaae/eee.

Aeaenoaeoaeueiuie /eaiaie (oiaa?euaie) niaoaiiiai oiaa?euanoaa
i?eciathony eeoea, aianoea niaeanii aeiaiai?o aeeaae a ia?aciaaiea
onoaaiiai eaieoaea NI, ee/ii o/anoaothuea a aai onoaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
e nieeaea?ii ioaa/athuea ii aai iaycaoaeuenoaai a iieiii iauaia anai
naiei eiouanoaii, ia eioi?ia ii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee iiaeao auoue ia?auaii acuneaiea. *eaiaie-aeeaae/eeaie
(eiiiaiaeeoenoaie) oiaa?euanoaa i?eciathony eeoea, aianoea a
niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii aeeaae a ia?aciaaiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea
i?aaei?eyoey e ioaa/athuea ii aai iaycaoaeuenoaai a i?aaeaea noieiinoe
aianaiiiai aeeaaea. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaiaie noaoon aeaenoaeoaeueiuo
/eaiia e /eaiia-aeeaae/eeia ?acee/aaony iaiaeeiaeiauie i?aaiii/eyie ii
oi?aaeaieth aeaeaie i?aaei?eyoey e ?acee/iui iauaiii ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
?acoeueoao aai ?aaiou. Anee ia?aua iaaeaeaiu aieueoeie iieiiii/eyie ii
oi?aaeaieth NI, oi e ioaaonoaaiiinoue eo ca ?acoeueoaou naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe aieueoa ii n?aaiaieth n ioaaonoaaiiinoueth
eiiiaiaeeoenoia, aeaeaae?iaaaoeo ei i?aaa.

Aeaenoaeoaeueiua /eaiu oiaa?euanoaa ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii aeieaai e
iaycaoaeuenoaai i?aaei?eyoey nieeaea?ii. Nieeaea?iue oa?aeoa?
ioaaonoaaiiinoe icia/aao aa ianooieaiea a iieiii iauaia, o. a. anai
i?eiaaeeaaeauei ei eiouanoaii. Aeaenoaeoaeueiue /eai niaoaiiiai
oiaa?euanoaa, auiieieaoee iaycaoaeuenoaa ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie
i?aaei?eyoey a iieiii iauaia, ai?aaa aicianoeoue iiianaiiua ?anoiaeu ca
au/aoii naiaai aeieaa ca n/ao inoaeueiuo aeaenoaeoaeueiuo /eaiia
(?aa?anneaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue). I?e yoii iineaaeiea ioaa/atho ia?aae
eniieieaoei iauaa iaycaoaeuenoai oiaa?euai oaeaea nieeaea?ii.

Eiiiaiaeeoenou ioaa/atho ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie oiaa?euanoaa a i?aaeaeao
naiae aeiee a i?aaa iauae nianoaaiiinoe, o. a. a ?acia?a naiaai aeeaaea
a ia?aciaaiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea NI. Nieeaea?iia o/anoea eiiiaiaeeoenoa
a aeieaao oiaa?euanoaa aiciiaeii eeoue n aai niaeaney e aeaao aio i?aai
o?aaiaaoue eciaiaiey naiaai noaoona e i?eciaiey aai aeaenoaeoaeueiui
/eaiii oiaa?euanoaa. I?e yoii ioaeii iiiieoue, /oi e oiaa?euanoai
ioaa/aao ii aeieaai naieo aeaenoaeoaeueiuo /eaiia e ia ianao
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii iaycaoaeuenoaai /eaiia-aeeaae/eeia.

Eae i?aaeei, /eaiu-aeeaae/eee o/anoaotho a ?aaioa iauaai nia?aiey eee
eiioa?aioeee nianoaaiieeia NI n i?aaii niaauaoaeueiiai aieina. I?aai
?aoathuaai aieina i?eiaaeeaaeeo ei i?e ianoaeaeaiee eeoue oao aii?inia,
eioi?ua eanathony eo noaoona eae nianoaaiieeia.

*oi aea eanaaony o/anoey a i?eaueyo NI, oi ?acee/ey a noaoona iieiuo
oiaa?euae e /eaiia-aeeaae/eeia ia o/eouaathony; aeaaiui iiiaioii, io
eioi?iai caaenyo ?acia?u aeeaeaeaiaeia, neaaeoao n/eoaoue ?acia? aeeaaea
eaaeaeiai o/anoieea a ia?aciaaiea onoaaiiai eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoey.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ?anniio?aiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia NI
iniaaiii oaeiaia aeey eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a, ?aoeaoaainy aeiaeeoue naie
eaieoaeu ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a ea/anoaa
/eaia-aeeaae/eea. Aai eioa?anoao aeiey i?eauee, e ii aa iieo/eo eae
eiiiaiaeeoeno. Aii?inu oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe NI eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a
iau/ii ia eioa?anotho, eai ii ia iiaeao iinoiyiii iaoiaeeoueny ia
oa??eoi?ee ?innee e ia ?acae?aaony a oiieinoyo e i?ioeai?a/eyo
?inneeneiai oicyenoaaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u
ii?o/atho aaaeaiea oaeoueo aeae naiei ?inneeneei ia?oia?ai, aunooiathuei
a ea/anoaa aeaenoaeoaeueiuo /eaiia NI. ?eneioa aeiaeeoue naie n?aaenoaa
a ?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo, eiino?aiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee, ouaoaeueii aua?aa
naaa ?inneeneiai ia?oia?a e iiaeienaa o/?aaeeoaeueiue aeiaiai?, ia
aieeatho a iaei/e iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe naieo ?inneeneeo eieeaa
ii oi?aaeaieth aeaeaie NI, ia?aie/eaaynue eiio?ieai ?aoaiey iaeaieaa
aaaeiuo aii?inia.

Niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea a oi?ia oiaa?euanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth (aiae. – corporation) – oaeaea iaeaieaa /anoi
i?eiaiyaiay i?e nicaeaiee NI i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia. A
niioaaonoaee ni no. 11 Caeiia «I i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe» OII i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iauaaeeiaiea a?aaeaeai e (eee)
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe aeey niaianoiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iii
yaeyaony th?eaee/aneei eeoeii, aeaenoaoao ia iniiaaiee onoaaa,
ooaa?aeaeaaiiai aai o/anoieeaie, eiaao nianoaaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea n
oeacaieai i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu.

?acee/ea iaaeaeo niaoaiiui oiaa?euanoaii e OII caeeth/aaony a ionoonoaee
aeaeaiey o/?aaeeoaeae ia iieiuo oiaa?euae e eiiiaiaeeoenoia e a
iaoneiaeaiiii yoie iaeii?iaeiinoueth oa?aeoa?ii eo ioaaonoaaiiinoe
ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie i?aaei?eyoey. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue o/anoieeia OII ii
aiciiaeiui eneai ia?aie/eaaaony aeieae eo o/anoey a eaieoaea
i?aaei?eyoey. ?ann/eoaaoenue n e?aaeeoi?ii, o/anoiee oaeiai NI iiaeao
n/eoaoue naay aa?aioe?iaaiiui io eaeeo-eeai ae?oaeo i?aoaicee. I?i/aa
aai eiouanoai ie a eiae ia?a ia iiaeao neoaeeoue iauaeoii i?eoycaiee
aiciiaeiuo e?aaeeoi?ia NI. Eia/a aiai?y, iauay noiia aeieae anao
o/anoieeia NI e neoaeeo i?aaeaeii ioaaonoaaiiinoe NI ia?aae
e?aaeeoi?aie. NI, iaeiiea aeieaia naa?o yoiai i?aaeaea, ia noaaeo naieo
o/anoieeia ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eo iieaou a iieiii iauaia. «Eceeoee»
eeai eiiiaine?othony ca n/ao ae?oaiai eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey (ia
aoiaeyuaai a onoaaiue oiiae NI), anee iii eiaaony, eeai aiciauathony ca
n/ao ni?acia?iiai oiaiueoaiey aeeaeaeaiaeia o/anoieeia NI, eeai
inoathony iaiiaaoaiiuie. Iiyoiio /ai aieueoa ?acia? onoaaiiai eaieoaea
NI, oai iaaeaaeiaa aa?aioee aai ia?oia?ia.

Neaaeothuei ioee/eai OII io niaoaiiiai oiaa?euanoaa yaeyaony oi, /oi
o/anoieee ia iaycaiu ee/ii o/anoaiaaoue a aeayoaeueiinoe NI, o.a. iiaoo
aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa ?aiouea, aeeay ia aeeaeaeaiaeu. Iie aianee naie
aeeaae a eaieoae oiaa?euanoaa e ia yoii eo o/anoea a NI iiaeao
caeii/eoueny, a oi a?aiy eae aeaenoaeoaeueiua /eaiu niaoaiiiai
oiaa?euanoaa iaycaiu oi?aaeyoue aai aeaeaie.

Iniiaiia ioee/ea OII io AI caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a OII /enei
o/anoieeia iau/ii ia i?aauoaao aeanyoe, ninoaa oiaa?euae ecaanoai e
noaaeeai, a eo i?aai i?iaeaaaoue naith aeieth iinoi?iiiei eeoeai
ia?aie/aii e iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaaii eeoue iinea oiai, eae io aa
iieoiee ioeacaeenue ae?oaea o/anoieee oiaa?euanoaa. A AI, aaea
eiee/anoai aeoeeiia?ia ia?aaeei ninoaaeyao nioie e ouny/e, ia?aie/aiey
ii io/oaeaeaieth aeoeee iinyo ieieiaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

NI a oi?ia iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa eee iauanoaa n iaia?aie/aiiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth (aiae. – general partnership) a no. 9 Caeiia «I
i?aaei?eyoeyo e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe» ii?aaeaeaii eae
iauaaeeiaiea ianeieueeeo a?aaeaeai e (eee) th?eaee/aneeo eeoe aeey
niaianoiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia iniiaaiee aeiaiai?a iaaeaeo
ieie.

Iieiia oiaa?euanoai aeieaeii eiaoue nianoaaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea n oeacaieai
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu e iacaaiey (oaieeee) ia iaiaa iaeiiai
o/anoieea. A ioee/ea io anao ia?a/eneaiiuo oi?i NI aeaiiay
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia ia i?aaeiieaaaao ia?aciaaiey
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, o.a. NI, o/?aaeaeaiiia a yoie oi?ia, ia eiaao
onoaaa, a ana aii?inu aai aeayoaeueiinoe ?aoathony aai o/?aaeeoaeyie a
?aieao niioaaonoaothuaai aeiaiai?a.

Aeaiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia i?eiaiyaony aeey NI, nicaeaaaaiuo
ia ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeee n?ie, aeey ?aoaiey eieaeueiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?iaeaiu.

Ii oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a i iieiii (eee iaia?aie/aiiii) oiaa?euanoaa
(ia?oia?noaa) o/anoieee NI, ia?aciaaiiiai a yoie oi?ia, ianoo
iaia?aie/aiioth e nieeaea?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii anai aeieaai e
iaycaoaeuenoaai, aicieeathuei a ?acoeueoaoa eo aeayoaeueiinoe. Eneiaua
o?aaiaaiey e i?aoaicee iiaoo auoue i?aaeuyaeaiu e?aaeeoi?ii (enooeii) e
ethaiio o/anoieeo iieiiai oiaa?euanoaa e ia?auaiu ia ana aai ninoiyiea,
aeeth/ay ee/iia eiouanoai, e?iia oao iauaeoia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, ia
eioi?ua a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iaeuecy
ia?auaoue acuneaiey.

