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AAAAeAIEA:

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy a ?innee nic?ae aeinoaoi/ii na?ueaciue aii?in:
eoi caeiao ianoi iuia ?aniaaeathueony e?oiiuo iiiiiieenoe/aneeo
i?aaei?eyoee, ioiinyueony eae e oyaeaeie, oae e e ae?oaei ia iaiaa
aaaeiui io?aneyi i?iiuoeaiiinoe ? Ioaao eaaeaony i?inoui oieueei ia
ia?aue acaeyae: caiieieoue inaiaiaeeaoaany i?ino?ainoai no?oeoo?aie,
aiiaue ia?aciaaaoeieny ca n/ao e?oiiuo aeiaeaiee a eco?iaeiaaiiua
?aniaaoeieny naycyie ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey. Ii ia naiii aeaea
ana ai?acaei neiaeiaa. Aeaiueae aeeaaeuaathony, a?aiy eaeao, a
?acoeueoao ?aaai ioeth. A aeaei ana a oii, /oi ?oeiaiaeeoaee
i?aaei?eyoee, ecaaeiaaiiua ianaiinoiyoaeueiie aeeciueth a no?aia, aaea
ieeoi ie ca /oi ia ioaa/aao, ieeae ia iiaoo iaeoe oo aeaeinoue a
i?eiyoee ?aoaiee, eioi?ie ei oae ia oaaoaao. Ainoaea?noaaiiua
i?aaei?eyoey a iaoae no?aia, e niaeaeaieth, iiea ia oiatho ?aaioaoue a
n?aaea ?acaeoey eiieo?aioeee, iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna,
ii?iaeecaoeee i?ioeannia oeaiiia?aciaaiey, iinoaiaiiiai inaiaiaeaeaiey
io oaiaeaioeee e oiaaeeo e o.ae. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii aeaoue naiaiaeo
aeey ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai aeciana. Iie iiaoo aeaoue ?innee
iaiaoiaeeioth ianuuaiiinoue ?uiea, oaiaeaioeeth e onoie/eainoe oeai,
n?aaeo eiieo?aioeee, eioi?ie oae ia oaaoaei e?oiiui
iiiiiieenoai-aeaaioai, ec-ca /aai no?aaeaei ea/anoai, a i?ioeann
aiaae?aiey iiauo oaoiieiaee anaaaea aue caoi?iiaeai. Ii /oiau ecaaaeaoue
eae iiaeii aieueoa ioeaie, eioi?ua iaecaaaeiu i?e ia?aciaaiee iiaiai
oa/aiey a yeiiiieea ?innee, nia/aea neaaeoao iio/eoueny ia aceaoao e
iaaeaieyo ae?oaeo no?ai a yoie iaeanoe e iiiyoue, eaeea aea oneiaey
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ?acaeoey iaeeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a iaoae no?aia.

Aeey ia/aea iaiiiai noaoenoeee. Aeoeaiue ?ino aeiee iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee a no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee caiaaeiuo no?ai ia/ae i?ien-

oiaeeoue n na?aaeeiu 70-o, ia/aea 90-o aiaeia. Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a
iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?aiao Caiaaea iaeua oe?iu ninoaaeytho 70-90% io
iauaai /enea i?aaei?eyoee. Aeey n?aaiaiey iiaeii acyoue, iai?eia?, NOA –
aaea a iaeeii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa caiyoi 53% anaai ianaeaiey,
ssiiieth – n aa 71,7% e no?aiu AN, aaea ia aiaeiae/iuo i?aaei?eyoeyo
o?oaeeony i?eia?ii iieiaeia ?aai-

oathuaai ianaeaiey. Oieueei yoe oeeo?u aiai?yo ia ia?iiiie aaae-

iinoe i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai aeciana aeey yeiiiieee yoeo no?ai.

A iieueco yooaeoeaiinoe yoeo oe?i aiai?eo oio oaeo, /oi ia 1(

cao?ao iie aiaae?ytho a 17?ac aieueoa iiaiaaaaeaiee e ?ac?aaioie, /ai
e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ua aeatho aeeciue eeoue 10% iiauo oaoiieiaee,
inoaeueiua 90% aiaae?ytho iaeua i?aaei?eyoey e

iacaaeneiua ecia?aoaoaee.

Iaeiiaoe, ?acaeoea iaeeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iaiaoiaeeii

oieueei iioiio, /oi iie aeatho aeeciue noa?ui e?oiiiianooaaiui

i?aaei?eyoeyi e a nithca n ieie iieo/atho cia/eoaeueioth auaiaeo

eae aeey naay, oae e aeey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee a oeaeii. Ia yoii

aiai?yo neaaeothuea oeeo?u: a NOA ia iaeue aecian i?eoiaeeony

34,9% /enoiai aeioiaea, a a ssiiiee 56,6% anae i?iaeoeoeee a ia?a-

aaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?iecaiaeyo i?aaei?eyoey iaeiai aec-

iana.

  NAIINOIssOAEUeIIA NOUANOAIAAIEA IAEIAI

AECIANA:

Aeey naiinoiyoaeueiiai aiaeeca iaeiai aeciana aaaeii iaeoe iaoiae
iiae?acaeaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee ia iaeeea e e?oiiua. Nouanoaoao iiiai
niiniaia. *anoi auaeaeytho iiiyoea iiiiiieee, a ana, /oi ia iiaeoiaeeo
iiae yoi ii?aaeaeaiea, ioiinyo e iaeeiio i?aaei-

?eieiaoaeuenoao. Iiieiay, /oi yoiai iaaeinoaoi/ii, n?aaieaatho

iai?iou n?aaenoa, iauaiu i?eauee e i?iaeaae. A ianoiyuaa aea a?aiy
i?aaei?eyoey eeanneoeoee?otho ii eiee/anoao caiyouo a ieo /aeiaae. E
iaeiio aeciano ioiinyo, eae i?aaeei, i?aaei?eyoey n /eneii caiyouo io 1
aei 500, aaea:

io 1 aei 20 – ?aianeaiiua;

io 20 aei 100 – iaeua;

io 100 aei 500 – n?aaeiea i?aaei?eyoey.

