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Оценка эффективности предприятия в современных рыночных условиях

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Минский Институт Управления

«К защите допускаю»

Кафедра экономики

и управления на предприяти__________________________________________Г.И.
Гануш

“____” __________________ 2004г.

Курсовая работа

по дисциплине “Экономика предприятий отрасли”

на тему: Оценка эффективности предприятия a nia?aiaiiuo ?uii/iuo
oneiaeyo

Auiieieea nooaeaoea a?. 1006 ______ ______________ Ianei I.A.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue ______ ______________ Aaioo
A.E.

Ieine, 2004.

?aoa?ao

Aeaiiay eo?niaay ?aaioa “ Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey a
nia?aiaiiuo ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo” niaea?aeeo o?e aeaau:

1. Nouiinoue e iaoiaeeea iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecuiaenoaa a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

2. Aiaeec aeeiaieee iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa ia
i?aaei?eyoee.

3. Iooe iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe a nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae.

Eeth/aauie neiaaie aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaiou yaeythony: yeiiiie/aneay
yooaeoeaiinoue, i?eaueue, cao?aou, i?icaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

Aaoi? iieueciaaeny 14 enoi/ieeaie . A oaeno eo?niaie ?aaiou anoaaeaiii 2
oaaeeoee, 2 niiniee, 5 a?aoeeia, 1 noaia.

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea. 4

1.Nouiinoue e iaoiaeeea iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe. 6

2.Aiaeec aeeiaieee iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa 11

3.Iooe iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe a nia?aiaiiue ia?eiae ia
II”Ei?aee” e AI”Aa?ii?iiuoeaiiia iaueaaeeiaiea ?annaao” 18

Caeeth/aiea. 31

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. 32

Aaaaeaiea.

Aaea?onue anooieea a ia?eiae oi?ie?iaaiey ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. ?uii/iay
yeiiiieea ii naiae nouiinoe yaeyaony n?aaenoaii, noeioee?othuei ?ino
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, anaia?iia iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei e a yoeo oneiaeyo aaaeiui yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea
iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, oaeoi?ia,
ii?aaeaeythueo ?ino yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoiaeia aai
ii?aaeaeaiey.

Aeey i?aaei?eyoee ethaie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe i/aiue aaaeii o/eouaaoue
oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou, io?aaeathuea aeeiaieeo ?anoiaeia e aeioiaeia a
oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie. Iaeiaei, naia oeiainiaay eioi?iaoeey,
au?aaeaiiay a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia, aac aeieaeiiai aiaeeca
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?aoaaee, yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia e ?acaeoey ?uieia nauoa ia aeatho iieiie
ioeaiee oaeouaai ninoiyiey e ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey.

A aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa nia/aea aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu e?eoa?ee e
iieacaoaee yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe, iauay e n?aaieoaeueiay
yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao, a caoai oaea iniiaiua iooe
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeia iino?iaiea eo?niaie ?aaiou
iauyniyaony oai, /oi i?aaenoaaeyaony ia nianai oaeiaiui ?anniao?eaaoue
iai?aaeaiey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa aac ii?aaeaeaiey aa
iniiaiuo e?eoa?eaa e iieacaoaeae. Aaeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa ?anniio?aiu
aaaeiua aniaeou e e?eoa?ee, eioi?ua aaaeoo e iiauoeieie yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeaaiuie aniaeoaie ?anniio?aiey , yaeythony oaeea eae
,yeiiiiey ?aciiia?aciuo ?ano?nia i?iecaiaenoaa , aiaae?aiea iiauo
oaoiieiaee , o?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiaa i?ioeanna , iiaua iooe e
iai?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho o?aaiaaieyi ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee. A ?aaioa iienaiu i?eioeeiu e iaoiaeu ,iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, a oaeaea aeaia n?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea
ia iniiaa eioi?ie naeaeaiu auaiaeu . I?aaeinoaaeaiu iaoa?eaeu ii
iaeioi?ui i?aaei?eyoeyi , eioi?ua i?eaaaaee e iaoiaeai iiauoaiey eo
yooaeoeaiinoe ?anniio?aiu eo ?acoeueoaoa .Aaaeiui aniaeoii ?aaiou
yaeyaony, oi /oi ?anniio?aiu iooe, iaoiaeu, i?eioeeiu, e o.ae. Ii
eioi?ui aeieaeii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue i?aaei?eyoea aeey aeinoeaeaiey
aeaeaaiiai ?acaeueoaoa a nia?aiaiiuo ?uii/iuo oneiaeyo.

1.Nouiinoue e iaoiaeeea iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Any oeaeaniia?aciay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea oae eee eia/a naycaia n
i?iaeaiie yooaeoeaiinoe. A iniiaa yoiai iiiyoey eaaeeo ia?aie/aiiinoue
?ano?nia, aeaeaiea yeiiiieoue a?aiy, iieo/aoue eae iiaeii aieueoa
i?iaeoeoeee ec aeinooiiuo ?ano?nia.

