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Организация франчайзинговой системы в бизнесе

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I?aaiecaoeey o?ai/aeciie nenoaiu a aeciana

O?ai/aeca? – aeaaeaeaoe oi?aiaie ia?ee, oiaa?ia, oneoa. Ii i?iaeaao
i?aaa ia naith nianoaaiiinoue.

O?ai/aece – iieoiaoaeue

O?aioeca – i?aaeiao aeiaiai?a eoiee/i?iaeaaee

O?ai/aeceia – iauaa iacaaiea acaeiiioiioaiee

Aeey iaoae yeiiiieee o?ai/aeceia naaiaeiy yaeyaony ioiineoaeueii iiaui
yaeaieai, a oi a?aiy eae a ?acaeouo no?aiao ii noieaoeyie i?aeoeeiaaeny
eae n?aaenoai iaania/aiey iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa a ?acee/iuo oneoaao.

Ia?aui i?eia?ii o?ai/aeceiaa a NOA iiaeii n/eoaoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiia
i?aaeinoaaeaiea i?aa /anoiiio aeciano a oaeeo noa?ao, eae aeaeaciua
aei?iae e aaiee. Iieo/aiiia io i?aaeoaeuenoaa eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai
aeaaaei noeioe /anoiiio aeciano aeeaaeuaaoue cia/eoaeueiua eaieoaeu a
?acaeoea yoeo i?aaei?eyoee, oioy a aeaiiii neo/aa e nio?aiyeny
ii?aaeaeaiiue ainoaea?noaaiiue eiio?ieue ca ?aaioie aeaeaciuo aei?ia e
aaieia. I?e yoii i?aaeinoaaeyeenue ii?aaeaeaiiua i?eaeeaaee oai, eoi iia
iaania/eoue o?aaoaiua oneoae. Iai?eia?, ia?aaea/a i?aaa ia
caieaiieueciaaiea eeoeo, eioi?ia iaania/eo niaaaeaiea a?iee, eee
ia?aaea/a iieiiii/ee ii?aaeaeaiiiio eeoeo ia nai? iaeiaa io eiaie
i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, /anoiue aecian ia yoii iicaieee ioiineoaeueii auno?i e
ea/anoaaiii ?acaeaaoue i?aaei?eyoey ?aciuo noa? oneoa aac i?eaea/aiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

Aua aieaa eioa?aniua i?eia?u eniieueciaaiey o?ai/aeceiaa /anoiui
aecianii auee a 50–o aiaeao XIX noieaoey, eiaaea a NOA auee
i?aaeinoaaeaiu eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ecaioiaeoaeyi. A yoi a?aiy ?yae
e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iai?eia?, eiiiaiey Ceiaa?, o?ai/aece?otho i?aai ia
i?iaeaaeo naieo ecaeaeee (oaaeiuo iaoei) ii anae oa??eoi?ee NOA. A oi
a?aiy iieoiea oaeiai iai?oaeiaaiey a iaaaceia auea iaiau/iie e
aeiiioicyeee neaioe/anee ioianeenue e iaoaie/aneiio iai?oaeiaaieth. E
oiio aea eo ioaeuey aeieaeiu auee aueiaeeoue aieueooth noiio ca
aaniieacioth a eo iiieiaiee aauue, eiathuoth oieueei iaeii aeinoieinoai
iaeaa/aiea o?oaea eo aeai. Aaeeinoaaiiue niinia i?iaeaaee oaeiai
oiaa?a—yoi aa?anneaiue i?iaeaaaoe, niiniaiue i?eianoe oiaa? i?yii e
iieoiaoaeth e iieacaoue /oaeana, eioi?ua yoa iaoeia iiaeao oai?eoue.
Iineieueeo aeaiaa o eiiiaiee aeey iaeia i?iaeaaoeia ia auei, iieiaeie
Ceiaa? i?eaeoiae nenoaio, eiaaea iacaaeneiua i?iaeaaoeu (aeeea?u) iiaee
eoieoue i?aai ia i?iaeaaeo oaaeiuo iaoei ia ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.
Aeeea?u ieaoeee 60 aeieea?ia ca iaoeio, a i?iaeaaaee ca 125 aeieea?ia. A
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao nioie aeeea?ia noaee aiaaouie ethaeueie.

Iaeia ec ia?auo oniaoiuo o?ai/aeceiaiauo nenoai auea i?eiaiaia eiiiaieae
General Motors. A 1898 aiaeo iieiaeay eiiiaiey, ia eiathuay aeinoaoi/ii
iaee/iiai eaieoaea, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ioe?uoey iaaaceiia, ia/aea
i?iaeaaeo ia?iauo aeaeaaoaeae /a?ac nenoaio aeeea?ia. Yoa nenoaia ii nae
aeaiue inoaaony iniiaiui niiniaii i?iaeaaee aaoiiiaeeae. Iaeieie ec
ia?auo o?ai/aeca?ia ieacaeenue aeaaeaeueoeu iaaaceiia ii i?iaeaaea
aaeineiaaeia e iaaaceiia ii i?iaeaaea i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia.

Ai iiiaeo no?aiao iniaaiii auno?i ia/aea ?acaeaaoueny o?ai/aeceiaiaay
nenoaia nicaeaiey ioaeae e ?anoi?aiia. Yoiio niinianoaiaaei iiyaeaiea a
NOA caeiia i oiaa?iii ciaea. I?aaei?eyoea–i?iecaiaeeoaeue i?iaeoeoeee,
?aaio eee oneoa, eiaaoaa n?aaee eiieo?aioia naie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
iniaaiiinoe, aeinoaoi/ii aunieoth ?aiooaoeeth ea/anoaa ianeoaeeaaiey. ia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo i?eia?aoaei oiaa?iue ciae (oi?aiaoth ia?eo).
Aeaaeaeueoeai oiaa?iiai ciaea iiaee auoue auaeaiu eeoeaicee ae?oaei
oe?iai ia ii?aaeaeaiiue io?acie a?aiaie, a oa/aiea eioi?iai aeaaeaeaoe
eiio?iee?oao ea/anoai oiaa?ia eee oneoa, i?iaeaaaaiuo iiae aai oiaa?iui
ciaeii.

I?iaeaaea ae?oaei i?aaei?eyoeyi i?aaa ie eniieueciaaiea naiaai oiaa?iiai
ciaea iiae ?aciinoi?iiiei eiio?ieai e iiae caueoie caeiia iicaieyea
aeaaeaeueoeo ?anoe?eoue a?aieoeu naiaai aeciana aac aieueoeo
eaieoaeueiuo e oaeoueo cao?ao.

Iinoaiaiii ia yoie iniiaa noaee neeaaeuaaoueny ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeea
aaaeaiey aeae aeaaeaeueoea oiaa?iiai ciaea (o?ai/aeca?a) n
i?aaei?eyoeyie, eioi?ua i?eia?aee eeoeaicee ia eo eniieueciaaiea
(o?ai/aece), o. a. neeaaeuaaeenue ioiioaiey o?ai/aeceiaa.

?acaeoea naoe i?aaei?eyoee, ?aaioathueo ii nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa, eiaei e
naie i?iaeaiu. Aieueoay /anoue eo auea naycaia n oai, /oi iaeioi?ua
o?ai/aeca?u no?aieeenue i?iaeaoue aieueoa eeoeaicee o?ai/aece, /ai
iicaieyee oaaee/eoue iauaiu i?iaeaae oiaa?ia e oneoa ianaeaieth, a
oaeaea aiciiaeiinoe iao/aiey e iiiiue o?ai/aece.

Ioeaee, niaa?oaaiua o?ai/aeca?aie ii ioiioaieth e o?ai/aece,
ia?eiaee/anee i?eaiaeeee e noaeaaiui ?acae?aoaeuenoaai, i?eaeaeay oaeei
ia?acii, aieiaiea aaeieieno?aoeee e i?aaiia ianoiie aeanoe. A
?acoeueoaoa i?eieiaaoeany a 60–a e 70–a aiaeu ii?iu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
eanaeenue i?iaeai o?ai/aeceiaa a eiie?aoiuo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
iai?eia?, a aaoiiiaeeueiie e aaoina?aena.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a i?aeoeea aeciana ai?acaei iaiueoa ceioiio?aaeaiee,
naycaiiuo n o?ai/aeceiaii, e ii yaeyaony iniiaie iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa iaaeyaeiuo e oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?eia?ia ?acaeoey e
noaiiaeaiey o?ai/aeceiaiaie nenoaiu yaeyaony aeayoaeueiinoue anaie?ii
ecaanoiie oe?iu IaeAeiiaeueaen, eioi?ay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae aannii?iue eeaea? a eiaeono?ee auno?iai
ianeoaeeaaiey.

Oniao IaeAeiiaeueaena ii?aaeaeeea, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, oaiaoe/iay aa?a
a eaeath iaania/aiey aunieiai o?iaiy ea/anoaa ianeoaeeaaiey. A oi a?aiy,
eiaaea ae?oaea o?ai/aeca?u i?inoi aeoaee?iaaee iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
naiaai aeciana. eiiiaiey IaeAeiiaeueaen iineaaeiaaoaeueii oeo/oaea
eaaeaeue aniaeo naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eiaaea a eiioea 40–o aiaeia a?aouey ?e/a?ae e Ii?en IaeAeiiaeueaeu,
aeaaeaeueoeu iaaieueoiai i?eaei?iaeiiai eaoa caaeoiaeenue iaae oai, eae
oeo/oeoue ianeoaeeaaiea naieo eeeaioia e, anoanoaaiii, oaaee/eoue
aeioiae, iie iaoee oaea/iue niinia: nie?aoeee /enei iiceoeee a iaith aei
o?ao aethae, noaiaea?oece?iaaee oaoiieiaeth ia iniiaa eiiaaea?iie
nenoaiu e oieoeoee?iaaee ?aoeaioo?o i?aaiecaoeee i?eaioiaeaiey aethae.
Iai?eia?, aaiao?aa?u aaneee ?iaii 1,6 oioeee e niaea?aeaee ia aieaa 19 %
aee?a. Neoaeauea auee iaeaou a iae?aoiaeaiiua aaeua ?oaaoee e auiieiyee
iaeei aeae ?aaiou: iaeie nieiaee aaiao?aa?u ni neiai?iaeee, ae?oaea
iaeaee eo a eeiyuaa ianei e oae aeaeaa. Iiaeiaiay i?aaiecaoeey iiauneea
yooaeoeaiinoue e nieceea cao?aou. Aaeeiiia?acea IaeAeiiaeueaen nicaeaei
iiaia iieieaiea eeeaioa, eioi?ue oi/ii ciae, /oi aaea au ii ie aue,
aacaea o IaeAeiiaeueaena i?ae?aniia e auno?ia ianeoaeeaaiea e i?eau/iue
anni?oeiaio aethae. Aiaeiae/iua i?aaei?eyoey auno?iai ianeoaeeaaiey
noaee iiyaeyoueny a aieueoii eiee/anoaa. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo aecianiaiia
eiaao naith oi?aiaoth ia?eo, eioi?oth iiaeaea?aeeaaao ii anae nicaeaiiie
naoe o?ai/aeceiaa. Iiiaea aecianiaiu, iiiya e i?eiya yoi iai?aaeaiea
aeciana, noaee i?eniaaeeiyoueny e iaio.

Iaeaunoee iiaeuai a ?acaeoee o?ai/aeceiaa i?iaeieaeaeny ia i?ioyaeaiee
iineaaeothueo aeanyoeeaoee aei eiioea 80–o aiaeia. A 1984 aiaeo ii/oe
o?aoue iauaia i?iaeaaee ai anao iaaaceiao NOA (ieiei 500 ie?ae.
aeieea?ia)—auea ?aaeeciaaia /a?ac o?ai/aeceiaiaua oe?iu.

O?ai/aeceia nicaeaao 13 % iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa a aaeiaii
iaoeeiiaeueiii i?iaeoeoa—yoi a o?e ?aca aieueoa, /ai oi?aiaey
aaoiiiaeeyie. Eae ?aaioiaeaoaeue o?ai/aeceia i?aaenoaaeyao nauoa 7
ieeeeiiia ?aai/eo iano. I?e/ai i/aiue iiiai ec ieo aeey
iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, eioi?ua ia eiaee ae?oaie aiciiaeiinoe
iaeoe ?aaioo. Ii aeaiiui ieienoa?noaa oi?aiaee NOA ?aaeecaoeey oiaa?ia e
oneoa eiiiaieyie, ?aaioathueie ii nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa, aic?anoaao ia 10
% aaeaiany/ii a oa/aiea iineaaeieo 12 eao. Yoa oaiaeaioeey aeieaeia
nio?aieoueny e iinea 2000 aiaea, eiaaea iieiaeia anae ?icie/iie oi?aiaee
aoaeao i?eoiaeeoueny ia aeieth o?ai/aeceiaa. O?ai/aeceia aeieacae naith
aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue e aeecianiiniaiinoue e a oneiaeyo
yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea na?aaeeiu 70–o aiaeia. Oai aieaa i?i/iui e
ooaa?aeaeaiiui yaeyaony iieiaeaiea o?ai/aeceiaiauo eiiiaiee n ia/aea
80–o aiaeia, eiaaea a ia?eiae i?aceaeaionoaa ?. ?aeaaia NOA ia?aaeeaaee
iiaeuai yeiiiieee. A aia?eeaineie eeoa?aoo?a i?eaiaeeeenue oaeea
noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua: a yoe aiaeu a NOA eaaeaeua 6,5 ieioou
ioe?uaaeinue o?ai/aeceiaiaia i?aaei?eyoea.

Aia?eeaineee o?ai/aeceia, ia?aoy aieueoie aioo?aiiee iiuo, aeaeioeny ca
a?aieoeo, /oiau ionoeoue ?inoee ia ae?oaeo ?uieao. Iiiaea eiiiaiee
i?iaeaee naie o?aioecu a ae?oaeo no?aiao., a iaeioi?ua ec ieo auno?uie
oaiiaie ?ani?ino?aiytho naith iaaeaeoia?iaeioth naoue.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieaa 35 % aia?eeaineeo oe?i e eo o?ai/aece aeaaeatho
aieaa /ai 32 000 oi?aiauie i?aaei?eyoeyie ae?oaeo no?aiao.

Ao?iia ?acaeoea o?ai/aeceiaa iaaethaeaaony a Eaiaaea, Caiaaeiie Aa?iia,
ainoaea?noaao ainoi/iiai ?aaeiia (auaoee nioeeaeenoe/aneee eaaa?ue),
Aano?aeee, no?aiao ?aaeiia Ea?eaneiai ii?y. O?ai/aeca?u ec ae?oaeo
no?ai, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?eniao?eaathony e ?uieo NOA. Ii–aeaeeiiio,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue o?ai/aeceia a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny aua
aieaa auno?uie oaiiaie. O?ai/aeca?u euoo iioaioeeaeueiuo o?ai/aece a
ca?oaaaeiuo no?aiao, a iiiaea /anoiua eeoea e oe?iu aeoeaii euoo
o?ai/aeca?ia ec ae?oaeo no?ai, /oiau i?eia?anoe eo eeoeaiceth e i?aaa e
i?e eo oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeea, ia eo oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e
ianeoaeeaaiey aeaeaoue naie i?eaueueiue aecian.

Aeaeu o?ai/aeceiaa

Aaaeiui ninoaaiui yeaiaioii oniaoa yaeyaony /aoeia e iieiia ciaiea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeai nouiinoe o?ai/aeceiaa, aai ?aciiaeaeiinoe, no?oeoo?u,
i?aeiouanoa e aiciiaeiuo ?eneia i?e aai eniieueciaaiee.

O?ai/aeceia iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai eae niinia aeinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee eee
oneoa iio?aaeoaeth, niinia ?acaeoey aeciana e caaiaaaiey ?uiea ia iniiaa
eiiia?aoeee iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo n?aaenoa e oneeee ?acee/iuo
i?aaei?eyoee. O?ai/aeceia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny oaeaea e eae
niaeaoaiea, i?e eioi?ii i?iecaiaeeoaeue eee aaeeiiee/iue
?ani?ino?aieoaeue i?iaeoeoa eee oneoae, caueuaiiuo oi?aiaie ia?eie,
aeaao yeneethceaiua i?aaa ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee naiae
i?iaeoeoeee eee oneoa iacaaeneiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi (?icie/iui
oi?aiaoeai) a iaiai ia iieo/aiea io ieo ieaoaaeae (?iyeoe) i?e oneiaee
niaethaeaiey oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e ianeoaeeaathueo iia?aoeee.

Ai o?ai/aeceiaa, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, o/anoaotho aeaa a?oiiu
aecianiaiia. Oio, eoi i?aaeinoaaeyao yoi i?aai (o?aioeco), iacuaaaony
o?ai/aeca?. Iau/ii ii eiaao iiiaieaoiee iiuo a i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai
i?iaeoeoa, ?acaee nenoaio, i?enaiee ae naia eiy eee oiaa?iue ciae e
iaeaaeaao ciaieyie i oii, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e oniaoo, a /oi iao.
O?ai/aece—yoi eeoei, eioi?ia iieoiaao i?aai ia aaaeaiea aeciana
(o?aioeco) iiae eiaiai eee oi?aiaie ia?eie.

Oiaa?iue o?ai/aeceia.

A NOA ia?aua o?ai/aeceiae noaee iiioey?iuie a ia/aea iuiaoiaai aaea eae
niinia i?iaeaaee iaoei e aaiceia. A oio ia?eiae a?aiaie o?ai/aeceiae
auee nicaeaiu ia o?iaia ?ani?aaeaeeoaeae (aeeno?eauethoi?ia). Oaeie
iiaeoiae aeaaae aa?aioeth i?iecaiaeeoaeyi a oii, /oi eo oiaa?u iiiaaeoo
e iieoiaoaeyi oi/ii a oaeii aeaea, a eaeii iie auee nicaeaiu. I?e yoii
eiy e oi?aiaay ia?ea eiiiaiee iieo/aee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea e
i?eiineee ana auaiaeu iio?aaeoaeyi. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaoiiiaeeueiua
eiiiaiee e eiiiaiee, i?iecaiaeyuea aaicei, niaeanii aia?eeaineei caeiiai
ia n/eoathony o?ai/aeca?aie, oiaaea eae iiiaea ae?oaea eiiiaiee oe?iei
iieuecothony o?ai/aeceiaii eae niiniaii ?ani?ino?aiaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey
naieo oiaa?ia. A NOA oaeie niinia aaaeaiey aeciana, i?e eioi?ii
o?ai/aece iieoiatho o aaaeouae eiiiaiee i?aai ia i?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia n aa
oi?aiaie ia?eie, iacuaaaony oiaa?iui o?ai/aeceiaii. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
yoio aeae o?ai/aeceiaa eniieuecoaony ianeieueeeie eiiiaieyie, iai?eia?,
ii i?iecaiaenoao aaoiiie?uoae. Anee aea oiaa?u e oneoae ia eiatho
oi?aiauo ia?ie, iie ia aeeth/athony a yoo eaoaai?eth.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue o?ai/aeceia.

Yoio aeae o?ai/aeceiaa iaeaieaa oe?iei i?aaenoaaeai a i?iecaiaenoaa
aacaeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia. Eaaeaeue ec ianoiuo eee ?aaeiiaeueiuo
?aceeai/iuo e oiaeiai/iuo caaiaeia yaeyaony o?ai/aece io iniiaiie
eiiiaiee. Coca Cola, Pepsi, e ae?oaea i?iaeatho eiioeaio?aou e ae?oaea
i?iaeoeou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ianoiui ?aceeai/iui
eiiiaieyi, eioi?ua caoai niaoeaatho eiioeaio?aou n ae?oaeie ninoaaiuie
i?iaeoeoaie e ?aceeaatho a aooueee eee aaiee aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii
ianoiui aeeea?ai. Naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi oiaa? a Iueth–Ei?ea ia
aeieaeai ioee/aoueny io oiaa?a a Nai–O?aioeenei.

Aeaeiaie o?ai/aeceia

Aeaeiaie o?ai/aeceia yaeyaony iaeaieaa iiioey?iui niiniaii o?ai/aeceiaa.
I?e yoii niiniaa o?ai/aeca? i?iaeaao eeoeaiceth /anoiui eeoeai eee
ae?oaei eiiiaieyi ia i?aai ioe?uoey iaaaceiia, eeineia eee oeaeuo a?oii
iaaaceiia aeey i?iaeaaee iieoiaoaeyi iaai?a i?iaeoeoia e oneoa iiae
eiaiai o?ai/aeca?a.

Iaeiei ec i?eia?ia oaeiai aeaey o?ai/aeceiaa iiaeao neoaeeoue oe?ia
Wendy. Aeaaeae Oiian ia/ae naith ea?uea?o a ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
eiaaea aio eniieieeinue 12 eao. A oa/aiea iineaaeothueo iyoe eao ii
?aaioae a ?acee/iuo ?anoi?aiao a ai?iaea Oi?o Aaei a ooaoa Eiaeeaia. A
15 eao ii a?inee oeieo e a 1950 aiaeo, eiaaea aio eniieieeinue 17 eao,
Aeaaeae caienaeny a a?ieth, aaea ii iieo/ee ia?aciaaiea iiaa?a. A 1953
aiaeo, iinea aeaiiaeeecaoeee, iieiaeie Oiian aa?ioeny aeiiie, a oio aea
?anoi?ai, e anei?a aue iacia/ai iiiiuieeii oi?aaeythuaai. Aecian ia/ae
i?ioeaaoaoue. A 1962 aiaeo eiiiaiey eoieea aua /aou?a ?anoi?aia a
ai?iaea Eieoiaon ooaoa Iaaei. Oiian aue iacia/ai oi?aaeythuei yoeo
?anoi?aiia n oneiaeai, /oi ii niiaeao aueoieoue 40%, anee ii naeaeaao
yoe ?anoi?aiu i?eaueueiuie. Yoi auei ia oae i?inoi. A oio iiiaio yoe
?anoi?aiu auioneaee aieaa nioie iaeiaiiaaiee, /oi nicaeaaaei neiaeiinoue
a iaaeci?a ca ea/anoaii. Aeaaeae ?aoee nie?aoeoue nienie iaeiaiiaaiee e
oneeeoue ianoioth ?aeeaio. Eiaaea ii ia/eiae, iauee iauai i?iaeaaee io
anao /aou?ao ?anoi?aiia ninoaaeye 2500 aeieea?ia a iaaeaeth, a /a?ac
iaaeaeth iinea iiaie no?aoaaee i?iaeaaea oaeaieeanue. A 1968 aiaeo yoe
?anoi?aiu auee i?iaeaiu e Aeaaeae iieo/ee naith aeieth, ninoaaeythuoth
1,7 ieeeeiia aeieea?ia. A aic?anoa 35 eao noaa ieeeeiia?ii, Aeaaeae
Oiian ?aoee caiyoueny aieueoei aecianii e i?iaeaaaoue aaiao?aa?u. Ii
ia/ae n iaiiiaiai: a 1972 aiaeo—aeaayoue ?anoi?aiia n aiaeiaie
i?iaeaaeae a 1,8 ieeeeiia aeieea?ia, a 1975 aiaeo—noi ?anoi?aiia, a
aeaeaa?a 1976—iyouenio. Aecian noae iaae?aoue oaiiu: a 1978—ouny/a, aua
/a?ac aiae—aeaa ouny/e n aaeaaiaeiie i?iaeaaeae, i?aauneaoae ieeeea?ae.

Oniao yoiai iiaiai ei?iey aaiao?aa?ia ia a eioeaoao, a a niiniaa
i?iaeaaee—o?ai/aeceiaa. Eae ooaa?aeaeatho yenia?ou ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, Aia?eea e oae ia?aiieiaia ?anoi?aiaie ii ianoie/eaue
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue anaaaea iaeaeao niinia ?anoe?eoue naie nauo.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu eeanne/aneay iiaeaeue o?ai/aeceiaa (?en. A)
eciaieeanue a iai?aaeaiee iaania/aiey o?ai/aeca?a aeiiieieoaeueiuie
aiciiaeiinoyie auno?iai ?acaeoey n iaeiaiueoeie cao?aoaie. Oioy
nouanoaoao iiiai aa?eaioia eeanne/aneiai o?ai/aeceiaa, o?e ec ieo
iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecothony. Yoi: ?aaeiiaeueiue o?ai/aeceia,
noa–o?ai/aeceia, ?acaeaathueeny o?ai/aeceia aeiiieieoaeueiuie
aiciiaeiinoyie auno?iai ?acaeoey n iaeiaiueoeie cao?aoaie. Oioy
nouanoaoao iiiai aa?eaioia eeanne/aneiai o?ai/aeceiaa, o?e ec ieo
iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecothony. Yoi: ?aaeiiaeueiue o?ai/aeceia;
noa–o?ai/aeceia; ?acaeaathueeny o?ai/aeceia (?en. A, A, A). A eaaeaeii
ec yoeo neo/aaa o?ai/aece iieo/aao ana i?aeiouanoaa, eioi?ua iau/ii
naycaiu n o?ai/aeceiaii: eniieueciaaiea oi?aiaie ia?ee e eiaioeia
o?ai/aeca?a, nenoaiu aai aeciana, ia?aiia/aeueiia iao/aiea, auai? ianoa,
iiaeaea?aeea e o. ae. Iniiaiua ioee/ey eo ae?oa io ae?oaa caeeth/athony
a neaaeothueo oa?aeoa?enoeeao:

i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ioiioaiee o?ai/aeca?a e o?ai/aece,

e eiio o?ai/aece iiaeao ia?auaoueny ca iiaeaea?aeeie,

3) eiio ii ieaoeo onoaiiaeaiiua aciinu.

