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Менеджмент человеческих ресурсов

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ANA?INNEENEEE CAI*IUE

OEIAINIAI-YEIIIIE*ANEEE EINOEOOO

A?oaiaaeueneee oeeeae

EO?NIAAss ?AAIOA

ii aeenoeeieeia Iaiaaeaeiaio

nooaeaioee 4 eo?na , oaeoeueoaoa Iaiaaeaeiaioa e Ia?eaoeiaa,

niaoeeaeueiinoe Iaiaaeaeiaio, Iaeueoeaaie Aeaiu Aeieo?eaaiu

ia?eoa?ey, aeiaiai?.

OAIA : IAIAAeAEIAIO *AEIAA*ANEEO ?ANO?NIA.

a. A?oaiaaeuene

1999 a.

IEAI ?AAIOU.

1. Aaaaeaiea.
………………………………………………………………
……………… 3

2. Aeaaa I. E?aoeay enoi?ey yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueii-

ineoieiae/aneiai ioiioaiey e iaiaaeaeiaioo.
……….. 3

3. Aeaaa II. Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey.

Iioeaaoeey.

Iiiyoea e aeaeu iioeaaoeee
………………………….. 10

Oai?ey Ianeio
……………………………………………… 11

Oai?ey Aa?oeaa?aa
………………………………………….. 13

Oai?ey
Iae-Eeaeeaiaea…………………………………… 13

Oai?ey iaeeaeaiey
…………………………………………… 14

Oai?ey ni?aaaaeeeainoe
………………………………….. 15

Iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a Eioea?a
……………………………… 16

Yeiiiie/aneea niiniau iioeaaoeee
………………. 17

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua niiniau iioeaaoeee
…………… 21

Ii?aeueiua niiniau iioeaaoeee
…………………….. 21

Eeaea?noai
……………………………………………………… 23

Iaoiaeu a
oi?aaeaiee……………………………………. 24

Oi?aaeai/aneea noeee
……………………………………. 25

“Oi?aaeai/aneay ?aoaoea”
………………………. 27

Iiaeaeue Oeaeea?a
…………………………………….. 28

Iiaeaeue Ieo/aea
…………………………………….. 29

Eiioeeeo. Aai aeaeu, i?e/eiu,
iineaaenoaey …. 30

Iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey eiioeeeoii
……………………. 33

4. I?eeiaeaiea. Eioi?iaoeey i aeaeaeaiee ?aai/eo eaae?ia ii

IAI EOE “Eiiioaean”
…………………………………. 36

5. Eeoa?aoo?a.

– 3 –

Iinea 1990 aiaea a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea ia ia?aia ianoi aecian
iinoaaee /aeiaa/aneee oaeoi?. A oi a?aiy, eae a ia?eiae
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee an? aieiaiea nin?aaeioi/eee ia i?oaeeyo o?oaea
– iaoeiao e iaoaieciao, /aeiaae aue i?eaeaoeii.

Ii n ?inoii iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia iaeiia?aiaiii
noaea iaaeaoue ioaea/a, ?aioaaaeueiinoue e iiene i?e/ei i?ea?e e
oiio, /oi aeaaiui yaeyaony aeeaie o?oae, a ia iaauanoaeaiiue. N
1990 aiaea ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iecioei oieeaeueiia noaiiaeaiea
ia Caiaaea Nenoaiu ?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa /aeiaa/aneeo
?ano?nia e iao/iiai oi?aaeaiey yoei i?ioeannii.

Aini?iecaiaenoai /aeiaaea eae?o a nenoaia. Iao/aiea ia/eiaaony
n iyoe ianyoeaa aa?aiaiiinoe aei ?iaeaeaiey, a caoai aeiia.
Aeaeaa a aeaoneii naaeo. Yoaeiiiui n/eoaaony aia?eeaineia aunoaa
ia?aciaaiea. Iinea ieii/aiey oieaa?neoaoa – iiaeeciaiiia iao/aiea
aei nia?oe .

Aeey ?aai/aai – 8 /ania a iaaeaeth :

– 2 / – iaoaiaoeea;

– 2 / -yeiiiieea ;

– 4 / – iiaaeoea oaoiieiaee.

Aeey neoaeaueo –

aiaee/iia iao/aiea a oieaa?neoaoa

eaaeaeua 3 aiaea.

A 80 % oe?i i?aceaeaiou e aeoea-i?aceaeaiou aeieoi?a iaoe.

Oi?aaeaiea iiyaeeinue aianoa n iauanoaii. I?e iauaaeeiaiee
aeaaea aeaoo /aeiaae aeey aeinoeaeaiey iauae oeaee, aicieeaea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eii?aeeiaoeee e eo niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe, e
iaeiiio i?eoiaeeeinue a?aoue ia naay iaycaiiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey,
a ae?oaiio noaiiaeoueny iiae/eiaiiui e eniieiyoue ?anii?yaeaiey.

Oae a Aaeioa , i?e nii?oaeaiee ie?aieae e i?ineoaeueiuo nenoai
o?aaiaaeenue oneeey ouny/ ethaeae, iiyoiio ianouiie
iaia-oiaeeiinoueth noaee i?aaiecaoeey, ieaie?iaaiea e eiio?ieue ca
?acoeueoaoaie.

A Ec?aeea aia?aua ?iaeeeanue i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a aei
iaoaai a?aiaie. O eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea a iiae/eiaiee noaei ia
aieaa iyoe /aeiaae, eaaeaeiio ia/aeueieeo ii?aaeaeeee i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe.

Ca 400 eao aei iaoae y?u a ae?aaiae Yeeaaea ciaiaieoue
oeeinio Nie?ao noi?ioee?iaae i?eioeei nenoaiiinoe, i?eiaieoaeueii e
oi?aaeaieth, a Enaiioiio i?eciae aai iniaui aeaeii eneonnoaa.

– 4 –

Eo nia?aiaiiee , ia?neaeneee oea?ue Ee?, auaeaeioe eaeath i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe niaoeeaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee i?e/ei, iiaoaeaeathueo
ethaeae e aeaenoaeth, oi anoue iioeaaoeee, oaeaea iinoaaee
i?iaeaio ia?aaioee oi?aaeai/aneie eioi?iaoeee e ninoaaeaiey
ieaiia.

*ooue iicaea Ieaoii noi?ioee?iaae i?eioeei niaoeeaeecaoeee. A
325 aiaeo aei i. y. naie aeeaae a eiieeeo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee
aian Aeaenaiae? Iaeaaeiineee, aia?aua eniieueciaaa aeey au?a-aioee
aiaiiuo ?aoaiee ooaa.

A XII aaea a Eoaeee /aoei ii?aaeaeeee -o?aaiaaiey e
iaiaaeaea?o : aaciaia naaoneia ia?aciaaiea ( ia oea?eiaiia ) ;

– iaoee nenoaio o/aoa ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa;

-aaaee /aee e aaeainu aeey eiio?iey;

-aaaee eiaaioa?ecaoeeth .

N?aaeiaaaeiauea ii/oe ie/aai ia i?eaaaeei a oi?aaeai/aneee
iiuo, o.e. ionoonoaiaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi?aaeaiey iiao/eie
eiia?eyie e ia?iiiuie a?ieyie, a oicyenoaaiiay aeeciue ?aaeei
auoiaeeea ca i?aaeaeu oaiaeaeueiuo

onaaeaa e ?aianeaiiuo ianoa?neeo .

AUAIAe : oaeei ia?acii, e ia/aeo oaoiiaaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee ia
Caiaaea auee nicaeaiu i?aaeiinueee aeey nicaeaiey nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey.

Iiaoth yiioo a ?acaeoee oai?ee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey ioe?uea
i?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey eiioea XYIII ia/aea XIX aa. Iia
iio?aaiaaea i?eiaiaiey e oe?ieiai aiaae?aiey iao/iiai yenia?eiaioa
, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai aeaeaeenue iiiuoee ii?aaeaeeoue ii?iu
au?aaioee e iieaou o?oaea, iaeneiaeueiua nei?inoe ?aaiou
iai?oaeiaaiey, ?ann/eoaoue iioeiaeueiue auione i?iaeoeoeee,
oniaa?oainoaiaaoue i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaea. Aaeeeee
yeiiiieno Aaeai Nieo a naiai “Enneaaeiaaiee i i?e?iaea e
i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia” e ae?oaeo ?aaioao noi?ioee?iaae
i?eioeei “yeiiiie/aneiai /aeiaaea”, no?aiyuaainy e iaiaauaieth e
oaeiaeaoai?aieth nianoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae, ?ac?aaioae eiioeaioeee
eiio?iey e ?an/aoa iieaou o?oaea.

Aiaee/aiei *a?euec Ayaaeaeae, ecia?aoaoaeue ia?aie
au/eneeoaeueiie iaoeiu, ?ac?aaioae iaoiaeeeo eco/aiey cao?ao
?aai/aai a?aiaie i?e inouanoaeaiee ?acee/iuo iia?aoeee, a oaeaea
iaoiaeeeo n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca ?aaiou iaeiii?ioeeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, auyaeaiey iooae iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou ia
iniiaa eco/aiey aeaiiuo noaoenoeee; i?eiaiaiey i?aieaeueiie

– 5 –

nenoaiu iieaou o?oaea. ?acoeueoaou naieo enneaaeiaaiee e
i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee Aaaaeaeae eceiaeee a eieaa “ Ia
yeiiiiee iaoa?eaeia e iai?oaeiaaiey “(1832 a.). A nouiinoe yoi
auea ia?aay a ie?a ioaeeeaoeey a iaeanoe iao/iiai oi?aaeaiey,
oioy eae oeaeinoiay nenoaia iia aua ia neiaeeeanue.

A eiioea XIX a. a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iecioee e?oiiaeoea naeaeae:

– ?acei aic?inee aai ianooaau e eiioeaio?aoeey (iiyaeeenue
ia?iiiua i?aaei?eyoey, ia eioi?uo caiyou ouny/e e aeanyoee ouny/
?aai/eo e eiaeaia?ia) ;

-onoaiaaeeaaeinue aei?iainoiyuaa iai?oaeiaaiea, aiaae?yeenue
neiaeiaeoea oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu, iniiaaiiua ia aeinoeaeaiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iunee;

-ia ?aaioo noaee i?eoiaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii ia?aciaaiiua, a?aiioiua
ethaee, iinoaiaiii ia/aaoea iniciaaaoue naay ee/iinoyie e
iiieiaoue naith ?ieue a i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?eioeeieaeueii iiaue oa?aeoa? i?iecaiaenoaa iio?aaiaae eiuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?, noai oi?aaeaiey, no?iaiai niaethaeaiey
oaoiieiaee.

Anaai yoiai i?aaeiyy nenoaia oi?aaeaiey iaania/eoue ia iiaea.

Oaeei ia?acii , ia iiaanoeo aeiy anoaea caaea/a iiaeaaaeaiey
iiae iaiaaeaeiaio iaiaoiaeeiie iao/iie aacu. I?aaeiinueee aeey
yoiai eiaeenue – iie auee nicaeaiu iiuoii eiaeono?eaeueiiai
oi?aaeaiey XIX a. e aeinoeaeaieyie a oaeeo iaeanoyo ciaiey, eae
yeiiiieea, nioeeieiaey, ineoieiaey. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui oie/eii e
?acaeoeth yoeo i?ioeannia noae ?yae yenia?eiaioia, a oiaea
eioi?uo eco/aeenue oaeoi?u ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea,
auyniyeenue ii-oeiaeueiua ?aaeeiu eniieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey,
?ac?aaaouaaeenue noeioee?othuea nenoaiu iieaou o?oaea. Ana yoi
auei iiae/eiaii iieneo iooae nieaeaiey cao?ao e oaaee/aiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia iniiaa i?eiaiaiey ?acee/iuo
iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey.

O enoieia yenia?eiaioia noiye aia?eeaineee eiaeaia? O?aaea?ee
Oaeei?. A naieo eieaao “Oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai “ (1903 a.) e “
I?eioeeiu iao/iiai oi?aaeaiey “ (1911 a.) Oaeei? i?eoae e auaiaeo,
/oi aeaaiay i?e/eia iaaunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea
?aaioieeia caeeth/aaony a ianiaa?oainoaa nenoaiu eo iiiu?aiey.
Iiyoiio ii i?aaeeiaeee ?acei ?anoe?eoue a?aieoeu i?eiaiaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo noeioeia, e i?aaeaea anaai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey,
eioi?ia aeieaeii auei neaaeiaaoue ca auiieiaieai ?aaiou, /oiau
iaania/eoue iaaeeaaeauee yooaeo. E?iia oiai, Oaeei? i?aaeeiaeee
eniieueciaaoue i?ia?anneaioth nenoaio iieaou, a iniiaa eioi?ie
eaaeaee oaeea i?eioeeiu, eae ieaoa /aeiaaeo, a ia ianoo,
onoaiiaeaiea ?anoeaiie ia iniiaa oi/iiai ciaiey, eo
aaeeiiia?acea. A oiaea a?aiy Oaeei?

– 6 –

ia naiaeee aiciaa?aaeaeaiea oieueei e aeaiueaai; ii n/eoae, /oi
onooiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ?aai/ei – oiaea iaa?aaea. E iei ii
ioiinee i?aaiecaoeeth ?aai/eo noieiauo, aeaoneeo naaeia, ?acee/iuo
aa/a?ieo eo?nia e o.i. Ana yoi ii n/eoae “n?aaenoaii aeey
nicaeaiey aieaa oiaeuo e eioaeeaeooaeueiuo ?aai/eo “, eioi?ia
aucuaaao o ieo “aeia?ua /oanoaa ii ioiioaieth e oicyaaai “. O.
Oaeei? e aai noi?iiieee a iaiaaeaeiaioa ?ac?aaioaee ?yae iniiaiuo
iieiaeaiee:

-i?eciaiea iaiaaeaeiaioa naiinoiyoaeueiie ooieoeeae eioi?iai
noaiiaeony ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa;

-?an/eaiaiea i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e o?oaeiauo iia?aoeee ia
ioaeaeueiua caaiuey e yeaiaiou e auyaeaiea aeeaiaciia cao?ao
a?aiaie ia eo auiieiaiea, /oi iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue eo
ii?ie?iaaiea;

-ieaie?iaaiea ia iniiaa ii?i ?aai/eo caaeaiee;

-auiieiaiea ooieoeee ieaie?iaaiey niaoeeaeueiuie
iiae?ac-aeaeaieyie, ii?aaeaeythueie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, a?aiy,
n?iee auiieiaiey oao eee eiuo ?aaio;

-oaaee/aiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea n iiiiuueth aieaa aunieeo
ca?aaioeia;

-iiaeai? ?aaioieeia a niioaaonoaee n oeceieiae/aneeie e
ineoieiae/aneeie o?aaiaaieyie e eo iao/aiea.

