.

Производственные фонды радиотехнических предприятий

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1096
Скачать документ

Iineianeee i?aeaia Eaieia, i?aeaia Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee

e i?aeaia O?oaeiaiai E?aniiai Ciaiaie

AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

eiaie I.Y.Aaoiaia.

______________________________________________________

?aoa?ao

“I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu ?aaeeioaoie/aneiai i?iecaiaenoaa”

nooaeaioa

Iaei?iaa Iaaea

Eaiieaeiae/a, a?oiia ?E 3-91.

Aaaaeaiea.

Eioaineoeeaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiieaaaao, ai-ia?auo, iaania/aiea
iiiaie?aoiiai oaaee/aiey ?acoeueoe?othueo yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ca
n/ao eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a iaiiaeaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia e
?aeiino?oeoeeth aeaenoaothueo, a oaeaea a no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo
i?aaei?eyoee; ai-aoi?uo, eniieueciaaiea aeaenoaothueo iniiaiuo oiiaeia
ia iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiii o?iaia a niioaaonoaee n nia?aiaiiuie
oaoie/aneeie e yeiiiie/aneeie aiciiaeiinoyie i?iecaiaenoaa; a-o?aoueeo,
iaania/aiea naiaa?aiaiiiai aaiaea a aeaenoaea e aunieie yooaeoeaiinoe
iiauo iniiaiuo oiiaeia; a-/aoaa?ouo, yeiiiiiia e eiiieaeniia
eniieueciaaiea oiieeaa, yia?aee, nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia; ono?aiaiea iioa?ue
e ia?aoeeiiaeueiuo ?anoiaeia, a oaeaea oe?ieia aiaea/aiea a
oicyenoaaiiue iai?io aoi?e/iuo ?ano?nia e iiiooiuo i?iaeoeoia. ?aoaiea
yoeo caaea/ aiciiaeii i?e iao/ii iainiiaaiiie nenoaia o/aoa e ioeaiee
ninoiyiee, ea/anoaa, noieiinoe, noaiaie eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia.

Iniiaiui yeaiaioii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna yaeythony n?aaenoaa
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?acothuea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu iauaaeeiaiey,
i?aaei?eyoey. ?ieue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia aic?anoaao n iiauoaieai
o?iaiy aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey. Iniaaiii aaeeea ?ieue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
io aaee/eiu e niaa?oainoaa eioi?uo ai iiiaii caaenyo ia oieueei
ninoiyiea oaoie/aneie aacu anao inoaeueiuo io?aneae ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa, ii e eiee/anoai e ea/anoai auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, oaiiu
oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e aaee/eia
cao?ao ia ecaioiaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee.

?aaeeioaoie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue yaeyaony iaeiie ec io?aneae,
ii?aaeaeythueo oaiiu iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna a nayce n
i?iaaaeaieai oe?ieiianooaaiuo ?aaio ii i?eiaiaieth n?aaenoa
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e n?aaenoa nayce a i?ioeannao oi?aaeaiey
oaoiieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, i?iecaiaenoaii e i?iaeoe?iaaieai iiauo
ecaeaeee. Iiyoiio aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao niaa?oainoai e yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia ?aaeeioaoie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ninoaa, no?oeoo?a e enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia

Iiae i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie oiiaeaie iiieiathony n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa,
au?aaeaiiua a noieiinoiie oi?ia e ooieoeeiie?othuea a noa?a
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey aeaeyony ia iniiaiua
i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu e iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa. Oae eae
aeaeaa ?anniao?eaathony oieueei iniiaiua i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
oiiaeu, aoaeai iacuaaoue eo iniiaiuie oiiaeaie. E iniiaiui oiiaeai
ioiinyony n?aaenoaa o?oaea, eioi?ua ooieoeeiie?otho a oa/aiea iiiaeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeeeeia, iinoaiaiii ii ia?a eciina ia?aiinyo naith
noieiinoue ia naaanoieiinoue aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, nio?aiyy i?e yoii a
oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie i?aeoe/anee iaeciaiiie naith iaoo?aeueioth
oi?io.

E?iia iniiaiuo i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia eaaeaeia
iauaaeeiaiea, i?aaei?eyoea eiaao e iniiaiua iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu,
e eioi?ui ioiinyony oa n?aaenoaa o?oaea, eioi?ua eniieuecothony aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey eoeueoo?ii-auoiauo iio?aaiinoae ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey.
Iineieueeo iie ia aoiaeyo a ninoaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, a
aeaeueiaeoai ia aoaeai eo ?anniao?eaaoue.

E iai?ioiui n?aaenoaai ioiinyony i?aeiouanoaaiii i?aaeiaou o?oaea,
eioi?ua ia?aiinyo naith noieiinoue ia naaanoieiinoue aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee a oa/aiea iaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea e i?e yoii
o?aaotho iinoiyiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia.

Oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe e ioee/ey iniiaiuo oiiaeia e iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
i?eaaaeaiu a oaae. 1.

Onei?aiea oaiiia iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna o?aaoao iinoiyiiiai
iaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, oaaee/aiey eo noieiinoe e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u.

I?eciae Oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe

iniiaiuo oiiaeia iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa

Ninoaa N?aaenoaa e i?oaeey o?oaea I?aaeiaou o?oaea e i?oaeey o?oaea ni
n?ieii neoaeau iaiueoa aiaea eee noieiinoueth iaiueoa 100 ?oa.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue o/anoey a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna O/anoaotho
ai iiiaeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeeeeao O/anoaotho a iaeiii
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii oeeeea

Niinia ia?aianaiey noieiinoe ia naaanoieiinoue aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee
*anoyie ii ia?a eo eciina Iieiinoueth ca iaeei i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
oeeee

Oa?aeoa? eciaiaiey iaoo?aeueiie oi?iu I?aeoe/anee ia iaiyaony Aeey
aieueoeinoaa ninoaaeythueo eciaiyaony iieiinoueth, i?eieiay a eoiaa
oi?io aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee

Ia?eiaee/iinoue aini?iecaiaenoaa Aini?iecaiaenoai a iaoo?aeueiie
oi?ia inouanoaeyaony /a?ac aeeeoaeueiua ia?eiaeu a?aiaie, ii?aaeaeyaiua
n?ieii neoaeau Aini?iecaiaenoai a iaoo?aeueiie oi?ia inouanoaeyaony
/a?ac eaaeaeue i?iecaiaenoaaiiue oeeee

Oaaeeoea 1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo oiiaeia e iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa

Oi?ie?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia ia aiiaue nicaeaaaaiuo
iauaaeeiaieyo, i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
i?iecaiaeeony ca n/ao athaeaeaoiuo anneaiiaaiee, a eo oaaee/aiea ia oaea
aeaenoaothueo — ca n/ao iaueo e niaoeeaeueiuo enoi/ieeia (?en. 1). Aeey
iniiaiuo oiiaeia oaeei niaoeeaeueiui enoi/ieeii yaeyaony oiiae ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaa, aeey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa — onoie/eaua ianneau e n?aaenoaa
auoanoiyueo i?aaiecaoeee. Onoie/eaua ianneau — yoi n?aaenoaa, ia
i?eiaaeeaaeauea aeaiiiio iauaaeeiaieth, i?aaei?eyoeth, ii iinoiyiii
iaoiaeyueany a aai iai?ioa. E onoie/eaui ianneaai ioiinyony:
ieieiaeueiay caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ?aaioieeai ii ca?aaioiie
ieaoa, caaeieaeaiiinoue ainoaea?noao ii aciinai ia nioeeaeueiia
no?aoiaaiea, /anoue ?aca?aa i?aaenoiyueo ieaoaaeae, noiiu ia iieaoo
i/a?aaeiuo ioioneia, /anoue aii?oecaoeeiiiiai oiiaea, i?aaeiacia/aiiay
aeey i?eia?aoaiey iaoa?eaeia ia ?aiiio iniiaiuo oiiaeia e o. ae.
N?aaenoaa auoanoiyueo i?aaiecaoeee — yoi n?aaenoaa iauaaeeiaiee,
i?aaei?eyoee, io?aneaauo ieienoa?noa, iieo/aaiua a ii?yaeea
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aunaiaiaeaeaaiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

?enoiie 1. Enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia

I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaaee/aiey nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, i?aaeaea
anaai, iiaen/eouaathony onoie/eaua ianneau i?aaei?eyoey. Anee eo
iaaeinoaoi/ii, oi eniieuecoaony i?eaueue. ?ano?nu auoanoiyueo
i?aaiecaoeee i?eaeaeathony oieueei i?e iaoaaoea ia?auo aeaoo enoi/ieeia.
Anneaiiaaiey ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa aeiioneathony a
eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo.

