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NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U:

1. Aeieaiiieia TH.A.,“I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai e aaciianiinoue”,
“Oieaa?noi”, I., 1991 a.

2. Eacaeaae/ I.TH. e ae?. “I?aaei?eieiaoaeue a iianiinoe: niiniau
caueou (i?aeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e
aecianiaiia)”, Iauaaeeiaiea OIIEEN, I, 1992 a.

3. Eaaaeaaeca E.O., “I?aeoeea caueou eiiia?/aneie oaeiu a NOA
(?oeiaiaenoai ii caueoa aaoae aeaeiaie eioi?iaoeee)”, “YEI- eiinaeoeia”,
I., 1992a.

4. ?aaaneee A. “Oa?icu yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e
caaea/e neoaeau aaciianiinoe ii eo iaeo?aeecaoeee”, aeo?iae “*anoiue
nune” ?4, “Inue-89”, I., 1994

5. “A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”, /anoue ia?aay
(aeaenoaoao n 1 yiaa?y 1995 a.), “EIO?A-I”, I, 1995a.

IAEAAEAIEA:

1. AAAAeAIEA

2. IAUEA AII?INU CAUEOU I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNEIE EIOI?IAOeEE.

3. NIAOeEAEUeIUA AII?INU CAUEOU I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNEIE EIOI?IAOeEE.

4. I?AEOE*ANEEA ?AEIIAIAeAOeEE II II?ssAeEO IOIANAIEss NAAAeAIEE E
EIIIA?*ANEIE OAEIA I?AAeI?EssOEss.

5. ?AAEEIIUA IA?U, IAI?AAEAIIUA IA I?AAeIOA?AUAIEA OOA*EE
I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNEIE EIOI?IAOeEE.

6. EIIIA?*ANEEE OIEIIAAE.

AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss AEAAeAIEss OI?AAEAIEss

ei. N. I?AeAEIIEEEAeCA

EAOAAe?A I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNOAA

?AOA?AO

ii aeenoeeieeia

“INIIAU I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNOAA”

ia oaio:

“ I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay oaeia.”

Auiieiee:

I?iaa?eea : Ooai/eeia I.E.

Iineaa 1996 a.

1. A A A Ae A I E A.

Ii iiaieth caiaaeiuo oai?aoeeia-yeiiiienoia, oniaoiia ?acaeoea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai nouanoaaiii caaeneo io oie iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneie
n?aaeu (eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie eee ?uii/ii-eiieo?aioiie), a eioi?ie
iii inouanoaeyao naith aeayoaeueiinoue. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iiaeiaiue
acaeyae a iaeanoe oicyenoaiaaiey neaaeoao i?eciaoue a ea/anoaa
iniiaiiieaaathuaai oaeoi?a.

Iaeiaei ia iaiaa aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, iinoiyiii niioonoaothuei
ii?aaeaeaiiie yeiiiie/aneie n?aaea, yaeyaony e?eieiiaaiiay e eiay,
cao?oaeiythuay eee naiaeyuay ia iao aeaenoaey i?aaei?eieiaoaey,
ianoaiiaea. Iaee/ea oneiaee, i?e eioi?uo nicaeaaony ?aaeueiay oa?ica
i?e/eiaiey a?aaea (oua?aa) noauaeoii oicyenoaiaaiey, noaaeo a ?yae
ia?aii/a?aaeiuo e aeieaia?aiaiiuo caaea/, o?aaothueo iia?aoeaiiai
?aoaiey, i?iaeaio iaania/aiey yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe.

Iiiaea aii?inu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaoee?othony e
iaania/eaathony a?aaeaeaineei, aaeieieno?aoeaiui, o?oaeiaui,, aaoi?neei,
oaieiaiui e ae?oaei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. Aanoe aea ?a/ue i oii, /oi n
iiiiuueth oieueei i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e io?aiu iiaeii ?aoeoue ana
i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n iaania/aieai aaciianiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
ia oieueei i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiu, ii e, eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, ia
inouanoaeiu a iaic?eiii aoaeouai.

A iiauo ?uii/ii-eiieo?aioiuo oneiaeyo aicieeaao ianna i?iaeai,
naycaiiuo n iaania/aieai aaciianiinoe ia oieueei oece/aneeo e
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, eo eiouanoaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, ii e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie (eiiia?/aneie) eioi?iaoeee, eae aeaea
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe. Aeey caueou i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia io ?acee/iiai ?iaea iinyaaoaeuenoa
eniieuecothony eae i?aaiaua, oae e niaoeeaeueiua ia?u, a a iaiaoiaeeiuo
neo/ayo eiiieaeniia eo i?eiaiaiea.

Niaieoiiinoue naaaeaiee, oee?eoee?othueo a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a oeaeyo eo oyniaiey, iiaeii oneiaii na?oiie?iaaoue ii
iai?aaeaieyi:

1. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay (eiiia?/aneay) eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia
(naaaeaiey i ninoiyiee yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu, oaeoi?ao, iieiaeeoaeueii
eee io?eoeaoaeueii aeeythueo ia oo noa?o oicyenoaiaaiey e eiiia?oeee, a
eioi?ie aeaenoaoao i?aaei?eieiaoaeue);

2. I?aaiaay eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia (naaaeaiey i aeaenoaothuai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ?aaoee?othuai e io?aiythuai aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo (eiiia?/aneeo) no?oeoo?);

3. Niaoeeaeueii-iia?aoeaiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia (naaaeaiey i
niiniaao, neeao e n?aaenoaao iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee io aeinooia o?aoueeo eeoe).

Ia?aua aeaa eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu i?aaeiieaaaaony ?anniio?aoue a
?acaeaea “Iauea aii?inu caueou i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee”, a
o?aoueth – a ?acaeaea “Niaoeeaeueiua aii?inu caueou
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee”.

2. IAUEA AII?INU CAUEOU I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNEIE

EIOI?IAOeEE.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay (eiiia?/aneay) aeayoaeueiinoue oanii
acaeiinaycaia n iieo/aieai, iaeiieaieai, o?aiaieai, ia?aaioeie e
eniieueciaaieai ?aciiia?aciuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia. Aicieeaao aii?in:
any ee yoa eioi?iaoeey iiaeeaaeeo caueoa eee oieueei ioaeaeueiua aa
a?oiiu? Anee aea aeey caueou auaeaeyaony oieueei ii?aaeaeaiiay a?oiia
eioi?iaoeee, oi ii eaeei e?eoa?eyi (naienoaai) ?

Ioaa/ay ia iinoaaeaiiua aii?inu, neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, caueoa
iiaeeaaeeo ia any eioi?iaoeey, a oieueei oa, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao
oeaiiinoue aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey. I?e ii?aaeaeaiee oeaiiinoe
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee iaiaoiaeeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny oaeeie
e?eoa?eyie (naienoaaie), eae iieaciinoue, naiaa?aiaiiinoue e
aeinoiaa?iinoue iinooieaoeo naaaeaiee.

Iieaciinoue eioi?iaoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi iia nicaeaao noauaeoo
auaiaeiua oneiaey aeey i?eiyoey iia?aoeaiiai ?aoaiey e iieo/aiey
yooaeoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoa.

A naith i/a?aaeue, iieaciinoue eioi?iaoeee caaeneo io naiaa?aiaiiiai eo
aeiaaaeaiey (iieo/aiey) aei noauaeoa i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iai?eia?,
ec-ca ianaiaa?aiaiiiai iinooieaiey iieaciuo ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth
naaaeaiee oioneaaony aiciiaeiinoue caeeth/eoue auaiaeioth oi?aiaoth eee
eioth naeaeeo. ?acoeueoao – a?aiy oiouaii, eioi?iaoeey oa?yao naith
iieaciinoue.

E?eoa?ee iieaciinoe e naiaa?aiaiiinoe oanii acaeiinaycaiu e
acaeiicaaeneiu n e?eoa?eai aeinoiaa?iinoe ioeaieaaaiie eioi?iaoeee.
Iaaeinoiaa?iua naaaeaiey naiaeyo e ioeaaiio yooaeoo naiaa?aiaiiinoue e
eaaeouothny eo iieaciinoue aeey noauaeoa i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. I?e yoii
nai oaeo (iai?eia?, aeaeaiea eiie?aoiiai eeoea caeeth/eoue aeiaiai?
eoiee-i?iaeaaee) iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue ?aaeueii, oiaaea eae naaaeaiey i
iai niaea?aeao eneaaeaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea. I?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey
iaaeinoiaa?iuo naaaeaiee ?acee/iu: iai?aaeeueiia aini?eyoea (a neeo
caaeoaeaeaiey, iaaeinoaoi/iiai iiuoa eee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ciaiee)
enoi/ieeai oaeoa eee oiuoeaiiia, n ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaeueth, eneaaeaiea i
iai naaaeaiee. Eae i?aaeei, naaaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeythuea eioa?an aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, a oaeaea enoi/iee eo iinooieaiey aeieaeiu
iiaeaa?aaoueny ia?ai?iaa?ea.

Iiaeii nineaoueny aua e ia oaeie e?eoa?ee, eae iieiioa eioi?iaoeee.
Iaeiaei aanoe ?a/ue i oii, ianeieueei iieia eioi?iaoeey i eiie?aoiii
iauaeoa (oaeoa) e aaea aa a?aieoeu, aeiaieueii cao?oaeieoaeueii e, e
oiio aea, iaeiyooaeoeaii. A i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe yoio
e?eoa?ee iniaie ?iee ia ea?aao.

A eoiaa, noauaeo ioeaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee, aa
aeaaeaeaoe (nianoaaiiee), ia iniiaaiee niaieoiiinoe ia?a/eneaiiuo
e?eoa?eaa, ii?aaeaeyaony oeaiiinoue iinooieaoeo naaaeaiee aeey naiae
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e i?eieiaao ii iei iia?aoeaiia ?aoaiea.

Enoaoe, a ca?oaaaeiie yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay
eioi?iaoeey ?anniao?eaaaony ia a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa aeinoeaeaiey
iieiaeeoaeueiiai ?acoeueoaoa (i?eauee), a i?aaeaea anaai oneiaey,
niinianoaothuaai eee i?aiyonoaothuaai aai ianooieaieth. Iniai
iiae/a?eeaaaony iaee/ea noieiinoiiai oaeoi?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
eioi?iaoeee, o.a. aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoa eoiee-i?iaeaaee.
Iai?eia?, ioaeaeueiua aaaeiinoaa eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu
aeinoaoi/ii i?ioanneiiaeueii o/eouaaee e eniieueciaaee oaeoi? noieiinoe
eioi?iaoeee a naieo eioa?anao.

Ii?aaeaeaiea noieiinoe oao eee eiuo naaaeaiee o?aaoao
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea. A iaeieo neo/ayo, aeaoaaea iaieaeaony
iaoiae nianoaaiiuo i?ia e ioeaie, a ae?oaeo aea, oeaeaniia?aciaa
iieo/eoue (eoieoue) eioi?iaoeeth i oii, eae ecaaaeaoue iiaeiaiuo ioeaie,
a a-o?aoueeo, eae nio?aieoue oeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth io aeinooia
iinoi?iiieo eeoe, /oiau ia iioa?youe aa noieiinoue, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iaeeaeaaioth io iaa ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue. Oaeo ooa/ee eioi?iaoeee
iai?yioth naycai n iaaeaieai aa oeaiiinoe aeey eeoea, ec aeaaeaiey
eioi?iai iia auoea.

Aaaeiia cia/aiea a oneiaeyo ?acaeoey iiiaiia?aciuo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe
eiaao aii?in ii?aaeaeaiey i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe eioi?iaoeee ia i?aaao
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe eiie?aoiiio noauaeoo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, a a eoiaa iaee/ey o iaai i?aaiii/ee ia aa caueoo.

Caeii ?O ?aaeaiaioe?othuee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi aeaaeaeueoeaie (nianoaaiieeaie)
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee, eae eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe,
iiaoo auoue a?aaeaeaia ?innee, a?aaeaeaia eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa, eeoea
aac a?aaeaeainoaa, a oaeaea iauaaeeiaiey a?aaeaeai – eieeaeoeaiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

A iaeanoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai
inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia niaoaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (NiI) – o/anoaotho
i?aaei?eyoey aeaoo e aieaa no?ai ia aeieaaii oi?ie?iaaiee eaieoaea;
niaianoiua i?aaei?eyoey ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (NI) –
o/anoaotho iaeii eee ianeieueei ioa/anoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e iaeia eee
ianeieueei eiino?aiiuo eiiiaiee. I?aaeiieaaathony e ae?oaea oi?iu
niaianoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Iaoe?iu e iai?aaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi
aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea yeiiiie/aneea noa?u i?iecaiaenoaaiiie,
iin?aaeie/aneie, eiiia?/aneie, iao/ii-oaoie/aneie, eiaanoeoeeiiiie,
na?aeniie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Anee iiaeaanoe eoia e?aoeiio aiaeeco, oi iiaeii oaaaeeoueny, /oi
noauaeou i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, oi?iu e iai?aaeaiey eo aeayoaeueiinoe
aeaeaei ia ?aaiicia/iu, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e eioi?iaoeeiiiua iioiee,
oee?eoee?othuea a yoeo noa?ao, ia ?aaiioeaiiu.

