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NIAeA?AEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea
………………………………………………………………
………………. 3

1. Nouiinoue eeceiaa e aai iniiaiua oi?iu
…………………………. 5

1.1 Ii?aaeaeaiea eeceiaa
………………………………………………………. 5

1.2 Oi?iu e aeaeu eeceiaa
…………………………………………………… 7

1.3 I?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee eeceiaa
………………………………. 8

1.4 Iaoaieci eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee
…………………………………… 17

1.5 Oaoieea eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee
………………………………………. 18

2. Eeceiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue a Oe?aeia: ?acaeoea, iniaaiiinoe,
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca
…………………………………………………………. .21

2.1 Yaiethoeey eeceiaa a Oe?aeia
…………………………………………. 21

2.2 Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey e i?iaeaiiua aii?inu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu
i eeceiaa
………………………………………………………..23

2.3 Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ?acaeoey eeceiaa a Oe?aeia ……… 32

2.4 Aeiaiai? eeceiaa
…………………………………………………………… 37

2.5 Iaoiaeu o/anoey aaieianeiai eaieoaea a eeceiaiaii aeciana
………………………………………………………………
……………….. 46

Caeeth/aiea
………………………………………………………………
………… 51

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u
…………………………………….53

AAAAeAIEA

N iiiaioa i?iaicaeaoaiey a iaoai ainoaea?noaa ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee
aeooaeueiui noaiiaeony aii?in ?aoeeiiaeueiiai e yooaeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey eiathueony ?ano?nia e eaieoaeia a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia.
Iniaaiii ino?i yoi iuouaaony a oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai oiaaeea a no?aia,
eioeyoeee iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou, iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e ae?oaeo
iaaaoeaiuo oaeoi?ia. ?ano?nu e eaieoaeu a aeaiaaeiie oi?ia a oaeeo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao i?e i?inoaeaaiee e ia?aoeeiiaeueiii eniieueciaaiee
iinoiyiii oa?ytho naith noieiinoue e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, eie ioaeii oiaei
oi?aaeyoue.

Iaeiei ec niiniaia auaiaeiiai aeiaeaiey ?ano?nia aeey aaieia e ae?oaeo
o/?aaeaeaiee, eiathueo naiaiaeiua aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, noaiiaeony
eeceiaiaue aecian.

Eeceia eae iniaay noa?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiay ca ?oaaaeii, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iieo/aao ?acaeoea a
Oe?aeia. I?e aeoeaiii aiaae?aiee eeceia a neeo i?enoueo aio
aiciiaeiinoae iiaeao auoue iiuiui eiioeuenii oaoie/aneiai
ia?aaii?oaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa, no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee oe?aeineie
yeiiiieee, ianuuaiey ?uiea aunieiea/anoaaiiuie oiaa?aie.

A aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa i?e eco/aiee oaiu “eeceia” iiith auee
iinoaaeaiu neaaeothuea caaea/e:

– ?ane?uoue nouiinoue eeceiaa, aai oi?iu e aeaeu;

– ii?aaeaeeoue noauaeou eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee, oaoieeo eeceiaiauo
iia?aoeee;

– auyaeoue i?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee eeceiaiaiai aeciana ia?aae
ae?oaeie aeueoa?iaoeaiuie iooyie aeiaeaiey eaieoaea;

– inaaoeoue ?acaeoea e nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea eeceiaa a Oe?aeia, i?iaeaiu
aai inouanoaeaiey;

– iciaeiieoueny n ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiauie aeoaie, ?aaoee?othueie
eeceiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue a Oe?aeia;

– ?ane?uoue niaea?aeaiea oeiiaiai aeiaiai?a eeceiaa;

– auyaeoue, eaeea iaaeinoaoee a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa caoi?iaaeeaatho
?acaeoea eeceiaa a Oe?aeia;

– ii?aaeaeeoue ?ieue aaieia ia ?uiea eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. 1.
Nouiinoue eeceiaa e aai iniiaiua oi?iu

1.1 Ii?aaeaeaiea eeceiaa

Oa?iei “eeceia” i?ienoiaeeo io aiaeeeneiai neiaa “to lease” –
a?aiaeiaaoue, a?aoue a a?aiaeo.1 A ?onneii ycuea iao oi/iiai aiaeiaa
oa?ieia “eeceia”. Ethaia aai ii?aaeaeaiea ia yaeyaony en/a?iuaathuei e
ia o/eouaaao anao oi?i i?iyaeaiey yoiai aeaeiai e?aaeeoiiai eino?oiaioa.

Iaeioi?ua ec ii?aaeaeaiee eeceiaa, aeaaaaiua a eeoa?aoo?a i?eaaaeaiu
ieaea:

* Eeceia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiaiai? a?aiaeu, i?aaeoniao?eaathuee
i?aaeinoaaeaiea eeceiaiaeaoaeai (a?aiaeiaeaoaeai) i?eiaaeeaaeaueo aio
iai?oaeiaaiey, iaoei, YAI, i?aoaoieee, o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa,
nii?oaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, oi?aiaiai e neeaaeneiai iacia/aiey
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth (a?aiaeaoi?o) a eneeth/eoaeueiia iieueciaaiea ia
onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie ca ii?aaeaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea – a?aiaeioth ieaoo,
eioi?ay aeeth/aao i?ioeaioioth noaaeo, cae?uaathuoth noieiinoue
i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa a?aiaeiaeaoaeai ia aeaiaaeiii ?uiea n o/aoii
iaiaoiaeeiie i?eauee aaiea e aii?oecaoeeth eiouanoaa [2];

* Eeceia – yoi i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay iai?aaeaia
ia eiaanoe?iaaiea nianoaaiiuo eee i?eaea/aiiuo oeiainiauo n?aaenoa e
ninoieo a i?aaeinoaaeaiee eeceiaiaeaoaeai a eneeth/eoaeueiia
iieueciaaiea ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth eiouanoaa,
yaeythuaainy nianoaaiiinoueth eeceiaiaeaoaey eee i?eia?aoaaiiai ei a
nianoaaiiinoue ii ii?o/aieth e niaeaniaaieth n eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai o
niioaaonoaothuaai i?iaeaaoea eiouanoaa, i?e oneiaee oieaou
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai ia?eiaee/aneeo eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae [17];

* Eeceia – iieueciaaiea n?aaenoaaie i?iecaiaenoaa aianoi i?eia?aoaiey eo
a nianoaaiiinoue, o.a. aeieain?i/iay a?aiaea iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey,
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, nii?oaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey e ae?
[14];

* Eeceia – aeiaiai? ia i?aai iieueciaaiey iai?oaeiaaieai e eiouanoaii ia
iniiaa a?aiaeiuo ioiioaiee [8].

Eeceiaiaeaoaeue e eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iia?e?otho n eaieoaeii ia a
aeaiaaeiie, a a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oi?ia, /oi naeeaeaao eeceia n
eiaanoe?iaaieai.

Eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee i?e?aaieaathony e e?aaeeoiui ni anaie auoaeathueie
ec yoiai i?aaaie e ii?iaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Iaeiaei io
e?aaeeoa eeceia ioee/aaony oai, /oi iinea ieii/aiey aai n?iea e auieaou
anae iaoneiaeaiiie noiiu aeiaiai?a iauaeo eeceiaa inoaaony
nianoaaiiinoueth eeceiaiaeaoaey (anee aeiaiai?ii ia i?aaeoniio?ai aueoi
iauaeoa eeceiaa ii inoaoi/iie noieiinoe eee ia?aaea/a a nianoaaiiinoue
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey). I?e e?aaeeoa aea aaie inoaaeyao ca niaie i?aai
nianoaaiiinoe ia iauaeo eae caeia nnoaeu [2].

Yeiiiie/aneay nouiinoue eeceiaa aeaeaao aai i?eiaiaiea iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiui a io?aneyo, auioneathueo i?iaeoeoeeth aunieie noaiaie
aioiaiinoe, nauo eioi?ie ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony aa
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoueth e iaee/eai n?aaenoa o iieueciaaoaey yoie
i?iaeoeoeee.

1.2 Oi?iu e aeaeu eeceiaa

Eeanneoeeaoeey aeaeia eeceiaa cao?oaeiaia ?yaeii ianoiyoaeuenoa. A
i?aaiauo nenoaiao ?acee/iuo no?ai nouanoaotho ?aciiia?aciua ii?aaeaeaiey
ia oieueei nianoaaiii eeceiaa, ii e ioaeaeueiuo aai aeaeia. ?acee/iua
aeaeu eeceiaa iiaoo ni/aoaoueny a iaeiii aeiaiai?a a caaeneiinoe io
eiie?aoiuo, iaiaa?eaaaiuo o/anoieeaie oneiaee.

A caaeneiinoe io ninoaaa o/anoieeia (noauaeoia) naeaeee auaeaeytho:

* i?yiie eeceia, i?e eioi?ii i?e aeaonoi?iiiae naeaeea nianoaaiiee
eiouanoaa (iinoaauee) naiinoiyoaeueii naeaao iauaeo a eeceia;

* einaaiiue eeceia, eiaaea ia?aaea/a eiouanoaa i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac
iin?aaeieea. A aeaiiii neo/aa iiaeao eiaoue ianoi eeanne/aneay
o?aonoi?iiiyy naeaeea (iinoaauee – eeceiaiaeaoaeue –
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue), a oaeaea iiiainoi?iiiyy naeaeea n /eneii o/anoieeia
io 4 aei 6-7.

Eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee iiaoo auoue aeaoo oi?i: iia?aoeaiue eeceia e
oeiainiaue eeceia.

Iia?aoeaiue eeceia iiae?acoiaaaao eeceiaiaua eiio?aeou, caeeth/aaiua ia
ei?ioeee e n?aaeiee n?ie (iau/ii ei?i/a aii?oecaoeeiiiiai ia?eiaea),
niaeanii eioi?ui a?aiaeaoi?o i?aaeinoaaeyaony (i?e niaethaeaiee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai n?iea) i?aai a ethaia ae?oaia a?aiy ?anoi?aiooue
aeiaiai?. Eae i?aaeei, yoi i?ienoiaeeo, eiaaea a?aiaeaoi?u iauaeoa
eeceiaa auno?i niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. A?aiaeiaeaoaeue ianao caeanue
iiauoaiiue ?ene, a auno?i niaiythueany a?aiaeaoi?u canoaaeytho
eeceiaiaoth eiiiaieth i?iyaeyoue iniaue eioa?an e oi?ioaio ninoiyieth
i?aaeiaoa eeceiaa. *anoi eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey aa?ao ia naay oaoie/aneia
ianeoaeeaaiea iauaeoa eeceiaa – ?aaeaiaioiue ?aiiio, no?aoiaaiea,-
inouanoaeyy oai naiui iieiina?aeniue eeceia eee /anoe/ii na?aeniue
eeceia (a eiio?aeoa iaiaa?eaaaony ?acaeaeaiea iaycaoaeuenoa). Iinea
caaa?oaiey n?iea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a eeceiaa i?aaeiao aeiaiai?a iiaeao
auoue aica?auai aeaaeaeueoeo eee aiiaue naeai a a?aiaeo.

Oeiainiaue eeceia oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeeeoaeueiui n?ieii eiio?aeoa (io 5
aei 10 eao) e aii?oecaoeeae anae eee aieueoae /anoe noieiinoe
iai?oaeiaaiey. Oaeoe/anee oeiainiaue eeceia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io
aeieain?i/iiai e?aaeeoiaa- iey iieoiee. Ii enoa/aiee n?iea aeaenoaey
a?aiaeaoi? iiaeao aa?iooue iauaeo a?aiaeu, i?iaeeeoue niaeaoaiea eee
caeeth/eoue iiaia, a oaeaea eoieoue iauaeo ii inoaoi/iie noieiinoe
(iau/ii iia iineo /enoi neiaiee/aneee oa?aeoa?).

?acee/atho eeceia iiaiai eiouanoaa (ec ia?auo ?oe) e eeceia auaoaai a
oiio?aaeaiee eiouanoaa (ec aoi?uo ?oe), o.a. i?aaei?eieiaoaeue i?iaeaao
eiouanoai, nianoaaiieeii eioi?iai ii oaea yaeyaony e ei oaea
iieuecoaony.

Ii iauaeoai naeaeie ?acee/atho eeceia aeaeaeeiiai (aei?iaeiue o?ainii?o,
aicaeooiue e ii?neie o?ainii?o, aaaiiu, eiioaeia?u, oaoieea nayce) e
iaaeaeaeeiiai eiouanoaa (oi?aiaua e eiioi?neea caeaiey,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiiauaiey, neeaaeu e o.ae.).

I?e eeceiaa iaaeaeaeeiinoe a?aiaeiaeaoaeue no?ieo eee iieoiaao
iaaeaeaeeiinoue ii ii?o/aieth a?aiaeaoi?a e i?aaeinoaaeyao aio aeey
eniieueciaaiey a eiiia?/aneeo e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaeyo. Oae aea eae e
a naeaeeao n aeaeaeeiui eiouanoaii, eiio?aeo caeeth/aaony iau/ii ia
n?ie, iaiueoee eee ?aaiue aii?oecaoeeiiiiio ia?eiaeo iauaeoa; a?aiaeaoi?
ianao ana ?enee, ?anoiaeu e iaeiae ai a?aiy aeaenoaey eiio?aeoa [2].

1.3 I?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee eeceiaa

I?e/eiie oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey eeceiaa yaeyaony ?yae aai i?aeiouanoa
ia?aae iau/iie nnoaeie:

* Eeceia i?aaeiieaaaao 100%-iia e?aaeeoiaaiea e ia o?aaoao iaiaaeeaiiiai
ia/aea ieaoaaeae. I?e eniieueciaaiee iau/iiai e?aaeeoa aeey iieoiee
eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii ieiei 15% noieiinoe iieoiee iiea/eaaoue
ec nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. I?e eeceiaa eiio?aeo caeeth/aaony ia iieioth
noieiinoue eiouanoaa. A?aiaeiua ieaoaaee iau/ii ia/eiathony iinea
iinoaaee eiouanoaa a?aiaeaoi?o eeai iicaea.

* Iaeeei e n?aaeiei i?aaei?eyoeyi i?iua iieo/eoue eiio?aeo ii eeceiao,
/ai nnoaeo. Iaeioi?ua eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee aeaaea ia o?aaotho io
a?aiaeaoi?a ieeaeeo aeiiieieoaeueiuo aa?aioee, oae eae i?aaeiieaaaaony,
/oi iaania/aieai naeaeee yaeyaony naii iai?oaeiaaiea. I?e iaauiieiaiee
a?aiaeaoi?ii naieo iaycaoaeuenoa eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey n?aco aea caae?aao
naia eiouanoai.

* Eeceiaiaia niaeaoaiea aieaa aeaei, /ai nnoaea, iineieueeo
i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue au?aaioaoue oaeiaioth aeey iieoiaoaey noaio
oeiaine?iaaiey. Nnoaea anaaaea i?aaeiieaaaao ia?aie/aiiua n?iee e
?acia?u iiaaoaiey. Eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe noi?ii iiaoo
auoue aaeaiany/iuie, aaeaeaa?oaeueiuie e o.ae., a noiiu ieaoaaeae –
ioee/aoueny ae?oa io ae?oaa. Noaaea iiaeao auoue oeene?iaaiiie e
ieaaathuae. Eiiaaea iiaaoaiea iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny iinea iieo/aiey
au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia, i?iecaaaeaiiuo ia iai?oaeiaaiee, acyoii
a eeceia, eee iiaeao auoue i?ieiiiaine?iaaii ano?a/iie oneoaie, /oi
iicaieyao i?aaei?eyoeyi aac ?aceiai oeiainiaiai iai?yaeaiey iaiiaeyoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oiiaeu. A?aiaeiay ieaoa ioiineony ia ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e nieaeaao o eeceiaiiieo/aoaey iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth i?eaueue.

* ?ene onoa?aaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey oeaeeeii eiaeeony ia a?aiaeiaeaoaey.
A?aiaeaoi? eiaao aiciiaeiinoue iinoaiaiiiai iaiiaeaiey naiaai ia?ea
iai?oaeiaaiey.

* Aeinoaoi/ii i?inoie o/ao a?aiaeoaiiai eiouanoaa. Iniiaiuie i?eioeeiaie
Aa?ieeca1 ii o/aoo eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee yaeyaony iioaeeeiaaiea
a?aiaeaoi?ii naieo oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa, auoaeathueo ec eeceiaiauo
ioiioaiee, e i?iaaaeaiea o/aoa e aii?oecaoeee eeceiaoaiiai eiouanoaa ii
aaeaino i?aaei?eyoey. Oeeo?iaay eioi?iaoeey ii iaycaoaeuenoaai ia aeaoo
ninoaaeaiey aaeaina iiaeao auoue i?aaenoaaeaia a oi?ia i?eeiaeaiey e
aaeaino. I?e yoii neaaeoao ioia?aceoue: noiio a?aiaeiuo ieaoaaeae a
aeaiiii oeiainiaii aiaeo; iauoth noiio a?aiaeiuo ieaoaaeae ca ia?eiae
eiio?aeoa e eo oaeouoth noieiinoue ia aeaoo ninoaaeaiey aaeaina.

Ai iiiaeo no?aiao caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai onoaiaaeeaaao aeey i?aaei?eyoee
iaycaoaeueiia niioiioaiea nianoaaiiiai e caaiiiai eaieoaeia. Oae eae
eiouanoai ii eeceiaiaiio niaeaoaieth o/eouaaaony ii aaeaino
a?aiaeiaeaoaey, oi a?aiaeaoi? iiaeao ?anoe?eoue naie i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
iiuiinoe, ia cao?iioa yoiai niioiioaiey.

* Ieaoaaee ii eeceiao aaaeoony ec noiiu i?eauee io eniieuecoaiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey e ia iiaeeaaeao iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, oae eae yaeythony
a?aiaeiie ieaoie. Aaie iiaeao eciaiyoue ?acia? aciinia, /oiau oeo/oeoue
eniieueciaaiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a?aiaeaoi?a. Noiia ieaoaaeae ii
eeceiao oeene?oaony i?e iiaeienaiee aeiaiai?a e ia caaeneo io eieaaaiee
aaethoiiai eo?na e eciaiaiee aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa ii aeieain?i/iiio
e?aaeeoiaaieth.