Aieueoaa aeeyiea, /ai oaeei?eci, ia i?aeoeeo iaiaaeaeiaioa
ieacae Ai?e Oaeieue. Aeaaiia aieiaiea ii oaeaeye oi?aaeaieth
ia?niiaeii, e i?aaeaea anaai aaeieieno?aoeaiuie eaae?aie. Naio
?aaioo i?aaei?eyoey naiaeee e neaaeothuei aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe :

-oaoie/aneie, oi anoue e inouanoaeaieth oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna
;

-eiiia?/aneie, i?aaeiieaaathuae caeoieo, i?iaeaaeo, iaiai oaeoi?ia
e ?acoeueoaoia i?iecaiaenoaa;

-oeiainiaie, naycaiiie n iaeiieaieai, iieneii e yooaeoeaiui
eniieueciaaieai aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ;

-caueoa aeecie, ee/iinoe e nianoaaiiinoe ethaeae;

-aooaaeoa?neie, caeeth/athuaeny a i?iaaaeaiee noaoenoe/aneeo
iaaethaeaiee, eiaaioa?ecaoeee, ninoaaeaiee aaeainia e o.i.;

-aaeieieno?aoeaiie, i?ecaaiiie ieacuaaoue aicaeaenoaea ia
?aaioieeia.

Aeoaiei iiciaa ia i?aeoeea caeiiiia?iinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
oe?iu, Oaeieue noi?ioee?iaae 13 i?eioeeiia oi?aaeaiey :

1. Iaycaoaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, a oii /enea e
oi?aaeai/aneiai.

2. Aeanoue e ioaaonoaaiiinoue eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo 50 X 50.

3. Aeenoeeieeia ( ii caaiaeneiio aoaeeo ).

4. O eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea a oe?ia oieueei iaeei ia/aeueiee.

– 7 –

5. Iaycaoaeueiia iiae/eiaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo eioa?ania eioa?anai
oe?iu.

6. Aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ii i?eioeeio oiaiueoathuaeny aeioiaeiinoe.

7. Oeaio?aeecaoeey a oe?ia.

8. Nicaeaiea oeaie ia/aeueieeia.

9. Anaio naia ianoi e ana ia naiai ianoa.

10. Ni?aaaaeeeainoue ii i?eioeeio “ ai?y/ae neiai?iaeu “.

11. Noaaeeueiinoue i?aauaaiey a aeieaeiinoe.

12. Eieoeeaoeaa ?aaioieeia anae oe?iu.

13. Ei?ii?aoeaiue aeoo.

Oaeieue ?anniao?eaae i?aaiecaoeeth eae caieioooth nenoaio e
eneae aioo?aiiea aiciiaeiinoe iiauoaiey aa yooaeoeaiinoe eae ca
n/ao niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey ath , oae e iooai nicaeaiey
iniia aeey nio?oaeie/anoaa o?oaea e eaieoaea.

E aeaaaeoeaoui aiaeai e?oiiia iaoeiiia i?iecaiaenoai aeiaaei
eioaineoeeaoeeth eniieueciaaiey oece/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae /aeiaaea
aei i?aaeaea; ianooiee /a?aae eioaineoeeaoeee eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae ee/iinoe.

Ii iineieueeo oinoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth oi?aaeyoue o?oaeiaa,
/ai oece/aneie, iaiaoiaeeii auei eneaoue iiaua iiaeoiaeu,
iiiiaathuea “?acaoaeeoue” ethaeae, iineieueeo oaeei?eci
i?eaioe?iaaeny ia iaoa?eaeueiia iiiu?aiea e eaca?iaiiue oei
ioiioaiee. A iiauo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo ioaeiu auee oi?iu,
i?aaeiieaaathuea ioiioaiey nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie e
iaiaaeaea?aie.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aiai auea aucaaia iaoa?ieiui ioiioaieai e
oyaeaeiio iiiioiiiiio o?oaeo, aueeaathueiny a ianniaua caaanoiaee,
i?ioanou, eiioeeeou iaaeaeo ?aai/eie e ianoa?aie, oaeo/anoue
eaae?ia. Aicieeea iio?aaiinoue a iiauo niiniaao i?aaiecaoeee
iioeaia aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, iaania/eaathueo eo
aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiue o?oae. ?aoathuee oaa a yoii iai?aaeaiee
naeaeaee Ia?e Oieeao, Yeoii Iaei e eo noi?iiieee. Iie
iieaaaee, /oi ia anaaaea ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa e aunieay
ca?aaioiay ieaoa aaaeoo e ?inoo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea;
aeaeaaiua aeey iaiaaeaea?ia e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae oeaee iiaoo auoue
aeinoeaioou ia oieueei iiae aicaeaenoaeai iaoa?eaeueiuo noeioeia,
ii e nee, ii?iaeaeaiiuo acaeiiaeaenoaeai iaaeaeo eieeaaaie a
?aieao o?oaeiaiai eieeaeoeaa. A iniiaa oaeeo auaiaeia auee
?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioia, i?iaiaeeaoeony Y. Iaei ia caaiaea a
Oioi?ia.

Ia?aiia/aeueiie caaea/ae yenia?eiaioia Iaei auei ii?aaeaeaiea
aeeyiey eioaineaiinoe inaauaiey ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.
Ii iie i?eaaee e niaa?oaiii iaiaeeaeaiiui ?acoeueoaoai, iieacaa,

– 8 –

/oi i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea eae a eiio?ieueiie, oae e a
yenia?eiaioaeueiie a?oiiao aic?inea aia anyeie caaeneiinoe io
inaauaiiinoe ?aai/aai ianoa. Iiyoiio aoi?ie yoai yenia?eiaioa,
eioi?ue i?iaiaeeeny ni nai?ueoeaie ?aea, i?eiye ianeieueei eiua
oi?iu: a?oiia i?aaeinoaaeyeanue aieueoay naiaiaea, nie?auaiiue
?aai/ee aeaiue, aeiiieieoaeueiua ia?a?uau a ?aaioa, e
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ?inea, /oi iauyniyeinue o/aiuie
iaiueoae noaiaiueth ooiieaiey. Iaeiaei naiia eioa?aniia ninoiyei
a oii , /oi i?e ioiaia yoeo eueaio iia i?iaeieaeaea inoaaaoueny
ia i?aaeiai o?iaia. Yoi iaeuecy auei iauynieoue ieeaeeie
eciaiaieyie a oece/aneeo oneiaeyo ?aaiou, a eeoue oi?ie?iaaieai
i?aaieciaaiiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu e iniauie acaeiiioiioaieyie n
aa ?oeiaiaeeoaeai. Ioe?uoea Iaei, naycaiiia n Oioi?ineeie
yenia?eiaioaie, caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi nioeeaeueiua e
ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u ieacuaatho ia ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea cia/eoaeueii aieueoaa aeeyiea, /ai oece/aneea, i?e
oneiaee, /oi naia aai i?aaiecaoeey oaea aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaia.
E yoe nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u ia?yaeo n yeiiiie/aneeie iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue a i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey. Noaei iiiyoiui, /oi
i?aaiecaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia/oi aieueoaa, /ai i?inoay

niaieoiiinoue ethaeae , auiieiythueo iauea caaea/e.

E ana aea aeeciue o?aaiaaea aeaeueiaeoaai iienea ?aoaiey
caaea/, iiiiue ethaeyi iaeaieaa iieii ?ane?uoue naie aioo?aiiea
aiciiaeiinoe.

N iiyaeaieai YAI, oe?ieei ?ani?ino?aiaieai eeaa?iaoeee e
iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia a iaiaaeaeiaio i?eoae nenoaiiue aiaeec.

A 1980 a. a nayce n eiiiuethoa?iie ?aaiethoeeae e ia?aoiaeii
yeiiiieee io eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio, aaea
aeaaiui yaeyaony ia i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e oneoa, a
i?iecaiaenoai eioi?iaoeee. a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ?iaeeeanue
aeaoonaeoi?iay yeiiiieea I naeoi? : i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e
oneoa, ?uii/iue naeoi?;

II naeoi? : ?anoe?aiiia aini?iecaiaenoai naiiai /aeiaaea,
ia?uii/iue naeoi?.

I?iecioea ia?ano?ieea anao iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai, aicieeea
iiaay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a oe?i (i?aaie/aneay, aaea
ieieiaeueiia /enei ?aaioieeia, aieioue aei aacethaeiuo
i?iec-aiaenoa, a oii /enea e oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea, iie
auiieiytho n?aco iiiai iaycaiiinoae, o?aaothony 5-6
niaoeeaeueiinoae. Eiiaaea? oie/oiaeaaony, aianoi iaai –
iia?aoeeiiiua oeaio?u. I?iecioei

– 9 –

i?aaie/aneia neeyiea aunieeo oaoiieiaee n aunieieaaeeoe-oee?iaaiiie
?aai/ae neeie.

“. . . Iioeaaoeey – yoi i?ioeann iiaoaeaeaiey naay e ae?oaeo e
aeayoaeueiinoe aeey aeinoeaeaiey ee/iuo oeaeae eee oeaeae
i?aaieca-oeee . . . ” *

Iioeaaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?ioeann nicaeaiey oneiaey,
ieacuaathueo aicaeaenoaea ia iiaaaeaiea /aeiaaea e iicaieythueo
iai?aaeoue aai a ioaeioth aeey i?aaiecaoeee noi?iio,
caeioa?aniaaoue aai a aeoeaiie e aeia?iniaanoiie ?aaioa,
noa?aoaeueiinoe i?e auiieiaiee aiceiaeaiiuo ia iaai caaea/.
Iioeau auaatho aioo?aiieie, ii?iaeae?iiuie ii?aaeae?iiui ioiioaieai
/aeiaaea e naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, e aiaoieie, naycaiiuie n
aicaeaenoaeai ia iaai ii?aaeae?iiuo oaeoia, nouanoaothueo
iacaaeneii io iaai e i?eaiaeyueony a aeaenoaea ae?oaeie
ethaeueie eee ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. Aiaoiea iioeau iacuaathony
noeioeaie. Noeioeu iiaoo auoue iaoa?eaeueiuie (iai?eia?, aeaiueae)
eee iaiaoa?eaeueiuie (neiaa, ii/?o). E aioo?aiiei iioeaai
/aeiaa/aneiai iiaaaeaiey ioiineony ethaiaue e naiaio aeaeo,
no?aieaiea e niaa?oainoaiaaieth, oai?/anoao e o. i.

Iaiaoiaeeii caiaoeoue, /oi iaaeaeo iioeaaoeeae e ?acoeueoaoii
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iao iaeiicia/iie caaeneiinoe, eai ia
iaai aeeyao iiiaeanoai neo/aeiinoae e noauaeoeaiuo iiiaioia,
oaeeo eae niiniaiinoe /aeiaaea, iaiiieiaiea ei neooaoeee,
iano?iaiea a aeaiiue iiiaio, o?aouee eeoea.

A iniiaa iioeaia eaaeao iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea, ii?iaeaeaaiua
iaoaaoeie /aai-oi, ioaeaeie a /?i-oi, aac /aai ii iuouaao
ninoiyiea aeeneiioi?oa, aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae iao?aaiiaaoai-iinoe,
a niioaaonoaaiii – no?aieaiea eo i?aiaeieaoue. “… Iio-?aaiinoue –
oeceieiae/aneee eee ineoieiae/aneee iaaeinoaoie /aai eeai …” **
Yoe iio?aaiinoe auaatho aeaoo oeiia – a?iaeae?iiuie
(oeceieiae/aneeie) e i?eia?ao?iiuie (nioeeaeueiuie). E ia?aie
ioiinyony, iai?eia?, iio?aaiinoe a ieua, aiaea, oaiea ; ei
aoi?ui – a iauaiee, iieo/aiee ciaiee, naii?aaeecaoeee.

I?e iniciaiee iio?aaiinoae o /aeiaaea aicieeaao aeaeaiea eo
oaeiaeaoai?eoue, a niioaaonoaaiii eioa?an e oiio aeaeo
aeayoaeueiinoe, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai yoiai iiaeii aeiaeoueny.
Iaeiaei eioa?anu iiaoo ?aaeeciaaoueny ia i?aeoeea oieueei oiaaea,
eiaaea aeey yoiai iiyayony niioaaonoaothuea oneiaey, aeathuea
aiciiaeiinoue ethaeyi ?aaeueii oaeiaeaoai?eoue naie iio?aaiinoe.

(*) – Ianeii, Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa – I., 1992 a., no?. 360,
aac. 6

(**) – Ianeii, Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa – I., 1992 a., no?. 362,
aac. 3

– 10 –

Anee iio?aaiinoe aicieeatho ia oeceieiae/aneii o?iaia,
niiioaiii, oi eioa?anu – i?iaeoeo niciaoaeueiiai eo aiaeeca,
no?oeoo?e?iaaiey , ?aiaee?iaaiey, ioeaiee ia oieueei n oi/ee
c?aiey nianoaaiiuo aeaeaiee, ii e iauai?eiyouo ii?i iauanoaaiiie
aeecie. a oi aea a?aiy eioa?anu ianneaiu, eai aeey aeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaeo ioaeii ia oieueei iiieiaoue, /aai ii a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oi/ao, ii e ciaoue ?aaeueiua iooe aeinoeaeaiey
yoiai. Oieueei i?e oaeii oneiaee iio?aaiinoe i?aa?auathony a
iioeau iiaaaeaiey.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ii iai?aaeaiiinoe aicaeaenoaey ia
iiaaaeaiea iioeau aeaeyony ia aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea. Ia?aua
iaoneiaeaiu no?aieaieai /aeiaaea iieo/eoue oaeiaeaoai?aiea io oaea
eiathuaainy o iaai iauaeoa, eioi?ue ii iiyoiio aeaeaao
nio?aieoue, eee ecaaaeony io iauaeoa, i?eiinyuaai aio
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiea. Aiaoiea iioeau iaoeaeaiu ia i?eia?aoaiea
ionoonoaothuaai iauaeoa eee, iaiai?io, ecaaaeaiea yoiai. Oaeei
ia?acii, iioeau ?acee/athony au? e ii oa?aeoa?o : iie iiaoo
auoue iiceoeaiuie (i?eia?anoe, nio?aieoue) eee iaaaoeaiuie
(ecaaaeoueny, ecaaaeaoue). Oae, iiceoeaiui aiaoiei iioeaii
iiaaaeaiey yaeyaony i?aiey, eioi?oth /aeiaae iiaeao iieo/eoue ca
oi?iooth ?aaioo, a iaaaoeaiui – iaeacaiea ca a? iaauiieiaiea ;
iiceoeaiue aioo?aiiee iioea – oaeaeaoaeueiinoue aeaea, eioi?ui ii
caieiaaony, a iaaaoeaiue – aai ?ooeiiue oa?aeoa?, aneaaenoaea /aai
io caiyoey /aeiaae, iaiai?io, no?aieony ecaaaeony.