Oae, ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey, caieiathueany i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, iiaoo iaeaaeaoue naaaeaieyie, ii?aaeaeyaiuie eae
ainoaea?noaaiiua eee neoaeaaiua nae?aou.

Eioi?iaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?aaeeiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (o/?aaeaeaiee), a
caaeneiinoe io noaiaie aaaeiinoe (oeaiiinoe), iiae?acaeaeyaony ia
naaaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea:

– ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio;

– aiaiioth oaeio;

– neoaeaaioth oaeio;

– eiua naaaeaiey, ia ninoaaeythuea oaeiu, ii i?aaenoaaeythuea eioa?an
aeey eiino?aiiuo niaoeneoaea.

Ia?yaeo n ?aaeeiiuie ia?aie, aaciianiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo nae?aoia
iaania/eaaaony oaeaea ii?iaie oaieiaiiai caeiia.

Oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iinyaaoaeuenoai ia ainoaea?noaaiiua e
ae?oaea n?aaenoaa i?aaeoniio?aia: no.64, 65, 75, 76-1, 259(e?iia i.”ae”)
OE ?NON?. (Caeanue e aeaeaa ?anniao?eaaaony iuia aeaenoaothuee –
“noa?ue” – Oaieiaiue eiaeaen, oae eae “iiaue” Oaieiaiue eiaeaen
anooiaao a aeaenoaea n 1 yiaa?y 1997 aiaea).

Caueoa ainoaea?noaaiiie nae?aoiie eioi?iaoeee aiceiaeaia ia
nio?oaeieeia ?aaeeiiuo neoaea e i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia (no. 126 OIE
?NON?).

Iaania/aiea aaciianiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiie eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe iiae a?eoii “nia. nae?aoii”, “nae?aoii” ia eiaao i?yiiai
ioiioaiey e caueoa /anoiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee. Iaeiaei
neaaeoao oeacaoue ia iaeioi?ua eneeth/aiey. A neo/aa, anee niaoeneoaeaa
eiino?aiiiai ainoaea?noaa i?iyaeo eioa?an e iieo/aieth ii?aaeaeaiiie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee, oi ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie ia?aie
ieacuaaoue ae i?ioeaiaeaenoaea aoaeao e eiio??acaaaeea. Iiae caueoo
niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaa iiaeao auoue acyoa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay eioi?iaoeey, ioeaiaiiay eae iniai aaaeiay ia
oieueei aeey aa /anoiiai nianoaaiieea, ii ainoaea?noaa, eiaaea ia
eneeth/aii, /oi e iae iiaeao i?iyaeoue eioa?an eiino?aiiay niaoeneoaeaa.
Aii?in i iiaeiaiie caueoa aeieaeai ?aoaoueny ia aeiaiai?iie iniiaa
iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeai e i?aaiii oaaea?aeueiie aaciianiinoe n
iaicia/aieai i?aaeaeia e ooieoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
iineaaeieo.

*oi eanaaony iniiaiie iannu i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee, oi iia
iiaeiaiie oaieiaii-i?aaiaie, iia?aoeaii-neaaeiaaoaeueiie e ?aaeeiiie
caueoie ia iaeaaeaao e ia iieuecoaony.

A a?aaeaeaineii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, oai ia iaiaa, i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea
ocaeiieoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth (eiiia?/aneoth) eioi?iaoeeth a
ea/anoaa caueuaaiie.

Aini?iecaaaeai noaoueth 139 /anoe ia?aie A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, iacuaathuaeny: “Neoaeaaiay e eiiia?/aneay
oaeia”:

“1. Eioi?iaoeey ninoaaeyao neoaeaaioth eee eiiia?/aneoth oaeio a
neo/aa, eiaaea eioi?iaoeey eiaao aeaenoaeoaeueioth eee iioaioeeaeueioth
eiiia?/aneoth oeaiiinoue a neeo iaecaanoiinoe aa o?aoueei eeoeai, e iae
iao naiaiaeiiai aeinooia ia caeiiiii iniiaaiee e iaeaaeaoaeue
eioi?iaoeee i?eieiaao ia?u e io?aia aa eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe. Naaaeaiey,
eioi?ua ia iiaoo ninoaaeyoue neoaeaaioth eee eiiia?/aneoth oaeio,
ii?aaeaeythony caeiiii e eiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie.

2. Eioi?iaoeey, ninoaaeythuay neoaeaaioth eee eiiia?/aneoth oaeio,
caueuaaony niiniaaie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuie ianoiyuei Eiaeaenii e ae?oaeie
caeiiaie.

Eeoea, iacaeiiiuie iaoiaeaie iieo/eaoea eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay
ninoaaeyao neoaeaaioth eee eiiia?/aneoth oaeio, iaycaiu aicianoeoue
i?e/eiaiiua oauoee. Oaeay aea iaycaiiinoue aiceaaaaony ia ?aaioieeia,
?acaeaneaoeo neoaeaaioth eee eiiia?/aneoth oaeio aii?aee o?oaeiaiio
aeiaiai?o, a oii /enea eiio?aeoo, e ia eiio?aaaioia, naeaeaaoeo yoi
aii?aee a?aaeaeainei – i?aaiaaiio aeiaiai?o”.

Ii nouanoao a ioieoa 1 auoaeceiaeaiiie noaouee caeiiiaeaoaeue aeae
ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoeth “eiiia?/aneay oaeia”.

Iiaeaiaey eoiae eceiaeaiiiio, iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

– noauaeoii ioeaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie (eiiia?/aneie) eioi?iaoeee
yaeyaony aa aeaaeaeaoe (nianoaaiiee);

– iinooieaoea naaaeaiey e eo enoi/iee iiaeeaaeao iaycaoaeueiie
ia?ai?iaa?ea;

– oeaiiinoue eioi?iaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony n iiiiuueth oaeeo e?eoa?eaa
(naienoa), eae iieaciinoue, naiaa?aiaiiinoue e aeinoiaa?iinoue;

– i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay eioi?iaoeey a caaeneiinoe io oeaiiinoe eiaao
naith noieiinoue;

– eioi?iaoeey iiaeeaaeeo caueoa i?e oneiaee, /oi oeaiiinoue eioi?iaoeee
caaeneo io nio?aiiinoe a oaeia io o?aoueeo eeoe, aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee
cae?uo ia caeiiiii iniiaaiee, iaeaaeaoaeue eioi?iaoeee i?eieiaao
iaaeeaaeauea ia?u ii aa io?aia;

– eniieueciaaiea i?aaiaie nenoaiu iicaieyao i?aaei?eieiaoaeth i?aaeeueii
ioaeaeyoue /anoioth eioi?iaoeeth io naaaeaiee, ninoaaeythueo
ainoaea?noaaiiua nae?aou, e ia aeiionoeoue eiioeeeoa n aeaenoaothuei
oaieiaiui i?aaii.

3. NIAOeEAEUeIUA AII?INU

CAUEOU I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNEIE EIOI?IAOeEE.

I?enooiay e ?anniio?aieth o?aoueae a?oiiu naaaeaiee, ioiinyueony e
niaoeeaeueii-iia?aoeaiie (o.a. iaee/ey niiniaiinoe auno?i /oi-eeai
inouanoaeoue ia i?aeoeea) eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue,
/oi iia iai?aaeaia ia caueoo ia anae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee,
eae ioia/aeinue oaea auoa, a oieueei e iniai auaeaeaiiui, oeaiiui
naaaeaieyi.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay eioi?iaoeey, oee?eoee?othuay a
?uii/ii-eiieo?aioiie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, iiae?acaeaeyaony ia
oaoie/aneoth, i?aaiecaoeeiiioth, eiiia?/aneoth, oeiainiaoth, ?aeeaiioth,
i ni?ina-i?aaeeiaeaiee, eiieo?aioao, e?eieiaeueiie ianoaiiaea e ae?.
I?aaeaea /ai i?eieiaoue ia?u e caueoa ii?aaeaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee,
iaiaoiaeeii ooi/ieoue neaaeothuea aii?inu:

1. Eaeea naaaeaiey iaeuecy ne?uaaoue, caueuaoue io aeinooia e iei (io
eiai?);

2. Eaeea naaaeaiey iaauaiaeii ne?uaaoue (ii/aio?);

3. Eaeea naaaeaiey iiaeeaaeao io?aia (eai e io eiai ?).

Ioaao ia ia?aue aii?in aeaei ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai a naiai
iinoaiiaeaiee “I ia?a/ia naaaeaiee, eioi?ua ia iiaoo ninoaaeyoue
eiiia?/aneoth oaeio”. E iei ioiinyony:

– i?aaiecaoeeiiiua naaaeaiey (onoaa e o/?aaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou
i?aaei?eyoey, ?aaeno?aoeeiiiua oaeinoiaa?aiey, eeoeaicee, iaoaiou);

– oeiainiaua naaaeaiey (aeieoiaiou ia en/eneaiee e oieaoa iaeiaia,
ae?oaeo ieaoaaeae, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii, aeieoiaiou i ninoiyiee
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe);

– naaaeaiey i ooaoa e oneiaeyo aeayoaeueiinoe (/enei e ninoaa
?aaioathueo, eo ca?aaioiay ieaoa, iaee/ea naiaiaeiuo iano, aeeyiea
i?iecaiaenoaa ia i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo, ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee,
i?e/eiythuae a?aae caei?iaueth ianaeaiey, o/anoea aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia?ooaiea aioeiiiiiieueiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa);

– naaaeaiey i nianoaaiiinoe (?acia?ao eiouanoaa, aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaao,
aeiaeaieyo ieaoaaeae a oeaiiua aoiaae, iaeeaaoeee, caeiu, a onoaaiua
oiiaeu niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee).

ia aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiui inoaaony aii?in i oii, eiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeue
iaycai i?aaeuyaeyoue ii o?aaiaaieth ia?a/eneaiiua naaaeaiey? Aianoa n
oai, enoiaey ec oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?iaoeee, iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi
i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia iciaeiieaiea n yoeie naaaeaieyie iiaoo a i?aaeaeao
naiae eiiiaoaioeee:

– i?ieo?i? a ii?yaeea iaaeci?a e a ae?oaeo neo/ayo, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo aio
caeiiii;

– i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua i?aaiu ii aicaoaeaeaiiiio oaieiaiiio aeaeo;

– iaeiaiaua neoaeau (oi?aaeaiey);

– aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu (ii i?inueaa naiiai aeaaeaeueoea);

– i?ionithcu;

– ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey (o/?aaeaeaiey);

– naiyieaeainoaioeee;

– yeieiae/aneea i?aaiecaoeee;

– i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea i?aaei?eyoey e /anoiua eeoea, anooiathuea n iei
a naeaeeo.

Aeaiiue ia?a/aiue ia yaeyaony en/a?iuaathuei.

Oeacaiiua naaaeaiey ia yaeythony i?aaeiaoii caueou io iciaeiieaiey n
ieie o?aoueeo eeoe, ii yoi ia eneeth/aao eo io?aiu io iauaoaieiaiuo
i?anooieaiee.

Aoi?ay a?oiia naaaeaiee oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi aa iaauaiaeii
ne?uaaoue io ie?oaeaiey naiiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeth. Yoi eanaaony i?aaeaea
anaai ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Aac ?aeeaiu a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
o?oaeii aeiaeoueny yooaeoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoa, iniaaiii a oneiaeyo
aeanoeie eiieo?aioeee. I?aeoe/anee ?aeeaia oe?iei ia/eiaao aoiaeeoue a
iaoo aeeciue. Iaeiaei i?iiaaaiaea e oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ?aeeaiu
eiatho ia oieueei iieiaeeoaeueioth, ii e io?eoeaoaeueioth noi?iio aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaey. Nooue a oii, /oi ?aeeaiiay eioi?iaoeey noaiiaeony
aeinoiyieai ia oieueei caeiiiiineooiuo a?aaeaeai (ia eioi?uo iia e
?ann/eoaia), ii e i?anooiiuo yeaiaioia. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay
eioi?iaoeey, ?aeeaie?oaiay a aacaoao, a aeo?iaeao, ii oaeaaeaeaieth,
?aaeei iiiiaaao i?anooiieeai aueoe ia iaueaeo aoaeouaai iinyaaoaeuenoaa,
eco/eoue aai neaaua (oycaeiua, iai?eia?, aeey caeiia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe, ?acee/iiai ?iaea iaoeiaoeee) noi?iiu, a caoai i?eiyoue
?aoaiea, eaeei niiniaii iieo/eoue aeey naay io iaai auaiaeo.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeue, ?aeeaie?othuee naith aeayoaeueiinoue, aeieaeai auoue
aioia e aiciiaeiiio iinyaaoaeuenoao e naiaio ioaaoiiio aeaenoaeth.
Iaeioi?ua ec ieo, a iiaeiaiuo neooaoeeyo, iuoathony iaeoe caueoo io
i?anooiieeia o oaeeo aea i?anooiieeia, ii ec ae?oaie a?oiie?iaee. A
eoiaa, caiooaaoenue n i?anooiiui ie?ii, iiiaaeatho iiae eo iieiia
aeeyiea, a eiiaaea eeoathony naieo i?aaei?eyoee (oe?i).