I?iaeaia yooaeoeaiinoe – yoi anaaaea i?iaeaia auai?a. Auai? eanaaony
oiai, /oi i?iecaiaeeoue, eaeea aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee, eaeei niiniaii, eae eo
?ani?aaeaeeoue e eaeie iauai ?ano?nia eniieueciaaoue aeey oaeouaai e
aoaeouaai iio?aaeaiey.

O?iaaiue yooaeoeaiinoe ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia ?aoaiea oeaeiai ?yaea
nioeeaeueiuo e yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/, oaeeo eae auno?ue yeiiiie/aneee
?ino, iiauoaiea o?iaiy aeecie ianaeaiey, nieaeaiea eioeyoeee, oeo/oaiea
oneiaee o?oaea e ioaeuoa.

Yooaeoeaiinoue io eaoeineiai neiaa ’’effectus’’ – eniieiaiea, aeaenoaea.
Aia/aea iiiyoea yooaeoeaiinoe ioiineee e oaoieea e oaoiieiaee. I?e yoii
iiae yooaeoeaiinoueth iiieiaee ia?o auiieiaiiie ?aaiou ii ioiioaieth e
cao?a/aiiie yia?aee eee niioiioaiea iaaeaeo oaeoe/aneei e
iioaioeeaeueiui ?acoeueoaoii ethaiai i?ioeanna. Iaeiaei, /oi
iiae?acoiaaaaony iiae ?aaioie? Ia?iaie aeaeaaoaeue n/eoaaony iaiaa
yooaeoeaiui, /ai aeecaeueiue, iineieueeo a ia?aii aieueoee i?ioeaio
yia?aee cao?a/eaaaony aionooth. Ii n oece/aneie oi/ee c?aiey iioa?yiiay
yia?aey oiaea auiieiyao ?aaioo, eioi?ay eiio-oi ioaeia. Yoi cia/eo, /oi
yooaeoeaiinoue ia yaeyaony /enoi iauaeoeaiui eee oaoiieiae/aneei
naienoaii, a iaecaaaeii caaeneo io ioeaiie e yaeyaony ioeaii/iie
eaoaai?eae.

Iicaeiaa noaee i?eiaiyoue iiiyoea yooaeoeaiinoe e yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ?anniao?eaay yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna
eae ioiioaiea oiai, /oi i?iecaaaeaii e oiio, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa, a /anoiinoe, ioiioaiea auionea i?iaeoeoeee e cao?aoai
?ano?nia.

Yooaeoeaiinoue yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe au? aieaa /aoei
iiae/a?eeaaao ioeaii/iue oa?aeoa? eaoaai?ee ”yooaeoeaiinoue’’. Iia
anaaaea naycaia n ioiioaieai oeaiiinoe ?acoeueoaoa e oeaiiinoe cao?ao e
iiaeao iaiyoueny n eciaiaieai ioeaiie.

A i?eia?a n ia?iaui aeaeaaoaeai e aeecaeai ?ino oeaiiinoe iaooe ii
n?aaiaieth n oeaiiinoueth oaey iiaeao eciaieoue ana oae, /oi ?aaioathuee
ia oaea ia?iaie aeaeaaoaeue noaiao yooaeoeaiaa aeecaey. Aeecaeai i?inoi
ia aoaeoo iieueciaaoueny ec-ca aei?iaiaeciu. Ia nouanoaoao oaeiai
i?ioeanna, iaoeiu, ono?ienoaa, ianoieueei yooaeoeaiiai, /oiau aai
iaeuecy auei naeaeaoue iayooaeoeaiui (eee ianoieueei iayooaeoeaiiai,
/oiau aai iaeuecy auei naeaeaoue yooaeoeaiui) i?e niioaaonoaothuai
eciaiaiee oeaiiinoae. Ana caaeneo io oiai, eaeay oeaeue aeieaeia auoue
aeinoeaiooa a ?acoeueoaoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, yeiiiie/aneie eee ethaie
ae?oaie oeaeaniia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iiae/a?eiai yoo iniaaiiinoue
eaoaai?ee yooaeoeaiinoe- aa ioeaii/iue oa?aeoa?.

Yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue – aaaeiaeoay nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay
eaoaai?ey, aeey eioi?ie oa?aeoa?iu naienoaa aeeiaie/iinoe e
enoi?e/iinoe. Yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?enoua
?acee/iiio o?iaith ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee eaaeaeie iauanoaaiiie
oi?iaoeee. Ia anao yoaiao enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey iauanoai anaaaea
eioa?aniaae aii?in: oeaiie eaeeo cao?ao e ?ano?nia aeinoeaaaony eiia/iue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue ?acoeueoao. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, enoiaeiay iiaeaeue
eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niioiioaiea
iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aneeie ?acoeueoaoaie e cao?aoaie, ?ano?naie.
Iaeneiecaoeey eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoia n aaeeieoeu cao?ao e ?ano?nia eee
ieieiecaoeey cao?ao e ?ano?nia ia aaeeieoeo eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa-
oaeiaa ia?ae/iay oeaeue iauanoaa, o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa, ioaeaeueiie
ee/iinoe (?aaioieea). Yoa oeaeue, iaoiae aa aeinoeaeaiey, iooe e ?aca?au
iiauoaiey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe (eo eeanneoeeaoeey e
eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea) yaeythony niaea?aeaieai yeiiiie/aneie iaoee e
yeiiiie/aneeo aeenoeeieei (io?aneaauo e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo).