* I?e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eeceiaiauo iia?aoeeyo a?aiaeaoi? iieo/aao
iaeiaiaua eueaiou no?aiu a?aiaeiaeaoaey, /oi i?iyaeyaony a nieaeaiee
auieao, a oaeaea aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae (a iniiaiii i?e iia?aoeaiii
eeceiaa) a?aiaeiaeaoaey eee aai i?aaenoaaeoaeae (oaoie/aneia
ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio a?aiaeoaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, eiinoeueoaoeee ii aai
yenieoaoaoeee, ia?aaea/a iio-oao, iinoaaea cai/anoae e i?.).

* Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue Aaethoiue Oiiae ia o/eouaaao noiio eeceiaiauo naeaeie
a iiaen/aoa iaoeeiiaeueiie caaeieaeaiiinoe, o.a. nouanoaoao
aiciiaeiinoue i?aauneoue eeieou e?aaeeoiie caaeieaeaiiinoe,
onoaiaaeeaaaiie Oiiaeii ii ioaeaeueiui no?aiai [2].

Ii eeceiaiaui iia?aoeeyi i?enoue e iaaeinoaoee:

* a?aiaeaoi? ia auea?uaaao ia iiauoaiee inoaoi/iie noieiinoe
iai?oaeiaaiey (a /anoiinoe ec-ca eioeyoeee);

* anee yoi oeiainiaue eeceia, a iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann aeaeaao
ecaeaeea onoa?aaoei, oai ia iaiaa a?aiaeiua ieaoaaee ia i?ae?auathony
aei eiioea eiio?aeoa;

* neiaeiinoue i?aaiecaoeee;

* noieiinoue eeceiaa aieueoa nnoaeu, ii iaeuecy caauaaoue, /oi ?ene
onoa?aaoaai iai?oaeiaaiey eiaeeony ia a?aiaeiaeaoaey, a iioiio ii aa?ao
aieueooth eiienneth aeey eiiiainaoeee.

*oi i?aaeii/anoue – iieoieo, nnoaeo eee eeceia ? Noieiinoue eeceiaa
iiaeao auoue ieaea eee ?aaia noieiinoe nnoaeu oieueei i?e iaee/ee
iaeiaiauo eueaio. Eeceia iiaeao auoue iino?iai ia iaeiaiaie e
iaiaeiaiaie iniiaa. Iaiaeiaiaue eeceia – yoi i?eia?ii oi aea, /oi e
iau/iay nnoaea, oioy eaeea-oi ae?oaea aniaeou iiaoo naeaeaoue yoo
iia?aoeeth aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiie ii n?aaiaieth n o?aaeeoeeiiiui caeiii.
Eeceia ia iaeiaiaie iniiaa, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao aieueooth /anoue
eeceiaiaiai aeciana, i?aaeinoaaeyao a?aiaeaoi?o aeiiieieoaeueiua auaiaeu
/a?ac aieaa ieceoth i?ioeaioioth noaaeo, /ai i?e iau/iii caeia.
Iineieueeo i?aai nianoaaiiinoe inoaaony ca a?aiaeiaeaoaeai, oi ii eiaao
aiciiaeiinoue /anoe/ii eiiiaine?iaaoue noieiinoue aai i?eia?aoaiey /a?ac
naie iaeiaiaue eeno n iiiiuueth eueaio ii aii?oecaoeee, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo
eueaio e caoai iiaeaeeoue yoe i?aeiouanoaa n a?aiaeaoi?ii /a?ac aieaa
ieceea a?aiaeiua ieaoaaee. *anoi i?aaei?eyoey n ieceei o?iaiai aeioiaeia
ia iiaoo ainiieueciaaoueny naieie iaeiaiauie eueaioaie e, a?aiaeoy
eiouanoai, ia?aaeatho yoe eueaiou a?aiaeiaeaoaeth, eioi?ue a naith
i/a?aaeue nieaeaao ca yoi i?ioeaioioth noaaeo. Eeceia ia iaeiaiaie
iniiaa o?aaoao io a?aiaeiaeaoaey aeiaieueii aieueoiai o?iaiy
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee, eae e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia. Iiyoiio iiiaea
a?aiaeiaeaoaee yaeythony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie eiiiaieyie-oeeeaeaie
ae?oaeo aaieia e aaieianeeo a?oii e e?oiiuo ei?ii?aoeee oeia “Oi?ae
Iioi? E?aaeeo”, “Oaee eeceia”, EAI, “E?aenea? Oaeiyioe” e ae?.

Anee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue eiaao auai? – eeai eoieoue iai?oaeiaaiea n
iiiiuueth nnoaeu, eeai acyoue aai a eeceia, – oi aio iaiaoiaeeii
n?aaieoue cao?aou ii eaaeaeiio niiniao e?aaeeoiaaiey. A oaeeo neo/ayo
iaecaaaeii aicieeaao aii?in i i?eioeeia, enoiaey ec eioi?iai
i?iecaiaeeony yoi n?aaiaiea, oae eae ieaoaaee iaeeiaeiauo ?acia?ia, ii
?acee/athueany ai a?aiaie, nianai ia iaeiicia/iu. Oaeei i?eioeeiii
noaiiaeony oeiainiaay yeaeaaeaioiinoue ieaoaaeae. Yeaeaaeaioiuie
n/eoatho oaeea ieaoaaee, eioi?ua, aoaeo/e i?eaaaeaiiuie e iaeiiio e oiio
aea iiiaioo a?aiaie, ?aaiu. I?ioeann i?eaaaeaiey iacuaatho
aeeneiioe?iaaieai, a iieo/aiioth noiio /enoie oaeouae noieiinoueth.

A ie?iaie i?aeoeea i?e ii?aaeaeaiee /enoie oaeouae noieiinoe ieaoaaeae
eniieuecoaony neaaeothuay oi?ia aeeneiioe?iaaiey:

ON = AN * Et,

aaea ON – oaeouay noieiinoue;

AN – aoaeouay noieiinoue;

Et – eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey;

aaea A – ii?iaoea i?eaaaeaiey ei a?aiaie (i?ioeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey);

t – iiia? aiaea ?an/aoiiai ia?eiaea.

*oiau n?aaieoue aeaa aa?eaioa oeiaine?iaaiey, iaaei a eaaeaeii
iiaen/eoaoue /enooth oaeouoth noieiinoue e o/anoue i?e yoii:

* iaeiaiaua eueaiou a eaaeaeii neo/aa;

* anee iauaeo ia yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth, oi iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue
aii?oecaoeeiiiua eueaiou;

* anee iauaeo iieoiaaony, oi oe?ia aeieaeia iiea/eaaoue ?anoiaeu ii
oaoianeoaeeaaieth (ai iiiaeo no?aiao yoe ?anoiaeu au/eoathony ec
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee), a anee iauaeo eeceiaoaony, oi yoi caaeneo io
eiie?aoiiai niaeaoaiey;

* oae eae iauaeo ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo a?aiaeaoi?o, oi ii oa?yao i?aai ia
inoaoi/ioth noieiinoue [2].

?anniio?ei i?eia?. Ionoue iaeiie ec eiiiaiee NOA o?aaoaony iai?oaeiaaiea
noieiinoueth 100 000 aeiee. Iii aoaeao eniieueciaaoueny 5 eao. Iinea
yoiai inoaoi/iay noieiinoue aoaeao ?aaia i?eia?ii 15000 aeiee.
I?iecaiaeeoaeue i?aaeeaaaao eiienneth ca oaoianeoaeeaaiea a ?acia?a 5000
aeiee. a aiae. Eiiiaiey NOA ioiineony e 40%-iie eaoaai?ee ieaoaeueueea
iaeiaia. Anee oeiainiaue aee?aeoi? eoieo iai?oaeiaaiea, oi aaie nnoaeeo
ei?ii?aoeee 85000 aeiee. ia oneiaeyo 15% (aiaeiaie ieaoaae a oa/aiea 5
eao). A?aiaeiaeaoaeue aa?ao ia naay oaoianeoaeeaaiea.

Aeey n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca (oaaeeoea 1) iaiaoiaeeii ninoaaeoue aeaa
a?aoeea:

a?aoee ieaoaaeae ii nnoaea (/oiau au/anoue noiio i?ioeaioiiai
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiiai aeioiaea);

a?aoee aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee (/oiau au/anoue eo ec
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiiai aeioiaea).

A aeaiiii i?eia?a eeceia ai?acaei auaiaeiaa, /ai nnoaea:

73947 – 60677 = 13270.