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a iniiaiuo oiiaeia

Ninoaa iniiaiuo oiiaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaony n?aaenoaaie e i?oaeeyie o?oaea,
i?eieiathueie iaiin?aaenoaaiiia o/anoea a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee,
ia?aiauaiee e o?aiaiee i?aaeiaoia o?oaea. I?eiyoi aeaeeoue iniiaiua
oiiaeu ia a?oiiu a caaeneiinoe io iacia/aiey e ?iee ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna. A ninoaa iniiaiuo oiiaeia aoiaeeo oanoue
a?oii n?aaenoa o?oaea, iaeia ec eioi?uo — iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea —
eiaao, a naith i/a?aaeue, /aou?a iiaea?oiiu. Nii?oaeaiey aeeth/atho
?acee/iua iauaeou, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo auiieiythony oaoie/aneea
ooieoeee, ia naycaiiua n eciaiaieai i?aaeiaoia o?oaea, a oii /enea
aeaiau, eaiaeu, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua iooe, iinou, nii?oaeaiey nayce e o.
I. ia?aaeaoi/iua ono?ienoaa aeeth/atho yeaeo?inaoe, ia?ii?iaiaeu,
aiaeii?iaiaeu, aacii?iaiaeu, iaooai?iaiaeu e ae?. neoaeauea aeey
ia?aaea/e yia?aee io iaoei-aeaeaaoaeae e ?aai/ei iaoeiai. Neeiaua iaoeiu
e iai?oaeiaaiea — yoi aaia?aoi?u, aeaeaaoaee, oo?aeiu, neeiaua
o?ainoi?iaoi?u. ?aai/ea iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea aeeth/atho iaoeiu,
aa?aaaou e iai?oaeiaaiea, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey iaoaie/aneiai,
oa?ie/aneiai, yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai e oeie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia i?aaeiaou
o?oaea a i?ioeanna nicaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee eee ieacaiey oneoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a (noaii/iia iai?oaeiaaiea, aa?aaaou,
onoaiiaee, iieiou, i?annu, yeaeo?iia/e e o. Ae.). O?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa
aeeth/atho yeaeo?iaicu, ia?iaicu, oaieiaicu, aaoiiiaeee, yeaeo?i- e
aaoiea?u, aa?aee e o. ae. E i?i/ei iniiaiui oiiaeai ioiinyony
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue e oicyenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue e i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe,
eino?oiaiou e o. ae.

E?iia ia?a/eneaiiuo aeaeia iniiaiuo oiiaeia a eo ninoaa a niioaaonoaee n
iinoaiiaeaieai Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN? io 13 ai?aey 1984 a. aeeth/aiu
i?ia?aiiiua ecaeaeey. Iiae i?ia?aiiiui ecaeaeeai iiieiaaony i?ia?aiia
(AINO 19.004 — 80) ia iineoaea aeaiiuo, yaeythuayny i?iaeoeoii
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeeth/aiey eo a ninoaa
iniiaiuo oiiaeia iauyniyaony oe?ieiianooaaiui i?eiaiaieai n?aaenoa
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee a nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeie
i?ioeannaie, i?iecaiaenoaii, iao/iuie enneaaeiaaieyie, i?iaeoe?iaaieai
e, eae neaaenoaea, ?inoii cao?ao ia iaoaiaoe/aneia e i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea.

Iniiaiua oiiaeu iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii neaaeothuei i?eciaeai:
aeaeai (iacia/aieth, ooieoeeyi), auiieiyaiui a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa
(aeaeiaay no?oeoo?a); oaoie/aneiio niaa?oainoao, i?ia?anneaiinoe
(ea/anoaaiiay no?oeoo?a); o/anoeth a iniiaiii eee aniiiiaaoaeueiii
i?iecaiaenoaao (i?iecaiaenoaaiiay no?oeoo?a), a oaeaea n?ieo
oaeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey (aic?anoiay no?oeoo?a). Niioiioaiea
(oaeaeueiue aan) ?acee/iuo aeaeia iniiaiuo oiiaeia ii noieiinoe a
eaaeaeie aieaa e?oiiie eeanneoeeaoeeiiiie a?oiia oa?aeoa?ecoao eo
no?oeoo?o (?en. 2). Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi no?oeoo?iua iieacaoaee
yaeythony aaaeiaeoeie i?e oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo oiiaeia ioaeaeueiuo
io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Aeaeiaay no?oeoo?a i?aaeiieaaaao aeaeaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia ia aeoeaioth
e ianneaioth /anoe. E aeoeaiui ioiinyony oa aeaeu iniiaiuo oiiaeia,
eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaotho a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?ioeanna,
ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia i?aaeiaou o?oaea e aucuaatho eciaiaiea eo
oi?iu eee ea/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia. Oaeaeueiue aan aeoeaiie /anoe
iniiaiuo oiiaeia yaeyaony aaaeiui iieacaoaeai i?ia?anneaiinoe eo
no?oeoo?u. A ?aaeeioaoie/aneeo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeoeaiay /anoue
iniiaiuo oiiaeia ninoaaeyao ii?yaeea 60%.

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a iniiaiuo oiiaeia caaenyo io oaeeo oaeoi?ia, eae
iniaaiiinoe auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, o?iaaiue ?acaeoey oaoiieiaee a
no?aia, o?iaaiue aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aaeaiey, niaa?oainoai
i?eiaiyaiuo oi?i i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e o. ae. Naiui iniiaiui
oaeoi?ii yaeyaony ia?aue. Eiaiii eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneea
iniaaiiinoe auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ieacuaatho naiia aieueoia aeeyiea ia
ninoaa e no?oeoo?o iniiaiuo oiiaeia io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ana io?anee
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ioiinyueany e iaoeiino?iaieth e iaoaeeiia?aaioea,
ioee/athony io i?iiuoeaiiinoe a oeaeii, i?aaeaea anaai, aieueoei
oaeaeueiui aanii noieiinoe caeaiee, ?aai/eo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey,
iaiueoae aeieae nii?oaeaiee, a oaeaea neeiauo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey a
ninoaaa eo iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Yoe iniaaiiinoe iauyniythony oai, /oi eo
i?iaeoeoeey ioee/aaony aieueoie aeieae nai?i/ii-iiioaaeiuo iia?aoeee,
o?aaoao aei?iainoiyuaai oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey e yaeyaony iaiaa
yia?aiaieie ii n?aaiaieth n i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae a oeaeii.

Aeaeu no?oeoo?u iniiaiuo oiiaeia

Aeaeiaay no?oeoo?a Ea/anoaaiiay no?oeoo?a I?iecaiaenoaaiiay no?oeoo?a
Aic?anoiay no?oeoo?a

Oaeaeueiue aan aeoeaiuo oiiaeia

Oaeaeueiue aan ianneaiuo oiiaeia

Oaeaeueiue aan ?acee/iuo aeaeia oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey

Aeiey yeaiaioia a iniiaiii i?iecaiaenoaa

Oaeaeueiue aan iniiaiuo oiiaeia, oaeoe/anee eniieuecoaiuo

?aai/eo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey

caeaiee

Oaeaeueiue aan i?ia?anneaiuo aeaeia oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey

Aeiey yeaiaioia ai aniiiiaaoaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa

aei 5 eao

neeiauo iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey

nii?oaeaiee

Oaeaeueiue aan i?iecaiaenoaaiiie ieiuaaee

io 5 aei 10 eao

ecia?eoaeueiuo, ?aaoee?iai/iuo i?eai?ia, ono?ienoa e eaai?aoi?iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey

ia?aaeaoi/iuo ono?ienoa

io 10 aei 20 eao

au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee

o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa

nauoa 20 eao

eino?oiaioa

i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e oicyenoaaiiiai eiaaioa?y e i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae

?enoiie 2. Aeaeu no?oeoo?u iniiaiuo oiiaeia

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a iniiaiuo oiiaeia ?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a
oeaeii aiaeiae/iu ninoaao e no?oeoo?a oiiaeia iaoeiino?iaiey e
iaoaeeiia?aaioee. Iaeiaei eiathony e iaeioi?ua i?eioeeieaeueiua
?acee/ey. I?iaeoeoeey yoie io?anee ioee/aaony io iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie
iaiueoeie aaaa?eoaie, i?aiaeaaeaieai yeaeo?iiiuo yeaiaioia, iaee/eai
aieueoiai iauaia oeie/aneeo e yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo iia?aoeee a i?ioeanna
ecaioiaeaiey, iaiueoei iauaiii ?aaio, o?aaothueo iaoaeei?aaeouaai
iai?oaeiaaiey, aieueoei iauaiii iano?ia/iuo e ?aaoee?iai/iuo iia?aoeee e
o. ae. Yoe eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe ?aaeeioaoie/aneeo
ecaeaeee ii?aaeaeytho e iniaaiiinoe ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u iniiaiuo
oiiaeia. A /anoiinoe, a iniiaiuo oiiaeao ?aaeeioaoie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aieaa 20% (ii noieiinoe) ninoaaeytho ecia?eoaeueiua e
?aaoee?iai/iua i?eai?u, eniieuecoaiua a i?ioeanna iano?ieee
?aaeeiecaeaeee.

Iaoiaeu ioeaiee e o/aoa iniiaiuo oiiaeia

Noieiinoiay ioeaiea yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo oa?aeoa?enoee iniiaiuo
oiiaeia. Ciaiea aa aaee/eiu iaiaoiaeeii i?e ieaie?iaaiee e ioeaiea
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey, oae eae iia
eaaeeo a iniiaa ?an/aoa ?yaea iieacaoaeae, oaeeo, eae ?aioaaaeueiinoue,
oiiaeiioaea/a.

A i?aeoeea ieaie?iaaiey ?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?eiaiythony
/aou?a iaoiaea ioeaiee noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
eiaao naie aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee.

Ia?aue iaoiae — ioeaiea ii ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe. Ia?aiia/aeueiay
(aaeainiaay) noieiinoue, oun. ?oa.

Fa=Oe+Eo?+Ei+Ei?,

aaea Oe — noieiinoue i?eia?aoaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia (iioiaay oeaia); Eo?
— cao?aou ia aeinoaaeo oiiaeia; Ei — cao?aou ia onoaiiaeo, iiioaae e
iaeaaeeo oiiaeia, aeeth/ay noieiinoue ooiaeaiaioa; Ei? — i?i/ea
aaeeiia?aiaiiua cao?aou.

Ii ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe iniiaiua oiiaeu aeeth/athony a aaeain
iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey. Yoa aaee/eia eaaeeo a iniiaa ?an/aoa
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee, ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao, ?aioaaaeueiinoe e
oiiaeiioaea/e. Aeinoieinoaii yoiai iaoiaea ioeaiee yaeyaony aai
i?inoioa, oae eae ia?aiia/aeueiay noieiinoue anaaaea ecaanoia, a
iaaeinoaoeii — ionoonoaea o/aoa noaiaie ii?aeueiiai e oece/aneiai
eciina. Yoio iaaeinoaoie i?iyaeyaony i?e aeeeoaeueiii eniieueciaaiee
oiiaeia. Aeey oaeeo aeaeia oiiaeia eo oaeoe/aneay noieiinoue ia
niioaaonoaoao ia?aiia/aeueiie, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, a ?an/ao
yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae aiinyony nouanoaaiiua eneaaeaiey.

Aoi?ie iaoiae — ioeaiea ii ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie noieiinoe. Iiae
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie iiieiaaony noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia n eo
ia?aiia/aeueiuie oaoieei-yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie a
aeaenoaothueo oeaiao. Ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay noieiinoue

Fa=Fa(c

aaea (c — eiyooeoeeaio, o/eouaathuee nieaeaiea cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoeee iiae aicaeaenoaeai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna a io?anee.

Yoio iaoiae aieaa oi/ai. Ii iicaieyao o/anoue oaeoe/aneea cao?aou ia
i?iecaiaenoai iniiaiuo oiiaeia a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo, a oaeaea aeaoue
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeeiaieee aaee/eiu iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Aianoa n oai ii ia
o/eouaaao oaeoe/aneia oece/aneia ninoiyiea oiiaeia, noaiaiue eo eciina.
E?iia oiai, yoio iaoiae o?aaoao nouanoaaiiuo o?oaeiauo cao?ao aeey
?an/aoa ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie noieiinoe.

O?aoee iaoiae — ioeaiea ii inoaoi/iie ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe,
Inoaoi/iay noieiinoue

Fino=Fa+?e.?.-FaHaTo/100

aaea ?e.?. — cao?aou ia i?iaaaeaiea eaieoaeueiuo ?aiiioia ca aanue n?ie
eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia, oun. ?oa.; Ia — iauay ii?ia
aii?oecaoeee, %; Oo — n?ie oaeoe/aneiai eniieueciaaiey oiiaeia, eao.
Yoio iaoiae iaania/eaaao aieaa oi/ioth ioeaieo noieiinoe iniiaiuo
oiiaeia, /ai ia?aue, oae eae iicaieyao o/anoue noaiaiue eo oece/aneiai
eciina.

Naiui aea oi/iui, ii e naiui o?oaeiaieei yaeyaony /aoaa?oue iaoiae,
iicaieythuee o/anoue oaeoe/aneoth noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia (eo
oece/aneee e ii?aeueiue eciin) e oai naiui iaania/eaathuee n?aaieiinoue
aaee/eiu iniiaiuo oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoee io?anee. Inoaoi/iay noieiinoue ii
yoiio iaoiaeo ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa ainnoaiiaeoaeueiie:

Faino=Fa+?e.?.-FaHaTo/100

aaea Fa — ainnoaiiaeoaeueiay noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, inoaoi/iay noieiinoue i?aaeiieaaaao eneeth/aiea oie aeiee
noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia, eioi?ay ia?aianaia ia i?iaeoeoeeth, a
i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey eioi?ie iie i?eieiaee o/anoea. O?e iineaaeieo
iaoiaea i?aaeiieaaatho ia?eiaee/aneoth (aaeaaiaeioth) ia?aioeaieo
noieiinoe oiiaeia. I?eiaiaiea oi/iuo iaoiaeia ioeaiee iicaieyao
iiauneoue aeinoiaa?iinoue iieacaoaeae, ii?aaeaeyaiuo ia eo iniiaa, e
iaania/eaaao aieueooth n?aaieiinoue ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe
iauaaeeiaiee e i?aaei?eyoee.

O/ao iniiaiuo oiiaeia ?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?iecaiaeeony a
iaoo?aeueiii e noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee. Aeaiiua o/aoa eniieuecothony a
i?ioeanna ieaie?iaaiey, ioeaiee e aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe, a
oaeaea a ii?aaeaeaiee ninoaaa e no?oeoo?u naiuo oiiaeia. N iiiiuueth
o/aoa iieo/atho neaaeothuea aeaiiua: iauee ?acia? ieiuaaee e?uouo
iiiauaiee, a oii /enea iauay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay ieiuaaeue (ieiuaaeue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaoia); eiee/anoai aeaeia iniiaiuo oiiaeia, ?aai/eo
iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey; eiee/anoai aaeeieoe a eaaeaeii aeaea ?aai/eo
iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey; iauaa eiee/anoai aaeeieoe ?aai/eo iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey, a oii /enea eocia/ii-i?anniaiai, noaieia (aa?aaaoia) n
/eneiaui i?ia?aiiiui oi?aaeaieai, iai?oaeiaaiey aeey auiieiaiey
yeaeo?ioeie/aneeo iia?aoeee e o. ae.; eiee/anoai aaoiiaoe/aneeo iioi/iuo
eeiee; oaeoe/aneee n?ie eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia e eiee/anoai ii
eaaeaeiio aeaeo oiiaeia a aic?anoiie a?oiia; noieiinoue iniiaiuo
oiiaeia, a oii /enea noieiinoue ii eaaeaeie eeanneoeeaoeeiiiie a?oiia
oiiaeia, oaeaeueiua iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea no?oeoo?o iniiaiuo
oiiaeia.