E?aoei ?anniio?ei eaaeaeue ec yoeo iaoiaeia

Auae?ay ?aaeiiaeueiue o?ai/aeceia, o?ai/aeca? ?aoaao ioaaoeoue naiae
aeayoaeueiinoueth eaeie–oi aaia?aoe/aneee ?aeii, eioi?ui iiaeao auoue
noiee/iay iaeanoue, ooao eee no?aia. Iniciaaay, /oi ii aiciiaeii, ia
iaeaaeaao oaeeie n?aaenoaaie eee eieeaeoeaii, /oiau ?acaeaaoueny oae
auno?i, eae oioaeinue au, ii iie?aaony ia iiaeaea?aeeo aeaaiiai
o?ai/aece. A naith i/a?aaeue, aeaaiue o?ai/aece eiaao i?aai ia oieueei
iiaeae?aoue iiauo o?ai/aece a naiai aaia?aoe/aneii ?aeiia, ii e
iaania/eaaoue eo ia?aiia/aeueiia iao/aiea, e i?i/ea oneoae, /oi iau/ii
aeaeaao nai o?ai/aeca?. Aeaaiue o?ai/aece iaeiaei aeeth/ai a ?acaeaeaiea
ieaoaaeae e ca/anooth aciinia a ?aeeaiiue oiiae. Ii iieuecoaony anaie
aeaaaie, eioi?ua iau/ii aeaao o?ai/aeceia, aeey yoiai ii oiaea ieaoeo
eeoeaiceiiiua aciinu, a oaeaea aciinu ia ?aeeaio iaiin?aaenoaaiii
o?ai/aeca?o. Eiio?aeo iaaeaeo o?ai/aeca?ii e aeaaiui o?ai/aece
onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi iaeeaeaaony io eaaeaeie noi?iiu e eaeie ii?aaeaeaiiue
ia?eiae o?ai/aece aoaeao auiieiyoue yoo niaoeeoe/aneoth ?ieue. A ioaao
ia ia?aiia/aeueioth oieaoo o?ai/aeca?o aciinia ca aeayoaeueiinoue ia
eneeth/eoaeueiie oa??eoi?ee ?uiea aeaaiue o?ai/aece a aoaeouai iieo/aao
io o?ai/aeca?a ?iyeoe, aaee/eia eioi?uo caaeneo io aeiee a iauai iauaia
?aaeecaoeee oao iiauo o?ai/aece, eioi?uo ii aiaeae a yoo
o?ai/aeceiaiaoth nenoaio. A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo iaoiaeia yoio iaoiae
auaiaeai aeey anao noi?ii, oae eae aeaaiue o?ai/aece—auai?iia eeoei, e
ii aeieaeai iieo/aoue iiaeaea?aeeo ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai a?aiaie
nio?oaeie/anoaa, a yoi auaiaeii e o?ai/aeca?o.

A noa–o?ai/aeceiaa noa–o?ai/aeca? oaeaea inaaeaaao eaeoth–oi
ii?aaeaeaiioth oa??eoi?eth e iaania/eaaao ia?aiia/aeueiia iao/aiea,
auai? iiiauaiey e o. ae. ?acieoea oieueei a oii, /oi o?ai/aece ?aaioaao
iai?yioth n noa–o?ai/aeca?ii ia aeieain?i/iie iniiaa e eiaao i/aiue
ia?aie/aiiue eiioaeo n o?ai/aeca?ii. Ii ieaoeo ?iyeoe e ?aeeaiiua aciinu
noa–o?ai/aeca?o, eioi?ue, a naith i/a?aaeue, /anoue yoeo aeaiaa ieaoeo
o?ai/aeca?o. Noa–o?ai/aeca?, oaeei ia?acii, noaiiaeony o?ai/aeca?ii ia
naiae oa??eoi?ee e o?ai/aece caaeneo io aai aeieain?i/iie iiaeaea?aeee.
Oi, /oi noa–o?ai/aeca? iiaeao eiaoue ia ia?aie/aiiua n?aaenoaa,
oi?aaeai/aneea e ia?eaoeiaiaua niiniaiinoe, io?aceony ia o?ai/aece.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iioaioeeaeueiue o?ai/aece aeieaeai i/aiue ouaoaeueii
auae?aoue noa–o?ai/aeceiaiaua ioiioaiey, oae eae ii caaeneo io aeaeiaie
e aeeciaiiie oaaoee eae o?ai/aeca?a, oae e noa–o?ai/aeca?a.

A niaeaoaiee ii ?acaeoeth oa??eoi?ee o?ai/aeca? ia?aaeaao yeneethceaiua
i?aaa ia ?acaeoea eaeiai–oi aaia?aoe/aneiai ?aeiia a?oiia o?ai/aeca?ia.
Eiaanoi?u, a naith i/a?aaeue, eeai ?acaeaatho naie nianoaaiiua
o?ai/aeca?u, eioi?uie iie aeaaeatho ia yoie oa??eoi?ee, eeai iiaeae?atho
o?ai/aece. A iineaaeiai neo/aa iieiaeaiea eiaanoi?a eae nianoaaiieea
ia?aie/aii. A ioaao ia i?aai ?acaeoey yeneethceaiie oa??eoi?ee eeoei,
aeaaeathuaa yoei i?aaii, ieaoeo o?ai/aeca?o aciinu e iaycaii ioe?uoue
ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai oi/ae a iaiai?aiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie.
Aeaaeaeueoeu ioe?uouo o?ai/aece ieaoyo ?iyeoe e ?aeeaiiua aciinu
iaiin?aaenoaaiii o?ai/aeca?o. Eeoei, iaeaaeathuaa yeneethceaiuie
i?aaaie, ia eiaao aeiee a yoeo aciinao, aai aeiey anoue oieueei a
?aioaaaeueiinoe eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo o?ai/aecia, eioi?ua ii ioe?ue.

I?aeiouanoaa o?ai/aeceiaa

Niune e i?eaioaoeey o?ai/aeceiaa ia oniao aeey aai o/anoieeia — oaeoi?u,
eioi?ua ioee/atho aai io ae?oaeo eiioeaioeee aeciana. Eo iiaeii
au?aceoue eeoue iaeiei anaiauaiethuei neiaii: nenoaia, eioi?ay
i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea ?aciiia?aciuo aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneoa e eueaio.
Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie o?aioecu yaeyaony ia i?iaeoeo eee oneoaa naie ii
naaa, a ea/anoai nenoaiu.

O?ai/aeceia ioe?uaaao oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey aecianiaia. Yoa nenoaia
iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue oniaoiue aecian, aeaaea anee ii e iaaaeee, aeaao
aio aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey, ia i?eiiny a aea?oao i?aa
nianoaaiiinoe.

Eniieuecoy o?ai/aeceia, o?ai/aeca? no?aieony iieo/eoue auaiaeu io
oe?ieiai e auno?iai ?anoe?aiey naiaai aeciana, ia i?eaaaay e e?aaeeoai e
ia aa?y ia naay na?ueaciua oeiainiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa. *ai aieueoa ii
niinianoaoao oniaoo o?ai/aeceiaa, oai ia aieueoee aeioiae a aeaea ?iyeoe
ii iiaeao ?ann/eouaaoue. *oiau iaania/eoue oaeie oniao, aaaeii
i?aaeinoaaeoue o?ai/aece noaiaea?oece?iaaiioth nenoaio o/aoa e
auiieiaiey aeaeiauo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea nio?aieoue eiio?ieue iaae
ioi?ieaieai oi?aiaie oi/ee, ianoii ieacaiey oneoa, iai?oaeiaaieai e
iinoaaeaie. O?ai/aeceia iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoaeyi inouanoaeyoue aieueoee
eiio?ieue iaae oneiaeyie ?aaeecaoeee naiae i?iaeoeoeee ii n?aaiaieth n
oai, eioi?ue iie iiaee

au inouanoaeyoue, anee au eniieueciaaee iaeei ec eaiaeia ?aaeecaoeee,
aaea ionoonoaoao oaeay oaniay acaeiinaycue n aaaioaie eee
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie.

O?ai/aeceia aeaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeth aiciiaeiinoue ia/aoue nianoaaiiia
aeaei, iieuecoynue iiuoii, ciaieyie e iiaeaea?aeeie ni noi?iiu oiai, eoi
i?aaeinoaaeyao o?aioeco. Nicaeaaay iiaia i?aaei?eyoea, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue
/anoi ia oaa?ai, /oi aio aoaeao niioonoaiaaoue oniao. N iiiiuueth
o?aioecu i?aaei?eieiaoaeue (aecianiai) iieo/aao niioaaonoaothuoth
iiaeaea?aeeo e i?e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, a e?iia oiai eiaao i?aai
ainiieueciaaoueny eiaiai eiiiaiee (/anoi e oi?aiaie ia?eie),
iaeaaeathuae oi?ioae ?aiooaoeeae ia ?uiea. Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao aeoiaoue,
/oi aeaeaiea eiaoue naia nianoaaiiia aeaei e anooieaiea a ioiioaiey
o?ai/aeceiaa,—yoi i?inoia ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu. Caeanue neaaeoao o/eouaaoue
aiciiaeiua oaeoi?u ?enea, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaathony ieaea.

N naiiai ia/aea o?ai/aeceiaiaiai i?aaei?eyoey aeaeiaua e th?eaee/aneea
aniaeou oanii naycaiu. Iai?eia?, n?aco iinea oiai, eae naeaeaii
i?aaeeiaeaiea i o?ai/aeceiaa, iacaaiea e oi?aiaay ia?ea, eioi?ua aoaeoo
eniieueciaaoueny, aeieaeiu auoue ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu. Yoe aeaenoaey aoaeoo
oieueei ia/aeii iinoiyiiiai aieiaiey ca iacaeiiiui eniieueciaaieai
oi?aiaie ia?ee.

Oae, eiiiaiey Coca–Cola niaea?aeeo iaaieueoie niaoeeaeueiue
aunieiiiea/eaaaiue ooao nio?oaeieeia aeey caueou oi?aiaie ia?ee e
iacaaiey. Caueuay naith oi?aiaoth ia?eo, aeaaeaeaoe caueuaao ?aiooaoeeth
naiaai i?iaeoeoa eee oneoae. Oaeei ia?acii, iieoiaoaeue ciaao, /oi ii
iieo/eo eiaiii oi, /oi oi/ao, a ia caiaieoaeue, e iiyoiio oi?aiaay ia?ea
Coca–Cola noaiiaeony i/aiue aaaeiie /anoueth nenoaiu o?ai/aeceiaa a
eiiiaiee Coca–Cola . Eiaaony i?yiay naycue iaaeaeo aeaenoaeyie ii caueoa
oi?aiaie ia?ee Coca–Cola e oeaiiinoueth eiioeaio?aoa, eioi?ue eiiiaiey
i?iaeaao naiei o?ai/aece. Oi?ioay ?aiooaoeey, caaiaaaiiay i?iaeoeoii, n
oa/aieai a?aiaie i?eia?aoaao cia/eoaeueioth oeaiiinoue. Yoi iaeia ec
oeaiiinoae, eioi?oth i?eia?aoaao o?ai/aece, iieoiay o?ai/aeceia. Yoi
oieueei iaeei i?eia? oaniie nayce iaaeaeo aecianii (noieiinoueth
o?ai/aeceiaa) e th?eaee/aneeie oaeoi?aie (caueoa oi?aiaie ia?ee),
eioi?ua eiathony a eaaeaeie oi?aiaie nenoaia.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo i?aeiouanoa iieoiee o?aioecu yaeyaony oi, /oi
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue ecaaaeoueny io aieiaiie aiee,
naycaiiie n ia/aeii iiaiai aeciana ia ionoii ianoa. O?ai/aeca?, eae
i?aaeei, i?aaenoaaeyao ieai n /aoeeie eino?oeoeeyie ii iiaiaeo
i?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey. I?e yoii aio aeathony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
?aciauaieth i?aaei?eyoey, anee yoe aii?inu ia ii?aaeaeaiu ca?aiaa. I?e
i?aaeinoaaeaiee o?aioec ia ?icie/ioth oi?aiaeth ai iiiaeo neo/ayo, eae,
iai?eia?, yoi aeaeaao eiiiaiey IaeAeiiaeueaen, i?iaiaeyony ia?eaoeiaiaua
enneaaeiaaiey, aeaaiie oeaeueth eioi?uo iieo/aiea oaa?aiiinoe a oii, /oi
iiaia i?aaei?eyoea aeinoeaiao iinoaaeaiiuo ia?aae iei oeaeae. Ioeaiea
eioaineaiinoe ni?ina, iniaaiiinoae ai?iaeneie eio?ano?oeoo?u,
aeaiia?aoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee, a?aoee ?inoa aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe a
?aaeiia, o?iaiy eiieo?aioeee e o. i. yaeyaony aaaeiie ninoaaeythuae i?e
i?eiyoee ?aoaiey i oii, aaea ?acianoeoue i?aaei?eyoea. *anoi o?aioeca
i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiaie, eioi?ia aeaao
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth aeinoaoi/ii auno?ia i?eciaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiii ?uii/iii
i?ino?ainoaa. Yoi, anoanoaaiii, ia aa?aioe?oao oniaoa, ii iaania/eaaao
oneiaey aeey ia/aea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe n
iieiaeeoaeueiie ?aiooaoeeae.

Niaeaoaynue ia eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu o?ai/aeca?a ii iiiaei aii?inai
i?aaiecaoeee aaaeaiey aeciana, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iieo/aao ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?aeiouanoaa, iineieueeo aeaaiaea?y yoiio o iaai iiyaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue ecaea/ue iieueco ec /oaeie iiiaieaoiae i?aeoeee i?ia e
ioeaie, i?eia?anoe aioiaue iiuo a yoeo aaaeiaeoeo noa?ao.

Aieueoia cia/aiea a aaaeaiee e oniaoa aeae eiaao ?aeeaia. I?e iau/iuo
oneiaeyo i?aaiecaoeey oe?ieie ?aeeaiu a i?anna e ia oaeaaeaeaiee ii
eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie o?aioeca i?aaenoaaeyaony aeaeii aeiaieueii
aei?iainoiyuei. Iaeiaei a nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa aiieia aiciiaeii
iauaaeeiaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, e i?e aianaiee aeiee eaaeaeui ec ieo a
niioaaonoaee n iauaiii aeayoaeueiinoe oaeay i?aaiecaoeey a oeaeii a
ninoiyiee i?iaiaeeoue oe?ieoth ?aeeaio a i?anna aeey oi?i/iaiey
?aiooaoeee oe?iu. Aianoa n oai eaaeaeue o?ai/aece iiaeao aiineaaenoaee
iai?aaeoue oneeey ia i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?ia ia naiae oa??eoi?ee a
i?aaeaeao, i/a?/aiiuo niaeaoaieai i o?aioeca.

I?e ainoaea?noaaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iooai
eeoeaice?iaaiey e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey na?ueaciia cia/aiea eiaao
i?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey aecianii. I?e caeeth/aiee o?ai/aeceiaiaiai
niaeaoaiey aeathony niaaou ii oi?aaeaieth, i?aaeinoaaeyaony eioi?iaoeey
i iaeiaao e ae?oaeo aniaeoao aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee. Oae,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth o?ai/aece ia?aaeathony oi?ioi ca?aeiiaiaeiaaaoea
naay oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia oniao e iaania/eaathuea
aai i?ioeaaoaiea.

Eeth/ e oniaoiiio ?acaeoeth o?ai/aeceiaiaie nenoaiu—oi?ioea ioiioaiey
nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo o?ai/aeca?ii e o?ai/aece. O?aioeca, eioi?ay auea
i?iaeaia oieueei n oeaeueth iieo/aiey ieaou, iioa?ieo iaoaea/o.
O?ai/aeca?u, eioi?ua ia inoaayo aeey o?ai/aece iaaeaaeaeu ia iieo/aiea
aeinoaoi/iiai aeioiaea, oaeaea iioa?iyo iaoaea/o. Ai o?ai/aeceiaa iao
ianoa i?ioiaeeioeai e aeoeeeai, e eo ia aeieaeii auoue. E
aeaenoaeoaeueii, aieueoeinoai ecaanoiuo a ie?a o?ai/aeca?ia a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy nicaeatho iaaeaaeiua aecianu aeey naay e naieo o?ai/aece.
I?aaeeueiay ?aai/ay oeeinioey—yoi ia «Neieueei eaieoaea y iiao iieo/eoue
io o?ai/aece aeey ?anoe?aiey iiaai aeciana”, a «Eae iia naeaeaoue
o?ai/aeceia oaeei, /oiau ii i?aaenoaaeye niaie oi?iooth aiciiaeiinoue
aeey aeciana e /oiau aai oioaee iieo/eoue aunieii?ioanneiiaeueiua
iioaioeeaeueiua o?ai/aece”.

O?ai/aeceia iicaieyao aecianiaiai ?acaeaaoueny aieaa auno?i, /ai ethaay
ae?oaay nenoaia, a yoii aai ia?iiiia aeinoieinoai. O?ai/aeceia —
i?iaa?aiiay nenoaia ?acaeoey, e ieeaeay ae?oaay nenoaia ia iiaeao n iae
niia?ie/aoue ii yooaeoeaiinoe.

A oi aea a?aiy o?ai/aeceia iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue yia?aeth, oaeaiou e
aiae–oeee ethaeae, eioi?ua ia auiieiyee au ?aaioo a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
oneiaeyo iaeia, e ?aaioo a /oaeii aeciana.

?enee i?e eiaanoe?iaaiee a i?aaei?eyoey o?ai/aeceiaa

Enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaaaeaiiua aia?eeaineeie o/aiuie a iaeanoe
o?ai/ae–ceiaa, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi i?e ioe?uoee iannu iiauo
eiiiaiee, iieiaeia ec ieo i?ae?auaao nouanoaiaaiea /a?ac 2—3 aiaea, a
oaea /a?ac 5 eao o?iaaiue aaie?ionoa aeinoeaaao 70 %. Yoi ieioie
iieacaoaeue aeey iacaaeneiiai aeciana.

Iieacaoaeueii, /oi o?ai/aeceia—aaniethoiay i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yoie
ia/aeueiie noaoenoeee. Ii aeaiiui ieienoa?noaa oi?aiaee NOA oieueei 4 %
eiiiaiee, ?aaioathueo ii nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa, cae?uaathony eaaeaeue
aiae. A yoe 4% aoiaeyo e oa, /oi i?inoi naa?ioee naith aeayoaeueiinoue,
a oaeaea auee ?ai?aaieciaaiu eee eiaee iiiai ae?oaeo i?e/ei aeey
cae?uoey, ia eiathueo ie/aai iauaai n aaie?ionoaii.

Iauaa enneaaeiaaiea, i?iaaaeaiiia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie o?ai/aeceiaiaie
annioeeaoeeae, iieacaei, /oi n?aaee aa /eaiia eiee/anoai aaie?ionoa
ninoaaeyao iaiaa 1%. Oaeiaa aia?eeaineay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.

Onoaiiaeaiea ioiioaiee e aaaeaiey aeae a oneiaeyo o?ai/aeceiaa

Auaiaeu ec iauaaeeiaiey oneeee a aeciana ecaea/ue iai?inoi. Eiaaea
ethaee nio?oaeie/atho, yoi aeaao ia oieueei iieaciue yooaeo, ii e
nicaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe e ia?aie/aiey, auoaeathuea ec nenoaiu
nio?oaeie/anoaa. Eaaeaeue ia?oia? aeieaeai iiae/eieoue naay iauae oeaee,
iauei i?aaeeai, iauei aeiaiai?aiiinoyi, o. a. naie eioa?anu
niaeaniauaaoue n eioa?anaie e ae?oaie noi?iiu. Aeey ethaeae n oa?aeoa?ii
i?aaei?eieiaoaey oaeia iiae/eiaiea aeaei aanueia aieaciaiiia. Aiieia
iainiiaaiii Oa?ae Iaeeae, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aoniaaathuae aia?eeaineie
ei?ii?aoeee «Iaeeae Yiaeeioi», n/eoaaoa «Anee ethaeyi n
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeeeeie i?enoua eaeay–oi oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa, oi ath
yaeyaony iieoaacoiiia e oaiaoe/iia no?aieaiea eaaeaeiai ec ieo ana
aeaeaoue naiiio, ia aeiioneay, /oiau eoi–eeai niaae iin a aai aeaea,
caaeaaae aii?inu eee oeacuaae, /oi iaaei aeaeaoue». Naiia oyaeaeia
eniuoaiea aeey oaeiai /aeiaaea —oo?aoeoue iieiue eiio?ieue iaae naiei
aecianii. Iiyoiio onoaiiaeoue yooaeoeaiua ioiioaiey ii eiiia?aoeee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa aanueia
iai?inoia aeaei.

Oio, eoi ana–oaee ?aoaaony ia ?aaioo a nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa, aeieaeai
i/aiue ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiaoue ana oainu aoaeoueo ioiioaiee, oi?iu eo
onoaiiaeaiey e inouanoaeaiey, ana aiciiaeiua ecaea?aeee. eioi?ua
iaecaaaeii aoaeoo i?aaeoanoaiaaoue iaeeaeaaiui auaiaeai. Ioaeii oae
iino?ieoue ioiioaiey, /oiau ecaea?aeee naanoe e ieieioio, a auaiaeu—e
iaeneioio. I?e yoii aeaei aeieaeii auoue auaiaeiui iaaei noi?iiai eia/a
iii ia i?iaea?aeeony neieueei–ieaoaeue aeieai.

Eiioeaioeey o?ai/aeceiaa nicaeaao iauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee aeey
aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae aeaoo ia?oia?ia, iineieueeo eaaeaeay noi?iia eiaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa.

N iiceoeee o?ai/aeca?a au aeieaeiu iaeoe ioaao ia oeaeue ?yae aii?inia,
i?aaeaea anaai, ia ia?aue ec ieo: «Iiaeii ee i?eiaieoue o?ai/aeceia a
yoie eaeaa, eiioeaioeee, oiaa?a eee oneoaa?»

Anee aea, oi aeaeaa au aeieaeiu ioaaoeoue naaa: «Aoaeao ee n?aaeiee
iio?aaeoaeue ieaoeoue ca aao oiaa? eee oneoao?»

Eaeia oa?aeoa? eiieo?aioeee eo a ii?aaeaeaiiii aaie ?uii/iii
i?ino?ainoaa?

Oieeaeai ee aao oiaa? eee oneoaa, caiieieo ee ii aeaoeoeeo ia ?uiea?

Eaeiaa i?eaioe?iai/iay naaanoieiinoue oiaa?a eee oneoae?

Na?ueaciiai eco/aiey o?aaoao aii?in: eaeiau cao?aou a?aiaie e noaiaiue
?enea aiaea/aiiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa? Caeanue i/aiue aaaeii ia
i?iaeyaeaoue ?enee iioa?yiiuo eee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aiciiaeiinoae.

A eaeeo i?aaei?eyoeyo au iiaee au cao?aoea noieueei aea nee e a?aiaie,
iieo/eoue aiaeiae/iua eee aeaaea eo/oea ?acoeueoaou? Aaaeii oaeaea
i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa aieinoue ?uiea aeey aaoaai o?ai/aeceiaa. E?iia oiai.
iaiaoiaeeii i?eaeeceoaeueii ciaoue eiee/anoai iioaioeeaeueiuo
eiaanoi?ia, eioi?ua iiaee au noaoue aaoeie o?ai/aece, o/eouaay eo
aeaiaaeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa e oi a?aiy, eioi?ia aeieaeii auoue iio?a/aii,
/oiau aeinoe/ue i?eaueueiinoe o?ai/aeceiaa.

Yoa noaaeey (aiaeeca e ioeaiee) yaeyaony eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeiie, oae
eae iia ninoaaeyao ooiaeaiaio, ia eioi?ii aoaeao iniiaai oniao anae
i?ia?aiiu o?ai/aeceiaa. E anee au, i?i?aaioaa ana ioieou naiae i?ia?aiiu
o?ai/aeceiaa oaa?aiu, /oi o?ai/aeceia aoaeao oniaoiui, e au n/eoaaoa,
/oi aao aecian iaeaeao iieoiaoaeae aaoaai oiaa?a eee oneoae, cia/eo au
ia iooe e oiio, /oiau aeieacaoue naiiio naaa, /oi o aan anoue
eiioeaioeey o?ai/aeceiaa.

Anee aan i?eaeaeea eaeay o?ai/aeceiaa eae iieueciaaoaey o?aioecu, yoai
aiaeeca e ioeaiee iaiaoiaeei e aai aei i?eiyoey ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey.

N?aaee aii?inia, ia eioi?ua aai ioaeii ioaaoeoue, iiaeii auaeaeeoue
neaaeothuea:

ssaeyaony ee i?aaeeaaaaiue aeey o?ai/aeceiaa oiaa? eee oneoaa
niaoeeoe/aneeie, oi anoue iiaeao ee iieoiaoaeue auaeaeeoue eiaiii yoio
oiaa? eee oneoao?

Eaeiaa oeaia oiaa?a e o?iaaiue eiieo?aioeee ia ?uiea?

Eaeea i?aeiouanoaa aeano aai yoa nenoaia (iao/aiea, ?aeeaia, iinoaaee e
ae?.)?

Eae niioiineony ieaoa ca o?aioeco e cao?aou, naycaiiua n anooieaieai a
iiaua ioiioaiey?

Eaeiau ia?niaeoeau aaoaai aeciana a aeaiiii ?aaeiia?