?an/ao, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e i?eiyoia ?aoaiea caaenyo a cia/eoaeueiie
ia?a io oiai, eaeie i?ioeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey auaa?ao oeiainiaue
aee?aeoi?. Aiiaua oeiainiaua aee?aeoi?a noa?athony oaycaoue i?ioeaio
aeeneiioe?iaaiey n o?iaiai ?eneii e aeaeaeaiey iaee/iinoe. Ai anao
i?aeoe/aneeo neo/ayo i?e auai?a “eeceia eee iieoiea” ?ene i?eia?ii
iaeeiaeia. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi ana aeaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiie iaee/iinoe
iniiaaii ia aeiaiai?ao. Iai?eia?, ieaoa ca oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea
inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a n i?iecaiaeeoaeai, ieaoa ii nnoaea –
ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a n aaieii. I?ioeaioiue e aii?oecaoeeiiiue iaeiaiaua
ueou nouanoaotho, iiea eiaaony i?eaueue aeey “caueou”. Ieaoaaee ii
eeceiao aace?othony ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a n a?aiaeiaeaoaeai. Iineieueeo
ana yoe iioiee iaee/iinoe iniiaaiu ia aeiaiai?ao, oi ?acoiii
?anniao?eaaoue eo ianoieueei ?eneiaaiiuie, ianeieueei aaie o/eouaaao
?ene iaieaoaaea ii ei?ii?aoeeyi. Aaeeinoaaiiue iioie iaee/iinoe, eioi?ue
iiaeao ioee/aoueny ii ?eneo, – yoi eeeaeaeaoeeiiiay noieiinoue. Oa aea
iineaiaeiaiaay i?ioeaioiay noaaea auea eniieueciaaia iioiio, /oi
oeiainiaue aee?aeoi? ?anniao?eaae inoaoi/ioth noieiinoue (i?e auai?a
iieoiee) ii eeceiao eae ioeaieo eeeaeaeaoeeiiiie noieiinoe. Aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy i?e ?aoaiee caaea/e “eeceia eee iieoiea” eniieueciaaeny ae?oaie
i?ioeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey, iai?eia? ii?ia ecaea?aeae ia eniieuecoaiue
eaieoae (ii?ia, eioi?ay iau/ii i?eiaiyaony aeey ioeaiee ieaie?oaiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee) i?e aeeneiioe?iaaiee eeeaeaeaoeeiiiie noieiinoe
iai?oaeiaaiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oai ia iaiaa iau/ii i?eiaiyaony iaeei e
oio aea i?ioeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey aeey anao aeaiaaeiuo iioieia.

*oiau i?ineaaeeoue caaeneiinoue o?iaiy cao?ao io auai?a i?ioeaioa
aeeneiioe?iaaiey, ?anniio?ei a?aoee (?en.1).

?en.1. N?aaiaiea ia aaca /enoie oaeouae noieiinoe

Eae aeaeei, ia i?iiaaeooea AA iaeiaiueoea cao?aou aoaeoo i?e iieoiea
iai?oaeiaaiey ca iaee/iua aeaiueae; ia i?iiaaeooea AA auaiaeiaa eoieoue
iai?oaeiaaiea n eniieueciaaieai nnoaeu, a ia i?iiaaeooea AA ?acoiiaa
i?eaaaiooue e oeiaine?iaaieth n iiiiuueth eeceiaa [2].

Oaaeeoea 1. N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec iieoiee e eeceiaa

?

Aiae

0 1 2 3 4 5

A?aoee aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee

(aaceniay noieiinoue 100000 aeiee.)

1. Aaeaaiaeiay aii?oecaoeey

20000 32000 19000 15000 14000

2. Inoaoi/iay noieiinoue ii aaeaino

80000 48000 29000 14000 00000

A?aoee ieaoaaeae ii nnoaea

3. Ieaoaae ii nnoaea

25357 25357 25357 25357 25357

4. Iaoiea/aiiay /anoue 85000 72393 57895 41222 22049 00000

5. Iniiaiie ieaoaae

12067 14498 16673 19173 22049

6. I?ioeaio

12750 10859 8684 6183 3307

Iineaiaeiaiaay noieiinoue iieoiee

a). Aeaeaeaiea n?aaenoa

7. Iineaiaeiaiaay noieiinoue oaoianeoaeeaaiey

3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

8. Aii?oecaoeeiiiue iaeiaiaue ueo

8000 12800 7600 6000 5600

9. Eeeaeaeaoeeiiiay noieiinoue

9000

10. Anaai

-5000 -9800 -4600 -3000 -11600

a). Aeaeaeaiea caaiiuo n?aaenoa

11. + Ieaoaaee ii nnoaea

25357 25357 25357 25357 25357

12. + Ia?aue aciin 15000

13. – I?ioeaioiue iaeiaiaue ueo

5100 4344 3474 2473 1323

14. Anaai 15000 20257 21013 21883 22884 24034

a). Aeaeaeaiea /enoie iaee/iinoe 15000 15257 11213 17283 14883 12434

a). Eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey 1000 0,9174 0,8417 0,7722 0,7084
0,6444

ae). *enoay oaeouay noieiinoue.

Iauay noieiinoue iieoiee 15000

73947 13997 9438 13346 14085 8081

Iineaiaeiaiaay noieiinoue eeceiaa

a). Aeaeaeaiea n?aaenoa ii eeceiao

15. +Iineaiaeiaiaay noieiinoue eeceiaa

15600 15600 15600 15600 15600

16. +Aiciiaeiinoue iieo-

iee a eiioea eiio?aeoa

——– ——— ——– ——— ——–

17. Anaai

15600 15600 15600 15600 15600

a). Eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey 1000 0.9174 0,8417 0,7722 0,7084
0,6499

a). *enoay oaeouay noieiinoue

14312 13130 12046 11051 10138

a). Iauay oaeouay noieiinoue eeceiaa 60667

I?eia/aiey e no?ieai:

1. Aaeaaiaeiay aii?oecaoeey – aaceniay noieiinoue*eiyooeoeeaio
aii?oecaoeee. Aaceniay noieiinoue – noieiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey a ia/aea
naeaeee.

2. Inoaoi/iay noieiinoue ii aaeaino – noieiinoue ii aaeaino i?ioeiai
ia?eiaea ca au/aoii aii?oecaoeee oaeouaai ia?eiaea.

3. Ieaoaae ii nnoaea – noiia caeia, ?acaeaeaiiay niaoeeaeueiui
eiyooeoeeaioii ia 5 eao (n o/aoii noaaee 15%).

4. Iaoiea/aiiay /anoue – inoaoie ii noaea ca i?ioeue ia?eiae ca au/aoii
iniiaiiai ieaoaaea ca oaeouee ia?eiae.

5. Iniiaiie ieaoaae – ieaoaae ii nnoaea ca au/aoii i?ioeaioia.

6. I?ioeaio ?ann/eouaaaony ia iniiaa iaoiea/aiiie /anoe ca i?ioeue
ia?eiae.

7. Iineaiaeiaiaay noieiinoue oaoianeoaeeaaiey – aiaeiaay noieiinoue ca
au/aoii iaeiaa.

8. Aii?oecaoeeiiiue iaeiaiaue ueo – aaeaaiaeiay aii?oecaoeey,
oiiiaeaiiay ia noaaeo iaeiaa.

9. Eeeaeaeaoeeiiiay noieiinoue – noiia, eioi?ay aoaeao iieo/aia iinea
oieaou iaeiaia e i?iaeaaee iai?oaeiaaiey. Eiaaea eeeaeaeaoeeiiiay
noieiinoue i?aauoaao noieiinoue ii aaeaino, iaeia ieaoyo enoiaey ec
?acia?a.

10. Anaai – aeaeaeaiey n?aaenoa enoiaey ec aeaaeaiey eiouanoaii.

11. Ieaoaae ii nnoaea.

12. Ia?aue aciin – ?acieoea iaaeaeo noieiinoueth iai?oaeiaaiey e noiiie,
eioi?oth nnoaeaao aaie.

13. I?ioeaioiue iaeiaiaue ueo – noiia i?ioeaioia, oiiiaeaiiay ia noaaeo
iaeiaa. Yoi noiia – “nianaiiay” n iiiiuueth iaeiaiaie eueaiou.

14. Anaai – aeaeaeaiea n?aaenoa, ioiinyueony e caeio.

15. Aeaeaeaiea /enoie iaee/iinoe – aiaeiaia aeaeaeaiea iaee/iinoe
(?anoiaeu, auoaeathuea ec nnoaeu n oeaeueth iieoiee).

16. Eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey ii iineaiaeiaiaie noieiinoe nnoaeu.

17. *enoay oaeouay noieiinoue – aiaeiaia oaaee/aiea /enoie iaee/iinoe,
oiiiaeaiiia ia eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey.

18. Iauay oaeouay noieiinoue iieoiee – noiia oeeo? ii no?.18.

19. Iineaiaeiaiaay noieiinoue eeceiaa – aiaeiaie eeceiaiaue ieaoaae ca
au/aoii noiiu iaeiaa.

20. Aiciiaeiinoue iieoiee a eiioea eiio?aeoa, anee ei?ii?aoeey ?aoeo
eoieoue iai?oaeiaaiea a eiioea naeaeee.

21. Anaai – aiaeiaia aeaeaeaiea iaee/iinoe, ioiinyuaany e eeceiao
(?anoiaeu).

22. Eiyooeoeeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey (ni no?.17).

23. *enoay oaeouay noieiinoue eeceiaa – noiia oeeo? ii no?.25.

24. Iauay oaeouay noieiinoue eeceiaa – noiia oeeo? ii no?.25.

1.4 Iaoaieci eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee.

Eae auoa ioia/aii, eeceia iiae?acaeaeyaony ia iia?aoeaiue e oeiainiaue.
Iai?eia?, i?e iia?aoeaiii eeceiaa aaoio?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa io
a?aiaeaoi?a o?aaoaony aa?aioey oiai, /oi ii enoa/aiee n?iea a?aiaeu
iaoeia aoaeao eiaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth inoaoi/ioth noieiinoue. A?aiaea n
oaeie aa?aioeae iacuaaaony a?aiaeie ioe?uoiai oeia (open-end), a aac iaa
– cae?uoiai oeia (closed-end).

