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Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ii aunoaio ia?aciaaieth

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey oi?aaeaiey ei. Na?ai I?aeaeiieeeaeca

Eaoaae?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa

?aoa?ao ii aeenoeeieeia “Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”

Oaia: Aecian-ieai

Auiieiee: nooaeaio OI 3-1

Aieoaaa A.A.

I?iaa?ee: aeioeaio, e.y.i.

Aa?aeooa N.A.

Iineaa 1996

Niaea?aeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea no?. 3

No?oeoo?a aecian-ieaia no?. 6

?acaeae “Aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu” no?. 6

?acaeae “Aeaeu oiaa?ia (oneoa)” no?. 7

?acaeae “?uiee nauoa oiaa?ia (oneoa)” no?. 8

?acaeae “Eiieo?aioeey ia ?uieao nauoa” no?. 9

?acaeae “Ieai ia?eaoeiaa” no?. 10

?acaeae “Ieai i?iecaiaenoaa” no?. 15

?acaeae “Oeiainiaue ieai” no?. 16

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u no?. 21

AAAAeAIEA

E

aaeaeue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue, ia/eiay naith aeayoaeueiinoue, aeieaeai ynii
i?aaenoaaeyoue iio?aaiinoue ia ia?niaeoeao a oeiainiauo, iaoa?eaeueiuo,
o?oaeiauo e eioaeeaeooaeueiuo ?ano?nao, enoi/ieee eo iieo/aiey, a oaeaea
oiaoue /aoei ?ann/eoaoue yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia a
i?ioeanna ?aaiou oe?iu.

A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea i?aaei?eieiaoaee ia niiaoo aeiaeoueny noaaeeueiiai
oniaoa, anee ia aoaeoo /aoei e yooaeoeaii ieaie?iaaoue naith
aeayoaeueiinoue, iinoiyiii niae?aoue e aeeoioee?iaaoue eioi?iaoeeth eae
i ninoiyiee oeaeaauo ?uieia, iieiaeaiee ia ieo eiieo?aioia, oae e i
nianoaaiiuo ia?niaeoeaao e aiciiaeiinoyo.

I?e anai iiiaiia?acee oi?i i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa nouanoaotho eeth/aaua
iieiaeaiey, i?eiaieiua i?aeoe/anee ai anao iaeanoyo eiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe e aeey ?aciuo oe?i, ii iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oiai, /oiau
naiaa?aiaiii iiaeaioiaeoueny e iaieoe iioaioeeaeueiua o?oaeiinoe e
iianiinoe, oai naiui oiaiueoeoue ?ene a aeinoeaeaiee iinoaaeaiiuo
oeaeae.

Aaaeiie caaea/ae yaeyaony i?iaeaia i?eaea/aiey eiaanoeoeee, a oii /enea
e ca?oaaaeiuo, a aeaenoaothuea e ?acaeaathueany i?aaei?eyoey. Aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeii a?aoiaioe?iaaoue e iainiiaaoue ioi?ieaiea i?iaeoia
(i?aaeeiaeaiee), o?aaothueo eiaanoeoeee. Aeey yoeo e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
oeaeae i?eiaiyaony aecian-ieai.

A ?uii/iie yeiiiieea aecian-ieai yaeyaony ?aai/ei eino?oiaioii,
eniieuecoaiui ai anao noa?ao i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Aecian-ieai
iienuaaao i?ioeann ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oe?iu, iieacuaaao, eaeei ia?acii aa
?oeiaiaeeoaee niae?athony aeinoe/ue naie oeaee e caaea/e, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iiauoaiey i?eaueueiinoe ?aaiou. Oi?ioi ?ac?aaioaiiue
aecian-ieai iiiiaaao oe?ia ?anoe, caaiaauaaoue iiaua iiceoeee ia ?uiea,
aaea iia ooieoeeiie?oao, ninoaaeyoue ia?niaeoeaiua ieaiu naiaai
?acaeoey.

Aecian-ieai yaeyaony iinoiyiiui aeieoiaioii; ii nenoaiaoe/anee
iaiiaeyaony, a iaai aiinyony eciaiaiey, naycaiiua eae n ia?aiaiaie,
i?ienoiaeyueie aioo?e oe?iu, oae e ia ?uiea, aaea aeaenoaoao oe?ia.

A nayce n oai, /oi aecian-ieai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acoeueoao
enneaaeiaaiee e i?aaiecaoeeiiiie ?aaiou, eiathuae oeaeueth eco/aiea
eiie?aoiiai iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu (i?iaeoeoa eee oneoa) ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii ?uiea e a neiaeeaoeony i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeo
oneiaeyo, ii iie?aaony ia:

eiie?aoiue i?iaeo i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai oiaa?a (oneoa ) —
nicaeaiea iiaiai oeia ecaeaeee eee ieacaiea iiauo oneoa (iniaaiiinoe
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae e o.ae.);

ananoi?iiiee aiaeec i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie e eiiia?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, oeaeueth eioi?ie yaeyaony auaeaeaiea aa
neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii, niaoeeoeee e ioee/ee io ae?oaeo aiaeiae/iuo
oe?i;

eco/aiea eiie?aoiuo oeiainiauo, oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
iaoaieciia, eniieuecoaiuo a yeiiiieea aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiie?aoiuo
caaea/.

Aecian-ieai yaeyaony iaeiei ec ninoaaiuo aeieoiaioia, ii?aaeaeythueo
no?aoaaeth ?acaeoey oe?iu. Aianoa n oai ii aace?oaony ia iauae
eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey oe?iu, aieaa iiae?iaii ?ac?aaaouaaao yeiiiie/aneee
e oeiainiaue aniaeo no?aoaaee, aeaao oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea
eiie?aoiui ia?ii?eyoeyi. Aecian-ieai ioaaouaaao iaeio ec /anoae
eiaanoeoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu, n?ie ?aaeecaoeee eioi?ie iau/ii ia?aie/ai 1
eee ianeieueeeie aiaeaie (/anoi ei??aniiiaee?othueie ni n?ieaie n?aaeia-
e aeieain?i/iuo e?aaeeoia), iicaieythuae aeaoue aeinoaoi/ii /aoeoth
yeiiiie/aneoth ioeaieo iaia/aiiui ia?ii?eyoeyi.