Iieiaeeoaeueiay ioeaiea anao yoeo i?iaeai i?eaeeaeaao aan e niaeaneth
?aaioaoue a nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa. Au oaaaeaeaaoanue, /oi aao aecian
iiaeao i?ioeaaoaoue ia yoie iniiaa.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeue aeieaeai ioeaieoue ianeieueei aa?eaioia o?aioec
(aaaeii ?anniio?aoue aieaa iaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey) n oai, /oiau ?aoeoue,
eaeie ec ieo i?aaeii/oeoaeueiae. Neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue oeaeue ?yae
oaeoi?ia, i?aaeaea /ai i?eieiaoue ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea.

I?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee ii?iaiaaiiie e iaii?iaiaaiiie o?aioecu

Iaii?iaiaaiiay o?aioeca iiaeao auoue iaiaa aei?iainoiyuei aeaeii
eiaanoe?iaaiey, iaeiaei iaiueoea aeiaeaiey iiaoo ia?ae?uaaoueny
cia/eoaeueiinoueth ?enea. Ia eneeth/aii, /oi i?e iaii?iaiaaiiie o?aioeca
aeaaeaeaoe iiaeao aeiionoeoue ?yae ioeaie ii ia?a oiai, eae aecian
aoaeao ?anoe?youeny.. Anoue aa?iyoiinoue, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa yoeo ioeaie
i?aaei?eyoea iioa?ieo e?ao. A oi aea a?aiy iinoiyiiay ?ai?aaiecaoeey
iiaie o?aioecu iiaeao i?eaanoe e ia?acaa?eoa e ieioiio oi?aaeaieth. E
i?aeiouanoaai iiaie iaii?iaiaaiiie o?aioecu ioiineony ia?ac?aaioaiiinoue
aeaiiiai naaiaioa ?uiea, iiiiiieueiia i?aaeeiaeaiea aeaiiie oneoae eee
oiaa?a (aniiiiei i/a?aaee o ia?aiai IaeAeiiaeueaen’a a Iineaa ), eiaiii
yoi yaeyaony aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiie /a?oie aeey ia/aea aeciana a aeaiiii
iai?aaeaiee. E?iia oiai iia nicaeaao na?ueaciua i?aaeiinueee aeey
iieo/aiey aunieeo i?eaueae, anee aecian aoaeao ?anoe auno?uie oaiiaie.
Ii?iaiaaiiua o?aioecu i?aaeiieaaatho iaiueoee ?ene, ii iie o?aaotho
cia/eoaeueiuo oeiainiauo eiaanoeoeee. Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao caauaaoue, /oi
ii?aaeaeaiiay aeiey ?enea i?enoonoaoao e ai iiiaeo onoiyaoeony
o?aioecao.

Oeiainiaay noaaeeueiinoue o?aioecu

I?e iieoiea o?aioecu i?aaei?eieiaoaeth neaaeoao ioeaieoue oeiainiaoth
noaaeeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee eee eeoea, aa i?aaenoaaeythuaai. Nouanoaoao
iiiaeanoai oaeoi?ia, o/ao eioi?uo iicaieeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeth oaaaeeoueny
a aeieain?i/iie noaaeeueiinoe e i?eaueueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee,
i?aaeinoaaeythuae o?aioeco.

Iooai i?yiiai ii?ina aeaaeaeueoea o?aioecu eee eniieuecoy ae?oaea
enoi/ieee, i?aaei?eieiaoaeth aaaeii iieo/eoue ioaaou ia neaaeothuea
aii?inu:

Neieueei i?aaei?eyoee–o?ai/aece iauaaeeiyao aeaiiay i?aaiecaoeey?

Ianeieueei oniaoia aeayoaeueiinoue eaaeaeiai ec o/anoieeia yoie
i?aaiecaoeee?

Ec /aai neeaaeuaaaony aieueoay /anoue i?eauee aieiaiie i?aaiecaoeee: ec
aeioiaeia io i?iaeaaee o?aioec (?aciaua ieaoaaee) eee ec ?iyeoe,
ii?aaeaeyaiuo a i?ioeaioao io i?eaueae o?ai/aece?

Eiaaony ee o o?ai/aeca?a oi?aaeai/aneee iiuo a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
oeiainia e ia?eaoeiaa?

Ee/iua eiioaeou n o?ai/aeca?ii oaeaea iiiiaoo ociaoue i ninoiyiee aeae
i?aaiecaoeee. E?iia oiai. oeaeaniia?acii onoaiiaeoue i?yiua eiioaeou n
iaeioi?uie o?ai/aece aeey oiai, /oiau oaeinoiaa?eoueny, ianeieueei
oniaoia eo aeayoaeueiinoue, e auynieoue i?iaeaiu, n eioi?uie ei
i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny. Anee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia iiaeao nai
ioeaieoue oeiainiaoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue, aio neaaeoao i?eaaaiooue e
oneoaai aooaaeoa?a. eioi?ue iaania/ee au auiieiaiea yoie ?aaiou. Anee
aeinooia e oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee iao, i?aaei?eieiaoaeth iaiaoiaeeii
ia?aoeoueny e aiaoiei enoi/ieeai eioi?iaoeee, oaeei eae o?aioeciay
annioeeaoeey, ae?oaea o?ai/aece, aooaaeoa?u e th?enou, aeaeeioaee,
i?iiuoeaiiua aunoaaee, ?acee/iua eioi?iaoeeiiiua eiiia?/aneea oeaio?u.

Iioaioeeaeueiue ?uiie aeey iiaie o?aioecu

Aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey i/aiue aaaeii i?iaanoe aiaeec ii?aaeaeaiiiai
?uii/iiai i?ino?ainoaa (naaiaioa), ia eioi?ii iiaay o?aioeca iiaeao
i?eia?anoe eeeaioo?o. Iaeaieaa i?inoui niiniaii ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu
yaeyaony ia?auaiea e ea?oa aua?aiiiai ianaeaiiiai ioieoa eee
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?aeiia e ioeaiea ia yoie aaca yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee
eioaineaiinoe o?ainii?oiuo iioieia e aeaiia?aoe/aneeo oaiaeaioeee.

Iai?aaeaiea o?ainii?oiuo iioieia, i?inoioa ioe?uoey iiaiai i?aaei?eyoey,
a oaeaea eioaineaiinoue o?ainii?oiiai aeaeaeaiey, aeeth/ay iaoaoiaeia e
aaoiiiaeee, iiaoo auoue ioeaiaiu iin?aaenoaii iaaethaeaiey.
Aeaiia?aoe/aneay neooaoeey iiaeao auoue auyaeaia ia iniiaa aeaiiuo
iineaaeiae ia?aiene. Aaaeiui oneiaeai yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea
ianoiiieiaeaiey eiieo?aioia aeey oiai, /oiau onoaiiaeoue eo
iioaioeeaeueiia aeeyiea ia o?aioeciue aecian. *?acau/aeii iieaciui
iiaeao ieacaoueny i?iaaaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee a aeaiiii
?uii/iii naaiaioa i?e oneiaee, /oi o o?ai/aeca?a anoue ia oi iaia?aiey e
eiaaony aeinoaoi/iay oeiainiaay aaca. A i?ioeanna ia?eaoeiaiauo
enneaaeiaaiee iiaeao auoue ioeaiaii ioiioaiea e iiaiio i?aaei?eyoeth e
caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a iai, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeai iauai i?iaeaae aeey
o?ai/aeca?a.

Iioaioeeaeueiay i?eaueue iiaie oe?iu

Eae e i?e ethaii aeaeiaii ia/eiaiee, aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue iaeeaeaaioth
i?eaueue. Caeanue neaaeoao i?iaanoe iaiaoiaeeiua ?an/aou ia aaca
niioaaonoaothueo enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo. I?e yoii i?aaei?eieiaoaeth aiiaue
iiaeao iiiaaeiaeoueny iiiiuue aooaaeoa?a aeey iiaeaioiaee iaiaoiaeeiuo
oeiainiauo aeieoiaioia (aaeain aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, ieai ii enoi/ieeai
e eniieueciaaieth n?aaenoa, iainiiaaiea oi/ee aacoauoi/iinoe e ae?.),
iaoiaeeea ?ac?aaioee eioi?uo ?anniao?eaaaony ieaea.

Ia?aoiaey e caeeth/eoaeueiiio yoaio ioeaiee, ioaeii iauaeoeaii ioaaoeoue
ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:

Aeinoaoi/ii ee o aeaaeaeueoea o?ai/aece eieoeeaoeau aeey ?acaeoey
aeaea?

Eaeiau iaia?aiey o?ai/aeca?a i?e oniaoiii ?acaeoee aeciana eee, iaiai?io
i?e iaoaea/iii.

Iauea iiaeoiaeu e onoaiiaeaieth ioiioaiee o?ai/aeceiaa ana aieueoa
o/eouaatho «/aeiaa/aneee oaeoi?».

Iaiaoiaeeii ?acaeaaoue no?oeoo?o o?ai/aeceiaiaie nenoaiu oae, /oiau iia
eiaea oeaiiinoue e aeey o?ai/aece, e aeey iio?aaeoaey. Anee nenoaia
eniieuecoao i?aaeeueioth no?oeoo?o o?ai/aeceiaa, oiaaea iia i?eia?aoaao
oeaeue ?yae i?aeiouanoa aeey o?ai/aece. *oiau ii?aaeaeeoue, eiaao ee
oeaiiinoue eiie?aoiue o?ai/aeceia, ?aeiiaiaeoaony aeaoue ioaao ia
aii?in: «A eaeie iiiaio e i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao a ia?eiae
nouanoaiaaiey o?ai/aeciuo ioiioaiee o?ai/aeca? ia?anoaiao ioaeaeaoueny a
aeaiiie o?aioeca?

Iiaeao ee o?ai/aece ?aaioaoue eo/oa e n aieueoae aeey naay i?eaueueth,
anee ia aoaeao neaaeiaaoue oiio, /oi y aio i?aaeeaaatho naeaeaoue?

Iiaeao ee aeaaeaeaoe o?aioecu nicaeaoue aeinoaoi/ii neeueiue eieaeae
o?ai/aeceiaa iin?aaenoaii ?aeeaiu, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iieoiaoaee iieaeoo
nei?aa e aai o?ai/aece, a ia e eiieo?aioo?

Iaeaaeaao ee ii oi?aiaui nae?aoii, eioi?ue iaania/eo oeaiiinoue
i?iaeaaaaiiai ei o?ai/aeceiaa? (anee eoi–oi oi/ao oi?aiaaoue Eiea–Eieie,
oi nouanoaoao oieueei iaeei enoi/iee aa eiioeaio?aoa).

Eiaaea iinoiyiii eniieuecoaony oaeie iiaeoiae e ?acaeoeth nenoaiu
o?ai/aeceiaa, oi yoi eaeao ia iieueco e o?ai/aeca?o, e o?ai/aece. Aecian
o?ai/aece ?acaeaaaony, ii aeiaieai, i?eaueue o?ai/aeca?a oiaea
oaaee/eaaaony. Ii /oi aua aaaeiaa, oniao o?ai/aece—yoi iaeeo/oee
a?aoiaio, eioi?ue iiaeao e aeieaeai eiaoue o?ai/aeca? aeey oiai, /oiau
oniaoii i?iieeiooue ia ?uiie.

Niaeaoaiea i o?aioeca

Niaeaoaiea i o?aioeca niaea?aeeo ana niaoeeoe/aneea o?aaiaaiey e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth e aeeth/aao aai iaycaoaeuenoaa. Oaeea ioieou
niaeaoaiey, eae eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia oa??eoi?eth, iaania/ao caueoo
i?aa i?aaei?eieiaoaey i?ioea aiciiaeiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey aua eiio–eeai
aiaeiae/iie o?aioecu a i?aaeaeao oa??eoi?ee, ia eioi?ie ii inouanoaeyao
naie aecian. A iieiaeaiee i ii?yaeea aiciaiiaeaiey niaeaoaiey aeieaeiu
auoue oeacaiu n?iee aeiaiai?a e oneiaey aai aiciaiiaeaiey. I?e yoii
oeiainiaua o?aaiaaiey aoaeoo yaeyoueny ii?aaeaeythuei ia/aeii a
onoaiiaeaiee noa?oiaie oeaiu o?aioecu, a?aoeea ieaoaaeae, ?acia?ia
?iyeoe e o. i. A iieiaeaiee i ii?yaeea i?ae?auaiey o?aioeciiai
niaeaoaiey iaiaa?eaathony oaeaea oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo niaeaoaiea
?anoi?aaaony, eee /oi aoaeao iinea ieii/aiey o?aioeciiai aeiaiai?a.

E aeiiieieoaeueiui oneiaey aeey i?eia?aoaiey o?ai/aece iiaeii ioianoe
neaaeothuaa:

iiuiay ?aeeaia;

iauanoaaiiia i?eciaiea;

iao/aiea;

iiiiuue ia ia/aeueiii yoaia;

oeaio?aeeciaaiiua caeoiee;

iiaeaioiaea e, aiciiaeii, auai? ianoi?aniieiaeaiey;

iiiiuue a i?aaiecaoeee o/aoa eee aooaaeoa?neia ianeoaeeaaiea.

Yoio nienie iiaeii i?iaeieaeeoue. Iaeioi?ua ec yoeo ioieoia iiaoo auoue
ianoiyueie i?aeiouanoaaie aeey o?ai/aece, ii /aai o?ai/aece
aeaenoaeoaeueii oi/ao io o?ai/aeceiaa, oae yoi oiai, /oiau eoi-ieaoaeue
iiiiaae aio i?eieiaoue i?aaeeueiua ?aoaiey. Ii oi/ao, /oiau o?ai/aeca?
iao/ee aai (i?eia?ii, aoaeeoi?iuie caiyoeyie, ?aai/eie eino?oeoeeyie eee
anai n?aco), eae i?eieiaoue i?aaeeueiua ?aoaiey.

O?ai/aeceia, eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, iniiaai ia eniieueciaaiee
oi?aiaie ia?ee. Iiyoiio a niaeaoaiea i o?aioeca iaycaoaeueii aeeth/atho
ioieo i caueoa oi?aiaie ia?ee e aeaenoaeyo o?ai/aeca?a a neo/aa
iacaeiiiiai aa eniieueciaaiey. Aeey o?ai/aece oi?aiaay ia?ea aoaeao
ooiaeaiaioii aai o?ai/aeceiaiauo ioiioaiee, ca eioi?oth ii auiea/eaaao
ii?aaeaeaiioth aeiaiai?ii noiio. E?iia oiai ioieou o?aioeciiai
niaeaoaiey aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue o?ai/aeca?o iieo/aiea ni?aaaaeeeaiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey a neo/aa i?iaeaaee o?aioecu. Ana yoe iieiaeaiey eiatho
aaaeiia cia/aiea e o?aaotho th?eaee/aneeo niaaoia. Oioy niaeaoaiea
aeieaeii ioaa/aoue i?eiyoui noaiaea?oai, i?aaei?eieiaoaeth neaaeoao
iiiuoaoueny aeiiieieoaeueii ianoaeeoue ?yae iieiaeaiee, eioi?ua eiatho
i?eioeeieaeueiia cia/aiea i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey ia eiaanoeoeeyo a
i?aaei?eyoea–o?ai/aece.

Iinea oiai, eae no?oeoo?a nenoaiu o?ai/aeceiaa onoaiiaeaia, anoaao
aii?in auai?a naiuo iiaeoiaeyueo o?ai/aece. O?ai/aece aeieaeiu
ioae?aoueny, a ia i?iaeaaaoueny. Iau/ii niaeaoaiea i o?ai/aeceiaa
caeeth/aaony n?ieii ia 10, 20 eee aieaa eao.

Ia anai i?ioyaeaiee acaeiiioiioaiee io ca?iaeaeaiey eaeae o?ai/aeceiaa
aei niaiu o?ai/aece iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii ieaie?iaaoue ana aeaeiaua e
th?eaee/aneea aniaeou aeciana. Yoi ia oieueei nyeiiiieo n?aaenoaa a
aoaeouai, ii e aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue oneeaiiiio ?acaeoeth
o?ai/aeceiaiaie nenoaiu.

Aiciiaeiua iaoaea/e ia ?aiiai yoaia

Iaeii ec iaeaieaa oyaeaeuo yaeaiee, eioi?ia iiaeao i?iecieoe ia ?aiiai
yoaia ?acaeoey nenoaiu, yoi iaoaea/a o?ai/aeceiaa. Aeiiieieoaeueiia
o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee, a?aiy, neeu e aeaiueae, eioi?ua o?aaothony aeey
eni?aaeaiey neooaoeee, oaaee/eaatho ?acia? ?anoiaeia o?ai/aeca?a.
Iaoaea/a ia ?aiiai yoaia io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyao ia ?acaeoea nenoaiu,
ioieiaao aieiaiea e a?aiy ia auyniaiea i?e/ei e iiaeao oiaiueoeoue
yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeaiey. I?iaa?ea niiniaiinoe ?anoe?youe nenoaio ia
aoaeao aeinoaoi/ii na?ueaciie aac iiuoa auyniaiey i?e/eiu ?aiiae
iaoaea/e.

Anee oaeay iaoaea/a eiaao ianoi, oi yoi neaiae, eioi?ue iaeuecy
eaii?e?iaaoue, e, anee ae ia oaeaeeoue aeieaeiiai aieiaiey, oi
aiciiaeiia noaeaaiia ?acae?aoaeuenoai io?eoeaoaeueii io?aceony ia anae
nenoaia. Aeey aieueoeinoaa o?ai/aeca?ia o?oaeii aeaoue oi/iue ioaao ia
yoio aii?in, iniaaiii anee iie oniaoii ?oeiaiaeeee iiae?acaeaeaieai
iaeioi?ia a?aiy. O?ai/aeca?, eioi?ue ?aniieaaaao nenoaiie oi?aaeaiey e
eioi?iaoeee, aeieaeai aue caiaoeoue i?iaeaio caaeaaia?aiaiii, /oiau
iiaeii auei aa eni?aaeoue. Anee nenoaia oi?aaeaiey e eioi?iaoeee ia
?aaioaea aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaii, aa ioaeii eni?aaeoue.

Aiciiaeii i?e/eiie iaoaea/e auei ia ieioia oi?aaeaiea eee eioi?iaoeey, a
aieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiay i?iaeaia. Iiaeao auoue yoi aecian, a eioi?ii
oniao aue aeinoeaioo eneeth/eoaeueii ca n/ao ee/iuo ea/anoa aai
aeaaeaeueoea e, eioi?ua iaeuecy ?ani?ino?aieoue eae nenoaio aeey ana
o?ai/aece. Yoio aii?in neaaeoao iinoaaeoue ia naiie ?aiiae noaaeee
nenoaiu.

Iaeiaei iaoaea/e ia anaaaea yaeythony aeiie nenoaiu. Eiaaea iao/aiea
ia?niiaea caaa?oaii, eiio?aeou iiaeienaiu, o?ai/aece ia/eiaao ?aaioaoue
eae naiinoiyoaeueiue aecianiai. A yoii neo/aa aai niiniaiinoe ii?aaeaeyo
o?iaaiue oniaoa. O?ai/aeca? ia iiaeao aa?aioe?iaaoue oniao o?ai/aece.
Eae neacae iaeei th?eno ii o?ai/aeceiao: «Eaaeaeue o?ai/aece nio?aiyao
ca niaie eiinoeoooeeiiiia i?aai ia iaoaea/o». Aeaaeaeueoeo oe?iu,
iaaeiaiiiio a eneaaeaiee eaeeo–eeai oneiaee, ca/anooth auaaao
aeinoaoi/ii i?aaeuyaeoue iiaeienaiiue aeieoiaio a aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai,
/oi aai ia?oia? aue eioi?ie?iaai i ?anoiaeao e ?enea, i?aaeaea /ai aue
iieiaeeoaeueii ?aoai aii?in i nio?oaeie/anoaa. ?aaoee?iaaiea i?aaeaea
anaai oiaiueoaao eiee/anoai iaiainiiaaiiuo iaaeieoaeueiuo aeoia eae
i?ioea aeaaeaeueoea oe?iu, oae e i?ioea aeaaeaeueoeaa o?ai/aeceiaia. Yoi
aeieacuaaao e oio oaeo /oi n iiiaioa iiaeienaiey niaeaoaiey eiee/anoai
noaeaaiuo ?acae?aoaeuenoa (ii ca?oaaaeiui ioeaieai), eanathueony
o?ai/aeceiaiauo oe?i, ?acei nie?auaaony. Iaeiaei aianoa ni anaie
iieiaeeoaeueiuie iiiaioaie ?aaoee?iaaiey anoue e iaeioi?ua
io?eoeaoaeueiua n oi/ee c?aiey a?aiaie e ?anoiaeia. Aaaeaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei oicyenoaaiiui i?aaii e
iaeiaiaie nenoaiie, niaeaniaaiiuie n iniaaiiinoyie o?ai/aeceiaa
i?aaeoniao?eaaao cia/eoaeueiua aeiiieieoaeueiua iaa?ocee e iaycaiiinoe.
*oiau ecaaaeaoue eceeoiae noaou e o?aou a?aiaie, iaiaoiaeei th?eno,
ciathuee aii?inu o?ai/aeceiaa, eioi?ue niiaeao ono?aieoue iiiaea,
eiiaaea aanueia neiaeiua e aei?iainoiyuea ii naiei iineaaenoaeyi
i?iaeaiu. Ionoonoaea i?aaeeueii ioi?ieaiiuo th?eaee/aneeo aeieoiaioia,
io?aaeathueo iniaaiiinoe aeciana, iiaeao noaoue oi?iicii a ?acaeoee
o?ai/aeceiaiauo oe?i.

Oaeei ia?acii, o?ai/aeceia o?aaoao io iaaeo noi?ii (e io o?ai/aeca?a e
io o?ai/aece) na?ueaciiai ioiioaiey e aeaeo. Eaaeaeue ec ieo i?aaeaea
/ai ia/aoue niaianoiia aeaei, aeieaeai i?iecaanoe aiaeec e ioeaieo anao
oaeoi?ia (oiaa?, ?uiie, oeaiu, ecaea?aeee, eiieo?aiou), acaaneoue naie
aiciiaeiinoe e ?ac?aaioaoue eiioeaioeeth aoiaeaeaiey ai o?ai/aeceia.

O?ai/aeceia o?aaoao /aoeiai th?eaee/aneiai ioi?ieaiey acaeiiuo ioiioaiee
o?ai/aeca?a e o?ai/aece. Iii inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii caeeth/aiey
o?ai/aeceiaiaiai niaeaoaiey. Yoi aaaeiaeoee aeieoiaio, e ia neaaeoao
yeiiiieoue ie a?aiaie, ie aeaiaa ia th?eaee/aneoth e yeiiiie/aneoth
i?i?aaioeo aeaoaeae o?ai/aeceiaiaiai niaeaoaiey. ?oaeaaay yeiiiiey ia
noaaeee iiaeaioiaee niaeaoaiey iiaeao iaa?iooueny iioii ieeeeiiiuie
iioa?yie.

O?ai/aeceia iiaeao noaoue oniaoiui oieueei i?e niaethaeaiee i?eioeeiia
?aaiii?aaiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa e acaeiiie auaiaeiinoe. Ie o?ai/aeca?, ie
o?ai/aece ia aeieaeiu eneaoue aeey naay iaeiinoi?iiieo i?aeiouanoa. Yoi
o?aaiaaiea ia oieueei aeaeiaie yoeee, ii e yeiiiieee. Anyeay iioa?y o
iaeiie ec noi?ii iaecaaaeii i?eaaaeao e iioa?yi e o ae?oaie noi?iiu. Ia
anao noaaeeyo ioiioaiee i?e iiaeaioiaea aeiaiai?a, i?e aai caeeth/aiee e
a i?ioeanna eniieiaiey noi?iiai neaaeoao iie?aoueny ia yeiiiie/aneea
?an/aou, niaethaeaoue o?aaiaaiey caeiia e ii?iu aeaeiaie yoeee.

Niaea?aeaiea aeiaiai?a i o?aioeca

Aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii nenoaiu o?ai/aeceiaa yaeyaony niaeaoaiea i
o?aioeca. Eiaiii iii ii?aaeaeyao aanue oa?aeoa? e oaoiieiaeth
acaeiiioiioaiee o?ai/aeca?a e o?ai/aece, iiyoiio, ?aoay aii?in i
anooieaiee a aecian /a?ac o?ai/aeceia, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaeueii /aoei
i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa eaeoth ?ieue, nua?aao eiie?aoiia niaea?aeaiea yoiai
aeieoiaioa.

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ie a ?innee, ie a ae?oaeo no?aiao ie?a ia auaeaeyao
niaeaoaiea i o?aioeca a ea/anoaa iniaiai aeaea aeiaiai?ia, oaeeo, eae,
iai?eia?, aeiaiai? eoiee–i?iaeaaee, aeiaiai? a?aiaeu, aeiaiai? iiae?yaea
e o. ae. TH?enou iau/ii ?anniao?eaatho yoio aeiaiai? eae aea?eaeioth
oi?io, ni/aoathuoth a naaa yeaiaiou eeoeaiceiiiiai niaeaoaiey e
aeeno?eauethoa?neiai aeiaiai?a.

Ianiiiaiii, a iai anoue e oi, e ae?oaia. A oi aea a?aiy niaea?aeaiea
niaeaoaiey, eae i?aaeei, nouanoaaiii oe?a, iineieueeo ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
o?ai/aeca?ii e o?ai/aece iaiiiai ?aciiia?aciaa. Iiyoiio aieaa oi/ii
nooue yoiai aeiaiai?a au?aaeaaony a iiiyoee «aeiaiai? i
nio?oaeie/anoaa”.

Niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio a ?innee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ethaie aeiaiai?
aeieaeai eiaoue iaycaoaeueiua oneiaey:

i?aaeiao aeiaiai?a;

oeaia,

n?iee eniieiaiey.

Ia?yaeo n yoeie iaycaoaeuenoaaie aeey anyeiai aeiaiai?a oneiaeyie a
niaeaoaiee i o?ai/aeceiaa i?aaeoniao?eaaaony oeaeue ?yae
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneiaee, onoaiaaeeaathueo e eiie?aoece?othueo oi?iu
nio?oaeie/anoaa o?ai/aeca?a e o?ai/aece.

Aeeth/aiea eee iaaeeth/aiea a aeiaiai? yoeo aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneiaee e
eo eiie?aoiia niaea?aeaiea n th?eaee/aneie oi/ee c?aiey oeaeeeii caaeneo
io aiee noi?ii, oi anoue iioaioeeaeueiuo o?ai/aeca?a e o?ai/aece. Nai
i?aaeiao aeiaiai?a o?aaoao, /oiau oeaeue ?yae aniaeoia ia ieacaeny
oiouaiiui, a iieo/ee a iai oi eee eiia io?aaeaiea. Iiyoiio, i?enooiay e
ninoaaeaieth niaeaoaiey, noi?iiu aeieaeiu /aoei oynieoue naaa, i /ai iie
oioyo aeiaiai?eoueny e /oi aoaeao yaeyoueny i?aaeiaoii eo aeiaiai?a.
Yoei aoaeoo i?aaeii?aaeaeaiu ana inoaeueiua iieiaeaiey, eioi?ua aoaeoo
aeeth/aiu caoai a ieii/aoaeueiue oaeno niaeaoaiey.

*oi aea yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii niaeaoaiey i o?aioeca?

Ai anao neo/ayo ei yaeyaony i?aai ia eniieueciaaiea eiaie, ?aaoeyoeee e
niiniaia aaaeaiey aeciana, eiathueony o o?ai/aeca?a e ca?aeiiaiaeiaaaoeo
naay ia ?uiea.

Yoi iiaeao auoue i?aai ia ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioia n eniieueciaaieai
?aeeaiu e oi?aiaie ia?ee oe?iu–o?ai/aeca?a (eae, iai?eia?, a nenoaia
eaoa IaeAeiiaeueaen eee a nenoaia oe?iaiiuo iaaaceiia ADIDAS Sport. Yoi
iiaeao auoue i?aai ia i?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea (eae,
iai?eia?, a aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe NOA, aaea aeeea?u /anoi
aunooiatho a ?iee o?ai/aece). Yoi, iaeiiaoe, iiaeao auoue i?aai ia
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia iniaie eiino?oeoeee e/eee oaoiieiaee,
?ac?aaioaiiuie oe?iie–o?ai/aeca?ii.

Eaeeie au ie auee ?acee/iua noa?u aeciana, aaaeouaainy ia oneiaeyo
o?ai/aeceiaa, i?aaeiaoii niaeaoaiey anaaaea yaeyaony ia?aaea/a i?aa e
aiciiaeiinoae yooaeoeaiiai aaaeaiey aeciana, eioi?uie ?aniieaaaao
o?ai/aeca? e eioi?ua ionoonoaotho o o?ai/aece.

Iiaeao aicieeiooue aii?in: ii/aio aea o?ai/aece ia caeinoaotho yoe
aiciiaeiinoe (oaoiieiaeth, ?aeeaiiua auaanee, iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeee e
oi?aaeaiey), i?inoi eco/ea eo iaoiaeii iaaethaeaiey e ia i?eaaaay e
caeeth/aieth aeiaiai?a? Ii/aio nioie ouny/ i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
niaeaoathony ieaoeoue ca i?aai iieueciaaiey nenoaiie o?ai/aeca?a aeaaea
a oao ia?aaeeeo neo/ayo, eiaaea iie ciatho aa ai anao aeaoaeyo?

Ioaao ia yoe aii?inu aeaao iiiyoea ,,i?iiuoeaiiay nianoaaiiinoue”. Iii
ioaaouaaao oe?ieee e?oa iauaeoia: ecia?aoaiey, oiaa?iua ciaee e ciaee
ianeoaeeaaiey, i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu, iiuoiua iiaeaee, oe?iaiiua
iaeiaiiaaiey e oeacaiey i?ienoiaeaeaiey eee iaeiaiiaaiey ianoa
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia. Eiaiii iioiio, /oi iie caueuaiu e a neo/aa
iai?aaiia?iiai caeinoaiaaiey i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia yoe iauaeou aai
iiaeii caueoeoue a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea, iioaioeeaeueiua o?ai/aece
auioaeaeaiu caeeth/aoue aeiaiai? e iieo/aoue i?aaa iieueciaaiey
niioaaonoaothueie iauaeoaie i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe ca ieaoo.

Oaeei ia?acii, caeeth/ay aeiaiai? i o?aioeca, ioaeii i?aaeaea anaai
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeie eiaiii iauaeo i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe aoaeao
ia?aaeai io o?ai/aeca?a e o?ai/aece e aeaenoaeoaeueii ee ii caueuai io
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey e iiaeao auoue i?aaeiaoii
i?iaeaaee.

Yoi ia i?inoie aii?in, e caeanue, eae i?aaeei, o?aaoaony eiinoeueoaoeey
th?enoa. Aaaeue eaaeaeue iauaeo i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe eiaao naia
niaoeeoe/aneia i?aaiaia cia/aiea e naie niiniau caueou. Oae iai?eia?,
i/aiue iaaeaaeii caueuaiu i?aaa ia ecia?aoaiey, i?iiuoeaiiua iiaeaee,
i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu. A Iaoaioiii caeiia ?O io 23 naioya?y 1992 a.
aeaoaeueii ii?aaeaeaiu e?eoa?ee io?aiiniiniaiinoe ecia?aoaiee iieaciuo
iiaeaeae i?iiuoeaiiuo ia?acoeia, niiniau e i?ioeaaeo?u i?eciaiey eo
io?aiiniiniaiinoe Iaoaioiui aaaeiinoaii ?innee, i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
aaoi?ia e iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeae e aaoi?ia. Oi aea iiaeii neacaoue e i
caueoa i?aa ia oiaa?iua ciaee, iineieueeo caeii i oiaa?iuo ciaeao io 23
naioya?y 1992 a. niaea?aeeo iiae?iaioth ?aaeaiaioaoeeth ioiioaiee,
aicieeathueo a nayce n ?aaeno?aoeeae, i?aaiaie io?aiie e eniieueciaaieai
oiaa?iuo ciaeia, ciaeia ianeoaeeaaiey e iaeiaiiaaiey iano
i?ienoiaeaeaiey oiaa?ia. Iai?ioea, iauaeou i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe a
aeaea nae?aoia i?iecaiaenoaa (oae iacuaaaiua «iio–oao») caueuaiu aanueia
neaai. Iiaeaeoe, aaeeinoaaiiui niaoeeaeueiui ii?iaoeaiui aeoii ii yoiio
aii?ino yaeyaony iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?NON? io 5 aeaeaa?y 1991
a. ? 35 «I ia?a/ia naaaeaiee, eioi?ua ia iiaoo ninoaaeyoue eiiia?/aneoth
oaeio».

I?aaaea, nouanoaotho i?eia?iua oi?iu aeiaiai?ia ia iieoieo–i?iaeaaeo
iaoaioiuo eeoeaicee, aaniaoaioiuo eeoeaicee, eioi?uie iiaeii
ainiieueciaaoueny eae i?ioioeiaie i?e ninoaaeaiee o?aioeciiai
niaeaoaiey, ii eioa?anu eaaeaeie ec noi?ii aoaeoo aieaa iaaeaaeii
caueuaiu, anee a iiaeaioiaea niaeaoaiey aoaeao eniieueciaaia iiiiuue
iiuoiiai th?enoa. Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea ia oaeie aniaeo
i?aaeiaoa niaeaoaiey, eae eneeth/eoaeueiinoue ia?aaeaaaaiuo
o?aioeciiieueciaaoaeth i?aa. A niaeaoaiee aeieaeii auoue /aoei
ii?aaeaeaii, aoaeoo ee ia?aaeaaaaiua o?ai/aeca?ii i?aaa
eneeth/eoaeueiuie e, anee yoi i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, oi a a?aieoeao eaeie
oa??eoi?ee. Caeanue iiaoo auoue ?acee/iua aa?eaiou. Anee iaeiia?aiaiii n
ia?aaea/ae i?aaa ia oiaa?iue ciae i?aaeoniao?eaaaony iinoaaea oiaa?ia
aeey eo iineaaeothuae ?aaeecaoeee, oi a niaeaoaiee iiaoo auoue
ii?aaeaeaiu oi?aiaua eaiou. Iiaeao auoue oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeaia
aiciiaeiinoue ia oieueei iieueciaaoueny ia?aaeaaaaiuie eneeth/eoaeueiuie
i?aaaie, ii e i?iaeaaaoue eo, a naith i/a?aaeue, ae?oaei eeoeai. A yoii
neo/aa aoaeoo eiaoue ianoi ioiioaiey noao?ai/aeceiaa. Yoi cia/eo, /oi
o?ai/aece, eoieaoee eeoeaiceth, aoaeao aunooiaoue ii ioiioaieth e oai
eeoeai, eioi?ui ii ia?ai?iaeaao eeoeaiceth, a ea/anoaa o?ai/aeca?a.

Niaoeeoeea i?aaeiaoa aeiaiai?a a ioiioaieyo o?ai/aeceiaa iaoneaaeeaaao
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aaea/e o?ai/aece ia oieueei naiiai i?aaa a aeaea
eeoeaicee, ii e i?aeoe/aneie aiciiaeiinoe iieueciaaoueny ei. A
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeiu ia?aaea/a oaoie/aneie
aeieoiaioaoeee, ?aai/eo eino?oeoeee, iinoaaea iai?oaeiaaiey e
iaoa?eaeia, iao/aiea o?ai/aece iaoiaeai ?aaiou, iineaaeothuaa ieacaiea
eiinoeueoaoeaiie iiiiue. Ana yoe aii?inu aeieaeiu auoue io?aaeaiu a
aeiaiai?a. Anee i?ia?aiia i?aeoe/aneie iiiiue o?ai/aece yaeyaony
aeinoaoi/ii iauaiiie, iia iiaeao auoue auianaia ec iniiaiiai oaenoa
aeiaiai?a a i?eeiaeaiea (eioi?ia, ?acoiaaony, aeieaeii auoue
iaiouaieaiie ninoaaiie /anoueth aeiaiai?a).

Naiinoiyoaeueiue aeie oneiaee niaeaoaiey i o?aioeca—iaycaoaeuenoaa,
eioi?ua aa?ao ia naay o?ai/aece. Iie oaeaea a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
ii?aaeaeythony i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a. Iniiaiia ec ieo—ieaoa ca
iieueciaaiea eeoeaiceae. Caeanue aea ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi niiniau
onoaiiaeaiey ieaou iiaoo auoue aanueia ?acee/iuie. Iau/ii iie aeeth/atho
a naay aaeeiia?aiaiiue anooieoaeueiue ACIIN, ieaoo ca eeoeaiceth e
ia?eiaee/aneea iineaaeothuea ieaoaaee a aeaea io/eneaiee io i?eauee
(?iyeoe). Iiaoo auoue onoaiiaeaiu e aeiiieieoaeueiua aeaeu iieaou, a
/anoiinoe ca oneoae ii iao/aieth, aciinu ia ?aeeaio. Ii ia eneeth/aii,
/oi oe?ia–o?ai/aeca? ia?aie/eo ieaoaaee ni noi?iiu o?ai/aece ii
iaeioi?ui aeaeai niaeaoaiee ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey oieueei
aaeeiia?aiaiiie iieaou iinoaaeyaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e iaoa?eaeia.

Ec niaoeeoeee i?aaeiaoa niaeaoaiey i o?aioeca neaaeoao oaeaea
i?aaeoniao?eaaoue n?aaee i?i/eo oneiaee iaycaiiinoe o?ai/aece ii
nio?aiaieth ?aiooaoeee (aeia?iai eiaie) o?ai/aeceiaiaie nenoaiu a
oeaeii. Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao no?iaia niaethaeaiea noaiaea?oia,
onoaiiaeaiiuo o?ai/aeca?ii, eino?oeoeee ii i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaieth
i?aaei?eyoeai, iaiai?aiiie iieeoeee oeai, o/anoea a ia?eaoeiaa e
?aeeaia, a niaa?oainoaiaaiee iaoiaeia ?aaiou.

Eae i?aaeei, i?aaeoniao?eaaaony e oeiainiaue eiio?ieue ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth o?ai/aece ni noi?iiu o?ai/aeca?a, a oaeaea ?yae
noaiaea?oiuo oneiaee, iau/ii aeeth/aaiuo a oicyenoaaiiua aeiaiai?u anao
aeaeia: i n?ieao aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a, ioaaonoaaiiinoe noi?ii,
i?aaii?aainoaa, niiniaao ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia.

Iaeia ec neiaeiaeoeo caaea/ o?ai/aeca?a i?e ninoaaeaiee ei noaiaea?oiiai
niaeaoaiey i o?aioeca e eniieiaiee iaiai?aiiuo a iai iaycaoaeuenoa—yoi
iiaeaea?aeaiea ei??aeoiiai o?iaiy eiio?iey iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth
o?ai/aece oae /oiau eiio?ieue yoio ia aue /?acia?iui. O?ai/aeca?o iau/ii
iiaeathony o?aaiaaiey ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey–o?ai/aece i eiiiainaoeee
eee aeaeiau i iaianaiiii oua?aa io o?aoueaai eeoea, eioi?ia iiianei
oauoie ai o?ai/aece?iaaiiii i?aaei?eyoee. Eeoea, iiaeathuea aeaeiau,
ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi o?ai/aeca? aeieaeai ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aeayoaeueiinoue e iieioiinoe naieo o?ai/aece. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo
iniiaaieai aeey iaaycuaaiey iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ioaaonoaaiiinoe yaeyaony
i?aai eiio?iey o?ai/aeca?a iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth o?ai/aece.

A i?aeoeea aia?eeaineiai o?ai/aeceiaa oaeie ?iae ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?eiyoi
iacuaaoue noanoeoooeaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth. AEaeiau, naycaiiua n
noanoeoooeaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, /anoi iniiauaathony ia aaaioneii
i?aaa. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, enoaoe iiaeaao aeaeiao, eiay a aeaeo, /oi
o?ai/aece yaeyaony «aaaioii” o?ai/aeca?a. Ii yoiio caeiio noi?iia,
i?aaenoaaeyaiay «aaaioii”, iacuaaaony «i?eioeeiae”. Iniiaiia iieiaeaiea
aaaioneiai i?aaa caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?eioeeiae ianao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca aeayoaeueiinoue e oiouaiey naieo aaaioia. Oaeei aea
ia?acii, anee o?ai/aece oaeoe/anee yaeyaony aaaioii naiath o?ai/aeca?a,
oi oio iaycai ianoe ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ioeaee e oiouaiey o?ai/aece.
Aaaioneea ioiioaiey oa?aeoa?ecothony o?aiy yeaiaioaie:

aaaio yaeyaony noauaeoii, ia eioi?iai ?ani?ino?aiyaony i?aai eiio?iey
i?eioeeiaea;

aaaio iaycai aeaenoaiaaoue n auaiaeie aeey i?eioeeiaea,

aaaio oiieiiii/ai eciaiyoue ioeoeeaeueiua ioiioaiey i?eioeeiaea.

Iau/ii 101 oaeo, yaeyaony ee o?ai/aece aaaioii o?ai/aeca?a eee iao,
ii?aaeaeyaony oai, eiaao ee o?ai/aeca? i?aai eiio?iee?iaaoue eee ii oaea
oaeoe/anee eiio?iee?oao aeayoaeueiinoue o?ai/aece.

Eae i?aaeei, oai, aaea o?aioeciia niaeaoaiea aeaao o?ai/aeca?o i?aai ia
iieiue eee /anoe/iue eiio?ieue iaae o?ai/aece, nouanoaotho aaaioneea
ioiioaiey e o?ai/aeca? iiaeao oi?aaeyoue «iaia?aieyie e aeaeaie» a
aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee. O?ai/aeca? eiaao th?eaee/aneee e
aauanoaaiiue eioa?an a caueoa «?aiooaoeee naiae nenoaiu», e yoio eioa?an
iicaieyao o?ai/aeca?o inouanoaeyoue ii?aaeaeaiiue eiio?ieue iaae
i?aaei?eyoeai o?ai/aece.

E?iia aeaeia, eanathueony aeaenoaeoaeueiiai aaaionoaa, o?aouey noi?iia
iiaeao i?aneaaeiaaoue o?ai/aeca?a a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea, eiay a aeaeo oi,
/oi o?ai/aece yaeyaony «eaaeoueiny» aaaioii o?ai/aeca?a.

I?aai aeaenoaiaaoue eae aaaio, ia yaeyynue ei oaeoe/anee, aicieeaao oai,
aaea i?eioeeiae neiaaie eeai aeaenoaeyie i?iecaiaeeo aia/aoeaiea, /oi
aaaio oiieiiii/ai aeaenoaiaaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo aii?inao. Oaeaea yoi
eaaeouaany iaeaaeaiea i?aaaie iiaeao auoue ioianaii e neiaai e aeaeai
eaaeouaainy i?eioeeiaea.

Oioy o?ai/aeca?u iau/ii oniaoii i?aiaeieaaatho aeaea i noanoeoooeaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, iniiaaiiua ia oai?ee ia aaaionoaa, caeanue iiaoo auoue
neo/ae, eiaaea o?ai/aeca? i?eciaaony ioaaonoaaiiui ca aeaenoaey,
i?iecaaaeaiiua ai o?ai/aece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, anee yoe aeaenoaey
i?iecaiaeeeenue n aaaeiia o?ai/aeca?a. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue iiaeao
aicieeiooue ec iaiaaeoiaiii aeia?iaieueiiai acyoey ia naay
ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

O?ai/aeca? aeieaeai auoue i/aiue i?aaeoniio?eoaeueiui ia oieueei i?e
ninoaaeaiee naiaai niaeaoaiey i o?aioeca, ii e i?e i?iaaaeaiee
o?ai/aeceiaiaie i?ia?aiiu. O?ai/aeca?u a aieueoie ia?a caeioa?aniaaiu a
oii, /oiau eo o?ai/aece i?eaea?aeeaaeenue nenoaiu ?aaiou, i?eiyoie ai
o?ai/aeceiaa, e niinianoaiaaee iiaeaea?aeaieth aeia?ie neaau oi?aiaie
ia?ee o?ai/aeca?a. Eae au oi ie auei, /?acia?iue eiio?ieue iiaeao noaoue
i?e/eiie ?inoa ioaaonoaaiiinoe o?ai/aeca?a ca aeaenoaey eee
iaa?aaeiinoue o?ai/aece. Oaeei ia?acii, o?ai/aece aeieaeai i?eeaaaoue
oneeey ii nicaeaieth e nio?aiaieth oaeiai o?iaiy eiio?iey, eioi?ue
iicaieeo aio caueoeoue naith o?ai/aeceiaiaoth nenoaio e oi?aiaoth ia?eo
e a oi aea a?aiy ia i?aa?aoeo aai a aaeaaeiaaiia iiaeoinoai, eioi?ia
i?eaaaeao o?ai/aeca?a e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aeaenoaey e iaa?aaeiinoue
naieo o?ai/aece. E?iia oiai, o?ai/aeca?u, eioi?ua aa?oo ia naay
niaoeeaeueiua iaycaoaeuenoaa (oeia ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia? aaciianiinoe),
aeieaeiu auiieiyoue eo oae /oiau nouanoaiaaea oaa?aiiinoue, /oi naeaeaii
ana aiciiaeiia aeey iaania/aiey yoeo ia?.

N oeaeueth iaaeiiouaiey neooaoeee, a eioi?ie o?aouey noi?iia n/eoaao
o?ai/aece aaaioii o?ai/aeca?a eee naiei o?ai/aeca?ii, o?ai/aeca?
aeieaeai i?aaei?eiyoue oaae aeey ?acuyniaiey, /oi o?ai/aece e
o?ai/aece?iaaiiue aecian iacaaeniu ae?oa io ae?oaa. O?ai/aeca? iiaeao
iio?aaiaaoue, /oiau o?ai/aece iinoaaee naith iiaeienue a aeaeiauo
aoiaaao, iiaeoaa?aeaeay, /oi ii aeaaeaao naiei aecianii e aeaenoaoao
iacaaeneii. E?iia oiai, o?ai/aeca? aeieaeai nicaeaoue ioaeaeueiua
onoaau: iaeei—aeey iiae?acaeaeaiee, iaoiaeyueony ai aeaaeaiee eiiiaiee,
e ae?oaie —aeey o?ai/aece?iaaiiiai aeciana. E?iia oiai, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
aicieeiiaaiey ioiioaiee «eaaeouaainy aaaionoaa», o?ai/aeca? aeieaeai
aeeth/eoue a naia niaeaoaiea i o?ai/aeceiaa iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
o?ai/aece iacaaeneii ?aaioaao a niioaaonoaee n eiio?aeoii e ia yaeyaony
aaaioii. Aieaa oiai, ai o?ai/aeceiaiaia niaeaoaiea iiaoo auoue aeeth/aiu
aniaeou, ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eioi?ua ianao eneeth/eoaeueii o?ai/aece.
Iai?eia?, o?ai/aece aeieaeai ioaa/aoue ca niioaaonoaea naiae ?aaiou
aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, oeacai e iinoaiiaeaieyi.

Anee o?ai/aeca? i?aaeeaaaao iieiia ?oeiaiaenoai ii aaciianiinoe, oi yoi
?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii ninoiyoue ec ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, a ia ec o?aaiaaiee.
O?ai/aeca? aeieaeai ?acuynieoue, /oi o?ai/aece ioaaonoaaiai ca
aaciianiinoue ia naiai i?aaei?eyoee. O?ai/aeca? ia aeieaeai i?aaeeaaaoue
naiaai o/anoey a yoeo ia?ii?eyoeyo, ii aiiaua aeieaeai eneeth/eoue ia?u
i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe ec naieo ia?eiaee/aneeo einiaeoeee ii eiio?ieth
ea/anoaa e aeaaea ia aeieaeai eiiiaioe?iaai i?eiyoea eee iai?eiyoea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ia?. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, anee o?ai/aeca? oi/ao onoaiiaeoue
aeeeoao e ieacuaaoue aeaaeaiea a niaethaeaiee ia? aaciianiinoe, oi
aeaenoaiaaoue a aeaiiii neo/aa o?ai/aeca? aeieaeai aieaa iaii?enoi e ii
neaaeiaaoaeueii.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi eiie?aoiia niaea?aeaiea o?ai/aeceiaiaiai
aeiaiai?a iiaeao aeiaieueii nouanoaaiii ?acee/aoueny a caaeneiinoe io
aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe, yaeythuaainy i?aaeiaoii niaeaoaiey. N yoie oi/ee
c?aiey iau/ii ?acee/atho aeaa aeaea o?ai/aeceiaa: oiaa?iue o?ai/aeceia e
aeaeiaie o?ai/aeceia.

Oiaa?iue o?ai/aeceia eniieuecoaony a noa?a oi?aiaee. Ii iiaeao
i?eiaiyoueny e a ioiioaiee oiaa?ia, ecaioiaeoaeai eioi?uo yaeyaony nai
o?ai/aeca?, e e oiaa?ai, ecaioiaeaiiui ae?oaeie oe?iaie e i?iaeaaaaiui
iiae oi?aiaie ia?eie o?ai/aeca?a. Aeaaiia, /oi ioee/aao oiaa?iue
o?ai/aeceia io iau/iie iioiaie oi?aiaee, i?eaycaiiinoue o?ai/aece e
oiaa?iiio ciaeo e oi?aiaie ia?ea o?ai/aeca?a. O?ai/aeca?, eae i?aaeei,
iinoaaeyao iaoneiaeaiiue niaeaoaieai oiaa? aeey aai i?iaeaaee o?ai/aece,
ii aeaaiia yoi ia nai ii naaa oiaa?, a eniieueciaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai
anni?oeiaioa e ii?aaeaeaiiie oaoiieiaee oi?aiaee. Iaeaieaa /anoi
oi?aiaue o?ai/aeceia i?eiaiyaony aeey nauoa oiaa?ia, eiathueo cia/eioth
oi?aiaoth ia?eo eee o?aaothueo niaoeeoe/aneeo oi?aiauo oneoa aei eee
iinea i?iaeaaee. Oa?aeoa?iuie i?eia?aie oaeeo oiaa?ia yaeythony aaicei,
aaoiiiaeee, aaeineiaaeu. aeeiaieueiua e aacaeeiaieueiua iaieoee, iaeeay
?icieoea.

Niaeaoaiea i oi?aiaii o?ai/aeceiaa ioee/aaony io aeeea?neeo aeiaiai?ia
iiae?iaiui eceiaeaieai o?aaiaaiee n oaoiieiaee oi?aiaee e oneiaee
eniieueciaaiey yoiai ciaea. Aieueoia ianoi a ieo caieiatho oneiaey i
i?aaeinoaaeaiee o?ai/aeca?ii aeaeiauo oneoa: ?aeeaia, iao/aiea,
eiinoeueoaoeee.