“… Enneaaeiaaiey, iai?eia?, iieacuaatho, /oi i?e oneiaee
iaeaaeaiey aeinoaoi/iui ninoiyieai 20 % ethaeae ia aeaeatho
?aaioaoue ie i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao ; ec inoaaoeony 36 %
aoaeoo ?aaioaoue a neo/aa eioa?aniie ?aaiou ; 36 % – /oiau
ecaaaeaoue neoee e iaeeii/anoaa ; 14 % – ec aiycie “iioa?youe
naay” ; 9 % – iioiio /oi ?aaioa i?eiineo ?aaeinoue. Eeoue ieiei
12 % ethaeae eiatho a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai iioeaa aeayoaeueiinoe
aeaiueae, a oiaea a?aiy aei 45 % i?aaeii/eoatho ei neaao ; 35 %
– oaeiaeaoai??iiinoue niaea?aeaieai ?aaiou…” *

Iiaeeeua ethaee ii n?aaiaieth n iieiaeuie i?eaeatho aieueoia
cia/aiea aa?aioeyi caiyoinoe, oaaaeaieth ; aeey aieaa ia?aciaaiiuo
i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u iioeaaoeee, e iie nei?aa
oaeiaeaoai?ythony nouanoaothueie aiaoieie. Ia aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u
i?eaioe?iaaiu e ?aaioieee, caieiathuea aunieia neoaeaaiia
iieiaeaiea e eiathuea aieaa aunieea ca?aaioee.

(*) Aaniei A. ?., Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa. – I.: Iauanoai “Ciaiea”.
1996, n. 328

– 11 –

Iniai iiaeii neacaoue i iaiaaeaea?ao e i?aaei?eieiaoaeyo. Aeey
iineaaeieo ioaeia iacaaeneiinoue, aiciiaeiinoue ?aoaoue neiaeiua
i?iaeaiu, aeiaeaaoueny oniaoa, anaiauaai i?eciaiey, aeaaea anee
ana aeaenoaey nii?yaeaiu n ?eneii. Aeey iaiaaeaea?a, eae
ia?iiiai ?aaioieea, ionoue aeaaea naiiai aunieiai ?aiaa, aaaeiaa
ae?oaia : ecaaaeaoue yoiai ?enea, i?iaeaeiooueny ii neoaeaa,
i?eia?anoe aunieee noaoon, aeanoue iaae ethaeueie.

Nouanoaothuea eiioeaioeee iioeaaoeee i?eiyoi aeaeeoue ia aeaa
a?oiiu : niaea?aeaoaeueiua e i?ioeannoaeueiua.

OI

oai?ey iioeaaoeee

NOI
IOI

– A. Ianeio –
oai?ey iaeeaeaiey

– Iae-Eeaeeaiae – oai?ey
ni?aaaaeeeainoe

– Aa?oeaa?a –
iiaeaeue Ia?oa?a – Eioea?a

Oae, aia?eeaiaoe O. Oaeei?, i?aaeeiaeeaoee eeanne/aneee aa?eaio
niaea?aeaoaeueiue eiioeaioeee, iniiauaathueeny ia noeioee?iaaiee
iiauoaiiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea aeiiieieoaeueiuie aeaiaaeiuie
auieaoaie, ca n/?o eioi?uo iiaeii auei ?anoe?eoue e?oa
oaeiaeaoai?yaiuo ?aaioieeaie iio?aaiinoae, i?eaioe?iaaeny ia iao/ii
iainiiaaiioth nenoaio ii?i ?anoiaeiaaiey a?aiaie – “eaio” ia
eaaeaeue aeae iia?aoeee eee iau?i ?aaio. I?e aeinoeaeaiee aieaa
aunieie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe (au?aaioee) ii n?aaiaieth n oai, /oi
o?aaiaaea “eaioa”, o?oae iiea/eaaeny ii iiauoaiiiio oa?eoo, a
oaeaea aeiiieieoaeueii aiciaa?aaeaeaeny i?aieyie. Naie “eaiou”
iau/ii i?eaioe?iaaeenue ia iaeaieaa neeueiuo e nii?iaenouo
?aaioieeia, a iiyoiio auee ii iea/o aeaeaei ia anai. Nenoaia
Oaeei?a canoaaeyea ethaeae ?aaioaoue ia i?aaeaea aiciiaeiinoae,
iineieueeo iaauiieiaiea caaeaiey aeaeei ca niaie iieaoo o?oaea
ii iiieaeaiiui ?anoeaieai. An? yoi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue Eaieio
aeiaieueii iaoei ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue oaeei?eci eae “iao/ioth nenoaio
auaeeiaiey iioa”.

Iiaeaeoe, iaeaieaa ecaanoiui aa?eaioii niaea?aeaoaeueiie
eiioeaioeee iioeaaoeee yaeyaony oai?ey ea?a?oee iio?aaiinoae A.
Ianeio, noi?ioee?iaaiiay ei a 1940-o aa. A niioaaonoaee n
oai?eae Ianeio ana iio?aaiinoe iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia iyoue a?oii
e ?aniieiaeeoue a aeaea no?iaie ea?a?oe/aneie no?oeoo?u,
a?aoe/anee ecia?aae?iiie a oi?ia ie?aieaeu, a
oi/iaa

– 12 –

o?aoaieueieea. Nia/aea iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea iioeae?oaony
oaeiaeaoai?aieai naiiai iecoaai o?iaiy iio?aaiinoae, a caoai, ii
ia?a eo ianuuaiey, a aeaenoaea anooiatho iio?aaiinoe aieaa
aunieiai o?iaiy.

E iecoae, ia?aie a?oiia iio?aaiinoae Ianeio ioi?n
oeceieiae/aneea, oaeiaeaoai?aiea eioi?uo iaania/eaaao /aeiaaeo
yeaiaioa?iia auaeeaaiea (ieua, aeeeue?, ioaeuo e o. i.). Aeey eo
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue ?aaioieeo ieieiaeueiue
o?iaaiue ca?aaioiie ieaou e niiniua oneiaey o?oaea.

Ei aoi?ie a?oiia Ianeio i?e/eneee iio?aaiinoe a aaciianiinoe e
oaa?aiiinoe a aoaeouai. Iie oaeiaeaoai?ythony n iiiiuueth
ca?aaioiie ieaou, i?aauoathuae ieieiaeueiue o?iaaiue, /oi
iicaieyao i?eia?anoe no?aoiaie iieen, aeaeaoue iaiaoiaeeiua aciinu
a iaineiiiue oiiae, a oaeaea /a?ac ?aaioo a iaae?aeiie oe?ia,
i?aaeinoaaeythuae nio?oaeieeo ii?aaeae?iiua nioeeaeueiua aa?aioee.

Ia?aay e aoi?ay a?oiia iio?aaiinoae a niaieoiiinoe ia?acotho
ia?ae/iua iio?aaiinoe (a inoaeueiua o?e – aoi?e/iua). Aac eo
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaaiciiaeia ii?iaeueiay aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue
i?aeoe/anee ie iaeiiai /aeiaaea.

A o?aoueth a?oiio Ianeio aeeth/ee nioeeaeueiua iio?aaiinoe,
i?aaeaea anaai a i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, i?eciaiee, iiaeaea?aeea. Aeey
eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey iaiaoiaeeii o/anoea /aeiaaea a a?oiiiaie
?aaioa, eieeaeoeaiii oai?/anoaa, aieiaiea ni noi?iiu
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, iuouaiea iiaeaea?aeee oiaa?euae. I?eiyoi, /oi a
oaeiaeaoai?aiee oaeiai ?iaea iio?aaiinoae i?eeacu e aeaiueae
i?aeoe/anee ieeaeie ?iee ia ea?atho.

*aoa??ooth a?oiio ia?acotho iio?aaiinoe a oaaaeaiee e
naiiooaa?aeaeaiee, i?eciaiee ni noi?iiu ie?oaeathueo. Iie
oaeiaeaoai?ythony ioo?i caaiaaaiey ecaanoiinoe, ii/?oa, ioaee/iiai
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

Iaeiiaoe, a iyooth a?oiio Ianeio aeeth/ee iio?aaiinoe a
naiiau?aaeaiee, a ?aaeecaoeee naieo iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae,
?inoa naay eae ee/iinoe, i?e/?i ioiineoaeueii iacaaeneii io
aiaoiaai i?eciaiey. Aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ethaeyi iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeinoaaeyoue iaeneioi naiaiaeu a ?aaioa e oai?/anoaa.

A?aoe/anee eiinoeueoaoeey Ianeio ecia?aaeaaony a aeaea
o?aoaieueieea, e yoi aeaeaei ia neo/aeii, iineieueeo iio?aaiinoe
aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy, ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeoueie, eiaao
ai?acaei iaiueoaa /enei ethaeae.

Ii iiaieth Ianeio, iaoaieci iioeaaoeee aeaenoaoao oaeei
ia?acii, /oi iiea ia aoaeoo oaeiaeaoai?aiu (oioy e ia
iaycaoaeueii

– 13 –

iieiinoueth) iio?aaiinoe iecoaai o?iaiy, iio?aaiinoe aieaa
aunieiai o?iaiy eeai aicaeaenoaotho, eeai aeaenoaotho a ea/anoaa
iioeaia iaaeinoaoi/ii neeueii. Oaeei ia?acii, aiciiaeiinoue
ia?aeeaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey iio?aaiinoae ?acee/iuo o?iaiae ia
eneeth/aaony. (neaaeiaaoaeueii, o?iaaiue ia aeene?aoiu, a ieaaii
ia?aoiaeyo ae?oa a ae?oaa), “… Ianeio ioia/ae : “…Ia naiii
aeaea ea?a?oey ia oaeay ae?noeay…” * A iniiaiii
i?aaeiieaaaaony iineaaeiaaoaeueiue ia?aoiae io iecoaai o?iaiy
iio?aaiinoae e aunoaio, /oi, i?aaaea, iiaeaa?aaaony niiiaieth
aieueoeinoaii o/?iuo.

Oai?eae, ?ane?uaathuae niaea?aeaoaeueioth eiioeaioeeth iioeaaoeee,
yaeyaony aeeceay e i?aaeuaeouae iiaeaeue i?eia?ao?iiuo
iio?aaiinoae Ae. Iae-Eeaeeaiaea, a eioi?ii ii-naiaio i?aaenoaaeaiu
aunoea o?iaie iio?aaiinoae Ianeio, iaeiaei aac ea?a?oe/iinoe.
Iae-Eeaeeaiae auaeaeyao o?e aeaea iio?aaiinoae : a oniaoa ; ai
aeanoe (eae ?aaee ia? naiie, oae e ?aaee aeinoeaeaiey iaueo
oeaeae) ; a i?e/anoiinoe. Ii iio?aaiinoe Iae-Eeaeeaiae oieeoao
aieaa oe?iei, /ai Ianeio, iai?eia?, aeanoue ii ia naiaeeo
oieueei e aaeieieno?aoeaiie, a ?anniao?eaaao a?, nei?aa, eae
eeaea?noai, eieoeeaoeaiua aeaenoaey ii iaania/aieth /eaiia
eieeaeoeaa anai iaiaoiaeeiui aeey eo oniaoiie ?aaiou, iiiiuue a
oi?ie?iaaiee oaa?aiiinoe a nianoaaiiuo neeao e eiiiaoaioeee.

Au? iaeiie oai?eae, enoiaeyuae ec niaea?aeaoaeueiie eiioeaioeee
iioeaaoeee, yaeyaony aeaoooaeoi?iay iiaeaeue O. Aa?oeaa?aa,
?ac?aaioaiiay ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1950-o aa. Ii iieacae, /oi
iioeae?othueie oaeoi?aie neoaeao eae oaeiaeaoai??iiinoue, oae e
iaoaeiaeaoai??iiinoue oao eee eiuo /aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae,
i?e/?i ia?anoaiea iaeiie e oauaaiea ae?oaie yaeythony aeaoiy
naiinoiyoaeueiuie i?ioeannaie, ia caaeneiuie ae?oa io ae?oaa, a
iiyoiio oaeoi?u, aicaeaenoaothuea ia iaeei i?ioeann, niaa?oaiii
iaiaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ae?oaie.

I?ioeann iioeaaoeee inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth aeaoo a?oii
oaeoi?ia : iioeaaoeeiiiue, naycaiiue n ?aaioie (oai?/aneee ?ino,
i?eciaiea, oniao, i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa), e “aeaeaie/aneeo”,
naycaiiuo n oneiaeyie a? inouanoaeaiey (ca?aaioie,
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, ninoiyiea aioo?aiiae n?aaeu e o.i.).

Aa?oeaa?a iieacae, /oi i?enoonoaea iioeaaoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia
ieacuaaao cia/eoaeueiia noeioee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia
?acoeueoaoeaiinoue o?oaea, ii i?e oaeiaeaoai?aiee niioaaonoaothueo
iio?aaiinoae yoi aicaeaenoaea en/aciao. Ionoonoaea aea
yoeo

(*) – Ianeii, Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa, I., 1992 a., no?. 368,
aac. 1

– 14 –

oaeoi?ia ia aucuaaao cia/eoaeueiie iaoaeiaeaoai??iiinoe ethaeae, e
iiyoiio ia noaiiaeony aeaiioeae?othuei iiiaioii. Ionoonoaea eee
iaaeinoaoi/iia ?acaeoea “aeaeaie/aneeo oaeoi?ia”, iaiai?io,
aucuaatho o ethaeae cia/eoaeueioth iaoaeiaeaoai??iiinoue ?aaioie e
?acei nieaeatho noeioeu e aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaeiaei
i?enoonoaea ia icia/aao au? iiyaeaiey oaeiaeaoai??iiinoe,
iineieueeo iie nicaeatho eeoue i?aaeiinueee aeey ia?.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii Aa?oeaa?ao, “aeaeaie/aneea” oaeoi?u ia
iioeae?otho ?aaioieeia ; iie oieueei i?aaeioa?auatho o ieo
aicieeiiaaiea /oanoaa iaoaeiaeaoai??iiinoe naiae aeayoaeueiinoueth
e a? oneiaeyie. Aeey noeioee?iaaiey o?oaeiauo oneeee a aeaei
iaiaoiaeeii aeeth/eoue au? e iioeaaoeeiiiua oaeoi?u.

A oi aea a?aiy, Aa?oeaa?a e ai?n aaaeiue aeeaae a iiieiaiea
iioeaaoeee, ii ia o/eouaae iiiaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeey iauyniaiey a? iaoaiecia, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
iiaaaeai/aneeo aniaeoia e ia?aiao?ia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

I?aaeaea anaai, yoi oai?ey iaeeaeaiee A. Ao?ia, iniiauaathuayny
ia oii, /oi iiieii iniciaiiuo iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaeii aeaeaeao
iaaeaaeaea ia ni?aaaaeeeaia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea aai oneeee. A
niioaaonoaee n iae iaeeaeaiey ?anniao?eaathony eae ioeaiea
aeaiiie ee/iinoueth aa?iyoiinoe ianooieaiey oiai eee eiiai
niauoey.

Iioeaaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue A. Ao?ia, auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii.
I?enooiay e auiieiaieth oie eee eiie ?aaiou, /aeiaae n
ii?aaeae?iiie noaiaiueth aa?iyoiinoe iaeeaeaao, /oi cao?a/aiiua ei
oneeey i?eianoo iaiaoiaeeiue ?acoeueoao, eioi?ue oaeaea n oie
eee eiie noaiaiueth aa?iyoiinoe aeieaeai auoue caia/ai
?oeiaiaeeoaeai e niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii aiciaa?aaeae?i. Iaeiiaoe,
o ?aaioieea nouanoaoao ii?aaeae?iiay noaiaiue iaeeaeaiey oiai,
/oi iieo/aiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea aai oaeiaeaoai?eo (eee ia
oaeiaeaoai?eo), iacuaaaiay aaeaioiinoueth. “… Iaeeaeaiey a
ioiioaiee cao?ao o?oaea – ?acoeueoaoia – yoi niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
cao?a/aiiuie oneeeyie e iieo/aiiuie ?acoeueoaoaie (C-?) …
Iaeeaeaiea a ioiioaiee ?acoeueoaoia – aiciaa?aaeaeaiea (?-A) anoue
?acoeueoao aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eee iiiu?aiey a ioaao ia aeinoeaiooue
o?iaaiue ?acoeueoaoia … Aaeaioiinoue – yoi i?aaeiieaaaaiay
noaiaiue ioiineoaeueiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey eee iaoaeiaeaoai?aiey,
aicieeathuay aneaaenoaea iieo/aiey ii?aaeae?iiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
… ” * A ?acoeueoaoa iauay iioeaaoeey /aeiaaea e auiieiaieth
aeaiiie ?aaiou ii?aaeaeyaony niaianoiui aeaenoaeai ia?a/eneaiiuo
oaeoi?ia. Aeey ?an/?oa a? aaee/eiu i?aaeeaaaaony ia?aiiiaeeoue
cia/aiey aa?iyoiinoae oiai, /oi oneeey aeaaeoo aeaeaaiue
?acoeueoao ; iineaaeiee iiaea/?o ca

(*) – Ianeii, Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa, I., 1992 a., no?. 376

– 15 –

niaie ni?aaaaeeeaia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea e oeaiiinoue aai aoaeao
oaeiaeaoai?youe noauaeoa.

Niioiioaiea yoeo oaeoi?ia au?aaeaaony oi?ioeie :

Iioeaaoeey = C-? o ?-A o Aaeaioiinoue

Anee cia/aiea ethaiai ec yoeo iioeaaoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia (eo
aa?iyoiinoue) aoaeao iaei, iioeaaoeey ieaaeaony neaaie, a
?acoeueoao o?oaea a eiia/iii eoiaa ieceie, e iaiai?io. Aeey
iaania/aiey oniaoa iioeaaoeee iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue iainiiaaiiia
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo aiciiaeiinoyie ethaeae, iaeeaeaaiuie
?acoeueoaoaie e noaiaiueth oeaiiinoae aeey ieo aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

Nai? oieeiaaiea oiai, eaeei ia?acii iiaeii noeioee?iaaoue
ethaeae ia aeinoeaeaiea oeaeae, aea?o oai?ey ni?aaaaeeeainoe. A
niioaaonoaee n iae ethaee noauaeoeaii ii?aaeaeytho niioiioaiey
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey e cao?a/aiiuo oneeee, a iioii n?aaieaatho
iieo/aiiue ?acoeueoao n aiciaa?aaeaeaieai ae?oaeo, auiieiyaoeo
aiaeiae/ioth ?aaioo.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeioiaeu Aeioiaeu ae?oaeo

————————————————————————
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————————————————————————
—————

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua cao?aou Cao?aou ae?oaeo

Anee ia?ooaiee iao, oi iioeae?othuea oaeoi?u ?aaioatho
ii?iaeueii ; anee aea n?aaiaiea auyaeyao aeenaaeain,
iani?aaaaeeeainoue, oai aieaa eiathuee oa?aeoa?, i?ienoiaeeo
aeaiioeaaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe.

O /aeiaaea aicieeaao ineoieiae/aneia iai?yaeaiea, eioi?ia
iaaaoeaii neacuaaaony ia auiieiyaiie ?aaioa e a? ?acoeueoaoao,
iineieueeo, /oiau ainnoaiiaeoue ni?aaaaeeeainoue, ii ia/eiaao
o?oaeeony iaiaa yooaeoeaii. A oi aea a?aiy, anee ethaeyi
ia?aiea/eaatho, iie iaiaa neeiiiu iaiyoue nai? iiaaaeaiea.

Iineieueeo iiaeiaiiai ?iaea ioeaiee aanueia noauaeoeaiu,
aeieaeiu nouanoaiaaoue /?oeea e?eoa?ee aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
nio?oaeieeia, iniiauaathueony ia oi/iuo enneaaeiaaieyo e
o/eouaathuea ineoieiaeth ethaeae. Yoi, i?aaaea, ia anaaaea
nianaao io ?acee/iiai ?iaea eieeecee, aicieeathueo aneaaenoaea
ianiaiaaeaiey ioeaiie, ii iiiiaaao eo nouanoaaiii niya/eoue.
E?iia oiai, eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea ia?aaeiauo oe?i, aaaeioth
iiceoeaioth ?ieue iiaeao nua?aoue aiciiaeiinoue ioe?uoi ianoaeeoue
ana nii?iua aii?inu, naycaiiua n aiciaa?aaeaeaieai, e
eneeth/aiea eaeeo au ie auei

– 16 –

oaei ii ioiioaieth e aai eiie?aoiie aaee/eia aeey eaaeaeiai ec
nio?oaeieeia.

Iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a Eioea?a.

“… Yoi eiiieaeniay oai?ey, aeeth/athuay yeaiaiou oai?ee
iaeeaeaiey e oai?ee ni?aaaaeeeainoe …” *

Oeaiiinoue
Aiciaa?aaeaeaiea

aiciaa?aae-
aini?eieiaaiia,

aeaiey
eae ni?aaaaeeeaia

Niiniaiinoe

e oa?aeoa?
Aiaoiaa

aiciaa?aaeaeaiea

?acoeueoaou

Oneeey (auiieiaiiay
Oaeiaeaoai?aiea

?aaioa)

Aioo?aiiaa

aiciaa?aaeaeaiea

Ioeaiea aa?iyoiinoe Ioeaiea

nayce oneeey ?iee

n aiciaa?aaeaeaieai ?aaioieea

Oneeey, i?eeiaeaiiua a ?aaioa, caaenyo io ?yaea oaeoi?ia :

– io oeaiiinoe aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ;

– io ioeaiee aa?iyoiinoe nayce oneeey n aiciaa?aaeaeaieai ;

– io niiniaiinoe e oa?aeoa?a ;

– io ioeaiee ?iee ?aaioieea.

?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aeinoeaathony iiae aeeyieai yoeo oaeoi?ia.
Ca auiieiaiioth ?aaioo iica iieo/aao 2 aeaea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey :
aioo?aiiaa e aiaoiaa, aini?eieiaaiia eae ni?aaaaeeeaia. A eoiaa
aicieeaao oaeiaeaoai?aiea, eioi?ia aica?auaaony e noaiiaeony iyoui
oaeoi?ii, aeaenoaothuei ia i?eeaaaaiua oneeey.

(*) – Ianeii, Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa, I., 1992 a., no?. 381, aac.
4

– 17 –

Niiniau iioeaaoeee oneiaii iiaoo auoue ?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa
a?oiiu, iaeio ec eioi?uo ninoaaeytho yeiiiie/aneea, a ae?oaoth
– iayeiiiie/aneea , iineaaeiea, a naith i/a?aaeue aeaeyony ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e ii?aeueiua. Ia i?aeoeea iie oanii
ia?aieaoathony, acaeiiiaoneaaeeaatho ae?oa ae?oaa e /anoi
ia?aoiaeyo iaeei a ae?oaie.

Yeiiiie/aneea niiniau iioeaaoeee iniiauaathony ia oii, /oi
ethaee a ?acoeueoaoa eo i?eiaiaiey iieo/atho ii?aaeaeaiiua
auaiaeu, iiauoathuea eo aeaaininoiyiea. Oaeea auaiaeu iiaoo auoue
i?yiuie, iai?eia? a iaeioi?ie noiia aeaiaa, eee einaaiiuie,
iaeaa/athueie iieo/aiea i?yiuo (aeiiieieoaeueiia naiaiaeiia a?aiy,
iicaieythuaa iiae?aaaouaaoue a ae?oaii ianoa). Aaeaa ee ia
iniiaiie oi?iie i?yiie yeiiiie/aneie iioeaaoeee yaeyaony ca?aaioiay
ieaoa ca auiieiaiea iniiaiie ?aaiou. Iau/ii iia caaeneo io
caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoe, eaaeeoeeaoeee, noaaea ?aaiou, eiee/anoaa e
ea/anoaa cao?a/aiiiai o?oaea, iaeiaei ia iaa aicaeaenoaotho e
/enoi ?uii/iua oaeoi?u, oaeea eae ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ?uiea
o?oaea, neiaeeaoayny eiie?aoiay eiiuthieoo?a, oa??eoi?eaeueiua
aniaeou, caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ii?iu ( iai?eia?, a NOA ieieiaeueiay
iieaoa o?oaea, eae e ii/aniaua noaaee ?aaoee?othony
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Nouanoaotho aeaa oi?iu iieaou o?oaea – iia?aiaiiay e
naeaeueiay. Iia?aiaiiay oi?ia oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi ca?aaioiay
ieaoa ?aaioieeo ia/eneyaony a caaeneiinoe io eiee/anoaa
io?aaioaiiiai a niioaaonoaee n oaaaeueiui o/aoii a?aiaie e
onoaiiaeaiiie oa?eoiie noaaee eee ieeaaea. I?eiaiyaony a
ioiioaiee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, niaoeeaeenoia, neoaeaueo, a oaeaea oao
?aai/eo, ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?uo ia iiaeaeathony
oi/iiio ecia?aieth e o/aoo, eeai ia o?aaotho aai aiana. A
caaeneiinoe io niiniaa ia/eneaiey iia auaaao ii/aniaie,
iiaeaiiie, iiiany/iie.

Iioeae?othueie yeaiaioaie i?e iia?aiaiiie iieaoa o?oaea
yaeyaony aa aaee/eia e iaee/ea a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo i?aiee.
Aa yooaeoeaiia i?eiaiaiea o?aaoao niaethaeaiey ?yaea oneiaee, a
/anoiinoe : oi/iiai o/aoa oaeoe/anee io?aaioaiiiai a?aiaie;
iaee/ey iainiiaaiiuo ii?i e ii?iaoeaia, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo iauai
au?aaioee, /eneaiiinoue ia?niiaea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caaeaiey;
i?aaeeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?aaiou iaaeaeo eniieieoaeyie,
i?eieiathuaai ai aieiaiea eo eaaeeoeeaoeeth, iiuo, i?ioanneth.

Naeaeueiay oi?ia ca?aaioiie ieaou i?eiaiyaony a iniiaiii a
ioiioaiee ?aai/eo, eiie?aoiua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe eioi?uo
eaaei ecia?eiu e eo ?ino iaiaoiaeeii noeioee?iaaoue, a au?aaioea
i?iaeoeoeee yaeyaony ?aoathuei ?acoeueoaoii ?aaiou.

– 18 –

I?eiaiaiea naeaeueiie iieaou o?aaoao oaeaea iaee/ey iao/ii
iainiiaaiiuo ii?i( au?aaioee, cao?ao e o.i.) e iaaeaaeiinoue o/aoa
?acoeueoaoia.

Naeaeueiay oi?ia iieaou iiae?acaeaeyaony ia nenoaiu ii oaeei
e?eoa?eyi, eae niiniau ii?aaeaeaiey naeaeueiie ?anoeaiee, ?an/aoa
n ?aaioieeaie (eiaeeaeaeoaeueii eee eieeaeoeaii), iaoa?eaeueiiai
iiiu?aiey.

A ioee/ea io iia?aiaiiie ca?aaioiie ieaou, eiathuae oieueei
aeaa nenoaiu (i?inooth e i?aieaeueioth), o naeaeueiie eo
cia/eoaeueii aieueoa.

I?e i?yiie ( eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie e eieeaeoeaiie) naeaeueiie
ca?aaioiie ieaoa aa aaee/eia ii?aaeaeyaony a caaeneiinoe io
auiieiaiiiai iauaia ?aaiou ii aaeeiie ?anoeaiea ca aaeeieoeo
i?iaeoeoeee.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay naeaeueiay iieaoa o?oaea i?eiaiyaony oai,
aaea ethaee ?aaioatho eeai naiinoiyoaeueii, eeai niaianoii e
auiieiytho iaeeiaeiaoth ii oa?aeoa?o e eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aaioo.
Eieeaeoeaiay naeaeueiay eniieuecoaony a oii neo/aa, anee
eniieieoaee ?aciie eaaeeoeeaoeee e niaoeeaeueiinoe o?oaeyony

naiinoiyoaeueii eee niaianoii iaae eiiieaeniui iauaeoii, aoaeo/e
naycaiiuie eiia/iui ?acoeueoaoii.

Einaaiiay naeaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay eee
eieeaeoeaiay) i?eiaiyaony a ioiioaiee ?aaioieeia, ianeoaeeaathueo
ae?oaeo, iiea/eaaaiuo ii naeaeueiie. Iau/ii eniieuecoaony a
ioiioaiee oao aeaeia eniieieoaeae, io eioi?uo iaei /oi caaeneo.

I?e naeaeueii-i?ia?anneaiie ca?aaioiie ieaoa a i?aaeaeao
onoaiiaeaiiie enoiaeiie ii?iu au?aaioee o?oae iiea/eaaaony ii
i?yiui naeaeueiui ?anoeaieai , a naa?o iaa – ii iiauoaiiui.
Noaiaiue oaaee/aiey ?anoeaiie ii?aaeaeyaony n iiiiuueth
niaoeeaeueiie oeaeu.

Naeaeueii-i?aieaeueiay nenoaia iieaou o?oaea ni/aoaao naeaeueiue
ca?aaioie n i?aieae e ea/anoaaiiua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe
(?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe , nieaeaiea cao?ao ia inaiaiea iiaie
oaoieee e oaoiieiaee).

I?e aeei?aeiie nenoaia ca?aaioie ii?aaeaeyaony n?aco ia aanue
iauai auiieiaiiie ?aaiou.

Noeioee?othuay ooieoeey eieeaeoeaiie iieaou o?oaea (a oaeaea
i?aie?iaaiey) ai iiiaii iaania/eaaaony eniieueciaaieai eiyooeoeeaioa
o?oaeiaiai o/anoey (EOO), aeathuaai iaiaauaiioth eiee/anoaaiioth
ioeaieo aeeaaea eaaeaeiai a eiia/iue ?acoeueoao. EOO
o/eouaaao eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea,

– 19 –

neiaeiinoue e ea/anoai ?aaiou, iiiiuue ae?oaeo, niaethaeaiea
o?oaeiaie e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeenoeeieeiu. Ca aunieee
i?ioanneiiaeeci, eieoeeaoeao, ?aaioo ii niaaeiui niaoeeaeueiinoyi,
o/anoea a ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?noaa, ia?aaea/a iiuoa, ?oeiaiaenoaa
eieeaeoeaii e o.i. ii iiaeao iiauoaoueny , a a ia?aoiii neo/aa
– nieaeaoueny.