Aaaeiui o/aoiui iieacaoaeai yaeyaony n?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo
oiiaeia, oae eae a oa/aiea aiaea iia iaiyaony ec-ca aaaaeaiey iiauo e
auauoey eciioaiiuo. N?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue eniieuecoaony i?e ?an/aoa
oaeeo iieacaoaeae, eae oiiaeiioaea/a e ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa.

A ?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe n?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo
oiiaeia

aaea Fai — noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey ia
ia/aei aiaea, oun. ?oa.; Fjaa — noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia, aiiaue
aaiaeeiuo a j-i ianyoea aeaiiiai aiaea, oun. ?oa.; m — /enei (iieiuo)
ianyoeaa eniieueciaaiey oiiaeia a aeaiiii aiaeo; Fja — noieiinoue
iniiaiuo oiiaeia, auauaathueo a j-i ianyoea aeaiiiai aiaea, oun. ?oa.

Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia

A i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee iniiaiua oiiaeu eciaoeaathony. Iiyoiio aeey
aiciauaiey oo?a/eaaaiie eie i?e yoii noieiinoe iaiaoiaeeiu aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa. Iaeaieeaaiea i?aaei?eyoeai yoeo n?aaenoa inouanoaeyaony ca
n/ao aii?oecaoeee.

Iiae aii?oecaoeeae iiieiaaony i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai ia?aianaiey
noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia ii ia?a eo eciina ia i?iecaiaeeioth n eo
iiiiuueth i?iaeoeoeeth. Aii?oecaoeey iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea
aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee, ca n/ao eioi?uo a iauaaeeiaiee, ia
i?aaei?eyoee nicaeathony aii?oecaoeeiiiua oiiaeu. Aii?oecaoeeiiiua
io/eneaiey e aii?oecaoeeiiiua oiiaeu aeaeyony ia aeaa /anoe, iaeia ec
eioi?uo i?aaeiacia/aia aeey iieiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey (?aiiaaoeee) iniiaiuo
oiiaeia, ae?oaay — aeey eiiiainaoeee cao?ao ia inouanoaeaiea
eaieoaeueiiai ?aiiioa e iiaea?iecaoeee.

Aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey ?ann/eouaathony ii ii?iai aii?oecaoeee.
Ii?ia aii?oecaoeee — yoi onoaiiaeaiiue a ieaiiaii ii?yaeea aiaeiaie
i?ioeaio iiaaoaiey ia?aiia/aeueiie noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Ii?iu
aii?oecaoeee onoaiaaeeaathony ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo iniiaiuo
oiiaeia. ?acee/atho iauoth ii?io aii?oecaoeee, ii?io aii?oecaoeee ia
iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea (?aiiaaoeeth) e ii?io aii?oecaoeee ia eaieoaeueiue
?aiiio e iiaea?iecaoeeth. Iauay ii?ia aii?oecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony eae
noiia aeaoo iineaaeieo ii?i.

Ii?iu aii?oecaoeee ?ann/eouaathony ii oi?ioeai:

Haj=Hi.aj+He.?j=(Faj+Pe.?j+Piiaej+Paeaij-Peeej)(100(/Faj/Oaj

Hi.aj=(Faj+Pe.?j+Paeaij-Peeej)(100(/Faj/Oaj

He.?j=(Pe.?j+Piiaej)(100(/Faj/Oaj

aaea Haj — iauay ii?ia aii?oecaoeee j-x iniiaiuo oiiaeia, %; Hi.aj —
ii?ia aii?oecaoeee ia iieiia ainnoaiiaeaiea, %; He.?j — ii?ia
aii?oecaoeee ia eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio e iiaea?iecaoeeth, %; Faj —
aaeainiaay noieiinoue (ii aeaiiui eo ia?aioeaiee) j-o oniiaiuo oiiaeia,
oun. ?oa.; Pe.?j — cao?aou ia eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio ca aanue n?ie neoaeau
j-o iniiaiuo oiiaeia, oun. ?oa.; Piiaej — cao?aou ia iiaea?iecaoeeth j-x
iniiaiuo oiiaeia, oun. ?oa.; Paeaij — Cao?aou, naycaiiua n eeeaeaeaoeeae
j-o iniiaiuo oiiaeia, oun. ?oa.; Peeej — eeeaeaeaoeeiiiay noieiinoue j-x
iniiaiuo oiiaeia (n?aaenoaa, iieo/aiiua io ?aaeecaoeee eciioaiiuo
iniiaiuo oiiaeia ca au/aoii ?anoiaeia ii eo aeaiiioaaeo), oun. ?oa.; Oaj
— n?ie neoaeau (aii?oecaoeeiiiue ia?eiae) j-x iniiaiuo oiiaeia, eao.

Eaieoaeueiia no?ieoaeuenoai

Eaieoaeueiia no?ieoaeuenoai — yoi i?ioeann no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo,
?aeiino?oeoeee, ?anoe?aiey e oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey aeaenoaothueo
i?aaei?eyoee. Ieaie?iaaiea eaieoaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa inouanoaeyeinue
?aiaa ia iniiaa iyoeeaoieo ieaiia n ?ani?aaeaeaieai iauaeoia e iauaiia
?aaio ii aiaeai. A aiaeiauo ieaiao i?aaei?eyoee (iauaaeeiaiee)
ooi/iythony iauaiu ?aaio enoiaey ec oaeoe/anee aeinoeaioouo ?aiaa
?acoeueoaoia.

Iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie ieaia eaieoaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa iauaaeeiaiee,
i?aaei?eyoee yaeythony: aaiae a aeaenoaea iniiaiuo oiiaeia,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae e iaueaeoia, a oii /enea i?e?ino
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae ca n/ao oaoie/aneiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey e
?aeiino?oeoeee aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee; eeieou oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee e no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo ?aaio,
a oii /enea cao?aou ia oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea e ?aeiino?oeoeeth
aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee; noaaeeueiua ii?iaoeau ia?aciaaiey oiiaea
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aaaeiaeoeie aeieoiaioaie aeey ?ac?aaioee ieaia eaieoaeueiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa yaeythony oeooeueiua nienee no?iae. Oeooeueiue nienie —
yoi eiie?aoiia ieaiiaia caaeaiea ii ioaeaeueiiio iauaeoo no?ieoaeuenoaa
(ioneiaiio, ia?aoiaeyuaio e caaeaeueiiio). A iai niaea?aeaony
iaeiaiiaaiea iauaeoa, ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea, n?iee no?ieoaeuenoaa,
i?iaeoe?oaiay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay iiuiinoue, niaoiay noieiinoue e n?ie
aaiaea a aeaenoaea. Oeooeueiua nienee iauaeoia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iacia/aiey inoathony iaeciaiiuie ia aanue ia?eiae no?ieoaeuenoaa e
yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie aeey caeac/eeia, iiae?yae/eeia, oeiainiauo,
aaieianeeo e niaaaeai/aneeo i?aaiia. Eciaiaiey a iieacaoaee oeooeueiuo
nieneia iiaoo aiineoueny oieueei i?e ia?aniio?a i?iaeoia a nayce n
i?eiaiaieai aieaa niaa?oaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e i?ia?anneaiie oaoiieiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Anee ieaie?oaiua ia aiae ?aaiou auee auiieiaiu a iaiueoai iauaia, /ai
i?aaeoniio?nii a oeooeueiuo nieneao, oi aeiiouaiiia ionoaaaiea aeieaeii
auoue eeeaeaee?iaaii a iineaaeothuai aiaeo ca n/ao iaeniieueciaaiiuo a
i?aaeoanoaothuai aiaeo iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneeo ?ano?nia.

No?ieoaeuenoai e ?aeiino?oeoeey ?aaeeioaoie/aneeo i?aaei?eyoee
inouanoaeythony ii niioaaonoaothuei i?iaeoai e niaoai. Niaoa yaeyaony
iniiaiui aeieoiaioii aeey ieaie?iaaiey eaieoaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa e
?an/aoia iaaeaeo caeac/eeii e iiae?yaeiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie. A eaaeaeii
i?iaeoa aeieaeiu auoue yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiu ana i?eioeeieaeueiua
?aoaiey. E eo /eneo ioiinyony: ?acia? i?aaei?eyoey (i?iecaiaenoaaiiay
iiuiinoue), aai niaoeeaeecaoeey, ninoaa oeaoia, eiiia?e?iaaiea n
ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, ?aeii e ieiuaaeea no?ieoaeuenoaa e o. ae.
Aieueoia aieiaiea aeieaeii oaeaeyoueny oaeaea aii?inai iaania/aiey
aunieiai o?iaiy iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia, aiaae?aiey iiaaeoeo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e
aunieiniaa?oaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, oi?ioaai eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ieiuaaeae, aeinoeaeaiey aunieeo oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae e o. ae.

