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Основы предпринимательства: ответственность предпринимателей

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey oi?aaeaiey ei. Na?ai I?aeaeiieeeaeca

Eaoaae?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa

?aoa?ao ii aeenoeeieeia

“Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”

Oaia: Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeae

Auiieiee:
nooaeaio OI 3-1

Aieoaaa A.A.

I?iaa?ee:
aeioeaio, e.y.i.

Aa?aeooa N.A.

Iineaa 1996

Iauea iieiaeaiey

A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, ?aaoee?othuei aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoee
iacaaeneii io eo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu e oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, a
oaeaea io ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?acee/iuo aeaeia aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee
(aeiaiai?ia, eiio?aeoia, naeaeie) i?aaei?eyoey e aeieaeiinoiua eeoea
ianoo ?acee/iua oi?iu (aeaeu) ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaeniieiaiea eee
iaiaaeeaaeauaa eniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa, auoaeathueo ec caeiiia
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia e caeeth/aiiuo aeiaiai?ia.

A no. 307 ia?aie /anoe A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
aiai?eony, /oi a neeo ianoiyoaeuenoa iaeii eeoei (aeieaeiee) iaycaii
niaa?oeoue a iieueco ae?oaiai eeoea (e?aaeeoi?a) ii?aaeaeaiiia
aeaenoaea, eae oi: ia?aaeaoue eiouanoai, auiieieoue ?aaioo, oieaoeoue
aeaiueae e o.i., eeai aicaea?aeaoueny io ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaenoaey, a
e?aaeeoi? eiaao i?aai iio?aaiaaoue io aeieaeieea auiieiaiey aai
iaycaiiinoe. A i.2 no. 307 ia?aie /anoe AE ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
onoaiiaeaii, /oi ianoiyoaeuenoaa aicieeatho ec aeiaiai?a, aneaaenoaea
i?e/eiaiey a?aaea e ae?oaeo iniiaaiee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeaiiui
Eiaeaenii. Oaeei ia?acii, iaeaieaa iauei iniiaaieai aeey aicieeiiaaiey
iaycaoaeuenoa i?aaei?eyoee e eo ioaaonoaaiiinoe yaeyaony aeiaiai?, iiae
eioi?ui iiieiaaony niaeaoaiea 2-o eee ianeieueeeo eeoe (oece/aneeo eee
th?eaee/aneeo) ia onoaiiaeaiee, eciaiaiee eee i?ae?auaiee a?aaeaeaineeo
i?aa eee iaycaiiinoae (no. 420, i.1 AE ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ), eioi?ua
aicieeatho:

ec aeiaiai?ia e eiuo naeaeie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii, a oaeaea ec
aeiaiai?ia e eiuo naeaeie, oioy e ia i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii, ii ia
i?ioeai?a/aueo aio;

ec aeoia ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia e i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey,
eioi?ua i?aaeoniio?aiu caeiiii a ea/anoaa iniiaaiey a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa e
iaycaiiinoae;

ec noaeaaiiai ?aoaiey, onoaiiaeaoaai a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe;

a ?acoeueoaoa i?eia?aoaiey eiouanoaa ii iniiaaieyi, aeiioneaaiui
caeiiii;

a ?acoeueoaoa nicaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiee iaoee, eneonnoaa, eeoa?aoo?u,
ecia?aoaiee e eiuo ?acoeueoaoia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe;

aneaaenoaea i?e/eiaiey a?aaea ae?oaiio eeoeo;

aneaaenoaea iainiiaaoaeueiiai iaiaauaiey;

aneaaenoaea eiuo aeaenoaee a?aaeaeai e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe;

aneaaenoaea niauoee, n eioi?uie caeii eee eiie i?aaiaie aeo naycuaaao
ianooieaiea a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiauo iineaaenoaee.

?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaei?eyoee e aeieaeiinoiua eeoea aeieaeiu
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny iieiaeaieai no. 10 AE ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie ia aeiioneathony aeaenoaey a?aaeaeai e
th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, inouanoaeyaiua eneeth/eoaeueii n iaia?aieai
i?e/eieoue a?aae ae?oaiio eeoeo, a oaeaea ceioiio?aaeaiea i?aaii a eiuo
oi?iao.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee ca iaeniieiaiea eee iaiaaeeaaeauaa
eniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa a niioaaonoaee n caeiiaie e ae?oaeie
ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie e aeiaiai?aie ?aaoee?oaony ia?aie /anoueth AE
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, eiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a
oaeaea Iniiaaie a?aaeaeaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? e
?anioaeee, iinoaiiaeaieai AN ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 14 ethey 1992 a.
“ I ?aaoee?iaaiee a?aaeaeaineeo i?aaiioiioaiee a ia?eiae i?iaaaeaiey
yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu” e io 3 ia?oa 1993 a. “ I iaeioi?uo aii?inao
i?eiaiaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Nithca NN? ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee”, eioi?ua i?eiaiythony iinoieueeo, iineieueeo ia
i?ioeai?a/ao /anoe ia?aie AE ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