Iiieii iniiaiie ca?aaioiie ieaou, iiaeii aiai?eoue i
aeiiieieoaeueiie, ia/eneyaiie ca i?ioanneiiaeeci, eaaeeoeeaoeeth,
aeaeiaua iaauee, a oi?ia ?acee/iiai ?iaea aeiieao, iinyueo
iau/ii eiiiainaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?.

Eiiaaea ca?aaioiay ieaoa auaaao iayaiie, oi anoue nouanoaoao
?yae eueaio, eioi?ua ia i?aeoeea cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaatho
aeioiaeu noauaeoa.

O?iaaiue iieaou o?oaea aeaao oi?iaeueioth ioeaieo o?oaeiaiio
aeeaaeo ?aaioieeia a eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou, eniieieoaeueiinoe,
i?ioanneiiaeecio, eaaeeoeeaoeee.

Iaeiaei aieaa aeaenoaaiiui noeioee?othuei n?aaenoaii ii
noaiiaeony i?e aeiiieiaiee aai ae?oaie aaaeiie oi?iie
yeiiiie/aneie iioeaaoeee – nenoaiie i?aie?iaaiey.

?aai/ea iau/ii i?aie?othony ii eoiaai aeinoeaeaiey 1-2
iieacaoaeae ; neoaeauea e niaoeeaeenou – 2 – 3 iieacaoaeae.
Iniiaaieyie aeey i?aie?iaaiey neoaeao yeiiiiey ?ano?nia,
oaaee/aiea i?eauee, i?aaeaea anaai a noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, ia
eiathuae i?yiiai ioiioaiey e aeaiiiio nio?oaeieeo, ?acee/iiai
?iaea iao/iua aeinoeaeaiey, ?aoeeiiaeecaoi?neea i?aaeeiaeaiey,
oniaoiia i?iaaaeaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth i?iaeai,
eneeth/eoaeueiua caneoae. Aeey oiai /oiau i?aiee ea?aee ?ieue
aeaenoaaiiiai noeioee?othuaai oaeoi?a, iie, eae a nai? a?aiy
iieacae au? O. Oaeei?, aeieaeiu ninoaaeyoue ia iaiaa 30 %
iniiaiiai ca?aaioea.

I?aaeiinueeaie oniaoiiai i?aie?iaaiey iiaeii n/eoaoue :

i?aaeeueiua auai? nenoaiu iieacaoaeae, enoiaeyueo ec
eiie?aoiuo caaea/, noiyueo ia?aae oe?iie ;

aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth iieacaoaeae a caaeneiinoe io ?iee e
oa?aeoa?a iiae?acaeaeaiee, o?iaiy aeieaeiinoae ;

i?eaioaoeeth iieacaoaeae i?aie?iaaiey ia ?aaeueiue aeeaae a
eiia/iua ?acoeueoaou, yooaeoeaiinoue e ea/anoai ?aaiou, o/?o
iauaoe?iaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee ;

eiie?aoiinoue, iiiyoiinoue, aeaeinoue, ni?aaaaeeeainoue e?eoa?eaa
ioeaiee aeinoeaeaiee.

– 20 –

Iauei i?eioeeiii i?aie?iaaiey yaeyaony aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ca
ethaua, ionoue naiua iaeua oniaoe, a oaeaea iioaioeeaeueiay
iaia?aie/aiiinoue aai aaee/eiu e naiaa?aiaiiinoue auieaou.

A oi aea a?aiy e?eoa?ee e ii?iaoeau, ii eioi?ui i?ienoiaeeo
i?aie?iaaiea, aeieaeiu ?aaoey?ii ia?aniao?eaaoueny a niioaaonoaee
n eciaiaieai oneiaee aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, a? oeaeae,
yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey e o.i.

Aeaiaaeiua auieaou a oi?ia ca?aaioiie ieaou e i?aiee,
eniieuecoaiua a ea/anoaa ?u/aaia noeioee?iaaiey, a caaeneiinoe io
eiie?aoiie neooaoeee iiaoo auoue i?iii?oeeiiaeueiuie e
iai?iii?oeeiiaeueiuie aeinoeaiooui ?acoeueoaoai. A iineaaeiai
neo/aa ?a/ue eae?o ia aeoeaioe?othueo e ieaaee?othueo auieaoao ;
i?e aeoeaioe?iaaiee iie ?anooo auno?aa oaaee/aiey ?acoeueoaoa, a
i?e ieaaee?iaaiee – iaaeeaiiaa. Ia i?aeoeea caeanue iiaoo eiaoue
ianoi naiua ?acee/iua eiiaeiaoeee.

Oae, a oneiaeyo io?eoeaoaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey aeoeaioe?othony
ionoathuea, a ieaaee?othony ia?aaeiaeee. Yoi iicaieyao iiaeoyiooue
ia?auo aei iaiaoiaeeiiai o?iaiy, ii neaai caeioa?aniauaaao
aoi?uo a ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. Ca/anooth oaeay nenoaia
iiaeao aeeth/aoue e oo?aou. A iniiaa iieiaeeoaeueiiai
noeioee?iaaiey eaaeao i?aiee ca aieaa aunieea ?acoeueoaou e
aac?acee/iia ioiioaiea e ieceei, /oi iiaoaeaeaao ia?aaeiaeeia a
au? aieueoae noaiaie au?uaaoueny aia??ae ii n?aaiaieth n
inoaeueiuie.

A oeaeii nenoaia aeaiaaeiuo auieao aeieaeia iaania/eoue
aieueoeinoao ?aaioieeia aeaeaaiue o?iaaiue aeioiaea i?e oneiaee
aeia?iniaanoiiai ioiioaiey e ?aaioa e auiieiaieth naieo
iaycaiiinoae. Oaeiaeaoai??iiinoue iaoa?eaeueiui aiciaa?aaeaeaieai,
aai ni?aaaaeeeaui o?iaiai noeioee?oao eieoeeaoeaiinoue ethaeae,
oi?ie?oao i?eaa?aeaiiinoue i?aaiecaoeee, i?eaeaeaao iiauo
?aaioieeia.

E?iia i?aiee e ca?aaioiie ieaou, nouanoaoao au? iaeei aeae
aeaiaaeiuo aiciaa?aaeaeaiee, iaeaaeathuee ii?aaeae?iiui
iioeaaoeeiiiui yooaeoii : o/anoea a i?eaueyo. I?aaeaea anaai yoi
ioiineony e aeiiieieoaeueiie i?eauee, aei 75 % eioi?ie iiaeao
aeinoaaaoueny nio?oaeieeai. Inouanoaeythony oaeea auieaou iau/ii
aaeaiany/ii, /oiau ethaee iaaeyaeii aeaeaee eo naycue n
?acoeueoaoaie naiae ?aaiou. Aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aea n aeaaieo
ii? ?aaoey?ii i?aeoeeothony aiionu – e?oiiua aaeeiia?aiaiiua
auieaou ec i?eauee 1 – 2 ?aca a aiae.

Einaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay iioeaaoeey – yoi iioeaaoeey naiaiaeiui

– 21 –

a?aiaiai. A? eiie?aoiuie oi?iaie yaeythony : nie?au?iiue ?aai/ee
aeaiue eee oaaee/aiiue ioione,
i?ecaaiiua

eiiiaine?iaaoue iiauoaiea cao?ao o?oaea (iai?eia?, a noa?a iaoee,
ia?aciaaiey) ; neieuecyuee eee aeaeee a?aoeee ?aaiou, aeaeathuea
?aaeei aieaa oaeiaiui aeey /aeiaaea, /oi iicaieyao aio aac
oua?aa aeey ia? caieiaoueny ae?oaeie aeaeaie ; i?aaeinoaaeaiea
ioaoeia ca /anoue nyeiiiieaiiiai i?e auiieiaiee ?aaiou a?aiaie,
/oi iiea a ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia iieo/eei.

E i?aaiecaoeeiiiui niiniaai iioeaaoeee iiaeii ioianoe
iioeaaoeeth oeaeyie, iioeaaoeeth iaiaauaieai ?aaiou e iioeaaoeeth
o/anoeai a aeaeao oe?iu.

Aieueoea, o?oaeiua, eioa?aniua oeaee oaeaeatho ethaeae,
i?iaoaeaeatho a ieo aeoo ai?ueau, ni?aaiiaaiey, no?aieaiea e
aeinoeaeaieth aunieeo ?acoeueoaoia.

Iioeaaoeey o/anoeai a aeaeao oe?iu i?aaeiieaaaao i?aaeinoaaeaiea
?aaioieeai i?aaa aieina i?e ?aoaiee ?yaea i?iaeai (a iniiaiii
nioeeaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a) ; aiaea/aiea eo a i?ioeann eieeaeoeaiiai
oai?/anoaa ; eiinoeueoe?iaaiea n ieie ii niaoeeaeueiui aii?inai ;
?aaeueiia aeaeaae?iaaiea ei i?aa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

Iaeiiaoe, iioeaaoeey iaiaauaieai o?oaea caeeth/aaony a
i?aaeinoaaeaiee ethaeyi aieaa niaea?aeaoaeueiie, aaaeiie,
eioa?aniie ?aaiou, nioeeaeueii cia/eiie, n oe?ieeie ia?niaeoeaaie
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai e aeieaeiinoiiai ?inoa, aeathuae ei
aiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeyoue oe?ieee eiio?ieue iaae ?ano?naie e
oneiaeyie nianoaaiiiai o?oaea.

E ii?aeueiui niiniaai iioeaaoeee ioiineony i?eciaiea, eioi?ia
iiaeao auoue ee/iui e ioaee/iui. Nooue ee/iiai i?eciaiey,
eioi?ia a iaoae no?aia ?ani?ino?aiaiey au? ia iieo/eei, ninoieo
a oii, /oi iniai ioee/eaoeany ?aaioieee oiiieiathony a
niaoeeaeueiuo aeieeaaeao aunoaio ?oeiaiaenoao oe?iu eee ee/ii
i?aaenoaaeythony aio, iieo/atho i?aai iiaeiene ioaaonoaaiiuo
aeieoiaioia, a ?ac?aaioea eioi?uo iie i?eieiaee o/anoea,
ia?niiaeueii iicae?aaeythony aee?aeoeeae ii neo/ath i?acaeieeia
eee naiaeiuo aeao.

Ioaee/iia i?eciaiea iai ciaeiii eo/oa ; iii i?aaeiieaaaao
eioi?iaoeeth i aeinoeaeaieyo ?aaioieeia a iiiaioe?aaeeao, ia
niaoeeaeueiuo noaiaeao, “aeineao ii/?oa”, iaa?aaeaeaiea iniai
ioee/eaoeony ethaeae ii/?oiuie ciaeaie, a?aiioaie, aianaiea eo
ei?i a niaoeeaeueiua eieae oe?iu. *anoi ioaee/iia i?eciaiea
nii?iaiaeaeaao oaeea ia?ii?eyoey “yeiiiie/aneiai” oa?aeoa?a, eae
iaa?aaeaeaiea i?aieyie, oo?iiacaeeaie, noaaee?iaeaie.

– 22 –

Niaoeeoe/aneie oi?iie ii?aeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey yaeythony
iioaaea e e?eoeea.

Iioaaea aeieaeia neaaeiaaoue ca ethauie aeaenoaeyie
iiae/ei?iiuo, ionoue naiuie iacia/eoaeueiuie, ii iaycaoaeueii
eiie?aoiuie, niinianoaothueie aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae oe?iu. Yoi
iaania/eo a? ?aaoey?iinoue, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue. A oi aea a?aiy
iioaaea aeieaeia auoue aeice?iaaiiie, iniiauaaoueny ia i?eioeeia
eiio?anoa, i?aaeoniao?eaathuai ii?aaeae?iiua ia?a?uau, eai i?e
neeoeii /anoii a? iiaoi?aiee iia ia?anoa?o auoue aeaenoaaiiie.
Ionoonoaea iioaaeu, iniaaiii ca oi?iooth ?aaioo, aeaiioeae?oao,
eae e iacaneoaeaiiay iicaaea n “aeaieiui aeiii”, iiyoiio aeey
iioaaeu aeaeaoaeueii eiaoue iauaeoeaiua, oioy e ia aoeoe?oaiua
e?eoa?ee.

Ca iaaaoeaiua aeaenoaey iiae/ei?iiua, ai?i/ai eae e
?oeiaiaeeoaee, iiaoo iiaeaa?aaoueny e?eoeea, oi anoue
io?eoeaoaeueiiio inoaeaeaieth i /?i-oi ni noi?iiu ie?oaeathueo,
ane?uaathuaio iaaeinoaoee e oiouaiey a ?aaioa.

E?eoeea iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny a caaeneiinoe io neooaoeee a
naiuo ?acee/iuo oi?iao : aacee/ii (ia iacuaay ei?i e oaieeee) ;
n oi??eii a oii, /oi /aeiaae iiaea?e ae?oaeo ; n auneacuaaieai
icaai/aiiinoe ii iiaiaeo ninoiyiey aeae o e?eoeeoaiiai eeoea ;
nii?iaiaeaeaoueny niaeaeaieai, niia?aaeeaaieai aio ; niaea?aeaoue a
naaa oaeeaeaiea, e?iieth, iai?e, i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea, iianaiea,
o?aaiaaiea, aucia. Ii naiia aeaaiia o?aaiaaiea –
eiino?oe-oeaiinoue.

Eiino?oeoeaiay e?eoeea iai?aaeaia ia oieueei ia oi, /oiau
auyaeoue iaaeinoaoee a ?aaioa nio?oaeieea e noeioee?iaaoue aai e
?aaioa iaae eo eni?aaeaieai, ii e ia oi, /oiau ieacaoue aio
any/aneoth iiiiuue. Iiyoiio iia neaaeoao ii?aaeae?iiuie i?aaeeaie.
I?aaeaea anaai iia aeieaeia iioiaeeoue a aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiie
aoiinoa?a, eioi?ay nicaea?ony ca n/?o ineaaeaiey iaaeieoaeueiiai
aeoeaioa, aianaiea yeaiaioia naiie?eoeee, iioaaeu e?eoeeoaiiai,
oaaaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e aai ee/iinoe (e?eoeeothony oieueei
iinooiee), auneacuaaiea iiaeaeaiee a einaaiiie oi?ia, aac
ianoaeaaiey ia naiae oi/ea c?aiey, a?aoiaioe?iaaiiinoe e o.i.
Iaeuecy o?aaiaaoue i?eciaiey naieo ioeaie e i?aaiou e?eoeeoaiiai.
Auneacuaaoue e?eoe/aneea caia/aiey eo/oa iaaaeeia, any/anee
iiae/??eeaay, /oi ioia/aiiua iaaeinoaoee eaaei ono?aieiu.