Eeceia, auoiaeyuee ca iaoeeiiaeueiua ?aiee, o.a. eiaaea eoi-eeai ec
o/anoieeia naeaeee yaeyaony ia?aceaeaioii a aeaiiie no?aia, iieo/ee
iacaaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai, eioi?ue a naith i/a?aaeue iiae?acaeaeyaony
ia yenii?oiue e eiii?oiue. Iniiaiay i?e/eia, eioi?ay i?eaaea e auoiaeo
eeceiaa ia iaaeaeoia?iaeioth a?aio a 70-a aa., – yoi iauaa no?aieaiea
aaaeoueo no?ai nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey noeioee?iaaiey yenii?oa e
eiaanoeoeee ni noi?iiu i?iiuoeaiiuo eiiiaiee.

?aciiaeaeiinoueth eeceiaa, i?eiaiyaiiai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie noa?a, noaee
naeaeee “aeaae aeei”. Eo niune caeeth/aaony a eiiaeiaoeee iaeiaiauo
eueaio a aeaoo e aieaa no?aiao. Iai?eia? a 80-a aa. i?eia?aoaiea ?yaea
naiieaoia auei e?aaeeoiaaii /a?ac “aeaae aeei” iaaeaeo NOA e Aiaeeae.
Auaiaeu io iaeiaiauo eueaio a Aiaeee aieueoa, anee a?aiaeiaeaoaeue eiaao
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe, a a NOA – anee a?aiaeiaeaoaeue eiaao oieueei i?aai
aeaaeaiey. Eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey a Aiaeee iieoiaao naiieao, ioaeaao aai a
a?aiaeo aia?eeaineie eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee, a oa a naith i/a?aaeue –
ianoiui aaeaeiiiaieyi. Oaeiai ?iaea naeaeee iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie no?aiaie. Oae, a 80-o aa., Pan American oeiaine?iaaea
naie iiaua ay?iaonu ii naeaeeai “aeaae aeei” iaaeaeo O?aioeeae e NOA
[2].

1.5 Oaoieea eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee.

A caaeneiinoe io oaoieee eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee niaa?oathony ii ?aciui
noaiai (?en. 2 – 6).

1 – cayaea ia iai?oaeiaaiea; 3 – iai?oaeiaaiea;

2 – ieaoa ca iai?oaeiaaiea; 4 – a?aiaeiua ieaoaaee

?en. 2.

Iineieueeo eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee /anoi ia oaaoaao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa
aeey inouanoaeaiey eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee, oi iia iiaeao i?eaeaeaoue
nnoaeu. Oaeay iia?aoeey iieo/eea iacaaiea eeceiaa n aeiiieieoaeueiui
i?eaea/aieai n?aaenoa (?en. 3). Iiaen/eoaii, /oi nauoa 85% anao naeaeie
ii eeceiao yaeythony eeceiaii n i?eaea/aieai n?aaenoa. A?aiaeiaeaoaeue
aa?ao aeieain?i/ioth nnoaeo o iaeiiai eee ianeieueeeo e?aaeeoi?ia ia
noiio aei 80% noieiinoe naeaaaaiuo a a?aiaeo aeoeaia (aac i?aaa ?aa?anna
ia a?aiaeaoi?a), i?e/ai a?aiaeiua ieaoaaee e iai?oaeiaaiea neoaeao
iaania/aieai nnoaeu.

?en. 3

*anoi eeceia inouanoaeyaony ia iai?yioth, a /a?ac iin?aaeieea (?en.4):

?en.4.

Iniiaiie a?aiaeiaeaoaeue iieo/aao i?aeiouanoaaiiia i?aai ia iieo/aiea
a?aiaeiuo ieaoaaeae. A aeiaiai?a iau/ii iaoneaaeeaaaony, /oi a neo/aa
aaie?ionoaa o?aoueaai caaia a?aiaeiay ieaoa iinooiaao iniiaiiio
a?aiaeiaeaoaeth. Iiaeiaiua naeaeee iieo/eee iacaaiea “noaeeceia”.

Neaaeoao iacaaoue e oaeie aeae eeceiaa, eae ia?aoiue eeceia
(lease-back). I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi o i?aaei?eyoey anoue iai?oaeiaaiea, ii
ia oaaoaao n?aaenoa aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oiaaea iii
i?iaeaao yoi iai?oaeiaaiea eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee, a iineaaeiyy a naith
i/a?aaeue naeaao aai a eeceia yoiio aea i?aaei?eyoeth. O i?aaei?eyoey
i?ienoiaeeo a?aiaiiia aunaiaiaeaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa (?en.5).

?en. 5.

E oaeie naeaeea iiaeii i?eaaaaoue e oiaaea, eiaaea o i?aaei?eyoey
aeiaieueii ieceee o?iaaiue aeioiaeia, e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iii ia iiaeao
iieiinoueth ainiieueciaaoueny eueaioaie ii onei?aiiie aii?oecaoeee e
iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth i?eauee. Iii niaa?oaao naeaeeo, a eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey
iieo/aao iaeiaiaua eueaiou. A ioaao iia nieaeaao noaaeo a?aiaeiie ieaou.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?aeoeea caeeth/aiey
niaeaoaiey iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee e eeceiaiauie
eiiiaieyie. A niioaaonoaee n yoeie niaeaoaieyie i?iecaiaeeoaeue io eeoea
eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee i?aaeeaaaao eeeaioai oeiaine?iaaiea naiae
i?iaeoeoeee n iiiiuueth eeceiaa. Oaeei ia?acii eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey
eniieuecoao oi?aiaoth naoue iinoaaueea, a iinoaauee ?anoe?yao a?aieoeu
nauoa naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Yoe naeaeee, iieo/eaoea iacaaiea “iiiiuue a
i?iaeaaea” (sales-aid), i?eiaiythony iau/ii aeey iai?oaeiaaiey n ieceie
noieiinoueth – io 5 aei 20 oun. aeiee.

I?e iinoiyiiii e oaniii nio?oaeie/anoaa i?aaei?eyoee n eeceiaiauie
eiiiaieyie aiciiaeii caeeth/aiea niaeaoaiee ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth
eeceiaiaie eeiee (lease-line). Yoe niaeaoaiey aiaeiae/iu aaieianeei
e?aaeeoiui eeieyi e iicaieytho a?aiaeaoi?o a?aoue aeiiieieoaeueiia
iai?oaeiaaiea a eeceia aac caeeth/aiey eaaeaeue ?ac iiaiai eiio?aeoa
[2].

2. Eeceiaiaay aeayoaeueiinoue a Oe?aeia: ?acaeoea, iniaaiiinoe,
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aaca.

2.1 Yaiethoeey eeceiaa a Oe?aeia.

Ia?aui niauoeai ia?aoiaea Oe?aeiu e oeeaeeeciaaiiiio ?aaoee?iaaieth
eeceiaiauo ioiioaiee iiaeii ioiaoeoue 25 aaeaaiaeiia nia?aiea /eaiia
Aa?iiaeneie oaaea?aoeee iaoeeiiaeueiuo eeceiaiauo annioeeaoeee
“Aa?ieeceia”. A aai ?aaioa i?eieiaee o/anoea 278 aeaeaaaoia ec 26 no?ai,
a oaeaea i?aaenoaaeoaee e?oiiaeoeo aaieia Aa?iiu e NOA. ?aoaieai iauaai
nia?aiey “Aa?ieeceiaa” Oe?aeia auea i?eiyoa iieiii?aaiui /eaiii yoie
aa?iiaeneie yeiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?u. *eainoai a “Aa?ieeceiaa” nicaeaao
aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aieaa oaniiai nio?oaeie/anoaa Oe?aeiu n
aa?iiaeneeie no?aiaie a iaeanoe eeceiaa e i?eaea/aiey ca?oaaaeiuo
eiaanoeoeee [7].

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aieioue aei aeaeaa?y 1997 a. a Oe?aeia
i?aeoe/anee ia nouanoaiaaei caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, ?aaoee?othueo
eeceiaiaua ioiioaiey. Iiyoiio iiiaea i?aaiaua e iaeiaiaua aii?inu auee
ia io?aaoee?iaaiu. Oae, a Caeiia “I iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee
i?aaei?eyoee” eiaeinue eeoue iauaa iiiyoea “oeiainiaay a?aiaea”.
Iniaaiiinoue eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee yoiai ia?eiaea ninoiyea a oii, /oi eie
caieiaeenue, eae i?aaeei, ianiaoeeaeece?othueany ia eeceiaa i?aaiecaoeee
(i?aaei?eyoey) – aaiee, aacu niaaaeaiey e ae?. Nouanoaiaaaoee oiaaea
i?eioeei: caeiia iao, ii eeceia anoue, e ei noieo caieiaoueny [10].

Neooaoeey ia/aea iaiyoueny n aeaeaa?y 1997, eiaaea a Oe?aeia noaee
i?eieiaoueny caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou eanaoaeueii eeceiaa.

E iei ioiinyony:

– Caeii Oe?aeiu “I eeceiaa” io 16 aeaeaa?y 1997 a.;

- I?eia?iue aeiaiai? oeiainiaiai eeceiaa, ooaa?aeaeaiiue i?eeacii
Ieienoa?noaa Oe?aeiu ii aeaeai iaoee e oaoiieiaee io 3 ia?oa 1998 a.;

– Eioi?iaoeeiiiia ienueii Aunoaai a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea Oe?aeiu “I caeiia
Oe?aeiu “I eeceiaa” io 23 ia?oa 1998 a.;

– Iinoaiiaeaiea Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia Oe?aeiu “I ii?yaeea ?aaeno?aoeee
aeiaiai?ia eeceiaa”.

