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Oicyenoaaiiue ?ene: enoiee e nouiinoue

I

nouanoaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a aai ethaii aeaea naycaii n ?eneii,
eioi?ue i?eiyoi iacuaaoue oicyenoaaiiui, eee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei.
Auyniei enoiee e i?e/eiu oaeiai ?enea e oi?iu aai i?iyaeaiey aeey oiai,
/oiau aeaeaa oynieoue iaoiaeu ioeaiee ?enea e niiniau aai
i?aaeioa?auaiey.

A nayce n ?acaeoeai ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue a iaoae no?aia i?eoiaeeony inouanoaeyoue a oneiaeyo
ia?anoathuae iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe neooaoeee e eciai/eainoe yeiiiie/aneie
n?aaeu. Cia/eo, aicieeaao iayniinoue e iaoaa?aiiinoue a iieo/aiee
iaeeaeaaiiai eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, aic?anoaao ?ene,
oi anoue iianiinoue iaoaea/e, iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo iioa?ue. A iniaaiiinoe
yoi i?enoua ia/aeueiui noaaeeyi inaiaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Iiaeiaiay ianoaiiaea ianeieueei iaiau/ia e iai?eau/ia aeey iaoaai
oicyenoaaiieea eee i?inoi a?aaeaeaieia, eioi?iio i?aaenoieo i?ieoe
oa?ienoue iooue, i?aaeaea /ai ii i?aa?aoeony a iiaeeeiiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaey.

A oneiaeyo eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie yeiiiieee ana iu i?eaueee e
oiio, /oi yeiiiie/aneay ianoaiiaea oi?ie?oaony “naa?oo” a i?eeaciii
ii?yaeea a aeaea iaai?a i?aaee e ii?i. Ieaiu, i?ia?aiiu, iinoaiiaeaiey,
eino?oeoeee, ainoaea?noaaiiua oeaiu, oiiaeu, eeieou, ia?yaeu, oa?eou
oi?ie?iaaee oo yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio eii?aeeiao e oicyenoaaiioth
n?aaeo, a eioi?ie auioaeaeaiu auee aeaenoaiaaoue i?aaei?eyoey e ethaee.

Eiia/ii, aeanoeay nenoaia oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo onoaiiaie e i?aaeienaiee
neiauaaea eieoeeaoeao, iiaeaaeyea eioa?an e oai?/aneia ia/aei. Ii iia
aiineea yaioth eee ii e?aeiae ia?a eaaeouothny /aoeinoue, iaania/eaaea
iaaycaiiue “ii?yaeie”.

Oioy e ia n iieiie oaa?aiiinoueth, ii iiaeii auei i?aaeaeaeaoue iauaiu
i?iecaiaenoaa, iinoaaie, i?iaeaae, oeaiu e niioaaonoaaiii i?eaueue,
aeioiaeu. Neiaii, aeaenoaiaaoue a caaeaiiuo oneiaeyo.

?uiie anoue i?aaeaea anaai yeiiiie/aneay naiaiaea. Iaae
i?aaei?eieiaoaeai iiaoo aicauoaoueny oieueei caeii e onoaiaaeeaaaiua ei
ia?aie/aiey. Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea a oneiaeyo ?uiea naiaeeony
i?aeiouanoaaiii e onoaiiaeaieth ii?i inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e e iaeiaiaie nenoaia. Ana inoaeueiia ii?aaeaeyaony
i?iecaiaeeoaeai e iio?aaeoaeai, eo aieae, a a eaeie-oi noaiaie
neeaaeuaaaony neo/aeiui ia?acii.

Ca yeiiiie/aneoth naiaiaeo i?eoiaeeony ieaoeoue. Aaaeue naiaiaea
iaeiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey niioonoaoao iaeiia?aiaiii e naiaiaea ae?oaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, eioi?ua aieueiu iieoiaoue eee ia iieoiaoue aai
i?iaeoeoeeth, i?aaeeaaaoue ca iaa naie oeaiu, i?iaeaaaoue aio ii
ii?aaeaeaiiui oeaiai, aeeeoiaaoue naie oneiaey naeaeie.

I?e yoii anoanoaaiii, /oi oa, n eai i?eoiaeeony anooiaoue a
oicyenoaaiiua ioiioaiey, no?aiyony i?aaeaea anaai e naiae auaiaea, a
auaiaea iaeieo iiaeao noaoue oua?aii aeey ae?oaeo. E oiio aea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue-eiieo?aio aiiaua neeiiai auoanieoue naiaai iiiiiaioa n
?uiea.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oioei iu oiai eee ia oioei, ii, inaaeaay
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iai i?eaeaony eiaoue aeaei n iaii?aaeaeaiiinoueth
e iiauoaiiui ?eneii. Caaea/a iiaeeeiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey,
oicyenoaaiieea iiaiai oeia ninoieo ia a oii, /oiau eneaoue aeaei n
caaaaeiii i?aaeaeaeeiui ?acoeueoaoii, aeaei aac ?enea.

I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iiaeii aiiaua ieacaoueny aia
aeaea e aac aeaea. Iaaei ia ecaaaaoue iaecaaaeiiai ?enea, a oiaoue
/oanoaiaaoue ?ene, ioeaieaaoue aai noaiaiue e ia ia?aoiaeeoue ca
aeiionoeiua i?aaeaeu.

Ec neacaiiiai neaaeoao ia?aia i?aaeei iiaaaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaey: ia
ecaaaaoue ?enea, a i?aaeaeaeaoue aai, no?aiynue nieceoue aei aiciiaeii
aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy.

E niaeaeaieth, a iaoae yeiiiie/aneie iaoea e i?aeoeea oicyenoaiaaiey,
ii nouanoao, ionoonoaotho iauai?eciaiiua oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey i
oicyenoaaiiii ?enea. E?aeia neaai ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeu ioeaiee ?enea
i?eiaieoaeueii e oai eee eiui i?iecaiaenoaaiiui neooaoeeyi e aeaeai
aeayoaeueiinoe, ionoonoaotho ?ani?ino?aiaiiua i?aeoe/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee i iooyo e niiniaao oiaiueoaiey e i?aaeioa?auaiey ?enea.

Ioia/o, /oi oai?ey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea eeoue /anoe/ii
neiaeeeanue e a no?aiao ni noi?ie?iaaaoaeny ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie. Ii oai
eiaaony ia?iiiue iiuo ?eneiaiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, nii?iaiaeaeaaiue
iaaeyaeii aeaeeiuie i?eia?aie i?ioeaaoaiey e e?aoa, iiaeuaia e
aaie?ionoaa a caaeneiinoe io oiaeiai e iaoiaeiai iiaaaeaiey, a /anoe/ii
e aacaiey a ?aaeueiie ianoaiiaea ?enea.

Cia/eo, a ?uii/iie n?aaea naia aeeciue, i?ioeannu i?iecaiaenoaa,
?ani?aaeaeaiey, iaiaia, iio?aaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee o/ao i?aaeeai iiaaaeaiey
i?e iaee/ee iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe e ?enea, iiiu?ytho ca eo ciaiea e no?iai
iaeacuaatho ca iaciaiea.

Ioia/o, /oi eiathony ioaeaeueiua aeaeu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a eioi?uo ?ene iiaeaeaaony ?an/aoo, ioeaiea e aaea
iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey noaiaie ?enea io?aaioaiu e oai?aoe/anee, e
i?aeoe/anee. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai no?aoiaaiea eiouanoaa, caei?iauey e
aeecie, a oaeaea eioa?aeiia e eai?iia aeaei.