Iaaeinoaoie aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi iia o?aaoao iniauo, aeiaa?eoaeueiuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ia?oia?aie.
Neeoeii aaeee ?ene, ioaaonoaaiiinoue e acaeiicaaeneiinoue oiaa?euae:
eaaeaeue ec ieo ia oieueei naieie aeaenoaeyie nicaeaao iaycaoaeuenoaa,
?ani?ino?aiythueany e ia aai eieeaa, ii e nai anai naiei ninoiyieai
caaeneo io aeaenoaee, i?aaei?eieiaaiuo inoaeueiuie o/anoieeaie NI. Eae
i?aaeei, a iieiii oiaa?euanoaa ia aeiioneaaony caiaia o/anoieea ae?oaei
eeoeii eee eeoeaie. A oaeeo neo/ayo iaiaoiaeeii i?ae?auaiea yoiai
aeiaiai?a e caeeth/aiea iiaiai n eiui ninoaaii o/anoieeia.

Nicaeaiea niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey

Iiae nicaeaieai NI iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo noaaeee
(yoaiia), aeeth/athuay a naay:

iiaeaioiaeo i?iaeoa NI (eiiia?/aneiai i?aaeeiaeaiey eee
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai iainiiaaiey NI – OYI NI), iiene caeioa?aniaaiiuo
eiino?aiiuo ia?oia?ia e iai?aaeaiea ei niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaeeiaeaiey;

i?iaaaeaiea ia?aaiai?ia n iioaioeeaeueiui eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ii e
ninoaaeaiea i?ioieiea iaia?aiee;

iiaeaioiaeo, niaeaniaaiea e iiaeienaiea o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia NI;

ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aaeno?aoeeth NI, ioe?uoea n/aoia e ia/aei
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iiaeaioiaea i?aaeeiaeaiee ia o/?aaeaeaiee NI e iiene eiino?aiiiai
ia?oia?a.

Iiaeaioiaea e nicaeaieth NI aeieaeia ia/aoueny n ?aoaiey aii?ina i aai
niaoeeaeecaoeee. Ii?aaeaeyy i?aaeiao aeayoaeueiinoe aoaeouaai NI, aai
o/?aaeeoaee aeieaeiu i?iaanoe ia?eaoeiaiaia enneaaeiaaiea eca?aiiiai
?uiea, ii?o/ea aai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie oe?ia. Aeey yoiai iiaeii
ia?aoeoueny a niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee – Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiioth
iaeaoo (OII) ?O, Eiiuthieoo?iue einoeooo ?innee, Oeaio? iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee.

Iinea oiai, eae aoaeao aua?ai i?aaeiao onoaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe NI,
?aeiiaiaeoaony i?enooieoue e iieneo eiino?aiiiai ia?oia?a-eiaanoi?a.
Iniiaiay i?iaeaia, n eioi?ie noaeeeaathony caeanue ?inneeneea
i?aaei?eieiaoaee – cao?oaeiaiey a iieo/aiee iaiaoiaeeiie eiiia?/aneie
eioi?iaoeee ia eiino?aiiuo oe?iao, iineieueeo iiiaea naaaeaiey
i?aaenoaaeytho i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth oaeio eiioe?i. Aaeee ?ene, iieo/ea
iaaeinoaoi/ii aa?ioth eioi?iaoeeth, naycaoueny n iaiaaeaaeiui ia?oia?ii.
Iiaeii ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue i?e auai?a ia?oia?a e i?i?aaioea OYI NI
ia?auaoueny e iacaaeneiui aoaeeoi?neei oe?iai, ciathuei iieiaeaiea
aaaeoueo oe?i ia ieaie?oaiii ?uiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee NI, eeai e aaieai,
eioi?ua iiaoo i?iaanoe yenia?oeco i?iaeoia NI e aeaoue caeeth/aiey i
oeiainiaie iaaeaaeiinoe oao eee eiuo i?aoaiaeaioia. Ia iineaaeiaa ianoi
caieiatho oaeaea nianoaaiiay eiooeoeey, ciaiea ?uiea.

Enoi/ieeaie eioi?iaoeee ia eiino?aiiuo oe?iao – iioaioeeaeueiuo
ia?oia?ao yaeythony oaeea aeaiiua:

Naaaeaiey, eioi?ua iiaeao i?aaenoaaeoue naia oe?ia:

oaeinoiaa?aiiua eiiee o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia;

ioaeeeoaiua oe?iie i?iniaeou e eaoaeiae, ?aeeaiiua iaoa?eaeu;

aaeainu, oeiainiaua io/aou.

Aiaeec iioaeeeiaaiiuo eiiia?/aneeo ni?aai/ieeia, eioi?iaoeeth i eioi?uo
iiaeii iieo/eoue a ?aaeiiaeueiuo ioaeaeaieyo OII ?innee eee a no?aiao
iaoiaeaeaiey eiino?aiiiai eiaanoi?a.

Eiioeaeaioeeaeueiay eioi?iaoeey e?aaeeoiuo eiioi?, iieo/aiiay eie /a?ac
naith aaaioo?o.

Eioi?iaoeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Yoi iaeaieaa iaaeaaeiue, ii e
o?oaeiiaeinooiiue e aei?iainoiyuee enoi/iee: iaaethaeay oeiainiaia
iieiaeaiea naieo eeeaioia a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, aaiee iiaoo
i?iaiice?iaaoue oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey oe?iu, i?aaeaeaey ?ino aa aeioiaeia
eee aeaaea aaie?ionoai.

Ioia?aa aiciiaeiua eaiaeeaeaoo?u, iiaeii i?enooiaoue e ?annueea
noaiaea?oiuo ienai n i?aaeeiaeaieai nio?oaeie/anoaa, oeacaa naie
iniiaiua oneiaey e cai?inu ia oneiaeyo o/anoey a i?iaeoa eiioe?iu
(eiiia?/aneia i?aaeeiaeaiea). Iai?aaeyy eiiia?/aneea i?aaeeiaeaiey,
neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi niaeanii no.14 Caeiia «Ia eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeeyo» ia/aei niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?yaea neo/aaa
nii?yaeaii n yenia?oecie i?iaeoia NI. Oae, a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?e
nicaeaiee IEE o?aaoaony iieo/aiea caeeth/aiey
naieoa?ii-yieaeaieieiae/aneeo neoaea e i?iaaaeaiea yeieiae/aneie
yenia?oecu. Ia iniiaa iieiaeeoaeueiiai caeeth/aiey yenia?oiie eiiennee
Aineiiyeieiaee e i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey ?innee auaeaao ?ac?aoaiea i
aiciiaeiinoe nicaeaiey NI. Yoi ?ac?aoaiea oeaeaniia?acii eiaoue aei
oiai, eae aoaeoo ?acineaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey i nio?oaeie/anoaa eiie?aoiui
eiino?aiiui ia?oia?ai.