Enoiaeiua i?eioeeiu ecia?aiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa aeey anao
iauanoaaiiuo oi?iaoeee aiaeiae/iu. Aaconeiaii, eiathony e ?acee/ey,
iaoneiaeaiiua ianoii, a?aiaiai e i?aeoe/aneei iacia/aieai eiie?aoiiai
iaoiaea ecia?aiey, a eiia/iii eoiaa- oa?aeoa?ii yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee,
a oii /enea i?aaiecaoeeae oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie.

A oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea e aa noaiiaeaiey eciaiyaony
o?aeoiaea e ea?a?oey e?eoa?eaa yooaeoeaiinoe, eo niaea?aeaiey e
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Iineieueeo iniiaie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa yaeyaony i?eaueue, aeioiae, oi a ea/anoaa
ia?ae/iiai e?eoa?ey yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe aunooiaao iaeneiecaoeey
i?eauee ia aaeeieoeo cao?ao e ?ano?nia i?e aunieii ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaio e oneoa, iaania/aiey eo eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe. Nio?aiyaony a iiauo
oneiaeyo e iauaiaoeeiiaeueiue e?eoa?ee yooaeoeaiinoe: iaeneiecaoeey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa ia
aaeeieoeo cao?ao e ?ano?nia i?e iiauoathuainy o?iaia aeaaininoiyiey
aeecie ia?iaea. Oaeay ea?a?oey e?eoa?eaa yooaeoeaiinoe eiae/ia e
io?aaeaao iieiaeaiea a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea, eai iauaiaoeeiiaeueiay
yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa caaeneo io yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia?ae/iuo y/aae i?iecaiaenoaa (i?aaei?eyoee,
iauaaeeiaiee, aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa, niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee). *ai
yooaeoeaiaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ia?ae/iuo caaiueaa, oai
auoa e yooaeoeaiinoue iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee a oeaeii, oai aieueoa
o iauanoaa, ainoaea?noaa ?ano?nia aeey ?aoaiey nioeeaeueiuo e
yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/.

?acee/atho iauoth (aaniethoioth) e n?aaieoaeueioth (ioiineoaeueioth)
yooaeoeaiinoue. Iauay yooaeoeaiinoue iaiaoiaeeia aeey ioeaiee e aiaeeca
iauayeiiiie/aneeo ?acoeueoaoia e yooaeoeaiinoe ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo
yeiiiieee (iae?i- e iee?io?iaiyo) ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie e a
aeeiaieea aeey niiinoaaeaiey o?iaiy yooaeoeaiinoe ii i?aaei?eyoeyi e
?aaeiiai.

N?aaieoaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue ?ann/eouaaaony e aiaeece?oaony i?e
iainiiaaiee i?eieiaaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiuo, oaoie/aneeo e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ?aoaiee, aeey ioai?a ec aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioia
iaeeo/oaai (iioeiaeueiiai). Oaeie ioai? inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa
niiinoaaeaiey (n?aaiaiey) ii aa?eaioai nenoaiu oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae, ?an/aoa n?iea ieoiaaiinoe eee eiyooeoeeaioa yooaeoeaiinoe
aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, aaee/eiu yeiiiie/aneiai
yooaeoa.

Nouiinoue yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ia?yaeo n aa e?eoa?eyie
eiie?aoece?oaony ia iniiaa eeanneoeeaoeee yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa
(?acoeueoaoa), a oaeaea cao?ao e ?ano?nia.

?aaeueiinoue eioi?iaoeee ia o?iaia yooaeoeaiinoe anaai naycaia n
eeanneoeeaoeeae e oi?iaie au?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa. Ioeaiea
yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa, eae i?aaeei, aeeth/aao o?e a?oiiu iieacaoaeae:
iauaiiua, eiia/iua e nioeeaeueiua ?acoeueoaou.

Iauaiiua iieacaoaee yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa yaeythony enoiaeiuie e
aeeth/atho a naay iaoo?aeueiua e noieiinoiua iieacaoaee iauaia
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa: iauai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee a
iaoo?aeueiuo ecia?eoaeyo, aaeiaoth, oiaa?ioth i?iaeoeoeeth, iauai
no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo ?aaio, ii?iaoeaioth noieiinoue ia?aaioee e ae?.

Neaaeothuay a?oiia iieacaoaeae yooaeoa io?aaeaao eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo
oi?aaeaiey, oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoae ?uiea, ea/anoaaiioth no?oeoo?o
i?iecaiaenoaa. E iei ioiinyony: iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae, /enoay
i?iaeoeoeey, aaeiaie iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo, i?eaueue, yeiiiiey io
nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe, iauai i?iaeaae a niioaaonoaothueo oeaiao, aaiae
a aeaenoaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae e oiiaeia, ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee
e oneoa.