Aeaeiaie o?ai/aeceia ioee/aaony io oi?aiaiai oai, /oi iniiaiui
i?aaeiaoii o?aioeciiai niaeaoaiey yaeyaony ia?aaea/a oaoiieiaee
(iio–oao) e eeoeaicee ia aa eniieueciaaiea. O?ai/aeca? a yoii neo/aa
iinoaaeyao o?ai/aece oiaa?u eee oneoae aeey eo ?aaeecaoeee eeeaioai.
Iaeiaei ii iiaeao a?aoue ii aeiaiai?o ia naay ooieoeee iaania/aiey
o?ai/aece ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaoa?eaeaie (iai?oaeiaaiea, oiaeiaea, aeaeiaua
aeaiee e i?i/ea aenannoa?u aeciana). Ii oaeaea, eae e a oiaa?iii
o?ai/aeceiaa, a niaeaoaieyo iiae?iaii iaiaa?eaathony iaycaoaeuenoaa
o?ai/aeca?a ii ?aeeaia, i?aaiecaoeee aeaea e iao/aieth o?ai/aece.

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ?aca?aie/aiea iaaeaeo oiaa?iui e aeaeiaui
o?ai/aeceiaaie /anoi ieacuaaaony oneiaiui e a iaeioi?uo o?ai/aeceiaiauo
nenoaiao iiaeii iaeoe yeaiaiou e iaeiiai e ae?oaiai aeaeia.
O?ai/aeceiaiaia i?aai ia niaea?aeeo a yoii ioiioaiee eaeeo–eeai
ia?aie/aiee e iicaieyao noi?iiai eiiaeie?iaaoue oneiaey niaeaoaiey ii eo
oniio?aieth n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae eo aeayoaeueiinoe. Oeie/iui i?eia?ii
oaeeo «eiiaeie?iaaiiuo» niaeaoaiee yaeythony ?ani?ino?aiaiiua a NOA
aeiaiai?u i i?iecaiaenoaa aacaeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia. A niioaaonoaee n
oaeei aeiaiai?ii o?ai/aeca? iinoaaeyao nae?aoiue ne?ii e i?aaeinoaaeyao
yeneethceaiia i?aai ia ecaioiaeaiea ec iaai iaieoea, eioi?ue caoai
i?iaeaaony n oi?aiaie ia?eie o?ai/aeca?a.

A ?innee aiaeiae/iua aeiaiai?u i?eiaiythony a aeayoaeueiinoe oaeeo
eiiiaiee eae Eiea-Eiea, Iaine.

Oniaoiay ?aaioa yoie oe?iu yaeyaony iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai aieueoie aeaeinoe,
naienoaaiiie ioiioaieyi ii o?ai/aeceiao, e yooaeoeaiinoe ianoaiaea?oiiai
iiaeoiaea e ii?aaeaeaieth niaea?aeaiey o?aioeciuo niaeaoaiee.

O?aioeciay ieaoa eae yeaiaio nio?oaeie/anoaa

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo oneiaee, ii?aaeaeythueo aecian o?ai/aeceiaa, yaeyaony
io/eneaiea aeaaeaeueoeo oi?aiaie ia?ee. Ii/aio ethaee aioiau ieaoeoue ca
iieueciaaiea eiaiai eee oi?aiaie ia?eie? Oieueei iioiio, /oi iie oi?ioi
ecaanoiu eeeaioai e oai naiui aa?aioe?otho onoie/eaue nauo i?iaeoeoeee
eee oneoa, a oaeaea iioiio, /oi n ecaanoiui iacaaieai i?eoiaeeo
niioaaonoaothuee eieaeae, e eioi?iio i?eiauaaony ia/eiathuee aecianiai.

O?ai/aece ?aoaao eoieoue o?ai/aeceia aeey oiai, /oiau iieo/eoue
i?aeiouanoaa io oaea ai?iae?iaaiiie eiioeaioeee, nouanoaothuae oi?aiaie
ia?ee. Eiaiii ca yoe i?aeiouanoaa o?ai/aece e aoaeao aeaeeoueny /anoueth
i?eauee.

A ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea ia nouanoaoao caeiiia, eioi?ua o?aaiaaee au,
/oiau o?ai/aeceia i?aaeinoaaeyeny eaeie–oi ii?aaeaeaiiie ee/iinoe. O
o?ai/aeca?a anoue eeoue naiaiaea auai?a oao o?ai/aece, eioi?ua, ii aai
iiaieth, aoaeoo iaeeo/oei ia?acii niaeaenoaiaaoue oneeaieth nenoaiu
o?ai/aeceiaa. Iaeiaei, iai?eia?, ioeac i?aaeinoaaeoue o?ai/aeceia
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiio o?ai/aece a NOA aoaeao ia?ooaieai aeaenoaothuaai oai
aioeo?anoianeiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i?e oneiaee, /oi ioeac—a?oiiiaie
aieeio eee naiai?. A ioee/ea io aia?eeaineiai iiuoa a oneiaeyo
?inneeneiai neeaaeuaathuaainy ?uiea ionoonoaoao niaoeeaeueiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ii o?ai/aeceiao, e aaaeaiea aeae ii yoie nenoaia
aeieaeii niaeaniauaaoueny n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee ii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao. E ai iiiaii aecian aoaeao aanoenue
iiuoa aecianiaiia, oiathueo ioeaieoue neooaoeeth, ethaeae, eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue aiciiaeiuie ia?oia?aie, niiniaiuie i?aaeaeaeaoue ?acee/iua
iineaaenoaey i?eiyouo ?aoaiee e iiaeaioiaeoueny e iei. Inoaiiaeiny
caeanue ia aeaaiii yeiiiie/aneii aii?ina—?acia?a ieaou ca iieueciaaiea
o?aioecie.

*oiau ?aoeoue yoio aii?in, iaiaoiaeeii i?iecaanoe aia/aea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue oeiainiaue aiaeec iioaioeeaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey
o?ai/aece. Yoio aiaeec aeieaeai iieacaoue, /oi o?ai/aece aoaeao eiaoue
i?eaieaiue aeioiae ia naie aeiaeaiey iinea iieaou oaeoueo ?anoiaeia,
aeieaia, auieao o?ai/aeca?o.

Aiaeec aiciiaeiiai iioaioeeaea oniaoa aeciana ia aaca o?ai/aeceiaa
aoaeao iaiiiai i?iua, anee nouanoaoao i?ioioei aiaeiae/iie ?aaiou,
aeathuae oi?ioea ?acoeueoaou. Anee yoiai iao, oi inouanoaeyy aiaeec,
i?eaeaony aeaeaoue ?yae i?aaeiieiaeaiee. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, aeaa–o?e
aiaea ?aaeueiiai iiuoa ?aaiou i?ioioeia a noi ?ac oeaiiaa aeey
i?iaaaeaiey aiaeeca, /ai aeanyoue no?aieoe i?aaeiieiaeaiee i oii, /oi
iiaeao naeaeaoue o?ai/aece. Eiia/ii, ionoonoaea i?ioioeia ia eneeth/aao
aiaeeca, ii ii noaiiaeony aieaa o?oaeiui, a aai ?acoeueoaou—iaiaa
iaaeaaeiuie.

Oeiainiaue aiaeec aeieaeai iniiauaaoueny ia ciaieyo i?aaiecaoeeiiiie e
oaoie/aneie noi?ii aeciana ai anao aniaeoao.

A ethaii neo/aa a aiaeeca aeciana iioaioeeiiaeueiiai (oai?aoe/aneiai)
o?ai/aece aeieaeii auoue o/oaii neaaeothuaa: ioeaiea aeeyiey ia
aiciiaeiue aeioiae ?acee/iuo aeioiaeia iaycaiiuo n eciaiaieai a
a?oeoaeoo?a e eioa?uea?a iiiauaiey, aai iai?oaeiaaiey e o.ae., oi anoue
n eaieoaeueiuie aeiaeaieyie i?e niaea?aeaiee o?ai/aeceiaiaie naoe;

– ?aoaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo aii?inia

– aiaeec nouanoaothueo ianoi?aniieiaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaeeaaaaiuo
o?ai/aece: yaeythony ee iie iioeiaeueiuie ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue.

Aeey i?aaei?eyoey oi?aiaee oaeaea i?eaeaony ociaoue, eaeiau oeiu oiaa?ia
e oeaia ia ieo. Iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe aiaeec ia?niiaea, ?aeeaiu e cao?ao
ia iaa, iaoiaeia ?aaiou nouanoaothueo eiieo?aioia; i?aaeeaaaaiua ?acia?u
auieao, eioi?ua aeieaeai aoaeao aeaeaoue o?ai/aece aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey
nenoaiu o?ai/aeceiaa a oeaeii.

Ia caeeth/eoaeueiii yoaia i?eaeaony i?iecaanoe ?an/ao oai?aoe/aneiai
aaeaina aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia, o/eouaay a ea/anoaa ?anoiaeiuo noaoae
ioia/aiiua auoa i?aaeiieaaaaiua auieaou, a oaeaea ae?oaea, enoiaey ec
?aaeueiuo oneiaee aeciana e aeayoaeueiinoe o?ai/aece. Iai?eia?, i?e yoii
?an/aoa ioaeii ciaoue ca?aiaa, aoaeao ee o?ai/aece ?aaioaoue e
oi?aaeyoue iiae?acaeaeaieai nai eee aea aoaeao iaieiaoue oi?aaeythuaai.
A iineaaeiai neo/aa neaaeoao o/anoue aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu,
naycaiiua n yoei oaeoi?ii.

Aiaeiae/ii ianoieo aeaei n ?aaioie th?enoa, aooaaeoa?ee, aoaeeoi?a.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec aoaeao eo/oa io?aaeaoue enoeiioth
ioaea/o io aeiaeaiiiai o?ai/aece eaieoaea.

I?aaeeaaaaiua ?acia?u auieao, eioi?ua aeieaeai aeaeaoue o?ai/aece aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey nenoaiu o?ai/aeceiaa, iaiaoiaeeii niiinoaaeoue oaeaea n
aiciiaeiinoyie o?ai/aeca?a nicaeaoue e ?acaeaaoue naith nenoaio.

Aeaeaa neaaeoao ia?aeeth/eoue aieiaiea oeiainiaiai aiaeeca ia
o?ai/aeca?a e inouanoaeoue aiaeec, eioi?ue oaea i?iaeaeaee ia ia?aii
yoaia, eiay a aeaeo i?aaei?eyoey oai?aoe/aneiai o?ai/aece.

Aeey yoiai ninoaaeyaony aaeain aeioiaeia e ?anoiae aeey nianoaaiiie
nenoaiu o?ai/aeceiaa n oeaeueth auyniaiey ?acia?a o?aaothuaainy
eaieoaea.

I?eioeeieaeueiue iiiaio oaeiai aiaeeca—ii?aaeaeaiea ?acia?a auieao ca
o?ai/aeceia. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiay ioeaiea nenoaiu o?ai/aeceiaa aoaeao,
aa?iyoii, ooi/iaia iicaeiaa i?e iiaeaioiaea aecianieaia. Ii oae eae
iaeeaeaaiua ?acoeueoaou iniiaaiu ia i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueiii ieaia, oi
iaiaoiaeei «i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue i?iniio?», /oiau ii?aaaeaoue ?aoaiea,
inouanoaeyoue ee o?ai/aeceiaiaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea oiaa?ia eee oneoa.

Ieaeaneaaeothuee ieai — yoi oieueei iaeei ec iooae aiaeeca
ia?aiia/aeueiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a i?aaeeaaaaioth nenoaio o?ai/aeceiaa.
Eae e i?e ?an/aoa i?aaeiieaaaaiuo aeioiaeia e ?anoiaeia aeey o?ai/aece,
i?iecaiaeeony aiaeiae/iue ?an/ao aeey o?ai/aeca?a.

A ninoaa i?aaeiieaaaaiuo aeioiaeia iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/eoue:

ieaoo ca o?ai/aeceia (ia?aiia/aeueiue aciin ca ?aaioo a nenoaia);

auieaou o?ai/aece (?iyeoe — ?aaoey?iua ieaoaaee a aeiea io i?eauee);

?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?ia (anee anoue);

ieaoo ca a?aiaeo (anee anoue),

i?i/ea noaouee aeioiaeia (aooaaeoa?neea, eiiiuethoa?iua,
eiinaeoeiaiaua, ?aeeaiiua e ae?oaea oneoae, anee iie ieacuaathony ii
o?aioeciiio niaeaoaieth).

Iaiaoiaeeii ioeaieoue e i?aaeiieaaaaiua ?anoiaeu o?ai/aeca?a, eioi?ua
aeeth/atho a naay (i?eia?iue ia?a/aiue):

aica?ao auieao (ia?aiia/aeueiuo aciinia) ca o?ai/aeceia (aiciiaeii,
aoaeoo iai?aaeaeaeaiiua neo/ae ii eiio?aeoai ia ?aiieo yoaiao ?acaeoey
nenoaiu, eiaaea o?ai/aece iio?aaotho aica?aoa n?aaenoa. Ii ioeaieai
ca?oaaaeiuo yenia?oia 10% io iieo/aiiuo noii aoaeao ?aaeueiie oeeo?ie),

?aeeaio o?ai/aeceiaa;

?anoiaeu ii iiaeaioiaea th?eaee/aneeo aeieoiaioia, ?aaeno?aoeee oi?aiaie
ia?ee e o. ae;

Aiaeec o?ai/aeceiaa iicaieeo ii?aaeaeeoue, /a?ac eaeie ia?eiae a?aiaie
(aeiae, ianyoeaa, eao) aoaeao aeinoeaiooa oi/ea aacoauoi/iinoe,
naiiieoiaaiinoe i?e ?acee/iii niioiioaiee i?iaeaiiuo o?aioec. Oieueei
iinea i?iaaaeaiey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aiaeeca i?aaeiieaaaaiuo aeioiaeia e
?anoiaeia o?ai/aece e o?ai/aeca?a iiaeao neiaeeoueny iioeiaeueiue ?acia?
ieaou ca o?aioeco, eioi?ue iinoaaeo a auaiaeiua oneiaey ?aaiou iaa
nio?oaeie/athuea noi?iiu.

Aeaeaa iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue, a eaeii aeaea onoaiiaeoue ieaoo ca
o?aioeco.

Iacia/ea neeoeii aunieoth oeaio, o?ai/aeca? ?eneoao iioa?youe naie
aecian ec–ca ia?aie/aiey eee iieiiai ionoonoaey i?aoaiaeaioia ia ianoi
o?ai/aece a naiai aeciana. Iacia/ea neeoeii ieceoth oeaio, o?ai/aeca? ia
inoaaeyao n?aaenoa aeey iie?uoey cao?ao ii o?ai/aeceiao e a ?acoeueoaoa
ieaaeaony a i?aaeaeaa?ee iaieioaiiai e?aoa a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy. Aeey
?innee yoa neooaoeey onoaoaeyaony eioeyoeeiiiuie i?ioeannaie a
yeiiiieea.

Iiyoiio aua ?ac neaaeoao iaiiiieoue i aaaeiinoe iieo/aiey
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo ioeaiie oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia i?aaeiieaaaaiuo
i?aaei?eyoee a nenoaia o?ai/aeca? — o?ai/aece.

Aaeeiuo ?aoeaioia, ii?aaeaeythueo aeae aceiaaiie o?aioecie ieaou, iao.
Ieaoa ca i?aai i?iaeaaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth eee oneoae iiaeao aceiaoueny n
o?ai/aece a oi?ia eeai anooieoaeueiiai aciina, eeai ?aaoey?iuo auieao
(?iyeoe), eeai ni/aoaieai ia?auo aeaoo aeaeia. Ano?a/athony neo/ae,
eiaaea ieaoa ca o?aioeco aeeth/aao ia oieueei oeacaiiua auoa ?anoiaeu,
ii e ieaoo ca ?aeeaio, a?aiaeo, iao/aiea e ae?.

I?e ?aoaiee yoiai aii?ina neaaeoao ?acia?aoueny, eaeea ii yeiiiie/aneiio
oa?aeoa?o ?anoiaeu iaiaoiaeeii eiiiaine?iaaoue a iieo/aiiie ieaoa ia
o?aioeco.

Ana ?anoiaeu ii eo ?iee a yeiiiieea aeaeyony ia:

eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey (no?ieoaeuenoai, iai?oaeiaaiea, ?aeiino?oeoeey
i?aaei?eyoey, i?eia?aoaiea aeey iaai aei?iainoiyuaai eiaaioa?y,
o?ainii?oa e ae?oaea);

i?eia?aoaiea iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia (i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ?anoiaeu ii
ioe?uoeth iiaiai i?aaei?eyoey, i?eia?aoaiea eeoeaicee e ae?oaea);

aaeeiia?aiaiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu (iiaeienea, ?aeeaia,
iao/aiea e o. ae.);

oaeouea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu (ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey: ca?ieaoa n
ia/eneaieyie, eciin, oaeouay a?aiaea ca io/aoiue ia?eiae, ?anoiae
iaoa?eaeia, iieaoa oneoa e ae?oaea);

aaeeiia?aiaiiua e oaeouea ?anoiaeu, ioiineiua ca n/ao i?eauee,
inoaaoaeny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey.

Caeoieo ia?aiia/aeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey iiaeii ioi?ieoue eae
anooieoaeueiue aciin. Ai anooieoaeueiue aciin iiaeii aeeth/eoue oaeaea
aaeeiia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu. Iie?uoea oaeoueo i?aaeiieaaaaiuo ?anoiaeia
ioaeii i?aaeoniio?aoue a oi?ia ieaoaaeae (?iyeoe), o?iaaiue eioi?uo
iiaeao ia?aniao?eaaoueny aaeaaiaeii. Oaeei ia?acii anooieoaeueiue aciin
iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ia iniiaa i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo ioeaiie. A oi aea a?aiy
ioaeii o/eouaaoue, /oi iaeiei ec e?eoa?eaa a ii?aaeaeaiee aaee/eiu
anooieoaeueiiai aciina yaeyaony eiieo?aioeey. Anoanoaaiii, au iaeuecy
iacia/eoue ieaoo ca o?aioeco auoa, /ai ae?oaea o?ai/aeca?u a yoie aea
io?anee aa?oo a ea/anoaa anooieoaeueiiai aciina. Ia eiay aua
naeaeaoaeuenoa naiae oi?ioae ?aaiou, o?ai/aeca?o /?acau/aeii ?eneiaaiii
onoaiaaeeaaoue anooieoaeueiue aciin auoa eee ?aaiue oiio, eioi?ue
onoaiaaeeaatho oe?iu n onoiyaoaeny iieiaeeoaeueiie ?aiooaoeeae a yoie
iaeanoe.

Iiiaea ia/eiathuea o?ai/aeca?u iaaeiioeaieaatho naay a oaeie ea?a.
Iaiiiai iicaea ii ia?a ia?anoaiey eioa?ana e n i?eoiaeii oniaoa iiaeii
oaaee/eoue anooieoaeueiua aciinu a niioaaonoaee ni ni?inii. Oaeay
no?aoaaey i/aiue yooaeoeaia e iiaeao i?eaanoe e iiauoaieth oeaiiinoe
o?ai/aeceiaiaiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Eiaaea e eae aceiathony anooieoaeueiua aciinu? Iiuo aia?eeaineeo oe?i
iieacuaaao, /oi iaeioi?ua o?ai/aeca?u i?aaeii/eoatho aceiaoue
anooieoaeueiua aciinu ioaeaeueii: ca iao/aiea, ia?eaoeia, ?aeeaio, auai?
ianoa.

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ae?iaeaiea cao?ao—ea?a, ii?iaeaeathuay aieueoa
aii?inia, /ai ioaaoia. A iaoeo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo eo/oa auaeaeeoue a
ioaeaeueiua aeaeu ieaoaaeae— a?aiaeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa ii aeieain?i/iie e
(eee) oaeouae a?aiaea. Iineieueeo i?e caeeth/aiee niioaaonoaothueo
aeiaiai?ia iaa noi?iiu, niaeaniaaa noieiinoue iauaeoia a?aiaeu, aa
oneiaey e n?iee, iiaoo i?iaiaeece?iaaoue naie aeioiaeu e ?anoiaeu, oaeia
yeiiiie/aneia acaeiiiiieiaiea ia?oia?ia aoaeao oi?ioae iniiaie
/aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee

O?ai/aece oioyo e eiatho i?aai ia iieo/aiea oneoa a iaiai ia aaeeiue
anooieoaeueiue aciin. Iie ia iaeeaeatho, /oi ei i?eaeaony ieaoeoue
ioaeaeueii, iai?eia?, ca ia?eaoeia, eiinoeueoe?iaaiea e o. ae. Iiyoiio,
eiaaea o?ai/aece aiai?yo, /oi aio iaia?aiu i?aaeinoaaeyoue iieioth
i?ia?aiio ii iaania/aieth oniaoa a aeciana, a caoai iacia/atho
ioaeaeueiue aciin ca aeaaiue eiiiiiaio—iao/aiea—yoi iaoianoii e
niiieoaeueii.

O?ai/aece aeieaeiu i?eia?aoaoue iieiue iaeao i?aa i?e ioi?ieaiee iieoiee
a aeaea aaeeiiai anooieoaeueiiai aciina. Eae o?ai/aeca?u aceiatho
aciinu?

Eae i?aaeei auieaou anooieoaeueiiai aciina aceiathony n?aco aea ii
iiaeienaiee niaeaoaiey i o?aioeca. Iaeiaei aeey i?eaea/aiey aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa i?aoaiaeaioia ae?oaea o?ai/aeca?u aeaeyo auieaou ia aeaa
/anoe, iai?eia?, 50 % aei, 50 % ai a?aiy iao/aiey.

Iaeioi?ua o?ai/aeceiaiaua naeaeee caaenyo io auai?a ianoa e iieiaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoey o?ai/aece, iiyoiio aeiiieieoaeueiue aciin ca
eiinoeueoe?iaaiea, iai?eia?, iiaeao auoue i?eniaaeeiai e anooieoaeueiiio
eeoeaiceiiiiio aciino. A yoii neo/aa o?ai/aeca? aeoeaii aeaenoaoao a
iieneao eieaeecaoeee eiie?aoiiai o?ai/aece, iie?uaay i?iecaaaeaiiua
cao?aou aeeth/aieai a noiio anooieoaeueiiai aciina. Oaeay i?aeoeea
noaiiaeony iianaianoiie a noa?a o?ai/aeceiaa.

Eaeie au ii?yaeie aceiaiey aciina ie aue onoaiiaeai, o?ai/aeca? aeieaeai
anaaaea neaaeiaaoue iaeiiio i?aaeeo: ieeiaaea ia ?ac?aoaoue o?ai/aece
ioe?uaaoue caaaaeaiea aei oao ii?, iiea anooieoaeueiua aciinu
iieiinoueth ia auiea/aiu. Oiaa?iue ciae o?ai/aeca?a — /?acau/aeiay
oeaiiinoue, eioi?oth ioaeii io?aiyoue.

I?aaeinoaaeaiea o?ai/aece naiaiaeu iieueciaaiey o?ai/aeceiaii oiaiueoaao
aai oeaiiinoue e iiaeao aucaaoue iaaeiaieuenoai ae?oaeo o?ai/aece,
eioi?ua aei?iai caieaoeee ca i?aai iieueciaaoueny ei.

Neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi iinea ioe?uoey o?ai/aece iaeaaei canoaaeoue
o?ai/aece auieaoeoue yoio aeiea. O?ai/aeca?a iiaoo ia?aaeoue, inoaaea n
ionoui eioaeueeii, a oi a?aiy eae aeaaeaeueoeu o?aioec aoaeoo iaaeaaoue
naie ea?iaiu, eniieuecoy i?ia?aiio aeciana o?ai/aeca?a.

Oiaei iaienaiiia niaeaoaiea i o?aioeca caueoeo io iaoaea/. Iaeiei ec
ioieoia oaeiai niaeaoaiey aeieaeai auoue ioieo i anooieoaeueiii e
ae?oaeo aciinao. Caeanue o?aaoaony aeaeea?e?iaaiea anao aciinia, eioi?ua
o?ai/aece auieaoeo aei e a oa/aiea ?aaiou a aeciana ii o?ai/aeceiao,
aeeth/ay anooieoaeueiua eeoeaiceiiiua aciinu, ia?eiaee/aneea eee ?aciaua
aciinu ca oneoae, ?aeeaio, iao/aiea e o. ae.

Aieaa oiai, iaiaoiaeeii eceiaeeoue, eae auiea/eaaoue aciinu, yaeythony
ee iie aica?auaaiuie eee iao. Iai?eia?, a aeaeea?aoeee aiai?eony, /oi
aanue anooieoaeueiue aciin a 100000$ auiea/eaaaony o?ai/aece neaaeothuei
ia?acii: 50000$—i?e iiaeienaiee niaeaoaiey i o?aioeca, 25000$—ca
iaaeaeth aei ia/aea iao/aiey e 25000$—iinea ieii/aiey iao/aiey.

Niaeaoaiea i o?aioeca i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiia/ioth noaoueth a i?ioeanna
anooieaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaey ai o?ai/aeceia. I?e aai caeeth/aiee
oeiainiaua o?aaiaaiey aoaeoo yaeyoueny ii?aaeaeythuei ia/aeii a
onoaiiaeaiee noa?oiaie oeaiu, a?aoeea ieaoaaeae, ?acia?ia ?iyeoe e o.
ae.

Acaeiiioiioaiey o?ai/aeca?a e o?ai/aece

Nio?oaeie/anoai ia ?aaiii?aaiie iniiaa

Iineieueeo nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa a iaoae no?aia oieueei neeaaeuaaaony,
aaaeii ?anniio?aoue iniaaiiinoe acaeiiioiioaiee o?ai/aeca?a e o?ai/aece
ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia a oaea aeaaii ooieoeeiie?othueo nenoaiao, o/anoue
iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou e iiuo e oniaoii ?acaeaaoue ia yoii naie
o?ai/aeceia.