Eaieoaeueiia no?ieoaeuenoai inouanoaeyaony oicyenoaaiiui e iiae?yaeiui
niiniaaie. I?e oicyenoaaiiii niiniaa aaaeaiey ?aaio i?iiuoeaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey naie aaaeoo iaiaoiaeeiua no?ieoaeueiua e iiioaaeiua ?aaiou,
i?aaiecoy aeey yoiai nianoaaiiia no?ieoaeueiia iiae?acaeaeaiea.
Oicyenoaaiiue niinia yooaeoeaai i?e ?aeiino?oeoeee, ?anoe?aiee eee
iaaieueoii iauaia iiaiai no?ieoaeuenoaa ia aeaenoaothuai i?aaei?eyoee.

Iiae?yaeiui iacuaaaony oaeie niinia no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo ?aaio, i?e
eioi?ii iie auiieiythony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie no?ieoaeueiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie ia iniiaaiee aeiaiai?a (iiae?yaea). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
nauoa 90% anao no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo ?aaio inouanoaeyaony iiae?yaeiui
niiniaii. Ii yaeyaony iaeaieaa i?ia?anneaiui, oae eae iicaieyao
no?ieoaeueiui i?aaiecaoeeyi ia iniiaa niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?e?iaaiey
eo/oa eniieueciaaoue iaoa?eaeueiua e o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu, aiaae?youe
ia?aaeiaoth oaoieeo.

Enoi/ieeaie oeiaine?iaaiey eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee aeey
no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo, ?anoe?aiey, ?aeiino?oeoeee e oaoie/aneiai
ia?aaii?oaeaiey aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee ?aaeeioaoie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe yaeythony: athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey, nianoaaiiua
n?aaenoaa i?aaei?eyoee (io/eneaiey io i?eauee, aii?oecaoeeiiiua
io/eneaiey, n?aaenoaa oiiaea ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa), e?aaeeou aaieia.
Anneaiiaaiey ec athaeaeaoa eniieuecothony i?aeiouanoaaiii aeey
oeiaine?iaaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo i?aaei?eyoee. Nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa
e e?aaeeou i?eaeaeathony aeey oeiaine?iaaiey oaoie/aneiai
ia?aaii?oaeaiey e ?aeiino?oeoeee aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa

Iiieii iniiaiuo oiiaeia eaaeaeia iauaaeeiaieth e i?aaei?eyoea eiaao
iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa, ninoiyuea ec iai?ioiuo oiiaeia e oiiaeia ia?auaiey.
Yoe oiiaeu niaea?aeao iaiaoiaeeiua aeey inouanoaeaiey ii?iaeueiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey
caianu i?aaeiaoia o?oaea, aioiaie e iacaeii/aiiie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

Iacia/aiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ninoieo a iaania/aiee iai?a?uaiinoe
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa. Iai?ioiua
n?aaenoaa iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii aeaeaeaiee, i?eia?aoay oi?io
aeaiaa, nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa e ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia o?oaea. A
i?ioeanna e?oaiiai?ioa iie i?ioiaeyo o?e noaaeee: noaaeeth ia?auaiey,
eioi?ay ioaaouaaao ia?eiae, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey ia?aciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania (iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa ia yoie noaaeee
eniieuecothony a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia aeey i?eia?aoaiey nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e
ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia o?oaea); noaaeeth i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ay ia/eiaaony n
iie//aiey i?aaeiaoia o?oaea e caeai/eaaaony ioi?aaeie aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaae i?aaei?eyoey (iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa aunooiatho ia
yoie noaaeee a aeaea i?aaeiaoia o?oaea, iacaeii/aiiie e aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee); noaaeeth ia?auaiey, eioi?ay ia/eiaaony n iinooieaiee
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaae i?aaei?eyoey e caeai/eaaaony iieo/aieai
au?o/ee io ?aaeecaiee i?iaeoeoeee (iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa ia yoie noaaeee
aunooiatho a aeaea aioiaie i?iaeoeoeeee aeaiaa). Ec ?anniio?aiiiai
aeaeii, /oi iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa ianeoaeeaatho eae i?ioeann
i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e i?ioeann ia?auaiey (?aaeecaoeee) i?iaeoeoeee.
Iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa, ianeoaeeaathuea i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee,
ia?acotho iai?ioiua oiiaeu, a iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa, ianeoaeeaathuea
i?ioeann ia?auaiey,— oiiaeu ia?auaiey.

Aaaeiaeoeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa yaeythony eo noieiinoue,
ninoaa e no?oeoo?a. Noieiinoue iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa caaeneo io oa?aeoa?a e
iauaia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, niaa?oainoaa nenoaiu
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, oiiaiy i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
e o?oaea e ?yaea ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia. Ninoaa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ii
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiui a?oiiai i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeia aeey anao io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ninoaa ioaeaeueiuo a?oii yaeyaony niaoeeoe/aneei aeey
eaaeaeie io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe e caaeneo io ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
iacia/aiey e eiino?oeoeaiioaoiieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee. No?oeoo?a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaeaeueiui
aanii ioaeaeueiuo a?oii a iauae noieiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. Iai?ioiua
n?aaenoaa iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii neaaeothuei i?eciaeai: ii
ianeoaeeaaaiie noa?a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa, iniaaiiinoyi
ieaie?iaaiey e i?aaiecaoeee, enoi/ieeai oi?ie?iaaiey, a?oiiai e aeaeai
(oaae. 2).

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu — yoi oa iaoa?eaeueiuie ?ano?nu, eioi?ua oaea
iinooieee ia i?aaei?eyoea, ii aua ia iiaeaa?aaeenue ia?aaioea eee
eniieueciaaieth. ?acia? yoeo caiania aeieaeai onoaiaaeeaaoueny n oaeei
?an/aoii, /oiau iaania/eoue aania?aaieioth e ?eoie/ioth ?aaioo.

Iacaeii/aiiay i?iaeoeoeey aeeth/aao iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai, o. a.
i?iaeoeoeeth, iaoiaeyuothny ia ?acee/iuo noaaeeyo aa ecaioiaeaiey, e
?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia, o. a. ?anoiaeu, eioi?ua i?aaenoieo
i?iecaanoe a aoaeouai (eee eioi?ua i?iecaaaeaiu a i?ioeii), ii n?aaenoaa
aeey inouanoaeaiey eioi?uo aeeth/athony iinoiyiii a naaanoieiinoue
auioneaaiie i?aaei?eyoeai i?iaeoeoeee. E ?anoiaeai aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia
ioiinyony cao?aou ia inaiaiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, i?iaeoe?iaaiea iiauo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, iiaeaioiaeo oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee.

Aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey — yoi i?iaeoeoeey, iaoiaeyuayny ia
neeaaeai?aaei?eyoey e iiaeaioiaeaiiay e ioi?aaea iio?aaeoaeth, a oaeaea
oa i?iaeoeoeey, eioi?ay ioi?aaeaia, ii aua ia iiea/aia ei.

Oiiaeu ia?auaiey aeeth/atho eae ?aaeueiua aeaiueae, iaoiaeyueany a eanna
i?aaei?eyoey, oae e aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, eiathueany ia aai ?an/aoiii
n/aoa a aaiea. E yoie a?oiia iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa ioiineony oaeaea
aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue, o. a. noiia aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa,
i?e/eoathuayny e?aaeeoi?o io aai aeieaeieea. Aeaaeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue aicieeaao i?e acaeiiuo ?an/aoao iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie,
iauaaeeiaieyie ca ieacuaaaiua eie oneoae eee iinoaaeo oiaa?ia.

