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Международный рынок туристических услуг

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Eino?iineie ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoiieiae/aneee

oieaa?neoao.

?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ?uiie oo?enoe/aneeo

oneoa.

Auiieieee: Eoooaiei A.N.

Iooea??aa I.N

I?iaa?ee: Iaaieoneee A.I.

Eino?iia 1998 a.

Ieai.

I Anooieaiea.

1 Aeooaeueiinoue aua?aiiie oaiu.

2 *oi oaeia ?uiie?

II Iniiaiay /anoue.

1 Eiaeono?ey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia a? ?acaeoea a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo.

2 Yeiiiie/aneia cia/aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia.

3 Yeiiiieea oo?enoe/aneie oe?iu: ia?eaoeiaiaay no?aoaaey.

4 ?an/?o oeaiu oo?enoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa.

5 Aooaaeoa?neea iia?aoeee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oo?ecia.

6 I?aaiecaoeey e oaoieea eniieiaiey iia?aoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
oo?ecia.

a.) Iniiaiua o/anoieee iia?aoeee oo?ecia e nenoaia
acaeiiioiioaiee.

a.) Aeiaiai?iia ioi?ieaiea iia?aoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
oo?ecia.

7 I?eeiaeaiea.

III Caeeth/aiea.

IV Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Ai iiiaeo ainoaea?noaao ie?a oo?eci ?acaeaaaony eae nenoaia, eioi?ay
i?aaeinoaaeyao ana aiciiaeiinoe aeey iciaeiieaiey n enoi?eae,
eoeueoo?ie, iau/ayie, aeooiaiuie e ?aeeaeiciuie oeaiiinoyie aeaiiie
no?aiu e a? ia?iaea, e aea?o aeioiae a eacio. Ia aiai?y oaea i oii, /oi
“ei?ieo” yoa nenoaia i/aiue iiiai oece/aneeo e th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, oae
eee eia/a naycaiiuo n ieacaieai oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa. Iiieii
cia/eoaeueiie noaouee aeioiaea oo?eci yaeyaony au? e iaeiei ec iiuiuo
oaeoi?ia oneeaiey i?anoeaea no?aiu, ?inoa a? cia/aiey a aeacao ie?iaiai
niiauanoaa e ?yaeiauo a?aaeaeai.

Oo?enoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue a ?acaeouo no?aiao yaeyaony aaaeiui
enoi/ieeii iiauoaiey aeaaininoiyiey ainoaea?noaa. A 1995 aiaeo NOA io
?aaeecaoeee oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa eiino?aiiui a?aaeaeaiai iieo/eee 58
ie?ae. $, O?aioeey e Eoaeey – ii 27 ie?ae. $, Eniaiey -25 ie?ae. $

A ?innee oo?enoe/aneee aecian ?acaeaaaony n i?aeiouanoaaiiie
i?eaioaoeeae ia auacae. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai aeaenoaothueo o ian
oo?enoe/aneeo oe?i i?aaeii/eoatho caieiaoueny iai?aaeaieai naieo
niioa/anoaaiieeia ca ?oaaae, e eeoue iaaieueoay eo /anoue ?aaioaao ia
i?eaea/aiea ainoae a ?O- o.a. an? aeaeaaony oae, /oi eaieoae io oo?.
aeciana oieuaaao ca ?oaaae. Eaeiaa aea ea?oeia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?uiea
oo?. oneoa nae/an, eae ii a ia?niaeoeaa eciaiyaony? A nicaeaaoeony
oneiaeyo yoe aii?inu i?aaenoaaeythony aeooaeueiuie, eiaiii iiyoiio iaie
auea aua?aia oaia aeaiiiai ?aoa?aoa.

A iao/iii iiieiaiee ?uiie- yoi i?aaie/aneay /anoue eaieoaeenoe/aneie
nenoaiu oiaa?iiai oicyenoaa, iniiaie eioi?iai yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoa eae oiaa?a.

I?e ?anniio?aiee i?aaeiaoa yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee auee auaeaeaiu 4 noa?u
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee:

i?iecaiaenoai — ?ani?aaeaeaiey — iaiai — iio?aaeaiea.

Iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai eiaao naiae oeaeueth iio?aaeaiea. Ii
i?aaeaea, /ai i?iaeoeo oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa aeieae?o aei iio?aaeaiey,
ii iiaeeaaeeo ?ani?aaeaeaieth e iaiaio. ?ani?aaeaeaiea – yoi ?acoeueoao
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia oieueei n oi/ee c?aiey oi?iu, ii e niaea?aeaiey, eai
?ani?aaeaeyoueny iiaoo oieueei i?iaeoeou

o?oaea, eaieoaea e caiee. ?ani?aaeaeaiea aaae?o e ia?aciaaieth
aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia iauanoaa a aeaea ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?eauee e ?aiou.

Oo?eci eae niaoeeoe/aneay oi?ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee oneoaaie.

Eiaeono?ey oo?ecia e a? ?acaeoea a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eiaeono?ey oo?ecia yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa
aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathueony oi?i iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee oneoaaie. A
iineaaeiea 20 eao n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu ?inoa /enea i?eauoee eiino?aiiuo
oo?enoia a ie?a ninoaaeee 5,1%, aaethoiuo iinooieaiee – 14%. Niaeanii
aeaiiui anaie?iie oo?enoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee, a 1995 aiaeo a ie?a auei
ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 576 ieeeeiiia i?eauoee oo?enoia, iinooieaiey io
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia aeinoeaei 372 ieeeea?aea aeieea?ia (aac o/?oa
iinooieaiee io iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa). A oeaeii iau?iu aaethoiuo
iinooieaiee io oo?ecia ca ia?eiae n 1950 ii 1995 aiae au?inee a 144
?aca.

Ii i?iaiicai yenia?oia, ao?iia ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia aoaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny e aeaeaa. Ii ?aciui iiaen/?oai, e 2000 aiaeo yoa
io?aneue noaiao aaaeouae yenii?oiie io?aneueth a ie?a. Iaeeaeaaony, /oi
i?e nio?aiaiee neiaeeaoeony oaiiia ?inoa /enei iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
iooaoanoaee e 2005 aiaeo aeinoeaiao 900 iei. /aeiaae, a e 2010 aiaeo
oaaee/eony e ninoaaeo ii?yaeea 937 iei. /aeiaae.

Ii iiaieth ?acee/iuo aiaeeoeeia, a iniiaa ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
oo?ecia eaaeao neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

Yeiiiie/aneee ?ino e nioeeaeueiue i?ia?ann i?eaaee e ?anoe?aieth iau?ia
aeaeiauo iiacaeie e iiacaeie n iiciaaaoaeueiuie oeaeyie.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiey anao aeaeia o?ainii?oa oaeaoaaeei iiacaeee.

Oaaee/aiea /enea ia?iiuo ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo a ?acaeouo no?aiao e
iiauoaiea eo iaoa?eaeueiiai e eoeueoo?iiai o?iaiy.

Eioaineoeeaoeey o?oaea e iieo/aiea o?oaeyueieny aieaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo
ioioneia.

?acaeoea iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo naycae e eoeueoo?iuo iaiaiia iaaeaeo
no?aiaie i?eaaei e ?anoe?aieth iaaeee/iinoiuo naycae iaaeaeo e aioo?e
?aaeiiia.

?acaeoea noa?u oneoa noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea noa?u ia?aaicie e
oaoiieiae/aneee i?ia?ann a iaeanoe oaeaeiiioieeaoeee.

Ineaaeaiea ia?aie/aiee ia auaic aaethou ai iiiaeo no?aiao e oi?iuaiea
iia?aie/iuo oi?iaeueiinoae.

Cia/aiea oo?ecia a ie?a iinoiyiii aic?anoaao, /oi naycaiii n aic?inoei
aeeyieai oo?ecia ia yeiiiieeo ioaeaeueiie no?aiu. A yeiiiieea
ioaeaeueiie no?aiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci auiieiyao ?yae aaaeiuo
ooieoeee:

1. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci – enoi/iee aaethoiuo iinooieaiee aeey no?aiu
e n?aaenoai aeey iaania/aiey caiyoinoe.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci ?anoe?yao aeeaaeu a ieao?aeiue aaeain e AII
no?aiu.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci niinianoaoao aeeaa?neoeeaoeee yeiiiieee,
nicaeaaay io?anee, ianeoaeeaathuea noa?u oo?ecia.

N ?inoii caiyoinoe a noa?a oo?ecia ?anooo aeioiaeu ianaeaiey e
iiauoaaony o?iaaiue aeaaininoiyiey iaoeee.

?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia i?eaiaeeo e ?acaeoeth
yeiiiie/aneie eio?ano?oeoo?u no?aiu e ie?iuo i?ioeannia. Oaeei ia?acii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue, niia?acoynue n
yeiiiie/aneeie ioiioaieyie ioaeaeueiuo no?ai.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci aoiaeeo a /enei o??o e?oiiaeoeo io?aneae ,
onooiay iaooaaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aaoiiiaeeano?iaieth,
oaeaeueiue aan eioi?uo a ie?iaii yenii?oa 11% e 8,6% niioaaonoaaiii. A
1991 aiaeo noiia?iue aeioiae no?ai ie?a io iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia
ninoaaeye 7% io iauaai iau?ia ie?iaiai yenii?oa e 3% io ie?iaiai
yenii?oa oneoa.

Cia/aiea oo?ecia eae enoi/ieea aaethoiuo iinooieaiee, iaania/aiey
caiyoinoe ianaeaiey, ?anoe?aiey iaaeee/iinoiuo eiioaeoia aic?anoaao.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci a ie?a e?aeia ia ?aaiiia?ai, /oi iauyniyaony a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?aciuie o?iaiyie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey
ioaeaeueiuo no?ai e ?aaeiiia.

Iaeaieueoaa ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci iieo/ee a
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao. Ia aeieth yoiai ?aaeiia i?eoiaeeony nauoa
70% ie?iaiai oo?enoe/aneiai ?uiea e ieiei 60% aaethoiuo iinooieaiee.
I?eia?ii 20% i?eoiaeeony ia Aia?eeo, iaiaa 10% – ia Aceth, Ao?eeo e
Aano?aeeth aianoa acyoua.

Anaie?iay i?aaiecaoeey ii oo?ecio a naiae eeanneoeeaoeee auaeaeyao
no?aiu, yaeythueany i?aeiouanoaaiii iinoaaueeaie oo?enoia (NOA,
Aaeueaey, Aeaiey, Aa?iaiey, Aieeaiaeey, Iiaay Caeaiaeey, Oaaoeey,
Eaiaaea, Aiaeey) e no?aiu yaeythuaany, a iniiaiii, i?eieiathueie
oo?enoia (Aano?aeey, A?aoeey, Eei?, Eoaeey, Eniaiey, Iaeneea, Oo?oeey,
Ii?ooaaeey, O?aioeey, Oaaeoea?ey).

Iiaeiaiia ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oo?enoe/aneeo naycae iiaeaeei ca
niaie nicaeaiea iiiai/eneaiiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee,
niaeaenoaothueo oeo/oaieth ?aaiou yoie noa?u ie?iaie oi?aiaee. A eo
/enei aoiaeyo: niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey nenoaiu I?aaiecaoeee
Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee (III), i?aaiecaoeee, aaea aii?inu ?acaeoey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia ianoaeaeathony yieciaee/anee e ia yaeythony
aeaaiuie a noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe; iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiiia?/aneea, iaoeeiiaeueiua e
?aaeiiaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee ii oo?ecio.

Niaeanii Onoaao AIO, oeaeyie a? aeayoaeueiinoe yaeythony iiiu?aiea
oo?ecia eae n?aaenoaa yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
acaeiiiiieiaiey aeey iaania/aiey ie?a, aeaaininoiyiey, oaaaeaiey e
niaethaeaiey i?aa /aeiaaea aia caaeneiinoe io ?anu, iiea, ycuea e
?aeeaee, a oaeaea niaethaeaiea eioa?ania ?acaeaathueony no?ai a iaeanoe
oo?ecia.