Ethaay e?eoeea aeieaeia aini?eieiaoueny eae oi?ia iiiiue ni
noi?iiu, iai?aaeaiiay ia ono?aiaiea iaaeinoaoeia, iiyoiio
iacaaeneii io oi?iu ec ia? iaiaoiaeeii ecaeaeaoue ?aoeeiiaeueiua
ca?ia. Yoi iiiiaeao ii?aaeaeeoue , /ai iia aucaaia , e
auno?aa

– 23 –

eni?aaeoue iaaeinoaoee, iineieueeo ca eneeth/aieai neo/aaa
naaaeaiey n/aoia e?eoeea eiaao iiae niaie ?aaeueiua ioeaee,
eioi?ua ioaeii e iiaeii ono?aieoue (ianiiniaiuo naeaeaoue yoi ia
e?eoeeotho, a n?aco oaieueiytho). E?eoeeoaiua ia aeieaeiu
iaeaeaoueny ia e?eoeeo, ii iaeiia?aiaiii i?e iaee/ee iaiaoiaeeiuo
a?aoiaioia iiaoo ii-aeaeiaiio caueuaoueny, iaeiaei i?eciaa
i?aaeaea ni?aaaaeeeaua oi??ee e iiiaauaa eni?aaeoue ioeaee.

A caeeth/aiea iaiaoiaeeii inoaiiaeoueny au? ia iaeiie oi?ia
iioeaaoeee, eioi?ay ii nouanoao iauaaeeiyao a naaa i?aaeuaeouea
– yoi i?iaeaeaeaiea a aeieaeiinoe. Iii aea?o e aieaa aunieoth
ca?aaioioth ieaoo (yeiiiie/aneee iioea), aieaa eioa?anioth e
niaea?aeaoaeueioth ?aaioo (i?aaiecaoeeiiiue iioea), e io?aaeaao
caneoae e aaoi?eoao ee/iinoe (ii?aeueiue iioea). A oi aea a?aiy
yoio niinia iioeaaoeee ii ?yaeo i?e/ei ia?aie/ai – i?aaeaea
anaai eiee/anoaii aeieaeiinoae, e?iia oiai, ia ana ethaee
niiniaiu ?oeiaiaeeoue e eiatho aeey yoiai aeaeaiea.

Oniao iioeaaoeee i?aaeii?aaeaeyaony eiiieaeniui iiaeoiaeii e
iae, iniiaaiiii ia aeoaieii e ananoi?iiiai eco/aiee iieiaeaiey
aeae a oe?ia e iioeaaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u iiaaaeaiey a? ia?niiaea.

A 30 a. caiaoeee, /oi anoue neeueiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
iaiaaeaea?ii – ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e iaiaiaeaea?ii- eeaea?ii, o eioi?iai
ia 60% i?e oao aea ?ano?nao i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia?niiaea
auoa.

Nouanoaoao iyoue oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o, i?enoueo eeaea?o:

1. Oece/aneay e ia?aiay yia?aey.

2. Yiooceaci, o?ainoi?ie?othueeny ai aeanoiua ?anii?yaeaiey.

3. Eioaeeeaaioiinoue.

4. Ii?yaei/iinoue.

5. Oiaiea noaaeoue oeaee, eioi?ua au aaeioiiaeyee iiae/eiaiiuo
ia naa?oaiea.

Eeanneoeeaoeey eeaea?ia:

– eeaea?, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia caaeaiea (yooaeoeaai a noaaeeueiuo
?aai/eo eieeaeoeaao n /aoeeie ia?aiao?aie ?aaiou)

– eeaea?, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia ioiioaiea n ethaeueie (yooaeoeaai

i?e nicaeaiee oe?iu)

– eeaea?, eeiaeiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ( eiiaeiaoeey ia?auo aeaoo ).

Yooaeoeaiinoue eeaea?noaa naycaia n aeieaeiinoueth, no?oeoo?ie
caaea/, noaiaiueth aeiaa?ey eeaea?o.

Iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue o?e niiniaiinoe, i?enouea eeaea?noao-

yoi iiieiaiea oiai, /oi o ethaeae ?aciua iioeau a ?aciuo
neooaoeeyo; niiniaiinoue nicaeaaaoue aoiinoa?o aeey iioeaaoeee;

niiniaiinoue aaeioiiaeyoue, eiaaea o anao oaea iao ieeaeeo nee.

– 24 –

Iaeaieaa neiaeiui yeaiaioii a ?aaioa ?oeiaiaeeoaeae

yaeyaony oaeouay eii?aeeiaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe iiae/eiaiiuo e
iai?aaeaiea aa a ioaeioth noi?iio. Yoi aeinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth
iaiaea e aeaenoaeth a ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee; i?aaeinoaaeaiey
niaaoia e eiinoeueoaoeee ioaeaeathueiny a iiiiue e iiaeaea?aeea;
aea/e i?yiuo ?anii?yaeaiee (io iiaeaeaiey aei i?eeaca)
iaeeaeathuei eo ; iaeacaiee aieioue aei oaieueiaiey, oao, eoi
eaii?e?oao aieth ?oeiaiaeeoaey. Inouanoaeyy oi?aaeaiea
iiae/eiaiiuie, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue eniieuecoao i?e yoii ianeieueei
a?oii iaoiaeia, n?aaee eioi?uo : aaoi?eoa?iua, aeaiie?aoe/aneea,
iaoiaeu nicaeaiey noeioee?othueo oneiaee, eiinoeueoaoeaiua iaoiaeu.

Aaoi?eoa?iua iaoiaeu iniiauaathony ia ioaea/a ?anii?yaeaiee
iiae/eiaiiui i?e ionoonoaee anyeeo iauyniaiee eo nayce n iaueie
oeaeyie e caaea/aie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu e no?aieaiey ociaoue eo
iiaiea eee iieo/eoue iaeia?aiea. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ii?aaeaeyao ia
oieueei niaea?aeaiea caaeaiee, ii e eiie?aoiua niiniau eo
auiieiaiey. I?e yoii i?ei?eoao ioaeaaony i?eeacai, a n?aaee
noeioeia i?aiaeaaeaao oa?ica iaeacaiey. I?eiaiaiea yoeo iaoiaeia
iaeaieaa oniaoii, eiaaea iiae/eiaiiua iieiinoueth iaoiaeyony ai
aeanoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey e aaca?aie/ii aio aeiaa?ytho, a
?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia oaa?ai a oii, /oi iie niiaoo aac aai eiiaiae
aeaenoaiaaoue i?aaeeueii, iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii.

Aeaiie?aoe/aneea iaoiaeu i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi iiae/eiaiiua
naiinoiyoaeueii i?eieiatho ?aoaiey e euoo iooe eo ?aaeecaoeee, a
?oeiaiaeeoaeue ca?aiaa nicaeaao aeey yoiai i?ioeanna oneiaey,
i?aaeii?aaeaeythuea eiia/iue ?acoeueoao, e caaeaao eeoue iniiaiua
ia?aiao?u ?aaiou. Iiae/eiaiiua iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue noaaeoue
eiie?aoiua oeaee e a ?aieao i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo iieiiii/ee
ii?aaeaeyoue niiniau eo aeinoeaeaiee, a oaeaea ecaaaeaiu io
iacieeeaiai oaeouaai eiio?iey, eioi?ue caiaiyaony i?iaa?eie
?acoeueoaoia e iiiu?aieai eiathueony oniaoia, /aio ioaeaaony
i?aaeii/oaiea ii n?aaiaieth n iaeacaieyie. Ana yoi i?eiineo
?aaioieeai oaeiaeaoai?aiea. Iau/ii yoe iaoiaeu i?eiaiythony a
neo/aa, eiaaea iiae/eiaiiua oi?ioi ciatho naith ?aaioo e iiaoo
aianoe a aa eniieiaiea ii?aaeaeaiiue yeaiaio oai?/anoaa.

Aaoi?eoa?iua e aeaiie?aoe/aneea iaoiaeu iniiauaathony ia
aeoeaiie ?iee ?oeiaiaeeoaey a oi?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoueth
iiae/eiaiiuo. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ei iaoiaeu nicaeaiey
noeioee?othueo oneiaee i?aaeiieaaatho a iniiaiii aai ianneaiia
iiaaaeaiea. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue oieueei noaaeo iauoth caaea/o,
?ac?aaaouaaao i?aaeea ea?u e eiio?iee?oao eo niaethaeaiea. I?e
yoii iiiu?aiey e iaeacaiey ionooiatho ia aoi?ie ieai
ii

– 25 –

n?aaiaieth n aioo?aiiei oaeiaeaoai?aieai, iieo/aaiui iiae/eiaiiuie
io aiciiaeiinoe ?aaeeciaaoue naie iioaioeee e oai?/aneea
niiniaiinoe. Yooaeoeaiinoue aeaiiuo iaoiaeia iaoneiaeaia ?aaeueiui
no?aieaieai iiae/eiaiiuo e yoiio, i?aaeeueiie oi?ioee?iaeie
?oeiaiaeeoaeai caaea/ e oneiaee eo aeayoaeueiinoe e aai
ni?aaaaeeeainoueth a ioiioaiee ioeaiee e aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
?acoeueoaoia.

Iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey n iiiiuueth niaaoia ioiinyony e ianneaiui.
Iaeiaei noaiaiue ianneaiinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey caeanue cia/eoaeueii
aieueoay: aai aeayoaeueiinoue naiaeeony eeoue e i?aaiecaoeee
oneiaee oai?/anoaa iiae/eiaiiuo, noi?ioee?iaaiiuo eie naieie,
oi/ii oaeaea ,eae eiie?aoiua caaea/e e niiniau eo aeinoeaeaiey,
eiinoeueoe?iaaieth a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo, iiiu?aieth ii eoiaai
?aaiou a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeeiaeaieyie iiae/eiaiiuo.

Niaieoiiinoue eiie?aoiuo niiniaia, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo
i?ienoiaeeo acaeiiaeaenoaea ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e iiae/eiaiiuo iieo/eea
iacaaiea oi?aaeai/aneiai noeey. Ii ii?aaeaeyaony niaea?aeaieai e
iaiaoiaeeiuie n?ieaie ?aoaiey noiyuae caaea/e, iniaaiiinoyie
ee/iinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaey e iiae/eiaiiuo, niaoeeoeeie “oaeouaai
iiiaioa” e ?yaeii ae?oaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa.

Ia caiaaea ?acee/atho noeee :

Yenieoaoaoi?nei- aaoi?eoa?iue ;

Aeaaiaeaeaoaeueii- aaoi?eoa?iue ;

Eiinoeueoaoeaiue ;

Ia?oeoeeiaoeaii- a?oiiiaie.

Yenieoaoaoa?nei-aaoi?eoa?iue noeeue i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi
?o-eiaiaeeoaeue ia aeiaa?yy iiae/eiaiiui, ?aoaao ana aii?inu
eneeth/eoaeueii nai , “nioneaao” eeoue oeacaiey, /oi, eae e
eiaaea aeaeaoue. Iiaiey nio?oaeieeia aai ia eioa?anotho.
Aini?eieiay oaeea ?aoaiey eae iaaycaiiua “naa?oo”, iiae/eiaiiua
ioiinyony e iei eae i?aaeei iaaaoeaii, aeaaea anee iie ii nooe
i?aaeeueiu, a iiyoiio n i?ioeaaeoeae, ianiio?y ia oa?icu
naieoeee ni noi?iiu oaoa, a aai ioeaeai oieueei ?aaeothony,
iaoiaey a ieo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea naiaai iaaaoeaiiai iiaiey. A
?acoeueoaoa iie aea?aeao naay oaeei ia?acii, cae?aieyy a
niciaiee e iiaaaeaiee ecaanoiue noa?aioei “iaoa aeaei –
iaeaiueeia”. Onoaoaeyaony iieiaeaiea oe?ieei i?eiaiaieai iaeacaiee.
Eiioeaio?aoeey iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe a ?oeao aunoaai
?oeiaiaenoaa aaoiiaoe/anee aeaeaao aai aeiiaieeii ca ana
ioeaee, iacaaeneii

– 26 –

io oiai, aaea iie auee aeiiouaiu; aeey iaaeaeaiey naay iii
naaeeaaao anth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia iiae/eiaiiuo, eo yeiau
aacaeayoaeueiinoue e ionoonoaea iiiiue, /oi nicaeaao ii/ao aeey
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiioeeeoia. A aeaiiii neo/aa oeaia
ioeaie ieacuaaaony aeaieiie – e yeiiiie/aneei iioa?yi aeiaaaeyaony
ii?aeueiue oua?a aeey ioaeaeueiuo ?aaioieeia e eieeaeoeaa a
oeaeii.

Aeaaiaeaeaoaeueii – aaoi?eoa?iue noeeue i?aaeiieaaaao
nienoiaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea ?oeiaiaeeoaey n iiae/eiaiiuie,
ii-ioa/anee; i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee eioa?anoaony eo iiaieai, oioy,
ianiio?y ia aai iainiiaaiiinoue, iiaeao iinooiaoue ii-naiaio.
Anee yoi aeaeaaony aeaiiino?aoeaii, oi ineoieiae/aneee eeeiao a
eieeaeoeaa iiaeao na?ueacii iino?aaeaoue. A oi aea a?aiy ioae?ue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaeinoaaeyao iiae/eiaiiui ii?aaeaeaiioth
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue,

ionoue aeaaea a ia?aie/aiiuo i?aaeaeao, i?e oneiaee, anee iie
aoaeoo niaethaeaoue aai o?aaiaaiey e eioa?anu oe?iu, anooiay ii
ioiioaieth e iei a ?iee “noi?iaea”, aeaeathuaai, /oiau ai
a?aiy aai aeaaeo?noaa ie/aai iai?eyoiiai ia i?iecioei.
Iioeae?iaaiea no?aoii e iaeacaieyie caeanue eiaao ianoi, ii iii
ieieiaeueii.

Eiinoeueoaoeaiue noeeue i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi iiae/eiaiiua, oioy e
ia iieiinoueth, ii a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iaoiaeyony a “ciia
aeiaa?ey” ?oeiaiaeeoaey, eioi?ue iinoiyiii eiinoeueoe?oaony n ieie
e no?aieony eniieueciaaoue ana eo/oaa, /oi iie i?aaeeaaatho.
Oaeei ia?acii eioi?iaoeey aeaeaeaony ia oieueei naa?oo aiec,
ii e nieco aaa?o. N?aaee noeioee?othueo ia? i?aiaeaaeaao
iiiu?aiea, a iaeacaiea eniieuecoaony eeoue a /?acau/aeiuo
neo/ayo. Nio?oaeieee a oeaeii oaeiaeaoai?aiu nenoaiie
?oeiaiaenoaa, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aieueoeinoai ?aoaiee
i?iaeieaeaao i?eieiaoueny ia “aa?oieo yoaaeao” oi?aaeai/aneie
ea?a?oee. Iie noa?athony ieacaoue oaoo iineeueioth iiiiuue,
ii?aeueii iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aai a iaiaoiaeeiuo neooaoeeyo.