Iiiyoii, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao ia oceeo, e?aeia
niaoeeoe/aneeo aeaeao i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. I?eiaiyaiua
ii ioiioaieth e oaeei aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe iaoiaeu ioeaiee ?enea iau/ii
ia oaeaaony eniieueciaaoue a ae?oaeo iaeanoyo e noa?ao
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

E oiio aea no?aoiaie ?ene ioiineony i?aeiouanoaaiiui ia?acii e iauaeoo,
aia i?yiie caaeneiinoe io aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe. No?aoiaea aeiia,
aaoiiiaeey iau/ii ia o/eouaaao niiniaia eniieueciaaiey no?aooaiiai
iauaeoa.

I?e ioeaiea aea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea ian i?aaeaea anaai
eioa?anoao ia noaeueaa anaai iauaeoa, a ia?a iianiinoe e noaiaiue
iioaioeeaeueiiai oua?aa a oneiaeyo eiie?aoiie naeaeee i
nii?iaiaeaeathueo aa aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe.

E i?eia?o, no?aooy i?aaei?eyoea eee aeii io iiaea?a, no?aoiaia
aaaionoai aiaeece?oao oieueei iianiinoue aicai?aiey iauaeoa e ia?o
aicieeathuaai i?e yoii eiouanoaaiiiai o?iia, eioi?ue i?eaeaony
eiiiaine?iaaoue. Niioaaonoaaiii onoaiaaeeaathony e no?aoiaua ieaoaaee.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeue aea auioaeaeai eco/aoue ?ene, aicieeathuee i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa, caeoiea, i?iaeaaea i?iaeoeoeee e i?e anao ae?oaeo aeaeao
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. Aaaeue aai eioa?anoao ia eiiiainaoeey
?enea, a i?aaeioa?auaiea oua?aa, ii yoi oaea nianai eiia aeaei.

Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi a iaoae yeiiiieea ?oeiaiaeeoaeth aiiaua ia
i?eoiaeeeinue ?eneiaaoue. Eiia/ii, i?eoiaeeeinue.

Oicyenoaaiiua ?oeiaiaeeoaey anao o?iaiae ciatho, /oi oaeia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue, nauoiaie, niaaaeai/aneee ?ene a ieaiiaie yeiiiieea.
Ii yoi ia oio eee nianai ia oio ?ene, /oi a yeiiiieea ?uii/iiai oeia.

A aee?aeoeaiie yeiiiieea i?eoiaeeeinue eiaoue aeaei n ?eneii
iaauiieiaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaia, ia?ooaiee aeiaiai?iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa, iaaeiiinoaaie i?iaeoeoeee e o. ae. , iaoneiaeaiiuo /aua
anaai ianiaethaeaieai i?aaee e ii?i oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A
?uii/iie yeiiiieea ia?ainoaiaiiuie yeaiaioaie ?enea yaeythony
iai?aaeaeaeeiinoue eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea, ni?ina oeai e iiaaaeaiey
iio?aaeoaey.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaoe i?eau/iua ciaiey e iaauee iiaaaeaiey
i?eiaieoaeueii e oi?iai oicyenoaaiiiai ?enea, oa?aeoa?iui aeey
oeaio?aeeciaaiii oi?aaeyaiie yeiiiieee, yaii iaaeinoaoi/iu, /oiau oiaoue
i?aiaeieaaaoue iianiinoe yeiiiieee ?uii/iiai oeia. E oiio aea
i?eoiaeeony eiaoue aeaei n “iaeiaeaieai” oaeoi?ia ?uii/iiai e
ia?uii/iiai oeia.

Yoi e i?aaeii?aaeaeeei nooue aeaeueiaeoaai eceiaeaiey iaoa?eaea, aai
eiioeaio?aoeeth ia iniiaao iaoiaeeee ioeaiee oicyenoaaiiiai ?enea,
aeaaiui ia?acii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ioaeaeueiua
iieiaeaiey eioi?ie ioiinyony e ethaiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiio ?eneo aia
caaeneiinoe io oiai, eoi yaeyaony noauaeoii i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaeiaei nia/aea noi?ioee?oai e ooi/iei oa?ieiieiae/aneoth aaco oai?ee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii aneaaenoaea oiai, /oi
eniieuecoaiua a auoo a aeaaea a aeciana e iaiaaeaeiaioa iiiyoey,
ioiinyueany e ?eneiaiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao, aanueia /anoi ?anieua/aou
e ia/aoee.

I?aaeaea anaai ii?aaeaeei enoiaeiia, aaceniia iiiyoea “?ene”, eiay a
aeaeo, /oi yoi oa?ica, iianiinoue aicieeiiaaiey oua?aa a naiii oe?ieii
niunea neiaa.

Iiae oicyenoaaiiui (i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei) aoaeai iiieiaoue ?ene,
aicieeathuee i?e ethauo aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe, naycaiiuo n
i?iecaiaenoaii i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa?ia, oneoa, eo ?aaeecaoeeae,
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuie, e oeiainiauie iia?aoeeyie, eiiia?oeeae,
inouanoaeaieai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo i?iaeoia.

A ?anniao?eaaaiuo aeaeao aeayoaeueiinoe i?eoiaeeony eiaoue aeaea n
eniieueciaaieai e ia?auaieai iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo, oeiainiauo,
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo (eioaeeaeooaeueiuo) ?ano?nia, oae /oi ?ene naycai n
oa?icie iieiie eee /anoe/iie iioa?e yoeo ?ano?nia.

A eoiaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?ene oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae iianiinoue
iioaioeeaeueii aiciiaeiie, aa?iyoiie iioa?e ?ano?nia eee iaaeiiieo/aiey
aeioiaeia ii n?aaiaieth n aa?eaioii, ?ann/eoaiiui ia ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea ?ano?nia a aeaiiii aeaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eia/a aiai?y, ?ene anoue oa?ica oiai, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iiianao
iioa?e a aeaea aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia naa?o i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
i?iaiicii, i?ia?aiiie aai aeaenoaee, eeai iieo/eo aeioiaeu ieaea oao, ia
eioi?ua ii ?ann/eouaae.

Iiae/a?eio aua ?ac: i?e onoaiiaeaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea iaaei
?acee/aoue iiiyoey “?anoiae”, “oauoee”, “iioa?e”. Ethaay
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue iaecaaaeii naycaia n ?anoiaeaie,
oiaaea eae oauoee eiatho ianoi i?e iaaeaaii?eyoiii noa/aiee
ianoiyoaeuenoa, i?in/aoao e i?aaenoaaeytho aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu
naa?o iaia/aiiuo.

Neacaiiia auoa oa?aeoa?ecoao eaoaai?eth “?ene” n ea/anoaaiiie noi?iiu,
ii nicaeaao iniiao aeey ia?aaiaea iiiyoey “i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?ene” a
eiee/anoaaiiia. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee ?ene – yoi iianiinoue iioa?e
?ano?nia eee aeioiaea, oi nouanoaoao aai eiee/anoaaiiay ia?a,
ii?aaeaeyaiay aaniethoiui eee ioiineoaeueiui o?iaiai iioa?ue.

A aaniethoiii au?aaeaiee ?ene iiaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny aaee/eiie
aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue a iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiii (oece/aneii) eee
noieiinoiii (aeaiaaeiii) au?aaeaiee, anee oieueei oua?a iiaeaeaaony
oaeiio ecia?aieth.