A niioaaonoaee n a?aaeaeaineei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eniieiaiea
iaycaoaeuenoa i?aaei?eyoeai (ioaaonoaaiiinoue) iaania/eaaaony
iin?aaenoaii yeiiiie/aneeo naieoeee, caeiaii, oaea?aeaieai eiouanoaa
i?aaei?eyoey-aeieaeieea, ii?o/eoaeuenoaii, caaeaoeii e ae?oaeie
niiniaaie, i?aaeoniio?aiiuie caeiiii eee aeiaiai?ii. I?e yoii
i?aaei?eyoea, i?aai eioi?iai ia?ooaii, iiaeao o?aaiaaoue iieiiai
aiciauaiey i?e/eiaiiuo aio oauoeia, anee caeiiii eee aeiaiai?ii ia
i?aaeoniio?aii aiciauaiea oauoeia a iaiueoai ?acia?a.

Iaeniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoaa a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii e aeiaiai?ii
aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey yeiiiie/aneeo naieoeee a oi?ia
iaonoieee, iiae eioi?ie iiieiaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay caeiiii eee aeiaiai?ii
aeaiaaeiay noiia, eioi?oth i?aaei?eyoea-aeieaeiee iaycaii oieaoeoue
e?aaeeoi?o a neo/aa iaeniieiaiey eee iaiaaeeaaeauaai eniieiaiey
iaycaoaeuenoaa, a /anoiinoe a neo/aa i?in?i/ee eniieiaiey. Iaonoieea
inouanoaeyaony a aeaoo oi?iao: a aeaea oo?aoa e iaie.

A no. 331 AE ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aiai?eony, /oi niaeaoaiea i
iaonoieea aeieaeii auoue niaa?oaii a ienueiaiiie oi?ia iacaaeneii io
oi?iu iniiaiiai iaycaoaeuenoaa; anee yoi iieiaeaiea ia niaethaeaii, oi
niaeaoaiea i iaonoieea aoaeao n/eoaoueny iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui.

I?ae?auaiea iaycaoaeuenoa i?aaei?eyoey inouanoaeyaony neaaeothuei
niiniaaie:

iaaeeaaeauei eniieiaieai iaycaoaeuenoaa;

i?aaeinoaaeaieai acaiai eniieiaiey ionooiiiai, ?acia? n?iee e ii?yaeie
eioi?iai onoaiaaeeaathony noi?iiaie;

iieiui eee /anoe/iui ca/aoii ano?a/iiai iaeii?iaeiiai o?aaiaaiey, n?ie
eioi?iai ianooiee eeai n?ie eioi?iai ia oeacai eee ia ii?aaeaeai
iiiaioii aino?aaiaaiey;

niaiaaeaieai aeieaeieea e e?aaeeoi?a a iaeiii eeoea;

niaeaoaieai noi?ii i caiaia ia?aiia/aeueiiai iaycaoaeuenoaa
nouanoaothuaai iaaeaeo ieie, ae?oaei iaycaoaeuenoaii iaaeaeo oaie aea
eeoeaie, i?aaeoniao?eaathuei eiie i?aaeiao eee niinia eniieiaiey
(iiaaoeey);

inaiaiaeaeaieai e?aaeeoi?ii aeieaeieea io eaaeaueo ia iai iaycaiiinoae,
anee yoi ia ia?ooaao i?aa ae?oaeo eeoe a ioiioaiee eiouanoaa e?aaeeoi?a;

iaaiciiaeiinoueth eniieiaiey, anee iia aucaaia ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, ca
eioi?ua ie iaeia ec noi?ii ia ioaa/aao;

ia iniiaaiee aeoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaia;

eeeaeaeaoeeae th?eaee/aneiai eeoea.

Ia aeiioneaaony i?ae?auaiea iaycaoaeuenoaa a ca/ao o?aaiaaiey i
aiciauaiee a?aaea, i?e/eiaiiiai aeecie eee caei?iaueth, i iiaeeciaiiii
niaea?aeaiee, a oaeaea a eiuo neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii eee
aeiaiai?ii.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee ca iaeniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae
athaeaeaoii

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee aicieeaao i?e nie?uoee (caieaeaiee)
i?eauee (aeioiaea), nie?uoee iauaeoia io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, i?e
ianaiaa?aiaiiii ia?a/eneaiee iaeiaia (ieaoaaeae) a niioaaonoaothuea
o?iaie athaeaeaoa, i?e iaeni?aaiii (iaoi/iii) aaaeaiee o/aoa cao?ao e
ae?.

Iaeiie ec oi?i i?iyaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee yaeyaony ecuyoea
aeieoiaioia, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i ia?ooaiee. Aeaiiay oi?ia
ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaoth oi?io
aicaeaenoaey ia i?aaei?eyoea. Aa inouanoaeaiea aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie
AIN ieacuaaao nouanoaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiioth
aeeciue i?aaei?eyoey.