Ii /anoi, a caaeneiinoe io aaaeiinoe iaeiai aeciana a yeiiiieea
no?aiu, ii naiinoiyoaeueii ?acaeaeyaony ia ?acee/iua a?oiiu.

A Aa?iaiee, iai?eia?, nouanoaoao 4 eaoaai?ee:

io 20 aei 49;

io 50 aei 99;

io 100 aei199;

io 200 aei 499.

A Aa?iaiee, /oiau oe?io i?eciaee iaeie, aa aiaeiaie iai?io aeieaeai
ninoaaeyoue io 3,5 aei 11,5 iei.DM, a NOA – 3-12 iei.$.

Ii a ethaii neo/aa nenoaia a?aaeaoeee oe?i e eo ioianaiea e

?ac?yaeo iaeuo eee n?aaeieo yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeaiaoe/iui,

oai aieaa, /oi iaeui i?aaei?eyoeai auoue auaiaeiaa, oae eae aeey

iaai inouanoaeyaony i?aeoeea ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iin-

?aaenoaii eueaioiuo e?aaeeoia e ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeacia.

Yooaeoeaiinoue iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a Aa?iaiee ianeieueei auoa, /ai a
NOA e a ssiiiee. Caeanue ia aeieth 12,3% e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e 34%
caiyouo ia ieo ?aaioieeia i?eoiaeeony oieueei 52,6% iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeioiaea. E?iia oiai, 2/3 ?aai/eo iano nicaeaaony ca n/ao iaeeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iiyoiio /enei iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee ?anoao.

Iaeaieueoaa aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea iaeeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
ieacuaatho neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

– a ?acaeoee eio?ano?oeoo?u e n?aaenoa nayce i?iecioae nea/ie;

– iiauneeny iauaia?aciaaoaeueiue o?iaaiue ethaeae n iaeiia?a-

iaiiui iaeiieaieai iiuoa a e?oiiuo eiiiaieyo;

– oiaiueoaiea aaaa?eoia, noieiinoe e oi?iuaiea eniieueciaaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai;

– niinianoaiaaiea iaeuie oe?iaie ?aoaieth aii?ina aac?a-

aioeoeu;

– a nicaeaiee iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee aeiiieieoaeueiui noeioeii

ieacaeinue nie?auaiea ?aai/ae niaiu;

– aieueoay eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoue ca n/ao iaiueoeo ecaea?aeae,
iaoneiaeaiiuo ionoonoaeai eeoiaai ath?ie?aoe/aneiai aiia?aoa, nieaeaieai
iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia e iaiueoeie eieaaaieyie ca-

?aaioiie ieaou;

– ?anoe?aiea noa?u oneoa, aace?othuaeny ia iaeuo i?aaei?ey-

oeyo.

Ii ia?a ?acaeoey iaeeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia?acothony

?acee/iua oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee /anoiuo oe?i. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio

ecaanoiu o?e iniiaiua i?aaiaua oi?iu: aaeeiiee/iua, ia?oia?noaa e
ei?ii?aoeee.

Oe?ia, iaoiaeyuayny a aaeeiiee/iii aeaaeaiee iaeaieaa i?inoay oi?ia
aeey iaeeiai aeciana. Iau/ii aeey ioe?uoey oaeiai

i?aaei?eyoey aeinoaoi/ii eeoue iieo/eoue eeoeaiceth io ianoiuo

aeanoae e ca?aaeno?e?iaaoue oi?aiaia eiy. Aeaeiaua ia?oia?noaa

i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?aaiecaoeeth ec aeaoo e aieaa eeoe, iaaeaeo ei-

oi?uie caeeth/aaony eiio?aeo ia niaianoiia aeaaeaiea i?aaei?ey-

oeai. Ia?oia?noaa iiaoo auoue iieiuie e ia?aie/aiiuie. O?aoee

oei – ei?ii?aoeee. Yoi i?aaiecaoeeiiiay oi?ia iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?ia aeey
e?oiiiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana, oioy ec iauaai /enea anao ei?ii?aoeee,
iai?eia? a NOA, 98% – iaaieueoea naiaeiua oe?iu. E oioy oi?iaeueii
oi?aaeaiea ei?ii?aoeeae aeieaeii auoue

ioaeaeaii io aa aeaaeaiey, ia?aaeei auaatho neo/ae, eiaaea ei?ii-

?aoeeae aeaaeaao e ?oeiaiaeeo iaeei nianoaaiiee i?e iiiiue iiaen-

oaaiuo eeoe, eioi?ua ?aaeueii ia aeeaaeuaatho a iaa n?aaenoaa e ia

i?eieiatho o/anoey a oi?aaeaiea ath.

Ii, eiia/ii, iaeua i?aaei?eyoey eae aicieeatho, oae e ?aniaaeathony
ii iiiaei i?e/eiai. Iai?eia?, a Aa?iaiee a1990 aiaeo aieaa 14500
i?aaei?eyoee ec /enea iaeuo iioa?iaee e?ao, i?e/ai 40% ec ieo
i?inouanoaiaaee ia aieaa 5 eao. Aeiey aaie?ioia n?aaee i?aaei?eyoee
iaeiai aeciana anaaaea auoa, eai, eaey ia ?ene, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue
?aoaao neiaeioth i?iaeaio eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoe auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee. Aaaeue ia/aeueiay noieiinoue noaaeo iniiaaoaeae oe?iu a
iaauaiaeiia iieiaeaiea ii n?aaiaieth n aeaenoaothuae oe?iie. Iiae/eo
ioaeii a naiii ia/aea i?iaiaeeoue naith ?aaioo i?e aieaa aunieeo
ecaea?aeeao, /ai i?aaei?eieiaoaeth aeaenoaothuae oe?iu. Iiyoiio
ia/eiathuay oe?ia anaaaea eiaao aieaa aunieoth naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeaieaa /anoua i?e/eiu aaie?ionoaa iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee –
yoi iaoaea/e a noa?a nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea iaaeinoaoi/iay
eiiiaoaioiinoue e ionoonoaea iiuoa.