Iaaeaeo i?aoniaaathuei o?ai/aeca?ii e o?ai/aece a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
onoaiiaeeny iiaue oei ioiioaiee. Iie ia ooieoeeiie?otho ii aa?oeeaeueiie
noaia, i?e eioi?ie iaaeinooiiue o?ai/aeca? iaoiaeeony ia aa?oeia
ea?a?oe/aneie eanoieoeu. O?ai/aeca? ia iaaece?aao e ia iaaiaeeo ii?yaeie
n?aaee naieo iieueciaaoaeae, oi anoue eo ioiioaiey no?iyony ii
ai?eciioaeueiie noaia. Iaaeaeo o?ai/aeca?ii e o?ai/aece aiciaeaaeaee
ioiioaiey ?aaainoaa, iineieueeo iie acaeiicaaeneiu: naia eaeay
o?ai/aeceiaa oa?ieo e?ao, anee iaeia ec ninoaaiuo /anoae yoie nenoaiu
oa?ieo iaoaea/o.

Aaeaeo acaeiicaaeneiiai oa?aeoa?a yoeo ioiioaiee iniaoth cia/eiinoue
i?eia?aoatho iiaeaea?aeea e niaeaenoaea, ieacuaaaiua o?ai/aeca?ii naiei
o?ai/aece. Yooaeoeaiay nenoaia niaeaenoaey ia oieueei iiiiaaao o?ai/aece
aeiaeoueny oniaoa, ii e ii?aaeaeyao iieo/aiea o?ai/aeca?ii ?iyeoe.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue nenoaiaoe/aneeo ia? ii niaeaenoaeth o?ai/aece noaiiaeony
iniaaiii i/aaeaeiie, anee ?anniio?aoue iiaua ?aaeee nia?aiaiiuo
ioiioaiee o?ai/aeca? — o?ai/aece.

O?ai/aeca?u n aieueoei i?aeoe/aneei noaaeai a iaeanoe aeciana auaeaeytho
neaaeothuea /a?ou yoeo ioiioaiee:

1. I?ioanneiiaeeci.

2. ?aaainoai.

3. I?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee.

4. Ia?eaoeiaiaia iaania/aiea.

5. Iiaeaea?aeea aunieiai noaoona o?ai/aeca?a.

6. Iinoiyiiue iaiai eioi?iaoeeae.

7. Ieaie?iaaiea iioaioeeaea ?inoa.

8. Ieacaiea iiiiue o?ai/aece a noaiiaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey n oi?ioae
?aiooaoeeae.

Iiaeaea?aeea ei??aeoiiai o?iaiy eiio?iey.

E?aoei ?anniio?ei yoe /a?ou.

I?ioanneiiaeeci. O?ai/aeceia oa?aeoa?ecoao ?anoouea iio?aaiinoe,
naienoaaiiua ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai. Iie ioaeaeathony a aunieii
i?ioanneiiaeecia e iaeeaeatho, /oi o?ai/aeca? aiaae?eo a oi?aaeaiea
aecianii no?aoaaeth ia?eaoeiaa, iniiauaathuothny ia ea/anoaa oiaa?ia e
oneoa. Ia iaeiiiaoaioiiai e cao?yaeiiai o?ai/aeca?a iie ia niaeanyony.

?aaainoai. I?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a i o?aioeca iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue,
/oi ioiioaiey iaaeaeo o?ai/aeca?ii e o?ai/aece ia acaeiiioiioaiey
?aaioieea e ?aaioiaeaoaey, oeene?oaiua a o?oaeiauo niaeaoaieyo.
Iaiaoiaeeii oaaaeeoue o?ai/aece a i?aeiouanoaao, naiaai i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie, a ia aeeeoiaaoue aio naie oneiaey. Neaaeoao
onoaiiaeoue ni naieie o?ai/aece aeiaa?eoaeueiua e ioe?iaaiiua ioiioaiey.

I?aaiecaoeey nenoaiu iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee. O?ai/aece no?aiyony e
o/anoeth a i?ia?aiiao ii iao/aieth a iaeanoe oi?aaeai/aneie e oeiainiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Aanueia iieaciui iiaoo ieacaoueny oaeaea e e?aoein?i/iua
eo?nu iiauoaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee.

Ia?eaoeiaiaia iaania/aiea. O?ai/aece no?aiyony iieo/eoue yooaeoeaii
i?aaieciaaiioth ?aeeaio ia ?aaeiiaeueiii e ianoiii o?iaiyo. Iie
ioaeaeathony a oaeie ?aeeaia, iineieueeo naiinoiyoaeueii ia iiaoo aa
iaania/eoue.

Aeey i?eaea/aiey o?ai/aece aoaeouee o?ai/aeca? ii oneiaeyi aeaniinoe
aeieaeai i?aaeinoaaeoue aio naith oeiainiaoth io/aoiinoue, eioi?ay, eae
iieacuaaao i?aeoeea ?acaeouo no?ai, io?aaeaao aeayoaeueiinoue ca o?e
i?aaeuaeoueo aiaea, e aa iniiaiua iieacaoaee aeieaeiu auoue
i?aaeinoaaeaiu a ia?aaeaaaaiuo ia?oia?o ?aeeaiiuo iaoa?eaeao. I?e yoii
iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai yaeyaony eo i?iaa?ea iacaaeneiie aoaeeoi?neie
oe?iie. Ana yoi aua ?ac naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aaaeiie ?iee aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa a aaaeaiee aeciana.

Nicaeaiea o?ai/aeceiaiaie nenoaiu n oi/ee c?aiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa
i?eaiaeeo o?ai/aeca?a e oaaee/aieth aaeeiia?aiaiiuo ?anoiaeia (ia
?ac?aaioeo eiioeaioeee i?iaeoia e i?ia?aiiu, i?eia?aoaiey iai?oaeiaaiey,
no?ieoaeuenoai caeaiee, a?aiaeo caiaeueiuo o/anoeia e ieiuaaeae e ae?.)
e oaeoueo cao?ao ia i?eia?aoaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caiania, oiaa?ia,
auione i?iaeoeoeee e oneoae, iieaoo eiienneiiiuo oneoa, o?ainii?oiua
?anoiaeu, ?aeeaio, iao/aiea, oi?aaeaiea naoueth o?ai/aece,
i?aaenoaaeoaeueneea ?anoiaeu e ae?oaea. I?e ?ac?aaioea oeiainiaie
i?iaeoiie aeieoiaioaoeee oaaee/aiea yoeo ?anoiaeia e enoi/ieee eo
oeiaine?iaaiey aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoniio?aiu. A aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa
?aaeueiuo iia?aoeee iie aeieaeiu auoue io?aaeaiu n o/aoii aeaenoaothueo
i?eioeeiia o/aoa oicyenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia.

Eoae, nicaeaiea o?ai/aeceiaa oaaee/eaaao iauai ?acii?iaeiuo
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee a aeayoaeueiinoe o?ai/aeceiaiaie eiiiaiee.

Iinoiyiiue iaiai eioi?iaoeeae. O?ai/aece no?aiyony o/anoaiaaoue a
?ac?aaioea ia?niaeoeaiuo ieaiia, iie oioyo, /oiau n ieie
eiinoeueoe?iaaeenue, /oiau eo iiaiea o/eouaaeinue i?e no?aoaae/aneii
ieaie?iaaiee aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu. Oaeay naycue aeieaeia auoue oeeoeae n
aeaoonoi?iiiei aeaeaeaieai.

Ieaie?iaaiea iioaioeeaea ?inoa. O?ai/aece no?aiyony e ?acaeoeth e
?anoe?aieth naiae oe?iu; eo ia i?eaeaeaao iaeiiia?aciue aecian. Ii yoie
i?e/eia nouanoaoao iio?aaiinoue a eiiiaaoeeyo.

Iiaeaea?aeea o?ai/aece i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nenoaiaoe/aneee i?ioeann,
ia/eiay n ia/aeueiie iiaeaioiaee, caoai iineaaeothuaa iao/aiea e
ieacaiea niaeaenoaey ia ianoa. Yooaeoeaiinoue yoiai i?ioeanna
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aai ea/anoaii, iniiaaoaeueiinoueth e i?aeoe/iinoueth.

Nicaeathuaa nenoaio o?ai/aeceiaa e?oiiia i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii eiaoue ia
oieueei aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiue iiuo ?aaiou e oaa?aeua iiceoeee ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii ?uiea ca n/ao aunieiai ea/anoaa naiae i?iaeoeoeee eee
oneoa, ii e nicaeaoue ioeaaeaiioth nenoaio aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa.
Iieo/aiiay a aai ?aieao yeiiiie/aneay eioi?iaoeey e noaoenoe/aneea
aeaiiua aeieaeiu oe?iei eniieueciaaoueny i?e nicaeaiee iaeaoa
aeieoiaioia ii o?ai/aeceiao. Ea/anoai iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia ii
ninoaaeaieth aecian–ieaia, ae?oaeo oeiainiauo aeieoiaioia ii?aaeaeyaony
oeiaie enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo, iniaaiii yoi eanaaony aioo?aiieo aeaiiuo
aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e io/aoiinoe o?ai/aeca?a.

I?ae?auaiea o?ai/aeceiaiauo ioiioaiee

Ioiioaiey o?ai/aeceiaa i?a?uaathony i?e iaee/ee iaeiiai ec iyoe
neaaeothueo niauoee:

ioiaia niaeaoaiey;

i?ae?auaiea ii acaeiiiio niaeaoaieth;

ioeac o?ai/aece io naieo iaycaoaeuenoa;

i?ae?auaiea o?ai/aeca?ii eiio?aeoa;

ieii/aiea n?iea aeaenoaey niaeaoaiey.

Nio?oaeie/athuea noi?iiu iau/ii noa?athony ia aeoiaoue i i?aaenoiyuai
i?ae?auaiee ioiioaiee, anee iie naycaiu ee/iie caeioa?aniaaiiinoui.
O?ai/aeca?u e o?ai/aece caeanue ia eneeth/aiea, oai ia iaiaa, e yoi ia
naiia i?eyoiia, o?ai/aeca? aeieaeai eiaoue no?aoaaeth «ieii/aiey ea?u»
aeey eaaeaeith oeia ioiioaiee.

Anee iie i?ae?auathony a nayce n ieii/aieai n?iea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a,
oi oiaaea ana a ii?yaeea, iaa noi?iiu iieo/eee oi, i /ai iie
aeiaiaa?eaaeenue, e ei inoaaony oieueei iiaeaoue ae?oa ae?oao

A inoaeueiuo /aou?ao neo/ayo: anee n?ie aeiaiai?a ia caeii/eeny, a
ioiioaiey i?eoiaeeony i?a?uaaoue, i/aaeaeii, /oi iaa noi?iiu eee iaeia
ec ieo eiatho acaeiiua i?aoaicee oeia «eoi aeiiaao e eoi eiio /oi
aeieaeai”. Eaa/a anaai, eiia/ii, aeiaeeaeaoueny, iiea naii ana ia
ii?aaeaeeony, ii yoi ia auoiae. Ia neaaeoao aeiaiaeeoue aeaei aei noaea,
oae eae aeaaea auea?aiiua o?ai/aeca?ii i?ioeannu a?aaeyo nenoaia a
oeaeii: ioaeaeaaony iiiai nee, neooe aoaei?aaeao eeeaioia, ?acae?aaeatho
ae?oaeo o?ai/aece.

Ioiaia niaeaoaiee. Yoio oa?iei i?eiaiyaony, eiaaea ioiioaiey
o?ai/aeceiaa i?a?aaiu aei ioe?uoey iiae?acaeaeaiey. Iau/ii oaeay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aicieeaao ec–ca ianiioaaonoaothuae o?aaiaaieyi aeiaiai?a
?aaiou o?ai/aece a ia?eiae, i?aaeoanoaothuee ioe?uoeth iiae?acaeaeaiey.
Aiciiaeii, o?ai/aece ia nia?ae iaiaoiaeeiuo n?aaenoa, ii eaeiau au ie
auee i?e/eiu, i?aaa noi?ii iaiai?aiu a aeiaiai?a, eioi?ue ioaeii
niaethaeaoue. Ana auieaou, i?e/eoathueany o?ai/aeca?o, o?ai/aece iaycai
naeaeaoue, /oi aeieaeii auoue /aoei iaiai?aii a aeiaiai?a. Anee
o?ai/aeca? no?ieo naith nenoaio i?aaeeueii, oi o iaai a?yae ee aoaeoo
i?iaeaiu n ioiaiie niaeaoaiey.

I?ae?auaiea ii acaeiiiio niaeaoaieth. A ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea
o?ai/aeceiaa yoi i?ienoiaeeo ?aaeei e, eae i?aaeei, ii i?e/eiai, ia
caaenyuei ie io o?ai/aeca?a, ie io o?ai/aece. A yoii neo/aa
iiaeienuaaaony niaeaoaiea i acaeiiii inaiaiaeaeaiee noi?ii io
iaycaiiinoae aeiaiai?a.

Ioeac o?ai/aece io naieo iaycaoaeuenoa. O?ai/aece, aeaeathuee aueoe ec
nenoaiu o?ai/aeceiaa, iiaeao eeai oaaaeiieoue ia yoii ca?aiaa, eeai iao.
Naiay ae?aiaoe/aneay neooaoeey aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea o o?ai/aece
eii/athony aeaiueae, ii cae?uaaao naith oi?aiaoth oi/eo e en/acaao,
i?aaeinoaaea o?ai/aeca?o e e?aaeeoi?ai ?aoaoue ana i?iaeaiu.

«Oeoee ioeac» nicaeaao, eiia/ii, ai?acaei aieueoa i?iaeai.
Ianaiaa?aiaiiia iinooieaiea auieao yaeyaony i?eciaeii oaeeo iaia?aiee
o?ai/aece. Ia?u neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue ia ioeeaaeuaay, /oiau iioii
o?ai/aeca?a ia iiaee iaaeieoue a oii, /oi ii naiei ia?aoeoaeueiui
iiaaaeaieai ni?iaioee?iaae neooaoeeth. Ianoiyoaeueii ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?e
ianaiaa?aiaiiii iinooieaiee auieao iaiaaeeaiii inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue
ea/anoaa. Oeiainiaua i?iaeaiu o?ai/aece /anoi icia/atho, /oi ii iuoaaony
eo ?aoeoue ca n/ao ea/anoaa. Anee neooaoeey eni?aaeia, aiciiaeii
caeeth/aiea «aeiaiai?a i ainnoaiiaeaiee”, anee iao, i?eiaiythony ioieou
aeiaiai?a i i?ae?auaiee ioiioaiee.

I?ae?auaiea o?ai/aeca?ii eiio?aeoa. Eiaaea aeaei aeioiaeeo aei
i?ae?auaiey niaeaoaiey ii eieoeeaoeaa o?ai/aeca?a ii aeieaeai eiaoue
aeey yoiai aaneea iauaeoeaiua iniiaaiey.

O?ai/aece ieaoeo naie aeaiueae a nenoaio, ii oi/ao iieo/eoue eo ia?aoii
e iioiio iiaeao n/eoaoue, /oi o?ai/aeca? iuoaaony caoaaoeoue eiio?ieue
iaae aai ?aaeiiii, /oi ieaoa ?iyeoe iani?aaaaeeeaa, /oi aio iaoatho
eniieueciaaoue eiathueany aiciiaeiinoe.

O?ai/aeca?o neaaeoao ouaoaeueii iiaeaioiaeoueny e i?eiyoeth oaeiai
?aoaiey a /anoiinoe, ioaeii eiaoue ana aeaeu ienueiaiiuo
aeieacaoaeuenoa. A ca?oaaaeiie i?aeoeea noaeu iau/ii ioiinyony n
aieueoae neiiaoeae e o?ai/aece ec–ca iiiaeo neo/aaa, eiaaea o?ai/aeca?u
ia iiaee ii?aaaeaoue naie aeaenoaey.

Aeey neooaoeee, a eioi?uo i?ae?auaiea aeiaiai?a iaecaaaeii, iiaeii
ioiaoeoue ianeieueei ?aeiiaiaeaoeee:

1. Ouaoaeueiia aaaeaiea caienae, aeinuea ia o?ai/aece—niaea?aeaiea
oaeaoiiiuo ?acaiai?ia, aicieeathuea i?iaeaiu n o?ai/aece, aeaeiau e
o.ae.

2. Oaaaeiieaiea o?ai/aece i naiai ?aoaiee caaeaaia?aiaiii.

Oeacaiea a oaaaeiieaiee i?e/ei, ni nnueeie ia niioaaonoaothuea ioieo
niaeaoaiey.

Oaaaeiieaiea o?ai/aece i aai e naieo iaycaoaeuenoaao, iineaaeothueo ca
i?ae?auaieai niaeaoaiey.

Ieii/aiea n?iea aeaenoaey niaeaoaiey. Eioa?anii, /oi aeiaieueii iiiai
i?aoniaaathueo o?ai/aeca?ia ia oeacuaatho a aeiaiai?ao oie neooaoeee,
eioi?ay neo/eony /a?ac 10 e 20 eao eee ii enoa/aiee n?iea aeiaiai?a.
O?ai/aece, iniaaiii oniaoii ?aaioathueo, aieioao yoi ai?acaei aieueoa,
iineieueeo iie oioyo inoaaeoue o?ai/aeceia ca niaie.

I?iaeeaiea aeiaiai?a iau/ii o?aaoao io o?ai/aece auiieiaiey ei oaeoueo
iaycaoaeuenoa, e?iia oiai, a iaeioi?uo nenoaiao o?aaotho oieaou aciina
ca aiciaiiaeaiea aeiaiai?a (eioi?ue cia/eoaeueii ieaea
ia?aiia/aeueiiai), a oaeaea ca iiaea?iecaoeeth iiiauaiey.

No?aoaaey «ieii/aiey ea?u» aeieaeia auoue oioy au ii oie i?e/eia, /oi
ana aecianu eiatho naie aeeciaiiua oeeeeu: iie ca?iaeaeathony, ?anooo,
?acaeaathony e oie?atho. Ia?yaeo n yoei a ia?eiae aeeciaiiiai oeeeea
nenoaiu iiaoo aicieeiooue e ae?oaea neooaoeee, o?aaothuea i?ae?auaiey
ioiioaiee o?ai/aeceiaa: iai?aaeeueiia eniieueciaaiea oi?aiaie ia?ee,
ianiioaaonoaothuaa ea/anoai, iaoieaoa iieaaathueony auieao,
iai?aaeeueiay ?aaioa, eciaiaiey ia ?uiea — yoi oieueei iaeioi?ua ec ieo.
O i?aaei?eieiaoaey, acyaoaainy ca oaeie aeae aeciana iao auai?a, e?iia
eae auoue e iei aioiaui.

Ninoiyiea aeae a noa?a o?ai/aeceiaa a ?innee

Aeey iaoae yeiiiieee o?ai/aeceia naaiaeiy yaeyaony ioiineoaeueii iiaui
yaeaieai, a oi a?aiy eae a ?acaeouo no?aiao ii noieaoeyie i?aeoeeiaaeny
eae n?aaenoai iaania/aiey iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa a ?acee/iuo oneoaao. A
oneiaeyo oeaio?aeeciaaiiie yeiiiieee oi?aiaay ia?ea e i?aaeinoaaeaiea
oi?aiaiai ciaea ia i?aeoeeiaaeinue, o.e. ia nouanoaiaaei eiieo?aioeee
n?aaee i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ii, ia niio?y ia yoi, iiaeiaea
oi?aiaie ia?ee nouanoaiaaei e oiaaea, iai?eia? iu i?aaeii/eoaee
eiiaeeoa?neea ecaeaeey «E?aniue Ieoya?ue», eee aaeaeaeioth i?iaeoeoeeth
«Eieinn» anai ae?oaei.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo o?ai/aeceiaia a ?innee iiaeii n/eoaoue ia/aei
i?iecaiaenoaa Iaine-Eieu. Yoi i?aaei?eyoea ooieoeeiie?iaaei ii noaia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai o?ai/aeceiaa. I?iecaiaeeoaeue iinoaaeyao eiioeaio?ao,
oaoiieiaeth, i?aaeinoaaeyao iai?oaeiaaiea, iao/aao ia?niiae, aeaao
?ac?aoaiea ia i?iecaiaenoai e i?iaeaaeo i?iaeoeoa iiae naiae oi?aiaie
ia?eie.

A ianoiyuee iiiaio, ?uiie i?aaeeiaeaiey ii o?ai/aeceiao iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia ianeieueei a?oii ii aeaaeaeueoeai i?aaeinoaaeyaiie
o?aioecu, ii eiiieaeno oneoa eee aea ii noa?a i?aaeinoaaeaiey oneoa. ss
?aoee i?iaanoe eeanneoeeaoeeth ii aeaeai o?ai/aeceiaa: oi?aiaue,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue, aeaeiaie o?ai/aeceiae.

Noa?a oi?aiaiai o?ai/aeceiaa.

Nthaea iiaeii ioianoe i?aeoe/anee ethaiai i?iecaiaeeoaey,
iaeaaeathuaai oiaa?ii, caueuaiiui oi?aiaie ia?eie. Caeeth/aaony aeiaiai?
i iinoaaea oiaa?a e oneiaeyo i?iaeaaee, iethn i?aaa i?iecaiaeeoaey
oiaa?a, caueuathony caeiiii ia aaoi?neii i?aaa. Nthaea iiaeii ioianoe
oe?iaiiua iaaaceiu, aeaaeaeueoeaie eee niaeaaeaeueoeaie eioi?uo
yaeythony ?aceaeaiou ?innee. Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony ?uiea yeaeo?ioiaa?ia,
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Iiiaea oi?aiaua
oe?iu niaoeeaeece?othony ia i?iaeaaee oiaa?a, caueuaiiiai oi?aiaie
ia?eie, ii io o?ai/aeceiaa oai inoaaony i/aiue iaei, nei?a yoi
acaeiiioiioaiey, ?aaoee?oaiua caeiiii ia aaoi?neeo i?aaao, iaoaioiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e o.ae.

?uiie i?iecaiaenoaa, naycaiiue n o?ai/aeceiaiauie ioiioaieyie a ?innee a
iniiaiii iaoiaeeony a ieoa i?iecaiaenoaa i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey,
nai?ee e i?iaeaaee eiiiuethoa?ia. A iniiaiii yoi aucaaii oaoiieiae/aneei
ionoaaaieai io caiaaea a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa iee?inoai. A ?innee
iiyaeeenue oaea naie brand-name’u, eiiiaiee, caieiathueany nai?eie ec
eiii?oiuo eiiieaeoothueo eiiiuethoa?ia e ?ac?aaioeie i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey. N?aaee iec iiaeii auaeaeeoue: AENO (nai?ea, i?iaeaaea
eiiiuethoa?ia /a?ac aeeea?neea naoe), eiiiaiee oeia R-Style (?ac?aaioea
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, nai?ea eiiiuethoa?ia, i?iaeaaea eiii?oiuo
brand-name eiiiuethoa?ia, i?iaeaaea eeoeaiceiiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey, nicaeaiea nianoaaiiuo naeiiia-iaaaceiia. Eiiiaiee
caieiathueany oieueei ?ac?aaioeie i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ( 1N ).
Enoaoe, aeayoaeueiinoue 1N i/aiue eioa?ania n oi/ee c?aiey eo iiaeoiaea.
1N:O?AI*AECEIA i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naoue i?aaei?eyoee, inouanoaeythueo
eiiieaeniua oneoae ii aaoiiaoecaoeee o/aoiie e ioeniie ?aaiou. Iiiiuue a
auai?a i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, i?iaeaaea i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia,
aeinoaaea, onoaiiaea, iano?ieea, aiaae?aiea, iineai?iaeaaeiia
ianeoaeeaaiea, eiinoeueoaoeee, iao/aiea iieueciaaoaeae. Iie iinoa?aeenue
aeaenoaeoaeueii i?aaeeiaeeoue iiaue aeae oneoa ia ?uiea i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey

Oe?iu-o?ai/aece ?aaioatho iiae aaeeiie ia?eie “1N:O?ai/aeceia”, eiatho a
naiai ninoaaa aooanoiaaiiuo oe?iie “1N” niaoeeaeenoia, aa?aioe?otho
aunieia ea/anoai auiieiaiey noaiaea?oiiai iaai?a oneoa. O?ai/aeceiaiaay
naoue “1N” noi?ie?iaaia ia aaca eieeaeoeaia, eiathueo iiuo ia oieueei
i?iaeaae i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia, ii oaeaea e aei-, e iineai?iaeaaeiiai
ianeoaeeaaiey eeeaioia. Anaaaea a iaee/ee i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou
anni?oeiaioiiai ieieioia.