AIO i?eiyea ?yae aeaeea?aoeee a iaeanoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia,
n?aaee eioi?uo:

— Iaieeueneay aeaeea?aoeey i oo?ecia a ie?a (1980);

— Aeieoiaio Aeaioeueei (1982);

— Oa?oey ii oo?ecio e Eiaeaen iiaaaeaiey oo?enoa (Nioey, 1985);

— Aaaaneay aeaeea?aoeey ii oo?ecio (1989).

E /eneo i?aaiecaoeee III, caieiathueony aii?inaie ?acaeoey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia yieciaee/anee, ioiinyony Eiioa?aioeey III ii
oo?ecio e iooaoanoaeyi, yeiiiie/aneee e nioeeaeueiue Niaao (YEININ).
I?aaiecaoeey Iauaaeei?iiuo Iaoeee ii aii?inai ia?aciaaiey, iaoee e
eoeueoo?u (THIANEI), Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aaiecaoeey o?oaea (IIO),
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay annioeeaoeey o?ainii?oiie aaeaoeee (EAOA).

Iiae oo?enoe/aneie eiaeono?eae iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, o?ainii?oiuo e oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee, i?iecaiaeyueo e
?aaeecothueo oo?enoe/aneea oneoae e oiaa?u oo?enoe/aneiai ni?ina.

N ?acaeoeai ianniaiai i?aaieciaaiiiai oo?ecia e ia?aoiaeii aai ia iiaoth
iniiao, iie?athuothny ia ?acaeooth oo?enoe/aneoth eiaeono?eth e
nia?aiaiiua n?aaenoaa o?ainii?oa, i?iecioee iaeioi?ua eciaiaiey a oi?iao
i?aaiecaoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia.

Ai-ia?auo, nouanoaaiii aic?inei /enei ?icie/iuo oe?i, i?aaeeaaathuea
oo?enoe/aneea oneoae oo?aaaioia e eeo?iiuo ca/anooth th?eaee/aneie e
oicyenoaaiiie iacaaeneiinoe.

Ai-aoi?uo, eciaieeny oa?aeoa? aeayoaeueiinoe oo?enoe/aneeo iioiauo oe?i,
eioi?ua i?aa?aoeeenue a oo?iia?aoi?ia, i?aaeeaaathueo iieiue eiiieaen
oneoa a aeaea eieethcea – oo?ia.

A-o?aoueeo, iiyaeeenue e?oiiua ei?ii?aoeee, iniiaaiiua ia eaieoaea
o?ainii?oiuo, oi?aiauo, no?aoiauo eiiiaiee e aaieia, inouanoaeythuea
iia?aoeee ii i?aaenoaaeaieth oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa eeeaioai.

Ana auoaiacaaiiua eaoaai?ee oe?i ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ii
ooieoeeyi e oa?aeoa?o aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oo?enoe/aneea aaaionoaa — yoi ?icie/iua oe?iu, auiieiythuea ?ieue
iin?aaeieeia iaaeaeo oo?iia?aoi?neeie oe?iaie e ianeoaeeaathueie
i?aaei?eyoeyie, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e eeeaioaie-oo?enoaie, n ae?oaie.
Oo?aaainoaa eeai i?aaiecotho oo?u, i?aaeeaaaaiuie oo?iia?aoi?neeie
oe?iaie, eeai caieiathony i?aaeinoaaeaieai ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia oneoa
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui oo?enoai eee a?oiiai eeoe, onoaiaaeeaay
iaiin?aaenoaaiiua nayce n o?ainii?oiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, ainoeie/iuie
ei?ii?aoeeyie, yeneo?neiiiuie ath?i. I?iaeaaea oo?ia inouanoaeyaony ii
oeaiai, onoaiaaeeaaaiui oo?iia?aoi?aie e oeacaiiui a eo i?iniaeoao. Ca
?aaeecaoeeth eieethcea-oo?ia oo?aaainoaa iieo/atho ii?aaeae?iiia
eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea io oo?iia?aoi?ia.

?aaeecaoeey ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia oneoa inouanoaeyaony ii oeaiai,
onoaiaaeeaaaiui eo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, a ca ieacaiea ?ac?iciaiiuo oneoa
oo?aaainoaa iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoue ii?aaeae?iiua iaoeaiee e ?icie/iui
oeaiai i?iecaiaeeoaey. Aieueoeinoai oo?aaainoa iaoiaeeony a noa?a
aeeyiey e?oiiuo oo?enoe/aneeo iioiauo oe?i, aaeaoeeiiiuo eiiiaiee,
ainoeie/iuo ei?ii?aoeee e oi?aiauo oe?i.

Oo?iia?aoi?neea oe?iu — yoi i?aaeaea anaai iioiaua oe?iu, aunooiathuea
iin?aaeieeaie iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie oo?enoe/aneie eiaeono?ee e
oo?aaainoaaie. Iie ?aaeecotho oo?u io naiaai eiaie /a?ac oo?aaainoaa
eeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii eeeaioai. A i?ioeanna i?aaiecaoeee iiacaeie
oo?iia?aoi?u onoaiaaeeaatho nayce n i?aaei?eyoeyie ?aciauaiey, ieoaiey,
o?ainii?oa, eoeueoo?ii- i?inaaoeoaeueneeie o/?aaeaeaieyie e
yeneo?neiiiuie ath?i. *anoi oo?iia?aoi?u a?aiaeotho ia iniiaa
aeieain?i/iuo eiio?aeoia ainoeieoeu e ae?oaea n?aaenoaa ?aciauaiey,
naiie?ou, aaoiaonu, iaania/eaay eo iaeneiaeueioth caa?oceo e iieo/ay
cia/eoaeueiua neeaeee.

Oo?iia?aoi?neea oe?iu a caaeneiinoe io eniieuecoaiiai aeaea o?ainii?oa
iiae?acaeaeythony ia niaoeeaeece?othueany ia i?aaiecaoeee oo?ia n
eniieueciaaieai niaoeeaeueii iai?oaeiaaiiuo naiie?oia; aaoiaoniuo
yeneo?nee; aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo yeneo?nee; ii?neeo e?oecia e iooaoanoaee a
eaeoth-eeai iaeio no?aio eee niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oo?ia.

Oo?enoe/aneea ei?ii?aoeee — yoi e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua ioo?i
o/anoey iauaaeeiytho oe?ieee e?oa oe?i, i?aaenoaaeythueo ?acee/iua aeaeu
oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa. Iie a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iiiiiieece?iaaee ?uiie
e i?aa?aoeeenue a iiuiua iaaeio?aneaaua i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiua
eiiieaenu, aeeth/athuea i?aaei?eyoey naiuo ?acee/iuo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ianeoaeeaathueo oo?enoe/aneee aecian, o?ainii?oiua
aaieianeea, no?aoiaua e ae?oaea eiiiaiee e ?aaeecothuea oo?u /a?ac
oe?ieoth naoue oo?iia?aoi?ia e oo?aaainoaa a ?aciuo no?aiao.

Iniauaiea naiuie nia?aiaiiuie aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuie nenoaiaie oi?aaeaiey e
nayce iicaieyao ei iia?aoeaii eco/aoue e oaeiaeaoai?youe iio?aaiinoe e
eioa?anu oo?enoia. Iaeaieueoaai ?acaeoey iiaeiaiua e?oiiua eiiiaiee
aeinoeaee a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao. Ai O?aioeee, iai?eia?,
ia aeieth 13 e?oiiaeoeo oo?enoe/aneeo ei?ii?aoeee i?eoiaeeony 50%
?aaeecoaiuo oo?ia, a aa?iaiee 3 e?oiiaeoea oo?enoe/aneea ei?ii?aoeee
“TUI”, “Nekkerman” e “ITS” nin?aaeioi/eee a naieo ?oeao 70% ?uiea.

Iiieii e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee, a ianoiyuea a?aiy iieo/eee oe?ieia ?acaeoea
ainoeie/iua eiiieaenu, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeytho oo?enoai oneoae ia
oieueei ii eo ?aciauaieth, ii e oe?ieee eiiieaen ae?oaeo oneoa,
iai?eia?, ieoaiea a ?anoi?aia i?e ioaea, i?aaeinoaaeaiea caeia aeey
i?iaaaeaiey niaauaiee, i?eia?aoaiea aeeaoia ia o?ainii?o, aucia oaene,
yeneo?neiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey ?acaea/aiee, oi?aiaey
noaaie?aie e i?i/eie oiaa?aie.

E?oiiaeoea ainoeie/iua eiiieaenu iauaaeeiythony /a?ac aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey ainoeie/iiai oiiaea a oae iacuaaaiua
“oeaie”, /oi iicaieyao auno?i e oi/ii o/eouaaoue eaaeaeoth
eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth naeaeeo e n ieieiaeueiuie cao?aoaie a?aiaie
i?iecaiaeeoue ?aca?ae?iaaiea iano a ainoeieoeao, ia o?ainii?oa aac
caaea?aeee auaeaaaoue anth ?an/?oioth aeieoiaioaoeeth e inouanoaeyoue
ieaoaaee. Anaai a ie?a ian/eouaaaony ieiei noa oaeeo ainoeie/iuo
“oeaiae” n iauei /eneii iiia?ia 1,6 iei. Aaaeouea ec ieo – “Holiday
Inn”, “Sharaton”, “Hilton”.

Aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth nia?aiaiiiai yoaia ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
oo?ecia e eciaiaiey aai i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i yaeyaony i?iieeiiaaiea a
oo?enoe/aneee aecian o?ainii?oiuo, oi?aiauo, aaieianeeo, i?iiuoeaiiuo,
no?aoiauo eiiiaiee. O?ainii?oiua eiiiaiee i?aaeinoaaeytho eae
ioaeaeueiua aeaeu oneoa, oae e naiinoiyoaeueiua ?ac?aaioaiiua oo?u ia
iniiaa ainoeie/iie aacu. Oaeea oe?iu i?aaiecotho ianeoaeeaaiea ia iniiaa
aeaeiauo ioiioaiee n ainoeie/iuie e ae?oaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie ia iau/iuo
oneiaeyo oo?iia?aoi?a. Oi?aiaua oe?iu noaee aeoeaii caieiaoueny
?aaeecaoeeae oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa i?eia?ii n ia/aea 70-o aiaeia. Yoi
ioiineony, a iniiaiii, e e?oiiui ?icie/iui eiioea?iai e e
oi?aiai-iinuei/iui oe?iai.

Ia?aiia/aeueii oieaa?naeueiua iaaaceiu, no?aiynue oeo/oeoue
ianeoaeeaaiea eeeaioo?u, naeaaaee a a?aiaeo naie iiiauaiey aeey
aeayoaeueiinoe oo?aaainoa. A aeaeueiaeoai, ii ia?a ni?ina, iie ia?aoee e
i?aeoeea i?aaiecaoeee a nai?i ninoaaa oi?iaeueii ia caaeneiuo
oo?enoe/aneeo oe?i n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, eioi?ua caoai
noaee eo aei/a?ieie oe?iaie.