A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothueie iieiaeaieyie a iauai e ninoaa
aeieoiaioia, iiaeeaaeaueo ecuyoeth o i?aaei?eyoey, aoiaeyo neaaeothuea:

ia?ae/iua aeieoiaiou;

aeaiaaeiua aeieoiaiou;

ieaiu;

niaou;

aeaeea?aoeee;

ni?aai/iua iaoa?eaeu;

?an/aou,

a oaeaea eiua aeieoiaiou, naycaiiua n ia/eneaieai e oieaoie iaeiaia e
ae?oaeo iaycaoaeueiuo io/eneaiee a athaeaeao. Aeieoiaiou, niaea?aeauea
naaaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio, ii?aaeaeaiioth a
onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ii?yaeea, ia ecuiathony.

I?e ecuyoee aeieoiaioia i?iecaiaeeony eo ouaoaeueiue iniio? a ianoao
o?aiaiey, a iaaeiioi?ieaiiua oiia aeieoiaioia (iaiiaeoeoua,
iai?iioia?iaaiiua e o.ae.) a i?enoonoaee aeieaeiinoiiai eeoea AIN
aeiioi?ieythony aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie i?aaei?eyoey.

Ecuyoua aeieoiaiou o?aiyony iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee aei i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ia
eo iniio?a, i?iaa?ea e enneaaeiaaiee. I?e ionoonoaee ceioiio?aaeaiee
aeieoiaiou aica?auathony i?aaei?eyoeth n ?anieneie ia eo iieo/aiee. Anee
a ecuyouo aeieoiaioao iaia?oaeaiu ceioiio?aaeaiey, iie ia?aaeathony a
neaaenoaaiiua i?aaiu aeey i?iaaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neie eee niaoeeaeueiie
yenia?oecu. A aeaiiii neo/aa ?aoaiee ia eo aica?auaiee i?eieiatho
neaaenoaaiiua i?aaiu, i /ai ienueiaiii niiauaao AIN ?oeiaiaeeoaeth
i?aaei?eyoey.

Iiieii aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiauo oi?i aicaeaenoaey i?eiaiythony
oeiainiaua naieoeee, onoaiiaeaiiua iiaeioieoii “a” i.1 no. 13 Caeiia
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee”. Oeiainiaua naieoeee i?eiaiythony oieueei ii ?acoeueoaoai
aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie a neaaeothuai ii?yaeea e ?acia?ao:

Ca nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea aeioiaea (i?eauee) acuneeaaaony iaeiaiaui
i?aaiii any noiia nie?uoiai eee caieaeaiiiai aeioiaea (i?eauee) e oo?ao
a ?acia?a oie aea noiiu. I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny
iieiaeaieai, /oi iai?aaeeueiia ia/eneaiea eueaio ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue
iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue eae nie?uoea (caieaeaiea) ?acia?a i?eauee n
i?eiaiaieai niioaaonoaothueo naieoeee.

Ca eiie nie?uoue eee iao/oaiiue iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (e?iia nie?uoey
aeioiaea (i?eauee)) n i?aaei?eyoey acuneeaaaony noiia iaeiaa e oo?ao a
?acia?a oaeie aea noiiu.

Ca iiaoi?iia ia?ooaiea, aeiiouaiiia i?aaei?eyoeai a oa/aiea aiaea n
iiiaioa i?eiaiaiey naieoeee ca aiaeiae/iia ia?ooaiea (iacaaeneii io
oiai, ca n/ao eaeeo oaeoi?ia eee eaeei niiniaii caaa?oaii yoi niauoea),
e i?aaei?eyoeth i?eiaiythony iaeiaiaua naieoeee a aeaea acuneaiey anae
noiiu nie?uoiai eee caieaeaiiiai aeioiaea (i?eauee), eeai noiiu iaeiaa
ca eiie nie?uoue eee iao/oaiiue iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e oo?aoa a
aeaoe?aoiii ?acia?a yoie noiiu. Anee noaeii (a?aeo?aaeiui noaeii)
onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?aaei?eyoea oiuoeaiii ne?uaaao eee caieaeaao aeioiae
(i?eaueue), n iaai iiaeao auoue acuneai a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao oo?ao
a iyoee?aoiii ?acia?a nie?uoie eee caieaeaiiie noiiu aeioiaea (
i?eauee).