Iauaiiua ?acoeueoaou o/eouaathony i?e ?an/aoa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo
iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe, a eiia/iua yeiiiie/aneea ?acoeueoaou- i?e
?an/aoa iaiauathueo (eiiieaeniuo) iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe.

Aaaeiia ianoi a ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo
nioeeaeueiui ?acoeueoaoai, au?aaeathuei niioaaonoaea ?acoeueoaoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe nioeeaeueiui oeaeyi
iauanoaa, eieeaeoeaa, i?ei?eoaoiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai (ee/iinoiiai)
oaeoi?a a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee. Nioeeaeueiua ?acoeueoaou au?aaeatho ana,
/oi naycaii n aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoueth ethaeae, eae a noa?a
i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e aia aa. Yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu i?iecaiaeeoaeae
iaoiaeyony a oaniie acaeiinayce n nioeeaeueiuie ?acoeueoaoaie: /ai auoa
yeiiiie/aneea ?acoeueoaou, oai auoa aeieaeiu auoue e nioeeaeueiua
?acoeueoaou e iaiai?io. Nioeeaeueiua ?acoeueoaou io?aaeathony a oaeeo
iieacaoaeyo, eae iiauoaiea o?iaiy aeecie (?ino iieaou o?oaea, ?aaeueiuo
aeioiaeia, i?iaeeoi/iue ieieioi, iaania/aiiinoue aeeeueai, o?iaaiue
iaaeeoeeineiai ianeoaeeaaiey, iauaia?aciaaoaeueiue e i?ioanneiiaeueiue
o?iaaiue ?aaioieeia), naiaiaeiia a?aiy e yooaeoeaiinoue aai
eniieueciaaiey, oneiaey o?oaea (nie?auaiea o?aaiaoecia, oaeo/anoue
eaae?ia, caiyoinoue ianaeaiey), ninoiyiea yeieiaee e aeeyiea
i?iecaiaenoaa ia yeieiae/aneoth ianoaiiaeo a no?aia e ?aaeiia. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi nioeeaeueiua ?acoeueoaou e eo aeeyiea ia yeiiiie/aneea
?acoeueoaou ia anaaaea iiaeaeathony oi/iie eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea,
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia eo einaaiiay ioeaiea, ?aiaee?iaaiea oeaeae.

Eeanneoeeaoeey cao?ao e ?ano?nia a ie?iaie i?aeoeea oieaa?naeueiay, a
iae auaeaeythony neaaeothuea iniiaiua aeaeu cao?ao e ?ano?nia: cao?aou
aeeaiai o?oaea (io?aaioaiiia a?aiy, oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou),
iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (cao?aou nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa, yia?aee),
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu (iniiaiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu, iai?ioiua
oiiaeu, oiiaeu ia?auaiey), eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey, eiaanoeoeee (cao?aou
ia ?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai iniiaiuo oiiaeia e i?e?ino iai?ioiuo
oiiaeia), i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu (caiey, caianu iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo, eana,
aiaeu), eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu (ciaiey, ?acoeueoaou iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee, ecia?aoaiey e ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neea i?aaeeiaeaiey), a?aiy,
eae yeiiiie/aneay eaoaai?ey (?aai/ee ia?eiae, a?aiy i?iecaiaenoaa, n?iee
?aaeecaoeee eiaanoeoeee, eiiiaaoeee, aiaae?aiey iiaie oaoieee). Ana
cao?aou e ?ano?nu iiae?acaeaeythony ia oaeouea (ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa
e ia?auaiey) e aaeeiia?aiaiiua (eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey) cao?aou,
iio?aaeaiiua e i?eiaiyaiua ?ano?nu, aaeeie/iua e niaieoiiua.

Cao?aou – yoi iio?aaeaiiua a oa/aiea aiaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiu ?ano?nu a
aeaea o?oaeiauo e iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu – yoi
iaeiieaiiua ca ?yae eao iaoa?eaeueiua e oeiainiaua n?aaenoaa, oiiaeu
(iniiaiua oiiaeu e iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa), a oaeaea iioaioeeaeueiua
ethaeneea ?ano?nu (o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu) n eiee/anoaaiiie e ea/anoaaiiie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Oaeouea cao?aou i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iinoiyiiua iaoa?eaeueiua ?anoiaeu e
o?oaeiaua cao?aou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa a
oa/aiea aiaea, aaeeiia?aiaiiua cao?aou – yoi aaaine?oaiua ia ?yae eao
oeiainiaua e iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa (eiaanoeoeee),
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia, oaoie/aneiai niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa. A ioee/ea io
oaeoueo cao?ao, eioi?ua i?eiinyo yooaeo, eae i?aaeei a oa/aiea aiaea,
aaeeiia?aiaiiua cao?aou aeatho yooaeo /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue iaa?aiaie,
eae i?aaeei, aieueoa aiaea, iinea aaiaea a aeaenoaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiuiinoae

2.Aiaeec aeeiaieee iieacaoaeae yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa

Aeey ioeaiee e aiaeeca yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa
i?eiaiythony aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua e iaiauathuea iieacaoaee
yooaeoeaiinoe. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey eaeiai-eeai iaeiiai aeaea
cao?ao e ?ano?nia au?aaeaaony a nenoaia aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo iieacaoaeae
yooaeoeaiinoe. E iei ioiinyony: i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea eee
o?oaei?ieinoue, iaoa?eaeiioaea/a eee iaoa?eaei?ieinoue i?iaeoeoeee,
oiiaeiioaea/a eee oiiaei?ieinoue, eaieoaeiioaea/a eee eaieoaei?ieinoue.
Aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe ?ann/eouaathony eae
ioiioaiea auionea i?iaeoeoeee e ioaeaeueiui aeaeai cao?ao eee ?ano?nia
eee iaiai?io – cao?ao eee ?ano?nia e auioneo i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeey ioeaiee yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe a oeaeii ii ?anioaeeea,
?aaeiio, i?aaei?eyoeth i?eiaiythony iaiauathuea (eiiieaeniua,
eioaa?aeueiua) iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe. Yoe iieacaoaee iicaieytho aieaa
iieii e ai acaeiinayce o/anoue iiiaea oaeoi?u e ninoaaeythuea, eioi?ua
ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia o?iaaiue e aeeiaieeo yooaeoeaiinoe. A iniiaa
oi?ie?iaaiey iaiauathueo iieacaoaeae iaoiaeyony aeaa oneiaey: o/?o
eiia/iiai, ea/anoaaiiiai ?acoeueoaoa e io?aaeaiey niaieoiiie aaee/eiu
cao?ao e ?ano?nia (iai?eia?, ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey,
noiia?iay aaee/eia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia). E iniiaiui iaiauathuei
iieacaoaeyi yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe ioiinyony neaaeothuea:
iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae (IAe), aaeiaue iaoeeiiaeueiue i?iaeoeo (AII) ia
aeooo ianaeaiey; i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea,
eiyooeoeeaio iauae yooaeoeaiinoe, cao?aou ia ?oaeue oiaa?iie
i?iaeoeoeee, i?eaueue, ?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aioaaaeueiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeaaiui iaiauathuei e?eoa?eai yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa neoaeeo o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
o?oaea.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea ecia?yaony ioiioaieai
i?iecaaaeaiiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea e n?aaeiae /eneaiiinoe
?aaioieeia, caiyouo a io?aneyo iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa:

Iiau = IAe//i (2.1.)

Aaaeiaeoeie iieacaoaeyie yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa neoaeao o?oaeiaieinoue, iaoa?eaeiaieinoue,
eaieoaeiaieinoue e oiiaeiaieinoue.

Ca ia?eiae n 1985 ii 1991 aa. Iaaethaeaeinue nieaeaiea n?aaeiaaiaeiaie
/eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, iniaaiii a noa?a
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Nieceeny oaeaea iauai i?iecaiaenoaa
i?iaeoeoeee a yoeo io?aneyo. A ?acoeueoaoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea
ii /enoie i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoee iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ii
ioiioaieth e i?aaeuaeouaio aiaeo e 1990 a. ninoaaeea 96,2%, a a 1991 a.
– 91,7%.

A oa/aiea 1990-1991 aa. ioia/aeinue iiauoaiea iaoaeeiaieinoe e
yia?aiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiaei yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iniiaiuo oiiaeia eaoano?ioe/anee nieaeaaony. Oae, a
oa/aiea anao iineaaeieo eao onoie/eaoth oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth eiaao
oiiaeiioaea/a, ianiio?y ia nenoaiaoe/aneee ?ino oiiaeiaii?oaeaiiinoe
o?oaea a n?aaeiai ia 5-7% ca yoe aea aiaeu.

Iaeiei ec iieacaoaeae yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony
o?oaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee – aaee/eia, ia?aoiay iieacaoaeth
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aeeaiai o?oaea, ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea
eiee/anoaa o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, e
iauaio iauaio i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee:

t = T/Q (2.2.)

T – eiee/anoai o?oaea, cao?a/aiiiai a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa;

Q – iauee iauai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (eae i?aaeei aaeiaie
i?iaeoeoeee).

Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa en/eneyaony eae ioiioaiea
cao?ao nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa, yia?aee e ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia o?oaea
e aaeiaiio iauanoaaiiiio i?iaeoeoo. Iaoa?eaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee
io?anee (iauaaeeiaiey, i?aaei?eyoey) ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao e iauaio iauaio i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee:

m = M/Q, (2.3.)

aaea m – o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee;

M – iauee iauai iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai i?iaeoeoeee a
noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee;

Q – iauee iauai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (eae i?aaeei aaeiaie).