A oeaeyo auno?iai e i?i/iiai caaiaaaiey ?uiea yoe eiiiaiee ia/aee
eaeueeoee?iaaoue oeaiu ia oo?u n ?an/?oii eeoue ia ieieiaeueioth
i?eaueue, /oi auei aiciiaeii aeaaiaea?y a?iiaaeiiio eaieoaeo oi?aiauo
oe?i. I?iiuoeaiiua oe?iu, i?aaenoaaeythuea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io?anee,
ianeoaeeaathuea oo?enoe/aneee aecian, ia iniiaa nenoaiu o/anoey noaee
i?eia?aoaoue e aeeth/aoue a naith no?oeoo?o oo?enoe/aneea oe?iu. Caiaoii
oneeeeinue i?iieeiiaaiea aaieia e no?aoiauo eiiiaiee a noa?o
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia ioo?i i?eia?aoaiey anaai eee /anoe
eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee. Iaeaaeay ?acaaoae?iiie naoueth oeeeaeia e
iaoe?iui ooaoii no?aoiauo aaaioia, aaiee e no?aoiaua eiiiaiee noaee
oniaoii inouanoaeyoue yoe iia?aoeee, iieo/ay aeiiieieoaeueioth i?eaueue
ca n/?o yeiiiiee ia eiiennee, auiea/eaaaiie oo?aaaioo. Oo?u,
i?aaeeaaaaiua aaieaie, eae i?aaeei, aeaoaaea, /ai o oo?aaaioia. E?iia
oiai, aaiee e no?aoiaua eiiiaiee eiatho nianoaaiiua aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua
nenoaiu o/?oa e oi?aaeaiey, a iaiyoe eioi?uo caeiaeaiu ana iniiaiua
aeaiiua i aeeaae/eeao e cano?aoiaaiiuo eeoeao. Yoi iicaieyao ei
inouanoaeyoue oeaeaiai?aaeaiioth ?annueeo ?aeeaiu e eioi?iaoeee,
i?aaeeaaay eeeaioo oaeea oo?u, eioi?ua iiaoo niioaaonoaiaaoue aai
eioa?anai e n?aaenoaai.

Aeeneiioiua ea?oi/ee, auioneaaiua aaieaie, a ioee/ea io e?aaeeoiuo e
aeaaaoiauo ieanoeeiauo, yaeythueony ieao?aeiui n?aaenoaii, ia
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey iieaou, ii aeatho naiei aeaaeaeueoeai i?aaa ia naiua
?aciiia?aciua neeaeee. A ie?a nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeiaaeueiuo nenoai
aeeneiioiuo ea?oi/ae. Eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea caieiatho “ETN”, “IAPA”,
“COUNTDOWN”.

A oneiaeyo, eiaaea eiieo?aioeey a oo?enoneii aeciana e eiaeono?ee
ioaeuoa e ?acaea/aiee i/aiue auniea, aeaaeaeueoeu ioaeae i?eieiatho
o/anoea a aeeneiioiuo i?ia?aiiao, oae eae aanieaoiay eioi?iaoeey i
neeaeeao, eioi?ay aea?ony a eaoaeiaao aeey aeaaeaeueoeaa ea?oi/ae,
i?eaeaeaao iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia. Aaieianeea no?oeoo?u oaeaea
caeioa?aniaaiu a ?ani?ino?aiaiee ea?oi/ae. Iie auaeatho eo eae
aeiiieiaiea e yieoe?oaiui e?aaeeoiui ea?oi/eai aanieaoii eee ai?acaei
aeaoaaea ?icie/iie oeaiu, oai naioi ?anoe?yy niaeo? oneoa aeey naieo
eeeaioia.

Aaia?aoey aeeneiioiuo ea?oi/ae i/aiue ?aciiia?acia, iaeaieaa iiioey?ii
“ETN-CARD”. Aeey iooaoanoaaiieeia yoa nenoaia yaeyaony eeoaii, /eainoai
a eioi?ii iicaieyao oiaiueoaoue aei?iaeiua ?anoiaeu. E i?aeiouanoaii
eniieueciaaiey ea?oi/ae “ETN” ioiinyo :

— neeaeee aeey aeaaeaeueoeaa io 20 aei 50% noieiinoe a aeanyoe ouny/ao
ioaeae a 175 no?aiao ie?a, a oii /enea a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e a
no?aiao NIA. A NOA a 400 ioaeyo aeaaeaeaoe ea?oi/ee caieaoeo 50% io
noieiinoe iiia?a;

— oe?ieoth nenoaio neeaeie a ?anoi?aiao (io 20 aei 50%);

— nieaeaiea (aei 1/3) oa?eoia i?e iieaoa a?aiaeu aaoiiiaeey;

— neeaeea i?e iieoiea aaea-, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo, aaoiiiaeeueiuo aeeaoia
a ?acia?a 3-10%;

— aiciiaeiinoue aanieaoii iieo/eoue ea?oi/ee “ETN- Telecard” e “Sprint
Fonecard”, iicaieythuea aanoe oaeaoiiiua ia?aaiai?u ii eueaioiui
oa?eoai.

I?e iieo/aiee ea?oi/ee aeaaeaeueoeo auaea?ony eeethno?e?iaaiiue eaoaeia
n aae?anaie na?aeniuo neoaea, aoiaeyueo a nenoaio. Aua?aa ioaeue,
aeaaeaeaoe caeacuaaao neeaeeo ia ?aca?ae?iaaiea iiia?a. *anoi yoo
i?ioeaaeo?o aa??o ia naay naia aeeneiioiay nenoaia.

E?iia ?ani?ino?aiaiey aeeneiioiuo ea?oi/ae, aaiee ?aaeecotho aei?iaeiua
/aee. Nenoaia aei?iaeiuo /aeia noiaea n nenoaiie aee?aaeeoeaia, ii, a
ioee/ea io iineaaeieo, iiaeii ia oieueei iaiaieaaoue a aaiea ia
aeaiueae, ii eie iiaeii ?aniea/eaaoueny a iaaaceiao, eioi?ua eo
i?eieiatho.

Aei?iaeiua /aee iicaieytho iaaciianeoue aeaiueae io e?aaee, oae eae
ieao?aeiue aeieoiaio noaiiaeony aeaenoaeoaeueiui oieueei iinea nee/aiey
iiaeiene aeaaeaeueoea n iiaeienueth ia ei?aoea eieaeee. A ioee/ea io
ieanoeeiauo ea?oi/ae, aeey i?eia?aoaiey /aea ia iaycaoaeueii eiaoue n/?o
a aaiea.

Aei?iaeiue /ae au? iacuaatho oo?enoneei /aeii, iiae eioi?ui iiieiaaony
ieao?aeiue aeieoiaio, aeaiaaeiia iaycaoaeuenoai auieaoeoue iaicia/aiioth
a i?i noiio aaethou aai aeaaeaeueoeo.

A Aa?iia n 1968 aiaea oe?ieoth iiioey?iinoue i?eia??e aa?i/ae — /ae a
aa?iaaethoa, eioi?ue auienuaaaony aaieii aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai aciina
eeeaioii iaee/iuo aeaiaa a n/?o aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa n?ieii aei ianyoea.
*ae iiea/eaaaony a ethaie no?aia-o/anoieoea niaeaoaiey “Aa?i/ae”, e
eioi?ui ioiinyony no?aiu AN.

Ia ie?iaii ?uiea n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii iiyaeeny iiaue aeae ?aciauaiey —
oaei-oa?. Yoi ia i?iaeaaea noaiaea?oiie iaaeaeaeeiinoe e ia ?aciauaiea a
ainoeieoea, a n?aaeiaa iaaeaeo ieie — nianoaaiiinoue, ia?aie/aiiay ii
iieueciaaieth ai a?aiaie. Ca aaeeieoeo a?aiaie i?eieiaaony iaeia
iaaeaey.

Naaiaeiy oaei-oa?-eiaeono?ey ninoieo ec aeaoo /anoae:

— i?iaeaaea eeoaia eee aia?oaiaioia, ?acaeae?iiuo ia iaaeaee;

— iaiai yoeo iaaeaeue /a?ac aaeeiue oeaio? ii iaiaio, iacuaaaiue eeoaii
aeey ioaeuoa, aaea nianoaaiieee iiaoo iaiaiyoueny naieie iaaeaeyie.

A ie?a ian/eouaaaony iyoue iaiaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, n?aaee eioi?uo
eeaee?otho “RCI”e “II” (Interval International).

Eiaeono?ey oaei-oa?a iaoeeiiii ?acaeaaaony n ia/aea naieaeanyouo aiaeia.
N 1989 aiaea ie?iaia /enei eo?i?oia, ?aaioathueo ii nenoaia oaei-oa?,
aic?inei ia 600%, aiaeiaie iau?i i?iaeaae iaaeaeue oaaee/eeny ia 300%. E
1994 aiaeo a ie?a auei i?iaeaii oaei-oa?ia ia /aou?a ieeeea?aea
aeieea?ia.

N ?inoii iiioey?iinoe oaei-oa?ia iaiyeanue e naia eiaeono?ey. Anee a
aiaeu oi?ie?iaaiey iia i?eaeaeaea a iniiaiii iaeeeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae,
oi nae/an ath caieiathony oaeea ei?ii?aoeee eae “Oeeoii”, “Ia??eio”,
“Aeeniae”, “Oy?aoii”, “Aa??ao”, “Aaiee”.

Naaiaeiy oaei-oa? yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa auno?i ?acaeaathueony
io?aneae eiaeono?ee ioaeuoa. Ii n/eoaaony naiie nia?aiaiiie oaoiieiaeae
a iaeanoe iaaeaeo oo?eciii e iaaeaeaeeiinoueth.

Eo?i?ou oaei-oa? anoue a 75 no?aiao. Aa?iia caieiaao aoi?ia ianoi ii
?acaeoeth oaei-oa?a iinea NOA. Iiiaea i?eieiathuea no?aiu ?anniao?eaatho
oaei-oa? eae nouanoaaiiue yeaiaio anae nenoaiu i?aaiecaoeee ioaeuoa. A
aieueoeinoaa ?aaeiiia ii ?anoe?yao nacii eaieeoe, niinianoaoao
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiio yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo, oeo/oaao ia?niaeoeau aeey
eiaanoeoeee, iiauoaao caiyoinoue.

Eae e ethaay ae?oaay noa?a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eiaeono?ey
oo?ecia yaeyaony aanueia neiaeiie nenoaiie, noaiaiue ?acaeoey eioi?ie
caaeneo io noaiaie ?acaeoey yeiiiieee no?aiu a oeaeii.

Ia i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoua no?aiu i?eoiaeeony nauoa 60% anao i?eauoee
eiino?aiiuo oo?enoia e 70-75% niaa?oaaiuo a ie?a iiacaeie. I?e yoii ia
aeieth AN i?eoiaeeony ieiei 40% i?eauoee oo?enoia e aaethoiuo
iinooieaiee

?ani?aaeaeaiea oo?enoia e aeioiaeia

io eo i?aauaaiey a 1994 aiaeo.

No?aia

iinauaiey

I?eiyoi oo?enoia

(iei. /aeiaae)

Aeioiae

(iei. aeieea?ia) Niioiioaiea e 93 a.

(%)

I?eauoey Aeioiae

Aanue ie?

Aa?iia

Aia?eea

Ainoi/iay Acey

Ao?eea

Aeeaeiee Ainoie

THaeiay Acey 528,4

315,0

108,5

74,4

18,6

7,9

3,7 321,446

153,295

97,405

59,988

5,675

3,672

2,431 3,0 5,1

1,9 0,6

4,05 8,9

7,6 14,0

1,5 -4,0

-4,0 -12,0

7,0 11,2

Ii caia/aieth eaiaaeneeo niaoeeaeenoia, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yeiiiiee
eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?ai, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aeaeaei iauaeoeaii
iaiaoiaeeiui oe?aieaiea ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycae e ?ino
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ecaea?aeae ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea ia?aiauaiey, a, n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, — nicaeaaaei ?aaioieeai iaoa?eaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey
aeinoaiauo ia?aiauaiee, a oii /enea e ca a?aieoeo.

Ea/anoaaiiue ?ino eiaeono?ee oo?ecia a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao io?aae?i a
oaaeeoea. Aeey ioeaiee i?eiaiyaony iaoiae ?aeoeiaiauo ioeaiie. A
ea/anoaa ia?aiao?ia acyou eae aaniethoiua (/enei oo?enoia, ?acia?
aeioiaeia e o?ao), oae e ioiineoaeueiua (aeioiaeu e cao?aou a ?an/?oa
ia iaeiiai oo?enoa, iinaoeaoaai no?aio) iieacaoaee.

?aeoeia no?ai ii iieacaoaeyi oo?enoneiai na?aena.