Ca ionoonoaea o/aoa iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ec aaaeaiea o/aoa
iauaeoia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey n ia?ooaieai onoaiiaeaiiiai ii?yaeea, /oi
aea/ao ca niaie nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea aeioiaea ca i?iaa?yaiue ia?eiae,
i?aaei?eyoea oiea/eaaao oo?ao ca eaaeaeia ia?ooaiea a ?acia?a 10%
aeiia/eneaiiuo noii iaeiaa. Auoaoeacaiiue ?acia? oo?aoa iiaeao auoue
i?eiaiai ca ionoonoaea o/aoa i?eauee, anee ia noi?ie?iaaiu eiia/iue
?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, a oaeaea noiia i?eauee,
iiaeeaaeauay iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth ( n o/aoii noii oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao e
?anoiaeia, o/eouaaaiuo a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?e
en/eneaiee eueaio ia iaeia ia i?eaueue). Iiae ia?ooaieyie ii?yaeea
aaaeaiey o/aoa iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey (i?eauee) iiieiathony
neaaeothuea:

ionoonoaea onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?iaoeaiuie aeieoiaioaie ii aaaeaieth o/aoa
?aaeno?ia, eiea, aeo?iaeia e ae?.;

ioianaiea ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) cao?ao, ia
naycaiiuo n aa i?iecaiaenoaii e ?aaeecaoeeae, a oaeaea ?anoiaeia, ia
naycaiiuo n ecaea/aieai aia?aaeecaoeeiiiuo aeioiaeia;

ae?oaea ia?ooaiey ii?yaeea aaaeaiey o/aoa iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
(i?eauee), onoaiiaeaiiiai aeaenoaothueie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie Ieioeia
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, i?eaaaeoea e eneaaeaieth io/aoiinoe e oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Ca iai?aaenoaaeaiea eee ianaiaa?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai a
iaeiaiaue i?aai aeieoiaioia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey en/eneaiey, a oaeaea
oieaou iaeiaa (aooaaeoa?neeo io/aoia e aaeainia, iaeiaiauo ?an/aoia e
aeaeea?aoeee e ae?oaeo aeieoiaioia), i?aaei?eyoea auiea/eaaao oo?ao a
?acia?a? 10% i?e/eoathueony e oieaoa noii iaeiaa ii i/a?aaeiiio nieneo
ieaoaaeae.

E?iia i?eiaiaiey auoaoeacaiiuo aeaeia ioaaonoaaiiinoe (naieoeee),
iaeiaiaue i?aai iiaeao i?eiyoue ?aoaiea i i?einoaiiaeaiee iia?aoeee
i?aaei?eyoey ii n/aoai a aaieao e a eiuo e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaieyo a
neo/aa iai?aaenoaaeaiey a iaeiaiaue i?aai aeieoiaioia, naycaiiuo n
en/eneaieai e oieaoie iaeiaia.

Anee i?aaei?eyoea, inouanoaeythuaa oicyenoaaiioth
(i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth) aeayoaeueiinoue, ia iiaeao oieaoeoue
onoaiiaeaiiua caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iaeiae e ae?oaea ieaoaaee a athaeaeao,
iaeiaiaue i?aai a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eiaao i?aai
ia?aoeoueny a a?aeo?aaeiue noae i i?eciaiee i?aaei?eyoey
ianinoiyoaeueiui (aaie?ioii).

A niioaaonoaee ni no. 24 Caeiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “Ia iniiaao
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”, acuneaiea iaaeieiee ii
iaeiaai e ae?oaei iaycaoaeueiui ieaoaaeai, a eaeaea noii oo?aoia e eiuo
naieoeee i?iecaiaeeony n i?aaei?eyoee a aannii?iii ii?yaeea a oa/aiea 6
eao n iiiaioa ia?aciaaiey oeacaiiie iaaeieiee.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee ca ia?ooaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia oieaoa
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae a ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu

Naiaa?aiaiiia ia?a/eneaiea i?aaei?eyoeyie n?aaenoa a ainoaea?noaaiiua
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu eiaao ia?iiiia yeiiiie/aneia e nioeeaeueiia
cia/aiea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aeey ia?aaioathueo iaineiia?ia, a?aiaiii
ia?aaioathuaai aeaaniiniaiiai ianaeaiey, iiaeoiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii
onoaiiaeaia nenoaia naieoeee e oicyenoaothuei noauaeoai ca
ianaiaa?aiaiiinoue io/eneaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a auoaoeacaiiua
oiiaeu.

I?e ioeaca eee ianaiaa?aiaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoee (i?e eo
nicaeaiee) a ea/anoaa ieaoaeueueeia a ainoaea?noaaiiua aiaathaeaeaoiua
oiiaeu iie iaycaiu ia?a/eneeoue aeiiieieoaeueii e i?e/eoathueiny noiiai
10% ia oiea/aiiuo a n?ie no?aoiauo aciinia ca niioaaonoaothuee io/aoiue
ia?eiae.