Ninoaaeaiea i?ioieiea i iaia?aieyo.

Iieo/ea iieiaeeoaeueiue ioaao ia eiiia?/aneia i?aaeeiaeaiea, iiaeii
i?enooiaoue e ia?aaiai?ai, eoiaii eioi?uo aeieaeia noaoue
aeieoiaioaeueiay (a i?ioieiea i iaia?aieyo) oeenaoeey iaithaeiiai
aeaeaiey ia?oia?ia nicaeaoue NI a eca?aiiie eie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe;
iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee niaea?aeaiey OYI NI, o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a e
onoaaa NI; niaeaniaaiey a?aiaie e ianoa iiaeienaiey o/?aaeeoaeueiuo
aeieoiaioia, o.a. aioiaiinoe NI e ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee.

I?ioieie i iaia?aieyo ninoaaeyaony a i?iecaieueiie oi?ia, a iaai ii
oniio?aieth ia?oia?ia aeeth/athony aeaaiua oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneea
ia?aiao?u NI. A i?ioieiea oaeaea iaaei /aoei cae?aieoue i?aaeiao
i?aaeiieaaaaiie onoaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe NI, /oiau ia noaaeee
ianoaeaeaiey o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia ia aicieeei iaaei?acoiaiee ii
aeaiiiio aii?ino.

Ia?aaeei eiino?aiiue o/?aaeeoaeue NI ianoaeaaao ia oii, /oiau eoiae
ia?aaiai?ia auee caoeene?iaaiu ia a i?ioieiea i iaia?aieyo, a a
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii aeiaiai?a ia o/?aaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey n aeieaaui
o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue aeiaiai? eiaao eioth th?eaee/aneoth i?e?iaeo, /ai
i?ioieie i iaia?aieyo, iineieueeo n iiiaioa caeeth/aiey ii nicaeaao aeey
noi?ii, aai iiaeienaaoeo, th?eaee/aneea iaycaiiinoe e i?aaeinoaaeyao ei
i?aaa. Iiyoiio anee o/?aaeeoaee NI caeeth/ao i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue aeiaiai?,
iie oaea ia niiaoo a iaeiinoi?iiiai ii?yaeea oeeiieoueny io caeeth/aiey
o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a NI, eai niaeanii no. 60.2 «Iniia»
caeioa?aniaaiiay noi?iia a yoii neo/aa ai?aaa ia?aoeoueny a noae n eneii
i iiioaeaeaiee caeeth/eoue o/?aaeeoaeueiue aeiaiai? ia ?aiaa iaiai?aiiuo
oneiaeyo e acuneaoue n oeeiiythuaainy o/?aaeeoaey oauoee. Aucaaiiua
i?in?i/eie caeeth/aiey.

Iaaiai?ea iniiaiia niaea?aeaiea OYI NI e o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia,
oneiaeaoenue, eoi aoaeao ninoaaeyoue eo a ieii/aoaeueiie ?aaeaeoeee,
aaea e eiaaea ninoieony neaaeothuay ano?a/a ia?oia?ia, aeieoiaioaeueii
cae?aiea yoi a i?ioieiea. Iiaeii ia?aoiaeeoue e neaaeothuae noaaeee.

Iiaeaioiaea OYI NI.

Iiaeaioiaea OYI ia?yaeo n ?ac?aaioeie o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia NI
i?aaenoaaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie, o.e. aai oeaeueth yaeyaony i?in/ao
yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe aoaeouaai NI. OYI aeano ioaao ia
aii?inu, aeeciaiii aaaeiua aeey ia?oia?ia: /oi eaaeaeue aoaeao eiaoue a
?acoeueoaoa iauaaeeiaiey naieo eaieoaeia e oneeee e /oi ioaeii aeey
yoiai naeaeaoue. OYI NI – i?eia?iue oeiainiaue ?an/ao ?aioaaaeueiinoe
NI, iieiiianooaaiia enneaaeiaaiea o?ao aaaeiaeoeo aii?inia:

eaeia aiaoiee e aioo?aiiee ?uiie i?aaeiieaaaaiie e auioneo i?iaeoeoeee
(oneoa), eaeiaa aai iaiieiyaiinoue;

eaeiau oeaiu ia ieaie?oaioth i?iaeoeoeeth e eaeiaa eo oaiaeaioeey;

eaeiau ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa yoie i?iaeoeoeee (oneoa).

OYI NI ninoaaeyaony a i?iecaieueiie oi?ia. Anyeee ?ac aai iaiaoiaeeii
?ac?aaaouaaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, ii aeaaiue aii?in OYI NI –
oeaeaniia?aciinoue niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa n o/anoeai aeaiiuo
ia?oia?ia a eiie?aoiii ?aaeiia.

Eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u iau/ii oioyo iieo/eoue iainiiaaiey ii aii?inai:

eaeiaa aeaenoaothuay ia oa??eoi?ee ainoaea?noaa-?aoeeieaioa nenoaia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e oeiaine?iaaiey niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa;

eaeiau ia?niaeoeau eniieueciaaiey ianoiie ?aai/ae neeu;

eaeiaa iaania/aiiinoue nu?ueaauie e yia?ai?ano?naie;

iaee/ea o ianoiuo ia?oia?ia naiaiaeii eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethou.

Iiaeienaiea o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia.