Ii ana aea, ianiio?y ie ia /oi, eiee/anoai aiiaue nicaeaaaaiuo oe?i
i?aainoiaeeo /enei eeeaeaee?iaaiiuo, /oi aiai?eo ia aaniethoiii
oaaee/aiee /enea i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai e n?aaeiaai

aeciana a yeiiiieea.

I?e/ai aeinoaoi/ii aaaeii oi, /oi /anoi iaeia i?aaei?eyoea

iaaie?i/eaaaony ia iieiinoueth, a eeoue aueoiaaony aieaa e?oiiie

oe?iie eee naii noaiiaeony oaeiaie.

Ionthaea iiaeii aiai?eoue i o?ao iiaeaeyo ?acaeoey iaeeiai

i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa:

– eiina?aaoeey ianooaaia aeayoaeueiinoe n iineaaeothuei nio-?aiaieai
noaoon-eai;

– iaaeeaiiia ?anoe?aiea aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe;

– auno?ia ?acaeoea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee e i?aa?auaiea eo a n?aaeiea, a
caoai e a e?oiiua eiiiaiee.

Ii aeaiiui ii?ina aeaaeaeueoeaa iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a Aa?iaiee 55% ia
ieaie?otho ?anoe?aiea, 35% ?ac?aaaouaatho ieaiu iaaeeai-

iiai onoie/eaiai ?inoa, e oieueei 10% – auno?iai ?acaeoey ca n/ao
i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie i?iaeoeoeee eee anooieaiey ia iiaua ?uiee, /oi
aiai?eo i no?aieaiee e nio?aiaieth naiaai noaoon-eai, aeaeeii
oaeiaeaoai?ythuaai naieo aeaaeaeueoeaa.

A i?aaeuaeouae aeaaa iu aeaeei, /oi a 80-o aiaeao iaicia/eeanue
oaiaeaioeey e oaaee/aieth /enea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a Aa?iaiee. Iiyoiio
i?aaiia?ii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi a yoe aiaeu, iaeiia?aiaiii n oe?aieaieai
iiceoeee aa?oooee iiiiiieenoe/aneiai eaieoaea (aeaiiia ooaa?aeaeaiea ie
o eiai ia aucuaaao niiiaiee) a yeiiiieea no?ai Caiaaea iaiaoeeny
i?ioeann aic?anoaiey cia/aiey iaeeeo e n?aaeieo oe?i a ?yaea iaeanoae
eae iaoa?eaeueiie, oae e

iaiaoa?eaeueiie noa?u i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ioiineoaeueii ninoiyiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe Aa?iaiee, oioaeinue au i?eaanoe
neaaeothuea oeeo?u. Aeiey 10 aaaeoueo eiioea?iia a iauai i?iiuoeaiiii
iai?ioa ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 70-o aiaeia aei na?aaeeiu 80-o ia aic?anoaea,
a ii yenii?oo aeaaea ianeieueei nieaeaeanue. Iaeaieaa aea iaaeyaeiie
yoa oaiaeaioeey auea a NOA. Niaeanii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui n 1980 ii
1989 aiaea aeiey oe?i iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa oaaee/eeanue n 18%
aei37%.

A iauai, a 70-a – 80-a aiaeu nia/aea iaiaoeeanue, a caoai aua
i/aaeaeiae noaea i?iyaeyoueny oaiaeaioeey, i?e eioi?ie aeiey e?oiiaeoeo
eiiiaiee a auionea i?iaeoeoeee, eiaanoeoeeyo, iai?ioa

e ae?oaeo iieacaoaeyo iiiaeo io?aneae inoaaaeanue noaaeeueiie eee
aeaaea ianeieueei nieaeaeanue. Onoaiiaeeinue naaeaine?iaaiiia

ninoiyiea iaaeaeo iaeeei e n?aaeiei aecianii. Yoio a?aiaiiue ia-

?eiae iiaeii n/eoaoue caacaeiui /anii iaeiai aeciana, iineieueeo aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ana aieaa aaaeiie noaiiaeony auno?ay, aeaeay,
eiiiaaoeeiiiay aaeaioaoeey aioo?aiiae n?aaeu e aiaoieo

acaeiinaycae oe?i e aic?anoathuae iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe oicyenoaai-

iie n?aaeu. I?aaei?eieiaoaee ana /aua iniciatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue

eniieueciaaoue ia oieueei i?aeiouanoaa niaoeeaeecaoeee, iniaoth ao-

iinoa?o oai?/anoaa e caeioa?aniaaiiinoe, o?aaeeoeeiiii oea?yuoth

a iaeuo oe?iao, ii e aiciiaeiinoe, eioi?ua ioe?uaathony i?e i?i-

ecaiaenoaaiiie eiiia?aoeee: yeiiiiey ia ianooaaao, niaianoiua

iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea ?ac?aaioee, ?acaeaeaiea ?enea.

Aieueoie iethn iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee ninoieo a oii, /oi iiiaea ec ieo
ieacaeenue aieaa i?eniiniaeaiiuie, /ai e?oiiua eiiiaiee, e oneiaeyi
?acaeoey a e?eceniua ia?eiaeu aeey yeiiiiee Caiaaea. E?oiiua oe?iu ia
noieue /oanoaeoaeueii e auno?i ?aaae?otho ia eaeea-eeai eieaaaiey eee
eciaiaiey a yeiiiieea. Ia neo/aeii a iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoa Aa?iaiee,
NOA e iiiaeo ae?oaeo ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai iiiiuue iaeeiio
aeciano caieiaao iniaia ianoi. Iaeeea i?aaei?eyoey noaee naiaia?aciui
eiaeeeaoi?ii iauaai ninoiyiey aeae a yeiiiieea. Iaaieueoea i?aaei?eyoey
iaeaieaa /ooei ?aaae?otho ia eciaiaiea oicyenoaaiiie eiiuthieoo?u,
iaaeaiea eee iiauoaiea ii?iu i?eauee a io?aneyo yeiiiieee. Aieia
?aci?aiee eee ia?aciaaiey iiauo eiiiaiee

ca?iaeaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai a iaiiiiiieece?iaaiiii naeoi?a e eeoue
iicaeiaa, iaa?aa neeo, aeieaouaaaony aei aieaa e?oiiuo oe?i, io?aaeaynue
ia eo aeayoaeueiinoe.