Aecian-ieai iicaieyao ?aoaoue oeaeue ?yae caaea/, ii iniiaiuie ec ieo
yaeythony neaaeothuea:

iainiiaaiea yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey oe?iu;

?an/ao iaeeaeaaiuo oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iauaiia i?iaeaae, i?eauee, aeioiaeia ia eaieoae;

ii?aaeaeaiea iaia/aaiiai enoi/ieea oeiaine?iaaiey ?aaeecaoeee aua?aiiie
no?aoaaee, o.a. niiniau eiioeaio?e?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?ano?nia;

iiaeai? ?aaioieeia, eioi?ua niiniaiu ?aaeeciaaoue aeaiiue ieai.

Eaaeaeay caaea/a iiaeao auoue ?aoaia oieueei ai acaeiinayce n ae?oaeie.
Iniiaiie oeaio? aecian-ieai — eiioeaio?e?iaaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.
Eiaiii aecian-ieai — aaaeiia n?aaenoai aeey oaaee/aiey eaieoaea
eiiiaiee. I?ioeann ninoaaeaiey aecian-ieaia iicaieyao ouaoaeueii
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ia/aoia aeaei ai anao aeaoaeyo. Aecian-ieai neoaeeo
iniiaie aecian-i?aaeeiaeaiey i?e ia?aaiai?ao n aoaeoueie ia?oia?aie; ii
ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue i?e i?eaeaoaiee ia ?aaioo iniiaiiai ia?niiaea
oe?iu.

Oaeei ia?acii, aecian-ieai yaeyaony ia oieueei aioo?aiiei aeieoiaioii
oe?iu, ii e iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai aeey i?eaea/aiey eiaanoi?ia.
Ia?aae oai eae ?eneiooue iaeioi?ui eaieoaeii, eiaanoi?u aeieaeiu auoue
oaa?aiu a ouaoaeueiinoe i?i?aaioee i?iaeoa e inaaaeiieaiu i aai
yooaeoeaiinoe. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi aecian-ieai oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeai e
eceiaeai aeey aini?eyoey iioaioeeaeueiuo eiaanoi?ia.

Aeaiiay ?aaioa i?aaeiieaaaao iienaoue ana iaeaieaa aaaeiua ioieou
aecian-ieaia e iiae?iaii inoaiiaeoueny ia ?acaeaea “Oeiainiaue ieai”.

1. No?oeoo?a aecian-ieaia.

Aecian-ieai ninoieo ec neaaeothueo ?acaeaeia:

Aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu (?acthia).

Aeaeu oiaa?ia (oneoa).

?uiee nauoa oiaa?ia (oneoa).

Eiieo?aioeey ia ?uieao nauoa.

Ieai ia?eaoeiaa.

Ieai i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiue ieai.

I?aaiaia iaania/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.

Ioeaiea ?enea e no?aoiaaiey.

Oeiainiaue ieai.

No?aoaaey oeiaine?iaaiey.

2. ?acaeae “Aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu”.

Iauai aeaiiiai ?acaeaea ia aeieaeai i?aauoaoue ianeieueeeo no?aieoe. Aai
oaeno aeieaeai auoue iiiyoai e ia niaoeeaeenoo — i?aaeaeueiay i?inoioa e
ieieioi niaoeeaeueiuo oa?ieiia.

?aaioa iaae yoei ?acaeaeii /?acau/aeii aaaeia, iineieueeo anee ii ia
i?iecaaaeao aeaaii?eyoiiai i?iecaaaeaiey ia eiaanoi?ia e e?aaeeoi?ia,
oi aeaeueoa aecian-ieai iie i?inoi ia noaioo niio?aoue.

A oeaeii ?acthia aeieaeii aeaoue ioaaou aoaeouei eiaanoi?ai eee
e?aaeeoi?ai oe?iu (a oii /enea e aa aeoeeiia?ai) ia 2 aii?ina: “*oi iie
iieo/ao i?e oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai ieaia?” e “Eaeia ?ene iioa?e
eie aeaiaa?”.

Yoio ?acaeae aeieaeai ?ac?aaaouaaoueny a naiii eiioea ninoaaeaiey
aecian-ieaia, eiaaea aeinoeaiooa iieiay yniinoue ii anai inoaeueiui
aii?inai.

A ?acaeaea “Aiciiaeiinoe oe?iu (?acthia)” ii?aaeaeythony a i?ei?eoaoiii
ii?yaeea ana iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, oeaeaaua ?uiee ii
eaaeaeiio iai?aaeaieth e ianoi oe?iu ia yoeo ?uieao. Ii eaaeaeiio
iai?aaeaieth onoaiaaeeaathony oeaee, e eioi?ui oe?ia no?aieony,
no?aoaaee eo aeinoeaeaiey, aeeth/athuea ia?a/aiue iaiaoiaeeiuo
ia?ii?eyoee. Ii eaaeaeie no?aoaaee ii?aaeaeythony ioaaonoaaiiua eeoea.

A yoii aea ?acaeaea iiiauaaony eioi?iaoeey, aeathuay i?aaenoaaeaiea i
oe?ia, a oaeaea ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeaiiua, oa?aeoa?ecothuea aa
eiiia?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue.

3. ?acaeae “Aeaeu oiaa?ia (oneoa)”.

A yoii ?acaeaea aecian-ieaia iienuaathony ana oiaa?u e oneoae, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeeo oe?ia.

Iaienaieth aeaiiiai ?acaeaea i?aaeoanoaoao cia/eoaeueiay
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ?aaioa ii auai?o oiaa?ia eee oneoa, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
noaoue iniiaie aeciana oe?iu.

A ?acaeaea iaiaoiaeeii aeaoue iienaiea anao nouanoaothueo e iiauo
oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?aaeeaaaaiuo oe?iie, ioaaoea ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:

Eaeea oiaa?u (oneoae) i?aaeeaaathony oe?iie? Iieoeoa eo.

Iaaeyaeiia ecia?aaeaiea oiaa?a (oioia?aoey eee ?enoiie).

Iacaaiea oiaa?a.