Iau/ii i?iaeou OYI NI, aeiaiai?a i niaianoiie oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e nicaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey n aeieaaui o/anoeai eiino?aiiuo
eiaanoeoeee (o/?aaeeoaeueiiai aeiaiai?a) e onoaaa NI ninoaaeyao
caeioa?aniaaiiay noi?iia. Niaeaniaaa oeacaiiua aeieoiaiou, iiaeii
i?enooieoue e eo iiaeienaieth. Anee a aeiaiai?a i?yii ia neacaii, n
eaeie aeaou ii ia/eiaao naia aeaenoaea, ii anooiaao a neeo n iiiaioa aai
iiaeienaiey eeai n eaeie-oi ae?oaie aeaou, i eioi?ie iiaeii iieo/eoue
i?aaenoaaeaiea ec niaea?aeaiey aeiaiai?a. O.a. aeiaiai? iiaeao anooieoue
a aeaenoaea aei ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee NI. E anee i?e
?aaeno?aoeee NI auynieony iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeeth/aiey iii?aaie, eciaiaiee
a oaeno aeiaiai?a, noi?iiai i?eaeaony niiaa i?iaiaeeoue ia?aaiai?u,
niaeaniauaay yoe iii?aaee. *oiau ecaaaeaoue iiaeiaiiai, aei ?aaeno?aoeee
NI neaaeoao i?iecaanoe ia?aoe?iaaiea aeiaiai?a (i?inoaaeaiea eieoeeaeia
noi?ii ia eaaeaeie no?aieoea oaenoa aeiaiai?a, /oi nayaeao eo
iaycaoaeuenoaaie), a onoaa e aeiaiai? iiaeienaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ia?aae ?aaeno?aoeeae NI, eiaaea ono?aiaiu ana caia/aiey ii eo i?iaeoai.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey NI

Iiaeienaa eee ia?aoe?iaaa o/?aaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou NI, o/?aaeeoaee
iiaoo i?enooiaoue e aai ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii?yaeie ia?aciaaiey NI a ?O noae ?aaeno?aoeeiiiui,
o.a. aii?in i nicaeaiee NI ?aoaaony oieueei aai o/?aaeeoaeyie, e ieeoi
ia ai?aaa cai?aoeoue ei i?aaieciaaoue NI. Ainoaea?noai aea oieueei
?aaeno?e?oao yoio iiaue noauaeo.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeey i?aaei?eyoee anao io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
e?iia iaooaaaciaeiauaathueo, iaooaaaciia?a?aaaouaathueo e
oaeaaeiauaathueo i?aaei?eyoee, iauai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a eioi?ua
ia i?aauoaao 100 iei. ?oaeae, inouanoaeyaony Niaaoaie Ieieno?ia
?anioaeee a ninoaaa ?O, aaeieieno?aoeeyie e?aaa, iaeanoae, aaoiiiiee,
ai?iaeia Iineau e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, i?e/ai ?aaeno?aoeey i?aaei?eyoee n
th?eaee/aneei aae?anii a a. Iineaa inouanoaeyaony Iineianeie
?aaeno?aoeeiiiie iaeaoie, a n th?eaee/aneei aae?anii a Iineianeie
iaeanoe – aaeieieno?aoeeae Iineianeie iaeanoe ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeno?aoeeiiiay iaeaoa (A?I) i?e Ieienoa?noaa
yeiiiieee ?O inouanoaeyao ?aaeno?aoeeth i?aaei?eyoee
iaooaaaciaeiauaathuae, iaooaaaciia?a?aaaouaathuae e oaieueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a oaeaea i?aaei?eyoee, iauai eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee a
eioi?ua i?aauoaao 100 iei. ?oaeae.

Aeey ?aaeno?aoeee NI o/?aaeeoaee i?aaenoaaeytho:

ienueiaiiia cayaeaiea n i?inueaie i?iecaanoe ?aaeno?aoeeth i?aaei?eyoey,
n oeacaieai iacaaiey i?aaei?eyoey, aeeth/athuaa
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaoth oi?io. Iaeiaiiaaiea ?inneeneeo e eiino?aiiuo
nio/?aaeeoaeae. Iau/ii oaeia cayaeaiea ieoaony ia aeaiea iaeiiai ec
o/?aaeeoaeae e iiaeienuaaaony anaie eeai iaeiei o/?aaeeoaeai. Ia
eaaeaeoth iiaeienue noaaeony niioaaonoaothuay ia/aoue;

iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiua eiiee o/?aaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia o/anoieeia NI
(th?eaee/aneeo eeoe) a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao;

iieiaeeoaeueiua caeeth/aiey niioaaonoaothueo yenia?oec. *aua anaai
o?aaoaony yeieiae/aneay yenia?oeca io Aineiii?e?iaeu eee aai
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee;

aeey ?inneeneeo th?eaee/aneeo eeoe iaiaoiaeeiu iioa?eaeueii caaa?aiiua
eiiee o?ao aeieoiaioia aeey eaaeaeiai o/?aaeeoaey NI: naeaeaoaeuenoai,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaa nouanoaiaaiea th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, o.a.
naeaeaoaeuenoai i ?aaeno?aoeee; o/?aaeeoaeueiue aeieoiaio, onoaa;
?aoaiea oiieiiii/aiiiai i?aaia i nicaeaiee NI e i ia?aaea/a a aai
onoaaiue oiiae /anoe nianoaaiiinoe;

aeey eiino?aiiuo th?eaee/aneeo eeoe iaiaoiaeeii i?aaenoaaeoue aeaa
aeieoiaioa: naeaeaoaeuenoai i oii, /oi th?eaee/aneia eeoei
aeaenoaeoaeueii nouanoaoao, o.a. iii ca?aaeno?e?iaaii ca a?aieoeae a
niioaaonoaee n ianoiuie caeiiaie e a niioaaonoaothuai ianoiiio
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao i?aaia, e aeieoiaio i ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe
eiino?aiiiai th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, o.a. aaieianeoth ni?aaeo. Iaa
aeieoiaioa aeieaeiu eiaoue caaa?aiiue ia?aaiae ia ?onneee ycue e i?ieoe
i?ioeaaeo?o eiinoeueneie eaaaeecaoeee aeieoiaioia a niioaaonoaee n
iieiaeaieyie Aaineie eiiaaioeee i eiinoeueneeo niioaieyo 1963 a. e
Eiinoeueneiai onoaaa ?O. I?ioeaaeo?a eiinoeueneie eaaaeecaoeee
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?auaiea a eiinoeuenoaa ?innee aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey
no?aiu i?ienoiaeaeaiey i?aaenoaaeyaiiai aeieoiaioa, inouanoaeaiey aai
ia?aaiaea ia ?onneee ycue e caaa?aiey iiaeienueth Aaia?aeueiiai eiinoea
?O eee ae?oaiai oiieiiii/aiiiai eeoea, a oaeaea aa?aiaie ia/aoueth;