Oeaeaniia?aciaa ana aea caueoo eneaoue ia o oao aea i?anooiieeia, a a
neoaeaao ii ai?ueaa n i?aaieciaaiiie i?anooiiinoueth (ieeeoeee eee
i?aaiia ainaaciianiinoe), /anoiuo nuneiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo.

*oi eanaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a nuneiie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, oi
iia ia/eiaao iieo/aoue aeinoaoi/iia inaauaiea a i?anna, aeeth/ay
eioa?aueth ioaeaeueiuo nio?oaeieeia ia ieacuaaaiuo oneoaao (eiio e a
eaeeo neo/ayo).

Enoaoe, a Aaeeeia?eoaiee /anoiui aeaoaeoeaiui neoaeaai cai?auaaony
?aeeaie?iaaoue ieacuaaaiua eie oneoae a n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.
Aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii, ?aeeaie?othuei eo aeayoaeueiinoue, yaeyaony,
niaoeeaeueii ecaeaaaaiue a yoeo oeaeyo, ni?aai/iee.*

Eoae, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue, ?aeeaie?othuee naith aeayoaeueiinoue, aeieaeai
ciaoue, n eaeeie i?aiyonoaeyie ii iiaeao noieeiooueny, e eae ii niiaeao
eo i?aiaeieaoue a naiae eiie?aoiie neooaoeee. Ia auoiae ec aeaiiiai
iieiaeaiey e eiinie?aoeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eae
iuoathony yoi aeaeaoue iaeioi?ua oe?iu. Aac eeeaioo?u, a caaeneiinoe io
aeaeia oicyenoaiaaiey, iie ia aoaeoo eiaoue iaiaoiaeeiie i?eauee. Auoiae
iaeei – iaania/eoue naith aaciianiinoue n iiiiuueth ainoaea?noaaiiuo e
/anoiuo oi?i caueou.

E o?aoueae a?oiia naaaeaiee ioiinyony oa, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho
oicyenoaaiioth oeaiiinoue aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey, e ia ieo ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony caeiiiue aeinooi o?aoueeo eeoe. N iiiyoeai oeaiiie
eioi?iaoeee iu oaea ii?aaeaeeeenue. I?iaeaia ninoieo a oii, eoi e eae
aeieaeai iaania/eoue nio?aiiinoue eioi?iaoeee.

Anee ia?aoeoueny e caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeoai, oi ie iaeei ec ieo ia
noaaeo i?yii iiae naith caueoo aeaiiue aeae nianoaaiiinoe. Anee
aeiionoeoue, /oi oaeay ii?ia eiaeanue au, iai?eia?, a oaieiaiii
eiaeaena, oi yoi aua ia aiai?eei au i oii, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay
eioi?iaoeey iaaeaaeii cai?auaia. Iaee/ea ii?iu i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi a
neo/aa ia?ooaiey niaea?aeauaainy a iae cai?aoa, aeiiaiue iiianao
niioaaonoaothuaa iaeacaiea. Iieiaeeoaeueiui a ieaia i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey
oaeiai i?anooieaiey neoaeee au aua nai oaeo iaee/ey oaeie ii?iu, o.a.
cai?ao ia niaa?oaiea oeacaiiiai aeaenoaey, eai ca iaai ianooieo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iiaeiaiuo oneiaee
iiea ia nicaeaao.

4. II?ssAeIE IOIANAIEss NAAAeAIEE E EIIIA?*ANEIE OAEIA I?AAeI?EssOEss.

A aeaiiii ?acaeaea iu aoaeai oiio?aaeyoue oieueei oa?iei “eiiia?/aneay
oaeia”, oae eae aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iia?e?oao eiaiii ei e
ia oiiieiaao oa?ieia “i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay oaeia”.

Ia?aui aii?inii, eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue i?e i?aaiecaoeee io?aiu
eiiia?/aneie oaeiu, yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea e?oaa naaaeaiee, ninoaaeythueo
eiiia?/aneoth oaeio, a oaeaea aiciiaeiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea eo ii eaoaai?eyi
aaaeiinoe a caaeneiinoe io eo oeaiiinoe aeey i?aaei?eyoey, oa?aeoa?a e
?acia?a oua?aa, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue iaianai i?aaei?eyoeth i?e
?acaeaoaiee yoeo naaaeaiee. E ?aoaieth yoie i?iaeaiu neaaeoao
iiaeoiaeeoue iniaaiii ouaoaeueii. Anee eaeea-eeai aeaiiua, i?yiua eee
einaaiiua, aoaeoo oiouaiu ec aieiaiey, oi ana i?eieiaaiua ia?u iiaoo
ieacaoueny iayooaeoeaiuie. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eceeoiea ia?u ii
ia?aie/aieth aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee ineiaeiyo ?aaioo e i?eaaaeoo e
iaii?aaaeaiiui yeiiiie/aneei ecaea?aeeai. I?aaeeueiay i?aaiecaoeey
auaeaeaiey e caueou eiiia?/aneie oaeiu aeieaeia ia oieueei ia iaoaoue
?aaioa i?aaei?eyoey, ii aeaaea niinianoaiaaoue aai i?eaueueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?e yoii naaaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea eiiia?/aneoth oaeio i?aaei?eyoey,
io?aaeathony a “Ia?a/ia naaaeaiee, ninoaaeythueo eiiia?/aneoth oaeio
i?aaei?eyoey” (aeaeaa Ia?a/aiue), ooaa?aeaeaaiii ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
i?aaei?eyoey. I?e ?ac?aaioea Ia?a/iy iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue o?aaiaaiey
iinoaiiaeaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 5.12.91a. ?35 “I
ia?aaea/a naaaeaiee, eioi?ua ia iiaoo ninoaaeyoue eiiia?/aneoth oaeio”.

I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi aeaiiue aii?in eo/oa ?aoaoue eieeaaeaeueii.
Aeey ?ac?aaioee Ia?a/iy i?eeacii ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey nicaeaaony
eiienney ec iaeaieaa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo e eiiiaoaioiuo niaoeeaeenoia
iniiaiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e i?aaenoaaeoaeae neoaeau aaciianiinoe (eee
?NI).

Aeey iiaeaioiaee ia?a/iy naaaeaiee, ioiinyueony e eiiia?/aneie oaeia
i?aaei?eyoey, oeaeaniia?acii i?eaea/ue iaeaieaa eiiiaoaioiuo
niaoeeaeenoia, ciaeiiuo eae n aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey a oeaeii,
oae e n ?aaioie ioaeaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee. Nicaeaaony a?oiia a ninoaaa
ia aieaa 4-5 /aeiaae, a eioi?oth aeaeaoaeueii aeeth/eoue:

– niaoeeaeenoa, aeaaeathuaai oeiainiauie aii?inaie, eiiuthieoo?ie ?uiea
e aeaiiuie a ioiioaiee eiieo?e?othueo oe?i;

-niaoeeaeenoa, iieiinoueth i?aaenoaaeythuaai nenoaio i?aaiecaoeee
?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey, aa iniaaiiinoe;

-niaoeeaeenoa, ii naycyi n ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie, a oaeaea ii
aii?inai caeeth/aiey eiio?aeoia, aeiaiai?ia;

– niaoeeaeenoa, iaeaaeathuaai anaie naaaeaieyie i auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, oaoiieiae/aneii oeeeea aa i?aeoeeiaaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa, i
i?ioiaeaeaiee anao aeaeia eioi?iaoeee (onoiie, aeieoiaioaeueiie, a aeaea
ia?acoeia, oceia, aeieia, aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee).

Anee i?aaei?eyoea aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei eee i?iecaiaeeiay i?iaeoeoeey
eiaao ?acii?iaeiue oa?aeoa?, iiaeii nicaeaoue ianeieueei oaeeo a?oii:
iaeio – aeaaioth, a oeaeyo eii?aeeiaoeee e iaiauaiey ?acoeueoaoia
?aaiou, inoaeueiua a caaeneiinoe io iaiaoiaeeiinoe ii eaaeaeiio
ioaeaeueiiio o/anoeo.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia eneeth/aii, /oi i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao ninoiyoue
eeoue ec ianeieueeeo /aeiaae, iniaaiii ia ia?auo yoaiao. Oiaaea,
aeaenoaeoaeueii, oeacaiioth caaea/o niiniaai ?aoeoue iaeei
?oeiaiaeeoaeue, i?e oneiaee, /oi ii aoaeao aeaaeaoue ia?a/eneaiiie auoa
eioi?iaoeeae. Ii ana aea, ai ecaaaeaiea noauaeoeaiuo ioeaie, eo/oa
?anniao?eaaoue yoe aii?inu eae ieieioi aaeaiai.

Eae oaea neacaii, a a?oiia aeieaeiu auoue ?oeiaiaeyuea niaoeeaeenou,
iaeaaeathuea iieiui iauaiii aeaiiuo, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ioianaiu e
eiiia?/aneie oaeia. Iaeiaei yoi ia icia/aao, /oi neaaeoao iaycaoaeueii
ciaeiieoue anao i?eaeaeaaiuo yenia?oia n eiie?aoiuie naaaeaieyie,
iiaoueie i?aaenoaaeyoue eiiia?/aneoth oaeio, anee ?aiaa iie yoe
naaaeaiey ia ciaee. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeinoaoi/ii, anee oioy au
iaeei ec ieo inaaaeiieai a aeaoaeyo ii ioaeaeueiiio ?anniao?eaaaiiio
aii?ino, a inoaeueiua i?aaenoaaeytho naaa iauee oa?aeoa?. Oaeie iiaeoiae
naeaeaao ?aaioo a?oiiu aieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiie e eneeth/eo oaea ia ia?aii
yoaia aiciiaeiua i?aaeiinueee e iaiainiiaaiiiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth
eiiia?/aneie oaeiu.

Aeaeaa, ia?aae a?oiiie yenia?oia iaiaoiaeeii iinoaaeoue eiiieaen
aii?inia a neaaeothuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:

a) auaeaeeoue ana aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, i?eiinyuea
i?eaueue ia aeaiiue iiiaio;

a) enoiaey ec eiathueony aeaiiuo i ?uiea nauoa, ioeaieoue i?aauoaao ee
o?iaaiue i?eauee aeey aeaiiiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe aiaeiae/iua
iieacaoaee o ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee;

a) ii?aaeaeeoue aa?iyoioth ia?niaeoeao ?aioaaaeueiinoe yoie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Anee n yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey aeae aeayoaeueiinoe ono?aeaaao
i?aaei?eyoea a aeaiiue iiiaio e a ia?niaeoeaa, a i?eaueue auoa, /ai o
eiieo?e?othueo oe?i, oi i?aaei?eyoea ?aniieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiiie
eiiia?/aneie oaeiie e iaiaoiaeeii i?iaeieaeeoue aiaeec.

A yoii neo/aa yenia?ou aeieaeiu ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi eiaiii a aeaiiii
aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe iicaieyao iieo/aoue i?eaueue. I?eia?u iiaoo auoue
naiuie ?acee/iuie.

Oae, aeey naaaeaiee iao/iiai oa?aeoa?a – yoi, eae i?aaeei:

– eaeae, ecia?aoaiey, ioe?uoey;

– ioaeaeueiua oi?ioeu;

– iiaua oaoie/aneea i?iaeou;

– iiaua iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea e i?iecaiaenoaa;

– i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea YAI;

– ?acoeueoaou iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Aeey naaaeaiee oaoiieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a:

– eiino?oeoi?neay aeieoiaioaoeey, /a?oaaee, noaiu, caiene;

– iienaiey oaoiieiae/aneeo eniuoaiee;

– “iio-oao”;

– oi/iua ciaiey eiino?oeoeeiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee nicaeaaaaiuo ecaeaeee e
iioeiaeueiua ia?aiao?u ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia
(?acia?u, iaueaiu, eiioeao?aoeey, i?ioeaioiia niaea?aeaiea eiiiiiaioia,
oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaeaiea, a?aiy e ae?.);

– naaaeaiey i iaoa?eaeao, ec eioi?uo ecaioiaeaiu ioaeaeueiua aeaoaee,
oneiaeyo yenia?eiaioia e iai?oaeiaaiee, ia eioi?ii iie i?iaiaeeeenue e
o.ae.;

– eniieuecoaiua i?aaei?eyoeai ioaeaeueiua iiaua, eeai oieeaeueiua
ecia?eoaeueiua eiiieaenu e i?eai?u, noaiee, iai?oaeiaaiea.

Aeey naaaeaiee aeaeiaiai oa?aeoa?a:

– naaaeaiey i caeeth/aiiuo eee ieaie?oaiuo eiio?aeoao;

– aeaiiua i iinoaaueeao e eeeaioao;

– iaci?u ?uiea, ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey;

– eioi?iaoeey i eiioeaeaioeeaeueiuo ia?aaiai?ao;

– eaeueeoeyoeey ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey, no?oeoo?u oeai,
o?iaaiue i?eauee;

– ieaiu ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey e aai eiaanoeoeee.