Eeceiaiaua ioiioaiey a Oe?aeia i?eia?aee naie eaaaeueiue noaoon. Caeii
“I eeceiaa” aeinoaoi/ii /aoei ii?aaeaeee th?eaee/aneoth nooue eeceiaa,
e?oa noauaeoia eeceiaa, eo i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe, aeaeu eeceiaa e ?yae ia
iaiaa aaaeiuo i?aaiauo eaoaai?ee. Ii, aianoa n oai, eae iinea auoiaea
eaeiai-eeai caeiia, ?aaoee?othuaai i?eioeeieaeueii iiaue aeae
i?aaiioiioaiee, aicieeei iiiaeanoai aii?inia, noaeaeaiee, aeiiuneia ii
iiaiaeo oieeiaaiey caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo ii?i.

Ia iiainoue, /oi Oe?aeineay yeiiiieea ino?i ioaeaeaaony a eiaanoeoeeyo.
Aieueoeinoai yenia?oia ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi eeceia iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue
i?aiaeieaieth i?iiuoeaiiiai niaaea. E oiio aea, ii iiaieth iiiaeo
niaoeeaeenoia, eeceia naaiaeiy yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui caeiiiui e
iaaeaaeiui ai anao ioiioaieyo iaoaieciii i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa aeey
oe?aeineeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

?uiie eeceiaa a Oe?aeia iaoiaeeony oieueei ia ia/aeueiii yoaia ?acaeoey.
Iauai ianoiuo eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee, oeiaine?oaiuo ec aioo?aiieo
enoi/ieeia, i/aiue ieceee, i?eaeeceoaeueii 20 iei.a?i. Ana inoaeueiua
iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n eeceiaii, oeiaine?othony eiino?aiiuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie eee ?acee/iuie iin?aaeieeaie.

Ianiio?y ia aeinoeaeaiey a niaa?oainoaiaaiee caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aacu,
nouanoaothuay th?eaee/aneay, ?aaoee?othuay e iaeiaiaay nenoaiu ia
niinianoaotho ?acaeoeth yooaeoeaiuo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, ?uieia, a
/anoiinoe, ?uiea eeceiaa a Oe?aeia. Ionoonoaea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
aaieianeei e?aaeeoai enoi/ieeia aeieain?i/iiai oeiaine?iaaiey nicaeaao
cia/eoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe aeey eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee a niaa?oainoaiaaiee
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee.

I?eaea/aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oeiainiauo aaaionoa aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey
oeiainiauo o/?aaeaeaiee, a oii /enea e eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, ia oneiaeyo
aeieain?i/iiai e?aaeeoiaaiey aeieaeii noaoue iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
yeaiaioia no?aoaaee noeioee?iaaiey ?acaeoey eeceiaa a Oe?aeia.

A i?eioeeia, ia ai anao aaaeoueo no?aiao caiaaea nouanoaoao ioaeaeueiue
caeii, eioi?ue ?aaoee?oao acaeiiioiioaiey a eeceiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iaeiaei i?aeoe/anee ai anao no?aiao nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua eueaiou,
oae eae eeceia noeioee?oao i?iecaiaenoai. Iaeiaei a Oe?aeia aeaaea n
i?eiyoeai Caeiia Oe?aeiu “i eeceiaa” inoaaony iiiai iaauyniaiiuo
aii?inia [11].

2.2 Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey e i?iaeaiiua aii?inu caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu
i eeceiaa

Niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao Oe?aeiu iiae eeceiaiaie
(a?aiaeiie) iia?aoeeae iiieiaaony oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey oece/aneiai
eee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea (a?aiaeiaeaoaey), i?aaeoniao?eaathuay
i?aaeinoaaeaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia eee caiee a iieueciaaiea ae?oaei
oece/aneei eee th?eaee/aneei (a?aiaeaoi?ai) iiae i?ioeaio e ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie.

Eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae niaoeeoe/aneoth oi?io
oeiaine?iaaiey a iniiaiua oiiaeu i?aaei?eyoey niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie
oe?iaie – o?aoueeie eeoeaie, eioi?ua caeoiatho o?aaoaiua iaoa?eaeueiua (
e ia oieueei iaoa?eaeueiua) oeaiiinoe (iai?oaeiaaiea, aeaeaeeiia e
iaaeaeaeeiia eiouanoai), i?eaeaeay oeiainiaua ?ano?nu ec aiaoieo
enoi/ieeia, e naeatho eo iieo/aoaeyi a “a a?aiaeo”, nio?aiyy ca niaie
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia yoe oeaiiinoe.

A caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu aeaiu ii?aaeaeaiey iia?aoeaiiai,
oeiainiaiai e ia?aoiiai eeceiaa, a oaeaea a?aiaeu caiee e aeeeuo
iiiauaiee. Inoaaony ioe?uoui aii?in noaeeceiaa [11].

Niaeanii Caeiio Oe?aeiu “I iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee” iiae
iia?aoeaiui eeceiaii (a?aiaeie) iiieiaaony oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey
oece/aneiai eee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea (a?aiaeiaeaoaey),
i?aaeoniao?eaathuay i?aaeinoaaeaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia eee caiee a
iieueciaaiea ae?oaei oece/aneei eee th?eaee/aneei eeoeai (a?aiaeaoi?ai)
iiae i?ioeaio e ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. I?aai iieueciaaiey eiouanoaii
ia?aaeaaony a?aiaeaoi?o ia n?ie, ia i?aauoathuee n?iea aai iieiie
aii?oecaoeee, n iaycaoaeueiui aica?aoii oaeeo iniiaiuo oiiaeia eo
nianoaaiieeo iinea ieii/aiey n?iea aeaenoaey eeceiaiaiai niaeaoaiey.

Iniiaiua oiiaeu, ia?aaeaiiua a iia?aoeaiue eeceia, inoathony ia aaeaina
a?aiaeiaeaoaey.

Iiae oeiainiaui eeceiaii iiieiaaony oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey oece/aneiai
eee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea (a?aiaeiaeaoaey), i?aaeoniao?eaathuay
i?eia?aoaiea a?aiaeiaeaoaeai ii caeaco a?aiaeaoi?a iniiaiuo oiiaeia n
aeaeueiaeoae eo ia?aaea/ae a iieueciaaiea a?aiaeaoi?o ia n?ie, ia
i?aauoathuee n?iea iieiie aii?oecaoeee oaeeo iniiaiuo oiiaeia, n
iaycaoaeueiie aeaeueiaeoae ia?aaea/ae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia oaeea
iniiaiua oiiaeu a?aiaeaoi?o.

Oeiainiaue eeceia yaeyaony ?aciiaeaeiinoueth oeiainiaiai e?aaeeoa.
?anoiaeu a?aiaeiaeaoaey ia iieoieo iauaeoia oeiainiaiai eeceiaa ia
aeeth/athony a ninoaa aaeiauo ecaea?aeae eee a ninoaa iniiaiuo oiiaeia
oaeiai a?aiaeiaeaoaey. Iniiaiua oiiaeu, ia?aaeaiiua a oeiainiaue eeceia,
aeeth/athony a ninoaa iniiaiuo oiiaeia a?aiaeaoi?a.

Iiae ia?aoiui eeceiaii iiieiaaony oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey oece/aneiai
eee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea (a?aiaeiaeaoaey), i?aaeoniao?eaathuay i?iaeaaeo
iniiaiuo oiiaeia oeiainiaie i?aaiecaoeee n iaeiia?aiaiiui ia?aoiui
iieo/aieai oaeeo oiiaeia oaeei oece/aneei eee th?eaee/aneei eeoeii a
iia?aoeaiue eee oeiainiaue eeceia.

Iiae a?aiaeie caiee (a oaeaea aeeeuo iiiauaiee) iiieiaaony oicyenoaaiiay
iia?aoeey, eioi?ay i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?aaeinoaaeaiea a?aiaeiaeaoaeai
caiee a iieueciaaiea ae?oaiio oece/aneiio eee th?eaee/aneiio eeoeo ia
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie (a neo/aa n iiiauaieyie – iiaeii aann?i/ii) ii
oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth e ca a?aiaeioth ieaoo.

Ii?yaeie inouanoaeaiey iia?aoeee ii a?aiaea aeeeuo iiiauaiee
?aaoee?oaony iieiaeaieyie AEeeeuiiai eiaeaena Oe?aeiu. Eeceia ae?oaeo
nii?oaeaiee e caeaiee inouanoaeyaony ia oneiaeyo, ii?aaeaeaiiuo
aeiaiai?ii eeceiaa.

*aoeia ii?aaeaeaiea a aeiaiai?a i eeceiaa i?aaee, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie e ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie, i/aiue aaaeii, oae eae ec-ca
ianiaethaeaiey oaeeo i?aaee ioi?ieaiey e ?aaeecaoeee iia?aoeee aeiaiai?
iiaeao ia i?eciaoueny eae eeceiaiaue, /oi iiaeao iiaea/ue ca niaie
iaaeaeaoaeueiua oeiainiaua (eee ae?oaea) iineaaenoaey.