aeey ?inneeneeo oece/aneeo eeoe iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue eo ianii?oiua
aeaiiua (i?eeiaeeoue ena?ieiieth ianii?oa);

aeey eiino?aiiuo oece/aneeo eeoe iaiaoiaeeii i?aaenoaaeoue eo ianii?oiua
aeaiiua (i?eeiaeeoue ena?ieiieth ianii?oa), ?ac?aoaiea ia oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue, anee yoi o?aaoaony a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
no?aiu i?iaeeaaiey, eeai, anee oaeia ?ac?aoaiea ia o?aaoaony, –
niioaaonoaothuoth ni?aaeo ec iinieuenoaa a ?innee (ia ?onneii ycuea).

Oneoae ii oaeinoiaa?aieth eee caaa?aieth aeieoiaioia ieacuaathony
?aaeiiaeueiuie ioaeaeaieyie OII ?innee, eiathueieny ai anao iaeanoiuo
oeaio?ao ?O. Iaeaoa oaeinoiaa?yao oieueei ia?aaiae, auiieiaiiue aa
ia?aaiae/eeaie. Anee aea ia?aaiae auiieiai ae?oaie i?aaiecaoeeae, aai
caaa?yao ii i?aaeeai iioa?eaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiay
iioa?eaeueiay eiioi?a.

?aaeno?aoeey IEE i?iecaiaeeony a oa/aiea 21 aeiy n iiiaioa iiaea/e
cayaeaiey ia ?aaeno?aoeeth. Ca ?aaeno?aoeeth i?aaei?eyoee aceiaaony
ainoaea?noaaiiay iioeeia a ?acia?a, onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
?innee. Neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi ainoaea?noaaiioth iioeeio iiaeii iieaoeoue
aaciaee/iui iooai, ioi?iea ieaoaaeiia ii?o/aiea, eeai iaee/iuie /a?ac
ethaia ioaeaeaiea Naa?aaiea, ioi?iea noaiaea?oioth eaeoaioeeth. Eiieth
ia iieaoa iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeeoue a eiiieaeo aeieoiaioia, iiaeaioiaeaiiuo
aeey ?aaeno?aoeee.

Ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiiio i?aaei?eyoeth auaeaaony naeaeaoaeuenoai i
?aaeno?aoeee onoaiiaeaiiiai ia?acoea. Eae o/anoiee a?aaeaeaineiai
iai?ioa, eae noauaeo i?aaa NI aicieeaao eiaiii n iiiaioa, oeacaiiiai a
naeaeaoaeuenoaa. I ?aaeno?aoeee niiauaaony a ia/aoe, aiineony caienue a
Ainoaea?noaaiiue ?aano? i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeaaaaiuo a niioaaonoaee n
Caeiiii «Ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeeyo» e niiauaaony i?aaiai
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey ii ianoo iaoiaeaeaiey NI aeey
iinoaiiaee ia o/ao e aceiaiey iaeiaia.

Ioeac a ?aaeno?aoeee NI aiciiaeai oieueei i?e ia?ooaieyo onoaiiaeaiiiai
ii?yaeea ia?aciaaiey NI ia oa??eoi?ee ?O e ianiioaaonoaee
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaeno?aoeee aeieoiaioia. A
inoaeueiuo neo/ayo ioeac iacaeiiai. Ioeac a ?aaeno?aoeee iiaeao auoue
iaaeaeiaai a noaea ii eneo caeioa?aniaaiiiai o/anoieea NI. I?e yoii
niaeanii Caeiio «I nianoaaiiinoe» aiciiaeii acuneaiea naieoeee n
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia, ii aeia eioi?iai i?aaei?eyoeth i?e/eiaiu
oauoee.

Ninoiyiea e ?acaeoea NI a ?O

I?e aiaeeca neiaeeaoaeny yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee e ia?niaeoea a noa?a
i?aaiecaoeee e noaiiaeaiey NI i?aaenoaaeythony ?acoiiuie ?anniio?aiea e
ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe NI eae iniiaiie ninoaaeythuae i?aaei?eyoee n
eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie n oi/ee c?aiey eo ?acaeoey ia oa??eoi?ee anae
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee a ioaeaeueiuo iaeanoyo ainoaea?noaa.

A 1991 a. ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee auei nicaeaii 2022 NI n o/anoeai oe?i ec
aieaa /ai 60 no?ai. Yoi ia iiiai, o.e., iai?eia?, a iaeaiueeie ii
n?aaiaieth n ?inneae Aaia?ee a oii aea aiaeo aeaenoaiaaee aieaa 7 oun.
NI, a Iieueoa – 5 oun. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie, naea?aeeaaaoae nicaeaiea NI a
iaoae no?aia, yaeyaony iaeiiaa?oe?oaiinoue ?oaey. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia
neiaeiinoue ianoaiiaee ia ?inneeneii ?uiea, /enei IEE oieueei ca 1993 a.
aic?inei a 2,5 ?aca e a eiioea aiaea ii/oe a /aou?a ?aca i?aauneei eo
eiee/anoai ia eiiaoe 1991 a.