Eaeea iio?aaiinoe (ianoiyuea e iioaioeeaeueiua) i?ecaaiu oaeiaeaoai?youe
i?aaeeaaaaiua oiaa?u, oneoae?

Ianeieueei eciai/ea ni?in ia aeaiiua oiaa?u (oneoae)?

Aei?iaea ee yoe oiaa?u (oneoae)?

Ianeieueei aeaiiua oiaa?u (oneoae) ioaa/atho o?aaiaaieyi
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa?

Ia eaeeo ?uieao e eaeei ia?acii iie i?iaeathony?

Ii/aio iio?aaeoaee ioaeatho i?aaeii/oaiea aeaiiui oiaa?ai (oneoaai)
oe?iu? *oi ninoaaeyao eo iniiaiia i?aeiouanoai? A /ai eo iaaeinoaoee?

I?e ioaaoa ia aeaiiue aii?in oeaeaniia?acii ninoaaeoue neaaeothuoth
oaaeeoeo ia eaaeaeue oiaa? e oneoao.

I?aeiouanoaa ii n?aaiaieth n aiaeiae/iuie oiaa?aie eiieo?aioia
Iaaeinoaoee Ia?u ii i?aiaeieaieth iaaeinoaoeia

Eaeeie iaoaioaie eee aaoi?neeie naeaeaoaeuenoaaie caueuaiu iniaaiiinoe
i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia (oneoa) eee oaoiieiaee eo i?iecaiaenoaa e
i?aaenoaaeaiey?

Eaeiau oeaiu, ii eioi?ui i?iaeathony oiaa?u (oneoae)? Eaeiau cao?aou ia
eo i?iecaiaenoai? Eaeoth i?eaueue i?eianao i?iaeaaea aaeeieoeu eaaeaeiai
oiaa?a (oneoae)?

Eaeiau iniiaiua oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee oiaa?ia (oneoa)?

Eiaao ee aeaiiue oiaa? oe?iaiioth ia?eo?

Eae i?aaieciaaii iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea aeaiiuo oiaa?ia, anee
yoi oaoie/aneea ecaeaeey?

e ae?oaea.

4. ?acaeae “?uiee nauoa oiaa?ia (oneoa)”.

Yoio ?acaeae iai?aaeai ia eco/aiea ?uieia e iicaieyao i?aaei?eieiaoaeth
/aoei i?aaenoaaeoue eoi aoaeao iieoiaoue aai oiaa? e aaea aai ieoa ia
?uiea.

Aia/aea i?aaei?eieiaoaeth iaiaoiaeeii iaeoe ioaao ia neaaeothuea
aii?inu:

Ia eaeeo ?uieao aeaenoaoao eee aoaeao aeaenoaiaaoue oe?ia? Eaeea oeiu
?uieia eniieuecothony oe?iie?

Eaeea iniiaiua naaiaiou yoeo ?uieia ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo oiaa?a (oneoae)?

I?i?aiaee?iaaiu ee ?uiee (naaiaiou ?uiea), ia eioi?uo aeaenoaoao eee
aoaeao aeaenoaiaaoue oe?ia, ii eiiia?/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe e ae?oaei
?uii/iui iieacaoaeyi?

*oi aeeyao ia ni?in ia oiaa?u (oneoae) oe?iu a eaaeaeii ec yoeo
naaiaioia?

Eaeiau ia?niaeoeau eciaiaiey iio?aaiinoae iieoiaoaeae a eaaeaeii ec
naaiaioia ?uieia?

Eae i?aaeiieaaaaony ?aaae?iaaoue ia yoe eciaiaiey?

Eaeei ia?acii i?ienoiaeeo eco/aiea iio?aaiinoae e ni?ina?

Eaeiaa iauay e eiii?oiay aieinoe eaaeaeiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai ?uiea e
eniieuecoaiiai naaiaioa ii anai oiaa?ai (oneoaai) oe?iu?

Eaeiau i?iaiicu ?acaeoey aieinoe naaiaioia ia eaaeaeii ec ?uieia?

Eaeiaa ?aaeoeey ?uiea ia iiaua oiaa?u (oneoae)?

I?iaiaeyony ee oanoe?iaaiea ?uiea e i?iaiua i?iaeaaee?

Iinea ioaaoa ia yoe aii?inu a aeaiiii ?acaeaea aecian-ieaia iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaenoaaeoue:

Ioeaieo iioaioeeaeueiie aieinoe ?uiea.

Ioeaieo iioaioeeaeueiiai iauaia i?iaeaae.

Ioeaieo ?aaeueiiai iauaia i?iaeaae.

5. ?acaeae “Eiieo?aioeey ia ?uieao nauoa”.

Caeanue ioaeii i?iaanoe ?aaeenoe/aneoth ioeaieo neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii
eiieo?e?othueo oiaa?ia (oneoa) e iacaaoue auioneathuea eo oe?iu,
ii?aaeaeeoue enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee, oeacuaathuea ia oi eaeea oiaa?u
yaeythony iaeaieaa eiieo?aioiiniiniaiuie, n?aaieoue eiieo?e?othuea
oiaa?u (oneoae) ii aaceniie oeaia, oa?aeoa?enoeeai, ianeoaeeaaieth,
aa?aioeeiui iaycaoaeuenoaai e ae?oaei nouanoaaiiui i?eciaeai. Yoo
eioi?iaoeeth oeaeaniia?acii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea oaaeeoeu. Neaaeoao
e?aoei iainiiaaoue eiathueany aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee eiieo?e?othueo
oiaa?ia (oneoa). AEaeaoaeueii ioia?aceoue, eaeea ciaiey i aeaenoaeyo
eiieo?aioia iiaoo iiii/ue aaoae oe?ia nicaeaoue iiaua eee oeo/oaiiua
oiaa?u (oneoae).