A oneiaeyo oooaeoaiey aini?iecaiaenoaa e?oiiua eiiiaiee

iaoiaeyo “ioaeooeio” a aeaea yenii?oa eaieoaea. Iaeeea oe?iu, eae
i?aaeei, ia eiatho oaeie aiciiaeiinoe.

Yoi auioaeaeaao eo aeey auaeeaaiey eioaineaii ia?aniao?eaaoue naith
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e nauoiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue. Oa ec ieo, eoi a
ianoaiiaea 70-o ia/aea 80-o aiaeia noiaee i?eniiniaeoueny – auaeeee,
ae?oaea – i?inoi ?aci?eeenue. Iaeiaei, a naith i/a?aaeue, ?acaeoea iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee i?e i?aiaeieaiee yoiai e?ecena iineoaeeei aaaeiui
n?aaenoaii icaei?iaeaiey yeiiiieee. E iauyniyaony yoi i?aaeaea anaai

oie ?ieueth e ooieoeeyie, eioi?ua iaeue aecian auiieiyao.

Ai-ia?auo, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ii iaania/eaaao iaiaoiaeeioth
iiaeeueiinoue a oneiaeyo ?uiea, nicaeaao aeoaieoth niaoeeaeecaoeeth e
eiiia?aoeeth, aac eioi?uo iaiuneeia aai aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue.
Ai-aoi?uo, ii niiniaai ia oieueei auno?i caiieiyoue ieoe, ia?acothueany
a iio?aaeoaeueneie noa?a, ii e n?aaieoaeueii auno?i ieoiaoueny.
A-o?aoueeo, – nicaeaaaoue aoiinoa?o eiieo?aioeee.

A-/aoaa?ouo (e yoi, iiaeaeoe, naiia aeaaiia), ii nicaeaao oo n?aaeo e
aeoo i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, aac eioi?uo ?uii/iay yeiiiieea iaaiciiaeia.

 ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee ii io?aneyi

 i?iiuoeaiiinoe e eiee/anoao ?aaioathueo a NOA a %

  iaiaa iaiaa
iaiaa iaiaa

  25 /ae.    210 /ae.    
220 /ae.   250 /ae.

Aeiauaathuay   52,4   67,1  
80,5   91,5

i?iiuoeaiiinoue

Ia?a?aaaouaathuay   37,0   52,5   67,5  
82,6

i?iiuoeaiiinoue

Iioiaay   50,3   71,5  
86,9   96,4

oi?aiaey

?icie/iay   64,9   81,5  
91,1   97,2

oi?aiaey

No?ieoaeuenoai   64,5   81,7  
91,8   97,6

Eiiia?/aneea 76,4 87,1
93,6 97,5

oneoae

A n?aaeiai   66,7   81,2  
89,3   96,3

Ec i?eaaaeaiiie oaaeeoeu aaniethoii ynii, /oi iaeue aecian ai anao
/anoiuo naeoi?ao yeiiiieee NOA aeiieie?oao ii eiee/anoao nicaeaiiuo ei
?aai/eo iano. Ioiineoaeueiay aea cia/eiinoue iaeeeo oe?i, cia/eoaeueii
?acee/aaony iaaeaeo i?ioeeyie yoeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaeeea e n?aaeiea i?aaei?eyoey ea?atho caiaoioth ?ieue a ca-

iyoinoe, i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiuo oiaa?ia, enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e

iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ac?aaioeao.

I oii, /oi iaeua i?aaei?eyoey niiniaiu a aieueoeo ianooaaao
iaania/eaaoue ?aaioie iacaiyoua o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu aiai?eo oi, /oi a
NOA a iaeeeo oe?iao a 1990 aiaeo auei nin?aaeioi/aii40%, a a Aa?iaiee
49% anae ?aai/ae neeu. A yoii caeeth/aaony nioeeaeueiay ?ieue
i?aaei?eyoee iaeeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi aieueoay /anoue iao/iiai iioaioeeaea

nin?aaeioi/aia ia e?oiiuo eiiiaieyo, iaeua e n?aaeiea oe?iu ii

oe?ieiio e?oao i?iaeoeoeee /aua ia/eiatho eiiia?oeeaeecaoeeth iiauo
oiaa?ia. Enneaaeiaaiea 500 cia/eoaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee e
ecia?aoaiee, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeiaai
aeaaaeoeaoeeaoey a Aa?iaiee e NOA, iaia?oaeeei aaaeioth ?ieue
iaaieueoeo oe?i aeaaea a aiieiuaiee a aeeciue nouanoaaiiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee.

 Aeiey oaoiieiae/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee a NOA e Aa?iaiee

  a 80-o aiaeao a %

 iaeeea     n?aaeiea   e?oiiua

 oe?iu    oe?iu    oe?iu

NOA   35%   15%   50%

Aa?iaiey   26%   11%   63%

Oniao iaeiai aeciana a yoie iaeanoe iiaeii iauynieoue nea-

aeothueie i?e/eiaie. Oaeoaeaiea niaoeeaeecaoeee a iao/iuo ?ac?a-

aioeao i?eaaei e oiio, /oi ai iiiaeo neo/ayo iaaieueoea oe?iu

eaeoo ii aieaa i?inoiio eee ?eneiaaiiiio iooe, ?aaioatho a ia-

ia?niaeoeaiuo io?aneyo. Iaeeea oe?iu oaeaea ioioii aa?oony ca

inaiaiea i?eaeiaeueiuo iiaiaaaaeaiee, iineieueeo i?e auionea

i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai ecaeaeey nieaeaaony cia/aiea e?oiiuo eaai-

?aoi?ee n onoiyaoeieny iai?aaeaieyie enneaaeiaaiee.