I?eciaeaie iia?aoeaiiai eeceiaa iiaoo auoue:

* eeceiaiaeaoaeue ia iiaeao eiiiaine?iaaoue ana cao?aou ca n/ao
ieaoaaeae iaeiiai eeceiaiiieo/aoaey;

* ?ene neo/aeiie aeaaee eiouanoaa eaaeeo ia eeceiaiaeaoaea;

* eeceiaiaay naeaeea caeeth/aaony ia n?ie, eioi?ue ia iiaeao auoue
aieueoa n?iea iieiie aii?oecaoeee ia?aaeaiiiai a eeceia eiouanoaa (eae
i?aaeei, iaiiiai iaiueoa n?iea iieiie aii?oecaoeee a?aiaeoaiiai
eiouanoaa);

* no?aoiaaiea e oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea, eae i?aaeei, inouanoaeyaony
eeceiaiaeaoaeai;

* iinea ieii/aiey n?iea a?aiaeu eiouanoai aeieaeii auoue aica?auaii
eeceiaiaeaoaeth. I?e yoii i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia a?aiaeoaiia eiouanoai
inoaaony o eeceiaiaeaoaey a oa/aiea anaai n?iea a?aiaeu.

I?eciaeaie oeiainiaiai eeceiaa iiaoo auoue:

* iau/ii a naeaeea i?eieiaao o/anoea o?aouey noi?iia (iinoaauee eee
i?iecaiaeeoaeue iauaeoa naeaeee);

* eeceiaiaeaoaeue (a?aiaeiaeaoaeue) i?aaeinoaaeyao iaoa?eaeueiua
oeaiiinoe ii caeaco a?aiaeaoi?a n iineaaeothuae ia?aaea/ae yoeo
oeaiiinoae iineaaeiaio a iieueciaaiea;

* ?ene neo/aeiie aeaaee eiouanoaa eee aai iia?aaeaeaiey, ana aeaeu
a?aaeaeaineie ioaaonoaaiiinoe, eioi?ua iiaoo aicieeiooue a nayce n
eniieueciaaieai a?aiaeoaiuo oeaiiinoae, ianao a?aiaeaoi?;

* eeceiaiaay naeaeea caeeth/aaony ia n?ie ia iaiaa n?iea iieiie
aii?oecaoeee ia?aaeaiiiai eiouanoaa;

* no?aoiaaiea e oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea eiouanoaa inouanoaeyaony ca
n/ao a?aiaeaoi?a;

* iinea ieii/aiey n?iea a?aiaeu i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia eiouanoai
aeieaeii auoue ia?aaeaii a?aiaeaoi?o.

Ai a?aiy ?aaeecaoeee eeceiaiaie naeaeee aicieeatho ii?aaeaeaiiua
iaycaoaeuenoaa noauaeoia eeceiaiaie iia?aoeee. Iaycaoaeuenoai
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaiioiioaiea, a neeo eioi?iai iaeiiai eeoei
(aeieaeiee) iaycaii niaa?oeoue a iieueco ae?oaiai (e?aaeeoi?a)
ii?aaeaeaiiua aeaenoaey (ia?aaeaoue eiouanoai, auiieieoue ?aaioo,
ia?a/eneeoue aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa e ae?.) eeai aicaea?aeaoueny io
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaenoaee, a e?aaeeoi? ai?aaa o?aaiaaoue io aeieaeieea
eniieiaiey aai iaycaiiinoe (no.151 A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena Oe?aeiu).

Eaaeaeay eeceiaiaay iia?aoeey yaeyaony oieeaeueiie. Aa oneiaey aeieaeiu
aiaeece?iaaoueny aeey eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai neo/ay. Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi
eeceia yaeyaony oeaeaniia?aciui, eiaaea ii iaeeiaeiai auaiaeai eae
eeceiaiaeaoaeth, oae e a?aiaeaoi?o, oi ia iiaeao auoue noaiaea?oiie
noaiu eeceiaiaie iia?aoeee.

Aeey i?iecaiaeeoaey iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuoth a?oiio i?aeiouanoa:

1. ?aaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue iaiiaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa aac iaeiia?aiaiiuo
cia/eoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee.

2. Aiciiaeiinoue ioianaiey niioaaonoaothueo cao?ao ia naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee a oa/aiea aeaenoaey eeceiaiaiai eiio?aeoa (a yoi aeinoaoi/ii
aieueoie io?acie a?aiaie).

3. Nio?aiaiea eeeaeaeiinoe naiaai aaeaina.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey i?aaeaeiaiai?iuo i?ioeaaeo? eeceiaiaeaoaeue aeieaeai
iieo/eoue io caeioa?aniaaiiiai eeoea (io aiciiaeiiai a?aiaeaoi?a)
neaaeothuea iniiaiua aeieoiaiou:

1. I?iaeo aeiaiai?a iinoaaee iai?oaeiaaiey eee i?iaeo aeiaiai?a
eoiee-i?iaeaaee eaieoaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee, aaea auee au i?eaaaeaiu
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee eiouanoaa, aa?aioee, oneiaey
iinoaaee.

2. I?iaeo aeiaiai?a caeiaa eee no?aoiaaiey caaiueeii (a?aiaeaoi?ii)
eiouanoaa ia aanue n?ie aeaenoaey eeceiaiaiai niaeaoaiey a iieueco
eeceiaiaeaoaey io anao aiciiaeiuo ?eneia, naycaiiuo n eniieueciaaieai
eiouanoaa.

3. Yenia?oiia caeeth/aiea ioiineoaeueii ea/anoaa e oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua yaeythony iauaeoaie eeceiaa.

4. I?iaeo ?an/aoa noieiinoe eeceiaiaie iia?aoeee n o/aoii n?iea neoaeau
iniiaiuo oiiaeia, ia?eiaea eo aii?oecaoeee e eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia.

Ethaia eeceiaiaia niaeaoaiea aeieaeii /aoei ii?aaeaeeoue neaaeothuea
iniiaiua iiiaiou:

1. Noaoon eeceiaiaeaoaey eae nianoaaiieea eiouanoaa.

2. Iaycaiiinoe a?aiaeaoi?a inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue ca oiaeii iinoaaee
eiouanoaa, niioaaonoaeai aai oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneei oa?aeoa?enoeeai,
eiiieaeoiinoueth e ea/anoaii iieo/aaiiai eiouanoaa.

3. Iieiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue a?aiaeaoi?a ca auai? iinoaaueea, oaoie/aneia
ninoiyiea e ea/anoai eiouanoaa.

4. Iaycaoaeuenoai eeceiaiaeaoaey (a?aiaeiaeaoaey) oieaoeoue noieiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaeaoi?ii eiouanoaa.

5. Iaycaoaeuenoaa a?aiaeaoi?a a oa/aiea n?iea aeaenoaey niaeaoaiey
eniieueciaaoue eiouanoai ii iacia/aieth e a niioaaonoaee n oaoie/aneeie
eino?oeoeeyie, inouanoaeyoue ca naie n/ao ?aiiio e ianeoaeeaaiea
eiouanoaa.

6. Iiiaio oieaou a?aiaeaoi?ii ia?aiai eeceiaiaiai ieaoaaea (eae i?aaeei,
aaainii iinea iiaeienaiey i?ioieiea i i?eaiea eiouanoaa).

7. Noiia eeceiaiaiai ieaoaaea ia aeieaeia auoue oeene?iaaiiie. Iia
ninoieo ec noiiu aii?oecaoeee, eeceiaiaie ia?aee e i?aiee ca ?ene.
Eeceiaiaeaoaeue (a?aiaeiaeaoaeue) aeieaeai eiaoue i?aai ei??aeoe?iaaoue
?acia? eeceiaiaiai ieaoaaea a niioaaonoaee n oaeouei o?iaiai eioeyoeee,
eciaiaieai o?iaiy i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ii e?aaeeoai, eiaeaenaoeeae
noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

8. I?aai eeceiaiaeaoaey (a?aiaeiaeaoaey) aein?i/ii, a iaeiinoi?iiiai
ii?yaeea, ?anoi?aiooue niaeaoaiea a neo/aa ianaiaa?aiaiiie oieaou
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae, eniieueciaaiey eiouanoaa a?aiaeaoi?ii ia ii
iacia/aieth, iaiaaeeaaeauaai niaea?aeaiey eiouanoaa, iaauiieiaiey
niaeaniaaiiiai n a?aiaeiaeaoaeai a?aoeea i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ?aiiioia,
ia?ooaiey ae?oaeo iaycaoaeuenoa a?aiaeaoi?a, ii?aaeaeaiiuo niaeaoaieai.

9. Iaycaoaeuenoaa a?aiaeaoi?a a neo/aa iieo/aiey io a?aiaeiaeaoaey
a?aoiaioe?iaaiiiai oaaaeiieaiey i ?anoi?aeaiee niaeaoaiey aa?iooue
a?aiaeiaeaoaeth a iaaeeaaeauai ninoiyiee eiouanoai e oieaoeoue noiio
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae aei eiioea n?iea niaeaoaiey.

10. Ii?aaeaeaiea iaeiiai ec aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia caaa?oaiey eeceiaiaie
naeaeee:

aueoi eiouanoaa a?aiaeaoi?ii ii ?uii/iie noieiinoe n o/aoii eciina;

aica?ao a?aiaeiaeaoaeth eniieueciaaiiiai eiouanoaa (iia?aoeaiue
eeceia);

caeeth/aiea iiaiai eeceiaiaiai niaeaoaiey ia iaiueoee n?ie e ii
eueaioiie noaaea.