A ioiineoaeueiii au?aaeaiee ?ene ii?aaeaeyaony eae aaee/eia aiciiaeiuo
iioa?ue, ioianaiiay e iaeioi?ie aaca, a aeaea eioi?ie iaeaieaa oaeiaii
i?eieiaoue eeai eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea i?aaei?eieiaoaey, eeai iauea
cao?aou ?ano?nia ia aeaiiue aeae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
eeai iaeeaeaaiue aeioiae (i?eaueue) io i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

I?eiaieoaeueii e i?aaei?eyoeth a ea/anoaa aacu aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
ioiineoaeueiie aaee/eiu ?enea oeaeaniia?acii a?aoue noieiinoue iniiaiuo
oiiaeia e iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey eee iaia/aiiua noiia?iua
cao?aou ia aeaiiue aeae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eiay a
aeaeo eae oaeouea cao?aou, oae e eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey, eee ?an/aoiue
aeioiae (i?eaueue).

Auai? oie eee eiie aacu ia eiaao i?eioeeieaeueiiai cia/aiey, ii
neaaeoao i?aaeii/anoue iieacaoaeue, ii?aaeaeyaiue n aunieie noaiaiueth
aeinoiaa?iinoe.

A aeaeueiaeoai aaciaua iieacaoaee, eniieuecoaiua aeey n?aaiaiey, aoaeai
iacuaaoue ?an/aoiuie, eee iaeeaeaaiuie, iieacaoaeyie i?eauee, cao?ao,
au?o/ee. Cia/aiey yoeo iieacaoaeae, eae oaea ecaanoii, ii?aaeaeythony
i?e ?ac?aaioea aecian-ieaia, a i?ioeanna oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai
iainiiaaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai i?iaeoa, naeaeee.

Niioaaonoaaiii iioa?yie aoaeai n/eoaoue nieaeaiea i?eauee, aeioiaea a
n?aaiaiee n iaeeaeaaiuie aaee/eiaie. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea iioa?e – yoi
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue neo/aeiia nieaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?eauee.

Eiaiii aaee/eia oaeeo iioa?ue e oa?aeoa?ecoao noaiaiue ?enea. Cia/eo,
aiaeec ?enea naycai i?aaeaea anaai n eco/aieai iioa?ue.

Aeaeu iioa?ue e ?enea

Eae neaaeoao ec i?aaeuaeouaai eceiaeaiey, oeaio?aeueiia ianoi a ioeaiea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea caieiatho aiaeec e i?iaiice?iaaiea
aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue ?ano?nia i?e inouanoaeaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaiiieiath aua ?ac, /oi eiaaony a aeaeo ia ?anoiae ?ano?nia, iauaeoeaii
iaoneiaeaiiue oa?aeoa?ii e ianooaaii i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo aeaenoaee, a
neo/aeiua, iai?aaeaeaeaiiua, ii iioaioeeaeueii aiciiaeiua iioa?e,
aicieeathuea aneaaenoaea ioeeiiaiey ?aaeueiiai oiaea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa io caaeoiaiiiai noeaia?ey.

*oiau ioeaieoue aa?iyoiinoue oao eee eiuo iioa?ue, iaoneiaeaiiuo
?acaeoeai niauoee ii iai?aaeaeaeaiiiio aa?eaioo, neaaeoao i?aaeaea anaai
ciaoue ana aeaeu iioa?ue, naycaiiuo n i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii, e oiaoue
ca?aiaa en/eneeoue eo eee ecia?eoue eae aa?iyoiua i?iaiiciua aaee/eiu.
I?e yoii anoanoaaiii aeaeaiea ioeaieoue eaaeaeue ec aeaeia iioa?ue a
eiee/anoaaiiii ecia?aiee e oiaoue naanoe eo aiaaeeii, /oi, e
niaeaeaieth, aeaeaei ia anaaaea oaeaaony naeaeaoue.

Aiai?y ia en/eneaiee aa?iyoiuo iioa?ue a i?ioeanna eo i?iaiice?iaaiey,
iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo iaeii aaaeiia ianoiyoaeuenoai. Neo/aeiia ?acaeoea
niauoee, ieacuaathuaa aeeyiea ia oiae e ?acoeueoaou
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, niiniaii i?eaiaeeoue ia oieueei e iioa?yi a aeaea
iiauoaiiuo cao?ao ?ano?nia e nieaeaiey eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa. Iaeii e oi
aea neo/aeiia niauoea iiaeao aucaaoue oaaee/aiea cao?ao iaeiiai aeaea
?ano?nia e nieaeaiea cao?ao ae?oaiai aeaea, o. a. ia?yaeo n iiauoaiiuie
cao?aoaie iaeieo ?ano?nia iiaeao iaaethaeaoueny yeiiiiey ae?oaeo.

Oae /oi, anee neo/aeiia niauoea ieacuaaao aeaieiia aicaeaenoaea ia
eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eiaao iaaeaaii?eyoiua e
aeaaii?eyoiua iineaaenoaey, i?e ioeaiea ?enea iaaei a ?aaiie noaiaie
o/eouaaoue e oa e ae?oaea. Eia/a aiai?y, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee noiia?iuo
aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue neaaeoao au/eoaoue ec ?an/aoiuo iioa?ue
nii?iaiaeaeathuee eo auea?uo.

Iioa?e, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
oeaeaniia?acii ?acaeaeyoue ia iaoa?eaeueiua, o?oaeiaua, oeiainiaua,
iioa?e a?aiaie, niaoeeaeueiua aeaeu iioa?ue.

Iaoa?eaeueiua aeaeu iioa?ue i?iyaeythony a iai?aaeoniio?aiiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei i?iaeoii aeiiieieoaeueiuo cao?aoao eee i?yiuo
iioa?yo iai?oaeiaaiey, eiouanoaa, i?iaeoeoeee, nu?uey, yia?aee e o. ae.
Ii ioiioaieth e eaaeaeiio ioaeaeueiiio ec ia?a/eneaiiuo aeaeia iioa?ue
i?eiaieiu naie aaeeieoeu ecia?aiey.

Iaeaieaa anoanoaaiii ecia?youe iaoa?eaeueiua iioa?e a oao aea
aaeeieoeao, a eioi?uo ecia?yaony eiee/anoai aeaiiiai aeaea iaoa?eaeueiuo
?ano?nia, o. a. a oece/aneeo aaeeieoeao aana, iauaia, ieiuaaee e ae?.

Iaeiaei naanoe aiaaeeii iioa?e, ecia?yaiua a ?aciuo aaeeieoeao, e
au?aceoue eo iaeiie aaee/eiie ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. Iaeuecy
neeaaeuaaoue eeeia?aiiu e iao?u. Iiyoiio i?aeoe/anee iaecaaaeii
en/eneaiea iioa?ue a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee, a aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao.
Aeey yoiai iioa?e a oece/aneii ecia?aiee ia?aaiaeyony a noieiinoiia
ecia?aiea iooai oiiiaeaiey ia oeaio aaeeieoeu niioaaonoaothuaai
iaoa?eaeueiiai ?ano?na.

Aeey aeinoaoi/ii cia/eoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia,
noieiinoue eioi?uo ca?aiaa ecaanoia, iioa?e n?aco iiaeii ioeaieaaoue a
aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee.