Ianeoaeeaaaiay noa?a i?ioeanna aini?iecaiaenoaa Iai?ioiua oiiaeu Oiiaeu
ia?auaiey

a?oiiu iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu iacaeii/aiiay
i?iaeoeoeey aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa

Aeae iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa Nu?uea, iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu e iieoiiua ecaeaeey e
iieooaa?eeaou aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu oiieeai e ai?th/aa oa?a e
oa?iua iaoa?eaeu caianiua /anoe aeey ?aiiioa eino?oiaiou, oicyenoaaiiue
eiaaioa?ue e ae?oaea iaeioeaiiua e auno?ieciaoeaathueany i?aaeiaou
iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai ?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia aioiaay
i?iaeoeoeey ia neeaaea i?aaei?eyoey ioa?oaeaiiay e iaiiea/aiiay
i?iaeoeoeey aeaiueae a eanna e ia n/aoa i?aaei?eyoey aeaaeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue

Iniaaiiinoe ieaie?iaaiey e i?aaiecaoeee iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa Ii?ie?oaiua
iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa Iaii?ie?oaiua iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa

Enoi/iee oi?ie?iaaiey Nianoaaiiua iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa Caaiiua,
i?eaea/aiiua e i?i/ea

Oaaeeoea 2. Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Ii ninoaao a?oii iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa ?acee/iuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
ia ?acee/athony. ?acee/ey eiathony a ninoaaa i?aaeaea anaai oaeie
a?oiiu, eae nu?uea, iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu e iieoiiua iieooaa?eeaou. Ninoaa
yoie a?oiiu caaeneo io ooieoeeiiaeueiuo e eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae i?iaeoeoeee, auioneaaiie io?aneueth. Aeey
?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oa?aeoa?ai aieueoee oaeaeueiue aan (ii
n?aaiaieth n nianoaaiii iaoeiino?iaieai) iieoiiuo eiiieaeoothueo
ecaeaeee e iieooaa?eeaoia, iaiueoay aeiey /a?iuo iaoaeeia e aieueoay
aeiey oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia, oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea ieanoiann e iieeia?ia, a
oaeaea cia/eoaeueiay aeiey ?aaeeeo e ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia.

A caaeneiinoe io iniaaiiinoae ieaie?iaaiey e i?aaiecaoeee iai?ioiua
n?aaenoaa aeaeyony ia ii?ie?oaiua e iaii?ie?oaiua. E ii?ie?oaiui
ioiinyony oa yeaiaiou iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, ieieiaeueiua caianu eioi?uo
iiaoo auoue oi/ii ?ann/eoaiu. E iaii?ie?iaaiiui ioiinyo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu, iacaeii/aiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, aioiaoth
i?iaeoeoeeth, iaoiaeyuothny ia neeaaea iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey. E
iaii?ie?oaiui ioiinyony oa yeaiaiou iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, ieieiaeueiia
caianu eioi?uo ii?aaeaeeoue iaaiciiaeii (ioa?oaeaiiay e iaiiea/aiiay
i?iaeoeoeey, aeaiueae a eanna e ia n/aoa i?aaei?eyoey e ae?.)

Ii enoi/ieeai oi?ie?iaaiey iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa aeaeyony ia nianoaaiiua,
caaiiua, i?eaea/aiiua e i?. Nianoaaiiua iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa ia?acothony
ca n/ao onoaaiiai oiiaea e i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey, iauaaeeiaiey, a oaeaea
i?e?aaiaiiuo e nianoaaiiui n?aaenoaai (onoie/eaay e?aaeeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey, iauaaeeiaiey). Caaiiua n?aaenoaa — yoi
nnoaeu Ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaiea. E?iia oiai, iauaaeeiaiea, i?aaei?eyoea
a ?yaea neo/aaa iiaeao i?eaeaeaoue n?aaenoaa ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee e
i?aaei?eyoee ia ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie.

Aaaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa yaeyaony eo no?oeoo?a,
eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai eo ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia a iauae
aaee/eia iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan a i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?eoiaeeony ia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu, a a eo ninoaaa — ia nu?uea, iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu
e iieoiiua iieooaa?eeaou, e ia iacaaa?oaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. Ia aeieth
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania e iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?eoiaeeony
ieiei 80% iauae aaee/eiu iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. No?oeoo?a iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa ?aaeeioaoie/aneeo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeecea e i?eaaaeaiiie
auoa.

Ii?ie?iaaiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa

Caaea/ae ii?ie?iaaiey yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea iio?aaiinoe a ?ano?nao,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ieieiaeueiuo ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey. I?ioeann ii?ie?iaaiey aeeth/aao
aeaa yoaia: ?ac?aaioeo aeeeoaeueii aeaenoaothueo ii?i iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
e ?an/ao aaeaaiaeiuo ii?iaoeaia iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Ii?ia iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa oa?aeoa?ecoao niioiioaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo caiania
iaoa?eaeueiuo e aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e niioaaonoaothuaai iieacaoaey
aeayoaeueiinoe iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey. Iai?eia?, ii?iu aeey nu?uey,
iniiaiuo, aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, iieoiiuo ecaeaeee e
iieooaa?eeaoia onoaiaaeeaathony a caaeneiinoe io eo ?anoiaea ii aiaeiaie
niaoa cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai; aeey iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa — io
iauaia oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee, ?ann/eoaiiiai ii i?ieciaenoaaiiie
naaanoieiinoe; aeey aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaea i?aaei?eyoey — io
iauaia oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee, ?ann/eoaiiiai ii iieiie naaanoieiinoe e o.
ae. Iau/ii yoe ii?iu onoaiaaeeaathony a aeiyo. Ii?iu aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue
oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa, niaaaeaiey e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee. Iie aeieaeiu
o/eouaaoue, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?ia?anneaiua oaiaeaioeee i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey e nauoa, a n ae?oaie
— niinianoaiaaoue iaania/aieth ii?iaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe iauaaeeiaiey,
i?aaei?eyoey.

Ii?iaoea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa — yoi ieieiaeueiue ieaiiaue ?acia? iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa, iinoiyiii iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ii?iaeueiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe iauaaeeiaiey,
i?aaei?eyoey. Aaee/eia ii?iaoeaa caaeneo io ii?i iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e
aaee/eiu cao?ao niioaaonoaothuaai yeaiaioa iai?ioiiai oiiaea eee oiiaea
ia?auaiey ia aiaeiaie iauai auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue
niaieoiiue ii?iaoea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, o. a. iauoth noiio iio?aaiuo
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, e /anoiua ii?iaoeau, o. a. aaee/eio iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa a ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioao iai?ioiiai oiiaea eee oiiaea ia?auaiey.
I?e yoii eae aeaeii ec oaae. 2, a ninoaaa oiiaea ia?auaiey
onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?iaoea oieueei ii aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaea
iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia i?aeoeea i?eiaiythony o?e iaoiaea ?an/aoa ii?iaoeaia iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa: iaoiae i?yiiai n/aoa, noaoenoe/aneee e aiaeeoe/aneee. Iaoiae
i?yiiai n/aoa i?aaeiieaaaao ?an/ao ii?iaoeaia ii eaaeaeiio yeaiaioo
iai?ioiiai oiiaea e oiiaea ia?auaiey. Noaoenoe/aneee iaoiae iniiaai ia
ii?aaeaeaiee ii?iaoeaia ii noaoenoe/aneei aeaiiui i?aaeoanoaothueo
ia?eiaeia. Aiaeeoe/aneee iaoiae i?aaeiieaaaao onoaiiaeaiea caaeneiinoae
iaaeaeo aaee/eiie iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa e iauaiii i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia?aue
iaoiae yaeyaony naiui oi/iui, ii i/aiue o?oaeiaieei. Iiyoiio a i?aeoeea
ieaie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoee ?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe /aua
eniieuecothony aoi?ie e o?aoee iaoiaeu.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua caianu yaeythony iaeaieaa cia/eiie /anoueth
ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey. Iau/ii
?acee/atho oaeouee, iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue e no?aoiaie caianu. Oaeouee caian
i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iaania/aiey aania?aaieiiai oiaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna iaaeaeo aeaoiy i/a?aaeiuie iinoaaeaie nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia,
iieoiiuo ecaeaeee e iieooaa?eeaoia. Iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue caian iaiaoiaeei
ia a?aiy iiaeaioiaee iaoa?eaeia (aeey ?aaeeii?aaei?eyoee aeaaiui ia?acii
iieoiiuo eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee) e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio iio?aaeaieth.
Anee aeey yoiai ia o?aaothony niaoeeaeueiua (iai?eia?, i?iaa?i/iua eee
o?aie?iai/iua) iia?aoeee ii i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie oaoiieiae/aneie ia?aaioea
iaoa?eaeia e iieoiiuo ecaeaeee, oi ii?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai caiana
i?eieiaaony ?aaiie iaeiiio aeith. I?e iaee/ee niaoeeaeueiuo
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee ii?ia onoaiaaeeaaaony ia iniiaaiee AINOia,
oaoie/aneeo oneiaee eee ae?oaeo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia. No?aoiaie caian
i?aaeiacia/ai aeey iaania/aiey aania?aaieiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna i?e ioeeiiaieyo io i?eiyou eioa?aaeia iinoaaie.