E oiio aea iaeua oe?iu no?aiyony eae iiaeii nei?aa iaeaaeeoue ianniaia
i?iecaiaenoai. Oai naiui, cia/aiea ?ac?aaioie, i?iaiaeeiuo iaeeeie
i?aaei?eyoeyie aeinoaoi/ii aaaeii, i?aaeaea anaai n oi/ee c?aiey
?anoe?aiey ?uiea i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue
aeoeaii noeioee?oao i?ioeann

i?iecaiaenoaa n oeaeueth iaeaieaa auno?iai oaeiaeaoai?aiey (aiiaue
?iaeaeaiiiai) ni?ina, iioeae?oaiiai ?ac?aaioeaie, i?iaiaeeiuie oe?iaie
iaeiai e n?aaeiaai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Ioiioaiea iiaiaaaaeaiee e cao?aoai ia iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey e
?ac?aaioee iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a 3-4 ?aca auoa, /ai a e?oiiuo. Anee
i?ineaaeeoue iooue ecia?aoaiey, eniieueciaaiiiai e?oiiuie iiiiiieeyie,
oi ia?aaeei iii ieacuaaaony ?acoeueoaoii ?aaiou ioaeaeueiuo o/aiuo eee
iaeeeo oe?i. Iaeiaei iineaaeothuaa aiaae?aiea inouanoaeyaony eiiiaieyie,
iaeaaeathueie iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey yoiai oeiainiauie e iaoa?eaeueiuie
?ano?naie.

Iaiauay ana auoaneacaiiia, oioaeinue au ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi
iaeeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai aicaeaenoaoao ia no?oeoo?o ?uiea e
?anoe?aiea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee i?aaeaea anaai a ?a-

coeueoaoa eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa noauaeoia ?uiea, iiauoaiey eaa-

eeoeeaoeee e noaiaie i?eiauaiiinoe ana aieaa e aieaa oe?ieeo

neiaa ianaeaiey e nenoaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e aeaeiaiai aae-

ieieno?e?iaaiey.

?acaeoea niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?aoeee aiaeaeaao iaeeeo e n?aaeieo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a noa?o aeeyiey e?oiiuo iauaaeeiaiee.

Oaeoe/anee iie oa?ytho naith iacaaeneiinoue e i?aa?auathony a io-

aeaeueiua caaiuey aieaa e?oiiuo iiiiiieee, oioy ioeoeeaeueiay noa-

oenoeea o/eouaaao eo eae naiinoiyoaeueiua aaeeieoeu. E?oiiua

i?aaei?eyoey i?eaeaeatho oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iaeeea oe?iu,

i?iecaiaeyuea aeey ieo ioaeaeueiua aeaoaee e oceu. Aie?oa iiiiiieee,
iniaaiii a io?aneyo iaoeiino?iaiey, yeaeo?iiiie i?iiuo

eaiiinoe, a?oiie?othony iau/ii ii ianeieueei aeanyoeia ouny/

iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua iieuecothony oeiainiaie e oaoie/an-

eie iiiiuueth iiiiiieee. Aeey oicyaa iiiiiieenoe/aneeo iauaaeeia-

iee oaeaea iaeeea noaiiae?yae/eee oaeiaiu e auaiaeiu: iie iinoaa-

eytho naith i?iaeoeoeeth ii aeinoaoi/ii ieceei oeaiai. Eo i?iecaiaen-

oaaiiua, nioeeaeueiua e ae?oaea i?iaeaiu iaei caaioyo ?oeiaiaee-

oaeae iiiiiieee. A ia?eiaeu iaaeaaii?eyoiie eiiuthieoo?u e ae?o-

aeo ineiaeiaiee, iiiiiieee (oicyaaa) ?aoo nayce ni naieie iaeeeie
iinoaaueeaie, a?inay eo ia i?iecaie noaeueau. A iineaaeiaa

aeanyoeeaoea ai iiiaeo no?aiao oneeeeanue oaiaeaioeey e iauaaeeiaieth
iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoee ia iniiaa niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?aoeee

i?iecaiaenoaa, a e?oiiua io?aneaaua no?oeoo?u, eioi?ua nae/an

i?iecaiaeyo aieueoea iauaiu ?aciiia?aciie i?iaeoeoeee, a oii /enea
aunieiai oaoie/aneiai e oaoiieiae/aneiai o?iaiy, e aeiaieueii oniaoii
eiieo?e?otho ia ?uieao n e?oiiuie eiiiaieyie e ii-

iiiieeyie.

Aaaeiinoue iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee aua e a oii, /oi aaaey iaeanoi-

/aiioth eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao ca auaeeaaiea, iie auioaeaeaiu iinoi-

yiii ?acaeaaoueny e aaeaioe?iaaoueny e oaeouei oneiaeyi ?uiea,

aaaeue /oiau nouanoaiaaoue iaaei iieo/aoue n?aaenoaa e nouanoaiaaieth,
a cia/eo auoue eo/oa ae?oaeo, /oiau i?eaueue aeinoaaaeanue eiaiii ei.

Ianniaue auione i?iiuoeaiiuo ecaeaeee aeeeoaeueiiai iio?aa-

eaiey (aaoiiiaeeae, oieiaeeeueieeia, oaeaaeci?ia e o. i.) e?oiiuie
i?aaei?eyoeyie aucuaaao iio?aaiinoue a niioaaonoaothueo

i?iiuoeaiiuo oneoaao ii ?aiiioo e ianeoaeeaaieth, eioi?ua /anoi

inouanoaeytho iaeeea i?aaei?eyoey, oae eae iiiiiieee ec-ca naiae
a?iiicaeeinoe auioaeaeaiu cao?a/eaaoue iiiai oneeee a yoii

iai?aaeaiee eee nicaeaaaoue ?acaaoaeaiioth naoue iaeaiueeeo oeeeaeia,
/oi naii ii naaa oiaea aeinoaoi/ii aei?iainoiyuaa caiyoea, neoaeauaa a
iniiaiii aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey i?anoeaea e?oiiie oe?iu.