Eiay ioeaieo aa?iyoiuo iioa?ue ii eaaeaeiio ec ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia
iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee, iiaeii naanoe eo
aiaaeeii, niaethaeay i?e yoii i?aaeea aeaenoaee ni neo/aeiuie aaee/eiaie
e eo aa?iyoiinoyie.

O?oaeiaua iioa?e i?aaenoaaeytho iioa?e ?aai/aai a?aiaie, aucaaiiua
neo/aeiuie, iai?aaeaeaeaiiuie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. A iaiin?aaenoaaiiii
ecia?aiee o?oaeiaua iioa?e au?aaeathony a /aeiaaei-/anao, /aeiaaei-aeiyo
eee i?inoi /anao ?aai/aai a?aiaie.

Ia?aaiae o?oaeiauo iioa?ue a noieiinoiia, aeaiaaeiia au?aaeaiea
inouanoaeyaony iooai oiiiaeaiey o?oaei/ania ia noieiinoue (oeaio)
iaeiiai /ana.

Oeiainiaua iioa?e – yoi i?yiie aeaiaaeiue oua?a, naycaiiue n
iai?aaeoniio?aiiuie ieaoaaeaie, auieaoie oo?aoia, oieaoie
aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaeiaia, iioa?ae aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e oeaiiuo aoiaa.
E?iia oiai, oeiainiaua iioa?e iiaoo auoue i?e iaaeiiieo/aiee eee
iaiieo/aiee aeaiaa ec i?aaeoniio?aiiuo enoi/ieeia, i?e iaaica?aoa
aeieaia, iaiieaoa iieoiaoaeai iinoaaeaiiie aio i?iaeoeoeee, oiaiueoaiee
au?o/ee aneaaenoaea nieaeaiey oeai ia ?aaeecoaiua i?iaeoeoeeth e oneoae.

Iniaua aeaeu aeaiaaeiiai oua?aa naycaiu n eioeyoeeae, eciaiaieai
aaethoiiai eo?na ?oaey, aeiiieieoaeueiui e ocaeiiaiiiio ecuyoeai
n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoee a ainoaea?noaaiiue (?anioaeeeaineee, ianoiue)
athaeaeao.

Ia?yaeo n ieii/aoaeueiuie, aacaica?aoiuie iiaoo auoue e a?aiaiiua
oeiainiaua iioa?e, iaoneiaeaiiua caii?aaeeaaieai n/aoia, ianaiaa?aiaiiie
auaea/ae n?aaenoa, ion?i/eie auieaou aeieaia.

Iioa?e a?aiaie nouanoaotho oiaaea, eiaaea i?ioeann
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe eaeao iaaeeaiiaa, /ai auei
iaia/aii. I?yiay ioeaiea oaeeo iioa?ue inouanoaeyaony a /anao, aeiyo,
iaaeaeyo, ianyoeao caiacaeuaaiey a iieo/aiee iaia/aiiiai ?acoeueoaoa.
*oiau ia?aaanoe ioeaieo iioa?ue a?aiaie a noieiinoiia ecia?aiea,
iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue, e eaeei iioa?yi aeioiaea, i?eauee io
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa niiniaiu i?eaiaeeoue neo/aeiua iioa?e a?aiaie.

Niaoeeaeueiua aeaeu iioa?ue i?iyaeythony a aeaea iaianaiey oua?aa
caei?iaueth e aeecie ethaeae, ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, i?anoeaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, a oaeaea aneaaenoaea ae?oaeo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
nioeeaeueiuo e ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo iineaaenoaee. *aua anaai
niaoeeaeueiua aeaeu iioa?ue e?aeia o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue a
eiee/anoaaiiii, oai aieaa a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee.

Anoanoaaiii, /oi aeey eaaeaeiai ec aeaeia iioa?ue enoiaeioth ioeaieo
aiciiaeiinoe eo aicieeiiaaiey e aaee/eiu neaaeoao i?iecaiaeeoue ca
ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy, ioaaouaathuaa ianyoe, aiae, n?ie inouanoaeaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca aa?iyoiuo iioa?ue aeey ioeaiee
?enea aaaeii ia oieueei onoaiiaeoue ana enoi/ieee ?enea, ii e auyaeoue,
eaeea enoi/ieee i?aaaee?otho.

Aiaeece?oy ia?a/eneaiiua auoa aeaeu iioa?ue, iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeaeeoue
aa?iyoiua iioa?e ia ii?aaeaeythuea e iiai/iua, enoiaey ec naiie iauae
ioeaiee eo aaee/eiu.

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea iiai/iua iioa?e iiaoo
auoue eneeth/aiu a eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea o?iaiy ?enea. Anee a /enea
?anniao?eaaaiuo iioa?ue auaeaeyaony iaeei aeae, eioi?ue eeai ii
aaee/eia, eeai ii aa?iyoiinoe aicieeiiaaiey caaaaeiii iiaeaaeyao
inoaeueiua, oi i?e eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea o?iaiy ?enea a ?an/ao iiaeii
i?eieiaoue oieueei yoio aeae iioa?ue.

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aiaeeca oaeaeinue
“iooeeueo?iaaoue” iaeaieaa aaniiua ii aaee/eia e aa?iyoiinoe
aicieeiiaaiey aeaeu iioa?ue. Aeaeaa iaaeeaaeeo au/eaieoue neo/aeiua
ninoaaeythuea iioa?ue e ioaeaeeoue eo io nenoaiaoe/anee iiaoi?ythueony.

A i?eioeeia iaaei o/eouaaoue oieueei neo/aeiua iioa?e, ia
iiaeaeathueany i?yiiio ?an/aoo, iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio i?iaiice?iaaieth e
iioiio ia o/oaiiua a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneii i?iaeoa. Anee iioa?e iiaeii
ca?aiaa i?aaeaeaeaoue, oi iie aeieaeiu ?anniao?eaaoueny ia eae iioa?e, a
eae iaecaaaeiua ?anoiaeu e aeeth/aoueny a ?an/aoioth eaeueeoeyoeeth.

Oae, i?aaeaeaeeiia aeaeaeaiea oeai, iaeiaia, eo eciaiaiea a oiaea
inouanoaeaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iaycai
o/anoue a aecian-ieaia.

Oieueei a neeo ianiaa?oainoaa eniieuecoaiuo iaoiaeia ?an/aoa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe eee iaaeinoaoi/ii aeoaieie
i?i?aaioee i?aaei?eieiaoaeai aecian-ieaia nenoaiaoe/aneea ioeaee iiaoo
?anniao?eaaoueny eae iioa?e a oii niunea, /oi iie niiniaiu eciaieoue
iaeeaeaaiue ?acoeueoao a ooaeooth noi?iio.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeaea /ai ioeaieaaoue ?ene, iaoneiaeaiiue
aeaenoaeai noaoai neo/aeiuo oaeoi?ia, e?aeia aeaeaoaeueii ioaeaeeoue
nenoaiaoe/aneoth ninoaaeythuoth iioa?e io neo/aeiuo. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii e n
iiceoeee iaoaiaoe/aneie ei??aeoiinoe, oae eae i?ioeaaeo?u aeaenoaee ni
neo/aeiuie aaee/eiaie nouanoaaiii ioee/athony io i?ioeaaeo? aeaenoaee n
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuie aaee/eiaie.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue ianeieueei aeaoaeueiaa no?oeoo?o iioa?ue a
caaeneiinoe io aeaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, o. a,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, eiiia?/aneiai e oeiainiaiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
I?e yoii auaeaeei iaeaieaa aaaeiua oaeoi?u, ii?iaeaeathuea ?ene, e
oeaaeai, eaeiau eo iniiaiua i?iyaeaiey. Ciaiea oaeoi?ia ?enea iicaieyao
i?eieiaoue caaeaaia?aiaiiua ia?u, ineaaeythuea eo aeaenoaea.