No?aia I?eiyoi oo?enoia Aeioiaeu Cao?aou Oaeaeueiua aeioiaeu Oaeaeueiua
cao?aou Eoiaiaue iieacaoaeue

Aano?aeey 27 15 14 2 3 9

Aano?ey 6 6 8 22 17 8

Aaaaiu 29 28 29 12 22 29

Aaeueaey 22 16 11 5 4 7

Aa?ioaeu 35 33 32 6 20 31

A?aceeey 30 29 23 3 12 20

Aaeeeia-

?eoaiey 8 5 3 15 7 2

Aaia?ey 5 31 25 35 31 32

Aaianoyea 36 35 20 10 20 30

Aa?iaiey 7 7 2 20 5 3

Aiieiia 16 11 20 13 20 17

A?aoeey 11 22 19 33 24 26

Aaeiao 26 26 30 23 28 34

Eiaeey 28 25 20 11 20 23

E?eaiaeey 24 27 18 24 16 25

Eniaiey 3 4 13 27 23 14

Eoaeey 4 3 4 19 14 4

Eaiaaea 9 9 6 31 13 12

Iaeiaei a yoii aiaeeca neaaeoao o/eouaaoue ?yae oaeoi?ia, i?yii ia
naycaiiuo n oo?enoe/aneie noa?ie, ii aac o/?oia eioi?ie iaaiciiaeia
iauaeoeaiay ioeaiea iieacaoaeae oaaeeoeu. E oaeei oaeoi?ai ioiinyony
aaee/eia no?aiu, /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey e yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae
no?aiu.

Eiia/ii, aaaeiaeoee oaeoi?, ii?aaeaeythuee aaia?aoeth oo?ecia a ie?a, —
yeiiiie/aneee. N oi/ee c?aiey ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee oo?enoneay
eiaeono?ey aoiaeeo a /enei yeiiiie/aneeo oi?aa?aeia, aeathueo
aiooeoaeueioth aaee/eio aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe. Oo?enoneea oneoae ia
ie?iaii ?uiea aunooiatho eae “iaaeaeeiue” oiaa?, oa?aeoa?iie
iniaaiiinoueth eioi?iai yaeyaony oi, /oi cia/eoaeueiay /anoue yoeo oneoa
i?iecaiaeeony n ieieiaeueiuie cao?aoaie ia ianoa.

Iaiauay aeayoaeueiinoue iiiaeo ?acaeouo no?ai a noa?a oo?ecia, Eiienney
AN iioaeeeiaaea i?iaiic iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey oo?ecia ia ia?eiae
1995-2000 a.a. A /anoiinoe, a i?i ioia/aaony, /oi:

A Aa?iia i?eae?ony auaea?aeeaaoue ae?noeoth eiieo?aioeeth ca aeioiaeu io
oo?ecia, eioi?ay iio?aaoao io aa?iiaeneie eiaeono?ee oo?ecia iiauoaiey
ea/anoaa i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa.

?anoiaeu ia ana aeaeu iooaoanoaee e, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ?anoiaeu ia
o?ainii?o, aoaeoo oaaee/eaaoueny auno?aa, /ai ae?oaea noaouee naiaeiiai
athaeaeaoa. Iooaoanoaey noaioo aieaa /anouie, ii iaiaa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuie, oae eae ?anoiaeu ia iaeio iiacaeeo niecyony. A
oeaeii aea cao?aou ia iooaoanoaey aic?anooo ca n/?o iio?aaeaiey aieaa
ea/anoaaiiiai ioaeuoa.

*enei iiacaeie aoaeao oaaee/eaaoueny ca n/?o iaaeeiioeiaioaeueiuo
iooaoanoaee ec Aa?iiu a Aia?eeo, Aceth e Ieaaieth.

Naciiiua eciaiaiey ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai
ia?anoaioo auoue i?iaeaiie aeey eiaeono?ee oo?ecia, oae eae oaea/iue
ia?eaoeia aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue eo auaiaeiiio eniieueciaaieth. Aeey
yoiai iio?aaoaony aeoeaiia nio?oaeie/anoai iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie e
/anoiuie oo?enoneeie no?oeoo?aie.

Eniieueciaaiea aicaeooiiai o?ainii?oa aoaeao ?anoe?youeny auno?aa
aeaaiaea?y oaaee/aieth /enea oaeiaiuo i?yiuo ?aenia.

A?oiiu, aeeth/ay naiaeiua, aoaeoo oiaiueoaoueny e auae?aoue an? aieaa
aeaeoth i?ia?aiio ioaeuoa.

Ii ia?a an? aieaa aeoeaiiai aiaae?aiey eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai
a?iie?iaaiey aoaeoo oiaiueoaoueny n?iee a?iie?iaaiey.

Aeoeaiaa ae?oaeo aoaeoo iooaoanoaiaaoue aeaa aic?anoiua a?oiiu: ethaee
iiaeeeiai aic?anoa e iieiae?aeue.

Aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoue ?anoe ni?in ia oo?eci, naycaiiuo n iinauaieai
eoeueoo?iuo aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoae, a oaeaea n aeoeaiui ioaeuoii.

Ninoiyiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu noaiao iaeiei ec aeiieie?othueo oaeoi?ia a
i?eaea/aiee oo?enoia, iniaaiii a naeueneeo e i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiao.

Ia?eaoeiaiaia naaiaioe?iaaiea ?uiea noaiao aieaa /?oei au?aaeaiiui.
I?aaeeiaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii aoaeao iiaeno?aeaaoue iiae iio?aaiinoe
eaaeaeie a?oiiu iio?aaeoaeae.

Aaia?aoey aea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny
i?ei?eoaoiui aeey oo?enoia oaeoi?aie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe oao eee eiuo
?aaeiiia/no?ai.

Oaeoi?u ?inoa i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe aeey oo?enoia

ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia ie?a

Iaeaieaa iiioey?iua no?aiu ?aaeiia.

Oaeoi?u ?inoa i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe

THaeii-aia?eeaineee ?aaeii

A?aceeey 1. Oe?ieia ?acaeoea yeieiae/aneeo oo?ia ii Aiaciiee.

2. Yecioe/aneay i?e?iaea.

3. Nia?aiaiiay a?oeoaeoo?a e aeecaei noieeoeu no?aiu

Aa?iiaeneee ?aaeii

O?aioeey

Aiaeey

Aa?iaiey

Oeieyiaeey

Oaaoeey Aunieay eiioeaio?aoeey enoi?e/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo
aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoae.

Oi?iu?iiue aeciaue ?aaeei (aiciiaeiinoue oe?ieiai niaeo?a eiiieaeniuo
oo?ia).

Aunieee o?iaaiue na?aena.

N?aaeecaiiiii?neee ?aaeii

Eei?

Auaiaeiay nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

Nia?aiaiiay aaieianeay naoue.

Oi?ioi iaeaaeaiiay no?oeoo?a oaeaeiiioieeaoeee

Oi?iu?iiay i?ioeaaeo?a nicaeaiey ioooi?iuo eiiiaiee (10 aeiae)

Iaania/eaaaiay ainoaea?noaii iieiay eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue ai anao
aii?inao, eanathueony o/?aaeeoaeae eiiiaiee e aaieianeeo n/?oia.

Ec?aeeue

?aaeii a oeaeii 1. ?ino iaeiiie/aneiai oo?ecia.

Iaee/ea oe?ieiai niaeo?a icaei?iaeoaeueiuo oeaio?ia.

Oo?u ii /aou??i ii?yi.

Iaee/ea iieiae?aeiuo eaaa?ae.

?ino aeaeiauo naycae.

1. ?acaeoay eio?ano?oeoo?a oo?ecia.

Aunieee o?iaaiue ianeoaeeaaiey.

Eiioi?oiue eeeiao.

Aieueoay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oo?enoneiai naciia.

Ni/aoaiea ioaeuoa o ii?y n iniio?ii aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoae.

Aceaoneee ?aaeii

Iauaaeei?iiua A?aaneea Yie?aou 1. Ieceea oeaiu ia yeaeo?iieeo e
aooiaoth oaoieeo oi?ioaai ea/anoaa.

Aunieee o?iaaiue na?aena.

Ieieiaeueiua iaeiae. I?aeoeea nenoaiu “TAX FREE”.

Aieueoie iiuo ea?aiia?aaicie.

Oi?iu?iiay nenoaia aeciaiai ?aaeeia.

?aaeii a oeaeii 1. Yecioe/aneay i?e?iaea e eoeueoo?a.

Iieeoe/aneay noaaeeueiinoue.

Oaeiaiue o?aiceoiue iooue aeey oo?enoia, eaoyueo a Aano?aeeth e
Ieaaieth.

Aeaaiia iai?aaeaiea “ieyaeiiai” ioaeuoa ceiie.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci a ?innee:

noaiiaeaiea e ?aaoee?iaaiea

No?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey oo?enoe/aneie oe?iu ii?aaeaeyaony
caaea/aie e no?aoaaeae eiiiaiee, ii, eae i?aaeei ,eiaao ?oeiaiaeeoaey,
inouanoaeythuaai iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai e ?ac?aaaouaathuaai iauoth
no?aoaaeth oe?iu, a oaeaea ioaeaeu iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee, ia?eaoeiaa
e ?aeeaiu, aooaaeoa?eth.

aaia?aeueiue aee?aeoi?

ioaeae iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee ioaeae ia?eaoeiaa e ?aeeaiu
aooaaeoa?neee ioaeae

Ioaeae ii i?aaiecaoeee iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
oo?ecia aaae?o ?aaioo ii ieaie?iaaieth e inouanoaeaieth oo?enoe/aneeo
iiacaeie ia iniiaaiee aeeea?neeo aeiaiai?ia n oo?iia?aoi?aie. A ia/aea
eaaeaeiai naciia ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo i ni?ina e ninoiyiee ?uiea,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ioaeaeii ia?eaoeiaa, ninoaaeyaony ieai iaai?a a?oii ii
?acee/iui iai?aaeaieyi, cai?in ia?anueaaony oo?iia?aoi?o ia
i?aaeinoaaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo oo?ia ia ii?aaeae?iiue ia?eiae. Any ?aaioa
ii iaania/aieth aeiaiai?a: oi?ie?iaaiea a?oii, iiaeai? ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e
aeaeia-ia?aaiae/eeia, i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee, nieneia
a?oii i?e aeciaii ioi?ieaiee e no?aoiaaiee inouanoaeyaony oaeaea yoei
ioaeaeii.

Eiio?ieue ca ?aaioie oe?iu inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth aooaaeoa?neiai
ioaeaea, eoaea iinooiaao eioi?iaoeey i iaee/ee e aeaeaeaiee aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa e inouanoaeaiee ?acee/iuo oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee.

Ia?eaoeiaiaay e ?aeeaiiay no?aoaaey, a oaeaea ?ac?aaioea oo?enoe/aneiai
i?iaeoeoa inouanoaeyaony ioaeaeii ia?eaoeiaa.

A oo?enoe/aneii aeciana, eae e a ethaii ae?oaii aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe,
iaiaoiaeeii eco/aiea i?iaeai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uieao, o.a.
i?iaaaeaiea ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee.

I?e ieacaiee oneoa oe?ia aeieaeia i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia iio?aaiinoe
oo?enoia, ii?aaeaeyaiiai n iiiiuueth ii?ina iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia.
Iaiaeiaaaeiui enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony e aiaeec ?aeeaiiuo
i?iniaeoia e eenoiaie, aeinoaaeyaiuo ?inneeneeie e ca?oaaaeiuie
oe?iaie-ia?oi??aie e eiieo?aioaie.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi ii oeaeyi iiacaeee oo?eci eeanneoeoee?oaony ia:

— eo?i?oiue oo?eci n oeaeueth ioaeuoa e ea/aiey;

— yeneo?neiiiue oo?eci – ciaeiinoai n i?e?iaeiuie, enoi?e/aneeie e
eoeueoo?iuie aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoyie;

— aeaeiaie oo?eci – aeey i?iaaaeaiey aeaeiauo ia?aaiai?ia;

— iao/iue oo?eci – ciaeiinoai n aeinoeaeaieyie iaoee e oaoieee, o/anoea
a eiia?annao, eiioa?aioeeyo e o.i.

Ii /eneaiiinoe o/anoieeia ?acee/atho a?oiiiaie e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue
oo?eci.