Neaaeoao iieacaoue aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee eiieo?e?othueo oe?i,
ii?aaeaeeoue noa?o eaaeaeiai eiieo?aioa ia ?uiea, iieacaoue, eoi eiaao
iaeneiaeueioth e ieieiaeueioth oeaio, /uey i?iaeoeoeey iaeaieaa
ea/anoaaiiay. AEaeaoaeueii i?iaanoe ?aiaee?iaaiea eiieo?aioiuo iiceoeee
oe?iu, /oi iicaieeo ooi/ieoue aa iieiaeaiea e auyaeoue aiciiaeiinoe aeey
iioaioeeaeueiuo oeo/oaiee. Aeey eaaeaeiai ec oeaeaauo ?uieia iaaei
n?aaieoue iiceoeee oe?iu n iiceoeeyie eiieo?aioia ii oeacaiiui a
oaaeeoea iiceoeeyi:

?uiie A ?uiie A

Iaeanoue Au Eiieo?aiou Au Eiieo?aiou

n?aaiaiey

1 2 3

1 2 3

?aeeaia

?aciauaiea

I?iaeoeoeey

Oneoae

Oeaiu

Eieaeae

?aia oe?iu e aeaaiuo eiieo?aioia oeacuaaaony ii 5- eee 10-aaeeueiie
nenoaia.

Aeey eaaeaeiai ec oeaeaauo ?uieia iaaei n?aaieoue o?ainii?oiua cao?aou n
cao?aoaie o eiieo?aioia, ea/anoai i?iaeoeoia e oiaeiaee, niiinoaaeoue
aiciiaeiinoe nieaeaiey oeai, a oaeaea eiaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i ?aeeaiiie
eaiiaiee e eieaeaea oe?i.

6. ?acaeae “Ieai ia?eaoeiaa”.

?acaeae, iinayuaiiue ia?eaoeiao, yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo /anoae
aecian-ieaia, iineieueeo a iai iaiin?aaenoaaiii aiai?eony i oa?aeoa?a
iaia/aaiiai aeciana e niiniaao, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue
ia oniao.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeue aeieaeai iiaeaioiaeo oaeie ieai ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ue
niiniaai i?iaoaeaeaoue iuneue. Ii aeieaeai ia i?inoi i?aaenoaaeoue
eiioeaioeeth, ii “i?iaeaoue” aecian eae i?eaeaeaoaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue
aeey eiaanoeoeee, eae e?aaeeoiue ?ene n caiai/eauie ia?niaeoeaaie.

E?iia oiai, ?acaeae aeieaeai auoue iaienai a oaeie iaia?a, eioi?ay auea
au iiiyoia oe?ieiio e?oao ethaeae — io iaiaaeaea?ia aei /eaiia niaaoa
aee?aeoi?ia.

Enoi?ey naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ia?eaoeia yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiuo
oneiaee ia iooe oe?iu e oniaoo. Iiiaea oe?iu, eiaaoea niaeacieoaeueiue,
aeaenoaeoaeueii ioaeiue iio?aaeoaeth oiaa?, iioa?iaee iaoaea/o ec-ca
iai?aaeeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa eee aiiaua ionoonoaey oaeiaiai. Iiyoiio i?e
ioeaiea aecian-ieaia ia?iiiia aieiaiea aoaeao oaeaeaii yoiio ?acaeaeo.
Anee ia ii?aaeaeaia ?aaeueiay iio?aaiinoue a oiaa?ao eee oneoaao, oi
ieeaeie oaeaio, ieeaeea eaieoaeu ia iiiiaoo oe?ia aeiaeoueny oniaoa a
aeaiiie iaeanoe.

A caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiie neooaoeee, neeaaeuaathuaeny ia ?uiea n oi/ee
c?aiey ninoiyiey ni?ina, ?acee/atho ianeieueei oeiia ia?eaoeiaa:

Eiiaa?neiiiue ia?eaoeia. Naycai n iaee/eai iaaaoeaiiai ni?ina, o.a. n
neooaoeeae, eiaaea aieueoeinoai iio?aaeoaeae ioaa?aatho aeaiiue oiaa?
eee oneoao. Caaea/a a yoii neo/aa ninoieo a ?ac?aaioea oaeiai ieaia
ia?eaoeiaa, eioi?ue au niinianoaiaae ca?iaeaeaieth ni?ina ia
niioaaonoaothuea oiaa?u (oneoae).

Noeioee?othuee ia?eaoeia. Naycai n iaee/eai oiaa?ia, ia eioi?ua iao
ni?ina ii i?e/eia iieiiai aac?acee/ey eee iacaeioa?aniaaiiinoe
iieoiaoaeae. Ieai ia?eaoeiaa aeieaeai ii?aaeaeeoue i?e/eiu aac?acee/ey e
iaiaoeoue iooe ii aai i?aiaeieaieth.

?acaeaathuee ia?eaoeia. Naycai n oi?ie?othueiny ni?inii ia iiaua oiaa?u.
Eniieuecoaony a neooaoeeyo, eiaaea anoue iioaioeeaeueiue ni?in. Caaea/a
ia?eaoeiaa ninoieo a i?aa?auaiee iioaioeeaeueiiai ni?ina a ?aaeueiue.

Iiaeaea?aeeaathuee ia?eaoeia. Eniieuecoaony i?e niioaaonoaee o?iaiy
ni?ina o?iaith i?aaeeiaeaiey. A yoii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue
i?iaeoiaiioth iieeoeeo oeai, oeaeaiai?aaeaiii inouanoaeyoue ?aeeaiioth
?aaioo e o.i.

Aeaia?eaoeia. I?eiaiyaony i?e /?acia?iii i?aauoaiee ni?ina iaae
i?aaeeiaeaieai. *oiau o iio?aaeoaeae ia nicaeaeinue iaaaoeaiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i aiciiaeiinoyo oe?iu oaeiaeaoai?eoue cai?inu
iieoiaoaeae, i?iaiaeeony iiauoaiea oeai, naa?ouaaiea ?aeeaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e o.i. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?eieiathony ia?u ii oaaee/aieth
auionea i?iaeoeoeee iieuecothuaeny /?acia?ii aunieei ni?inii.

I?ioeaiaeaenoaothuee ia?eaoeia. Eniieuecoaony aeey nieaeaiey ni?ina,
eioi?ue n oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaa ?anoeaieaaaony eae e??aoeeiiaeueiue
(e.g. ia nie?oiua iaieoee, oaaa/iua ecaeaeey e o.i.)