Aeayoaeueiinoue iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a iaiaa ?acaeouo ?aeiiao

caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai – yoi iniiaa anae eo nioeeaeueiie e

yeiiiie/aneie aeecie e ?aoathuay i?aaeiinueea eo aeaeueiaeoaai oi-

cyenoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

A oi aea a?aiy, ia iaeeeo i?aaei?eyoeyo ioia/aaony aieaa aunieay
yooaeoeaiinoue o?oaea, iaeua oe?iu n iaiueoeie cao?aoaie

oaeiaeaoai?ytho iio?aaiinoe a aeaoeoeeoiuo aeaeao oiaa?ia e oneoa

ia iniiaa ?ac?aaioee ianoiuo enoi/ieeia (nu?uey) e iaania/eaaao i?e
yoii aieueooth caiyoinoue. Iie oaaee/eaatho ?acia?u iin-

ooieaiee a ioieoeeiaeueiua athaeaeaou, noeioee?otho IOI,

auiieiytho ae?oaea aaaeiua aeey oicyenoaa ooieoeee. Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia
iiauoaiea ?iee i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai aeciana a yeiiiieea Aa?iaiee, NOA e
ae?oaeo ?acaeouo no?aiao – ia neo/aeiinoue, a iaiaoiaeeiay
caeiiiia?iinoue, aucaaiiay naiei oiaeii enoi?ee, e iio?aaiinoyie,
eioi?ua aicieeaee a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e
oaoiieiaee.

I?IAEAIU NOAIIAEAIEss IAEIAI AECIANA A ?INNEE.

?anniio?aa iiuo Aa?iaiee e NOA, y oioaea au ia?aeoe e aii?ino i oii,
eaeea aea oneiaey iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ?acaeoey iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
a iaoae no?aia.

Eiia/ii aea, iaeaii i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi aeey no?aiu oaee ianooaaia
iaeue aecian iiaeao noaoue iniiaie yeiiiieee : a iaoeo oneiaeyo ii
iiaeao noaoue eeoue naycothuei caaiii, eioi?ia iaania/eei au
aania?aaieioth ?aaioo e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Iiyoiio aeey
ia/aea neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue oa io?anee e noa?u yeiiiieee, a eioi?uo
i?aaei?eyoey iaeiai aeciana ea?atho ?aoath-

uoth ?ieue. Ai-ia?auo, yoi any noa?a oneoa, a oii /enea oaoie/aneea
oneoae, aeeth/ay ?aiiio e oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey; eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae; auoiaia ianeoaeeaaiea
ianaeaiey. Ai-aoi?uo – oi?aiai-caeoii/iua iia?aoeee, a oaeaea
iin?aaeie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Iiyoiio iaeiei ec ?aoathueo oneiaee oaeoaeaiey i?iaiaeeiuo

a ?innee yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, niiniaiuo auaanoe no?aio ec

e?ecena, iaania/eoue ineaaeaiea iiiiiieecia, aeiaeoueny yooae-

oeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e noa?u oneoa, yaeyaony

?acaeoea iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Yoio naeoi? yeiiiieee

nicaeaao iaiaoiaeeioth aoiinoa?o eiieo?aioeee, niiniaai auno?i

?aaae?iaaoue ia ethaua eciaiaiey ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u, caiieiyoue
ia?acothueany ieoe a iio?aaeoaeueneie noa?a, nicaeaao aei-

iieieoaeueiua ?aai/ea ianoa, yaeyaony iniiaiui enoi/ieeii oi?-

ie?iaaiey n?aaeiaai eeanna, oi anoue ?anoe?yao nioeeaeueioth aaco

i?iaiaeeiuo ?aoi?i.

Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi iaaethaeaaoeeny aei 1992 aiaea ao?iue

?ino iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a 1993 aiaeo ?acei caiaaeeeeny. E nae/an o ian
caiyoi a iaeii /anoiii aeciana iaiaa 1 iei./ae.

A oneiaeyo eioeyoeee, iaeiaiaie ianoaaeeueiinoe, ionoonoaey ?uiea
nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia ia/eiathuea i?aaei?eieiaoaee, ii/oanoaiaaa aeon
“eaaeeo aeaiaa”, auno?i ia?aei/aaaee a noa?o

oee/ii-iaeaoi/iie oi?aiaee, niaeoeyoeee, ooee a ae?oaea eiiia?-

/aneea no?oeoo?u. Enoi/ieeaie oiaa?ia aeey oi?aiaee noaee ei-

ii?oiua caeoiee, /aeii/iua ?aenu a ?acaeaathueany no?aiu, a

oaeaea oiaa?u ec ainoaea?noaaiiie oi?aiaee, aeeth/ay i?iaeoeou

ieoaiey. Ooiaey io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, ia aeeaaeuaay eaeeo-eeai

n?aaenoa a iiiauaiey, iai?oaeiaaiea, eoeueoo?o oi?aiaee, iiiaea

aecianiaiu iieo/eee aeaaii?eyoiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey iaiaauaiey.

Iiyoiio e ia ecaeeaaaony a ianniaii niciaiee i?aaenoaaeaiea i

i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa eae i /ai-oi ieioii, iai?eyciaiiii, a i

i?aaei?eieiaoaea – eae i niaeoeyioa.

Iioa?y aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey, yeiiiie/aneee oain

e caeiiiaeaoaeueiay ia?acaa?eoa i?eaaee e oiio, /oi caeiiiiin-

eooiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee, i?aaiecothuea aecian a i?iecaiaenoaai-

iie noa?a, ieacaeenue a /?acau/aeii o?oaeiii iieiaeaiee, iany

aieueoea cao?aou, auiea/eaay aunieea iaeiae e iiaeaa?aaynue ai-

noaea?noaaiiiio e iaainoaea?noaaiiiio ?yeaoo. Ionoonoaea /aoeiai
iaoaiecia ?aaeecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia? ii iiaeaea?aeea iaeiai
aeciana, cao?oaeiaiey a iieo/aiee e?aaeeoia, i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee
e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia iinoaaeee iaeua i?aaei?eyoey a ia?aaiia
iieiaeaiea n e?oiiuie. Yoi i?eaaei e nie?auaieth eo ?inoa e e
i?eaioaoeee i?aeiouanoaaiii ia oi?aiai-caeoii/ioth e iin?aaeie/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aiaeec ?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iieacuaaao, /oi aeiey

i?aaei?eyoee, ?aaioathueo a noa?a oi?aiaee e iin?aaeie/aneeo oneoa,
caieiaao aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea. E?iia oiai, nouanoaoao

aieueoia eiee/anoai i?aaei?eyoee, ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo eae i?iec-

aiaenoaaiiua eee iiiaioeaeaaua ( auione oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio-

?aaeaiey, ieacaiey ?acee/iuo oneoa ), ii oai ia iaiaa caieia-

thueony oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth eae iniiaiie.