I?e auai?a naiaai naaiaioa ia ?uiea oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa aiaeece?othony
neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

Oeaee iiacaeee: ioaeuo aecian, iao/aiea, oiieia.

Aaia?aoe/aneea oaeoi?u: ioaeuo ia ii?a, ?acaea/aiey, eioa?an e
eoeueoo?iui e a?oeoaeoo?iui oeaiiinoyi.

Aic?anoiua a?oiiu: oeieueieee, nooaeaiou, ac?ineua, naiuee.

Yeiiiie/aneea iio?aaiinoe e i?anoeae: yeiiiiey a?aiaie e oneeee i?e
aeinoeaeaiee eiioi?oa, no?aieaiea i?eiaaeeaaeaoue e ii?aaeae?iiie
nioeeaeueiie a?oiia.

Ia noaia io?aaeaia no?oeoo?a iio?aaiinoae oo?enoia, eaaeauay a iniiaa
oo?enoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu, iieacuaathuay, /oi i?aaiecaoeey oo?ia ia ioaeuo
aeieaeia o/eouaaoue oaeea oaeoi?u, eae ianoi ioaeuoa, i?anoeae eee,
iai?ioea, yeiiiieth n?aaenoa, a oaeaea aic?ano oo?enoia; i?e
i?aaiecaoeee aeaeiauo iiacaeie e oii-oo?ia iniaia cia/aiea eiaao
ianoiiieiaeaiea no?aiu oo?ecia, a aeey oo?iiacaeie n oeaeueth iao/aiey e
iineaaeiaio aeiaaaeyaony e aiaeec aic?anoiie no?oeoo?u oo?enoia.

Naaiaioaoeey ?uiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia

Oeaee oo?ecia

ioaeuo Aeaeiaua
iao/aiea

aaia?aoey iiacaeee e aaia?aoey

oiieia-oo?u

aic?ano
aic?ano

aaia?aoey

i?anoeae yeiiiiey

I?ioeann nicaeaiey ethaie oo?enoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu ia/eiaaony n
?ac?aaioee iaueo oeaeae, Au?aaioee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo i?iaiicia,
iniiaaiiuo i?aaeaea anaai ia eco/aiee ni?ina iio?aaeoaeae e
i?aaeeiaeaiey eiieo?aioia.

A aeayoaeueiinoe oo?enoe/aneeo oe?i, iniaaiii ia yoaia eo auoiaea ia
?uiie, aaeeei cia/aiea i?aaeeueii ?ac?aaioaiiie ?aeeaiiie eiiiaiee.

Oo?enoe/aneay eiiiaiey iiaeao auoue iai?aaeaia ia oo?aaaioia eee ia
iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia. Eioi?iaoeey ioiinyuayny e ia?aiio aeaeo,
?ani?ino?aiyaony i?aaeaea anaai ia oo?enoe/aneeo aunoaaeao, aaea
i?aaenoaaeytho naie i?iaeoeou ana naiua e?oiiua eiiiaiee ?acee/iuo
no?ai.

I/aiue aieueoia cia/aiea a oo?enoe/aneie ?aeeaia eiatho
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aeieoiaiou — eenoiaee, a?ioth?u e i?.

Iau/ii aeaooca?caei/iue e aieaa aunieiai eeanna ioaeue auioneaao naie
nianoaaiiua a?ioth?u, iaee/ea eioi?uo iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai a
eo?i?oiuo ciiao, oeaio?ao nii?oeaiuo ia?ii?eyoee, a?oeoaeoo?iuo e
eoeueoo?iuo oeaio?ao.

Ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua n?aaenoaa i?aaeinoaaeythony oo?aaaioai
oo?iia?aoi?aie, eioi?ua eniieuecotho oaeaea i?iniaeou eo?i?oiuo cii e
aeaeai?aeeaio, aaea io?aaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai naiaia?acea aeaiiie
ianoiinoe, eoeueoo?iua o?aaeeoeee e enoi?e/aneea iaiyoieee. A aeaiiii
neo/aa iniiaiie oeaeueth, auae?aaiie oo?iia?aoi?ii, yaeyaony nicaeaiea
eieaeaea oiai eee eiiai ?aaeiia. Aeey yoiai eniieuecoaony iaai?
i?iaeoiaiiuo eaae?ia, eioi?ua inaauatho aeaiiue ?aaeii n ii?aaeae?iiuo
iiceoeee e ioee/atho aai io ethaiai ae?oaiai.

?aeeaiie ?acee/iuo oo?enoe/aneeo cii e oo?enoe/aneeo i?ia?aii
caieiathony i?aaeaea anaai oo?iia?aoi?u: iieuecoynue
eioi?ie?iaaiiinoueth iioaioeeaeueiiai iio?aaeoaey, ioaeeeotho iaaieueoea
iauyaeaiey a ia/aoiuo /??ii-aaeuo ecaeaieyo, eanathueony i?aaeeaaaaiuo
oneoa e o?iaiy oa?eoia ,i?e/?i aeey aoaeoueo eeeaioia iniiaiui
a?aoiaioii yaeythony ieceea oeaiu.

Iaeei ec iniiaiuo yoaiia – i?iaeaeaeaiea oiaa?a. Ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
o?iaia iaiaoiaeeia ia i?inoi ?aeeaia, a i?aaeaea anaai o/anoea ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo y?ia?eao e aunoaaeao, eioi?ua aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
i?eaea/ue aieiaiea ia e iaeiiio eiie?aoiiio i?iaeoeoo, a e oe?ia a
oeaeii. ?acee/atho neaaeothuea aeaeu aunoaaie:

– oo?enoe/aneea aunoaaee iauaai iacia/aiey aeey i?ioanneiiaeia e
ioaeeee

– niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aunoaaee, i?aaiecoaiua ii ii?aaeae?iiui
e?eoa?eyi, iai?eia?, eanathueony ceiieo aeaeia nii?oa.

– iiiaioeaeaaua y?ia?i/iua yeniiceoeee.

Iniiaiuie oo?enoe/aneeie oeaio?aie, i?aaiecothuea ecaanoiua ai an?i ie?a
y?ia?ee e aunoaaee, yaeythony A?thnnaeue, Ieeai, Ethenaiao?a, Ia?eae,
Eiiaeii.

Iiieii naaiaioaoeee ?uiea e auai?a ia?eaoeiaiaie no?aoaaee, iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue, /oi oo?enoe/aneea oneoae eiatho naie aeeciaiiue oeeee,
ninoiyuee ec ianeieueeeo oac:

– ?ac?aaioee – ia?eiae enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea, aiaeeca eioi?iaoeee,
?an/?oa noieiinoe oneoa ia aeaiiue iiiaio iienea ia?oi??ia, iaeaaeeaaiey
naycae.

– “caionea” – ia?eiae ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee, caaiaaaiey
iioaioeeaeueiuo eeeaioia, aeey eioi?iai oa?aeoa?iu iaiinoiyiiue iau?i
nauoa e eieaaaiey oeaiu.

– c?aeinoe – ia?eiae, eiaaea i?iaeoeo noaiiaeony ecaanoiui,
iiyaeythony iinoiyiiua eeeaiou, /enei aeaeathueo ainiieueciaaoueny
oneoaaie ?ano?o, oaaee/eaaaony iau?i i?iaeaae.

– oiaaeea – ia?eiae, eiaaea ni?in ia aeaiiue aeae oneoa iaaeaao i?e
iiyaeaiee iiauo oniaa?oainoaiaaiiuo oo?ia.

AEeciaiiue oeeee oo?enoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa

O?iaaiue

i?eauee

a?aiy

?ac?aaioea caione c?aeinoue oiaaeie
(oacu oeeeea)

Iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii aiaeece?iaaoue e i?iaeoeou, yaeythueany
iaeiecaanoiuie, iiauie aeey aeaiiiai ?uiea, e oi?ioi ecaanoiua, aeey
nauoa eioi?uo o?aaoaony eciaiaiea eieaeaea.

E?iia oiai, aeey oo?ecia oa?aeoa?iu oacu, caaenyuea io a?aiaie aiaea.
Iie iniiaaiu i?aaeaea anaai ia i?aaeii/oaieyo eeeaioia, eioi?ua iiaoo
aua?aoue aeey ioaeuoa iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuee aeey eo eioa?ania nacii.

Eciaiaiea ni?ina ia oo?enoe/aneea oneoae a ioaeaeueiuo no?aiao a
caaeneiinoe io naciia

No?aia

O?aioeey

Aieaa?ey

Eiaeey

Eei?

A?aiy

Ceia Aania Eaoi
Inaiue aiaea (nacii)

?an/?ou oeaiu oo?enoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa.

Noieiinoue ioo?aee aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea noaouee:

— noieiinoue i?iacaea;

— noieiinoue ieoaiey;

— noieiinoue i?iaeeaaiey;

— noieiinoue o?ainoa?oa;

— noieiinoue yeneo?neiiiie i?ia?aiiu;

— noieiinoue ioi?ieaiey aecu;

—noieiinoue no?aoiaiai iieena.

Oeaia aea oo?enoe/aneie ioo?aee aieueoa naaanoieiinoe ia aaee/eio
cao?ao e i?eauee oo?enoe/aneie oe?iu.

?anoiaeu, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a yoeo noaoueyo, aeaeyony ia iinoiyiiua e
ia?aiaiiua. E eaoaai?ee iinoiyiiuo ?anoiaeia ioiinyony:

— noieiinoue i?iacaea;

— noieiinoue o?ainoa?oa;

— noieiinoue no?aoiaiai iieena;

— ioi?ieaiea anao iaiaoiaeeiuo aeieoiaioia.

Eae i?aaeei, iinoiyiiua ?anoiaeu ia caaenyo io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
oo?a e ea/anoaa ianeoaeeaaiey.

Aeiey ainoeiiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ieoaiey a iauae noieiinoe ioo?aee
ninoaaeyao 60 – 65%. Iaa yoe yeaiaioa yaeythony ia?aiaiiuie aaee/eiaie e
caaenyo io eciaiaiey oeai ia aeaiiua aeaeu oneoa, a oaeaea io naciiiie
a?aaeaoeee, aaia?aoe/aneie ciiu ?aniieiaeaiey ainoeieoeu, aeaea e eeanna
ianeoaeeaaiey, aeiaiai?iuo eiiia?/aneeo oneiaee iaaeaeo oo?aaainoaii e
aaeieieno?aoeeae ainoeie/iiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia noieiinoue ainoeie/iiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ieoaiey ieacuaaao aeeyiea e
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue i?iaeeaaiey. *ai iia aieueoa, oai ieaea noieiinoue
iaeiiai oo?iaeiy.

I?e ?an/?oa ainoeie/iiai ianeoaeeaaiey oeaia i?iaeeaaiey e ieoaiey
?acaeaaaony ia oa?eoioth naoeo, eioi?ay eiaao aeeaiacii 7 aeiae.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiay /anoue iioiea oo?enoia ninoieo ec
oeiiieaeoiaaiiuo a?oii. Yoi icia/aao, /oi oo?enoe/aneay oe?ia
ii?aaeaeyao iioiaoth oeaio iiacaeee aeey anae a?oiiu. I?e yoii iau/ii
i?aaeinoaaeyaony neeaeea aeey ianniaie iioiaie naeaeee a caaeneiinoe io
iau?ia iia?a – aei 10%, ii n?ieai e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe – aei 5%,
neeaeea a caaeneiinoe io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe i?iaeeaaiey oo?enoia a
ainoeie/iii i?aaei?eyoee – aei 10%.

N iioiaie oeaiu iiaoo aeaeaoueny aeiiieieoaeueiua neeaeee ca o/anoea
oe?iu a ?aeeaia e ecaeaiee ?aeeaiiuo i?iniaeoia ii no?aia, ioaeaeueiiio
ai?iaeo, ioaeaeueiie ainoeieoea, eoaea oe?ia ioi?aaeyao oo?enoia. Oae,
ia?aaeei oo?oe?ia ?aaeecoao ?aeeaiiua i?iniaeou no?aiu, ?aeeaie?oy oaeei
ia?acii ia oieueei naie oo?u, ii e no?aio a oeaeii.