Nieaeaiea iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee yooaeoeaii aeey ia?iaeiiai
oicyenoaa no?aiu. Neaaeoao oaeaea eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi Aaea?onue ia eiaao
cia/eoaeueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee oaeeo aaaeiuo yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia, eae
iaooue, aac. Eiii?o eo ec aia iaoiaeeony aeey iaoae no?aiu neeoeii
aei?iai, /oiau aacaeoiii eniieueciaaoue yoe enoi/ieee yia?aee. E?iia
oiai, anee iuneeoue a aeiaaeueiii ianooaaa, oi iaeuecy ia caauaaoue, /oi
?ano?nu Caiea aeaeaei ia aaca?aie/iu e e eiioeo OO aaea /aeiaa/anoai
iiaeioei e i?iaeaia enoiuaiey iieaciuo caiania.

E?iia oiai, a naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iaoeiino?iaiey ii/oe 3/5 cao?ao
i?eoiaeeony ia nu?uea, iniiaiua e aniiiiaaoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai e
yia?aeth. A 1985-1990 aa. auei i?aaeoniio?aii iaania/eoue nieaeaiea 5 –
10% i?e?inoa iio?aaiinoae a aaaeiaeoeo aeaeao ?ano?nia, a ii ioaeaeueiui
ec ieo – anth aeiiieieoaeueioth iio?aaiinoue. Iaeiaei ii iiiaei ?ano?nai
oaeoe/aneay aaee/eia yeiiiiee ia aeinoeaea iaia/aiiuo ?acia?ia.
I?e/eiaie yoiai auee ieceee o?iaaiue aiaae?aiey aeinoeaeaiee IOI e
iaaeinoaoi/iay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneay ?aaioa a yoii iai?aaeaiee.

A ecaanoiie noaiaie aeecee iaaeaeo niaie iieacaoaee eaieoaeiaieinoe e
oiiaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee. Iieacaoaeue eaieoaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee
iieacuaaao ioiioaiea aaee/eiu eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee e ii?aaeaeyaiiio
eie i?e?inoo iauaia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee:

KQ = K / DQ , (2.4.)

aaea KQ – eaieoaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee;

K – iauee iauai eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee;

DQ – i?e?ino iauaia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Oiiaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee en/eneyaony eae ioiioaiea n?aaeiae noieiinoe
iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoey e iauaio iauaio
i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee:

f = F/Q , (2.5.)

aaea f – oiiaeiaieinoue i?iaeoeoeee;

F – n?aaeiyy noieiinoue iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoey;

Q – iauee iauai i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (eae i?aaeei, aaeiaie
i?iaeoeoeee).

A ia?iaeiii oicyenoaa, a aa ioaeaeueiuo io?aneyo, iai?eia?, a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oe?iei i?eiaiyaony iieacaoaeue oiiaeiioaea/e, ia?aoiue
iieacaoaeth oiiaeiaieinoe:

Fioae=Q/F (2.5)

Ii aeaiiui ca ?yae iineaaeieo eao, iieacaoaeue oiiaeiioaea/e a ia?iaeiii
oicyenoaa a oeaeii e a i?iiuoeaiiinoe eiaao iaaaoeaioth oaiaeaioeeth e
nieaeaieth, a iieacaoaeue oiiaeiaieinoe – ?inoo. A 1992 a. ii
ioiioaieth e 1985 a. iieacaoaeue oiiaeiioaea/e ii anae i?iiuoeaiiinoe
ninoaaee eeoue 84%. Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea ia ieceee
o?iaaiue eniieueciaaiey aeaenoaothueo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae,
aunieoth noaiaiue eciina iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

E aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiui iieacaoaeyi yooaeoeaiinoe ioiinyony oaeaea
iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea ioiineoaeueioth yeiiiieth ioaeaeueiiai
aeaea cao?ao e ?ano?nia. Oae, ioiineoaeueiay yeiiiiey aeeaiai o?oaea
(ioiineoaeueiia aunaiaiaeaeaiea /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia (Yo))
ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

Yo = *a ?Ei – *i, (2.6.)

aaea *a- /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey a aaceniii ia?eiaea, Ei –
eiaeaen ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio eee oneoa; *i –
/eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia a ieaiiaii eee io/?oiii ia?eiaea.

Ii oaeie aea iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeyaony e ioiineoaeueiay yeiiiiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia.

Aaaeiaeoeie iieacaoaeyie eiia/iuo ?acoeueoaoia e niaieoiiie
yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee yaeythony
i?eaueue e ?aioaaaeueiinoue (i?eaueueiinoue). Oi?aaeaiea
?aioaaaeueiinoueth (ieaie?iaaiea, iainiiaaiea e aiaeec-eiio?ieue)
iaoiaeyony a oeaio?a yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee,
?aaioathueo ia ?uiie. O?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe caaeneo i?aaeaea anaai io
aaee/eiu i?eauee e ?acia?a cao?ao e i?eiaiyaiuo ?ano?nia. I?eaueue a
oneiaeyo ?uiea- yoi eiia/iay oeaeue e aeaeaeouee iioea i?iecaiaenoaa ia
i?aaei?eyoee. Iioeiaeueiui aeiiieiaieai e iieacaoaeth i?eauee yaeeinue
au auaeaeaiea a oii /enea oaeaeueiiai aana oaaee/aiey i?eauee,
iieo/aiiie ca n/ao nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe. Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue,
/oi ii ia?a oi?ie?iaaiey oeeaeeeciaaiiuo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee o
i?aaei?eyoey inoaiaony eeoue iaeei iooue oaaee/aiey i?eauee – oaaee/aiea
iauaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee, nieaeaiea cao?ao ia aa i?iecaiaenoai.