Anee i?aaei?eyoea – ieaoaeueuee no?aoiauo aciinia aeiiaii a nie?uoee eee
caieaeaiee noii iieaou o?oaea, ia eioi?ua ia/eneythony no?aoiaua aciinu,
oi a iaineiiiue oiiae e oiiae nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey aeieaeiu auoue
ia?a/eneaiu nie?uoay eee caieaeaiiay noiia e oo?ao a ?acia?a nie?uoie
eee caieaeaiiie noiiu iieaou o?oaea, a a oiiae iaycaoaeueiiai
iaaeeoeeineiai no?aoiaaiey e a oiiae caiyoinoe ianaeaiey – no?aoiaua
aciinu n nie?uoie eee caieaeaiiie noiiu iieaou o?oaea e oo?ao a ?acia?a
no?aoiauo aciinia n nie?uoie eee caieaeaiiie noiiu iieaou o?oaea.

Anee i?aaei?eyoea a oa/aiea aiaea iiaoi?ii aeiionoeo nie?uoea eee
caieaeaiea noii iieaou o?oaea, ia eioi?ua ia/eneythony no?aciaua aciinu,
iii aeieaeii ia?a/eneeoue a eaaeaeue oiiae oo?ao a aeaieiii ?acia?a.

Anee i?aaei?eyoeai aeiiouaia iaaeieiea ii no?aoiaui aciinai (eioi?ie
n/eoaaony iaaianaiiay noiia no?aoiauo aciinia a ainoaea?noaaiiua
aiaathaeaeaoiua oiiaeu iinea enoa/aiey onoaiiaeaiiuo n?ieia, a oaeaea
noiia caaeieaeaiiinoe, auyaeaiiay i?e i?iaa?ea), oi i?aaei?eyoea a
iaineiiiue oiiae e oiiaeu nioeeaeueiiai e iaycaoaeueiiai iaaeeoeeineiai
no?aoiaaiey aeieaeii oieaoeoue iaie a ?acoeueoaoa a ?acia?a 1% noiiu
iaaeieiee ca eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee, a a oiiae caiyoinoe ianaeaiey –
0,7% noiiu iaaeieiee ca eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee ieaoaaeae.

Auoaiacaaiiua naieoeee e iaaeieiee n i?aaei?eyoee acuneeaathony a
aannii?iii ii?yaeea. N?ie eneiaie aeaaiinoe aeey th?eaee/aneeo eeoe
onoaiiaeai 6 eao.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee (ecaioiaeoaeae, eniieieoaeae, i?iaeaaoeia)
ca ea/anoai e aaciianiinoue oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa).

A niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I caueoa i?aa
iio?aaeoaeae” ca iaiaaeeaaeauoth eioi?iaoeeth i oiaa?ao (?aaioao,
oneoaao) i?aaei?eyoey-ecaioiaeoaee (eniieieoaee, i?iaeaaoeu) ianoo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Anee i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaaeinoiaa?iie eee iaaeinoaoi/iie
eioi?iaoeee i oiaa?a (?aaioa, oneoaa), a oaeaea i i?aaei?eyoee-
ecaioiaeoaea iiaeaeei i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?a, ia iaeaaeathuaai
iaiaoiaeeiuie iio?aaeoaeth naienoaaie, iio?aaeoaeue ai?aaa ?anoi?aiooue
aeiaiai? e iio?aaiaaoue aiciauaiey iaianaiiiai aio oua?aa;

iaaiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey i?eia?aoaiiiai oiaa?a ii iacia/aieth –
iio?aaeoaeue ai?aaa iio?aaiaaoue i?aaeinoaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiie
eioi?iaoeee eee ?anoi?aiooue aeiaiai? e iio?aaiaaoue aiciauaiey
iiiaiaiiuo oauoeia;

i?e/eiaiea a?aaea aeecie, caei?iaueth e eiouanoao iio?aaeoaey –
iio?aaeoaeue ai?aaa i?aaeuaeoue i?aaei?eyoeth o?aaiaaiey a niioaaonoaee
ni no. 12 “Eiouanoaaiiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca a?aae, i?e/eiaiiue
aneaaenoaea iaaeinoaoeia oiaa?a (?aaiou, oneoae) Caeiia ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee “I caueoa i?aa iio?aaeoaeae”, a oaeaea iio?aaiaaoue
aiciauaiey oauoeia, i?e/eiaiiuo i?e?iaeui iauaeoai, iaoiaeyueiny ai
aeaaeaiee iio?aaeoaey ia i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, eeai ii eiui iniiaaieyi,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuoei caeiiii eee aeiaiai?ii.

I?e iaia?oaeaiee a oiaa?ao iaaeinoaoeia iio?aaeoaeue ai?aaa iio?aaiaaoue
io i?aaei?eyoey-i?iaeaaoea (ecaioiaeoaey), a oaeaea i?aaei?eyoey,
auiieiythuaai eo ooieoeee, iaiaaeeaiiie caiaiu oiaa?a. Iaaeinoaoee,
iaia?oaeaiiua a oiaa?a, aeieaeiu auoue ono?aiaiu
i?aaei?eyoeai-ecaioiaeoaeai a oa/aiea 10 aeiae, a
i?aaei?eyoeai-i?iaeaaoeii – a oa/aiea 20 aeiae. Anee iacaaiiua n?iee
ia?ooathony, oi ca eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee, a oaeaea i?e ioeaca
caiaieoue oiaa? aiaeiae/iui ecaioiaeoaeue (i?iaeaaaoe) auiea/eaaao
iio?aaeoaeth iaonoieeo a ?acia?a 1% noieiinoe oiaa?a ca eaaeaeue aeaiue
caaea?aeee auiieiaiey o?aaiaaiee iio?aaeoaey.

A niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?aaei?eyoey
(ecaioiaeoaee, i?iaeaaoeu) ianoo yeiiiie/aneoth (iaoa?eaeueioth) e
oaieiaioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaaeinoaoee oiaa?ia, ca ia?ooaiea
o?aaiaaiee ii aaciianiinoe e i?aaee na?oeoeeaoeee oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa)

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?aaei?eyoee ca i?aaiia?ooaiey a iaeanoe no?ieoaeuenoaa

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?aaiia?ooaiey i?aaei?eyoee onoaiaaeeaaaony a
niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 17 aeaeaa?y 1992 a. ?
4121-1 “Ia aaeieieno?aoeaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee,
i?aaiecaoeee, e iauaaeeiaiee ca i?aaiia?ooaiey a iaeanoe
no?ieoaeuenoaa”, “Iieaeaieai i ii?yaeea iaeiaeaiey oo?aoia a iaeanoe
no?ieoaeuenoaa”, ooaa?aeaeaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee io27 ethey 1993 a. ?729.

I?aaei?eyoey, auiieiythuea i?iaeoiua, no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiua ?aaiou,
i?iecaiaeyuea no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, eiino?oeoeee e ecaeaeey,
yaeythueany caeac/eeaie a no?ieoaeuenoaa eee niaiauathuea ooieoeee
caeac/eea e iiae?yae/eea, iiaeaa?aathony oo?aoo, iaeaaaaiiio a
aaeieieno?aoeaiii ii?yaeea ca nneaaeothuea i?aaiia?ooaiey:

No?ieoaeuenoai iauaeoa aac iieo/aiiiai a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea
?ac?aoaiey – a ?acia?a 100 000 ?oa.;

Oeeiiaiea io eniieiaiey eee ianaiaa?aiaiiia eniieiaiea i?aaeienaaiee ,
auaeaiiuo i?aaiaie Ainoaea?noaaiiiai a?oeoaeoo?ii-no?ieoaeueiiai
iaaeci?a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, – a ?acia?a io 10 000 aei 250 000 ?oa.;

Inouanoaeaiea no?ieoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe aac iieo/aiey a onoaiiaeaiiii
ii?yaeea eeoeaicee – a ?acia?a 250 000 ?oa.;

Ia?ooaiea i?aaee i?eaiee iauaeoa a yenieoaoaoeeth – a ?acia?a 100 000
?oa.;

Ia?ooaiey iaycaoaeueiuo o?aaiaaiee ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia a iaeanoe
no?ieoaeuenoaa i?e auiieiaiee i?iaoiuo, no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo ?aaio,
i?e i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, eiino?oeoeee e ecaeaeee,
nieaeaiee eee iioa?e i?i/iinoe, onoie/eainoe, iaaeaaeiinoe caeaiee,
nii?oaeaiee, eo /anoae, ioaeaeueiuo eino?oeoeaiuo yeaiaioia:

a ?acia?a io 750 000 ?oa. aei 1 000 000 ?oa., anee ia?ooaiea iiaeaeei ca
niaie iioa?th i?i/iinoe, onoie/eainoe;

a ?acia?a io 500 000 ?oa. aei 750 000 ?oa., anee ia?ooaiea iiaeaeei ca
niaie nieaeaiea i?i/iinoe, onoie/eainoe;

a ?acia?a io 50 000 ?oa. aei 500 000 ?oa., anee ia?ooaiea iiaeaeei ca
niaie nieaeaiea iaaeaaeiinoe.

A Iieiaeaiee i ii?yaeea iaeiaeaiey oo?aoia ca i?aaiia?ooaiey a iaeanoe
no?ieoaeuenoaa onoaiiaeaii, /oi iiae i?i/iinoueth iiieiaaony
niiniaiinoue iaoa?eaea, eiino?oeoeee, ecaeaeey, oceia eo nii?yaeaiey,
a?oioa, iniiaaiey caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey aini?eieiaoue, ia ?ac?ooaynue,
?an/aoiua cia/aiey iaa?ocie e aicaeaenoaee. Iiae onoie/eainoueth
iiieiaaony niiniaiinoue caeaiey, nii?oaeaiey nio?aiyoue ninoiyiea
onoie/eaiai ?aaiiaaney e i?ioeainoiyoue ?acee/iui aicaeaenoaeyi e
iaa?oceai. Iiae iaaeaaeiinoueth iiieiaaony niiniaiinoue caeaiey,
nii?oaeaiey, aai eiaeaia?iuo nenoai, ianoueo e ia?aaeaeathueo
eiino?oeoeee auiieiyoue ooieoeee, ii?aaeaeaiiua cia/aieyie ii?iaoeaiuo
iieacaoaeae.