Ia?oeoeeiaoeaii – a?oiiiaie noeeue oi?aaeaiey i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi
?oeiaiaeeoaee iieiinoueth aeiaa?ytho iiae/eiaiiui ai anao
aii?inao, anaaaea auneooeaatho e eiino?oeoeaii eniieuecotho eo
iiaiea, i?aaiecotho oe?ieee e ananoi?iiiee iaiai eioi?iaoeeae,
i?eaeaeatho iiae/eiaiiuo e iinoaiiaea oeaeae e eiio?ieth ca eo
aeinoeaeaieai, oe?iei eniieuecoy a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa
noeioee?iaaiey ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu iiiu?aiey. Eniieuecoaony a

– 27 –

eieeaeoeaao, aaea aunieee o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey, aunieay noaiaiue
niei/aiiinoe.

E?iia yoiai, ia i?aeoeea nouanoaoao aeaa iiaeoiaea e i?iaeaia
noeey ?oeiaiaenoaa : iaeei enoiaeeo ec oiai , /oi aeaaiue iooue
e iieo/aieth ?acoeueoaoa eaaeeo /a?ac iaeaaeeaaiea /aeiaa/aneeo
ioiioaiee, nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiiai eeeiaoa a eieeaeoeaa. Ae?oaie
iiaeoiae i?aaeiieaaaao , /oi aeaaiia a aeaea ?oeiaiaenoaa
ethaeueie – nicaeaiea iaaeeaaeaueo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e oaoie/aneeo
oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, i?e eioi?uo /aeiaae a iaeaieueoae noaiaie
niiaeao ?aaeeciaaoue naie iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe, aia
caaeneiinoe oao ioiioaiee, eioi?ua o iaai neeaaeuaathony n
ie?oaeathueie. Enoiaey ec yoeo iiaeoiaeia ?. Aeaee e I. Ioooii
i?aaeeiaeeee “oi?aaeai/aneoth ?aoaoeo”, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oaaeeoeo, ninoiyuoth ec aeaayoe no?ie e aeaayoe noieaoeia. Ii
aa?oeeaee ioeeaaeuaaaony au?aaeaiiue a aaeeao ( 1 – 9 ) o/ao
eioa?ania /aeiaaea , ii ai?eciioaee – o/ao eioa?ania
i?iecaiaenoaa (1 -9). Iai?eia?, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, i?eaioaoeey eioi?iai
a eaaeaeii iai?aaeaiee ioeaieaaaony iaeiei aaeeii, iiiaaeaao ia
iiea 1.1, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuaa i oii , /oi ii a ?aaiie noaiaie
ia oaeaeyao aieiaiey ie eieeaeoeao, ie nicaeaieth aeaaii?eyoiuo
i?aaiecaoeeiiii- oaoie/aneeo oneiaee aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.
?oeiaiaeeoaeue, caieiathuee ia “ ?aoaoea” iiea 1.9 aeaaiia
aieiaiea oaeaeyao ethaeyi, nicaeaieth eieeaeoeaa e aeaaii?eyoiiai
ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa a iai, eiioi?oiie,
ae?oaeaethaiie aoiinoa?u, n/eoay, /oi n iiiiuueth yoiai iiaeii
aeinoe/ue ?acoeueoaoia aeaaea i?e ionoonoaee aieiaiey e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneei oneiaeyi. Ca/anooth oaeie iiaeoiae aiana
ia yaeyaony i?eciaeii iaeiiaieinoe, iineieueeo ai iiiaeo aeaeao
aeayoaeueiinoe, iniaaiii a oai?/aneeo eieeaeoeaao, iniiaa oniaoa
ninoieo eiaiii a yoii. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, caieiathuee iiea 9.1,
iaiai?io, iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyao i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneie
noi?iia aeaea, ia ia?auay aieiaiey ia ethaeae e eieeaeoea a
oeaeii. E caeanue a iniiaa iiaoo eaaeaoue ?aaeueiua i?ioeannu,
aaea ?ieue acaeiiioiioaiee ?aaioieeia e eo eieeaeoeaiuo
aeaenoaee n?aaieoaeueii ia aaeeea, eae, iai?eia?, ia iieiinoueth
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaao. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue n iiey 5.5
i?eia?ii ii?iaio aeaeeo naie “i?eaycaiiinoe” iaaeaeo ethaeueie e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeie oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa; ii oaa?aei
noieo ia iiaao, oioy e ia “oaaoaao caacae n iaaa”.
?oeiaiaeeoaeue, /uee iiceoeee oa?aeoa?ecothony aaeeaie 9.9,
nicaeaao ia i?inoi eieeaeoea , a eiiaiaeo aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia,
niiniaiuo ia ethaua aeaea. ?aaioa caeanue no?ieony oae,
/oiau nio?oaeieee

– 28 –

aeaeaee a iae aiciiaeiinoe naii?aaeecaoeee e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey
nianoaaiiie cia/eiinoe. Iie niaianoii ii?aaeaeytho oeaee naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe e niaianoii nicaeatho aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey
eo ?aaeecaoeee.

Ii iiaieth aia?eeaioea O?aiea Oeaeea?a, noeeue oi?aaeaiey ai
iiiaii caaeneo io neooaoeee, iioiio, iineieueeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeue,
eniiaaaeothuee ii?aaeae?iiue noeeue, eciaieoue naay, eae i?aaeei,
ia iiaeao, aai ioaeii, a caaeneiinoe io noiyuae caaea/e,
iiiauaoue a oneiaey, aaea ii i?iyaeo naay iaeeo/oei ia?acii. Ia
aai iiaaaeaiea aeeytho 3 oaeoi?a :

1. Ioiioaiea iaaeaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeai e /eaiaie eieeaeoeaa.
Iiae?acoiaaatho eiyeueiinoue, i?iyaeyaioth iiae/ei?iiuie, eo
aeiaa?ea e naiaio ?oeiaiaeeoaeth e i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue ee/iinoe
?oeiaiaeeoaey aeey eniieieoaeae.

2. No?oeoo?a caaea/e. Iiae?acoiaaaao i?eau/iinoue caaea/e,
/?oeinoue a? oi?ioee?iaee no?oeoo?ecaoeee, a ia ?anieua/aoinoue e
aanno?oeoo?iinoue.

3. Aeieaeiinoiua iieiiii/ey. Yoi – iau?i caeiiiie aeanoe,
naycaiiue n aeieaeiinoueth ?oeiaiaeeoaey, eioi?ay iicaieyao aio
eniieueciaaoue aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, a oaeaea o?iaaiue iiaeaea?aeee,
eioi?ue ieacuaaao ?oeiaiaeeoaeth oi?iaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey.

Eiaaea caaea/e /?oei noi?ioee?iaaiu, aeieaeiinoiua iieiiii/ey
aeinoaoi/iu, a ioiioaiey n iiae/ei?iiuie aeaaii?eyoiu, ia
iineaaeieo eaaei aicaeaenoaiaaoue ; a i?ioeaiiieiaeiie neooaoeee
?oeiaiaeeoaeth, ii iiaieth Oeaeea?a, eo/oa nin?aaeioi/eony ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo i?iaeaiao, ioiaeaeioa aii?inu nicaeaiey
eieeaeoeaa e iaeaaeeaaiey /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee ia aoi?ie ieai.
Yoi iaania/eaaao aaeeinoai oeaeae, iia?aoeaiia i?eiyoea e
?aaeecaoeeth ?aoaiee, iaae?aeiue eiio?ieue. A aeaiiie neooaoeee
ia ioaeii o?aoeoue a?aiy ia iaeaaeeaaiea ioiioaiee, a
nio?oaeieeai a oneiaeyo /?oei noi?ioee?iaaiiuo ianeiaeiuo caaea/
aeey auiieiaiey ?aaiou aeinoaoi/ii i?inouo oeacaiee, iiyoiio
iaeiia?aiaiii ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiaeao i?eaea?aeeaaoueny aaoi?eoa?iiai
noeey, ia caauaay, iaeiaei, /oi e?aeia aeeeoaoi?noai e oe?aiey –
aeaeaei ia iaeii e oi aea. Ia?aia ethaee iiaoo i?eiyoue n
iiieiaieai, aeiaa?yy oaoo ; i?ioea aoi?iai ia caeiiiii iniiaaiee
aiciooeoueny e ioeacaoueny n iei nio?oaeie/aoue aiiaua.

Noeeue oi?aaeaiey, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia oe?aieaiea eieeaeoeaa e
iiaeaea?aeaiea /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee, iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyu a
oia?aiii aeaaii?eyoiuo aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaey neooaoeeyo, eiaaea o
iaai iao aeinoaoi/iie aeanoe, /oiau iaania/eoue iaiaoiaeeiue
o?iaaiue nio?oaeie/anoaa iiae/ei?iiuo. Ii anee acaeiiioiioaiey

– 29 –

oi?ioea, ethaee a iniiaiii neeiiiu aeaeaoue oi, /oi io ieo
o?aaoaony, iniaaiii eiaaea ei iauynieoue, aeey /aai yoi iaaei.

Niauaiea aeoeaioa a yoeo oneiaeyo ia i?aaiecaoeeiiioth noi?iio
aeaea iiaeao aucaaoue eiioeeeo, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai e aac
oiai neaaia aeeyiea ?oeiaiaeeoaey ia iiae/ei?iiuo oiaae?o au?
aieueoa ; i?eaioaoeey aea ia niei/aiea eieeaeoeaa e iaeaaeeaaiea
/aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee, iaiai?io, iiauneo aeeyiea ?oeiaiaeeoaey
ia iiae/ei?iiuo.

Ae?oaoth iiaeaeue, iienuaathuoth caaeneiinoue noeey ?oeiaiaenoaa
io neooaoeee, i?aaeeiaeeee O. Ieo/ae e ?. Oaon, iacaaa a?
“Iooue – oeaeue”. Ii eo iiaieth, iiae/ei?iiua aoaeoo no?aieoueny
e aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae oe?iu, anee yoi naycaii n eo ee/iie
auaiaeie. Caeanue iniiaiay caaea/a ?oeiaiaenoaa ninoieo a oii,
/oi eioi?ie?iaaoue iiae/ei?iiuo i oao aeaaao, eioi?ua eo
iaeeaeatho a neo/aa oi?ioae ?aaiou, ono?aieoue iiiaoe, ieacaoue
iiaeaea?aeeo, aeaoue iaiaoiaeeiue niaao, iai?aaeoue aeaenoaey a
ioaeioth noi?iio. Eiia/ii, i?e yoii ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai
iaauaoue oieueei oi, /oi nai niiaeao ?aaeueii naeaeaoue, eia/a
ana noeioeu e ?aaioa auno?i en/acioo.

Iiaeaeue Ieo/aea e Oaona aeeth/aao a naay /aou?a noeey
?oeiaiaenoaa, eniieueciaaiea eioi?uo ii?aaeaeythony neooaoeeae,
i?aaeii/oaiey, ee/iuie ea/anoaaie iiae/ei?iiuo, noaiaiueth eo aa?u
a naie neeu e aiciiaeiinoueth aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia neooaoeeth.

Anee o nio?oaeieeia aieueoay iio?aaiinoue a naiioaaaeaiee e
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e eieeaeoeao, oi iaeaieaa iiae/ei?iiuie
n/eoaao-ny “noeeue iiaeaea?aeee”, aiaeiae/iue noeeth,
i?eaioe?iaaiiiio ia iaeaaeeaaiee /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee. Eiaaea
nio?oaeieee no?a-iyony e aaoiiiiee e naiiau?aaeaieth, eo/oa, eae
n/eoatho aaoi?u, eniieueciaaoue oae iacuaaaiue “eino?oiaioaeueiue”
noeeue, noiaeiue n i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia nicaeaiea
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo oneiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. Iauyniyaony yoi
no?aieaiea iinei?aa auiieieoue caaeaiea, a iiyoiio iie
i?aaeii/eoatho iieo/aoue /?oeea oeacaiey, eiaoue iaiaoiaeeiua
oneiaey aeey ?aaiou, iniaaiii a oii neo/aa, eiaaea nea ieo ia
caaeneo.

Oai aaea iiae/ei?iiua no?aiyony e aunieei ?acoeueoaoai e
oaa?aiu, /oi niiaoo eo aeinoe/ue, i?eiaiyaony noeeue,
i?eaioe?iaaiiue “ia aeinoeaeaiea”. Ia?aae nio?oaeieeaie noaaeony
iineeueiay caaea/a e iaeeaeaaony, /oi iie naie, aac
i?eioaeaeaiey, aoaeoo ii aiciiaeiinoe no?aieony e a? ?aoaieth, a
?oeiaiaeeoaeth inoaiaony eeoue ?ane?uaaoue eo niiniaiinoe.

Noeeue ?oeiaiaenoaa, i?eaioe?iaaiiue ia o/anoea iiae/ei?iiuo a
i?eiyoee ?aoaiee, ii iunee Ieo/aea e Oaona aieueoa
anaai

– 30 –

niioaaonoaoao neooaoeee, eiaaea oa no?aiyony ?aaeeciaaoue naay
a oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?e yoii oe?iei
aeaeeony n ieie eioi?iaoeeae, eniieuecoao eo eaeae e
i?aaeeiaeaiey a i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

A iaiaeiicia/iuo neooaoeeyo, eae n/eoatho aaoi?u, eo/oa
eniieueciaaoue “eino?oiaioaeueiue” noeeue, iineieueeo
?oeiaiaeeoaeue “naa?oo” eo/oa aeaeeo neooaoeeth, e aai oeacaiey
niiaoo neoaeeoue oi?ioei i?eaioe?ii aeey iiae/ei?iiuo ; iaeiaei n
oeacaieyie iaeuecy ia?aaa?ueaaoue, /oiau iiae/ei?iiua ia
aini?eiyee eo eae /?acia?iue eiio?ieue.

A ssiiiee ?acee/atho noeee : iiaaoi?nei – aiaeeoe/aneee,
iiaaoi?nei – eiooeoeaiue, eiina?aaoeaii-aiaeeoe/aneee,
eiina?aa-oeaii-eiooeoeaiue.

Iioeiaeueiui yaeyaony iiaaoi?nei-eiooeoeaiue, o.e. a iai caeiaeaii
i?aaeaiiinoue i?aaiecaoeee, yia?ae/iinoue e iiaaoi?noai, /ooeinoue
e iiaie eioi?iaoeee, auno?ia i?eiyoea ?aoaiee, /aoeinoue a
oi?ioee?iaaiee oeaeae, oa?ieiinoue e iaoaea/ai, aioiaiinoue
o/eouaaoue iiaiea ae?oaeo. Ae?oaea ioee/athony oieueei noaiaiueth
i?eaeeaeaiiinoe e iaio.

Iaeiaei, eniieuecoy ethaie ec noeeae, iaiaaeaea? a iniiaa
caieiaaony ?ac?aoaieai eiioeeeoia, eioi?ue yaeyaony nooueth anaai
aeeaiai.