I?e ioeaiea aaee/eiu i?eauee ?acee/atho aaeiaoth (aaeainiaoth) i?eaueue,
i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, /enooth (?an/aoioth) i?eaueue.

Aaeiaay (aaeainiaay) i?eaueue ii?aaeaeyaony ii ?acoeueoaoai anae
i?iecaiaenoaaiii- oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ia iniiaa aaeaina
aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia eae aeaaa?ae/aneay noiia i?eauee io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe; i?eauee (oauoeia) io i?i/ae
?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?iaeoeoeee iiaeniaiiai naeueneiai
oicyenoaa, ?aaeecaoeee eceeoieo oiaa?ii- iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, a
oaeaea ?aaeecaoeee ?aaio e oneoa iai?iiuoeaiiiai oa?aeoa?a
(aaoio?ainii?oa, eanicaaioiaie, ?aaeecaoeee ia noi?iio yeaeo?iyia?aee e
ae?. ); i?eauee (oauoeia) io aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo iia?aoeee- oo?aou, iaie,
iaonoieee, oauoee io nienaiey aaciaaeaaeiuo aeieaia, noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee
e o. i.; aeioiaeu io ?aaeecaoeee oeaiiuo aoiaa (aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee).

I?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ?ann/eouaaaony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo
aaee/eiie ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a aeaenoaothueo iioiauo oeaiao e
cao?aoaie ia aa i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth, aeeth/aaiuie a
naaanoieiinoue.

*enoay (?an/aoiay) i?eaueue, inoathuayny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey,
ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo aaeainiaie i?eaueueth eee i?eaueueth
io ?aaeecaoeee ca au/aoii a?aiaeiie ieaou, iaeiaia e i?ioeaioia ca
aeieain?i/iue e?aaeeo.

Eiiieaeniui, eioaa?aeueiui iieacaoaeai yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiii- oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey aunooiaao
?aioaaaeueiinoue.

?aioaaaeueiinoue au?aaeaao aaniethoiue eee ioiineoaeueiue (a i?ioeaioao)
?acia? iieo/aiiie i?eauee ia 1 ?oaeue oaeoueo cao?ao eee ia 1 ?oaeue
eniieuecoaiuo ?ano?nia (iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa, nianoaaiiiai e caaiiiai eaieoaea). ?an/ao auiieiyaony ii
oi?ioea:

?= I/C?100 (2.7.)

aaea I – i?eaueue

C – ?acia? oaeoueo cao?ao eee

eniieuecoaiuo ?ano?nia.

?acee/atho i?aaeaea anaai iauoth (niaieoiioth) e ?an/aoioth
?aioaaaeueiinoue. Iauay ?aioaaaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea
aaeainiaie (aaeiaie) i?eauee e noieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia
(iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa),
?an/aoiay ?aioaaaeueiinoue – eae ioiioaiea /enoie (?an/aoiie) i?eauee e
noiia iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo
n?aaenoa. E?iia oiai, i?e ieaie?iaaiee, ioeaiea e aiaeeca yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa ?ann/eouaaaony ?aioaaaeueiinoue oaeoueo cao?ao,
?aioaaaeueiinoue eniieuecoaiuo (iaeiieaiiuo) i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia,
?aioaaaeueiinoue eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee (eiaanoeoeee).

?aioaaaeueiinoue oaeoueo cao?ao (?c) aeeth/aao oaeea iieacaoaee
?aioaaaeueiinoe, eae: ?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
(iai?ioa): ?i= 100?I/I?; ?aioaaaeueiinoue ioaeaeueiiai aeaea
i?iaeoeoeee: ?a= 100?I/N; aaea I – i?eaueue io ?aaeecaoeee, ?oa; I?
–iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ?oa; N – naaanoieiinoue ioaeaeueiiai
aeaea i?iaeoeoeee, ?oa.

?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia (??) io?aaeaao
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey eiathueony a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia, eiouanoaa, nianoaaiiiai e caaiiiai eaieoaea.
Yoio iieacaoaeue ii?aaeaeyaony:

?? = (I?100)/(IIO+IIN), (2.8.)

aaea IIO – n?aaeiaaiaeiaay noieiinoue iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia; IIN – n?aaeiaaiaeiaua inoaoee ii?ie?oaiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Aeey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee (eiaanoeoeee) a
?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia e iiaoth oaoieeo
?ann/eouaathony iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe eiaanoeoeee (eaieoaeueiuo
aeiaeaiee)- (?e) e n?iea eo ieoiaaiinoe (O):

?e = DI/Ea; O = Ea/DI, (2.10.)

aaea DI – aiaeiaie i?e?ino /enoie i?eauee a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, Ea – eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey a niioaaonoaothuea
oaoie/aneea e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ia?ii?eyoey.