Auoai?eaaaeaiiua ?acia?u oo?aoiuo naieoeee ca i?aaiia?ooaiey a iaeanoe
no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaeeaaeao eiaeaenaoeee.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee

A niioaaonoaee n Oaiiaeaiiui eiaeaenii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee ianoo eeoea, iiae
eioi?uie iiieiathony ?inneeneea eeoea – i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiey e
i?aaiecaoeee n ianoiiaoiaeaeaieai a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, nicaeaiiua a
niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee; eeoea,
caieiathueany i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth aac ia?aciaaiey
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiua ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee (no. 18 i. 7), a oaeaea aeieaeiinoiua e oece/aneea eeoea.
Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ianooiaao i?e ia?ooaiee oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee, iiae
eioi?uie iiieiaaony i?ioeaii?aaiia aeaenoaea eee aacaeaenoaea eeoea,
iinyaathuaai ia onoaiiaeaiiue Oaiiaeaiiui eiaeaenii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, Caeiiii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I oaiiaeaiiii oa?eoa”,
ae?oaeie aeoaie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii
oaiiaeaiiiio aeaeo e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
(no. 230)

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee inouanoaeyaony iooai
iaeiaeaiey neaaeothueo aeaeia acuneaiee:

I?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey;

Oo?aoa;

Iocuaa eeoeaicee e eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiiai aooanoaoa, auaeaiiiai oaiiaeaiiui
i?aaiii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia inouanoaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo OE ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ;

Eiioeneaoeee oiaa?ia e o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, yaeythueony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie iauaeoaie ia?ooaiey oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee; oiaa?ia e
o?ainiio?iuo n?aaenoa ni niaoeeaeueii ecaioiaeaiiuie oaeieeaie,
eniieueuiaaiiuie aeey ia?aiauaiey /a?ac a?aieoeo ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
n nie?uoeai i?aaeiaoia, yaeythueieny iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie iauaeoaie
ia?ooaiey oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee.

Acuneaiey noieiinoe oiaa?a e o?ainii?oiuoo n?aaenoa, yaeythueony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie iauaeoaie ia?ooaiey oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee, oiaa?ia e
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ni niaoeeaeueii ecaioiaeaiiuie oaeieeaie,
eniieueciaaiiuie aeey ia?aiauaiey /a?ac a?aieoeo ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
n ie?uoeai i?aaeiaoia, yaeythueony iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie iauaeoaie
ia?ooaiey oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee;

Eiioeneaoeee o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa (ia eioi?uo ia?aaiceeenue oiaa?u),
yaeythueony iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie iauaeoaie ia?ooaiey oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee.

Oo?ao ia ia?ooeoaey oaiiaeaiiuo i?aaee iaeaaaaony a niioaaonoaothuai
en/eneaiee (a caaeneiinoe io aeaea ia?ooaiey) ii ioiioaieth e ?acia?o
iany/iie ieieiaeueie iieaou o?oaea, nouanoaothuae ia aeaiue niaa?oaiey
i?aaiia?ooaiey (eee ia aeaiue aai iaia?oaeaiey).

Iiae noieiinoueth oiaa?ia e o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa i?e iaeiaeaiee
acuneaiey iiieiaaony eo naiaiaeiay (?uii/iay) noieiinoue ia aeaiue
iaia?oaeaiey i?aaiia?ooaiey.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea i?aaee iinoaiiaee ia o/ao e aaaeaiey
aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe

A niioaaonoaee n Oeacii I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee io 23 iay
1994 a. “Ia inouanoaeaiee eiiieaeniuo ia? ii naiaa?aiaiiiio e iieiiio
aianaieth a athaeaeao iaeiaia e eiuo iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae”
iaeiaiieaoaeueuee iiaeeaaeeo a iaycaoaeueiii ii?yaeea iinoaiiaea ia o/ao
a iaeiaiauo i?aaiao ii ianoo aai ?aaeno?aoeee. Aaiee e eiua e?aaeeoiua
o/?aaeaeaiey ioe?uaatho ?an/aoiua (oaeouea) n/aoa oieueei ii
i?aaeuyaeaiee ei aeieoiaioa, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuaai iinoaiiaeo ia o/ao a
iaeiaiaii i?aaia, a eiua n/aoa, aeeth/ay aaethoiua, nnoaeiua aeaiiceoiua
e ae?oaea, – i?e i?aaeuyaeaiee ei aeieoiaioa (ni?aaee) ia oaaaeiieaiee
iaeiaiaiai i?aaia i iaia?aiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueea ioe?uoue a aaiea
niioaaonoaothuea (e?iia ?an/aoiiai e oaeouaai) n/aoa, e a iyoeaeiaaiue
n?ie niiauatho a yoio iaeiaiaue i?aai ia ioe?uoee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo
auoaiacaaiiuo n/aoia.