O oe?i- ”1N:O?ai/aece” anaaaea eiathony a iaee/ee i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou
anni?oeiaioiiai ieieioia. A iaai aoiaeyo aooaaeoa?neea i?ia?aiiu oe?iu
“1N”, a oaeaea iaeaieaa iiioey?iua i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou ?inneeneeo e
ca?oaaaeiuo oe?i, iaiaoiaeeiua i?e aaoiiaoecaoeee ioena. Ana ca?oaaaeiua
i?ia?aiiu, aeeth/aiiua a anni?oeiaioiue ieieioi, i?aaenoaaeaiu
?oneoeoee?iaaiiuie aa?neyie. Aooaaeoa?neea i?ia?aiiu “1N”:

1N:Aooaaeoa?ey: aaciaay, I?IO, naoaaay, “eeeaio-na?aa?iay”, DOS,
Windows, Windows 95, Macintosh 1C:Ca?ieaoa Ioeniua i?ia?aiiu ae?oaeo
oe?i: Iia?aoeeiiiua iaiei/ee: Norton Commander, Windows Iia?aoeeiiiua
nenoaiu: Windows 95 Oaenoiaua i?ioeanni?u: Eaeneeii, Word, AmiPro
Oaaee/iua i?ioeanni?u: Lotus 1-2-3, Excel

Ia?oia?u 1N iiaoo eniieueciaaoue neiaieeeo “1N” a ?aieao aeayoaeueiinoe,
ia?aie/aiiie aeiaiai?ii o?ai/aeceiaa; iieo/atho niaoeeaeueioth
?aeeaiioth iiaeaea?aeeo a oeaio?aeueiie i?anna, ia aunoaaeao e ae?.;
iieo/atho eiiiainaoeeth cao?ao ia ?aaeiiaeueioth ?aeeaio; iieo/atho
niaoeeaeueioth iaoiaee/aneoth ?aai/oth eioi?iaoeeth; iieo/atho
aiciiaeiinoue niaianoii n oe?iie “1N” ?aaioaoue ia e?oiiuo
eiiiuethoa?iuo aunoaaeao; eiatho aieaa aunieea neeaeee ia i?eia?aoaaiua
a oe?ia “1N” i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou, ii n?aaiaieth n aeeea?aie e
iinoiyiiuie ia?oia?aie; eiatho aiciiaeiinoue aanieaoii aooanoiaaoue
naieo nio?oaeieeia ia oe?ia “1N”; aanieaoii i?ioiaeyo iao/aiea,
iieo/atho eiinoeueoaoeee a oe?ia “1N” ii i?ia?aiiiui n?aaenoaai e
aii?inai o?ai/aeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe; ?aaoey?ii iieo/atho
aeooaeueioth oaoiieiae/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth, aeey i?aeoe/aneie ?aaiou n
eeeaioaie.

Oe?ia “1N” i?eaeaoaao i?aaiecaoeee e /anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, aioiauo
ieacuaaoue oneoae ii onoaiiaea e nii?iaiaeaeaieth aooaaeoa?neeo
i?iaeoeoia “1N” e ae?oaeo i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia, aeeth/aiiuo a
anni?oeiaioiue ieieioi.

Iinea caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a o?ai/aece aeieaeai iiaeoaa?aeeoue
eaaeeoeeaoeeth naieo niaoeeaeenoia, aooanoiaaa eo a oe?ia “1N”.

I?eia? yoie eiiiaiee i/aiue iieacaoaeai aeey ?innee, aaea ?acaeaathony a
iniiaiii ca n/ao eioaeeaeooaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia?niiaea, iniiauaaynue
eiaiii ia yoii ec-ca ia?aie/aiiinoe a eiaanoeoeeyo.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiue o?ai/aeceia.

Yoio aeae o?ai/aeceiaa iaeaieaa oe?iei i?aaenoaaeai a i?iecaiaenoaa
aacaeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia. Eaaeaeue ec ianoiuo eee ?aaeiiaeueiuo
?aceeai/iuo e oiaeiai/iuo caaiaeia yaeyaony o?ai/aece io iniiaiie
eiiiaiee. Coca Cola, Pepsi, e ae?oaea i?iaeatho eiioeaio?aou e ae?oaea
i?iaeoeou, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ianoiui ?aceeai/iui
eiiiaieyi, eioi?ua caoai niaoeaatho eiioeaio?aou n ae?oaeie ninoaaiuie
i?iaeoeoaie e ?aceeaatho a aooueee eee aaiee aeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii
ianoiui aeeea?ai.

Ii aeaiiie noaia ?aaioatho iniiaiua i?iecaiaeeoaee i?ioeaaeeoaeueiuo
iaieoeia (Coca-Cola, Pepsico, Shweppes), eiiiaiee ii i?iecaiaenoao
i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey Mars, Nestle, Danone, eiiiaiee ii i?iecaiaenoao
einiaoeee e auoiaie oeiee: Henco, J&J, Procter&Gamble. Aieueoeinoai yoeo
eiiiaiee iiieii /enoi o?ai/aeceiaiauo ioiioaiee noaiiayony
niaeaaeaeueoeaie, eiaanoi?aie: oieieaaeiay oaa?eea «?inney» 51% aeoeee o
Nestle, oaa?eea «Aeoeao» – Philip Morris.

Aeaeiaie o?ai/aeceia

Iaeiie ec ia?auo eanoi/ae aeaeiaiai o?ai/aeceiaa auei ioe?uoea ia?aiai
?anoi?aia auno?iai ieoaiey ie?iaie o?ai/aeceiiaiaie nenoaiu
IaeAeiiaeueaen. A aeaiiue iiiaio caeanue iiaeii iaaethaeaoue i/aiue
aeoeaiia ?acaeoea yoie o?ai/aece, ioe?uoea iiauo caeoni/iuo e o.ae.

Aeaeiaie o?ai/aeceia yaeyaony iaeaieaa iiioey?iui niiniaii o?ai/aeceiaa.
Oae aea ii i?aaeeaaaao ia?iiiaeoaa eiee/anoai aa?eaioia nio?oaeie/anoaa
ai anao iaeanoyo aeciana. I?e yoii niiniaa o?ai/aeca? i?iaeaao
eeoeaiceth /anoiui eeoeai eee ae?oaei eiiiaieyi ia i?aai ioe?uoey
iaaaceiia, eeineia eee oeaeuo a?oii iaaaceiia aeey i?iaeaaee iieoiaoaeyi
iaai?a i?iaeoeoia e oneoa iiae eiaiai o?ai/aeca?a.

A ?innee enoeiiui ia?aii?ioiaeoeai o?ai/aeceiaa noaea
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiay oe?ia ..AeIEA” (a. Oieueyooe), eioi?ay aicieeea
a 1990 a. e n yoiai iiiaioa, ianiio?y ia ana naie aiciiaeiinoe,
caieiaeanue eneeth/eoaeueii i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth.
Iai?aaeaiea yoie aeayoaeueiinoe ii?aaeaeeeinue oaeaea i?aeoe/anee n
iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey. Yoi auei i?iecaiaenoai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey iaeeiai
e n?aaeiaai aeciana. Io?aneue a eioi?ie ?aaioaea IIO AeIEA ia
i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeeaoee ?acaeaaeanue ii oae iacuaaaiiio inoaoi/iiio
i?eioeeio. A no?aia i?iecaiaeeeinue iai?oaeiaaiea ii ia?a?aaioea
naeueoici?iaeoeoeee, ii iii auei i?aaeiacia/aii aeey aieueoeo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caaiaeia, a ieie iaea?ie, niiniaiua iaania/eoue oeaaii
iaaieueoie ?aeii, iao. Eiia e ia o?aaiaaeinue—neiy iacaaeneiuo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaaea i?inoi ia nouanoaiaaei.

A nayce n iieeoe/aneeie e yeiiiie/aneeie eciaiaieyie a no?aia,
iiyaeaieai iacaaeneiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae anoae aii?in i nicaeaiee
aeinooiiiai ii oeaia, ea/anoaaiiiai e auno?iieoiaaiiai ioa/anoaaiiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey.

A oio iiiaio aai eaoano?ioe/anee ia oaaoaei. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?aaeeueiinoue oaeiai iai?aaeaiey iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oai, /oi oe?ia
«AeIEA», i?iaiaey ia i?ioyaeaiee o?ao eao aeoeaiua eiino?oeoi?neea e
oaoiieiae/aneea ?ac?aaioee a iaeanoe nicaeaiey iai?oaeiaaiey ii
ia?a?aaioea naeueoici?iaeoeoeee e ?ac?aaioea i?eaeiaeueiuo oaoiieiaee
i?eaioiaeaiey ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia, noaea iaeiei ec aaaeoueo e e?oiiaeoeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae iiaeiaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Nioie i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, ?aaioay ia iai?oaeiaaiee oe?iu ai anao oaieeao
no?aiu, iieo/aee aunieoth aa?aioe?iaaiioth i?eaueue. Ioeoeeaeueiua
aeeea?u n/eoaee auaiaeiie e ia?niaeoeaiie ?aaioo eiaiii a i?iaeaaea
iai?oaeiaaiey IIO «AeIEA».

A ?innee e no?aiao aeeaeiaai ca?oaaaeuey iniaaiii oi?ioi ecaanoai
ia?aaiaoe IIO «AeIEA»—eeiey ii i?iecaiaenoao o?onoyuaai ea?oioaey
(/einia).

Aoi?ay oe?ieiianooaaiay i?ia?aiia oe?iu—i?ia?aiia «AeIEA-IEOeOeA».
«AeIEA-IEOeOeA» yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eiiieaeo iai?oaeiaaiey aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa ieoeoeu. Oniaoo i?ia?aiiu «AeIEA-IEOeOeA» ai iiiaii
niinianoaoao e oi, /oi i?e aa ?aaeecaoeee aia?aua a enoi?ee ?inneeneiai
aeciana IIO «AeIEA» i?eiaieea o?ai/aeceiaiaoth nenoaio .

Ia?aeeaeueii n inouanoaeaieai i?ia?aiiu «AeIEA-IEOeOeA» oe?ia i?enooieea
e ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aiiu «AeIEA-OEAA”. Eiiieaeo ieie-oeaaiiaea?ie
i?aaeiacia/ai aeey eniieueciaaiey iaeuie e n?aaeieie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie,
i?aaei?eyoeyie. Iai?oaeiaaiea auei ni?iaeoe?iaaii oaeei ia?acii, /oiau
aai iiaeii auei onoaiiaeoue a iaaieueoii iiiauaiee, aianoe a
iaueiiaaiioth aeaa?ue, ia aeaeay niaoeeaeueiie ia?ano?ieee. Eiee/anoai
ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea (2—3 /aeiaaea) naiaeeei e ieieioio iaeeaaeiua
?anoiaeu.

?acaa?ouaaiea oe?ieie naoe ieie-oeaaiiaea?ai «AeIEA-OEAA” a
eaaeaeii ai?iaeneii eaa?oaea, iinaeea, a eaaeaeii naea ioaa/aei
iio?aaiinoyi a?aiaie, iicaieyei ?aoeoue aaaeiaeooth i?iaeaio iaania/aiey
ianaeaiey oeaaii, i?aa?aoeoue oeaaiiaea?ioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue a
nia?aiaiioth io?aneue.

I?ia?aiia «AeIEA-OEAA”, eae e i?ia?aiia «AeIEA-IEOeOeA”,
?acaa?ouaaeanue ia iniiaa nenoaiu o?ai/aeceiaa, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao
oe?ieoth ?aeeaiioth eaiiaieth ai anao n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee n
aiciiaeiinoueth aeey iieoiaoaey iai?oaeiaaiey eniieueciaaoue oe?iei
ecaanoioth oi?aiaoth ia?eo «AeIEA-IEOeOeA” e «AeIEA-OEAA” a aeaea
auaanee e ae?oaie ?aeeaiiie ao?eaooeee, n iao/aieai ia?niiaea a
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiii o/aaiii oeaio?a e ia?aaea/ae «nae?aoia» ianoa?noaa,
?aoeaioia e oaoiieiaee i?eaioiaeaiey ieoeoeu e oeaaiia/aiey, n
?ac?aaioeie yeiiiie/aneeo iainiiaaiee auaiaeiinoe yoiai aeaea aeciana,
au?aaioeie i?eaeiaeueiiai oe?iaiiiai noeey, iinoiyiiie naycueth oe?iu n
iieoiaoaeyie iai?oaeiaaiey.

Niaeanii iiaieth iiiaeo yenia?oia, o?ai/aeceia eae niinia aaaeaiey
aeciana eciaiee ia?ac Aia?eee. I?eia? iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oe?iu
«AeIEA” ec a. Oieueyooe iieacuaaao, /oi e a ?innee aiciiaeiu oaeea aea
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey, a nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa iicaieeo onei?eoue e
cae?aieoue iaeiieaiiua ciaiey a aeaea ioe?uoey e i?iaeieaeaiey auniei
?aioaaaeueiiai, nia?aiaiiiai aeciana.

E niaeaeaieth, ii neiaai a-i Aeiaaaiy, iinea aaaaeaiey iaoei
ainoaea?noaii iaeiaa ia iiaeeeth/aiea iai?oaeiaaiey e yeaeo?inaoe, yoio
aecian noae ia auaiaeai, oae eae iieoiaoaeth iai?oaeiaaiey i?eoiaeeeinue
ieaoeoue noiio ?aaioth noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey ca iiaeeeth/aiea aai e
yeaeo?inaoe.

Neaaeothuaa aeaoeua a-ia Aeiaaaiy ei?ii?aoeey «Aeiaaaiue – Caueuaiiia
Ea/anoai». A e?aoeie oi?ia yoi i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay: i?iaeaaea
i?iecaiaeeoaeyi ?ane?o/aiiie oi?aiaie ia?ee. Aieueoay ?aeeaiiay eaiiaiey
ec iaeiiai oeaio?a, ioaaouaaao naiaia?aciui ciioeeii ana oiaa?u,
i?iecaiaeeiua iiae aeaiiie oi?aiaie ia?eie. Ei?ii?aoeey ia inouanoaeyao
eiaanoeoeee a i?iecaiaeeoaeae, ia noaiiaeony nianoaaiieeii i?aaei?eyoee.
Ei?ii?aoeey iaeaaeaao oieueei eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoueth:

oi?aiaay ia?ea

ianii?o ea/anoaa

iaeioi?ua oe?iaiiua ?aoeaiou ( a iniiaiii ii aiaeea )

No?oeoo?o ei?ii?aoeee iiaeii oneiaii iiaeaeeoue ia i?ia?aiiu,
caieiathueany aaaeaieai ia?aaiai?ia, i?iaeaaeae oiaa?iiai ciaea, e
neoaeaa nauoa, i?iaeathuay i?iecaaaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. I?e/ai caaiaeu
naie iiaoo i?iaeaaaoue naith i?iaeoeoeeth, ieioy Ei?ii?aoeeth. Io
eiia/ii th?eaee/aneay neoaeaa, neoaeaa aeinoaaee e o.ae.

A aeaiiue iiiaio y au oioae auaeaeeoue aua iaeio eiiiaieth,
caieiathuothny o?ai/aeceiaii. Yoi ?inneenei-Aaianoyeueneia i?aaei?eyoea
«?ineioa?». Iiae aai aaaeaieai iaoiaeyony oaeea ?anoi?aiu eae: Eiiaen,
?inoeen, IaoeiIeoeoea, A?oenoeei, Naioa Oa, Aia?eeai Aa? & A?eeue. A
aeaiiue iiiaio iie i?iaeatho o?aioecu ia ?inoee’n Iaoei Ieoeoea. ss
i?aaeeaaath Aaoaio aieiaieth iauyaeaiea i nio?oaeie/anoaa, iieo/aiiia
iiith ec INTERNET.

*oi oaeia o?ai/aeceia?

O?ai/aeceia – ioiineoaeueii iiaay oi?ia ia?oia?neeo ioiioaiee a ?innee e
NIA. A caaeneiinoe io iieeoeee eiiiaiee, aa no?oeoo?u, aiciiaeiinoae
eiaanoe?iaaiey e iiiaeo ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny
?aciiia?aciua oi?iu o?ai/aeceiaa. Nooue o?ai/aeceiaa caeeth/aaony a
iiaeaea?aeaiee e ?ani?ino?aiaiee eiioeaioeee, eioi?ua eiatho aan e
i?eciaiea ia ?uiea, a oaeaea a oii, /oiau iiii/ue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi,
ia/eiathuei aecianiaiai e eiaanoi?ai, nicaeathuei naia iiaia aeaei eee
aeeaa?neoeoee?othuei naith aeayoaeueiinoue, ecaaaeaoue cao?oaeiaiee e
iaonoie/eainoe, niioonoaothueo iiaui ia/eiaieyi.

Eaeoth oi?io o?ai/aeceiaa i?aaeeaaaao ?inEioa?

O/eouaay ii?aaaeaaoee naay iooue, i?ieaeaiiue iaoae eiiiaieae, ?inEioa?
caeioa?aniaai a ia?oia?ao, eioi?ua oaea yaeythony e/eee oioyo noaoue
o/anoieeaie oniaoiiai ?anoi?aiiiai aeciana.

Iu i?aaeeaaaai iaoei ia?oia?ai iio-oao e iiaeaea?aeeo ia anao yoaiao
i?aaiecaoeee aeaiiiai aeciana. Yoi aeeth/aao: eiinoeueoaoeee a auai?a
iiiauaiee, ieacaiea iiiiue a ?aaioa n iiae?yae/eeaie (ii ia?a
iaiaoiaeeiinoe), caeoiea iai?oaeiaaiey, nicaeaiea nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey,
?acuyniaiea oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, iao/aiea ia?niiaea, i?aaiecaoeey
neeaaeneeo iia?aoeee, i?aaiecaoeey iinoaaie ea/anoaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia,
oaeouay iia?aoeaiay iiaeaea?aeea. Io iaoeo ia?oia?ia o?aaoaony
iaania/eoue iieiia niioaaonoaea noaiaea?oai ea/anoaa, i?eiyoui a iaoeo
?anoi?aiao, 100%-a eiaanoe?iaaiea i?iaeoa e oi?ioaa iiiauaiea a oeaio?a
ai?iaea.

O?ai/aeceiaiaue iaeao:

A ianoiyuee iiiaio iu i?aaeeaaaai iaoei iioaioeeaeueiui ia?oia?ai aeaa
eiioeaioeee: ?inoee’n, Iaoei Ieoeoea.

I?e/ai yoi ia aaeeie/iue aa?eaio. Nouanoaotho nienee eiiiaiee aioiauo
nio?oaeie/aoue. Iie ioaeeeotho naie i?aaeeiaeaiey, caieiathony aeoeaiie
naii?aeeaiie. Eae i?eia?, i?eaiaeo oaeia iauyaeaiea a i?eeiaeaiee 1.

Aua i/aiue eioa?aniue aii?in i aeaeiaii o?ai/aeceiaa aue cao?iioo a
noaouea i ninoiyiee ?eyeoi?neiai aeciana a ?innee

?EYEOI?U AUNOOIATHO A AIIEOA “IAEAeIIAEUeAeNA”

Iaeia ec naiuo ino?uo iniaaiiinoae oi?aiaee eaa?oe?aie ninoieo a oii,
/oi ?aoaoue ianoaiaea?oiua i?iaeaiu eeeaioia eo/oa iieo/aaony o
iaaieueoeo oe?i. Iaeiaei eeoue e?oiiay eiiiaiey iiaeao iaania/eoue
aunieee o?iaaiue i?ioanneiiaeecia i?e ioi?ieaiee naeaeee. Ii oaia?ue
niinia ?ac?aoaiey yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey, eaaeaony iaeaeai – eniieueciaaiea
aai, ai?i/ai, iaaaciianii aeey ?eyeoi?neeo oe?i.

EAE YOI I?IENOIAeEO O IAN

I?iaeaiu, eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony ?aoaoue aaaionoaai iaaeaeaeeiinoe, neeueii
caaenyo io eo ?acia?a. Iaeaiueeei oe?iai o?oaeii iieo/eoue iaiaoiaeeiua
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua eeoeaicee ia ?eyeoi?neoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Ei neiaeii
iaania/eoue i?ioanneiiaeueioth iiaeaioiaeo naiaai ia?niiaea. E?iia oiai,
niaea?aeaiea oeaeiai ooaoa niaoeeaeenoia, iaania/eaathueo auno?oth e
th?eaee/anee aacoi?a/ioth ?aaeno?aoeeth naeaeee e aaciianiia i?iaaaeaiea
acaeii?an/aoia iaaeaeo aa o/anoieeaie aeey iaaieueoie oe?iu i?inoi
iaeeaaeii. E?oiiua eiiiaiee eaaei ?aoatho yoio e?oa aii?inia, ii o ieo
aicieeatho ae?oaea o?oaeiii?aiaeieeiua i?iaeaiu: /ai aieueoa
?ac?anoaaony ia?niiae, oai neiaeiaa ieacuaaaony iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiia
oi?aaeaiea. A ie?a oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia i?aeoeea iino?iaiey
?eyeoi?neiai aeciana ia a i?eau/iie iai oi?ia aaeeiie eiiiaiee,
inouanoaeythuae aanue eiiieaen oneoa a iaeanoe ianeoaeeaaiey naeaeie n
iaaeaeaeeiinoueth, a a aeaea naoe oe?i, iauaaeeiaiiuo aaeeinoaii
oaoiieiaee – o?aioecu. Caieaaineay i?aeoeea iinoaiaiii i?iaeaaao aei?iao
ia oa??eoi?eth iaoae no?aiu. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi o?ai/aeceia aiaae?yaony
ioa/anoaaiiuie ?eyeoi?aie a ona/aiiii aeaea, ii iicaieyao ?aoeoue
iaeioi?ua i?iaeaiu, naea?aeeaaaoea aei neo ii? aiciiaeiinoe ?acaeoey
?uiea. I?aaaea, i?e yoii nicaeathony iiaua neiaeiinoe, /anoi i/aiue
na?ueaciua. Ii ia yoii iicaea. Ia?aui e?oiiui i?iaeoii, ia i?aeoeea
?aaeecothuei a noa?a iaaeaeaeeiinoe eaeae o?ai/aeceiaa, noaei nicaeaiea
naoe ec aeanyoe oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa Iineianeie
oeaio?aeueiie ae?aeae iaaeaeaeeiinoe (IOeAI). Nia/aea aicieeea eaeay
nicaeaiey ioaeaeaiey ae?aee a ?aciuo ?aeiiao noieeoeu, /oiau
iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeceoue oneoae IOeAI e iio?aaeoaeth. Ii yoi iio?aaiaaei
au io i?aaei?eyoey eieinnaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee a iaono?ienoai e
niaea?aeaiea iiauo ioenia, ia aiai?y oaea i aeeeoaeueiii ia?eiaea
noaiiaeaiey aeciana a ioi?aaiiii io aieiaiie eiioi?u eieeaeoeaa. E aio
?aoaii auei naeaeaoue aee?aeoi?ia oa??eoi?eaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa eo
niaeaaeaeueoeaie. Ii nooe eaaeaeue ioe?uaaaiue oeeeae IOeAI noaiiaeeny
naiinoiyoaeueiie eiiia?/aneie no?oeoo?ie, any ioaaonoaaiiinoue (a oii
/enea e oeiainiaay) ca i?ioeaaoaiea eioi?ie eiaeeeanue ia iea/e aa
?oeiaiaeeoaey-niaeaaeaeueoea. Oi?ia acaeiiioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoee ia
ianoao e aieiaiiai ioena IOeAI aieaa anaai oeeaaeuaaaony eiaiii a
iiiyoea “o?ai/aeceia”, oioy aai eeanne/aneia iiieiaiea – i?aaeinoaaeaiea
oaoiieiaee e oi?aiaie ia?ee – i?aoa?iaei caeanue iaeioi?oth
o?ainoi?iaoeeth. Anee a eeanne/aneie noaia eiiiaiey-o?ai/aece aaaeao
aecian naiinoiyoaeueii, a o?ai/aeca? nin?aaeioa/eaaaony ia ?ac?aaioea
iiauo oaoiieiaee e ?aeeaiiie iiaeaea?aeea, oi a nenoaia IOeAI auei
i?iaaaeaii /aoeia ?acaeaeaiea ooieoeee iaaeaeo aieiaiie eiiiaieae e
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaaie. Ii nooe, ioe?uaaaiue oeeeae aa?ao ia naay eeoue
i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth ?aaioo n eeeaioaie ii iiaeaioiaea naeaeie. A
i?iaaaeaiea eiio?aeoa /a?ac iioa?eao e i?aaiu ain?aaeno?aoeee – caaioa
aieiaiiai ioena. Caiaoei, /oi oa??eoi?eaeueiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai ia
yaeyaony ?eyeoi?neie oe?iie a iieiii niunea yoiai neiaa, iineieueeo o
iaai ionoonoaoao eeoeaicey ia i?aai ?aaiou n iaaeaeaeeiinoueth. A
nicaeaiiie ?aeiiiie no?oeoo?a nio?oaeieee naiinoiyoaeueii aioiayo
eaaeaeoth naeaeeo – aei oiai iiiaioa, eiaaea ioaeii aoaeao aa
?aaeno?e?iaaoue. Aeey yoiai oa??eoi?eaeueiia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
?aniieaaaao aeiaa?aiiinoueth aieiaiie eiiiaiee. A iacia/aiiue aeey
niaa?oaiey naeaeee /an aa o/anoieee i?eacaeatho a aieiaiie ioen e a
aeaenoaea anooiaao io?aaioaiiue iaoaieci n o/anoeai ae?aeaaiai
iioa?eona, ioaeaea ?aaeno?aoeee e niaoeeaeueiiai ioaeaeaiey aaiea. E?iia
oiai, i?eaeaeaaony neoaeaa io?aiu, caieiathuayny iaania/aieai
aaciianiinoe o/anoieeia naeaeee aei e iinea aeaiaaeiuo acaeii?an/aoia.
Iiiuoee nicaeaiey nianoaaiiuo ioaeaeaiee, ianeoaeeaathueo ii?aaeaeaiiua
ai?iaeneea oa??eoi?ee, i?aaei?eieiaee e ae?oaea eiiiaiee. Aaaionoai
iaaeaeaeeiinoe “NAAA” ianeieueei eao iacaae nicaeaei oeeeae ia noa?ii
A?aaoa. Aeaei ia caaeaeinue. Eeeaiou, aeeaoea a ?aeiia A?aaoa, ana ?aaii
i?aaeii/eoaee aoaoue a aieiaiie ioen eiiiaiee, ?aniieiaeaiiue aeiaieueii
aeaeaei io oeaio?a noieeoeu. Iaoaea/o naiae iiiuoee ?oeiaiaeeoaee
eiiiaiee iauyniytho neaaeothuei: iianaynue ca aaciianiinoue naiaai
eiouanoaa, eeeaio aei naeaeee iaycaoaeueii oi/ao oaaaeeoueny a
nieeaeiinoe eiiiaiee, iiniio?aa ia aa ooaa-eaa?oe?o.