Anee a auaeaeaiee oceiauo naaaeaiee aicieeatho i?iaeaiu, oi iiaeii
eco/eoue ?anniao?eaaaiue aeae aeayoaeueiinoe ii ioaeaeueiui
oaoiieiae/aneei yoaiai, ii eiae/aneiio aeai?eoio aeaenoaee, ii a?aiaiiui
io?aceai. A ethaii neo/aa iieaciuie aoaeoo aiaeiae/iua i?eia?u
i?aaiecaoeee caueou nae?aoia caiaaeiuie oe?iaie.

Oae, e?oiiaeoea a ie?a i?iecaiaeeoaee i?ioeaaeeoaeueiuo iaieoeia oe?iu
“Eiea-Eiea” e “Iaine-Eiea” auaeaeytho a ea/anoaa aeaaiuo nae?aoia
niaoeeaeueiua aeiaaaee a eiioeaio?ao, ec eioi?iai ecaioaaeeaathony
iaieoee. Aia?eeaineea iaoeiino?ieoaeueiua e i?eai?ino?ieoaeueiua oe?iu,
oe?iei ?aeeaie?oy aunieea ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee naiae i?iaeoeoeee,
aea?aeao a aeoaieii nae?aoa oaoiieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe ecaioiaeaiey
iniiaiuo oceia, ii?aaeaeythueo aeaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Neaaeoao o/anoue e ae?oaea oaeoi?u. Iai?eia?, i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao
i?eiaiyoue oe?iei ecaanoiua iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa,
oaoiieiae/aneea i?eaiu, iai?oaeiaaiea e o.i. e i?e yoii aeinoeaaoue
aunieie i?eauee. Ianiio?y ia iauaaeinooiiinoue oaeeo aeaiiuo, nai oaeo
eo i?eiaiaiey iiaeao yaeyoueny eiiia?/aneie oaeiie.

Iaeioi?ua i?aaei?eyoey iieo/atho i?eaueue ca n/ao iiiiiieueiiai
iieiaeaiey ia ?uiea, o.a. ionoonoaey i?iecaiaeeoaeae oaeiai aea aeaea
oiaa?a a aeaiiii ?aaeiia. Ia neaaeoao a yoii neo/aa i?aiaa?aaaoue
naiaa?aiaiiuie ia?aie ii caueoa eiiia?/aneie oaeia, o.e., eniieuecoy
naiaiaeiue aeinooi e iaiaoiaeeiui aeaiiui, aeaaea iaaieueoia
i?aaei?eyoea niiniaii auno?i i?aaieciaaoue aiaeiae/iia i?iecaiaenoai e
ninoaaeoue eiieo?aioeeth.

Iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue ioianaiea eaeeo-eeai naaaeaiee e eaoaai?ee
eiiia?/aneie oaeiu a oeaeyo oeeiiaiey io oieaou iaeiaia, nie?uoey oaeoia
iaianaiey oua?aa caei?iaueth ethaeae, a oaeaea ae?oaeo i?ioeaicaeiiiuo
aeaenoaee.

?acoeueoaoii ?aaiou yenia?oia aeieaeai noaoue ia?a/aiue naaaeaiee,
ninoaaeythueo eiiia?/aneoth oaeio i?aaei?eyoey.

Aiieia anoanoaaiii, /oi ii ia?a iaiaoiaeeiinoe yoio ia?a/aiue aeieaeai
ia?aniao?eaaoueny, eciaiyoueny e aeiiieiyoueny. A Ia?a/ia, anee
aiciiaeii, aeaeaoaeueii oeacaoue eiie?aoiue n?ie, ia eioi?ue oa eee eiua
naaaeaiey ioianaiu e eiiia?/aneie oaeia.

Ia?a/aiue aeiaiaeeony aei no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e nieniieieoaeae
a /anoe eo eanathuaeny, aeey ?oeiaiaenoaa a ?aaioa e i?eaaaeaiey a
niioaaonoaea n iei a?eoa ?aaio (oeaeaniia?acii i?eiaiyoue a?eo
“eiiia?/aneay oaeia”), aeieoiaioia e ecaeaeee.

Eniieieoaeue e ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, iiaeienuaathuee aeieoiaio, ioeaieaatho
i?e aai iiaeaioiaea niaea?aeaueany a iai naaaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea
eiiia?/aneoth oaeio i?aaei?eyoey.

I?e iaee/ee oaeeo naaaeaiee ia ia?aii, oeooeueiii eenoa a i?aaii
aa?oiai oaeo aeieaeai auoue iinoaaeai a?eo. Iai?eia?, “eiiia?/aneay
oaeia”.

Eneeth/aiea naaaeaiee ec eaoaai?ee ninoaaeythueo eiiia?/aneoth oaeio
i?aaei?eyoey i?iecaiaeeony ii ieii/aiee eiio?ieueiiai n?iea, ia eioi?ue
iia onoaiaaeeaaeanue eee ?aiaa, a nayce n ianooieaieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa (iiyaeaiea iiaiai ia?acoea, ooa/ea eioi?iaoeee e
eiieo?aioo e o.i.).

?aoaiea i aein?i/iii eneeth/aiee naaaeaiee ec eaoaai?ee ninoaaeythueo
eiiia?/aneoth oaeio i?aaei?eyoey i?iecaiaeeony ii ieii/aiee
eiio?ieueiiai n?iea, ia eioi?ue iia onoaiaaeeaaeanue eee ?aiaa, a nayce
n ianooieaieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa (iiyaeaiea iiaiai ia?acoea,
ooa/ea eioi?iaoeee e eiieo?aioo e o. i.).

?aoaiea i aein?i/iii eneeth/aiee naaaeaiee ec eaoaai?ee, ninoaaeythueo
eiiia?/aneoth oaeio, i?eieiathony oaie aea eeoeaie, eioi?ua ooaa?aeeee
Ia?a/aiue.

A iniiaa yoie nenoaiu aeieaeia eaaeaoue caeioa?aniaaiiinoue
eniieieoaeae ?aaio eae a auyaeaiee iiauo iaueaeoia caueou, oae e a
ii?aaeaeaiee iioeiaeueiiai iiiaioa niyoey ia?aie/aiee ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
?aiaa caueuaaiie eioi?iaoeee.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea ioaeeeaoeey iaiaoiaeeia aeey cae?aieaiey
i?ei?eoaoa eee iiaeaea?aeaiey i?anoeaea niaaoneie iaoee, aianoi
eiie?aoiuo i?eaiaeyony naaaeaiey aieaa iauaai oa?aeoa?a. Iai?eia?,
oi/iua cia/aiey oa?aeoa?enoee e ia?aiao?ia iiaoo auoue caiaiaiu ia
aeeaiaciiu, a eioi?uo iie iaoiaeyony.

I?e ioe?uoii iioaeeeiaaiee naaaeaiee ?aeiiaiaeoaony oaeaeyoue aieueoa
aieiaiey ?aeeaiiie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe aa ?acoeueoaoia, /oiau
caeioa?aniaaoue a eo eniieueciaaiee iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae aioo?e
no?aiu e ca ?oaaaeii. Aianoa n oai iaueai ioaeeeoaiuo aeaiiuo ia
aeieaeai auoue aeinoaoi/iui aeey naiinoiyoaeueiiai aiaae?aiey aac
aeiiieieoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee ?ac?aaio/eea, eioi?ay eiaiii e iiaeeaaeeo
caueoa.

5. ?AAEEIIUA IA?U, IAI?AAEAIIUA IA I?AAeIOA?AUAIEA OOA*EE NAAAeAIEE,
NINOAAEssTHUEO I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNEOTH (EIIIA?*ANEOTH) OAEIO.

Iniiaiui oaeoi?ii, niinianoaothuei caueoa eioi?iaoeee, inoathony iiea
?aaeeiiua. o.a. niaoeeaeueiua ia?u, iai?aaeaiiua ia i?aaeioa?auaiea
ooa/ee eiie?aoiuo naaaeaiee. *ai aieueoa e iei iiaeao auoue i?iyaeai eee
oaea oeene?iaaeny eioa?an, oai iia?aoeaiaa aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny ia?u ii
iaaeiiouaieth aai oaeiaeaoai?aiey.

I?eiyoea niaoeeaeueiuo ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia caueoo eioaeeaeooaeueiie
nianoaaiiinoe, caaeneo i?aaeaea anaai io aeaaeaeueoea (aeaaeaeueoeaa)
eioi?iaoeee, neeaaeuaathuaeny a eo n?aaea aeayoaeueiinoe eiieo?aioiie
ianoaiiaee, oeaiiinoe, eioi?oth i?aaenoaaeyao aeey ieo i?iecaiaenoaaiiay
eee eiiia?/aneay eioi?iaoeey, e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.

Aaconeiaii, o?aieoue nae?ao aai aeaaeaeueoeo, anee ii aieueoa ieeiio ia
ecaanoai, ia i?aaenoaaeyao aieueoie neiaeiinoe e cao?ao ia aai io?aio.
Ii nai ia aeieaeai aeiionoeoue e iaio o?aoueeo eeoe. I?e yoii ia auoue
aieoeeaui, aeiaa?/eaui. Iineoaeue eioi?iaoeee (aeieoiaio, aeeneaoa,
i?aaeiao) aeieaeai eiaoue niioaaonoaothuaa ianoi o?aiaiey (ia
ienueiaiiue noie, a naeo eee ae?oaia iaaeinooiiia aeey ae?oaeo eeoe
ianoi). Ianeieueei oneiaeiyaony io?aia yoeo naaaeaiee, eiaaea i aa
iaee/ee noaiiaeony ecaanoii caeioa?aniaaiiui eeoeai. Aicieeaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aie/eaaoue aeinooi iinoi?iiieo eeoe e ianoo o?aiaiey
nae?aoiuo iaoa?eaeia.

I?aaei?eyoey, oe?iu, iauaaeeiaiey, aaea eiaaony ia iaeei aeaaeaeaoe
eioi?iaoeee, a ianeieueei, e oiio aea ?aaioatho nio?oaeieee, ia
aeiiouaiiua e i?iecaiaenoaaiiui (eiiia?/aneei) nae?aoai, i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie aieaa neiaeiue iaueaeo caueou. Aicieeaao aii?in i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
iaania/aiey aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae aaciianiinoe no?oeoo?iuo iauaaeeiaiee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Aeey aai ?aoaiey iiaeii eniieueciaaoue /anoiua
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea oe?iu, /anoiua neoaeau aaciianiinoe (o.a. eioi?ua
ooieoeeiie?otho naiinoiyoaeueii, i?eieiay caeacu io eeeaioia),
nianoaaiiua neoaeau aaciianiinoe.

Ea/anoaaiiia aea eniieiaiea caeaca iaainoaea?noaaiiuie aeaoaeoeaiuie
neoaeaaie ai iiiaii caaeneo io oao oneiaee, eioi?ua nicaeathony ei
i?aaiaie aeanoe. Iai?eia?, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneay iy?ey naiei ?aoaieai
cai?aoeea ia oa??eoi?ee ai?iaea aeayoaeueiinoue /anoiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oe?i, eioi?ua caieiaeenue oaeaea ieacaieai oneoa
ii caueoa eiiia?/aneeo oaei. Inouanoaeaiea yoeo /anoiuo ooieoeee
aiaiyaony ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiio?aieoaeueiui i?aaiai. E yoi ia niio?y
ia oi, eae iieacuaaao ca?oaaaeiue iiuo, /oi /anoiia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai io?aiyao /anoiia aeaoaeoeaiia iauanoai.
Ainoaea?noaaiiui aea i?aaiio?aieoaeueiui i?aaiai, i?e anai eo aeaeaiee e
aiciiaeiinoyo, n yoie caaea/ae a iieiii iauaia ia ni?aaeoueny.

Yoi iaeei aii?in. Aoi?ie eanaaony eco/aiey naiie /anoiie oe?iu ia?aae
oai, eae ia?aoeoueny e iae ca iiiiuueth. Ii/aio? Eiathony aeaiiua, /oi
iaeioi?ua /anoiua aeaoaeoeaiua ia?aciaaiey, aianoi oiai, /oiau
aeaenoaiaaoue a niioaaonoaee ni naiei onoaaii, caieiathony
auiiaaoaeuenoaii, oaioaaeai i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oe?i. A i?eioeeia caeanue eaeao iaithaeiay
i?iaa?ea caeac/eea e eeeaioa ia?aae oai, eae caeeth/eoue aeiaiai?.
Eaii?e?iaaiea yoei iiaeoiaeii iiaeao i?eaanoe e na?ueaciui ioeaeai.

Niaoeeaeueiua ia?u, eioi?ua inouanoaeythony i?e caueoa eioi?iaoeee,
iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea.