Iaeioi?ua aeaeu aeciana o?aaotho ia?eaoeiaa, a iioiio yniiai e
oaaaeeoaeueiiai ieaia ia?eaoeiaa. Aeey ae?oaeo ia?eaoeia iaiaa aaaeai e
iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe a noieue ouaoaeueiie i?i?aaioea iinayuaiiiai aio
?acaeaea.

Aiiaua, ia?eaoeia i?eiaiyaony i?e neaaeothueo oneiaeyo:

Ianuuaiee ?uiea oiaa?aie, o.a. i?e i?aauoaiee i?aaeeiaeaiey iaae ni?inii
(?uiie iieoiaoaey);

Ino?ie eiieo?aioeee, oneeaiee ai?ueau ca iieoiaoaey;

Naiaiaeiuo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, o.a. aiciiaeiinoe aacaaeieieno?aoeaiuo
ia?aie/aiee auae?aoue ?uiee nauoa e niaaaeaiey, onoaiaaeeaaoue oeaiu,
aanoe eiiia?/aneoth iieeoeeo e o.ae.;

Iieiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee a auai?a oeaeae oe?iu,
oi?aaeai/aneeo no?oeoo?, ieeaaeia, a ?ani?aaeaeaiee n?aaenoa ii noaoueyi
athaeaeaoa e o.ae.

Iaeiaei i?e ethaii aeciana o?aaoaony iiaeaea?aeaiea iauaia i?iaeaae ia
o?iaia, niiniaiii iaania/eoue aai auaeeaaiea. Iiyoiio ?acoiiay i?ia?aiia
ia?eaoeiaa ea?aao e?eoe/anee aaaeioth ?ieue e eco/aaony aanueia
ne?oioeacii. Aio iniiaiua i?iaeaiu, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue ?anniio?aiu a
yoii ?acaeaea:

Ii?aaeaeaiea ni?ina e aiciiaeiinoe ?uiea. A yoie /anoe ?acaeaea neaaeoao
iainiiaaoue ni?in ia oiaa? (oneoao). *anoi iieacii ia/eiaoue aiaeec
?uiea n i?aaenoaaeaiey iauae ea?oeiu, neiaeeaoaeny a io?anee.

Eae ia?aaeei auaaao i?e ninoaaeaiee aecian-ieaia, ea/anoai
niioaaonoaothuae eioi?iaoeee caaeneo io cao?a/aiiie ia aa nai? yia?aee.
E /eneo oi?ioeo enoi/ieeia iiaeiaiuo aeaiiuo ioiinyony oi?aiaua
annioeeaoeee, eeoa?aoo?a ii oi?aiaea, io?aneaaua enneaaeiaaiey, iiaiey
yenia?oia.

Noaiaiue aeaoaeueiinoe e aeiaiaeu, eioi?ua neaaeoao i?eaanoe, caaenyo io
aeiee ?uiea, eioi?oth o?aaoaony caaiaaaoue aeey aeinoeaeaiey oniaoa

Iinea ii?aaeaeaiey iaueo ia?aiao?ia ?uiea neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue iauaeou
?uiea, eo oa?aeoa?enoeee e cia/aiey. Iiaeii iienaoue ?uiie n oi/ee
c?aiey aeaeaoaeueiuo ao?eaooia ecaeaeey, aeaiia?aoee, aaia?aoee,
iniaaiiinoae ineoieiaee.

Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii a ieaia aoaeoo iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?anniao?eaaoueny e
ana inoaeueiua iauaeou ?uiea. A aeiiieiaiea e iienaieth a ieaia neaaeoao
aeaoue ioeaieo n?aaieoaeueiie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai ec iauaeoia.
Eaeea ?uiee eiatho ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea? Ii/aio? Aoaeao ee yoi
ioiineoaeueiia cia/aiea iaiyoueny n oa/aieai a?aiaie.

Eiieo?aioeey e ae?oaea aiaoiea oaeoi?u. Ii/oe iaaa?iyea ia
aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu aoaeoo ieacuaaoue aeeyiea aiaoiea oaeoi?u, eioi?ua
iii niiniaii eiio?iee?iaaoue eeoue a iacia/eoaeueiie ia?a eeai aiiaua ia
niiniaii aeaeaoue yoi. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiui ec ieo yaeyaony
eiieo?aioeey.

Noaiaiue eiieo?aioeee. Oeaeueth a aeaiiii neo/aa yaeyaony ?anniio?aiea
oiai, /oi iiaeao ninoaaeoue iiaeeeiioth eiieo?aioeeth e ioaaoioth
?aaeoeeth ia iaa. Aiciiaeii, oaeanony eiie?aoiua oe?iu, i?iaeoeoeeth eee
oneoae, eioi?ua ninoaayo eiieo?aioeeth. A oaeeo neo/ayo oeaeaniia?acii
oeacaoue i?ioeeue eaaeaeiai eiieo?aioa, aai neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu e
aiciiaeiia aicaeaenoaea, eioi?ia ana yoi iiaeao ieacaoue ia noaiiaeaiea
aeciana.

Aoaeouea enoi/ieee eiieo?aioeee. A oi a?aiy eae iaeioi?ua (iau/ii
noa?ua) i?iecaiaenoaa i?aauaatho a ninoiyiee noaaeeueiinoe e
?acaeaathony iinoaiaiii, eiaaony iiiaeanoai aeeiaie/iuo ?uieia, eioi?ua
iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee auno?iai e iai?a?uaiiai eciaiaiey. Ii?ie iiaeii
i?aaeneacaoue oaeea eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a ?uiea. Icaai/aiiinoue ii
iiaiaeo aoaeouae eiieo?aioeee iniaaiii aaaeia i?e ?ac?aaioea iiaiai
i?iaeoeoa eee oneoae, eiaaea aaeeea aa?iyoiinoue iiyaeaiey
“iiae?aaeaoaeae” a iiaie io?anee.

No?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa. Ii?aaeaeea niioaaonoaothuee ?uiie e aai
aiciiaeiinoe, iaiaoiaeeii inoaiiaeoueny ia oii, eae ieaie?oaiue aecian
aoaeao eniieueciaaoue yoe aiciiaeiinoe. Aeieaeia auoue i?aaenoaaeaia
no?aoaaey ia?eaoeiaa, iauyniythuay eae aecian i?aaiecoao i?iaaaeaiea
naieo ieaiia a aeeciue aeey aeinoeaeaiey aeaeaaiiai iauaia i?iaeaae.
Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeeoue aieiaiea eaaeaeiio ec aaaeiaeoeo
eino?oiaioia ia?eaoeiaa, eiathueony a ?anii?yaeaiee eiiiaiee.