Iauyniaieai yoiai iiaeao yaeyoueny oeaeue ?yae i?e/ei: ionoonoaea
neiaeeaoaeny ?uii/iie eiieo?aioeee n?aaee iaoeeiiaeueiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, caeioa?aniaaiiinoue ?innee a i?eaea/aiee eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea, aeaoaaay ?aai/ay neea, aieee ?uiie ioiineoaeueii aeaoaaiai
nu?uey e anaiiaeiuathuee ?uiie iio?aaeaiey, oniaoe ?innee a
i?iaeaeaeaiee e yeiiiieea naiaiaeiiai ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa e, naiia
aeaaiia, aunieee i?ioeaio i?eauee, ai iiiai ?ac i?aauoathuee n?aaeithth
i?eaueue a no?aiao ni c?aeie ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. I?eiyoea ?innee a
aaaeouea iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oeiainiaua i?aaiecaoeee (oaeea eae IAO, IA,
AA??) a eaeie-oi noaiaie iiaeeyei ia iiauoaiea aeiaa?ey e ?innee eae e
o/anoieeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa e ioe?uei ae aeinooi e iiaui
enoi/ieeai aiaoiaai oeiaine?iaaiey. Yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa e aeaeatho
?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo i?eaeaeaoaeueiie aeey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia.
Iaeiaei aieueoeinoai eiino?aiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, ia aeaeay ?eneiaaoue
aieueoeie noiiaie, eeoue oi?ie?otho no?oeoo?u aeey naiae
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia iaiieiyy eo oeiainiauie
n?aaenoaaie, auaeeaeay, eiaaea neooaoeey aoaeao noaaeeueiie. Aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa n eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii a oeaeii yaeythony
oa?aeoa?iuie: iaaieueoie onoaaiue oiiae, no?aieaiea i?eaea/ue
aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa a oi?ia e?aoein?i/iuo e?aaeeoia,
aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiua iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe, i?eaioaoeey ia
i?iaeaaeo aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ca NEA.

I?e iauai nie?auaiee i?iecaiaenoaa a no?aia auione i?iaeoeoeee ia
niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo caiaoii oaaee/eaaaony. Ii aeaiiui Aineiinoaoa
?O ia 1 ieoya?y 1993 a., ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea ?innee NI ?aaeeciaaee
i?iaeoeoeee ca ?oaee ia noiio 521080692,3 oun. ?oaeae e ca eiaaethoo –
ia noiio 547296,4 oun. aeiee. Ii eoiaai aeaayoe ianyoeaa 1993 aiaea
noiia niaieoiiiai onoaaiiai eaieoaea i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie ninoaaeea 97692,5 iei. ?oaeae, a oii /enea ia aeieth
eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia i?eoiaeeeinue 52,5%, eee 51288,6 iei. ?oaeae, a
ia aeieth ?inneeneeo eiaanoi?ia i?eoiaeeeinue 47,5% onoaaiiai eaieoaea,
eee 46403,9 iei. ?oaeae. Ec iauaai /enea i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiui
eaieoaeii 5249 ia ?acaeoua eaieoaeenoe/aneea no?aiu i?eoiaeeeinue 3002
i?aaei?eyoey, eee 57,2%.

Ii ioeaieai ca?oaaaeiuo niaoeeaeenoia, iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie
?aeiiaie aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey a ?O n/eoathony Iineaa e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a,
caoai – ?anioaeeea Ea?aeey, Eaeeieia?aaeneay iaeanoue, Naia?neay
iaeanoue e E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a oaeaea aeaeueiaainoi/iua ?aeiiu –
Naoaeei, Oaaa?ianeee e?ae e I?eii?neee e?ae. Caiueatho nienie Eaeiueey,
Aeaaanoai e Oaiaianeay iaeanoue, aaea a 1994 a. auei anaai ii iaeiiio
i?aaei?eyoeth n eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii.

A ?yaeo eiino?aiiuo ia?oia?ia ii NI, eioi?ua inouanoaeytho i?yiua
eiaanoeoeee, aaaeouea iiceoeee caieiatho NOA (ieiei 14%), Aa?iaiey
(ieiei 12%), caoai Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Oeieyiaeey, Iieueoa e Eeoae. O.a. a
i?ioeanna nicaeaiey IEE a ?innee eeaee?otho i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoua no?aiu
– oa, eioi?ua eiatho aiaaoue iiuo eae a noa?a eiaanoe?iaaiey, oae e a
oeaeii a iaeanoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa. E?iia Iieueoe,
n?aaee auaoeo no?ai-/eaiia NYA neaaeoao ioiaoeoue Aieaa?eth (2,6%),
Aaia?eth (1,9%), *aoeth e Neiaaeeth. A nicaeaiee IEE o/anoaotho e auaoea
?anioaeeee NNN?: Eaoaey, Eeoaa e Ynoiiey (3,4% ana aianoa), a oaeaea
Eacaonoai e ae?.

Aeoeaece?oaony i?ioeann nicaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiui eaieoaeii
ec aceaoneeo no?ai. N?aaee yoeo no?ai iiaeii auaeaeeoue a?oiio
eeaee?othueo no?ai: Eeoae (5,1%), ssiiiey (3,3%), Neiaaio?, ?anioaeeea
Ei?ay, Eiaeey e Aano?aeey. Iiea /oi neaai o/anoaoao a nicaeaiee IEE a
?innee eaieoae no?ai Eaoeineie Aia?eee e Ao?eee. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo a
iniiaiii ec-ca aeaoeoeeoa iaeiieaiee a naieo yoeo no?aiao. Ianiio?y ia
yoi, oioue e a iaaieueoii eiee/anoaa, ia ?inneeneii ?uiea i?aaenoaaeaiu
NI A?aceeee, Aaianoyeu, Eoau e Eieoiaee.

?inneeneay noi?iia aeieaeia iiieiaoue, /oi eiino?aiiua eiaanoi?u ia
iiaoo caieiaoueny i?inoie aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoueth. *oiau ia ?eneiaaoue
naieie eaieoaeaie e iieo/aoue ii?aaeaeaiiue aeioiae io naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, iie i?eiaiytho a ?innee ieieiaeueii ?eneiaoth
no?aoaaeth, nin?aaeioa/eaay naie eiaanoeoeee ia neaaeothueo
iai?aaeaieyo:

ia e?oiiuo nu?ueaauo i?iaeoao, aaea i?eaueue aa?aioe?oaony
i?iecaaaeaiiui i?iaeoeoii e aaea oeiaine?iaaiea iiaeao auoue
iiaeaea?aeaii iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie oeiainiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie;

ia iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ao e oneoaao, aaea eiaanoeoeee iacia/eoaeueiu.