E aiaoiei ia?ii?eyoeyi ioiinyony neaaeothuea. Eco/aiea ia?oia?ia,
eeeaioia, n eioi?uie i?eoiaeeony aanoe oicyenoaaiioth, eiiia?/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, niae?aoue eioi?iaoeeth ia eo iaaeaaeiinoe,
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e ae?oaea aeaiiua. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iecaiaeeony
eco/aiea naycae nio?oaeieeia /anoiie oe?iu. Auyniythony eeoea,
i?iyaeythuea eioa?an e oe?ia, aa aeayoaeueiinoe, nio?oaeieeai, ia
ioiinyony ee iie e eiieo?e?othuae oe?ia eee e i?anooiiie a?oiia. A
neo/aa onoaiiaeaiey, /oi yoe eeoea aeiionoeee eaeea-eeai i?ioeaicaeiiiua
aeaenoaey, iaiaoiaeeii eioi?ie?iaaoue niioaaonoaothuee
i?aaiio?aieoaeueiue i?aai. Oai naiui i?anaeaaony i?anooiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue e, a oii /enea, eioa?an e /anoiie oe?ia. Ii aiciiaeiinoe
aeaeaoaeueii onoaiiaeoue, a /ai nooue yoiai eioa?ana e eiio
iiiaaeiaeeanue oa eee eiay eioi?iaoeey. Ia iiaoi?eony ee ii a aoaeouai,
o.a. /oi iiaeii iaeeaeaoue io eiieo?aioa (ia eneeth/aii e i?anooiiuo
yeaiaioia).

A oiaea inouanoaeaiey aioo?aiieo ia?ii?eyoee ii iaania/aieth
aaciianiinoe ?aoathony neaaeothuea aii?inu. Iiaeai?, i?iaa?ea eeoe,
aeaeathueo iinooieoue ia ?aaioo a /anoiia i?aaei?eyoea. Eco/athony eo
aieaoiua aeaiiua, iiaaaeaiea ii ianoo aeeoaeuenoaa e i?aaeiae ?aaiou,
ee/iua e aeaeiaua ea/anoaa, iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu
eco/aaiiai eeoea, iaaeee/iinoiua ioiioaiey. Iaoiaeeeny ee a eiioeeeoa n
caeiiii (noaeeiinoue, aaeieieno?aoeaiua caaea?aeaiey, naycue n
i?anooiiui ie?ii). A oiaea aiaeeca nia?aiiuo iaoa?eaeia auyniyaony, iao
ee eaeeo-eeai a ieo i?ioeai?a/ee. Aeiiieieoaeueii iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny
oanoe?iaaiea eeoea aeey auyniaiey ii?aeueiuo eee ae?oaeo ea/anoa.
Ia?auaaony aieiaiea ia aiciiaeioth ?aaioo a eiieo?e?othuae oe?ia e
i?e/eiu ooiaea. Iinea yoiai aeaeaaony auaiae i i?eaiaeiinoe eaiaeeaeaoa
e ?aaioa a aeaiiie oe?ia. Ia yoii yoaia eco/aiey nio?oaeieea eioa?an e
iaio ia caeai/eaaaony. Ia?eiaee/anee eee a caaeneiinoe io iiaaaeaiey
i?iaeieaeatho eco/aoueny e aiaeece?iaaoueny aai iinooiee, cao?aaeaathuea
eioa?an (nae?aou) oe?iu. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi eiieo?aio iiaeao
niaoeeaeueii iai?aaeoue naieo ethaeae aeey ono?ienoaa ia ?aaioo a
eioa?anothuaa aai i?aaei?eyoea n oeaeueth iieo/aiey i iai oeaiiuo
naaaeaiee.

Eae iieacuaaao ca?oaaaeiay i?aeoeea ?aaiou /anoiuo oe?i, ooa/ea
eioi?iaoeee ca/anooth i?ienoiaeeo ii eieoeeaoeaa eo aea nio?oaeieeia. A
iioeaaoeeiiiie iniiaa niaa?oaaiuo iinooieia eaaeeo ei?unoue(iieo/eoue
cia/eoaeueioth noiio aeaiaa) eee ianoue(ia eneeth/ay caiaeii e
iaoa?eaeueioth auaiaeo), iai?eia?, ni noi?iiu oaieaiiiai ?aaioieea,
eiaaoaai aeinooi e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eioi?iaoeee. A yoie nayce,
oeaeaniia?acii ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia eeoe, eioi?ua a i?ioeanna
oicyenoaaiiie eee eiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?iyaeytho iaiainiiaaiiue eioa?an
e eioi?iaoeeiiiui o?aieeeuai, i?aaeiieaaaaiui naeaeeai e ia?oia?ai. I?e
aicieeiiaaiee na?ueaciuo iiaeic?aiee i iaaeia?iniaanoiinoe nio?oaeieea
ii ioiioaieth e oe?ia, i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa n iei ?annoaoueny.

Eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo no?oeoo?, iaeiieaiea n aa
iiiiuueth ?acee/iie eioi?iaoeee i?eaeaeaao eae eiieo?aioia, oae e
i?anooiieeia. Ca/anooth eeoea, aeaeathuea ainiieueciaaoueny yoie
eioi?iaoeeae, iaoiaeyony n?aaee ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea, a yoi oaea
i?iaeaia aioo?aiiae aaciianiinoe. Caaea/a neoaeau aaciianiinoe
naiaa?aiaiii auyaeoue n?aaee ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea oao
nio?oaeieeia, eioi?ua auiaoeaatho iaia?aiey eniieueciaaoue eiathueany a
eo ?anii?yaeaiee naaaeaiey aeey i?iaeaaee ae?oaei eeoeai eee
eniieueciaaoue a naieo ee/iuo oeaeyo aeey iieo/aiey auaiaeu. Iiieii
aeaenoaey a eioa?anao eiieo?aioa, iiaoo niaa?oeoueny e aeaenoaey,
i?aneaaeoaiua ii caeiio: iioaiie/anoai, naaioaae, iia?aaeaeaiea YAI.

Anee enoiaeeoue ec ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa, oi n aieiie eiiiuethoa?iuo
i?anooieaiee, iiea aeey ian iiauo e, ia a iieiii iauaia, iiea
o?aaoee?iaaiiuo ia caeiiiaeaoaeueiii o?iaia, iai i?eaeaony noieeiooueny
a iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai. Noauaeoaie yoeo i?anooieaiee, eae i?aaeei
yaeythony aunieiia?aciaaiiua niaoeeaeenou, eiathuea aeinooi e nae?aoiui
i?ia?aiiai, oeo?ai, eiaeai. A aaieianeeo nenoaiao, iai?eia?, niaa?oaaony
iioaiie/anoai (nieiathony aeaiueae ni n/aoia eeeaioia auiuoeaiiui
eeoeii, caieiathony niaeoeyoeeae, eniieuecoy aaieianeee eaieoae, ia
aaethoiuo ae?aeao, iiea/eaatho nianoaaiiua n/aoa e o. ae.). ?acaeoeth
aeaiiiai aeaea i?anooieaiee niinianoaoao oaeaea e oi, /oi oe?iu e aaiee
ia no?aiyony iaeaoaoue oaeou eiiiuethoa?iuo e?aae, /oiau ia ioioaiooue
eeeaioia. I?anooiieee, ciay oaeia iieiaeaiea, oaioaaee?otho
aeaaeaeueoeaa aaieia, oa?iaeatho ?ane?uoue nae?aoiua eiaeu e oeo?u, /oi
iiaeao iiaea/ue ieeeeiiu ?anoiaeia aeey eo caiaiu. Oieueei ia
?anneaaeiaaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie, /anoiuie neoaeaaie eiiiuethoa?iuo
ioeaie aaieia i?eoiaeeony o?aoeoue ieiei 20 ie?ae. aeieea?ia a aiae.

I?aaei?eyoey, ?aniieaaathuea oeaiiie eioi?iaoeeae, aeieaeiu o?aieoue aa
a niaoeeaeueiuo ianai?aaiuo oeaoao eee naeoao, ia aeiioneaoue ooa?e
eeth/ae io ieo eee ia?aaea/e ia o?aiaiea ae?oaei eeoeai, aeaaea ec /enea
iniai aeiaa?aiiuo.

Ca?oaaaeiua oe?iu, iai?eia?, eniieuecotho aeey o?aiaiey nae?aoiie
eioi?iaoeee naeou (oeaou), ioe?uaaaiua n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiie
iaaieoiie ea?ou eee ae?oaeo neiaeiuo neaiaeueiuo yeaeo?iiiuo ono?ienoa.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi e yoa ia?a cia/eoaeueii cao?oaeiyao e iei
aeinooi. Iniaaiii i?e iaee/ee eiiieaena caueoiuo (oece/aneeo e
oaoie/aneeo) ia? caeaiey, aaea ?aniieiaeai naeo, eiia o?aieeeua.

Inouanoaeaiea niaoeeaeueiuo aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo ia? caueou oeaiiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai aeieaeii aiceaaaoueny ia niaoeeaeueii
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo eeoe. A yoie nayce, i?aaei?eieiaoaeth oeaeaniia?acii
ia?auaoueny ca iiiiuueth e /anoiui aeaoaeoeaiui oe?iai,
niaoeeaeece?othueiny ia nunea e io?aia nianoaaiiinoe. Iiaoo
nicaeaaaoueny e nianoaaiiua neoaeau aaciianiinoe. Caeanue
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue nai ?aoaao, /oi aio auaiaeiaa: ie?eoueny n ooa/eie
eioi?iaoeee eee i?eaeaeaoue /anoiua neoaeau aaciianiinoe e aa caueoa.
Aii?in ninoieo a oii, eaeie ec oauoeia iaiueoee: i?e ooa/ea nae?aoia eee
eo io?aia.

Ca?oaaaeiua e?oiiua e ninoiyoaeueiua oe?iu aaiaeyo a naie ooao
aeiiieieoaeueioth aeieaeiinoue – nio?oaeieea, caieiathuaainy
i?ioeaiaeaenoaeai oeuaieth oeaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Ae?oaea aea oe?iu
iinoiyiii eee ia?eiaee/anee iieuecothony oneoaaie /anoiuo neoaea,
niaoeeaeece?othueony ia nunea e io?aia. Ooaoiay /eneaiiinoue yoeo neoaea
ian/eouaaao aeanyoee ouny/ nio?oaeieeia. Oaiaeaioeey ?inoa eo ?yaeia ia
nie?auaaony. A aeaenoaeyo /anoiuo neoaea e iieeoeee aicieeatho
i?ioeai?a/ey, ii eo iuoathony oeaaeeoue n iiiiuueth caeiia eee ia
ia?eoaoiie iniiaa. Nouanoaoao aeiaiai?aiiinoue ia iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae,
anee ia io?aiyaiie oa??eoi?ee niaa?oaaony i?anooieaiea.

A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?eiyo Caeii “I /anoiie aeaoaeoeaiie e
io?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo
iieiaeaiey i nuneiie e io?aiiie /anoiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ioeaieaay
aeaiiue caeii n e?eoe/aneeo iiceoeee, neaaeoao oeacaoue e ia oaeea
iieiaeaiey, caneoaeeaathuea aieiaiey, eae ieacaiea aeaoaeoeaaie ia
aiciacaeiie aeiaiai?iie iniiaa iiiiue a?aaeaeaiai e i?aaiecaoeeyi
iacaaeneii io eo oi?i nianoaaiiinoe. Ia?a/eneythony aeaeu ?ac?aoaaiuo e
cai?auaaiuo oneoa, eioi?ua iiaoo ieacuaaoue noauaeou iaainoaea?noaaiiie
aeaoaeoeaiie e io?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoe: nuueee e io?aiieee.

A /anoiinoe, Caeii i?aaeoniao?eaaao aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey
aeoeeiia?iuie iauanoaaie nianoaaiiuo neoaea aaciianiinoe, eioi?ua,
n?a6aee ae?oaeo caaea/, i?ecaaiu aanoe “…eco/aiea ?uiea, nai?
eioi?iaoeee aeey aeaeiauo ia?aaiai?ia auyaeaiea iae?aaeeoiniiniaiuo eee
iaiaaeaaeiuo aeaeiauo ia?oia?ia;…onoaiiaeaiea
ianoiyoaeuenoa…iaaeia?iniaanoiie eiieo?aioeee…, a oaeaea ?acaeaoaiea
naaaeaiee, ninoaaeythueo eiiia?/aneoth oaeio…”. (no. 3.).

Iiaeaiaey eoiae, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi caueoa niaoeeaeueiuie ia?aie
oeaiiie eioi?iaoeee aeieaeia inouanoaeyoueny eae i?ioea eiieo?aioia, oae
e i?anooiiuo yeaiaioia, iuoathueony iaeaaeaoue ath. Ia?u caueou caaenyo
io oao niiniaia e i?eaiia, eioi?ua i?eiaiytho iioeoeoaee. Eniieueciaaiea
aeey caueou nae?aoia /anoiuo oe?i naiuo neiaeiuo yeaeo?iiiuo ono?ienoa
iicaieyao oieueei naea?aeeaaoue eo ooa/eo, ii ia inoaiaaeeaaoue yoio
aeae aeayoaeueiinoe, oe?iei iieo/eaoee a ie?iaie i?aeoeea iacaaiea
i?iiuoeaiiue (eiiia?/aneee) oieiiaae. A yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a,
enneaaeothuae ?acaeoea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia?auaaony
aieiaiea ia iiaeaea?aeaiea yoeee /anoiie eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A
oiaea aea eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau eae iaiouaieaiiai yeaiaioa ?uii/iiai
oicyenoaiaaiey eniieueciaaiea i?iiuoeaiiiai oieiiaaea iaeuecy ioianoe e
yoe/aneei aeaeai aeaeiauo acaeiiioiioaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Iaeiaei
?uii/ii-eiieo?aioiay aeayoaeueiinoue iaiuneeia, eae iieacuaaao
ca?oaaaeiay i?aeoeea, aac yeiiiie/aneiai, i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai e ae?oaeo aeaeia oieiiaaea. Naiue aeaaii?eyoiue
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneee eeeiao aeey ?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia
niiaeao i?aaeioa?aoeoue aaie?ionoaa, anee a ?acoeueoaoa oaea/iie
oieiineie aeoeee aoaeoo iioeuaiu nae?aoiua aeey oe?iu (eiiiaiee)
naaaeaiey. Oieiiaae – yoi oaiue ?uii/ii-eiieo?aioiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
aeaeaaoaeue aeey iaeieo oe?i e oi?iic aeey ae?oaeo.