I?aaeaea /ai ia?aeoe e aiaeeco i?iyaeaiee neo/aeiuo iioa?ue a
i?iecaiaenoaaiiii, eiiia?/aneii, oeiainiaii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
oeaaeai ia iaeioi?ua niaoeeoe/aneea enoi/ieee iioa?ue e aeeythuea ia ieo
oaeoi?u.

E iei neaaeoao ioianoe iioa?e io aicaeaenoaey iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo
iieeoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Oaeea iioa?e ii?iaeaeatho iieeoe/aneee ?ene. Ii
i?iyaeyaony a oi?ia iaiaeeaeaiiiai, iaoneiaeaiiiai iieeoe/aneeie
niia?aaeaieyie e niauoeyie eciaiaiey oneiaee oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, nicaeathueie iaaeaaii?eyoiue aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey oii e
oai naiui niiniaiuie i?eaanoe e iiauoaiiui cao?aoai ?ano?nia e iioa?a
i?eauee.

Oeie/iua enoi/ieee oaeiai ?enea – oaaee/aiea iaeiaiauo noaaie,
aaaaeaiea i?eioaeeoaeueiuo io/eneaiee, eciaiaiea aeiaiai?iuo oneiaee,
o?ainoi?iaoeey oi?i e ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe, io/oaeaeaiea eiouanoaa e
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ii iieeoe/aneei iioeaai. Aaee/eio aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue
e ii?aaeaeyaioth eie noaiaiue ?enea a yoii neo/aa i/aiue o?oaeii
i?aaeaeaeaoue.

Aeiaieueii aeecee ii iai?aaeaeaeeiinoe iioa?e, iaoneiaeaiiua noeoeeiuie
aaaenoaeyie, a oaeaea ai?ianoaii e ?yeaoii.

Aanueia niaoeeoe/iu aiciiaeiua iioa?e, aucaaiiua ianiaa?oainoaii
iaoiaeieiaee e iaeiiiaoaioiinoueth eeoe, oi?ie?othueo aecian-ieai e
inouanoaeythueo ?an/ao i?eauee e aeioiaea. Anee a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey
yoeo oaeoi?ia aaee/eiu iaeeaeaaiuo cia/aiee i?eauee e aeioiaea io
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai i?iaeoa aoaeoo caauoaiu, a ?aaeueii iieo/aiiua
?acoeueoaou ieaaeoony ieaea, oi ?acieoea iiiaaiea aini?eieiaaony eae
iioa?e.

Oioy a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe anee au iiieiaeueiua cia/aiey i?eauee
(aeioiaea) auee ii?aaeaeaiu ei??aeoii, oi oa?ica oaeeo oneiaiuo iioa?ue
iiaea au e ia o/eouaaoueny. Ii eiaaea caauoaiea ?an/aoiie i?eauee
i?iecioei, oi aa “iaaeiai?” caaaaeiii aoaeao n/eoaoueny oua?aii, e ?ene
iiaeiaiuo iioa?ue nouanoaoao.

Iniaia ianoi caieiatho iioa?e i?aaei?eieiaoaey, iaoneiaeaiiua
iaaeia?iniaanoiinoueth eee ianinoiyoaeueiinoueth eiiiaiueiiia. ?ene
ieacaoueny iaiaiooui a naeaeea eee noieeiooueny n
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoueth aeieaeieea, iaaica?aoiinoueth aeieaa, e
niaeaeaieth, aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeai.

Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei aieaa o?eaeaeueiua neooaoeee oa?icu iioa?ue e ?enea
i?eiaieoaeueii e oeacaiiui aeaeai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iiae/a?eiai
niiaa: iieiinoueth ecaaaeaoue ?enea i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii, ii, ciay,
/oi ii?iaeaeaao iioa?e, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue niiniaai nieceoue eo oa?ico,
oiaiueoay aeaenoaea iaaeaaii?eyoiiai oaeoi?a.

Eoae, ioa?aeoa?ecoai iioa?e, iioaioeeaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue eioi?uo
ii?iaeaeaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee ?ene.

A. Iioa?e a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa

1. Nieaeaiea iaia/aiiuo iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
aneaaenoaea oiaiueoaiey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, i?inoiy
iai?oaeiaaiey eee iaaeieniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae,
iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie, ionoonoaey iaiaoiaeeiiai eiee/anoaa enoiaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia, iiauoaiiiai i?ioeaioa a?aea aaaeao e iaaeiiieo/aieth
caieaie?iaaiiie au?o/ee. Aa?iyoiua iioa?e DD a yoii neo/aa a noieiinoiii
au?aaeaiee ii?aaeaeythony ii oi?ioea

DD= DIoOe , aaea

DI – aa?iyoiia noiia?iia oiaiueoaiea iauaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee;

Oe – oeaia ?aaeecaoeee aaeeieoeu iauaia i?iaeoeoeee.

2. Nieaeaiea oeai, ii eioi?ui iaia/aaony ?aaeeciaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth, a
nayce n iaaeinoaoi/iui ea/anoaii, iaaeaaii?eyoiui eciaiaieai ?uii/iie
eiiuthieoo?u, iaaeaieai ni?ina, oeaiiaie eioeyoeeae i?eaiaeeo e
aa?iyoiui iioa?yi, ii?aaeaeyaiui ii oi?ioea

DD= DOeoI , aaea

DOe – aa?iyoiia oiaiueoaiea oeaiu aaeeieoeu iauaia i?iaeoeoeee;

I – iauee iauai iaia/aiiie e auioneo e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.

3. Iiauoaiiua iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou, iaoneiaeaiiua ia?a?anoiaeii
iaoa?eaeia, nu?uey, oiieeaa, yia?aee, aaaeoo e iioa?yi, ii?aaeaeyaiui
caaeneiinoueth

DD=DM1xOe1+DI2oOe2+… , aaea

DM – aa?iyoiue ia?a?anoiae iaoa?eaeueiiai ?ano?na;

Oe – oeaia aaeeieoeu ?ano?na.

4. Ae?oaea iiauoaiiua ecaea?aeee, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue aneaaenoaea
aunieeo o?ainii?oiuo ?anoiaeia, oi?aiauo ecaea?aeae, iaeeaaeiuo e
ae?oaeo iiai/iuo ?anoiaeia.

5. Ia?a?anoiae iaia/aiiie aaee/eiu oiiaea iieaou o?oaea aneaaenoaea
i?aauoaiey ?an/aoiie /eneaiiinoe eeai aneaaenoaea auieaou aieaa
aunieiai, /ai caieaie?iaaii, o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou ioaeaeueiui
?aaioieeai.

6. Oieaoa iiauoaiiuo io/eneaiee e iaeiaia, anee a i?ioeanna
inouanoaeaiey aecian-ieaia noaaee io/eneaiee e iaeiaia eciaiyony a
iaaeaaii?eyoioth aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey noi?iio.