Neeaeee iiaoo oaeaea i?iecaiaeeony i?e i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaoa
oo?enoe/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey.

A oeaeii oeaia ia oo?enoe/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea a?oii iiaeao auoue ieaea
?uii/iie oeaiu aeey ?aciauo naeaeie a n?aaeiai ia 10-20%.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia noieiinoue ioo?aee aeeyao oaeoi? eiee/anoaa
i?aaeeaaaaiuo oneoa. Oo?enoo iiaoo auoue i?aaeinoaaeaiu eeai
ii?aaeae?iiua aeaeu oneoa ii aai auai?o, eeai iieiue eiiieaen oneoa.
Iieiue eiiieaen oneoa iiaeao auoue i?aaeinoaaeai ioo?i i?iaeaaee oae
iacuaaaiuo eieethcea-oo?ia (inclusive tour) eee iyeeaeae-oo?ia (packadge
tour).

I?e eieethcea-oo?ao, i?eiaiyaiuo i?e aaeaia?aaiceao, noieiinoue
ia?aaicee oo?enoia e ianoo iacia/aiey e ia?aoii ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa
niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo eieethcea-oa?eoia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue
iaiieiaeio ieaea iau/iuo. Oo? aeeth/aao oaeaea noieiinoue ?aciauaiey
oo?enoia a ainoeieoea, ieoaiea (iieiia eee /anoe/iia) e ae?oaea oneoae,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ia ii?aaeae?iiia /enei aeiae i?aauaaiey oo?enoia a
no?aia iacia/aiey, e eniieuecothueany i?e a?oiiiauo e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
iiacaeeao.

Iauee o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe e oeaiu eieethcea-oo?a aeieaeai auoue ia
ieaea iau/iiai oa?eoa noieiinoe o?ainii?oe?iaee. Eeeaioo niiauaaony
iaooaeueiay (iauay) oeaia eieethcea-oo?a aac ?acaeaee a? ia ioaeaeueiua
aeaeu oneoa.

I?e ?an/?oa noieiinoe eieethcea-oo?a oe?ia aeeth/aao a ia? iiieii
noieiinoe oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa, nianoaaiiua cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea
aiia?aoa oe?iu, ecaea?aeee ia ?aeeaio, a oaeaea ii?aaeae?iioth i?eaueue.
Ianiio?y ia yoi, iauay noieiinoue eieethcea- oo?a aeey ioaeaeueiiai
oo?enoa iaoiaeeony aeaoaaea, /ai i?e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iiacaeea aac
iiiiue oo?oe?iu n oaeei aea eiiieaeoii e o?iaiai oneoa.

Iyeeaeae-oo?u i?aaeiieaaatho i?aaeinoaaeaiea eeeaioo iieiiai eiiieaena
oneoa, eioi?ue, iaeiaei, iiaeao e ia aeeth/aoue o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu.
I?aaiecothony iie ii ii?aaeae?iiie, ca?aiaa ?aeeaie?oaiie i?ia?aiia.
No?oeoo?a oo?ia aa?uee?oaony a caaeneiinoe io no?aiu, ninoaaa oo?enoia,
eo iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe, oa?aeoa?a, anni?oeiaioa e ea/anoaa oneoa.

Niaoeeoeea aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa iia?aoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia
auoaeaao ec ?acee/ey a oi?ie?iaaiee noieiinoe ioo?aee:

— aeey oo?enonei-yeneo?neiiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua oi?ie?otho
noieiinoue ioo?aee ioo?i i?eia?aoaiey ioaeaeueiuo oneoa;

— aeey oo?enonei-yeneo?neiiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueony oieueei
i?iaeaaeae ioo?aie;

— aeey oo?enonei-yeneo?neiiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueony
iin?aaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

Ia?aue aa?eaio i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iau/ioth noaio ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey,
?aaeecothuaai i?iaeoeoeeth nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Enoiaey ec oiai,
aooaaeoa?neee o/?o iiaeii aanoe ii noaia, i?eiyoie aeey i?aaei?eyoee,
?aaeecothueo i?iaeoeoeeth nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa eee, eae iau/ii a?
iacuaatho, “ii i?iecaiaenoaaiiie noaia”.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ia?aaeei oo?enoe/aneea oe?iu, ?aaioathuea ii
noaia oi?ie?iaaiey noieiinoe ioo?aee (oo?a) ec ioaeaeueii i?eia?aoaaiuo
oneoa, aeiioneatho oa?aeoa?ioth iaoi/iinoue: i?e iiaeaaaeaiee eoiaia
io/?oiiai ia?eiaea iieiinoueth cae?uaatho n/aoa o/?oa ecaea?aeae e oaeei
ia?acii ii?aaeaeytho oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao ca io/?oiue ia?eiae i?inoi
eae ?acieoeo iaaeaeo au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee e anae noiiie iiian?iiuo
?anoiaeia. Iaaeaeo oai, eae e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo aeaeao i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, caeanue aiciiaeii e ia?aciaaiea ia eiiaoe io/?oiiai
ia?eiaea inoaoeia iacaaa?o?iiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e iieo/aiea aaainia e
i?aaeiieao iiae i?iaeaaeo ioo?aee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?ioeannu oi?ie?iaaiey, i?eia?aoaiey e
iineaaeothuae i?iaeaaee ioo?aie iiaoo auoue ?anoyioou ai a?aiaie,
niioaaonoaaiii ia i?aeoeea neeaaeuaathony neooaoeee, eiaaea oi?ie?iaaiea
ioo?aee ia/eiaaony a iaeiii io/?oiii ia?eiaea e caeai/eaaaony a ae?oaii,
eee i?e ?aaioa ii aoi?iio aa?eaioo i?eia?aoaiea ioo?aee e a?
ia?ai?iaeaaea i?ienoiaeyo a ?aciuo io/?oiuo ia?eiaeao. Ec yoiai
neaaeoao, /oi a aeayoaeueiinoe oo?enoe/aneie oe?iu aeieaeii auoue /?oei
ii?aaeaeaiii, eaeei ia?acii oeene?othony iniiaiua oicyenoaaiiua
iia?aoeee, oaeea eae:

— iieo/aiea i?aaeiieaou io ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee ca ieacaiea oneoa;

— iieo/aiea i?aaeiieaou io ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee ca aioiaoth ioo?aeo;

— iieo/aiea i?aaeiieaou io oo?enoa ca ioo?aeo;

— ieacaiea oneoa ae?oaie i?aaiecaoeee;

— ia?aaea/a ioo?aee oo?enoo;

— auaea/a i?aaeiieaou ae?oaei i?aaiecaoeeyi;

— iieo/aiea io ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee aa?aioee ia iieo/aiea ioaeaeueiuo
oneoa;

— iieo/aiea io ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee ioo?aie.

I?aeoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi, eae i?aaeei, /?oei oeene?othony
iiiaiou oieaou e iieo/aiey aeaiaa e ia?aciaaiey caaeieaeiinoae, /oi
io?aaeaaony ia n/aoao ?an/?oia n aeaaeoi?aie e e?aaeeoi?aie. A aeaiiii
neo/aa noaouey cao?ao nouanoaaiii nie?auaaony e ii?aaeaeeoue eaeea ec
ieo ioiinyony e aeaiiiio iau?io ?aaeecaoeee iaeaaei.

Anee oo?enoe/aneia aaaionoai ?aaioaao oieueei eae iin?aaeiee,
eniieuecoaony noaia aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa, oa?aeoa?iay aeey
aeaiiiai aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iieiay noaia aooaaeoa?neeo iia?aoeee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oo?ecia ii
auoaiacaaiiui o??i aa?eaioai i?eaaaeaia a oaaeeoea.

Aooaaeoa?neea iia?aoeee a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oo?ecia

Oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee Aeaaao E?aaeeo

1 aa?eaio (OO?IIA?AOI?)

I?eia?aoaiea o ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeee i?aa ia iieo/aiea ?acee/iuo oneoa.

Nianoaaiiua ?anoiaeu (ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa, no?aoiaaieth)

IAeN

Nienaiea IAeN ia noieiinoue ioo?aee

Nienaiea cao?ao ii oi?ie?iaaieth noieiinoe ioo?aee

Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee

Nienaiea oaeoe/aneeo cao?ao

Oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao 20,31

20,26,31, 43

20

40

40

52,62,72, 50,51

51

46,80 50,51,52, 60,61,76

70, 69, 38, 51, 60, 76

19

20

20

46

80,46

2 aa?eaio (AeEEA?)

I?eia?aoaiea ioo?aee aeey i?iaeaaee

Io?aaeaiea nianoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia

IAeN ii oneoaai

Nienaiea IAeN ii oneoaai

Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee

Nienaiea noieiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiie ioo?aee

Oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao io ?aaeecaoeee

41

31,44

19

19

62,76,50,51,51

46

46,80

60,76

70,69,50,5160,61,76

60,76,50, 51

60,76,50, 51

46

41

80,46

3 aa?eaio (OO?AAAIO)

Aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ca i?iaeaaeo ioo?aee

Iieo/aiea aaaina iiae aoaeouaa aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca iin?aaeie/aneea
oneoae

IAeN io noiiu aaaina

Ia?aaiae aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa oe?ia-nianoaaiieeo ioo?aee

?anoiaeu ii ieacaieth iin?aaeie/aneeo oneoa, ioiineiua ia
naaanoieiinoue.

IAeN ii ?anoiaeai

Nienaiea IAeN

Au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee

IAeN io noiiu au?o/ee

Oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou

50,51,52

50,51,52

64

20

19

68,64

62,76,50,51,52

46

46,80 76

64

68

61,70,69,60,76,50,51,52

52,60,76,50,51

19,46

46

68

80,46

?ieue yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee iaecia?eii
aic?anoaao e eiaao aeaa aniaeoa:

— aioo?aiiee, ca n/?o ?anoouae ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ia?aae
niaeaaeaeueoeaie, ?aaioieeaie, aaieaie e ae?oaeie e?aaeeoi?aie;

— aiaoiee, eae iaiaoiaeeiinoue aiaeeca oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?e
onoaiiaeaiee aeaeiauo eiioaeoia oi?i/aiee iieiaeaiey ia ?uiea.

Oeiainiaay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey ioaaouaaao i?ioeannu
oi?ie?iaaiey, aeaeaeaiey e iaania/aiey nio?aiiinoe eiouanoaa.

Oeiainiaia ninoiyiea yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey e oa?aeoa?ecoaony oeiainiaie onoie/eainoueth,
ieao?aeaniiniaiinoueth e eeeaeaeiinoueth.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey aiaeeca oeiainiaiai
ninoiyiey yaeyaony aaeainiaue io/?o, aeeth/athuee oi?io 1 – aaeain
i?aaei?eyoey e oi?io 2 – io/?o i oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoao.

Aiaeec oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey oo?enoe/aneie oe?iu aeeth/aao a naay ?an/?o
eiyooeoeeaioia ieao?aeaniiniaiinoe (I) e eeeaeaeiinoe (E):

aaea – nianoaaiiue eaieoae;

A – aeoeau

aaea – aunieieeeaeaeiua aeoeau ;

– e?aoein?i/iay caaeieaeaiiinoue.

A ia?aii neo/aa eiyooeoeeaio ?ann/eouaaaony eae ioiioaiea nianoaaiiiai
eaieoaea e aeoeaai, a ai aoi?ii – ioiioaiea aunieieeeaeaeiuo aeoeaia
(aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia n/aoao) e e?aoein?i/iie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

I?aaei?eyoea n/eoaaony ieao?aeaniiniaiui, anee aai iauea aeoeau aieueoa,
/ai aeieain?i/iua e e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa, e eeeaeaeiui, anee aai
oaeouea aeoeau aieueoa, /ai e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa.