No?aoaaey nauoa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae aecian
iaia?ai aeiaanoe naie oiaa?u e oneoae aei iio?aaeoaey. I?eaaaiao ee e
nianoaaiiie neoaeaa nauoa eee aea aoaeoo eniieueciaaiu aeeea?u,
aeeno?eauethoi?u, iin?aaeieee?

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo i?aaiecaoeey naoe ii i?iaeaaea e ?ani?ino?aiaieth
oiaa?a yaeyaony n?aaieoaeueii ianeiaeiui aeaeii e o?aaoaony inaaoeoue
eeoue iniiaiua iiiaiou. A ae?oaeo aea aeaoue aieaa iiae?iaiia iienaiea.

I?e nianoaaiiie neoaeaa nauoa neaaeoao oeacaoue, o?aaoaony ee
niaoeeaeueiay iiaeaioiaea aeey aa ?aaioieeia. Iai?eia?, aeey i?iaeaaee
oaoie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee ia?niiae aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue niioaaonoaothueie
ciaieyie.

No?aoaaey oeaiiia?aciaaiey. Iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo yeaiaioia ieaia
ia?eaoeiaa yaeyaony oeaiiia?aciaaiea. Oeaia naycaia n oaeeie oaeoi?aie
ia?eaoeiaa, eae oa?aeoa?enoeea e ia?ac oiaa?a e oe?iu e ae?. Oeaia ia
oiaa? aeieaeia eiaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiioth naycue n aai ea/anoaii. Aaaeii,
/oiau oeaiu aeieaeiui ia?acii io?aaeaee o?iaaiue ea/anoaa e eieaeae
oe?iu, eioi?ue iia oi/ao nicaeaoue aeey naiae i?iaeoeoeee.

I?e aiaeeca eniieuecoaiuo ia oe?ia niiniaia oeaiiia?aciaaiey
oeaeaniia?acii enoiaeeoue ec neaaeothueo iieiaeaiee. Aiciiaeiay oeaia
oiaa?a iiaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny, enoiaey ec:

naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee;

oeaiu eiieo?aioia ia aiaeiae/iue oiaa? eee oiaa?u-caiaieoaee;

oieeaeueiuo aeinoieinoa oiaa?a;

oeaiu, ii?aaeaeyaiie ni?inii ia oiaa?.

Ia iniiaa naaanoieiinoe iau/ii ioeaieaaaony ieieiaeueii aiciiaeiay oeaia
oiaa?a (oneoae), eioi?ay niioaaonoaoao iaeiaiueoei ecaea?aeeai.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca oeai eiieo?aioia ii?aaeaeyaony n?aaeiee o?iaaiue oeai

Iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiay oeaia onoaiaaeeaaaony aeey oiaa?ia,
ioee/athueony aunieei ea/anoaii eee oieeaeueiuie aeinoieinoaaie.

Neaaeoao oaeaea ?anniio?aoue iieeoeeo neeaeie e eciaiaiey oeai, a oaeaea
aeeyiea oeaiiaie no?aoaaee a oeaeii ia aaeiaoth i?eaueue.

Anee ?ac?aaioai aeaoaeueiue i?aeneo?aio e ii iiaeao iiii/ue ?aoeaicaioo
?acia?aoueny a nooe, neaaeoao i?eaanoe aai a nie?auaiiii aeaea. Iiaeii
iiianoeoue aai iieiinoueth a i?eeiaeaiee.

?aeeaia, nayce n iauanoaaiiinoueth, i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a. Iiiaea
ia/eiathuea eee iaoiaeyueany ia ?aiiae noaaeee ?acaeoey oe?iu ia
iaeaaeatho cia/eoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie aeey ?aeeaiu, anee aiiaua eo
eiatho. I?aaei?eieiaoaee, iai?eia?, iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoue eiioaeou n
ianoiuie n?aaenoaaie eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua /anoi ieooo i iiaii aeciana a
ie?oaa. Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii iieo/eoue aanieaoioth ?aeeaio.

I?e iaee/ee neoaeau naycae n iauanoaaiiinoueth (public relations) aa
caaea/aie yaeythony:

Nenoaiaoe/aneia nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiiai ioiioaiey e oe?ia oe?ieeo iann
ianaeaiey;

Inouanoaeaiea oi?aiauo i?acaioaoeee;

I?iaaaeaiea einoeoooeeiiaeueiie ?aeeaiu;

Ieacaiea eiinoeueoaoeeiiiuo oneoa.

7. ?acaeae “Ieai i?iecaiaenoaa”.

Yoio ?acaeae aioiaeony oieueei oaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, eioi?ua
aioiayony caiyoueny i?iecaiaenoaii oiaa?ia. I?e iaienaiee neaaeoao
ioaaoeoue ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:

Aaea aoaeoo ecaioaaeeaaoueny oiaa?u — ia aeaenoaothuai eee aiiaue
nicaeaaaaiii i?aaei?eyoee?

Ianeieueei oaea/ii aua?aii ianoi?aniieiaeaiea oe?iu, enoiaey ec aeecinoe
e ?uieo, iinoaaueeai, aeinooiiinoe ?aai/ae neeu, o?ainii?oa e o.ae.?

Eaeea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiuiinoe iio?aaothony e eae iie aoaeoo
aaiaeeoueny aiae io aiaea?

Eaeea iniiaiua n?aaenoaa iio?aaothony aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa?
Eaeiaa aeeiaieea eo eciaiaiey ia ia?niaeoeao? Aeaiioth eioi?iaoeeth
oeaeaniia?acii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea neaaeothuae oaaeeoeu:

Oece/aneia ninoiyiea Nouanoaothuea aiciiaeiinoe Iaaeinoaoee eee
aeiiieieoaeueiua iio?aaiinoe e ia?u ii eo oaeiaeaoai?aieth

Caiey

Caeaiey e nii?oaeaiey

Iai?oaeiaaiea

Eaeea aiciiaeiu cao?oaeiaiey i?e i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa?