7. Ia neaaeoao oioneaoue ec aeaeo e aiciiaeiinoe iioa?ue a aeaea
oo?aoia, anoanoaaiiie oauee, a oaeaea iaoneiaeaiiuo noeoeeiuie
aaaenoaeyie, oioy o/anoue oaeea iioa?e ?an/aoiui ia?acii ia
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui.

A. Iioa?e a eiiia?/aneii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa

1. Iaaeaaii?eyoiia eciaiaiea (iiauoaiea) caeoii/iie oeaiu oiaa?a a
i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai i?iaeoa e ia
aeiee?iaaiiia oneiaeyie aeiaiai?a i caeoiea i?eaiaeeo e aa?iyoiui
iioa?yi (DD), ii?aaeaeyaiui ii oi?ioea

DD=Io DOe, aaea

I- iauai caeoiie oiaa?a a oece/aneii ecia?aiee;

DOe – aa?iyoiia iiauoaiea caeoii/iie oeaiu.

2. Iai?aaeaeaeaiiia nieaeaiea iauaia caeoiee a n?aaiaiee n iaia/aiiui
aucuaaao oiaiueoaiea iauaia ?aaeecaoeee, o. a. ianooaaa anae iia?aoeee.
Iioa?y i?eauee (aeioiaea) en/eneyaony eae i?iecaaaeaiea nieaeaiey iauaia
caeoiee ia aaee/eio i?eauee (aeioiaea), i?eoiaeyuaeny ia aaeeieoeo
iauaia ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi oiaiueoaiea iauaia caeoiee e ?aaeecaoeee
iiaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoueny nieaeaieai ?anoiaeia, eai, e?iia oae iacuaaaiuo
oneiaii-iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia, nouanoaotho cao?aou, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiua
iauaio iia?aoeee.

3. Iioa?e oiaa?a a i?ioeanna ia?auaiey (o?ainii?oe?iaee, o?aiaiey) eee
iioa?e ea/anoaa, iio?aaeoaeueneie oeaiiinoe oiaa?a, i?eaiaeyuea e
nieaeaieth aai noieiinoe. O?iaaiue oaeiai oua?aa onoaiaaeeaaaony eae
i?iecaaaeaiea eiee/anoaa ooa?yiiiai oiaa?a ia caeoii/ioth oeaio eee
i?iecaaaeaiea enii?/aiiiai eiee/anoaa oiaa?a ia nieaeaiea ioioneiie
oeaiu.

4. Oaaee/aiea ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey ii n?aaiaieth n iaia/aiiuie
i?eaiaeeo e aaeaeaaoiiio nieaeaieth aeioiaea, i?eauee. N?aaee aiciiaeiuo
i?e/ei iiauoaiey ecaea?aeae iiaoo auoue iai?aaeaeaeaiiua iioeeiu,
io/eneaiey, oo?aou, aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu.

5. Nieaeaiea oeaiu, ii eioi?ie ?aaeecoaony oiaa?, ii n?aaiaieth n
i?iaeoiie aucuaaao iioa?e a ?acia?a iauaia ?aaeecaoeee, oiiiaeaiiiai ia
oiaiueoaiea oeaiu.

6. Nieaeaiea iauaia ?aaeecaoeee, iaoneiaeaiiia iai?aaeneacoaiui
iaaeaieai ni?ina eee iio?aaiinoe a oiaa?a, auoaniaieai aai
eiieo?e?othueie oiaa?aie, ia?aie/aieyie ia i?iaeaaeo, niiniaii aucaaoue
iioa?e aeioiaea e i?eauee, ecia?yaiua i?iecaaaeaieai iauaia iai?iaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee ia ioioneioth oeaio.

A. Iioa?e a oeiainiaii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, oeiainiaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, ii nooe, yoi oi
aea eiiia?/aneia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, ii oiaa?ii caeanue yaeythony
aeaiueae, oeaiiua aoiaae, aaethoa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iioa?e, a oeaeii
oa?aeoa?iua aeey eiiia?/aneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, i?enoue e
oeiainiaiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao.

E ana aea i?e ioeaiea oeiainiaiai ?enea iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue oaeea
niaoeeoe/aneea oaeoi?u, eae iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue iaeiiai ec aaaioia
oeiainiaie naeaeee, eciaiaiea eo?na aeaiaa, aaethou, oeaiiuo aoiaa,
ia?aie/aiey ia aaethoii-aeaiaaeiua iia?aoeee, aiciiaeiua ecuyoey
ii?aaeaeaiiie /anoe oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iieacaoaee ?enea e iaoiaeu aai ioeaiee

Ianiiiaiii, /oi ?ene anoue aa?iyoiinoiay eaoaai?ey, e a yoii niunea
iaeaieaa iainiiaaiii n iao/iuo iiceoeee oa?aeoa?eciaaoue e ecia?eoue aai
eae aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy iioa?ue.

No?iai aiai?y, i?e ananoi?iiiae ioeaiea ?enea neaaeiaaei au
onoaiaaeeaaoue aeey eaaeaeiai aaniethoiiai eee ioiineoaeueiiai cia/aiey
aaee/eiu aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue niioaaonoaothuoth aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey
oaeie aaee/eiu.

?en. 1. Noaia cii ?enea

Iino?iaiea e?eaie aa?iyoiinoae (eee oaaeeoeu) i?ecaaii auoue enoiaeiie
noaaeeae ioeaiee ?enea. Ii i?eiaieoaeueii e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao yoi
/aua anaai /?acau/aeii neiaeiay caaea/a. Iiyoiio i?aeoe/anee i?eoiaeeony
ia?aie/eaaoueny oi?iuaiiuie iiaeoiaeaie, ioeaieaay ?ene ii iaeiiio eee
ianeieueeei, iieacaoaeyi, i?aaenoaaeythuei iaiauaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee,
iaeaieaa aaaeiua aeey noaeaeaiey i i?eaieaiinoe ?enea.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua ec aeaaiuo iieacaoaeae ?enea. N yoie oeaeueth
nia/aea auaeaeei ii?aaeaeaiiua iaeanoe eee ciiu ?enea a caaeneiinoe io
aaee/eiu iioa?ue (?en. 1).

Iaeanoue, a eioi?ie iioa?e ia iaeeaeathony, iaciaai aac?eneiaie ciiie,
ae niioaaonoaotho ioeaaua iioa?e eee io?eoeaoaeueiua (i?aauoaiea
i?eauee).

Iiae ciiie aeiionoeiiai ?enea aoaeai iiieiaoue iaeanoue, a i?aaeaeao
eioi?ie aeaiiue aeae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe nio?aiyao
naith yeiiiie/aneoth oeaeaniia?aciinoue, o. a. iioa?e eiatho ianoi, ii
iie iaiueoa iaeeaeaaiie i?eauee.

A?aieoea ciiu aeiionoeiiai ?enea niioaaonoaoao o?iaith iioa?ue, ?aaiiio
?an/aoiie i?eauee io i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Neaaeothuoth aieaa iianioth iaeanoue aoaeai iacuaaoue ciiie
e?eoe/aneiai ?enea. Yoi iaeanoue, oa?aeoa?ecoaiay aiciiaeiinoueth
iioa?ue, i?aauoathueo aaee/eio iaeeaeaaiie i?eauee, aieioue aei aaee/eiu
iieiie ?an/aoiie au?o/ee io i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, i?aaenoaaeythuae
noiio cao?ao e i?eauee.