I?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi oeiainiaia oi?aaeaiea
aeayoaeueiinoueth e iaee/ea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa aieaa aaaeii, /ai
oaeouay i?eaueue, a ionoonoaea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa a aaiea iiaeao
i?eaanoe e e?eceno oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey. Iieacaoaee iiaeii n/eoaoue
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuie e oi?ioeie a neo/aa ieceeo ecaea?aeae e ionoonoaey
caaeieaeaiiinoae. Eiaiii yoio iaiaeiaaaeiue oaeoi? cia/eoaeueii iiauoaao
eiyooeoeeaiou, a cia/eo, aeey oiai, /oiau ?acia?aoueny a ?aaeueiii
iieiaeaiee aeae, iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue ?aioaaaeueiinoue e ?acoeueoaou
io/?oa ii i?eauee.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaei?eyoee iacaaeneii io aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe e
oi?i nianoaaiiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony aai niiniaiinoueth i?eiineoue
aeinoaoi/iue aeioiae eee i?eaueue eae eiia/iue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao
?aaiou A oneiaeyo ?uiea i?eaueue aunooiaao iniiaiui oaeoi?ii
noeioee?iaaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iia nicaea?o
aiciiaeiinoue aeey ?anoe?aiey aeayoaeueiinoe, oaeiaeaoai?aiey
nioeeaeueiuo e iaoa?eaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae /eaiia eieeaeoeaa, yaeyaony
iniiaiui enoi/ieeii oi?ie?iaaiey athaeaeaoa. Ca n/?o i?eauee iiaaoathony
aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eyoee ia?aae aaieaie e eiaanoi?aie.

O/eouaaaony oaeaea ?aioaaaeueiinoue ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoee e
?aioaaaeueiinoue i?iaeoeoeee. *ai auoa o?iaaiue ?aioaaaeueiinoe, oai
aieueoa yooaeoeaiinoue oicyenoaiaaiey.

A yoie nayce eaaeaeay oo?enoe/aneay oe?ia i?iecaiaeeo ?an/?o iauae
?aioaaaeueiinoe (?i ), ?aioaaaeueiinoe i?iaeoeoeee ( iai?ioa )(?ia ) e
/enea iai?ioia n?aaenoa *i .

Iauay ?aioaaaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony eae ioiioaiea i?eauee aei
ia/eneaiey i?ioeaioa e aeoeao aaeaina:

?i= 100% ,

aaea ? – i?eaueue aei ia/eneaiey i?ioeaioa;

A – aeoeau.

?ia = 100% ,

aaea I – i?eaueue aei ia/eneaiey i?ioeaioa;

A? – au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee.

*i = 100%,

aaea A? – au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee;

A – aeoeau.

A ie?iaie i?aeoeea ?aioaaaeueiinoue aaeaieoeu ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee (?i ) en/eneyaony oae aea, eae ioiioaiea i?eauee ii aeaiiiio
oiaa?o e aai naaanoieiinoe:

?i = 100%,

aaea Oe – oeaia oiaa?a;

N – naaanoieiinoue oiaa?a.

Aeaiiay oi?ioea iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia aeey ?an/?oa ?aioaaaeueiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo oo?ia.

I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi iaeaieueoay ?aioaaaeueiinoue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
oo?enoe/aneii aeciana aeinoeaaaony i?e e?aoein?i/iuo (aei 8 aeiae)
iooaoanoaeyo n ?aciauaieai a ioaeyo aunieiai eeanna.

I?aaiecaoeey e oaoieea eniieiaiey iia?aoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia.

Iniiaiua o/anoieee iia?aoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia e nenoaia
acaeiiioiioaiee.

Inouanoaeaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oo?enoe/aneeo iia?aoeee i?aaeiieaaaao
ii?aaeae?iiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo oo?enoaie – iio?aaeoaeyie oo?enoe/aneeo
oneoa e oo?enoe/aneeie oe?iaie – eo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e ?aaeecaoi?aie, a
oaeaea ioiioaiey iineaaeieo n ?acee/iuie i?aaiecaoeeyie(aaieaie,
o?ainii?oiuie e no?aoiauie eiiiaieyie e o.i.), iaania/eaathueie
eniieiaiea yoiai aeaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oneoa.

Nenoaia ioiioaiee yoeo aeaaiuo noauaeoia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
oo?enoe/aneiai aeciana i?aaenoaaeaia ia noaia

Noauaeou iia?aoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia

oo?eno

iinieuenoaa, eiinoeuenoaa oo?aaaio aaiee

no?aoiaua eiiiaiee oo?iia?aoi?
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu

o?ainii?oiua eiiiaiee ca?oaaaeiua ia?oi??u

?aaioa oo?enoe/aneeo oe?i n oo?enoaie aeeth/aao a naay:

– i?aaeeiaeaiea oo?enoo eee a?oiia oo?enoia ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaai?a
oo?enoe/anei-yeneo?neiiiuo oneoa;

– iieo/aiea io eeeaioa aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ca ioo?aeo (oo?);

– ia?a/eneaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ii?aaeae?iiui i?aaiecaoeeyi ca
?aciauaiea, i?iaeeaaiea, yeneo?neiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea.

Aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey oo?enoa e oo?enoe/aneie oe?iu neeaaeuaathony eae
ioiioaiey iieoiaoaey (caeac/eea) e i?iaeaaoea (eniieieoaey). I?e yoii
neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue iniaue oa?aeoa? “i?iaeoeo”, i?eia?aoaaiiai o
oo?enoe/aneie oe?iu. Anooiay n iae a aeiaiai?iua ioiioaiey, oo?eno
?ann/eouaaao iieo/eoue a eiia/iii eoiaa iaiaoiaeeiue aio iaai? oneoa.
Oe?ia aea i?aaeinoaaeyao aio, eae i?aaeei, au? ia naie oneoae. a i?aaa
(aa?aioee) iieo/aiey a ii?aaeae?iiia a?aiy, a ii?aaeae?iiii ianoa
oneoa, iaiin?aaenoaaiii inouanoaeyaiuo ae?oaeie oe?iaie, ia eiathueie
i?yiuo aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee n aeaiiui oo?enoii, ii ninoiyueie a
aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaieyo n iai?aaeythuae oo?enoe/aneie oe?iie. Oo?eno
i?eia?aoaao oaeaea e aa?aioee ieacaiey ii?aaeae?iiuo aeaeia oneoa e
naiie iai?aaeythuae oe?iie. Niaieoiiinoue yoeo i?aa ioia?aaeaaony a
ioo?aea, eioi?ay yaeyaony eiia/iui “i?iaeoeoii” aeayoaeueiinoe
oo?enoe/aneie oe?iu e niioaaonoaaiii i?aaeiaoii a? ?aaeecaoeee.

Oo?iia?aoi?neay aeayoaeueiinoue – yoi aeayoaeueiinoue ii oi?ie?iaaieth,
i?iaeaeaeaieth e ?aaeecaoeee oo?enoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa, inouanoaeyaiay ia
iniiaaiee eeoeaicee th?eaee/aneei eeoeii eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui
i?aaei?eieiaoaeai (oo?iia?aoi?ii).

Oo?aaaioneay aeayoaeueiinoue – aeayoaeueiinoue ii i?iaeaeaeaieth e
?aaeecaoeee oo?enoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa, inouanoaeyaiay ia iniiaaiee
eeoeaicee th?eaee/aneei eeoei eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeai
(oo?aaaioii).

Acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo oo?iia?aoi?ii e oo?enoii /aua anaai no?iyony ia
iniiaaiee aaaioneiai aeiaiai?a i i?aaeinoaaeaiee ia?aui aoi?iio i?aaa ia
?aaeecaoeeth oo?enoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa, noi?ie?iaaiiiai oo?iia?aoi?ii.

Eiaiii iiyoiio i?e i?aaiecaoeee oo?ia oo?enoe/aneea oe?iu nio?oaeie/atho
ni no?aoiauie eiiiaieyie. No?aoiaie aciin aoiaeeo a noieiinoue ioo?aee.
Aai aaee/eia caaeneo io oa?eoa. Nouanoaotho /aou?a ?aciiaeaeiinoe
oa?eoia, eioi?ua iniiauaathony ia:

– oneiaeyo iinieuenoa, eioi?ua iiaoo ii?aaeaeeoue ieieiaeueioth aaee/eio
no?aoiaie noiiu, iai?eia?, aeey Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu yoi i?eia?ii 30
aeieea?ia NOA;

– n?iea iiacaeee;

– eiee/anoaa /aeiaae a a?oiia (aiciiaeiu neeaeee io 5 aei 20%);

– aic?anoa (noa?oa 60 eao no?aoiaay noiia iiaeao auoue oaaee/aia a aeaa
?aca).

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue nouanoaotho aeaa oi?iu no?aoiaiai ianeoaeeaaiey
oo?enoia.

Eiiiainaoeeiiiay.

I?aaeoniao?eaaao iieaoo naiei iooaoanoaaiieeii anao iaaeeoeeineeo
?anoiaeia e aiciauaiea eo eeoue ii aica?auaiee ia ?iaeeio, /oi, eae
i?aaeei, iaoaeiaii, oae eae auioaeaeaao oo?enoa eiaoue i?e naaa
cia/eoaeueiue aeaiaaeiue caian ia yoio neo/ae.

I?ia?aiia no?aoiaaiey aaaaaea.

Noiia no?aoiaiai eeieoa ieiei 2000 aeieea?ia. Iia auiea/eaaaony ii
i?aaeuyaeaiee aeieoiaioia, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo, /oi aaaaae aue ooa?yi eee
iia?aaeae?i ai a?aiy o?aiaiey eee o?ainii?oe?iaee. Yoi iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiue aeae no?aoiaaiey, o.e. oa?eo no?aoiaaiey aaaaaea
ninoaaeyao ieiei 50 oeaioia a aeaiue.

Na?aeniay.

No?aoiaaiea iaaeeoeeineeo ?anoiaeia.

TH?eaee/aneee e eioi?iaoeeiiiue annenoain – iaania/aiea i?aaiaie
iiaeaea?aeee iooaoanoaaiieeai a neo/aa aaeieieno?aoeaiuo eee
a?aaeaeaineeo ia?ooaiee, a oaeaea aa?aioey iieo/aiey iaiaoiaeeiie
eioi?iaoeee i iaeaieaa oaeiaiuo ia?o?ooao.

No?aoiaaiea io ian/anoiiai neo/ay.

I?ia?aiia no?aoiaaiey a?aaeaeaineie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaianaiea oua?aa
eiouanoao o?aoueeo eeoe, iaian?iiuo oo?enoii a ?acoeueoaoa “iaoiuoeaiiuo
aeaenoaee”.

No?aoiaie iieen – iaycaoaeueiue aeieoiaio i?e oo?iiacaeea. Aieueoeinoai
no?ai ie?a ia auaea?o aecu aac iaee/ey niaoeeaeueiiai no?aoiaiai iieena.
E iei ioiinyony aieueoeinoai ?acaeouo no?ai: Aano?ey, Aaeueaey,
Aa?iaiey, Aieeaiaeey, Aeaiey, Eniaiey, Ii?aaaey, O?aioeey, Oaaeoea?ey,
Oaaoeey, NOA.

No?aoiaie iieen eae aeieoiaio, aa?aioe?othuee iieaoo iaiaoiaeeiiai
iaaeeoeeineiai ianeoaeeaaiey i?e ianooieaiee no?aoiaiai neo/ay,
iaycaoaeueii niaea?aeeo iiia? oaeaoiia oe?iu-ia?oi??a, ii eioi?iio
iiaeii ia?aoeony ca iiiiuueth, eioi?iaoeeth i no?aoiaaoaea, no?aoiaueea,
oneiaeyo, noieiinoe no?aoiaee e inaiaiaeaeaiey io (ioaaonoaaiiinoe)
iaycaoaeuenoa eiiiaiee a neo/aa aieiu, yaea?iuo ac?uaia, aei?iaeiuo
aaa?ee, o?iie/aneeo caaieaaaiee e o.ae.

Oo?enoe/aneay oe?ia ia?anueaao iinoaaueeo cai?in e aa?aioeeiia ienueii
ni n?ieaie iiacaeee, iaeiaiiaaieai no?aiu iacia/aiey, n?aaenoa
ia?aaeaeaeaiey, i?eieiathuae oe?iu, eiee/anoaii oo?enoia iiei?iii n
oeacaieai iiia?a ianii?oa e aic?anoa.