EAE YOI I?IENOIAeEO O IEO

I?aeoeea o?ai/aeceiaa a noa?a iaaeaeaeeiinoe oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaia ia
Caiaaea. Oai aieiaiay eiiiaiey iinoaaeyao naiei o?ai/aece iieiue iaeao
?acee/iuo i?ia?aii ii anai iai?aaeaieyi ?eyeoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?eia?aoy eioi?ua, iiaeii nicaeaoue aioiaue aecian – aeeth/ay aeaaea
i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou aeey ioena e oanou ii iaai?o eaae?ia. Ii nooe
aeaea, iieoiea o?aioecu – yoi /enoia aeiaeaiea eaieoaea iiae i?ioeaio,
i?e eioi?ii nai eiaanoi? ioithaeue ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai nai
caieiaoueny oi?aaeaieai iiaie eiiiaieae, a iiaeao iaiyoue aeey yoiai
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai iaiaaeaea?a. Ii iieo/aiea i?yiiai aeioiaea io ?aaiou
oe?iu – ia aaeeinoaaiiay aiciiaeiay a aeaiiii neo/aa oeaeue. A iaaeaaiae
enoi?ee aia?eeaineiai ?uiea iaaeaeaeeiinoe aue i/aiue iieacaoaeueiue
neo/ae. Iaeay eiiiaiey i?eia?aea n?aco o?e e?oiiaeoeo aia?eeaineeo
o?ai/aeceiaa. Eoieaiiua eiiiaiee a niaieoiiinoe eiio?iee?iaaee
aeaaaeoeaoue i?ioeaioia aoi?e/iiai ?uiea iaaeaeaeeiinoe NOA, a a yoie
no?aia i?e iia?aoeeyo n aeeeueai /?acau/aeii ?ani?ino?aiaia eiioaea –
e?aaeeoiaaiea iiae caeia. Iinea ia?aoaiey eiiiaieyie iiaiai aeaaeaeueoea
ana iie a iaeei aiein noaee ?aeiiaiaeiaaoue eeeaioai iieueciaaoueny
eiioa/iuie oneoaaie oieueei iaeiie no?oeoo?u – oie, eioi?ay noiyea ca
naeaeeie. Ieacaeinue, auea inouanoaeaia neiaeiay aeaoooiaeiaay
eiiaeiaoeey aeey oiai, /oiau ?acii iieo/eoue aeaaaeoeaoue i?ioeaioia
aia?eeaineiai ?uiea eiioaee. Caiaoei, /oi noieiinoue o?ai/aeceiaiaie
naoe a NOA ninoaaeyao ianeieueei aeanyoeia, iaeneioi nioai ouny/
aeieea?ia. E iio?aoea ia iieoieo o?ao naoae iaiueoa ieeeeiia aeieea?ia,
eiaanoi? iieo/ee eiio?ieue iaae iyoie /anoueth iiiaiieeeea?aeiiai
aia?eeaineiai ?uiea e?aaeeoiaaiey iiae caeia aeeeuey.

EAE YOI AOAeAO O IAN

Aio eae i?ieiiiaioe?iaae aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeoey o?ai/aeceiaa a
ioa/anoaaiiii ?eyeoi?neii aeciana i?aceaeaio ?inneeneie aeeueaeee
?eyeoi?ia Eiinoaioei Ai?aeaa: “Ia iiae iaiyoe ?aneieieinue naiiaaeoeaoue
iineianeeo aaaionoa iaaeaeaeeiinoe – eiaiii ec-ca oiai, /oi iie
nicaeaaaee i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. I?e eieaeecaoeee iaeaiueeiai eieeaeoeaa
o iaai auno?i iiyaeythony naie nianoaaiiua eioa?anu, iacaaeneiua io
eioa?ania oe?iu”.

Iaeia ec naiuo no?aoiuo aieaciae ?eyeoi?neiai aeciana caeeth/aaony a
aei?iaiaecia iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia, eioi?uo aiineaaenoaee i/aiue
eaaei iioa?youe. I?e nicaeaiee o?ai/aece eee oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ioaeaeaiee
yoi i?ioeai?a/ea iiaeao nua?aoue ?ieue ieiu caiaaeeaiiiai aeaenoaey,
ni?iaioee?iaaa ?aniaae eiiiaiee. Ii iiaieth a-ia Ai?aeaaa, o?ai/aeceia a
ioa/anoaaiiie iaaeaeaeeiinoe aiciiaeai, ii ia nae/an – a no?aia iao eae
oaeiaiai o?ai/aeceiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Ai?i/ai,
caeiiiaeaoaeueioth aaco iiae o?ai/aeceia iiaeaaea iiaay ?aaeaeoeey
A?aaeaeaineiai Eiaeaena, aaaaey iiiyoea eiiia?/aneie eiioeannee. A 54
aeaaa 2-e /anoe AE iaiaa?eaaaony: “Ii aeiaiai?o eiiia?/aneie eiioeannee
iaeia noi?iia (i?aaiiaeaaeaoaeue) iaycoaony i?aaeinoaaeoue ae?oaie
noi?iia (iieueciaaoaeth) ca aiciaa?aaeaeaiea (…) i?aai eniieueciaaoue
a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe iieueciaaoaey eiiieaen
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo i?aaiiaeaaeaoaeth, a oii /enea
i?aai ia oe?iaiiia iaeiaiiaaiea (…), ia io?aiyaioth eiiia?/aneoth
eioi?iaoeeth, a oaeaea ia ae?oaea i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeiaiai?ii iauaeou
eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa -oiaa?iue ciae, ciae ianeoaeeaaiey e o.ae.” Eiaiii
a eniieueciaaiee eiiia?/aneie eiioeannee aeaeeo aoaeouaa o?ai/aeceiaa
?oeiaiaenoai IOeAI. E eiaao ia yoi ii?aaeaeaiiua iniiaaiey.
I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai IOeAI a iiaeiineiaiii ai?iaea Caeaiia?aaea auei
ioe?uoi eiaiii ii yoie iiaeaee. Ianeieueei iacaaeneiuo caeaiia?aaeneeo
a?iea?ia ia?aoeeenue a eiiiaieth n i?inueaie ?ac?aoeoue ei
iieueciaaoueny eiaiai ae?aee. I?e yoii iie naie iaoee iiiauaiea aeey
naiae ?aaiou, iieaoeee aai a?aiaeo, a ae?aea ii aeiaiai?o eiiia?/aneie
eiioeannee i?aaeinoaaeea ei naith oi?aiaoth ia?eo. E?iia oiai,
caeaiia?aaeneia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai iieo/eei eeoeaiceth e i?aai
naiinoiyoaeueii ?aaeno?e?iaaoue naeaeee, ia ia?auaynue aeey yoiai a
iineianeee ioen IOeAI. Niaaeeiaiea ecaanoiie oi?aiaie ia?ee e eiiaiaeu
iiuoiuo ?eyeoi?ia, oi?ioi ciathueo caeaiia?aaeneee ?uiie iaaeaeaeeiinoe,
aeaei auno?ue yooaeo. Aiiaue ioe?uaoaany i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai a oa/aiea
ei?ioeiai n?iea niiaei caoaaoeoue a Caeaiia?aaea aeieth ?uiea,
n?aaieioth n oie, eioi?oth eiatho a yoii iiaeiineiaiii ai?iaea oaeea
e?oiiua aaaionoaa, eae “Ieyeue” e “Ii?a”. Ii iiaieth ?oeiaiaenoaa IOeAI,
eiiia?/aneay eiioeanney iicaieeo iieiinoueth ?aaeeciaaoue i?aeiouanoaa
o?ai/aeceiaiaie iiaeaee ia ?uiea iaaeaeaeeiinoe. Aeey aua aieueoaai
?anoe?aiey naoe i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa ae?aea caeiaeeea a aeiaiai? n
iieueciaaoaeyie eiioeannee iaycaoaeuenoai iineaaeieo ioe?uaaoue a naith
i/a?aaeue ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai noaeiioeannee – i?aaeinoaaeyoue
o?aoueei eeoeai oio aea eiiieaen oneoa, eioi?ue IOeAI aeaao
eiioeanneiia?ai. Oi anoue o?ai/aeceiaiaay nenoaia ae?aee aeieaeia ?anoe
n?aco ia aeaoo o?iaiyo, ioeonuaay o eiieo?aioia ana iiaua e iiaua aeiee
?uiea. Aii?in i oii, eaeea ia?u i?ioeaiaeaenoaey i?aaei?eioo eiieo?aiou,
inoaaony ioe?uoui.

Iiieii yoie noaouee y au oioae ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia ia?aciaaiea iaoeo
eiiia?naioia ia oieueei a oeaio?aeueiii ?aaeiia, ii e oaeaeaiiuo.

Ia eneeth/aii, /oi a eaeneeiia aecianiaiia e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae I?eii?uey
nei?i iiyayony iiaua neiaa – “o?ai/aeceia”, “o?aioeca”, “?iyeoe”,
eeoeaicey “Ianoa?”. Ii yoi aoaeao ia aeaiueth iiaea, a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth. 20 oaa?aey ai Aeaaeeainoiea ia/iaony naieia?
“O?ai/aeceia a ?innee” aeey aeaeiauo ethaeae I?eii?uey, aaea
Aia?eeaineee oeaio? iiaeaea?aeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa niaianoii n
e?aaaie e ai?iaeneie aaeieieno?aoeeyie iaia?aiu iiciaeiieoue n iiaie
aeey ?innee, yooaeoeaiie nenoaiie aeeno?eaooeee (?ani?aaeaeaiey).

Niiini?aie naieia?a yaeythony Aaaionoai ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ?acaeoeth
NOA, Neaee Eioa?iyoie, eiinoeueoaiou ii o?aioeca ec ?aciuo no?ai e
oeaio?a iiaeaea?aeee aeciana “Aeaeieo e Ooo”. Eaeoeee i?i/ooo ainiiaea
Oeiia e Aeaeii Neioo -o/?aaeeoaeue e nio/?aaeeoaeue eiiiaiee “Oanoo?aei
NOA”. O/anoieee naieia?a aoaeoo ?aaioaoue o?e aeiy. Aeaa ec ieo
iinayuathony iaci?iui oaiai, e iaeei – aeaoaeueiiio iciaeiieaieth n
eco/aaiui i?aaeiaoii oaea aeey oao, eoi oi/ao iieo/eoue aae?ana,
oaeaoiiu, caaycaoue ioiioaiey e onoaiiaeoue eiioaeou, /oiau iieo/oa
ociaoue, /ai caieiathony o?ai/aeceiaiaua i?aaei?eyoey. O/anoieee
naieia?a iieo/ao iaeao aeieoiaioia ia ?onneii ycuea e “?oeiaiaenoai ii
o?ai/aeceiao”, aaoi?ii eioi?iai yaeyaony th?eno e eiinoeueoaio ii
o?ai/aeceiao, a?aaeaeaiei Aaeeeia?eoaiee Ia?oei Iaiaeaeuenii.

Eiiiaiey Neaee Eioa?iyoie, eioi?ay i?iaiaeeo naieia?, iieo/eea a?aio io
Aaaionoaa ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ?acaeoeth ia i?iaaaeaiea naieia?ia a
?innee. Aa oeaeue – niinianoaiaaoue oiio, /oiau 1996 aiae noae aiaeii
o?ai/aeceiaa a ?innee. Yoiio aoaeoo iinayuaiu naieia?u aua a naie
ai?iaeao no?aiu, aaea ?aniieiaeaiu oeaio?u iiaeaea?aeee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Eae niiauee eiinoeueoaio i?ia?aiiu ?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa Oieoa?
Iaoy?, o?ai/aeceia iiaeao caeioa?aniaaoue aecianiaiia e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae I?eii?uey, iaia?aaathueony ioe?uoue eee oaea eiathueo
naia aeaei a noa?a oneoa ianaeaieth. Ii aeaao aeiiieieoaeueioth
aiciiaeiinoue oeiaine?iaaiey. Caieiaynue ei, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iaiueoa
?eneoao, /oi aeaeaao aai aecian aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiui aeey aaieia,
eioi?ua iiea ia o/anoaotho a oeiaine?iaaiee iaeiai aeciana. Iaeiiaoe,
o?ai/aeceia ioe?uaaao iooue, ii eioi?iio iiaeii eiii?oe?iaaoue
ca?oaaaeiue iiuo a ?inneth.

Eiiiaiey Neaee Eioa?iyoie iiiiaaao oai, eoi caieiaaony noa?ie oneoa. O
iaa anoue iiuo ?aaiou a i?aaiecaoeee i?a/a/iuo. Iia caeioa?aniaaia a
oii, /oiau ?ani?ino?aiyoue aeaeueoa naia aeeyiea e i?aaieciaaoue oaeea
eiiiaiee, eae eiiiaiee auno?iai ieoaiey, aaoinoaioeee, noaioeee ii
?aiiioo aaoiiiaeeae…

– A Iineaa anoue o?ai/aeceiaiaay eiiiaiey – i?a/a/iay “Aieoaie
e?enoaee”. Iu iaaeaainy i?eaacoe ethaeae, eioi?ua eiatho iiuo ii
i?aaiecaoeee yoie eiiiaiee, ai Aeaaeeainoie, -neacae Oieoa? Iaoy?. – Iie
i?ieiinoeueoe?otho ianoiuo aecianiaiia. A ?innee aiiaua e a I?eii?uea a
/anoiinoe nouanoaoao oe?ieia iiea aeayoaeueiinoe, iiiai iai?aaeaiee, ii
eioi?ui iiaeii ?aaioaoue. Iu ?acaiaa?eaaee n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
?onnei-Aia?eeaineiai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai oiiaea, eioi?ue nio?oaeie/aao n
Aeaeue?uaaaieii. Iie iieacaee caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a yoie i?ia?aiia e ia
eneeth/eee aiciiaeiinoue i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoia.

O?ai/aeceia iicaieyao iai?aaeyoue e eiio?iee?iaaoue ?ene. Ii aeaiiui
noaoenoeee NOA, a noa?a oneoa iau/ii ?aniaaeaaony 75 i?ioeaioia oieueei
/oi i?aaieciaaiiiai aeciana. A a nenoaia o?ai/aeceiaa – auaeeaaao 85
i?ioeaioia. Aua iaeei iaiaeiaaaeiue aai aniaeo – ii i?aaeinoaaeyao
eiioeaioeeth ?acaeoey aeciana a aoaeouai. A oi aea a?aiy yoi aeaeay
nenoaia naia ii naaa.

I?aaeeiaeaiey ii o?ai/aeceiao

1.Iiiaioaeueiay oeiia?aoey

2.Oeie/aneay /enoea ca 1 /an

3.?anoaa?aoeey oaoie/aneeo e?uo

4.I?ioanneiiaeueiua aoeou

5.Eeinee i?iyaee e ia/aoe oioi ca 1 /an

6.N?i/iay oeie/aneay /enoea iaeaaeaeu n aeecaioaeoeeae

7.Oeie/aneay /enoea n aaeeiie oeaiie

8.?anoaa?aoeey naioceia e ea?aie/aneie ieeoee ia aeiio

9.Eaea?noaaiiua o?aau, iaoo?aeueiua einiaoe/aneea e aeeaoe/aneea
i?aia?aou

10.Oeaio? caei?iauey. (Aioeoaaa/iay e ae?oaea oa?aiee)

11.Iieea aaoiiiaeeae. Iai?oaeiaaiea aunieiai aeaaeaiey

12.Oeie/aneay /enoea ca 1 /an

13.Iiiaioaeueiay ia/aoue (oeiia?aoey)

14.Iiiaioaeueiia ecaioiaeaiea aoeo

15.?anoi?ai auno?iai ianeoaeeaaiey

16.Auia/ea naeiaiuo e?oanaiia

17.Ea?aie/aneea iie?uoey

18.I?iaeaaea iaoo?aeueiuo i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiu e einiaoeee

19.Oneoae ii oai?ea i?aaei?eyoee e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo iiiauaiee

OI?AIAAss IA?EA prontaprint!

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

PRONTAPRINT IBERICA

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

Iiiaioaeueiay oeiia?aoey

Eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?:

122

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1986

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

Nianoaaiiua:

*a?ac o?aioecu:

1

9

Ioaeaeaiea ca ?oaaaeii:

386

Aiaeiaie iauai ?aaeecaoeee:

135 000 000 $

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

Anooieoaeueiue aciin:

30 000 $

?iyeoe (io/eneaiey io iai?ioa):

5 % io iai?ioa

Io/eneaiea ia ?aeeaio:

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee

(ioeaii/ii):

160 000 – 170 000 $

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue

ianaeaiey ?aeiia:

50 000 aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

90 -100 ea. i

AEaeaoaeueiia ?aniieiaeaiea:

Aiaeiaie iai?io (ioeaii/ii):

300 000 $

Aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey:

Eiaanoeoeey aeeth/aao: ?aaioo,
aeaei?aoeeth,

anooieoaeueiue aciin,
iai?oaeiaaiea,

iao/aiea e o.ae.

OI?AIAAss IA?EA 5 a sec

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

NUEVO EN SECO S.A.

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

Oeie/aneay /enoea ca 1 /an

Eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?:

26

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1968

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

Nianoaaiiua:

*a?ac o?aioecu:

2

32

Ioaeaeaiea ca ?oaaaeii:

900

Aiaeiaie iauai ?aaeecaoeee:

235 000 000 $

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

Anooieoaeueiue aciin:

12 500 $

?iyeoe (io/eneaiey io iai?ioa):

1 – 1,5 %

Io/eneaiea ia ?aeeaio:

1 – 2 %

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee (ioeaii/ii):

170 000 – 250 000 $

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ?aeiia:

50 000aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

70 ea. i

AEaeaoaeueiia ?aniieiaeaiea:

Aiaeiaie iai?io (ioeaii/ii):

260 000 $

Aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey:

Aa?iiaeneee eeaea? a
iaeanoe

OI?AIAAss IA?EA A Coustic Cleanings

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

DESARROLLO DE ACOUSTIC

CLEANINGS ESPANA S.L.

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

?anoaa?aoeey oaoie/aneeo e?uo

Eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?:

28

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1993

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

Nianoaaiiua:

*a?ac o?aioecu:

1

30

Ioaeaeaiea ca ?oaaaeii:

O?aioeey, Ii?ooaaeey

Aiaeiaie iauai ?aaeecaoeee:

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

Anooieoaeueiue aciin:

12 500 $

?iyeoe (io/eneaiey io iai?ioa):

3 %

Io/eneaiea ia ?aeeaio:

aei 3 %

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee (ioeaii/ii):

17 500 $ aeeth/ay ?anoiaeiue
iaoa?eae

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey

?aeiia:

500 000 aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe

AEaeaoaeueiia ?aniieiaeaiea:

Aiaeiaie iai?io (ioeaii/ii):

83 000 – 125 000 $

Caia/aiey

Ia?eiae iao/aiey ia?niiaea:

eo?n 2 aeiy, iinoiyiiay
oaoie/aneay

iiiiuue

Aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey:

Yoi oieeaeueiue i?ioeann
?anoaa?aoeee

oaoie/aneeo iioieeia

OI?AIAAss IA?EA Ayllon ROTULOS

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

AYLLON LA CASA DEL ROTULO

S.A.

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

I?ioanneiiaeueiua aoeou

Eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?:

33

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1983

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

Nianoaaiiua:

*a?ac o?aioecu:

9

1

Aiaeiaie iauai ?aaeecaoeee:

3 700 000 $

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

Anooieoaeueiue aciin:

42 000 $

?iyeoe (io/eneaiey io iai?ioa):

3 %

Io/eneaiea ia ?aeeaio:

2 %

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee (ioeaii/ii):

125 000 $

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey,/b>

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey

?aeiia:

iei. 100 000 aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

100 ea. i

Aiaeiaie iai?io (ioeaii/ii):

415 000 $

Caia/aiey

Ia?eiae iao/aiey ia?niiaea:

3 – 4 iaaeaee

OI?AIAAss IA?EA FotoSistema

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

CIALIT S.A.

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

Eeinee i?iyaee e ia/aoe
oioi ca 1

/an

Eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?:

65

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1988

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

Nianoaaiiua:

*a?ac o?aioecu:

Ioaeaeaiea ca ?oaaaeii:

23

179

2

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

Anooieoaeueiue aciin:

8 300 $

Io/eneaiea ia ?aeeaio:

4 200 $

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee (ioeaii/ii):

aa?uee?oaony

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey ?aeiia:

io 15 000 aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

30 – 80 ea. i

Aiaeiaie iai?io (ioeaii/ii):

170 000 $

OI?AIAAss IA?EA

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

NOVEMAT S.A.

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

N?i/iay oeie/aneay /enoea
iaeaaeaeu n

aeecaioaeoeeae

Eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?:

76

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1994

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

Nianoaaiiua:

15

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

Anooieoaeueiue aciin:

iao

?iyeoe (io/eneaiey io iai?ioa):

aea

Io/eneaiea ia ?aeeaio:

iao

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee (ioeaii/ii):

79 000 $

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey

?aeiia:

10 000 aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

50 – 80 ea. i

Aiaeiaie iai?io (ioeaii/ii):

125 000 $

Aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey:

Ie?iaie iaoaio nooie /enoee e

aeaceioaeoeee. Iiuo 14 eao.

OI?AIAAss IA?EA hyperSec

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

GRUPO VIT SEC

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

Oeie/aneay /enoea n
aaeeiie oeaiie

Eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?:

78

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1995

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

Nianoaaiiua:

*a?ac o?aioecu:

Ioaeaeaiea ca ?oaaaeii:

2

14

3

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

Anooieoaeueiue aciin:

20 000 $

?iyeoe (io/eneaiey io iai?ioa):

500 $ ian.

Io/eneaiea ia ?aeeaio:

400 $ ian.

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee (ioeaii/ii):

196 000 $

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey

?aeiia:

45 000 aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

150 – 200 ea. i

Aiaeiaie iai?io (ioeaii/ii):

208 000 – 458 000 $

Aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey:

Ia?aay o?aioeca a Eniaiee
n

aaeeiie oeaiie.

OI?AIAAss IA?EA perma glas

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

PERMAGLAZE ESPANA S.L.

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

?anoaa?aoeey naioceia e
ea?aie/aneie

ieeoee ia aeiio

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1992

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

Nianoaaiiua:

*a?ac o?aioecu:

Ioaeaeaiea ca ?oaaaeii:

1

18

220

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

Anooieoaeueiue aciin:

io 12 500 $

?iyeoe (io/eneaiey io iai?ioa):

3 %

Io/eneaiea ia ?aeeaio:

3 %

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee (ioeaii/ii):

12 500 $ + anooieoaeueiue
aciin

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey

?aeiia:

50 000 aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

20 ea. i

Aiaeiaie iai?io (ioeaii/ii):

Caaeneo io ciiu

Aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey:

Caaeneo io ciiu

OI?AIAAss IA?EA EI RECO

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

ARTESANIA AGRICOLA S.A.

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

Eaea?noaaiiua o?aau,
iaoo?aeueiua

einiaoe/aneea e aeeaoe/aneea
i?aia?aou

Eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?:

56

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1977

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

Nianoaaiiua:

*a?ac o?aioecu:

Ioaeaeaiea ca ?oaaaeii:

1

121

0

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee

(ioeaii/ii):

6 000 $

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey

?aeiia:

10 000 aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

60 ea. i

AEaeaoaeueiia ?aniieiaeaiea:

Eiiia?/aneay ciia

OI?AIAAss IA?EA smokeno

Iacaaiea oe?iu:

CATEXIT S.L.

Iienaiea aeayoaeueiinoe:

Oeaio? caei?iauey.
(Aioeoaaa/iay e

ae?oaea oa?aiee)

Eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiue iiia?:

128

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey

Aiae aicieeiiaaiey:

1993

Ioaeaeaiea a Eniaiee.

*a?ac o?aioecu:

Ioaeaeaiea ca ?oaaaeii:

10

73

Yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey

?iyeoe (io/eneaiey io iai?ioa):

210 $/ian

Iauee iauai eiaanoeoeee (ioeaii/ii):

30 000 $ aeeth/ay
anooieoaeueiue aciin

Iaue oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aaei?eyoey

Ieieiaeueiay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey

?aeiia:

60 000 – 70 000 aeeoaeae

?aeiiaiaeoaiay ieiuaaeue:

30 – 40 ea. i

Aiaeiaie iai?io (ioeaii/ii):

160 000 $ (1-ue aiae)

Aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey:

Iao/aiea ia?niiaea

I?eia/aiea !!! ?aoa?ao iieiinoueth iaienai ii eieaa A. A. Aeiaaaiy «
O?ai/aeceia – iooue e ?anoe?aieth aeciana.

Ia/eiay n «Ninoiyiea aeae a noa?a o?ai/aeceiaa a ?innee»

y ienae anth ec aieiau e ec eioa?iaoa.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: THoeaae/ ( eao. Yeiiii oai?ee IE?YA )

nia/aea aue iaaeiaieai ( iaei eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u),

ii iioii iinoaaee 5 . Oae /oi aoaeueoa aeeo?aoiae e eo/oa aeiieoeoa.

LOLO

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