Eia/a aiai?y, ciia e?eoe/aneiai ?enea oa?aeoa?ecoaony iianiinoueth
iioa?ue, eioi?ua caaaaeiii i?aauoatho iaeeaeaaioth i?eaueue e a
iaeneioia iiaoo i?eaanoe e iaaiciauaaiie iioa?a anao n?aaenoa,
aeiaeaiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeai a aeaei. A iineaaeiai neo/aa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia oieueei ia iieo/aao io naeaeee ieeaeiai aeioiaea,
ii ianao oauoee a noiia anao aanieiaeiuo cao?ao.

E?iia e?eoe/aneiai, oeaeaniia?acii ?anniio?aoue aua aieaa ono?aoathuee
eaoano?ioe/aneee ?ene. Ciia eaoano?ioe/aneiai ?enea i?aaenoaaeyao
iaeanoue iioa?ue, eioi?ua ii naiae aaee/eia i?aainoiaeyo e?eoe/aneee
o?iaaiue e a iaeneioia iiaoo aeinoeaaoue aaee/eiu, ?aaiie eiouanoaaiiiio
ninoiyieth i?aaei?eieiaoaey. Eaoano?ioe/aneee ?ene niiniaai i?eaanoe e
e?aoo, aaie?ionoao i?aaei?eyoey, aai cae?uoeth e ?ani?iaeaaea eiouanoaa.

E eaoaai?ee eaoano?ioe/aneiai neaaeoao ioiineoue aia caaeneiinoe io
eiouanoaaiiiai eee aeaiaaeiiai oua?aa ?ene, naycaiiue n i?yiie
iianiinoueth aeey aeecie ethaeae eee aicieeiiaaieai yeieiae/aneeo
eaoano?io.

Iaeaieaa iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?enea aeaao oae iacuaaaiay e?eaay
?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae iioa?e eee a?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea
caaeneiinoe aa?iyoiinoe iioa?ue io eo o?iaiy, iieacuaathuaa, ianeieueei
aa?iyoii aicieeiiaaiea oao eee eiuo iioa?ue.

*oiau onoaiiaeoue aeae oeie/iie e?eaie aa?iyoiinoe iioa?ue, ?anniio?ei
i?eaueue eae neo/aeioth aaee/eio e iino?iei aia/aea e?eaoth
?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae iieo/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy i?eauee
(?en. 2).

I?e iino?iaiee e?eaie ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae iieo/aiey i?eauee
i?eiyou neaaeothuea i?aaeiieiaeaiey.

1. Iaeaieaa aa?iyoii iieo/aiea i?eauee, ?aaiie ?an/aoiie aaee/eia –
I??. Aa?iyoiinoue (A?) iieo/aiey oaeie i?eauee iaeneiaeueia,
niioaaonoaaiii cia/aiea I?? iiaeii n/eoaoue iaoaiaoe/aneei iaeeaeaieai
i?eauee.

Aa?iyoiinoue iieo/aiey i?eauee, aieueoae eee iaiueoae ii n?aaiaieth n
?an/aoiie, oai ieaea, /ai aieueoa oaeay i?eaueue ioee/aaony io
?an/aoiie, o. a. cia/aiey aa?iyoiinoae ioeeiiaiey io ?an/aoiie i?eauee
iiiioiiii oauaatho i?e ?inoa ioeeiiaiee.

2. Iioa?yie i?eauee (DI?) n/eoaaony aa oiaiueoaiea a n?aaiaiee n
?an/aoiie aaee/eiie I??. Anee ?aaeueiay i?eaueue ?aaia I?, oi

DI?=I??-I? .

?en. 2. Oeie/iay e?eaay aa?iyoiinoae iieo/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy
i?eauee

3. Aa?iyoiinoue eneeth/eoaeueii aieueoeo (oai?aoe/anee aaneiia/iuo)
iioa?ue i?aeoe/anee ?aaia ioeth, oae eae iioa?e caaaaeiii eiatho aa?oiee
i?aaeae (eneeth/ay iioa?e, eioi?ua ia i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui
ioeaieoue eiee/anoaaiii).

Eiia/ii i?eiyoua aeiiouaiey a eaeie-oi noaiaie nii?iu, eai iie
aeaenoaeoaeueii iiaoo ia niaethaeaoueny aeey anao aeaeia ?enea. Ii, a
iauai, iie aa?ii io?aaeatho iauea caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea e aace?othony ia aeiioaca, /oi i?eaueue eae
neo/aeiay aaee/eia iiae/eiaia ii?iaeueiiio eee aeeceiio e ii?iaeueiiio
caeiio ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Enoiaey ec e?eaie aa?iyoiinoae iieo/aiey i?eauee, iino?iei e?eaoth
?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue i?eauee, eioi?oth,
nianoaaiii, e neaaeoao iacuaaoue e?eaie ?enea. Oaeoe/anee yoi oa aea
e?eaay, ii iino?iaiiay a ae?oaie nenoaia eii?aeeiao (?en. 3).

?en. 3. Oeie/iay e?eaay ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae aicieeiiaaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy iioa?ue i?eauee

Auaeaeei ia ecia?aaeaiiie e?eaie ?ani?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoae iioa?ue
i?eauee (aeioiaea) ?yae oa?aeoa?iuo oi/ae.

I a ? a a y o i / e a (DI?=0 e A=A?) ii?aaeaeyao aa?iyoiinoue ioeaauo
iioa?ue i?eauee. A niioaaonoaee n i?eiyouie aeiiouaieyie aa?iyoiinoue
ioeaauo iioa?ue iaeneiaeueia, oioy, eiia/ii, iaiueoa aaeeieoeu.

A o i ? a y o i / e a (DI?=I?? e A=Aae) oa?aeoa?ecoaony aaee/eiie
aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue, ?aaiie iaeeaeaaiie i?eauee, o. a. iieiie iioa?ae
i?eauee, aa?iyoiinoue eioi?ie ?aaia .

Oi/ee 1 e 2 yaeythony a?aie/iuie, ii?aaeaeythueie iieiaeaiea ciiu
aeiionoeiiai ?enea.

O ? a o ue y o i / e a (DI?=A? e A=Ae?) niioaaonoaoao aaee/eia
iioa?ue, ?aaiuo ?an/aoiie au?o/ea A?. Aa?iyoiinoue oaeeo iioa?ue ?aaia
Ae?.

Oi/ee 2 e 3 ii?aaeaeytho a?aieoeu ciiu e?eoe/aneiai ?enea.

* a o a a ? o a y o i / e a (DI?=EN e A=Aeo) oa?aeoa?ecoaony
iioa?yie, ?aaiuie eiouanoaaiiiio (EN) ninoiyieth i?aaei?eieiaoaey,
aa?iyoiinoue eioi?uo ?aaia Aeo.

Iaaeaeo oi/eaie 3 e 4 iaoiaeeony ciia eaoano?ioe/aneiai ?enea.

Iioa?e, i?aauoathuea eiouanoaaiiia ninoiyiea i?aaei?eieiaoaey, ia
?anniao?eaathony, oae eae eo iaaiciiaeii acuneaoue.

Aa?iyoiinoe ii?aaeaeaiiuo o?iaiae iioa?ue yaeythony aaaeiuie
iieacaoaeyie, iicaieythueie auneacuaaoue noaeaeaiea ia iaeeaeaaiii ?enea
e aai i?eaieaiinoe, iiyoiio iino?iaiioth e?eaoth iiaeii iacaaoue e?eaie
?enea.