Ii Ianeiio “ …eiioeeeo – yoi ionoonoaea niaeaney iaaeaeo
aeaoiy eee aieaa noi?iiaie, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eiie?aoiuie
eeoeaie eee a?oiiaie…” *

“… Iiae eiioeeeoii iiieiaaony noieeiiaaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeii
iai?aaeaiiuo oaiaeaioeee a ineoeea ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea, a
oaeaea ai acaeiiioiioaieyo ethaeae, oi?iaeueiuo eee iaoi?iaeueiuo
iauaaeeiaiee, iaoneiaeaiiia ?acee/eai acaeyaeia, iiceoeee,
eioa?ania ii ?aciui i?iaeaiai… ” **

Noi?iiu iaoiaeyony a eiioeeeoa, anee aeaenoaey iaeiie ec ieo
ieacuaatho io?eoeaoaeueiia aieiaiea ia ?acoeueoao aeaenoaey
ae?oaie. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiii neo/aa eiaao ianoi neooaoeey
nio?oaeie/anoaa ; anee aea aeeyiey aiiaua iao, noi?iiu n/eoathony
iacaaeneiuie.

Nia?aiaiiay oi/ea c?aiey ninoieo a oii, /oi iaeioi?ua
eiioeeeou aeiionoeiu e aeaeaoaeueiu, iineieueeo iiiiaatho auyaeoue
iaaeaaii?eyoiua i?ioeannu e yaeaiey a aeecie i?aaiecaoeee, ia
anaaaea caiaoiua n ia?aiai acaeyaea, ?aciiia?acea iiceoeee,
oi/ae

(*) – Ianeii, Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa, I., 1992 a., no?. 517, aac.
1

(**) – Aaniei A. ?., Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa I., 1996 a., no?. 386,
aac. 2

– 31 –

c?aiey ia oa eee eiua niauoey, iieo/eoue aeiiieieoaeueioth
eioi?iaoeeth, /oi a oeaeii iaeaa/aao i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey.

A iniiaa eiioeeeoia /aua anaai eaaeao ?aciua iiceoeee a
ioiioaiee eaeie oi i?iaeaiu, oeaeae e n?aaenoa eo aeinoeaeaiey ;
aeaeaiee e aiciiaeiinoae eo oaeiaeaoai?eoue, a oaeaea ?acee/iiai
?iaea eioa?anu e o. i.

“…Nouanoaotho /aou?a iniiaiuo oeia eiioeeeoa :
aioo?eee/iinoiue, iaaeee/iinoiue eiioeeeo, eiioeeeo iaaeaeo
ee/iinoueth e a?oiiie e iaaea?oiiiaie eiioeeeo…” *

Aioo?eee/iinoiua eiioeeeou aicieeatho a nayce n oaeeie
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, eae iaiaoiaeeiinoue auai?a iaaeaeo
acaeiieneeth/athueie aa?eaioaie aeaenoaee, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo a
iaeeiaeiaie ia?a aeaeaoaeai; ianiaiaaeaiea aiaoieo o?aaiaaiee e
aioo?aiiae iiceoeee, iaiaeiicia/iinoue aini?eyoey neooaoeee,
iniaaiii i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeoeaii aeaenoaiaaoue a iae ;
iaaiciiaeiinoue ?aaeeciaaoue naay a ?aaioa e iiyoiio
iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue ath. *aua eiioeeeou naycaiu eeai n “auai?ii
a oneiaeyo eciaeeey” e “auai?ii iaeiaiueoaai cea”; eeai n
ia?aa?oceaie, caauoaiiuie o?aaiaaieyie, iaoaeiaeao-ai?eoaeueiui
aiciaa?aaeaeaieai.

Iaaeee/iinoiua eiioeeeou a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ii?iaeaeathony
noieeiiaaieai iaoa?eaeueiuo eioa?ania ioaeaeueiuo noauaeoia, oioy
aiaoiea i?iyaeythony eae ianiaiaaeaiea oa?aeoa?ia, ee/iuo
acaeyaeia, ii?aeueiuo oeaiiinoae.

Eiioeeeou iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e a?oiiie a iniiaiii iaoneiaeaiu
i?ioeainoiyieai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo e eieeaeoeaiuo ii?i iiaaaeaiey.
Iaaea?oiiiaua eiioeeeou ii?iaeaeathony iau/ii ai?ueaie ca ?ano?nu
eee noa?u aeeyiey.

N oi/ee c?aiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo o?iaiae eiioeeeou iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia ai?eciioaeueiua e aa?oeeaeueiua. E ia?aui
ioiinyony, iai?eia?, eiioeeeou iaaeaeo oi?iaeueiui e iaoi?iaeueiui
eieeaeoeaii e o.i.; ei aoi?ui – eiioeeeou iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
o?iaiyie ea?a?oee. Oaniay acaeiinaycue e ia?aieaoaiea
aioo?eoe?iaiiuo ioiioaiee i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi iaeioi?ua
eiioeeeou iiaoo auoue niaoaiiuie, aeeth/athueie a naay e oa e
ae?oaea yeaiaiou.

A oi aea a?aiy i?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi aieueoeinoai eiioeeeoia
(aei 70-80%) yaeythony aa?oeeaeueiuie. Aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iie iaeaieaa
o?oaeiu e iai?eyoiu, oae eae ethaua eo aeaenoaey, iacaaeneii
io oiai, eiatho iie ioiioaiea e eiioeeeoo, eee iao,

(*) – Ianeii, Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa, I., 1992 a., no?. 518, aac.
2

– 32 –

aoaeoo ?anniao?eaaoueny /a?ac aai i?ecio.

“…I?e/eiaie eiioeeeoa yaeythony ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia,
eioi?ua ioaeii aeaeeoue, acaeiicaaeneiinoue caaeaiee, ?acee/ey a
oeaeyo, ?acee/ey a i?aaenoaaeaieyo e oeaiiinoyo, ?acee/ey a
iaia?a iiaaaeaiey, a o?iaia ia?aciaaiey, ieioea eiiioieeaoeee…”
*

?ano?nu anaaaea ia?aie/aiu, iiyoiio oi?aaeythuea aeieaeiu eo
?ani?aaeaeyoue oae /oiau n iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoueth
aeinoeaiooue aeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia, ecaaaeaoue aiciiaeiuo
?aciiaeanee.

Aoi?ay i?e/eia iiaeao aicieeiooue ia ethaii i?aaei?eyoee, anee
i?e ?aoaiee ii?aaeaeaiiie caaea/e anoue caaeneiinoue io ae?oaiai
nio?oaeieea.

?acee/ey a oeaeyo i?ienoiaeyo iioiio, /oi iiae?acaeaeaiey
oe?iu naie ii?aaeaeytho naie oeaee e oaeaeytho ei aieueoaa
aieiaiea.

?acee/ey a i?aaenoaaeaieyo e oeaiiinoyo caaenyo io aeaeaiey
aeinoeaeaiey oeaee. Iai?eia?, iiae/eiaiiua n/eoatho, /oi anaaaea
eiatho i?aai auneacaoue nianoaaiiia iiaiea, oioy ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
iieaaaao, /oi iiae/eiaiiue iiaeao au?aaeaoue aai eiaaea
ni?aoeaatho, e iaoeinieoaeueii auiieiyoue o?aaiaaiey.

?acee/ey a iaia?a iiaaaeaiey e aeeciaiiii iiuoa oaaee/eaatho
aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey eiioeeeoa. Aa?anneaiua ee/iinoe anaaaea
nicaeatho aeaaii?eyoioth aoiinoa?o aeey eiioeeeoa.

Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua eiiioieeaoeee – yoi ieioay ia?aaea/a
eioi?iaoeee, iaoi/iua oi?ioee?iaee, iaei??aeoiia iienaiea
aeieaeiinoiuo iaycaiiinoae.

Iiaeaeue eiioeeeoa eae i?ioeanna.

Oi?aaeai/aneay neooaoeey

Enoi/iee eiioeeeoa

Aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?anoaiey eiioeeeoa

?aaeoeey ia neooaoeeth
Eiioeeeoa ia

i?ienoiaeeo

Eiioeeeo i?ienoiaeeo

Oi?aaeaiea eiioeeeoii

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua e aeenooieoeeiiaeueiua

iineaaenoaey

(*) – Ianeii, Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa, I., 1992 a., no?. 520, aac.
2

– 33 –

Aeenooieoeeiiaeueiua iineaaenoaey eiioeeeoa, o.a. oneiaey,
eioi?ua iaoatho aeinoeaeaieth oeaeae.

“…1. Iaoaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue, ieioia ninoiyiea aeooa, ?ino
oaeo/anoe eaae?ia, nieaeaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

2. Iaiueoay noaiaiue nio?oaeie/anoaa a aoaeouai.

3.Neeueiay i?aaeaiiinoue naiae a?oiia e aieueoa iai?iaeoeoeaiie
eiieo?aioeee n ae?oaeie a?oiiaie i?aaiecaoeee.

4. I?aaenoaaeaiea i ae?oaie noi?iia eae i “ a?aaa”… *

5. Nai?a/eaaiea acaeiiaeaenoaey e iauaiey iaaeaeo
eiioeee-oothueie noi?iiaie.

6. Oaaee/aiea a?aaeaeaaiinoe iaaeaeo eiioeeeoothueie noi?iiaie ii
ia?a oiaiueoaiey acaeiiaeaenoaey e iauaiey.

7. Niauaiea aeoeaioa : i?eaeaiea aieueoaai cia/aiey iiaaaea a
eiioeeeoa, /ai ?aoaieth ?aaeueiie i?iaeaiu…”

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua iineaaenoaey eiioeeeoa , (eiioeeeo oniaoii
?ac?aoai) :

– oeo/oaii iiieiaiea i?iaeaiu ;

– noi?iiu aoaeoo eo/oa ?aniieiaeaiu e nio?oaeie/anoao;

– ana o/anoieee oaeiaeaoai?aiu ?aoaieai;

– oiaiueoaiea neiae?iia iiei?iinoe;

– aiciiaeiinoue i?i?aaioaoue niioonoaothuea i?iaeaiu.

Anee eiioeeeo i?ienoiaeeo, oi i?eiaiyaony iaeia ec iyoe iiaeaeae
oi?aaeaiey.

I iiaeaeue – ni?aaiiaaoaeueiay.

Eaaeaeay noi?iia i?aneaaeoao nianoaaiiua eioa?anu. I/aiue aaaeia
niiniaiinoue nii?eoue, aeaaeoue aaoi?eoaoii, yeiiiie/aneeie
naieoeeyie. Eniieuecoaony a yeno?aiiuo neo/ayo, eiaaea ii aaaeiui
i?iaeaiai iaaei i?eieiaoue aaaeiua ?aoaiey.

II iiaeaeue – ie?ioai?/aneay.

Ia?aoiay ni?aaiiaaoaeueiie, aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoue,
naii-iiaea?oaiaaiea, i?eiyoea oi/ee c?aiey ae?oaiai /aeiaaea.
Eniieuecoaony aeey ?aoaiey i/aiue aaaeiuo aeey naay aii?inia a
aoaeouai, eiaaea aa?iiiey a ioiioaieyo aaaeiaa, iaaeaee eiioeeeo,
eiaaea iaaei iiii/ue iiae/eiaiiui ?acaeoue oi?aaeai/aneea
niiniaiinoe, iicaieyy ei o/eoueny ia naieo ioeaeao.

(*) – Ianeii, Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa, I., 1992 a., no?. 523, aac.
3

– 34 –

III iiaeaeue – ecaaaathuay.

Aeeieiiaoe/aneee ooiae a noi?iio io i?iaeaiu, ioeeaaeuaaiea aei
eo/oeo

a?aiai. Eniieuecoaony, eiaaea aii?in ia i/aiue aaaeai, eiaaea
iao oainia oaeiaeaoai?aiey eioa?ania, a?aae io eiioeeeoa aieueoa,
/ai aai ionoonoaea, ethaeyi aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue inououe, niyoue
yiioeeiiaeueiia iai?yaeaiea, ae?oaea iiaoo ?aoeoue eiioeeeo aieaa
yooaeoeaii.

IV iiaeaeue – nio?oaeie/aneay.

Iiaeaeue icia/aao niaianoioth ?aaioo iaae i?iaeaiie n
i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noi?iiie, aeey oiai /oiau iaeoe oaeia ?aoaiea,
eioi?ia oaeiaeaoai?yei au eioa?anu iaieo. Eniieuecoaony, eiaaea
iaaei i?iaa?eoue enoeiiua iaaeiaa?ey ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaaei
ia?aneeeoue oyaeaeua /oanoaa, eioi?ua iaoatho iauaieth, ec-ca
aaaeiinoe eioa?ania iaaei iaeoe anaiauaiethuaa ?aoaiea.

V iiaeaeue – eiii?iienniay.

Caeanue eaeoo iaano?a/o aieueoa, /ai a ni?aaiiaaoaeueiie, ii
iaiueoa, /ai a ie?ioai?/aneie. Eniieuecoaony, eiaaea iaa noi?iiu
eiatho iaeeiaeiaoth neeo, /oiau aeinoe/ue auno?iai ?aoaiey iiae
aeaaeaieai a?aiaie, eiaaea oeaee eeoue oia?aiii aaaeiu.

Aei 1980 a. a iioeaaoeee oii? aeaeaee ia oi?aaeaiea
ethaeueie, ia oi?ie?iaaiea eieeaeoeaia, a n 1980 a. ?ane?uee
nenoaio ia?aie/aiee a naiii iaiaaeaea?a.

Ia?aie/aiey :

1.Iaoiaiea oi?aaeyoue niaie : ianiiniaiinoue a iieiie ia?a
eniieueciaaoue naia a?aiy, yia?aeth, iaoiaiea ni?aaeyoueny n
aeeno?annaie.

2. ?aciuoinoue ee/iuo oeaiiinoae. Ionoonoaea yniiai iiieiaiey
naieo ee/iuo oeaiiinoae e iaee/ea oeaiiinoae, ianiioaaonoaothueo
oneiaeyi nia?aiaiiie aeecie.

3. Niooiua ee/iua oeaee, iaee/ea oeaeae, i?ioeai?a/aueo
naaiaeiyoiae aeecie.

4. Inoaiiaeaiiia naii?acaeoea, ionoonoaea niiniaiinoe iicaa
aini?eieiaoue iiaua neooaoeee e aiciiaeiinoe.

5. Iaaeinoaoi/iinoue iaauea ?aoaoue i?iaeaiu, ionoonoaea
no?aoaaee, iaiaoiaeeiie a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee.

– 35 –

6. Ionoonoaea niiniaiinoae aaia?e?iaaoue aeinoaoi/ii iiiai iiauo
eaeae, iaoiaiea eniieueciaaoue /oaeea iiaua eaeae.

7. Iaoiaiea aeeyoue ia ethaeae, iaaeinoaoi/iay niiniaiinoue
iaania/eoue o/anoea e iiiiuue ni noi?iiu ie?oaeathueo eee
aeeyoue ia eo oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaiey.

8. Neaaua iaauee ?oeiaiaenoaa, ionoonoaea niiniaiinoae
aeiae-aaoueny io iiae/eiaiiuo ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou.

9. Iaoiaiea iao/aoue.

10. Ianiiniaiinoue niaeaenoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth e aunieie
yooaeoeaiinoe ?aai/eo a?oii.

11. Ieceay niiniaiinoue oi?ie?iaaoue eieeaeoea.

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