?an/ao ii?i iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caianao ia
?aaeeii?aaei?eyoeyo i?iecaiaeeony n o/aoii oi?i iinoaaie ia?eaeia e
iieoiiuo ecaeaeee. Ia i?aeoeea i?eiaiythony neaaeothea oi?iu iinoaaie:
o?aiceoiua iinoaaee n i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaey, neeaaeneea iinoaaee n
aac e naciiiua iinoaaee. Enoiaeiie eioi?iaoeeae i?e o?aiceoiuo iinoaaeao
neoaeao aeaiiua ea?oi/ae neeaaeneiai o/aoa i oaeoe/aneii iinooieaiee e
?anoiaea eaaeaeiai aeaea, ni?oa, oeii?acia?a iaoa?eaeia, iieoiiuo
ecaeaeee ca i?ioeua ia?eiaeu a?aiaie.

Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiiy i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie
aacu i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiee/anoai e ea/anoai auioneaaiuo ?aaeeiecaeaeee,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea caaenyo io aaee/eiu, ninoaaa, oece/aneiai
ninoiyiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia e ea/anoaa i?eiaiyaiiai nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e
eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee. Eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey
caaenyo oaeaea io yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia, eioi?ay ioeaieaaaony o?aiy a?oiiaie iieacaoaeae.

Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia aeaeyony ia o?e iiaea?oiiu:
iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia a oeaeii, iai?oaeiaaiey e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ieiuaaeae. Iieacaoaeai eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia
a oeaeii yaeyaony oiiaeiioaea/a. Yoi neioaoe/aneee iieacaoaeue, o?iaaiue
e oaiaeaioeee eciaiaiey eioi?iai caaenyo io ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia.
Iaeaieaa cia/eiuie ec ieo yaeythony: noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia;
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey; eioaineaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
iniiaiuo oiiaeia; iauai i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa aeieaeiu io?aaeaoue
nei?inoue iai?a/eaaaiinoe yoeo n?aaenoa a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. Onei?aiea iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue iio?aaiinoue a ieo e eniieueciaaoue
aunaiaiaeaeaaiua n?aaenoaa aeey oaaee/aiey iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa a
aeaiiie eee ae?oaeo io?aneyo, ia ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoeyo, a oaeaea aeey
?aoaiey nioeeaeueiuo caaea/. Iniiaiui iieacaoaeai yaeyaony eiyooeoeeaio
iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa kia, eioi?ue iieacuaaao, neieueei ?ac
a oa/aiea aiaea iaa?ioony iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa, eia/a aiai?y, ii
oa?aeoa?ecoao eiee/anoai iai?ioia. Oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa iai?ioia
?aaiicia/ii oiaiueoaieth iio?aaiinoe a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoaao
iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey.

Eiyooeoeeaio cae?aieaiey kcae — yoi aaee/eia, ia?aoiay eiyooeoeeaioo
iai?a/eaaaiinoe, eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoao aeieth iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa,
i?eoiaeyueony ia 1 ?oa. ?aaeecoaiie i?iaeoeoeee. Anee eiyooeoeeaio
iai?a/eaaaiinoe aeieaeai eiaoue oaiaeaioeeth e oaaee/aieth, oi
eiyooeoeeaio cae?aieaiey — e oiaiueoaieth. Aaaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie
yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa yaeyaony a?aiy (ia?eiae)
eo iai?ioa, eioi?ia iieacuaaao, a oa/aiea eaeiai eiee/anoaa aeiae
inouanoaeyaony iaeei iai?io. *ai iaiueoa a?aiy iai?ioa, oai iaiueoa
iio?aaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey a nianoaaiiuo ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoaao.

Iiieii iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a oeaeii, ia i?aeoeea aaaeii ciaoue, eae i?ienoiaeeo
iai?a/eaaaiinoue ia eaaeaeie ec noaaeee: caaioiaeoaeueiie,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e ?aaeecaoeee. Iiyoiio ia?yaeo n iaueie iieacaoaeyie
iai?a/eaaaiinoe oeaeaniia?acii ii?aaeaeyoue /anoiua ii yoei o?ai
noaaeeyi. Iie o/eouaatho ia niaieoiiue ii?iaoea nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa, a aai ninoaaeythuea: aeey caaioiaeoaeueiie noaaeee — ii?iaoea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie — ii?iaoea
iacaaa?oaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, aeey noaaeee ?aaeecaoeee — ii?iaoea
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaea.

Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoee
?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny ii o?ai
iai?aaeaieyi: caiaia aeaenoaothueo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia iiauie
aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuie, iaanea/eaathueie ?ino oiiaeiioaea/e iniiaiuo
oiiaeia e onei?aiea iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa;
niaa?oainoaiaaiea eiathueony a iauaaeeiaiee, ia i?aaei?eyoee iniiaiuo
oiiaeia; oeo/oaiea eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. Ia?aia
iai?aaeaiea o?aaoao ?ac?aaioee iiauo aeaeia oaoiieiae/aneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey e iiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, iiauo yeiiiie/anee
auaiaeiuo aeaeia nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e eiieeaeoothuee ecaeaeee, /oi
naycaii ni cia/eoaeueiuie cao?aoaie oeiainiauo e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia.
Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea o?aaoao iaiueoeo cao?ao. I?e ?aaeecaoeee o?aoueaai
iai?aaeaieyiauaeoii aicaeaenoaey yaeythony ia naie i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
oiiaeu, a i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaea. Ii eaaeaeiio ec
?anniio?aiiuo iai?aaeaiee iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei iniiaiuo iooae
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia.

Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia
aeinoeaaaony yenoaineaiui e eioaineaiui iooyie. Yenoaineaiua oaeoi?u
i?eaiaeyo e ?inoo noieiinoe, eiee/anoaa e a?aiaie eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. Eioaineaiua oaeoi?u iaania/eaatho ?ino
eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoia (eiee/anoaa i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee) i?e
iaeciaiiie aaee/eia (eee iacia/eoaeueiii ?inoa) naieo oiiaeia.

Iooe iiauoaiey cooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia
auae?athony a caaeneiinoe io eiathueony a ?anii?yaeaiee iauaaeeiaiey,
i?aaei?eyoey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, ninoiyiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, a
oaeaea n?ieia ?aaeecaoeee iaia/aaiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia o?aaoao aicaeaenoaey eae ia naie oiiaeu,
o. a. ia eo ninoaa, aeaeiaoth, ea/anoaaiioth e aic?anoioth no?oeoo?o,
oae e ia i?ioeann i?aaiecaoeee eo eniieueciaaiey, ?aiiioa e oaoie/aneiai
ianeoaeeaaiey. A caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa aicaeaenoaey iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao ?acee/iie aaee/eiu
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee e a oa/aiea ?aciuo ia?eiaeia a?aiaie. Iaeaieueoeo
oeiainiauo e a?aiaiiuo cao?ao o?aaoaony i?e aaaaeaiee iiauo iniiaiuo
oiiaeia. Iiyoiio iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciuie iooyie iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia n yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey yaeyaony eo
?aeiino?oeoeey e iiaea?iecaoeey, a oaeaea niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaea. I?e auai?a iooae iaiaoiaeeii niiinoaaeyoue
cao?aou ia eo ?aaeecaoeeth e iieo/aaiua ?acoeueoaou (?ino auionea
i?iaeoeoeee, nieaeaiea aa naaanoieiinoe). Oeo/oaiea iieacaoaeae
eniieueciaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia iiaeao auoue iaania/aii oaeaea ca n/ao
iiauoaiey oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee (nieaeaiey aa
iaoa?eaeiaieinoe, oiiaeiaieinoe e o?oaeiaieinoe) .

Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa oa?aeoa?ecoaony
onei?aieai eo iai?a/eaaaiinoe, eioi?ia i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth
iio?aaiinoe a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoaao, o. a. e eo aunaiaiaeaeaieth.
Aunaiaiaeaeathueany n?aaenoaa iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey ?acaeoey
ae?oae io?aneae eee ?aiaiey nioeeaeueiuo caaea/, a oaeaea aeey ?inoa
iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa aac i?eaea/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa.

Iniiaiua iooe onei?aiey iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?eaaaeaiu a
oaaeeoea 3. Eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu, iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa o?aaoao aiceaenoaey ia i?iecaiaeeioth i?iaeoeoeeth, nenoaio
ieaie?iaaiey e i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa. Aiaeec iooae eieacuaaao, /oi
cia/eoaeueiua ?aca?au eaaeao a iaeanoe i?aaiecaoeee e?iecaiaenoaa e
o?oaea. Aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao oaeaea i?aaeeueiia eniieueciaaiea
yeiiiie/aneeo ?u/aaia e noeioeia. Iaeiei ec oaeeo ?u/aaia yaeyaony ieaoa
ca i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu.

Ieaoa ca i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu auea aaaaeaia n oeaeueth iiauoaiey
caeioa?aniaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee a eo/oai eo eniieueciaaiee. Io/eneaiey
i?aaei?eyoee a ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao a aeaea ieaou ca
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu iiauoaao eo caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a iieiii
eniieueciaaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, eioaineoeeaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia, inaiaiaeaeaiee io eceeoieo iniiaiuo
oiiaeia e naa?oii?iaoeaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, a onei?aiee
iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Iooe onei?aiey Iauaeo aicaeaenoaey Iieo/aaiue ?acoeueoao

Oiaiueoaiea iaoa?eaei-aieinoe auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee I?iaeoeoeey
i?aaei?eyoey Oiaiueoaiea iio?aaiinoe a iaoa?eaeao, nu?uea,
eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeeyo, nie?auaiea ii?iaoeaa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caianao

Nie?auaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea ecaioiaeaiey
i?iaeoeoeee I?iaeoeoeey i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa
Nie?auaiea ii?iaoeaa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a iacaaa?oaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea ii?yaea ieaie?iaaiey e oi?ie?iaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
Nenoaia ieaie?iaaiey Iiauoaiea oi/iinoe ?an/aoa ii?iaoeaia iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa e oneeaiea eiio?iey ca eo aaee/eiie

Niaa?oainoaiaaiia nenoaiu iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey
I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa Nie?auaiea ii?iaoeaa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caianao

Aaoiiaoecaoeey e iaoaiecaoeey iia?oci/ii-?aca?oci/iuo e neeaaeneeo ?aaio

Oi aea Nie?auaiea ii?iaoeaa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
caianao e aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee ia neeaaea i?aaei?eyoey

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu nauoa i?iaeoeoeee I?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa
Nie?auaiea ii?iaoeaa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee

Aiaae?aiea iioeiaeueiuo iaoiaeia ?ane?iy iaoa?eaeia e oi?iiia?aciaaiey.
I?aaiecaoeey e oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa Oiaiueoaiea iio?aaiinoe a
iaoa?eaeao e nu?uea

Oaaeeoea 3. Iooe onei?aiey iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa

Ieaoa ca i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu yaeyaony ia?aii/a?aaeiui ieaoaaeii e
aiineony iacaaenei io auiieiaiey ieaia i?eauee. Io ieaou
inaiaiaeaeathony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iniiaiua oiiaeu, nicaeaiiua ca n/ao
e?aaeeoa — aei iiaaoaiey nnoaeu; aiiaue aaiaeeiua a aeaenoaea
i?aaei?eyoey; iiuoiua i?iecaiaenoaa, caeaiey e iai?oaeiaaiea
eiino?oeoi?neeo e i?iaeoiuo ath?i e iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo
eaai?aoi?ee i?aaei?eyoee; caeiina?ae?iaaiiua iniiaiua oiiaeu;
nii?oaeaiey, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey i/enoee aiaeiiai e aicaeooiiai
aannaeiia, e caeaiua ianaaeaeaiey; iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea. io?aaioaaoea
onoaiiaeaiiue aii?oecaoeeiiiue n?ie, e ?yae ae?oaeo yeaiaioia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia.

Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea ?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe

Aaee/eia ii?iaoeaa nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa iauaaeeiaiey,
i?aaei?eyoey ai iiiaii caaeneo io niaa?oainoaa nenoaiu
aoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.
Iaoa?aeueii-oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann
ieaiiia?iiai iaania/aiey iauaaeeiaiee, i?aaei?eyoee anaie n?aaenoaaie
i?iecaiaenoaa — iai?oaeiaaieai, nu?ueai, iaoa?eaeaie, iieoiiuie
eiiieaeoothueie ecaeaeeyie, iieooaa?eeaoaie e o. i.

Iiae nenoaiie iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey i?eiyoi iiieiaoue:
ii?yaeie ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee (ii cia/eiinoe e aeaoeoeeoiinoe a
ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa); ii?yaeie auaeaeaiey oiiaeia ioaeaeueiui
iio?aaeoaeyi; ?ac?aaioeo ieaiia e i?aaiecaoeeth niaaaeaiey; oi?io
i?iaeaeaeaiey ?ano?nia (neeaaeneay e o?aiceoiay); i?aaiecaoeeth
oicyenoaaiiuo naycae iinoaaueeia e iio?aaeoaeae.

Any i?iaeoeoeey, eniieuecoaiay a ea/anoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa,
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia: oiiaee?oaioth, ?ani?aaeaeyaioth Ainieaiii (aaaeiua
e aeaoeoeeoiua ecaeaeey); ieaie?oaioth, ?ani?aaeaeyaioth Ainieaiii e
Ainniaaii, oeaio?aeueiuie nauoiauie i?aaiaie, ieienoa?noaaie, ianoiuie
i?aaiaie aeanoe e oa??eoi?eaeueiuie oi?aaeaieyie Ainniaaa, a oaeaea
i?iaeoeoeeth, iinoaaeyaioth a ii?yaeea i?yiuo naycae iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyie-iio?aaeoaeyie e i?aaei?eyoeyie-ecaioiaeoaeyie.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Aoaei A.A. Iai?io n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee e yooaeoeaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa.:I.,”Iuneue”,1985.

2. Eaaaaeaa A.A. I?aaiecaoeey e eniieueciaaiea iai?ioiuo oiiaeia
i?aaei?eyoey.: “Yeiiiieea”,1989.

3. Yeiiiieea ?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe / .E.A. Ano?aeia e ae?.,
I.: Aunoay oeiea, 1987.

Iaeaaeaiea

TOC \t “PLM caaie 2;1” Aaaaeaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117557
PAGEREF _Toc343117557 2

Ninoaa, no?oeoo?a e enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia
GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117558 PAGEREF _Toc343117558 2

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a iniiaiuo oiiaeia GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117559
PAGEREF _Toc343117559 4

Iaoiaeu ioeaiee e o/aoa iniiaiuo oiiaeia GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117560
PAGEREF _Toc343117560 8

Aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117561 PAGEREF
_Toc343117561 10

Eaieoaeueiia no?ieoaeuenoai GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117562 PAGEREF
_Toc343117562 11

Ninoaa e no?oeoo?a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117563
PAGEREF _Toc343117563 13

Ii?ie?iaaiea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117564 PAGEREF
_Toc343117564 16

Iieacaoaee eniieueciaaiiy i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia GOTOBUTTON
_Toc343117565 PAGEREF _Toc343117565 18

Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea ?aaeeioaoie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117566 PAGEREF _Toc343117566 21

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117567 PAGEREF
_Toc343117567 22

Iaeaaeaiea GOTOBUTTON _Toc343117568 PAGEREF _Toc343117568 22

PAGE 11

Enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia

Enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia

Enoi/ieee oi?ie?iaaiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa

N?aaenoaa auoanoiyueo i?aaiecaoeee

Onoie/eaua ianneau

Aeieain?i/iua e?aaeeou e nnoaeu

Oiiae ?acaeoey i?iecaiae-noaa

I?eaueue

Athaeaeaoiua anneaiiaaiey

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019