A Iineaa, iai?eia?, aaea ?aiueoa i?aiaeaaeaee iao/ii-oaoie/aneea

eiiia?aoeau, oaia?ue, ii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui, iaeei oaeie eiiia-

?aoea i?eoiaeeony ia ianeieueei aeanyoeia oi?aiai-caeoii/iuo.

Aunieea iaeiae, anaaic?anoathuay a?aiaeiay ieaoa ca iiiauaiea e

iai?oaeiaaiea, ionoonoaea oiiaeiaiai ?eneiaiai eaieoaea – ana yoi
cao?oaeiyao i?iaeieaeaiea yooaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe e auioaeaeaao
iai?aaeyoue iniiaiua oneeey ia ia ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa, a ia ai?ueao
ca auaeeaaiea.

Ii aeaaiay i?e/eia nie?auaiey /enea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee –

ieceee o?iaaiue oeiainiaie iaania/aiiinoe aieueoeinoaa iaeuo

i?aaei?eyoee aneaaenoaea o?oaeiinoae n ia?aiia/aeueiui iaeiieaieai
eaieoaea, iaaiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey e?aaeeoia ia i?eaieaiuo

oneiaeyo, iayooaeoeaiinoue iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. Iaaaoeaiia aic-

aeaenoaea ia ?acaeoea iaeiai aeciana a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai

i?iecaiaenoaa ieacuaatho ia?acaeoinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eio?ano-

?oeoo?u, iaoaaoea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, neaainoue

eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacu.

Aua iaeei i/aiue aaaeiue oaeoi? iaaaoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia iaeue
aecian – iai?ae?auathueeny aeoaieee niaae i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ana yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi oieueei /anoue ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai aeciana ieacuaaaony a ia ninoiyiee

i?enooieoue e ?aaeueiiio i?iecaiaenoao i?iaeoeoeee.

Eae iieacuaaao eco/aiea ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa, iai?aiaiiui

oneiaeai oniaoa a ?acaeoee iaeiai aeciana yaeyaony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi
iaeua i?aaei?eyoey e iaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai ioae-

aeathony ai ananoi?iiiae e noaaeeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea.
Iia inouanoaeyaony a ?acee/iuo oi?iao, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue

iooai noeioee?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa iaeaieaa i?ei?eoaoiuo aeaeia

i?iaeoeoeee, i?aaeinoaaeaiey iaeiaiauo eueaio, aeioaoeee eueaioiiai

aaieianeiai e?aaeeoiaaiey, nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiinoeueoa-

oeaiuo e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo oeaio?ia, ?acaeoey nenoaiu no?aoi-

aaiey, i?aaiecaoeee iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey. Aaaeioth

?ieue ea?atho i?eiyoea e eniieiaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ?ac?aaioea e
?aaeecaoeey eiie?aoiuo eiiieaeniuo i?ia?aii.

Aanueia ino?a i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiaie aacu noa-

iiaeaiey e ?acaeoey iaeiai aeciana. Aeey yoiai aio aeieaeiu auoue

i?aaeinoaaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua eueaiou. Yoi iiaoo auoue eueaiou ii

iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth. Ii i?iaiaeeiay a iaoae no?aia iaeiaiaay iiee-

oeea ia oieueei ia yooaeoeaia, ii yeiiiie/anee iiania. Iia eaeao a?ac?ac
n onoaiiaeaiiie a ie?a i?aeoeeie e nia?aiaiiuie

ie?iauie oaiaeaioeeyie ?acaeoey yeiiiieee. Iaii?aaaeaiii aunieia

iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea “oaeaaao” a ?innee iaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai

(iiiai/eneaiiua iaeiae e iiai?u ia?aaeei inoaaeytho i?aaei?eyoeth

eeoue 5-10% iieo/aiiie i?eauee). Iauaa iai?aaeaiea niaa?oain-

oaiaaiey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu – oneeaiea noeioee?othuae ?iee ia-

eiaia a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaaei inaiaiaeeoue iaeua i?aaei?eyoey io
iaeiaia ia eiaanoeoeee, aaiceiua oaoiieiaee. E, eiia/ii, ioaeiu
iaeiaiaua eueaiou ia ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey iaeiai i?aaei?eyoey.
Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeia iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iaeiaiaiai
iiaeoiaea e i?aaei?eyoeyi ?aciiai i?ioeey aeayoaeueiinoe. Aieaa ieceea
noaaee iaeiaia aeieaeiu i?eiaiyoueny aeey iaeaieaa aaaeiuo, i?ei?eoaoiuo
io?aneae.

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie naeaeaiu oieueei naiua ia?aua oaae a

i?aaiaii e i?aaiecaoeeiiiii iaania/aiee oi?ie?iaaiey iaeiai

i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ea/anoaa iniaiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee ?innee.
Aeaenoaaiiie nenoaiu noeioee?iaaiey ia?aciaaiey iaeuo

i?aaei?eyoee ia nouanoaoao, eae iao e oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia

eo iiaeaea?aeee. Ia ?ac?aaioaia ainoaea?noaaiiay i?ia?aiia ?acaeoey
iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ii iiaio iiaieth, eiiieaen ia?aii/a?aaeiuo ia? ii ?acaeoeth

iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?O, aeieaeai inouanoaeyoueny a
neaaeothueo iai?aaeaieyo:

– ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaia;

– oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiia;

– eioi?iaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneia;

– i?aaiecaoeeiiiia;

– eaae?iaia e eiinoeueoaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea;

– aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Oaeaea a ainoaea?noaaiiie i?ia?aiia aeieaeiu auoue io?aaeaiu

iaoaieciu aeaiaaeii-e?aaeeoiie, iaeiaiaie, athaeaeaoiie, e oeaiiaie

iieeoeee, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey, nenoaiu ioeoee-

aeueiuo aa?aioee, eioi?ua iaania/eaaee au nicaeaiea ?aaiuo

noa?oiauo oneiaee a ?acaeoee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A i?ia?aiia iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniio?aoue oi?ie?iaaiea yooae-

oeaiuo einoeoooia ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u, oiaa?iiai ?uiea e

?uiea oeaiiuo aoiaa, eiaanoeoeeiiiiai e aai/o?iiai i?aaei?eieia-

oaeuenoaa, eioi?iaoeeiiiie, eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie e aoaeeoi?neie aeay-

oaeueiinoe, a oaeaea nicaeaiea eiiieaeniie ainoaea?noaaiii-ia-

uanoaaiiie nenoaiu iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,

aeeth/ay iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aiiaeaioiaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo eaae?ia,
i?eaea/aiea e yoie noa?a nioeeaeueii aeoeaiuo neiaa ianaeaiey. Neaaeoao
oaeaea ii?aaeaeeoue ia?u, iaania/eaathuea iiaeaea?aeeo
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiuo

eiaanoeoeee e ?acaeoeth i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiuo i?ia?aii aeieaeiu auoue i?eaea/aiu ia

noieueei n?aaenoaa ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, neieueei aiciiaeiinoe
/anoiiai – ioa/anoaaiiiai, a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe e eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea.
Iniiaiui aea iai?aaeaieai eniieueciaaiey aino-

aea?noaaiiuo ?ano?nia aeieaeii noaoue ia auaeaeaiea i?yiuo eiaan-

oeoeee, a no?aoiaaiea e i?aaeinoaaeaiea aa?aioee iiae e?aaeeo.

  CAEETH*AIEA:

Aeeiaieci, ?acaeoea e aeeaa?neoeeaoeey oi?i iaeiai aeciana

aeatho iniiaaiey i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi a iaic?eiii aoaeouai yoio

naeoi? oicyenoaiaaiey a no?aiao Caiaaea aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny.

Oioaeinue au iaaeayoueny, /oi a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy e iaoa no?aia,
o/eouaay iaoe?iue ca?oaaaeiue iiuo, iieaeao ii iooe aaeaioaoeee
i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai aeciana e naaiaeiyoiei yeiiiie/aneei oneiaeyi
oicyenoaiaaiey a ?innee. Oai aieaa, /oi eiathuee aeoaieea ei?ie a
yeiiiie/aneie enoi?ee iaoae no?aiu iaeue e n?aaeiee aecian ia
eniieuecoaony a iieiie ia?a eae a oaaee/aiee iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa, oae
e a iiauoaiee aai yooaeoeaiinoe e naaeaine?iaaiiinoe. Iaeia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai aaaeao e icaei-

?iaeaieth yeiiiieee a oeaeii, /oi iaaeyaeii aeaeii ec aeaiiie ?aaiou.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii eo/oei auoiaeii ec nicaeaaoaeny a ?innee

e?eceniie neooaoeee auea au ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea i?aae-

oaeuenoaa, iai?aaeaiiay ia ?anoe?aiea e ?acaeoea i?aaei?eyoee

iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a iaoae no?aia.

Oioaeinue au caiaoeoue, /oi ianiiiaiiay ia?niaeoeaiinoue naeoi?a
iaeiai e n?aaeiaai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiieea e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aieueoie eioa?an e iaio ia neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue
eeoue eae i/a?aaeioth eiiiaieth a nenoaia aioee?eceniuo ia?, ii e eae
aeieaia?aiaiiia iai?aaeaiea no?oeoo?iie iieeoeee, anoanoaaiiui ia?acii
iaania/eaathuae i?aaie/aneoth niu/eo aini?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e ?uii/iuo
i?ioeannia a ?inneeneii oicyenoaa, ?aaeecaoeeth nia?aiaiiie no?aoaaee
yeiiiie/aneiai

?inoa a oa/aiea aeieaia?aiaiiiai ia?aoiaea. Eai, eiaiii iaeua

i?aaei?eyoey, iniaaiii a neo/aa oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie ?ac?aaioee

iiaie ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a iaeanoe iaeiai i?aaei?eieia-

oaeuenoaa, iiaoo noaoue iniiaie ?uii/iuo no?oeoo? ai iiiaeo io-

?aneyo, iaania/eoue ia?aeea eiaanoeoeee a noa?u iaeaieaa yooae-

oeaiiai i?eeiaeaiey ?ano?nia e oai naiui niaaeeieoue i?ioeannu

no?oeoo?iie iieeoeee e oi?ie?iaaiea ana?inneeneiai ?uiea.

  NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U:

1. Ooeyoueaaa I .A. Iaeue aecian a oneiaeyo ?uiea.

ae. “Aeaiueae e e?aaeeo”, 1992, N 1

2. Aoaianueaa A. Iaeue aecian: i?iaeaiu noaiiaeaiey.

” ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae”, 1993,

3. Iyaeia I., Oanaiei A. Iaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai: ai-

noaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea iaycaoaeueia.

“?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae”, 1993,

4. Oaoiaeia O. Iaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a nenoaia ?u-

ii/iuo ?aoi?i: i?iaeaiu ?inoa eee auaeeaaiey.

ae. “Aii?inu yeiiiieee”, 1993,

5. ?acoiiiaa E. Iaeeea i?aaei?eyoey a i?iiuoeaiiinoe NOA.

ae.  “I?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey”, 1990,

6.Iiii?eaiei A.E. Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey: Iiuo, i?iaeaiu 

I.: I?ioecaeao, 1991

7. Iaacia? A.A. Iiaia i iaeuo i?aaei?eyoeyo .

I.: AI  “Oaeo”, auione 2, 1990

8. Na?aaei A.N. Yooaeoeaiinoue iaeiai aeciana.

I.: Yeiiiieea, 1990

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