6. EIIIA?*ANEEE OIEIIAAE.

Eeoei, iiaeaeaaoaa caiyoueny i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii, eae i?aaeei, oaea
eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua iiciaiey a eca?aiiie iaeanoe, a a neo/aa
iaaeinoaoi/iinoe iiaeao eo iieo/eoue ec iaoe?iiai anni?oeiaioa
ioa/anoaaiiie e ca?oaaaeiie eeoa?aoo?u. I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai oanii
acaeiinaycaiii n eiieo?aioeeae. Inouanoaeaiea iineaaeiae iiaeao
i?eieiaoue naiua ?acee/iua oi?iu, a oii /enea e oaeea, eae oeuaiea eee
nai? /oaeie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay iineo iauaecaanoiia iacaaiea oieiiaae.
Ia yoie iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe o iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa ethaeae
neiaeeeinue aeiaieueii noa?aioeiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea, iniiaaiiia ia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?a, eeii- e oaeaoeeueiao. E ia aicieeaei
iaiaoiaeeiinoe a aieaa aeoaieii eco/aiee yoiai yaeaiey. Oai ia iaiaa
iiaeoiaeu e oaeiio iauanoaaiiiio yaeaieth, eae oieiiaae, a oneiaeyo
?uii/ii-eiieo?aioiie aeayoaeueiinoe ?acei iaiythony, eai eeoeai,
caieiathueiny i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii, oaea i?eoiaeeony, eai eeoeai,
caieiathueiny i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii, oaea i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny n
yoie i?iaeaiie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iie auioaeaeaiu caueuaoue naie nae?aou
(oeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth), a n ae?oaie – iuoaoueny caaeaaeaoue nae?aoaie
eiieo?aioa, /oiau auaeeoue a ?uii/iii i?ioeaiai?noaa. Oeaeue aeaiiiai
?acaeaea, oioy au a i/aiue e?aoeie oi?ia, eceiaeeoue ioaeaeueiua
aii?inu, oa?aeoa?ecothuea iiiyoea oieiiaaea, aai aeaeu e niiniau
inouanoaeaiey e oai naiui ieacaoue i?aeoe/aneia niaeaenoaea eeoeai,
i?yii eee einaaiii i?e/anoiui e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oa?iei “oieiiaae” (n i?eeaaaoaeueiuie: “yeiiiie/aneee”, “i?iiuoeaiiue”,
“eiiia?/aneee”, “iao/ii-oaoie/aneee”) icia/aao aeoeaiua aeaenoaey,
iai?aaeaiiua ia nai? eee oeuaiea oeaiiie eioi?iaoeee, cae?uoie aeey
aeinooia iinoi?iiieo eeoe.

Yeiiiie/aneee oieiiaae aieaa oe?ieia iiiyoea, eioi?ia ioaaouaaao e
oaeea aai iiaeaeaeu, eae i?iiuoeaiiue, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneee, eiiia?/aneee oieiiaae. Iaeaaeaiea oaeiie iaeiei
eeoeii aucuaaao e iae eioa?an ae?oaiai eeoea, aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
eioi?iai niaa?oathony aeaenoaey, iai?aaeaiiua ia caaeaaeaiea ath n
oeaeueth iieo/eoue ii?aaeaeaiioth iaoa?eaeueioth eee eioth auaiaeo.
Eeoei, o/anoaothuaa a iiaeiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eiaao iauaecaanoiia
iacaaiea “oieii”. A i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa
iaaiciiaeia aac iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee. No?aieaiey iieo/eoue naaaeaiey a
oneiaeyo cae?uoiai e iei aeinooia caeiiiui iooai ii?iaeaeaao iaecaaaeii
iaaeia?iniaanoioth eiieo?aioeeth, o.a. iauaeoeaioth iio?aaiinoue
oieiieoue ca eiieo?aioii. Aac aeaaeaiey eioi?iaoeeae i aeaenoaeyo
eiieo?aioa, i?aaeiieaaaaiii ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth, ia?niaeoeaiuo
iao/iuo ?ac?aaioeao o?oaeii, a ii?ie e iaaiciiaeii auoue
eiieo?aioiniiniaiui. Aicieeaao aeaa oanii acaeiinaycaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoaa:

1. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue auioaeaeai aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa caueoieea naieo
nae?aoia (oeaiiie eioi?iaoeee);

2. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue auioaeaeai a oeaeyo eiieo?aioeee aeiauaaoue
(ai?iaaoue, iieoiaoue) /oaeea caueuaaiua nae?aou. Oi, /oi ia caueuaaony,
iniaie oeaiiinoe a ?anniao?eaaaiii ieaia ia eiaao.

Aicieeaao aii?in i oii, eae ?anniao?eaaoue i?iiuoeaiiue (eiiia?/aneee)
oieiiaae n iiceoeee aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa . A eeoa?aoo?a i
i?iiuoeaiiii oieiiaaea ca ?oaaaeii ioia/aaony, /oi ?anniao?eaaaiay
aeayoaeueiinoue aiana ia n/eoaaony i?anooiiie e ia aea/ao oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Anee a i?ioeanna oeuaiey nae?aoiie eioi?iaoeee
i?aaei?eyoeth, o/?aaeaeaieth eee nio?oaeieeai i?e/eiyaony oua?a, oi
oaieiaiiio iaeacaieth aeiiaiia eeoei iiaa?aaaony eiaiii ca iineaaeiaa
aeayiea, a ia ca nai oaeo oeuaiey oeaiiaeoeo naaaeaiee. A i?eioeeia
oaeie iioiae yaeyaony i?aaeeueiui, iineieueeo nai i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia
caeioa?aniaai a oii, /oi eiaaea ii aoaeao niaa?oaoue oeuaiea iaoa?eaeia,
a caieiaoueny yoei ii auioaeaeai a neeo ?uii/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi
aoaeao iaoiaeeoueny iiae oa?icie i?eiaiaiey e iaio oaieiaiiai iaeacaiey.
I?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia io?aio naieo oaei, /ai
i?eaaaaoue e oaieiaii-i?aaiaie caueoa.

A yoeo oeaeyo aieaa iiae?iaii ?anniio?ei i?eciaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
i?iiuoeaiiue oieiiaae. E iei ioiinyony:

– noauaeo (eoi iiaeao caieiaoueny aeaiiui aeaeii aeayoaeueiinoe);

– i?aaeiao (ia /oi iinyaaaony i?iiuoeaiiue e eiie oieiiaae);

– niinia, n?aaenoai (aeaenoaey, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony
iaeaaeaiea cae?uouie naaaeaieyie);

– aae?anao (eoi aunooiaao caeac/eeii).

Noauaeoaie i?iiuoeaiiiai (eiiia?/aneiai) oieiiaaea iiaoo auoue
a?aaeaeaia ?innee, eiino?aiiua a?aaeaeaia, eeoea aac a?aaeaeainoaa,
ioiinyueany e ia ioiinyueany e nio?oaeieeai i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo
i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, oe?i. Eniieieoaeai oieiiaaea iiaeao
aunooiaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aaei?eieiaoaeue, nio?oaeieee nianoaaiiie
neoaeau aaciianiinoe, /anoiuo aeaoaeoeaiuo nuneiuo oe?i eee ioaeaeueiua
eeoea, aeaenoaothuea a /anoiii ii?yaeea. Iiene e iaeaaeaiea
i?iiuoeaiiie, eiiia?/aneie eioi?iaoeeae inouanoaeyaony, a iaeieo
neo/ayo, ii caaeaieth caeac/eea, a ae?oaeo – ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa
aeey iineaaeothuae aa i?iaeaaee caeioa?aniaaiiui eeoeai.

Aiaeec ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeee iieacuaaao, /oi o /anoiuo neoaea
aaciianiinoe, niaoeeaeece?othueony ia oeuaiee /oaeeo nae?aoia, eiaaony
cia/eoaeueiay ii /eneo eeeaioo?a caeac/eeia e iieoiaoaeae. Iai?eia?, a
Aaeeeia?eoaiee iaeii ec /anoiuo nuneiuo aaaionoa, ia?yaeo n
?anneaaeiaaieai oaeoia i i?iiuoeaiiii oieiiaaea, iaania/aieai
aaciianiinoe i?aaei?eyoee e oe?i, caieiaaony oaeaea aeiauaaieai
(oeuaieai) eioi?iaoeee i eiieo?aioiuo /anoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Iiaeiaiua
oe?iu ia no?aiyony iniai eiinie?e?iaaoue, ne?uaaoue naith
aeayoaeueiinoue. Eo eii?aeeiaou eiathony a niaoeeaeueiuo ni?aai/ieeao. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy a no?aiao ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aeaenoaotho nioie e ouny/e
aaaionoa e aeanyoee ouny/ i?iiuoeaiiuo oieiiia.

Iiaeiaiua aaaionoaa ia/eiatho ia?aciauaaoueny e aeaenoaiaaoue e ia
oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. Iaeiaei ?aceee ?ino oaeeo neoaea
neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue oieueei a oneiaeyo noi?ie?iaaaoaeny
?uii/ii-eiieo?aioiie yeiiiieee, aiaeiae/iie caiaaeiui no?aiai.

Ii aiieia iiiyoiui i?e/eiai auaeaoue nae?aou iiaoo e nio?oaeieee oe?iu.
Anee eeoeai, ia ?aaioathuei ia i?aaei?eyoee, iaiaoiaeeii i?aiaeieaaaoue
oece/aneea e oaoie/aneea i?aiyonoaey aeey i?iieeiiaaiey e nae?aoai, oi
?aaioieeai oe?iu ia o?aaoaony i?eeaaaoue iiaeiaiua oneeey. Oaeiie
eioi?iaoeeae iie oaea iaeaaeatho eee eiatho aiciiaeiinoe nia?aoue aa.
Iioeaaoeeae oaeeo aeaenoaee iiaoo neoaeeoue ei?unoue, ianoue e o.ae.
Iiyoiio i?e oi?ie?iaaiee eieeaeoeaa nio?oaeieeia iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue,
eiio ec ieo aeiaa?youe naie oaeiu, a eiio iao. ?aoatho yoio aii?in naie
i?aaei?eieiaoaee. Oae, nio?oaeieee iauaecaanoiiai AIOa ia no?aieoeao
aacao aeiaieueii iiae?iaii aeaeyony eioi?iaoeeae i oii, eae iie
caieiaeenue aioo?aiiae aaciianiinoueth naiaai eiiia?aoeaa. Aia/aea
i?eieiaee e naaa ia ?aaioo oieueei oao, eiai ciaee ee/ii e iiaee ei
aeiaa?youe. ?anoe?aiea ooaoa nio?oaeieeia oaaee/eaaei iianiinoue ooa/ee
eioi?iaoeee. Iiyoiio ?oeiaiaenoaii AIOa i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea i nicaeaiee
niaoeeaeueiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey – aeaia?oaiaioa ii i?iaa?ea ethaeae,
iinooiaaoeo e iei ia ?aaioo. Ia eaiaeeaeaoia caaiaeeeenue aeinuea, a
eioi?uo eiioeaio?e?iaaeenue ?acoeueoaou eo eco/aiey e i?iaa?ie.
I?iaa?yaiua iiaee ciaeiieoueny n aeinuea ia naay. O?oaeii iiea aanoe
?a/ue i oii, /oi ethaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iiaeao eiaoue oaeea aea
aiciiaeiinoe eee nicaeaoue eo. Ii iiaeoiae e caueoa naieo nae?aoia o ieo
aue i?aaeeueiue e eo iiuo iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny ae?oaeie oe?iaie n
o/aoii naieo aiciiaeiinoae e iio?aaiinoae.

Neaaeothuei i?eciaeii, oa?aeoa?ecothuei oieiiaae, yaeyaony i?aaeiao
iinyaaoaeuenoaa, o.a. eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao oeaiiinoue aeey
aa iaeaaeaoaey e cae?uoa e aeinooio iinoi?iiieo eeoe. Iineoaee oaeie
eioi?iaoeee naiua ?aciiia?aciua: aeieoiaiou, /a?oaaee, noaiu, iaoaiou,
aeeneaou, eannaou, a eioi?uo niaea?aeaony iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey.
aooaaeoa?neea iaoa?eaeu, eiio?aeou, ieaiu e ?aoaiey ?oeiaiaenoaa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oe?i. I?aaeiaoii i?iiuoeaiiiai oieiiaaea iiaeao
auoue ia oieueei eioi?iaoeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oe?i, ii e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e o/?aaeaeaiee.

Ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe aicieeatho i?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiie
oaeiu i?aaei?eyoee, oe?i, eiiiaiee ni niaoaiiui eaieoaeii. Iai?eia?,
/anoiue e ainoaea?noaaiiue eaieoae; ainoaea?noaaiiue e eiino?aiiue
/anoiue eaieoae; ioa/anoaaiiue e eiino?aiiue /anoiue eaieoae. Iaecaaaeii
noieeiiaaiea eioa?ania iaoaai e eiino?aiiiai nianoaaiieea eae iaaeaeo
niaie, oae e n ainoaea?noaii. A iineaaeiai neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue iaee/ea ainoaea?noaaiiie (aiaiiie) oaeiu, neoaeaaiie oaeiu,
eiuo naaaeaiee, ii?aaeaeyaiuo oaieiaiui caeiiii, a oaeaea i?iiuoeaiioth
oaeio. Naaaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea ainoaea?noaaiiua nae?aou, ia?a/eneaiu a
niaoeeaeueiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao, ooaa?aeaeaaiuo ?inneeneei
i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Ia eo iniiaaiee ecaeathony aaaeiinoaaiiua aeou,
ii?aaeaeythuea aeaeu nae?aoia, iiaeeaaeaueo io?aia. I?iiuoeaiiay aea
oaeia iiaeao aeeth/aoueny a ia?a/ie ainoaea?noaaiiuo nae?aoia, a iiaeao
e ia ioiineoueny e iei. Iinyaaoaeuenoai ia nae?aou ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee e o/?aaeaeaiee i?aneaaeoaony oaieiaiui caeiiii, oiaaea eae
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea nae?aou oaieiaiui caeiiii ia caueuaiu. Iai?eia?,
niinia i?iecaiaenoaa e caaa?ee /ay aeey ainoaea?noaa ia i?aaenoaaeyao
oeaiiinoe, a aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey – yoi oe?iaiiue nae?ao, ia eioi?ii
aea?aeeony ana aai i?aaei?eyoea.

Neaaeothuei i?eciaeii i?iiuoeaiiiai oieiiaaea yaeyaony niinia aai
inouanoaeaiey. Aeaenoaey ii caaeaaeaieth eioi?iaoeeae i?ioiaeyo ne?uoii
(oaeii) io ie?oaeaiey, iooai eo oeuaiey, nai?a, iieoiee, auaea/e. Ia
eneeth/aaony e oie/oiaeaiea, eneaaeaiea eee naaioe?iaaiea ii
eniieueciaaieth eioi?iaoeee. Oeaeue – ia aeaoue aeaaeaeueoeo
aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaoue aa aeey iieo/aiey auaiaeu, auoue
eiieo?aioiniiniaiui.

E n?aaenoaai iieo/aiey nae?aoia ioiinyony ?acee/iua oaoie/aneea
nenoaiu. Anee o ian iiea iniiaiuie aeaaeaeueoeaie ?acaaaeuaaoaeueiuo
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa yaeythony niaoeeaeueiua ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu
(neoaeau), oi ia Caiaaea iie iaoiaeyony a iieueciaaiee e /anoiuo eeoe.
Yoi iicaieyao i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi oe?iei eniieueciaaoue n?aaenoaa
yeaeo?iiiie ?acaaaeee a iieo/aiee iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee. Niyoea aa n
oaeaoiiiuo ia?aaiai?ia, YAI, iiiauaiee, aaea aaaeoony nae?aoiua aanaaeu,
e o.ae. I?eiaiaiea oao eee eiuo n?aaenoa caaeneo io eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?oth iaia?aaaaony iieo/eoue noauaeo. Iaeei aeae eioi?iaoeee iiaeao
auoue iioeuai, ae?oaie i?ineooai, o?aoee – noioia?aoe?iaai eee naeaeaiu
ca?eniaee, /aoaa?oue caienai ia iaaieoioii, iyoue – niyo eeiieaia?ie e
o.ae. Eiiaaea eniieuecoaony eiiieaen niaoeeaeueiuo ia? ii aa iieo/aieth.
A caaeneiinoe io aeaea iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee i?eieiathony
niioaaonoaothuea ia?u caueou. Iai?eia?, nouanoaotho i?eai?u, n iiiiuueth
eioi?uo iiaeii n ?annoiyiey aei 500 i eaca?iui eo/ii nieiaoue ?a/aaoth
eioi?iaoeeth ca n/ao aea?aoeee ieiiiuo noaeie. A ioaao, aeey
i?aaeioa?auaiey ooa/ee eioi?iaoeee oaeei niiniaii, iaiaoeeay oe?ia
Neiain ia/aea auione niaoeeaeueiuo ieiiiuo ?ai, ineaaeythueo ia 110aeA
i?iieeiiaaiea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo eceo/aiee a ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeeaiaciiao.

Aae?anaoaie (caeac/eeaie) iieo/aiey i?iiuoeaiiie (eiiia?/aneie)
eioi?iaoeee aunooiatho i?aaei?eieiaoaee iaeiai e e?oiiiai aeciana,
?oeiaiaeeoaee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, a oaeaea i?aaeoaeuenoaa
eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa. Caueoa nae?aoia i?iiuoeaiiuo e eiiia?/aneeo
oe?i e i?iieeiiaaiea e iei yaeythony aeaoiy noi?iiaie iaeiie iaaeaee. E
iei a iaeeiaeiaie ia?a i?iyaeytho eioa?an eae /anoiua eeoea, oae e
nio?oaeieee ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaea.

Iaeei ec ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aia?eeaineie ?acaaaeee, aunooiay a 1990a. a
Iaoeeiiaeueiii i?ann-eeoaa, cayaee, /oi “yeiiiie/aneay iiuue yaeyaony
eeth/ii e ainiiaenoao e aeanoe ai anai ie?a.” A ?a/e yoiai
?oeiaiaeeoaey, i?iecianaiiie a Aia?eeaineii oieaa?neoaoa, i?icao/aei,
/oi “a i?aaenoiyuea aiaeu iu noaiai naeaeaoaeyie ?aceiai aic?anoaiey
iai?yaeaiiinoe a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo. Iauaeoeaiay
eioi?iaoeey ia yeiiiieea eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa noaiao i?aeoe/anee
aaaeiie, e ?acaaaeea iaycaia aa aeiauaaoue”. Ca ?oaaaeii n/eoatho, /oi
ia iaiaa aaaeiay caaea/a eiaeeony ia iea/e eiio??acaaaeuaaoaeueiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, eioi?ua iaycaiu i?anaeaoue ana iiiuoee eiino?aiiuo
niaoeneoaea, ia eneeth/ay e ae?oaeanoaaiiua, inouanoaeyoue
iieeoe/aneee, i?iiuoeaiiue e yeiiiie/aneee oieiiaae i?ioea NOA.

A iaoae ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe oaeaea iiyaeythony caiaoee i oii, /oi
ioa/anoaaiiay ?acaaaeea (?acaaaeee) ia?aiaoeaeeaaao naie oneeey ia nai?
oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee.

Eae aeaeei, iiaui i?ei?eoaoii a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aeey
?acaaaeuaaoaeueiuo e eiio??acaaaeuaaoaeueiuo niiauanoa noaiiayony
naaaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Iiyoiio iai?aoeaaaony auaiae i oii,
/oi eioa?an e ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaeai /anoiie e ainoaea?noaaiiie
yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee (aeeth/ay
aeayoaeueiinoue iaoeo oe?i e ca ?oaaaeii) aoaeao i?iyaeyoueny ia oieueei
ni noi?iiu /anoiuo neoaea aaciianiinoe, ii e eiino?aiiuo niaoeneoaea
(?acaaaeie).

Iiaeao ee /anoiue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue i?ioeainoiyoue iinyaaoaeuenoaai
niaoeeaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaea? O?oaeii /oi-eeai ooaa?aeaeaoue a
aeaiiuo oneiaeyo, nei?aa anaai iao. E oiio aea i?yiay caueoa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo no?oeoo? ia ioiineony e ooieoeeyi
eiio??acaaaeuaaoaeueiuo neoaea. Caiaaeiua oe?iu o?aoyo ia caueoo naiae
eioi?iaoeee 15 % naieo aeioiaeia. O ian aanoe ?a/e i oaeie caueoa iiea
?aii. Aianoa n oai iao i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia no?aieony a neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?auaoueny e ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiio?aieoaeueiui
i?aaiai.

Iiiuoaainy inoaiiaeoueny ia i?iaeaia ioee/ey i?iiuoeaiiiai
(eiiia?/aneiai) oieiiaaea io ainoaea?noaaiiuo oaei e eiuo naaaeaiee,
iaoiaeyueony iiae io?aiie oaieiaiiai caeiia. A ea/anoaa iniiau
?aca?aie/aiey yoeo iiiyoee e i?eieiaaiuo ainoaea?noaaiii-aeanoiuo eee
eiuo ?aoaiee eaaeao i?eciaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea i?iiuoeaiiue oieiiaae, a
oaeaea i?eciaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ninoaau i?anooieaiee, niaea?aeauea
cai?aou ia caaeaaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie.

Eoae, iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia /anoioth eioi?iaoeeth iiaoo auoue ni noi?iiu
noauaeoia /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e niaoeneoaea eiino?aiiiai
ainoaea?noaa.

1. I?iieeiiaaiea e /anoiui nae?aoai oe?iu, i?aaei?eyoey ni noi?iiu
eiieo?e?othuae /anoiie oe?iu (nio?oaeieee /anoiiai aeaoaeoeaiiai
aaaionoaa, nianoaaiiie ?acaaaeuaaoaeueiie neoaeau) i?aaeioa?auaaony
nianoaaiiuie neeaie aaciianiinoe e oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie. Eeoei,
caaea?aeaiiia a iiiauaiee (caeaiee), iiaeao auoue i?eaea/aii e oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?e/eiaiiue oua?a: ?acaie;
oiuoeaiiia eee iainoi?iaeiia oie/oiaeaiea eee iia?aaeaeaiea ee/iiai
eiouanoaa a?aaeaeai eee eae iinyaaoaeuenoai i?ioea nianoaaiiinoe
iauaaeeiaiee e i?aaiecaoeee; i?anooieaiea i?ioea aeecie e caei?iauey
ee/iinoe.

Caaeaaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiui (eiiia?/aneei) nae?aoii inouanoaeyaony oaeaea
n iiiiuueth iiaeeoia nio?oaeieeia eiieo?e?othuae oe?iu, eo oaioaaea,
oa?ic e o.ae. Anee auynieony, /oi ooa/ea nae?aoa i?iecioea ii aeia
naiaai aea ?aaioieea, oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue niiaeao oieueei oaieeoue aai,
/oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue auaea/o eioi?iaoeee a aoaeouai.

A oaeeo neo/ayo i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa anaai aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey yaeyaony
ia aeiionoeoue ooa/ee eioi?iaoeee, nicaeaa iaaeaaeioth caueoo, /ai
o?aoeoue neeu e n?aaenoaa ia iiene oieiia, iioeoeaoaai nae?aoiua
iaoa?eaeu.

2. *anoiue aeaoaeoea, aeaenoaoy a eioa?anao ioa/anoaaiiie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie oe?iu, iinyaaao ia eioi?iaoeeth ainoaea?noaaiiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai i?aaei?eyoey. A aeaiiie neooaoeee iiaeao auoue
ianeieueei ?aoaiee.

Anee /anoiia eeoei iaeaaeaaaao oeaiiie eioi?iaoeeae, ioiinyuaeny e
naaaeaieyi, ninoaaeythuei ainoaea?noaaiioth eee neoaeaaioth oaeio, oi
oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii OE ?NON? ca yoi aeayiea ia i?aaeoniio?aia.

Iioeuaiiua naaaeaiey ninoaaeytho ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio. A aeaiiii
neo/aa oaeaea ia oniao?eaaaony ninoaa i?anooieaiey. Ai-ia?auo, anee
?anniao?eaaoue ii i?eciaeai ninoaaa ?acaeaoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu,
oi /anoiia eeoei ia iiaeao auoue noauaeoii aeaiiiai i?anooieaiey.
Naaaeaiey aio ia aeiaa?yeenue e ia iiaee noaoue ecaanoiuie ii neoaeaa
eee ?aaioa, oae eae ii ia ?aaioae ia aeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee.

Ia iiiaaeaao yoi aeaenoaea e iiae i?eciaee ninoaaia,
i?aaeoniao?eaathueo eciaio ?iaeeia a oi?ia oieiiaaea eee oieiiaae. Ii
iauaeoeaiie noi?iia yoeo iniai iianiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?anooieaiee
aae?anaoaie nai?a e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee aunooiatho eiino?aiiia
ainoaea?noai, eiino?aiiay i?aaiecaoeey eee eo aaaioo?a. Caeanue aea
aae?anaoii aunooiaao ioa/anoaaiiay i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay oe?ia.