Iiaeiaiui ia?acii ioi?ieythony e aecu.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeaeia aec a caaeneiinoe io oeaeae iiacaeee –
oo?enoe/aneea, aecu ii /anoiiio i?eaeaoaieth, aecu ii aeaeiaiio
i?eaeaoaieth.

Ioi?ieaiea aec ii /anoiui e aeaeiaui i?eaeaoaieyi inouanoaeyaony a
eiinoeuenoaa no?aiu. Neo/ae ioeaca a aeca ninoaaeytho 5 – 7% io /enea
anao ia?aoeaoeony, i?e/?i ioeac iiaeao auoue ia?aniio?ai. Eiinoeueneee
nai? ca aeaiiue aeae oneoa ninoaaeyao 10-60 aeieea?ia NOA.

Ioi?ieaiea oo?enoe/aneeo aec inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth auciaa
ca?oaaaeiie oe?iu ia ii?aaeae?iiia eiee/anoai oo?enoia ni nieneii,
cayaeaiiui ?aiaa oo?enoe/aneei aaaionoaii. Iinea ?anniio?aiey
eiinoeuenoaii auaea?ony aeca, iauay aeey anae a?oiiu eee
i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey ioaeaeueiuo oo?enoia.

I?e ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii o/eouaaaony ia noieueei noieiinoue, neieueei
neiaeiinoue i?ioeaaeo?u ioi?ieaiey.

An? iienaiiia oa?aeoa?ii i?aaeaea anaai aeey Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia Aia?eee
e Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, aaea e ?ac?aoaieth ia auacae ioiinyony i/aiue
no?iai.

14 ethiy 1985 aiaea a ethenaiao?aneii ai?iaea Oaiaai ainoaea?noaaie
Aaieethena, O?aioeeae e Aa?iaieae auei iiaeienaii niaeaoaiea i
i?aaenoiyuae iinoaiaiiie ioiaia ianii?oiiai eiio?iey ia naieo aioo?aiieo
a?aieoeao.

A ethia 1991 aiaea e Oaiaaineiio niaeaoaieth i?eniaaeeieeenue Eniaiey e
Ii?ooaaeey, e aue ninoaaeai nienie no?ai, eioi?ua iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu
eiaoue ioe?uoue aeciaie ?aaeei. 17 aeaeaa?y 1992 aiaea aue ooaa?aeae?i
nienie ec 120 no?ai, a?aaeaeaia eioi?uo aeey ia?ana/aiey a?aieoe
aeieaeiu eiaoue aeco aaeeiiai ia?acoea (e iei ioiineony e ?inney), aue
i?eiyo aeaie aaeeiie aecu e 22 aeaeaa?y 1994 aiaea i?aaenoaaeoaee
i?aaeoaeuenoa yoeo no?ai iiaeienaee ioeoeeaeueiue i?ioieie i anooieaiee
a neeo Oaiaaineeo niaeaoaiee n 26 ia?oa 1995 aiaea. A 1997 aiaeo e
Oaiaaineiio niaeaoaieth i?eniaaeeieeenue Oaaoeey e Aeaiey. Eiaiii n
yoiai a?aiaie ?inneeneea oo?enou, auacaeathuea a iaeii ec yoeo
ainoaea?noa ia n?ie iaiaa o??o ianyoeaa, iieo/atho Oaiaaineoth aeco, i?e
aieaa aeeeoaeueiii i?aauaaiee a no?aia iacia/aiey aeaenoaotho
iaoeeiiaeueiua aecu.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, ia?aaeaeaeaiea ii oa??eoi?ee naie aa?iiaeneeo
ainoaea?noa i?e ioi?ieaiee iaeiie aecu aaconeiaii i/aiue oaeiaii, ii, n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, nouanoaaiii oaeeeieeny n?ie (aei /aou??o iaaeaeue), a
oa/aiea eioi?iai ?anniao?eaaaony aii?in i auaea/a ?ac?aoaiey ia auacae.
Yoi naycaiii n oai, /oi iinieuenoaa yoeo ainoaea?noa iinueatho ae?oa
ae?oao cai?inu ia oiai eee eiiai ia?aoeaoaainy.

Nouanoaotho oaeaea ainoaea?noaa, a eioi?uo ioi?ieaiea ia auacae
inouanoaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia a?aieoea. E iei ioiinyony Aao?aei,
Aaeiao, Eaiey, Eeaai, Iaeueoa, Iaiae, Iauaaeei?iiua A?aaneea Yie?aou e
Oo?oeey.

Aacaeciaue auacae ii i?eaeaoaieth aac ioi?ieaiey caa?aie/iiai ianii?oa
?ac?ao?i a no?aiu Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu, Iiiaieeth, Eoao.

?inneeneea a?aaeaeaia eiatho i?aai ia auacae aac ioi?ieaiey aec a
Eieoiaeth, Iaeaeceth, Yeaaaei?, Eei? e ae?. no?aiu.

I?e ioi?ieaiee aeieoiaioia a iaycaoaeueiinoe oo?oe?iu aoiaeeo
eioi?ie?iaaiea oo?enoia i o?aaiaaieyo iia?aie/iuo e oaiiaeaiiuo neoaea.

Aeiaiai?iia ioi?ieaiea iia?aoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai

oo?ecia

Nenoaia acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo iniiaiuie noauaeoaie iia?aoeee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia th?eaee/aneee ioi?ieyaony ?acee/iuie
aeiaiai?aie (eiio?aeoaie).

A aeiaiai? iaaeaeo oo?enoe/aneie oe?iie e oo?enoii, eae i?aaeei,
niaea?aeeo neaaeothuea oeiiaua oneiaey:

— i?aaeiao aeiaiai?a (i?eia?aoaiea oo?enoii i?aa(aa?aioee) ia oo?,
ioi?ieaiiuo a aeaea ioo?aee);

— noieiinoue oneoa oe?iu e oi?ia eo iieaou (iaee/iuie eee ia?aaiae
aeaiaa ia ?an/?oiue n/?o oe?iu);

— iaycaiiinoe oo?enoe/aneie oe?iu (ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth oo?enoe/aneiai
i?iaeoeoa a iieiii iau?ia e ea/anoaaiii; ii iaaeeoeeineiio no?aoiaaieth
oo?enoia; ii ioi?ieaieth aeey ieo iinieueneeo aec);

— ioaaonoaaiiinoue e inaiaiaeaeaiea io ioaaonoaaiiinoe noi?ii (a neo/ayo
oi?n – iaaei?iuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, eciaiaiey ea/anoaa i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo
oneoa, n?ieia eo i?aaeinoaaeaiey, ioeaca noi?ii io oo?a);

— iaycaiiinoe oo?enoa (ii iieaoa, i?aaeinoaaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeieoiaioia aeey ioi?ieaiey aec e o.i.).

A aeiaiai?a n eeeaioii oeaeaniia?acii io?aceoue neaaeothuea naaaeaiey:
aeaoo caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a, n?iee i?aaeinoaaeaiey oneoa, aeae
o?ainii?oa aei ianoa ioaeuoa e ia?aoii, eeann ainoeieoeu, aai
iaeiaiiaaiea e ianoi ?aniieiaeaiey.

Aeiaiai? iaaeaeo oo?iia?aoi?ii e oo?aaaioii a caaeneiinoe io
niaea?aeaiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo oo?oe?iaie iiaeao auoue ianeieueeeo
aeaeia.

Aaaioneea niaeaaoaieyy i?aaeoniao?eaatho ia?aaea/o i?iecaiaeeoaeai oneoa
oo?enoe/aneiio aaaioo i?aa ia i?iaeaaeo ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia oneoa e
eieethcea-oo?ia io eiaie e ca n/?o oo?iia?aoi?a. A aeiaiai?a iau/ii
niaea?aeaony /?oeea eino?oeoeee ii auiieiaieth aiceiaeaiiuo caaea/,
oa??eoi?eaeueiia ia?aie/aiey noa?u aeaenoaey, onoaiaaeeaathony i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe noi?ii, a oaeaea ii?yaeie auieao eiienneiiiuo
aiciaa?aaeaeaiee. Iau?i e oa?aeoa? o?aaiaaiee e aaaioo iaiaeeiaeia e
caaeneo io eiie?aoiuo oneiaee, nouanoaothueo ia iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?uieao.

A niaeaoaiea iiaeao auoue aianaia iaiai?ea, iaycuaathuay aaaioa ia
anooiaoue a aeaeiaua ioiioaiey n ae?oaeie oe?iaie, a oaeaea iaiai?ea i
iiiiiieueiii i?aaa i?iaeaaee ioaeaeueiuo oo?enoe/aneeo oneoa. Iiaeiaiay
oi?ia aeayoaeueiinoe, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aea?o aiciiaeiinoue ?aaioaoue,
ia eiay aieueoeo cao?ao ia ?aeeaio, ia?eaoeia, i?aaiecaoeeth oo?ia e
iieo/ay eiienneiiiua, ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, ia aea?o aiciiaeiinoe
nouanoaaiiiai ?anoe?aiey e iieo/aiey aieueoeo i?eaueae. E?iia oiai,
aaaio ca/anooth neeoeii caaeneo io oo?iia?aoi?a e ii nooe aeaea eeo?i
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe.

Eiaiii iiyoiio /anoi oo?enoe/aneea oe?iu i?eia?aoatho ioo?aee eae
aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, noi?ie?iaaiioth ae?oaie eiiiaieae, e a
iineaaenoaee i?iaeatho a? aei?iaea. A iaycaiiinoe i?iaeaaoea aoiaeeo
a?iie?iaaiea iano a ainoeieoea, ioi?ieaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey iiacaeee
aeieoiaioia, iaania/aiea oo?enoe/aneie a?oiiu aeaeii-ia?aaiae/eeii e
eioi?ie?iaaiea iieoiaoaey i aiciiaeiuo eciaiaieyo, a iieoiaoaeue
inouanoaeyao iaai?, eiiieaeoaoeeth e ioi?aaeo oo?enoia, iaania/eaaao
i?aaeinoaaeaiea eo nieneia a o??o yecaiiey?ao aeey ioi?ieaiey
aeieoiaioia e a?iie?iaaiey iano ia o?ainii?oa e ainoeieoea, eioi?ie?oao
oo?enoia i noieiinoe e ii?yaeea ?an/?oia.

A neo/aa ia auiieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa e ia niaethaeaiey n?ieia ia?aaiaea
noieiinoe ianeoaeeaaiey eee ia i?aaeinoaaeaiey aieao e nieneia a?aaeaeai
i?iaeaaaoe eiaao i?aai aiioee?iaaoue iiacaeeo, a iieoiaoaeue aiciauaao
oauoee.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Eeiaea?o I.O. Yeiiiieea ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycae. I.: I?ia?ann 1992

Aaauoaa E. Oo?eci eae io?aneue eoaeueyineie yeiiiieee. IYeII.
1995 ? 12

Aaeaaaiia E.O. Aaethoiua iia?aoeee I.: Oeiainu e Noaoenoeea, 1993.
200 n.

Aa?aneiiaa A. Iniaaiiinoe inouanoaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/?oa a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oo?ecia. Yeiiiieea e aeeciue. 1996 ?14.

Aa?/eeia E. Ia?eaoeia e iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiiia?/aneia aeaei I.,
aiaooi?aecaeao 1990 503 n.

Ieeiiia A. Yenii?o oneoa e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Yeiiiieea e
aeeciue 1995 ?42.

Ii iaoa?eaeai aeo?iaea “Travel&Tourism” 1995 ?14

Eaai?iaa N.O. Oo?eci a yeiiiieea ioe?uoiai oeia. Aanoiee
iineianeiai Oieaa?neoaoa 1994 ?2.

Aeia?aoeia A. Yenii?o oneoa e iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci.
yeiiiieea e aeeciue. 1995 ?42.

Ne?ioeei N.I. Yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. – NIa, 1997.

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