Iai?eia?, anee aa?iyoiinoue eaoano?ioe/aneie iioa?e au?aaeaaony
iieacaoaeai, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuei ia iuooeiie oa?ica iioa?e anaai
ninoiyiey (iai?eia?, i?e aai cia/aiee, ?aaiii 0,2), oi cae?aaiiuneyuee
inoi?iaeiue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue caaaaeiii ioeaaeaony io oaeiai aeaea e ia
iieaeao ia iiaeiaiue ?ene.

Oaeei ia?acii, anee i?e ioeaiea ?enea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe oaeaaony iino?ieoue ia anth e?eaoth aa?iyoiinoae ?enea, a
oieueei onoaiiaeoue /aou?a oa?aeoa?iua oi/ee (iaeaieaa aa?iyoiue
o?iaaiue ?enea e aa?iyoiinoe aeiionoeiie, e?eoe/aneie e eaoano?ioe/aneie
iioa?e), oi caaea/o oaeie ioeaiee iiaeii n/eoaoue oniaoii ?aoaiiie.

Cia/aiey yoeo iieacaoaeae a i?eioeeia aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau a
iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa eaeoe ia iainiiaaiiue ?ene.

Ioia/o, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeth, ioeaieaathuaio ?ene, aieueoa naienoaai
ia oi/a/iue, a eioa?aaeueiue iiaeoiae. Aio aaaeii ciaoue ia oieueei, /oi
aa?iyoiinoue iioa?youe 1000 ?oa. a iaia/aaiie naeaeea ninoaaeyao,
neaaeai, 0,1 eee 10%. Ii aoaeao oaeaea eioa?aniaaoueny, ianeieueei
aa?iyoii iioa?youe noiio, eaaeauoth a ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao (a
eioa?aaea, iai?eia?, io 1000 aei 1500 ?oa. ).

Iaee/ea e?eaie aa?iyoiinoe iioa?e iicaieyao ioaaoeoue ia oaeie aii?in
iooai iaoiaeaeaiey n?aaeiaai cia/aiey aa?iyoiinoe a caaeaiiii eioa?aaea
iioa?ue.

Aiieia aiciiaeii e ae?oaia i?iyaeaiea eioa?aaeueiiai iiaeoiaea a oi?ia
“iieoeioa?aaeueiiai”, aanueia oa?aeoa?iiai eiaiii aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea.

A i?ioeanna i?eiyoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeai ?aoaiee i aeiionoeiinoe e
oeaeaniia?aciinoe ?enea aio aaaeii i?aaenoaaeyoue ia noieueei
aa?iyoiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy iioa?ue, neieueei aa?iyoiinoue oiai,
/oi iioa?e ia i?aaunyo iaeioi?iai o?iaiy. Ii eiaeea eiaiii yoi e anoue
iniiaiie iieacaoaeue ?enea.

Aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi iioa?e ia i?aaunyo ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy, anoue
iieacaoaeue iaaeaaeiinoe, oaa?aiiinoe. I/aaeaeii, /oi iieacaoaee ?enea e
iaaeaaeiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai aeaea oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie.

I?aaeiieiaeei, i?aaei?eieiaoaeth oaeaeinue onoaiiaeoue, /oi
aa?iyoiinoue iioa?youe 10000 ?oa. ?aaia 0,1%, o. a. ioiineoaeueii
iaaaeeea, e ii aioia e oaeiio ?eneo.

I?eioeeieaeueii aaaeii caeanue oi, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iianaaony
iioa?youe ia eiaiii, ia ?iaii 10000 ?oa. Ii aioia eaeoe ia ethaoth
iaiueooth iioa?th e ieeae ia aioia niaeaneoueny ia aieueooth. Yoi
anoanoaaiiay caeiiiia?iay ineoieiaey iiaaaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaey a
oneiaeyo ?enea.

Ciaiea iieacaoaeae ?enea – A?, Aae, Ae?, Aeo – iicaieyao au?aaioaoue
noaeaeaiea e i?eiyoue ?aoaiea ia inouanoaeaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Ii
aeey oaeiai ?aoaiey iaaeinoaoi/ii ioeaieoue cia/aiey iieacaoaeae
(aa?iyoiinoae) aeiionoeiiai, e?eoe/aneiai e eaoano?ioe/aneiai ?enea.
Iaaei aua onoaiiaeoue eee i?eiyoue i?aaeaeueiua aaee/eiu yoeo
iieacaoaeae, auoa eioi?uo iie ia aeieaeiu iiaeieiaoueny, /oiau ia
iiianoue a ciio /?acia?iiai, iai?eaieaiiai ?enea.

Iaicia/ei i?aaeaeueiua cia/aiey aa?iyoiinoae aicieeiiaaiey
aeiionoeiiai, e?eoe/aneiai e eaoano?ioe/aneiai ?enea niioaaonoaaiii Eae,
Ee?, Eeo. Aaee/eiu yoeo iieacaoaeae a i?eioeeia aeieaeia onoaiaaeeaaoue
e ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue i?eeeaaeiay oai?ey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?enea, ii e
nai i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ai?aaa iacia/eoue naie nianoaaiiua i?aaeaeueiua
o?iaie ?enea, eioi?ua ii ia iaia?ai i?aauoaoue.

Ii iiaio iiaieth, iiaeii i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia neaaeothuea i?aaeaeueiua
cia/aiey iieacaoaeae ?enea Eae=0,1; Ee?=I,01, Eeo=0,001, o. a.
niioaaonoaaiii 10, 1 e 0,1%. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ia neaaeoao eaeoe ia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth naeaeeo, anee a 10 neo/ayo ec noa iiaeii
iioa?youe anth i?eaueue, a iaeiii neo/aa ec noa iioa?youe au?o/eo e oioy
au a iaeiii neo/aa ec ouny/e iioa?youe eiouanoai.

A eoiaa, eiay cia/aiey o?ao iieacaoaeae ?enea e e?eoa?eaa i?aaeaeueiiai
?enea, noi?ioee?oai naiua iauea oneiaey i?eaieaiinoe aiaeece?oaiiai
aeaea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa:

A. Iieacaoaeue aeiionoeiiai ?enea ia aeieaeai i?aauoaoue i?aaeaeueiiai
cia/aiey (Aae

TOC \t "Iie caaieiaie;1;Iie caaieiaie 2;2" Oicssenoaaiiue ?ene: enoiee e nouiinoue GOTOBUTTON _Toc343168125 PAGEREF _Toc343168125 1 Aeaeu iioa?ue e ?enea GOTOBUTTON _Toc343168126 PAGEREF _Toc343168126 9 A. Iioa?e a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc343168127 PAGEREF _Toc343168127 16 A. Iioa?e a eiiia?/aneii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc343168128 PAGEREF _Toc343168128 18 A. Iioa?e a oeiainiaii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa GOTOBUTTON _Toc343168129 PAGEREF _Toc343168129 19 Iieacaoaee ?enea e iaoiaeu aai ioeaiee GOTOBUTTON _Toc343168130 PAGEREF _Toc343168130 21 auea?uo iioa?e ciia ciia ciia aeiionoeiiai e?eoe/aneiai eaoano?ioe/aneiai ?enea ?enea ?enea aac?eneiaay ciia aaee/eia aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue 0 ?an/aoiay ?an/aoiay eiouanoaaiiia i?eaueue au?o/ea ninoiyiea

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