Ionoonoaoao ninoaa i?anooieaiey a aeaenoaeyo /anoiiai eeoea e oiaaea,
eiaaea naaaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio, ii iieo/eo io
?aaioieeia ?aaeeiiiai i?aaei?eyoey iaiaiiui iooai, iiaeneooeaaieai eo
?acaiai?ia e o.ae. A oi aea a?aiy a iiaaaeaiee ?aaioieeia, aeiionoeaoeo
ooa/eo aeiaa?aiiie ei (noaaoae ecaanoiie ii neoaeaa eee ?aaioa)
nae?aoiie eioi?iaoeee, niaea?aeaony i?eciaee ninoaaa ?acaeaoaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu (iainoi?iaeiay oi?ia aeiu).

– A aeaenoaeyo /anoiiai eeoea, iaia?oaeeaoaai oo?a/aiiua iaoa?eaeu,
niaea?aeauea ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio, ia?aaeaaoaai eo iaoae /anoiie
oe?ia, oaeaea ia niaea?aeeony ninoaaa i?anooieaiey.

– Nio?oaeiee ?aaeeiiiai i?aaei?eyoey niaa?oaao n /anoiui eeoeii naeaeeo,
i?iaeaao aio ca aeaiueae ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio. I?e yoii niciaao, /oi
iieoiaoaeai yaeyaony ioa/anoaaiiay i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay oe?ia.

Eeoei, i?iaeaaoaa nae?aoiua iaoa?eaeu, aeieaeii ianoe oaieiaioth
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?acaeaoaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu. Eeoei, eoieaoaa
yoe naaaeaiey, oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia ianao.

3. *anoiia eeoei a eioa?anao i?aaei?eyoey niaoaiiiai oeia (/anoiue e
ainoaea?noaaiiue ioa/anoaaiiue eaieoae) iinyaaao ia i?iiuoeaiioth
(eiiia?/aneoth) oaeio aiaeiae/ii ii oeio i?aaei?eyoey. Caeanue iiaoo
auoue ?acee/iua iiaeoiaeu e ?aoaieth aii?ina ioaaonoaaiiinoe. A
/anoiinoe, iioeoeoaeue eioi?iaoeee a eioa?anao ioa/anoaaiiiai NiI ia
iiiaaeaao iiae i?eciaee niioaaonoaothueo ii?i OE ?NON?.

A oi aea a?aiy i?e iaee/ee ainoaea?noaaiiie eee neoaeaaiie oaeiu
aicieeaao aii?in ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe nio?oaeieeia aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey,
anee aoaeao onoaiiaeaii, /oi iie i?iaeaee, auaeaee (?acaeaneee) /anoiiio
eeoeo nae?aoiua naaaeaiey. A eo iiaaaeaiee eiathony, a caaeneiinoe io
i?aaeiaoa iinyaaoaeuenoaa, i?eciaee ninoaaa ?acaeaoaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie
oaeiu. ?acaeaoaiea aea neoaeaaiie oaeiu ia yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii aeaiiiai
i?anooieaiey. Ionoonoaotho caeanue oaeaea e i?eciaee ae?oaiai noiaeiiai
i?anooieaiey – ia?aaea/e eiino?aiiui i?aaiecaoeeyi naaaeaiee,
ninoaaeythueo neoaeaaioth oaeio. Iao aae?anaoa, eioi?ue i?aaeoniio?ai
ninoaaii i?anooieaiey, a eiaiii: eiino?aiiie i?aaiecaoeee, eo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae. Iaeiaei, anee oeacaiiua aeaenoaey niaa?oaao
aeieaeiinoiia eeoei, aii?aee eioa?anai i?aaei?eyoey, oi iii iiaeao ianoe
oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ceioiio?aaeaiea aeanoueth eee neoaeaaiui
iieiaeaieai.

4. *anoiia eeoei iinyaaao ia eioi?iaoeeth i?aaei?eyoee niaoaiiiai oeia
(ioa/anoaaiiue e eiino?aiiue eaieoae) a eioa?anao ioa/anoaaiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey.

A aai aeaenoaeyo ionoonoaotho i?eciaee ninoaaia i?anooieaiey, ca
eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea a i?ioeanna oeuaiey ia aoaeao niaa?oaii
ae?oaia i?anooieaiea (oaeenoai eee i?e/aiaiea oaeaniuo iia?aaeaeaiee
io?aiieeo eee ae?oaei eeoeai, oie/oiaeaiea eee iia?aaeaeaiea eiouanoaa e
o.i.).

5. *anoiia eeoei aeaenoaoao a eioa?anao eiino?aiiie /anoiie eee
ainoaea?noaaiiie oe?iu, oeeeaeu eioi?ie ?aniieiaeaiu eae ia oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, oae e ca ?oaaaeii, i?ioea ioa/anoaaiiuo /anoiuo
e ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo no?oeoo?.

I?e iinyaaoaeuenoaa ia i?iiuoeaiioth (eiiia?/aneoth) eioi?iaoeeth
/anoiiai i?aaei?eyoey i?eciaee ninoaaa i?anooieaiey ionoonoaotho.
Iaeioi?ia aiaoiaa noiaenoai aeaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ii i?eia?aoaieth
eioi?iaoeee eiaao n i?eciaeaie ninoaaa ia?aaea/e eiino?aiiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi naaaeaiee, ninoaaeythueo neoaeaaioth oaeio. Iaeiaei
neoaeaaiay oaeia ii?aaeaeyaony ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie oieueei
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e aeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ionoonoaoao a ?anniao?eaaaiii aeayiee oaeie i?eciae, eae i?aaeiao
i?anooieaiey – neoaeaaiay oaeia.

Ianeieueei eioth oaieiaii-i?aaiaoth ioeaieo iieo/atho aeaenoaey
/anoiiai eeoea (iaoaai a?aaeaeaieia, eiino?aiiiai a?aaeaeaieia eee eeoea
aac a?aaeaeainoaa) a eioa?anao eiino?aiiie i?aaiecaoeee
(ainoaea?noaaiiua – o/?aaeaeaiey, i?aaiu, i?aaiecaoeee, o.a. ioiinyueany
e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie no?oeoo?a; iaainoaea?noaaiii-iin?aaeie/aneea,
eiiia?/aneea, i?iiuoeaiiua, no?aoiaua e ae?oaea, ioiinyueany e iaeiio e
e?oiiioe?iaiiiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao, a oaeaea eiiiaiee
i?iiuoeaiieeia, ?acee/iua iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee) a neo/aa
caaeaaeaiey naaaeaieyie, ninoaaeythueie neoaeaaioth oaeio
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue aeiiaiiai ianooiaao ca ia?aaea/o eiino?aiiui
i?aaiecaoeeyi naaaeaiee, ninoaaeythueo neoaeaaioth oaeio. I?e yoii
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianoo eae eeoea, auaeathuea neoaeaaioth oaeio
(?aaioieee i?aaei?eyoey), oae e eeoea, niae?athuea (auaaaeuaaiea,
oeuaiea, eoiey) n oeaeueth ia?aaea/e eiino?aiiui ainoaea?noaaiiui e
iaainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiecaoeeyi eee eo i?aaenoaaeoaeyi.

Iiae aeaenoaea aeaiiie noaouee iiaoo iiiaaeaoue aeaenoaey nio?oaeieeia
/anoiuo aeaoaeoeaiuo oe?i, caieiathueony aeiau/ae /oaeeo nae?aoia, i?e
oneiaee, /oi aae?anaoai ia?aaea/e naaaeaiee, ninoaaeythueo neoaeaaioth
oaeio, aunooiatho eiino?aiiua i?aaiecaoeee.

Nio?oaeieee iaainoaea?noaaiiuo aeaoaeoeaiuo oe?i, eioi?ua iaia?aiu
ieacuaaoue oneoae a nai?a ii?aaeaeaiiie eioi?iaoeee ii eieoeeaoeaa
caeac/eea eee ii nianoaaiiie, n oeaeueth iineaaeothuae i?iaeaaee
caeioa?aniaaiiiio aae?anaoo, aeieaeiu auyniyoue aeey naay, /oiau ia
anooieoue a eiioeeeo n caeiiii, eoi aunooiaao caeac/eeii eee eaeie
aae?anao aa i?eia?aoaao.

Iaeuecy eneeth/aoue e oaeie neooaoeee, eiaaea oneoaaie /anoiuo
aeaoaeoeaia iiaeaeatho ainiieueciaaoueny eiino?aiiua niaoeneoaeau.
*anoiui aecianii aeaeaeoo aeaiueae, a oaeea oneoae uaae?i iiaoo
iiea/eaaoueny.

Niciaoaeueiia auiieiaiea /anoiui aeaoaeoeaii, iai?eia?, caeacia
i?aaenoaaeoaey eiino?aiiiai ainoaea?noaa (nio?oaeieea i?aaiia ?acaaaeee,
aeeieiiaoa eee eiino?aiiie iaainoaea?noaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee),
iai?aaeaiiuo ia iieo/aiea naaaeaiee, ninoaaeythueo ainoaea?noaaiioth
(aiaiioth) oaeio, eee eiuo naaaeaiee (yeiiiie/aneiai,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai, aiaiiiai eee ae?oaiai oa?aeoa?a), eae ninoaaeythueo
nae?aou, oae e ia ioiinyueony e iei, ii i?aaenoaaeythueo eioa?an aeey
aae?anaoa, aeieaeii ioeaieaaoueny e eaaeeoeoee?iaaoueny eae oieiiaae eee
eciaia ?iaeeia a oi?ia oieiiaaea (a caaeneiinoe io a?aaeaeainoaa
aeaoaeoeaa).

Aeayoaeueiinoue aea ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee /anoiiai
eeoea ii nai?o naaaeaiee i o?aoueeo ainoaea?noaao (?aaioa iinieuenoaa,
eiino?aiiuo i?aaiecaoeee e a?aaeaeai) ia iiiaaeaao iiae i?eciaee
oieiiaaea.

6. Aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae niaoeneoaea eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa
ii nai?o i?iiuoeaiiie (eiiia?/aneie) eioi?iaoeee ioa/anoaaiiuo /anoiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee, oe?i aeieaeia
eaaeeoeoee?iaaoueny eae i?ioeaicaeiiiay, o.a. oieiiaae. I?aaeiaoii
ninoaaa oieiiaaea (eciaiu ?iaeeia a oi?ia oieiiaaea), a aeaiiii neo/aa,
yaeythony naaaeaiey, oioy e ia ninoaaeythuea ainoaea?noaaiioth
(aiaiioth) oaeio, ii i?aaenoaaeythuea eioa?an aeey eiino?aiiiai
aae?anaoa. *anoiii?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay eioi?iaoeey, n o/aoii noauaeoa
iinyaaoaeuenoaa, iiiaaeaao iiae oaieiaii- i?aaiaoth caueoo. Eeoea,
caieiathueany aa nai?ii e ia?aaea/ae aae?anaoo, aeieaeiu ianoe
oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oieiiaae.

7. *anoiay eiino?aiiay oe?ia (eiiiaiey, aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai e o.ae.)
/a?ac naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae niae?aao naaaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea
i?iiuoeaiioth (eiiia?/aneoth) oaeio ioa/anoaaiiiai
/anoiii?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai i?aaei?eyoey (o/?aaeaeaiey, oe?iu).

A yoie nayce neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aeoeaecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe
eiino?aiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee iiaeao cao?aaeaaoue e
eioa?anu iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe. ?acaaaeee eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa
aei 80 % ?acaaaeuaaoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee iieo/ath ec ioe?uouo enoi/ieeia
– aacao, aeo?iaeia, iao/iie iieeoe/aneie e yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?u,
o.a. ca n/ao aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie aiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou. Iieo/eoue
aea oaeei iooai i?iiuoeaiioth (eiiia?/aneoth) eioi?iaoeeth ia
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui. Nae?aou /anoiuo oe?i ia no?aieoeu ioe?uoie
ia/aoe e ae?oaie iauaaeinooiiie eeoa?aoo?u ia iiiaaeatho. Iiyoiio a
noa?a i?iiuoeaiiiai oieiiaaea aeaenoaotho ia ?acaaae/eee aiaeeoeee, a
?acaaae/eee, oeaeue eioi?uo naiei aeaenoaeai iaeaaeaoue aaeeiia?aiaiii
naaaeaieyie, ninoaaeythueie oaeio, a ia niae?aoue eo aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy
ii e?oieoeai. Oioy iiaeaioiaeoaeueiay ?aaioa iiaeao e caieiaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy.

Oaieiaii-i?aaiaay ioeaiea oaeie aeayoaeueiinoe n iiceoeee
aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi
iia i?ioeaicaeiiia. Aae?anao, aeaeathuee iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth e
i?aaeiao – eiua naaaeaiey, a eioi?uo ii caeioa?aniaai, yaeythony,
ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie, i?eciaeaie oieiiaaea, ca eioi?ue i?aaeoniio?aia
oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

E?aoeia ?anniio?aiea i?aaeaeia aiciiaeiie caueou e nai?a i?iiuoeaiiie
(eiiia?/aneie) eioi?iaoeee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaaeinoaoi/iie iiea
i?aaiaie i?i?aaioea aeaiiie i?iaeaiu. Iaeiaei cia/aiea e o/ao a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
iicaieytho ecaaaeaoue na?ueaciuo ioeaie e ia anooiaoue a eiioeeeo n
caeiiii.

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