Aaea, o eiai e ia eaeeo oneiaeyo caeoiaaony nu?uea?

Noaia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iioieia.

I?aaeoniio?aia ee io?aia ie?oaeathuae c?aaeu?

Eaeiau aoaeoo ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa? Aeeiaieea eo eciaiaiey?

8. ?acaeae “Oeiainiaue ieai”.

Yoio ?acaeae iaiaoiaeeii iinayoeoue ieaie?iaaieth oeiainiaiai
iaania/aiey aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu n oeaeueth iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey eiathueony aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

A yoii ?acaeaea iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aaioaoue niaieoiiinoue neaaeothueo
ieaiiai-io/aoiuo aeieoiaioia:

Iia?aoeaiue ieai (io/ao).

Ieai (io/ao) aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia.

Ieai (io/ao) aeaeaeaiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

Aaeainiaue io/ao (ieai).

Iiaeiaiue ia?a/aiue aeieoiaioia ia nianai i?eau/ai aeey ?inneeneeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, ii ii niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaaieyi ie?iaie i?aeoeee,
eioi?ay iie?aaony ia ianeieueei eioth nenoaio aooo/aoa.

Iia?aoeaiue ieai (io/ao) io?aaeaao ca eaaeaeue ia?eiae ?acoeueoaou
acaeiiaeaenoaey oe?iu e aa oeaeaauo ?uieia ii eaaeaeiio oiaa?o e ?uieo.
Yoio aeieoiaio aeieaeai ?ac?aaaouaaoueny neoaeaie ia?eaoeiaa.

Ieai (io/ao) i aeioiaeao e ?anoiaeao ii i?iecaiaenoao oiaa?ia
iieacuaaao, iieo/eo ee oe?ia i?eaueue io i?iaeaaee eaaeaeiai ec
oiaa?ia. Yoio aeieoiaio ?ac?aaaouaaaony yeiiiie/aneie neoaeaie oe?iu ii
eaaeaeiio ec oiaa?ia.

Ieai (io/ao) i aeaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa iieacuaaao i?ioeann
iinooieaiee e ?anoiaeiaaiey aeaiaa a i?ioeanna aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu. Ii
?ac?aaaouaaaony oeiainiaie neoaeaie oe?iu.

Aaeainiaue io/ao iiaeaiaeeo eoiae yeiiiie/aneie e oeiainiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu ca io/aoiue ia?eiae. Ii iau/ii ?ac?aaaouaaaony
aooaaeoa?eae.

A oeacaiiuo ieaiiai-io/aoiuo aeieoiaioao io?aaeathony ieaie?oaiua e
oaeoe/aneea aaee/eiu iieacaoaeae ca io/aoiue ia?eiae.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ieaiiai-io/aoiuo ia?eiaeia a caaeneiinoe io
eiie?aoiuo oneiaee iiaeao eciaiyoueny a i?aaeaeao: ianyoe, eaa?oae,
iieaiaea, aiae.

?anniio?ei i?eia?iue ninoaa iieacaoaeae e oi?io eo i?aaenoaaeaiey a
iia?aoeaiii ieaia (io/aoa). Yoe iieacaoaee ii?aaeaeythony ii eaaeaeiio
oiaa?o eee oneoaa, /oi iicaieyao n?aaieaaoue eo iaaeaeo niaie ii
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe (ni. oaae.).

Iieacaoaee Ianyoe

(eaa?oae, aiae) e o.ae. Anaai ca ia?eiae

Ieai Oaeo

Ieai Oaeo

?uii/iue iioaioeeae oe?iu a aaeeieoeao aeaiiiai oiaa?a

Oeaia oiaa?a

Iauai i?iaeaae a aaeeieoeao oiaa?a

Aeiey oe?iu a io?aneaaii ?uiea ii aeaiiiio oiaa?o

Eiee/anoai oiaa?ia a aaeeieoeao i?iecaaaeaiiuo oe?iie

Caianu aeaiiiai oiaa?a ia neeaaeao oe?iu ia eiiaoe io/aoiiai ia?eiaea

Yoa niaieoiiinoue iieacaoaeae i?ecaaia aeaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea
?oeiaiaenoao oe?iu i oie aeiea ?uiea, eioi?ay caaiaaaia oe?iie ii
eaaeaeiio oiaa?o e eioi?oth i?aaeiieaaaaony caaiaaaoue a aoaeouai
ia?eiaea.

Aoi?ui aeieoiaioii aue iacaai ieai (io/ao) i aeioiaeao e ?anoiaeao.
No?oeoo?a yoiai io/aoa aeiaieueii i?inoa. A iaai iau/ii aeeth/atho
neaaeothuea iieacaoaee (ni. oaae.):

Iieacaoaee Ianyoe

(eaa?oae, aiae) e o.ae. Anaai ca ia?eiae

Ieai Oaeo

Ieai Oaeo

Au?o/ea io i?iaeaaee aeaiiiai oiaa?a

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n i?iecaiaenoaii e ?aaeecaoeeae
oiaa?ia ii noaoueyi

Iauai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ecaea?aeee ii noaoueyi

Iaeiae e io/eneaiey

*enoay i?eaueue

I?eaueue, inoathuayny a ?anii?yaeaiee oe?iu

Ii aeaiiui yoiai ieaia (io/aoa) iiaeii onoaiiaeoue, i?eiineo ee oe?ia
i?eaueue aeaiiue oiaa?, iiaeii n?aaieoue ?acee/iua oiaa?u ii
i?eaueueiinoe n oai, /oiau i?eiyoue ?aoaiea i oeaeaniia?aciinoe eo
aeaeueiaeoaai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Caeeth/eoaeueiui aeieoiaioii yaeyaony aaeainiaue io/ao. A iai
niaea?aeeony iieiue ia?a/aiue aeoeaia oe?iu e ianneaia. Yoio aeieoiaio
iieacuaaao /enooth noieiinoue e eeeaeaeiinoue oe?iu. E?aaeeoi?u, eae
i?aaeei, cai?aoeaatho aaeainiaue io/ao. Iineaaeiee oaeaea iaiaoiaeei i?e
iiaea/a iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee.