?aioaaaeueiinoue eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee oa?aeoa?ecoao ?acia? i?e?inoa
/enoie i?eauee ia 1 ?oaeue eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a ia?ii?eyoea, n?ie
ieoiaaiinoe – ia?eiae a?aiaie, a oa/aiea eioi?iai eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey
eiiiaine?othony, ia?ae?ithony aiaeiaui i?e?inoii /enoie i?eauee.
Eiyooeoeeaio ?aioaaaeueiinoe eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a oeaeyo iainiiaaiey
eo yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe niiinoaaeyaony n aaieianeei
i?ioeaioii ii aeieain?i/iui aeaiiceoai.

I?eaaaeaiiua auoa iieacaoaee eiatho ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa?
eniieueciaaiey, ana iie, e?iia iieacaoaey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea e ?aioaaaeueiinoe, ia aeatho iieiiai, ananoi?iiiaai
i?aaenoaaeaiey ia yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e cao?ao, a
oa?aeoa?ecotho eeoue eniieueciaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea ?ano?nia.

Aeey iieiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ia iauae yooaeoeaiinoe cao?ao ioaeia
iaiauaiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea noieiinoiuo e iaoo?aeueiuo iieacaoaeae. Yoie
oeaee neoaeao iauay e n?aaieoaeueiay yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue
cao?ao.

A ieaie?iaaiee e i?iaeoe?iaaiee iauay yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue
ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea yooaeoa e eaieoaeueiui aeiaeaieyi, a
n?aaieoaeueiay – eae ioiioaiea ?aciinoe oaeoueo cao?ao e ?aciinoe
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee ii aa?eaioai. I?e yoii iauay e n?aaieoaeueiay
yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue aeiiieiytho ae?oa ae?oaa.

Ii ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiui eiiieaenai, ioaeaeueiui io?aneyi, a oaeaea
oi?iai aini?iecaiaenoaa iniiaiuo oiiaeia iauay yeiiiie/aneay
yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao ?ann/eouaaaony eae ioiioaiea i?e?inoa i?eauee eee
oic?an/aoiiai aeioiaea (DI) e eaieoaeueiui aeiaeaieyi E:

Y = DI/E (2.11.)

Ii aiiaue no?iyueiny oeaoai, i?aaei?eyoeyi e ioaeaeueiui ia?ii?eyoeyi
iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe Yi ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea ieaie?oaiie
i?eauee e eai. aeiaeaieyi (niaoiie noieiinoe):

Yi = (Oe – N) / E (2.12.)

aaea E – iieiay noieiinoue no?iyuaainy iauaeoa

Oe – aiaeiaie auione i?iaeoeoeee a iioiauo oeaiao i?aaei?eyoey

N – ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa aiaeiaiai auionea i?iaeoeoeee iinea
iieiiai inouanoaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa e inaiaiey aaaaeaiiuo iiuiinoae .

I?e niiinoaaeaiee aa?eaioia oicyenoaaiiuo e oaoie/aneeo ?aoaiee,
?aciauaiey i?aaei?eyoee e eo eiiieaenia, no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo eee
?aeiino?oeoeey noa?uo i?aaei?eyoee e o.i. ?ann/eouaaaony n?aaieoaeueiay
yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue cao?ao.

Anee iaeei ec n?aaieaaaiuo aa?eaioia aeey naiae ?aaeecaoeee o?aaoao
iaiueoa eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee e iaeiia?aiaiii iaania/eaaao aieaa
ieceoth naaanoieiinoue, oi i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo ii i?eciaaony
yeiiiie/anee aieaa auaiaeiui. A yoii neo/aa aeinoeaaaony aeaieiie
yooaeo: yeiiiiey io nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe (oaeoueo cao?ao) e yeiiiiey
ia eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaieyo. Iaeiaei ia?aaeei iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, nieaeaiea naaanoieiinoe, yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo
cao?ao aeinoeaaaony oeaiie aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee. A
yoeo neo/ayo iioeiaeueiue aa?eaio auae?aaony ia iniiaa ?an/aoia n?iea
ieoiaaiinoe (O) eee eiyooeoeeaioa n?aaieoaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe
aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee (A) e eo niiinoaaeaiey n
ii?iaoeaiuie cia/aieyie:

O = (E2-E1)/(N1-N2)< Oi eee A = (N1-N2)/(E2-E1)>Ai,

i?e E2>E1 e N1Ai iioeiaeueiui i?eciaaony aa?eaio, o?aaothuee
aeiiieieoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee (aieaa eaieoaeiaieee), e,
iaiai?io, i?e O>Oi eee A

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