Eiaiii iiyoiio aieueoeinoai NI ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee caaeaenoaiaaiu a
noa?a i?iiuoeaiiinoe (ieiei 37%). Yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?aaei?eyoey
ii aeiau/a e ia?ae/iie ia?a?aaioea iaooe, aaca e oaey. Oi?aiaey e
iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea ninoaaeytho ieiei 30% anao NI. Aaaeiuie noa?aie
aeayoaeueiinoe NI yaeythony oaeaea: aea?aaiia?aaioea, i?iecaiaenoai
oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey, no?ieoaeuenoai, oo?eci, iauanoaaiiia
ieoaiea e noa?a auoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey. E?aeia iaaeeaiii nicaeathony NI
a iaoeiino?iaiee, iaoaeeiia?aaioea, iaoaeeo?aee, oeiee e iaooaoeiee.

Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai yenii?oe?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee NI ia oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee – i?iaeoeoeey i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, 2/3 io
iaa ninoaaeyao ai?th/aa (oiieeai). Cia/eoaeueiua noiiu yenii?oa
i?eoiaeyony ia i?iaeoeoeeth aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae e
oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?uao e ii?ai?iaeoeou. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi no?oeoo?a yenii?oa IEE io?aaeaao no?oeoo?o yenii?oa
?innee a oeaeii. Yenii?o ?O a oeaeii iineo nu?ueaaie oa?aeoa?, iiyoiio
iao iniauo iniiaaiee ?ann/eouaaoue, /oi yenii?o IEE aoaeao
i?eioeeieaeueii eiui.

Aaia?aoe/aneee niaeo? yenii?oe?iaaiey i?iaeoeoeee ?inneeneeo NI
aeinoaoi/ii oe?ie. NI ?innee yenii?oe?otho a Iieueoo, Aa?iaieth,
Oeieyiaeeth, Aaeeeia?eoaieth, Eaiaaeo, ssiiieth e Eoaeeth.

NI ?innee eiii?oe?oaony i?iaeoeoeey oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie. 1/5 /anoue anaai eiii?oa (i?eia?ii 18,5%) NI ii
?innee iinooiaao ec NOA, a ieiei 7% oiaa?ia eiii?oe?oaony ec Aa?iaiee.
Caeanue ia iaeii ec eeaee?othueo iano auoiaeyo Eeoae e THaeiay Ei?ay.

Aii?in caiyoinoe a NI oaeaea aanueia aaaeai e aai neaaeiaaei au
?anniio?aoue iiae?iaii. Caiyoinoue a NI ia iauai oiia ?inoa aac?aaioeoeu
oieueei ca iineaaeiea aeaa aiaea oaaee/eeanue aieaa /ai a aeaa ?aca,
i?e/ai iniiaiay /anoue eo ia?niiaea – ?inneeneea a?aaeaeaia.
Niaoeeaeenoia, iniaaiii iieiaeuo, i?eaeaeaao aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey
iiauo iaaueia, aieaa ?acaeoay eoeueoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa, aeaiaaeiia
iiiu?aiea o?oaea e iiacaeee ca ?oaaae. Iiaeiaiua oaeoi?u aeinoaoi/ii
o?oaeii ecia?eoue eiee/anoaaiii, ii iie aanueia aaaeiu n ea/anoaaiiie
noi?iiu. Nicaeaiea NI e i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee iicaieytho
ia?aaeeoue o?oaeiua a?aiaia e ia?anoe iiaoth a?aaeaeaineoth
niaoeeaeecaoeeth ?yaeo e?oiiuo iai?iiiuo caaiaeia.

Caeeth/aiea

I?iaiaeece?iaaa oeacaiiua auoa oeeo?u, iiaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi ca
iineaaeiea aiaeu /enei i?aaei?eyoee n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie
cia/eoaeueii aic?inei. Iaeiaei oaii eo ?inoa, ianooaau i?eaea/aiey
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea, io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a e aaia?aoey ?aciauaiey
aeaeaee io iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae oaeie no?aiu, eae ?inney,
eioi?ay ni naiei aieei ?uieii nauoa, aieueoei iao/ii-oaoie/aneei
iioaioeeaeii, i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie e aeaoaaie
?aai/ae neeie iiaeao auoue iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iauaeoia i?eeiaeaiey
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a ie?a. I?eaea/aieth eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a
?inneeneoth yeiiiieeo iaoaao ianeieueei i?e/ei:

ianoaaeeueiinoue ianoaiiaee a no?aia;

yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen;

?ino aac?aaioeoeu;

aunieee o?iaaiue eioeyoeee;

iaeiiaa?oe?oaiinoue ?oaey e o.i.

Iiieii yoeo iaueo i?e/ei i?eoieo eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a ?inneth
i?aiyonoaotho:

neaaia eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoi?ia i
iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoyo aeey eiaanoe?iaaiey;

ianiaa?oainoai i?ioeaaeo?u ioi?ieaiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee;

cao?oaeiaiiinoue aeinooia e ianoiui e?aaeeoai e oiiaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe;

n?aaieoaeueii aunieea iaeiae e iacia/eoaeueiua eiaanoeoeeiiiua eueaiou;

iaaeinoaoi/iia no?aoiaaiea io iieeoe/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai ?enea.

Enoiaey ec yoiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi nouanoaothuee a
?innee iaoaieci i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee e nicaeaiey NI
?ac?aaioai iaaeinoaoi/ii. E oioy iniiaiuie i?aaeiinueeaie aeey
oaaee/aiey i?eoiea eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee yaeythony oneeaiea
iieeoe/aneie, yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe a no?aia e
auoiae ec yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, niaa?oainoaiaaiea e ?acaeoea oi?i
i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea (a oii /enea nicaeaiea NI) iiaoo
nouanoaaiii noeioee?iaaoue i?eoie yoiai eaieoaea.

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