N iiiiuueth i?eaaaeaiiuo ieai-io/aoia ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?iecaanoe aiaeec
aacoauoi/iinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e naiiieoiaaiinoe oe?iu:

Iauai oiaa?a, iaania/eaathuee aacoauoi/iinoue= (Iinoiyiiua ecaea?aeee) /
(I?iaeaaeiay oeaia — (Ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee / Iauai ?aaeeciaaiiuo
oiaa?ia))

Anee ni?in ia aeaiiue oiaa? iaiueoa, /ai iauai oiaa?a, iaania/eaathuee
aacoauoi/iinoue, oi aai i?iecaiaenoai ia aoaeao naiiieoiaaiui.

?anniio?ei iaoiaeeeo aiaeeca oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu ca io/aoiue
ia?eiae n iiiiuueth ioiineoaeueiuo oeiainiauo eiyooeoeeaioia. Yoe
eiyooeoeeaiou iiaeii ?acaeoue ia 3 a?oiiu.

A ia?aoth a?oiio aoiaeyo eiyooeoeeaiou eeeaeaeiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
E1 e E2, aaea

E1=(Iai?ioiua aeoeau) / (Iai?ioiua ianneau)

E2=(Iai?ioiua aeoeau — Oiaa?iua caianu) / (Iai?ioiua ianneau)

Eiyooeoeeaio E1 oa?aeoa?ecoao eeeaeaeiinoue iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, E2 —
auno?ioo eeeaeaeiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Aeey oniaoii ?aaioathueo i?aaei?eyoee:

E1>1,8 e E2>1,0.

Ai aoi?oth a?oiio aoiaeyo eiyooeoeeaio E3, oa?aeoa?ecothuee iai?io
oiaa?iuo caiania, e E4, oa?aeoa?ecothuee yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
aaniethoiuo aeoeaia. Iie ioeaieaathony ii neaaeothuei oi?ioeai:

E3=(Noiia?iua cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?ia) /
(Noieiinoue caiania oiaa?ia)

E4=(Aeioiae io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia) / (Aaniethoiua aeoeau)

Aeey oniaoii ?aaioathueo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee:

K3>2,8 e K4>1,6

E o?aoueae a?oiia iieacaoaeae ioiinyony eiyooeoeeaiou i?eaueueiinoe E5 e
E6, aaea:

E5=[(I?eaueue aei au/aoa iaeiaia) / (Aeioiae io i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia)] o
100%

E6=[(I?eaueue aei au/aoa iaeiaia) / (Aaniethoiua aeoeau)] x 100%

Aeey oniaoii ?aaioathueo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee:

E5>8,2% e E6>14,7%

Aeey iaeuo oe?i (aeoeau io $500000 aei $10 000000) ?aeiiaiaeothony
neaaeothuea cia/aiey yoeo eiyooeoeeaioia:

E1>1,8; E2>0,9; E3>3,2; E4>1,7; E5>6,7%; E6>15%

I?e aiaeeca oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu n iiiiuueth yoeo
eiyooeoeeaioia iiaeii eniieueciaaoue neaaeothuea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee:

Anee cia/aiey anao eiyooeoeeaioia auoa i?eaaaeaiiuo cia/aiee, oi oe?ia
?aaioaao yooaeoeaii;

Anee cia/aiea eaeiai-eeai iieacaoaey ieaea i?eaaaeaiiuo cia/aiee, oi ii
aeieaeai auoue iiae iinoiyiiui eiio?ieai ?oeiaiaenoaa oe?iu;

Anee cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioia E3 e E4 ieaea ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiuo o?iaiae, oi
neaaeoao i?iaiaeece?iaaoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue anao noaoae aeoeaa,
yooaeoeaiinoue ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee;

A neo/aa anee aieueoeinoai eiyooeoeeaioia iaoiaeyony ieaea i?eaaaeaiiuo
o?iaiae iaiaoiaeeii na?ueacii i?iaiaeece?iaaoue anth oeiainiaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue oe?iu.

I?e aiaeeca oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey oe?iu eioa?an oaeaea i?aaenoaaeyao
iieacaoaeue aa?iyoiinoe aaie?ionoaa Z, eioi?ue io?aaeaao oeiainiaoth
onoie/eainoue oe?iu. Ii ioeaieaaaony ii neaaeothuae oi?ioea:

Z=(Iai?ioiua aeoeau / Aaniethoiua aeoeau) +

+ 1,4 x (Ia?ani?aaeaeaiiay i?eaueue / Aaniethoiua aeoeau) + 0,6 x
(?uii/iay noieiinoue iau/iuo e i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuo aeoeee / Aaniethoiua
aeoeau) + + 3,3 x (Aeioiae io iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe / Aaniethoiua
aeoeau) + 1,0 x (Aeioiae io i?iaeaae / Aaniethoiua aeoeau).

A caaeneiinoe io aaee/eiu iieacaoaey Z ii?aaeaeyaony aa?iyoiinoue
aaie?ionoaa oe?iu:

aei 1,8 — i/aiue aunieay;

1,81 — 2,7 — aunieay;

2,71 — 3,0 — aiciiaeiay;

aieaa 3,0 — i/aiue ieceay.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

1.Aecian-ieai. A.I.Ao?ia;A.A.Ii?ioeei;I.E.Iiaeeia. Iineaa, 1995

2.Aecian-ieai.

Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae i?io. ?.A.Iaieeianeiai

Iineaa, “Oeiainu e noaoenoeea”, 1996

3.Iiniaea ii ninoaaeaieth aecian-ieaia.

ERNST&YOUNG

Iineaa, 1995

4. Ni?aai/iee aee?aeoi?a i?aaei?eyoey.

Iineaa, 1995

Caeanue e aeaeaa ii oaenoo iiae neiaii “oe?ia” iiae?acoiaaathony
i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueany i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, oicyenoaaiiie e
eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Aeey aeoeeiia?iiai i?aaei?eyoey iinea auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia.

PAGE

?aoa?ao ii aenoeeieeia “Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”

no?aieoea PAGE 21

?aoa?ao ii aeenoeeieeia “Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”

no?aieoea PAGE 2

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