Anee i?aaiu AIN ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee auyayo oaeou ioe?uoey aaieaie e
eiuie e?aaeeoiuie o/?aaeaeaieyie ?an/aoiuo (oaeoueo, aaethoiuo,
nnoaeiuo, aeaiiceoiuo e ae?oaeo) n/aoia aac oaaaeiieaiey iaeiaiaiai
i?aaia, ia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee, aaieia e ae?oaeo e?aaeeoiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee, ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae iaeaaathony
aaeieieno?aoeaiua oo?aou a ?acia?a noie?aoiiai onoaiiaeaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ?acia?a ieieiaeueiie iany/iie
iieaou o?oaea.

Anee i?aaei?eyoey, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee ia niaethaeatho
oneiaey ?aaiou n aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoueth, a oaeaea ii?yaeie aaaeaiey
eanniauo iia?aoeee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, oi e iei i?eiaiythony
neaaeothuea aeaeu oeiainiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe:

ca inouanoaeaiea ?an/aoia iaee/iuie aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie n ae?oaeie
i?aaei?eyoeyie, o/?aaeaeaieyie e i?aaiecaoeeyie naa?o onoaiiaeaiiuo
i?aaeaeueiuo noii – oo?ao a 2-e?aoiii ?acia?a noiiu i?iecaaaeaiiiai
ieaoaaea;

ca iaii?eoiaeiaaiea (iaiieiia ii?eoiaeiaaiea) a eanno aeaiaaeiie
iaee/iinoe – oo?ao a 3-e?aoiii ?acia?a iaii?eoiaeiaaiiie noiiu;

ca ianiaethaeaiea aeaenoaothuaai ii?yaeea o?aiaiey naiaiaeiuo aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, a oaeaea ca iaeiieaiea a eannao iaee/iuo aeaiaa naa?o
onoaiiaeaiiuo eeieoia – oo?ao a 3-e?aoiii ?acia?a auyaeaiiie
naa?oeeieoiie eanniaie iaee/iinoe.

?aaioa n aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoueth e ii?yaeie aaaeaiey eanniauo iia?aoeee
i?aaiecothony i?aaei?eyoeai a niioaaonoaee n Ii?yaeeii aaaeaiey eanniauo
iia?aoeee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ooaa?aeaeaiiui ?aoaieai Niaaoa
aee?aeoi?ia Aaiea ?innee io 22 naioya?y 1993 a. ?40.

I?aaeoaeuenoai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iinoaiiaeaieai io 17 iiya?y 1994
a. ?1258 “Ia onoaiiaeaiee i?aaeaeueiiai ?acia?a ?an/aoia iaee/iuie
aeaiueaaie a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie”
onoaiiaeei i?aaeaeueiue ?acia? ?an/aoia iaee/iuie aeaiueaaie a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie a noiia 2 iei.
?oa. ii iaee/iiio ieaoaaeo. Ana ?an/aou iaaeaeo th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie
ii iaeiiio ieaoaaeo nauoa 2 iei. ?oa. aeieaeiu i?iecaiaeeoueny oieueei a
aaciaee/iii ii?yaeea, ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
ioaeaeueiuie ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Iiae naa?oeeieoiie eanniaie eanniaie iaee/iinoueth iiieiaaony n?aaeiyy
aaee/eia, ?ann/eoaiiay enoiaey ec noiiu e eiee/anoaa aeiae i?aauoaiey
eeieoa inoaoaea aeaiaa a eanna i?aaei?eyoey.

Eeieo inoaoea aeaiaa a eanna i?aaei?eyoey onoaiaaeeaaaony
ianeoaeeaathueie aaieaie i?aaei?eyoee iacaaeneii io
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i e noa?u eo aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee, aeiionoeaoeo oeacaiiua ia?ooaiey,
iaeaaathony aaeieieno?aoeaiua oo?aou a noiia 50-e?aoiiai onoaiiaeaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ieieiaeueiie iany/iie iieaou
o?oaea, aeaenoaothuaai ia iiiaio niaa?oaiey oeacaiiiai ia?ooaiey.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Ni?aai/iee aee?aeoi?a i?aaei?eyoey, I., 1996

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Nia?aiea aeoia I?aceaeaioa e I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, I.,
1992-1995.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo nie?auaiee

AN — Aa?oiaiue niaao

AE — A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen

AIN — Ainoaea?noaaiiay iaeiaiaay neoaeaa

OE — Oaiiaeaiiue eiaeaen

?AOA?AO II AeENOeEIEEIA “INIIAU I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNOAA”

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