Eaiiai i?aoeiiaaiey a eeceiaa yaeyaony oi, /oi aa?iyoiay eeceiaiaay
naeaeea (a?aiaea) aeieaeia ioeaieaaoueny e a?aiaeaoi?ii, e
a?aiaeiaeaoaeai (eee oeiainiaui iin?aaeieeii, eioi?ue oeiaine?oao yoo
iia?aoeeth). A?aiaeaoi? aeieaeai ii?aaeaeeoue, aoaeao ee eeceia
iaania/eaaoue iaoneiaeaiiue o?iaaiue iai?ioa e aoaeao ee a?aiaea aeoeaa
iaiueoae ii noieiinoe, /ai aai iieoiea (anee o oe?iu anoue oaeay
aiciiaeiinoue). Iai?eia?, anee oe?ia ?aoaao i?eia?anoe iai?oaeiaaiea eee
?anoe?eoue i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aaco e eoieoue iai?oaeiaaiea, ?aoaiea
aeieaeii no?ieoueny ia ?aaoey?iuo iia?aoeeyo oi?ie?iaaiey athaeaeaoa
eaieoaea, iiyoiio a aiaeeca eeceiaa oe?ia aeieaeia ioaaoeoue ia aii?in:
oeiaine?iaaoue iaoaieci aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu /a?ac eeceia eee caei. E
anee oeiaine?iaaiea aeoeaia /a?ac eeceia auaiaeiaa ?ani?ino?aiaiey
iaeeaaoeee eee iieo/aiey e?aaeeoa, oi o/eouaay aeaeaaioth no?oeoo?o
eaieoaea e athaeaeaoe?iaaiey eaieoaea oe?iu, iiaeii ?aaeeciauaaoue
eiio?aeo ii eeceiao. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anee oe?ia ?aoeea i?eia?anoe
aeoea, oi ae iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue, eaeei ia?acii aai oeiaine?iaaoue,
iineieueeo oniaoiue aecian ia aeieaeai eiaoue eceeoea naiaiaeiuo
n?aaenoa. Iiyoiio iiaua aeoeau aeieaeiu oeiaine?iaaoueny
niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii. N?aaenoaa iiaeii iieo/eoue /a?ac
e?aaeeoiaaiea, ia?ani?aaeaeaiioth i?eaueue eee /a?ac yienneth aeoeee eee
iaeeaaoeee. Aeueoa?iaoeaie yaeyaony eeceia, eioi?ue aeeyao ia no?oeoo?o
eaieoaea oe?iu oaeaea, eae e aeiea, iin?aaenoaii oiai, /oi oe?ia ioaeii
i?iecaanoe na?ee iniauo oieao, e iaaa?iia ?aoaiea yoeo aii?inia iiaeao
i?eaanoe e aaie?ionoao.

Oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi nai eeceiaiaeaoaeue aoaeao eiaoue
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe a oa/aiea n?iea niaeaoaiey ia aeoea, eioi?ue aoaeao
ioeaiai a eiioea a?aiaeu ii inoaoi/iie noieiinoe aeoeaia, eioi?ay iau/ii
eieaaeaony a ?aeiia 10% io anae noieiinoe aeoeaia. A o/eouaay oi, /oi a
Oe?aeia neiaeeeanue oaiaeaioeey e iiieaeaieth i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ni
noi?iiu eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, eeceia a aeaeueiaeoai ana aieueoa aoaeao
aeeyoue ia i?eiyoea ?aoaiea i iiaeienaiee eiio?aeoa i eeceiaa
iai?oaeiaaiey (eiouanoaa). Iniaaiii aeey iaaieueoeo e n?aaeiaai ?acia?a
oe?i aii?in eeceiaa yaeyaony aeooaeueiui, oae eae iin?aaenoaii eeceiaa
i?eaea/aiea aieueoeo oeiainiauo n?aaenoa aoaeao aieaa aaciianii, /ai
iaeeaaoeee eee aeoeee. Oai aieaa, /oi Caeii Oe?aeiu “I iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue” (ii.3.2.2 i.3.2 no.3) i?aaeoniao?eaaao
auaaaeaiea ec-iiae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iia?aoeee eeceiaa aeey eiiiaiee
?aceaeaioia.

Oaeei ia?acii, eeceia naaiaeiy – naiay aeooaeueiay e iaaeaaeiay oi?ia
e?aaeeoiaaiey aeey oe?aeineeo oneiaee aaaeaiey aeciana.

Oaaeeoea 2. Iniiaiua i?iaeaiu, aicieeathuea i?e inouanoaeaiee eeceiaiauo
iia?aoeee a Oe?aeia [11].

I?iaeaia Nnueea ia caeii Ecaea/aiea ec caeiia Eiiiaioa?ee

Ioiaia aaiciiai IAeN i?e iieoiea iai?oaeiaaiey ia nianoaaiiua ioaeaeu
Oeac I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu “I iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue n
eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia” io 30.06.95 a. Onoaiiaeoue, /oi n 7 ethiy 1995 aiaea
eiii?oiia nu?uea, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneea ?ano?nu, eiiieaeoothuea
ecaeaeey, iai?oaeiaaiea, iaoa?eaeu, oaoieea e ae?oaea oiaa?u, aaiceiua
oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie anao oi?i nianoaaiiinoe, a oii /enea
iin?aaeieeaie (i?yiuie iinoaaueeaie), aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e
nianoaaiiuo ioaeae (oi anoue aac iineaaeothuae ?aaeecaoeee), a oaeaea
yia?aiiineoaee (iaooue e aac), aaiceiua aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioaeae, a
oii /enea ii aa?oa?iui iia?aoeeyi, e?iia oiaa?ia, ia?a/aiue eioi?uo
ii?aaeaeyao Eaaeiao Ieieno?ia Oe?aeiu, ia iiaeeaaeaueo iaeiaeaieth
iaeiaii ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ai a?aiy ia?aiauaiey /a?ac
oaiiaeaiioth oa??eoi?eth Oe?aeiu. Oi anoue aeey oiai, /oiau ia ieaoeoue
IAeN i?e aaica iai?oaeiaaiey ia oa??eoi?eth Oe?aeiu, a aeiaiai?a eeceiaa
iaiaoiaeeii /aoei oeacuaaoue, /oi aeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea aaiceoueny aeey
nianoaaiiuo ioaeae eeceiaiiieo/aoaey (aeey yoiai aio iaiaoiaeeii naiiio
?anoaiaaeeaaoue iai?oaeiaaiea).

Inaiaiaeaeaiea eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee io IAeN Caeii Oe?aeiu “I iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue” io 03.04.97 a ?168/97-A? 3.2.2 Iia?aoeee ii
ia?aaea/aeiouanoaa a?aiaeiaeaoaey (eeceiaiaeaoaey) ?aceaeaioii a
iieueciaaiea a?aiaeaoi?o niaeanii oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a eeceiaa e aai
aica?ao a?aiaeiaeaoaeth ii ieii/aiee aeiaiai?a ia yaeythony iauaeoii
aeey iaeiaeaiey iaeiaii ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue (aeaey anao
eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee). AIA ii ai?iaeo Eeaao iiiaauaea, /oi ana aoaeoo
ieaoeoue IAeN, ii iia?aoi?u ?uiea iano?iaiu ?aoeoaeueii e aioiau
ionoaeaaoue i?aai ia ieaoeoue IAeN a noaea.

Ioianaiea eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ia aaeiaua ?anoiaeu eeceiaiiieo/aoaey
Caeii Oe?aeiu “I eeceiaa” io 16.12.97 a. ?723/97-A? Noaouey 16.
Eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee

1. Eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee aeeth/atho:

noiio, eioi?ay aiciauaao i?e eaaeaeii ieaoaaea /anoue noieiinoe iauaeoa
eeceiaa, aii?oece?oaiiai ia n?ie, ca eioi?ue aiineony eeceiaiaue
ieaoaae;

noiio, oiea/eaaaioth eeceiaiaeaoaeth eae i?ioeaio ca i?eaea/aiiue ei
e?aaeeo aeey i?eia?aoaiey eiouanoaa ii aeiaiai?o eeceiaa;

ieaoaae eae aiciaa?aaeaeaiea eeceiaiaeaoaeth ca iieo/aiiia a eeceia
eiouanoai;

aiciauaiea no?aoiauo ieaoaaeae ii aeiaiai?o no?aoiaaiey eeceiaiaeaoaeai;

ae?oaea cao?aou eeceiaiaeaoaey, i?aaeoniio?aiiua aeiaiai?ii eeceiaa.

2. ?acia?u, niinia, oi?ia e n?iee aianaiey eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae e
oneiaey eo ia?aniio?a ii?aaeaeythony a aeiaiai?a eeceiaa ii
aeiaiai?aiiinoe noi?ii a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie ianoiyuaai Caeiia e
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?aeiu.

Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycai naiaa?aiaiii oiea/eaaoue i?aaeoniio?aiiua
aeiaiai?ii eeceiaa ieaoaaee.

3. Eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?aeu
ioiinyony ia aaeiaua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey. Caeanue nouanoaoao na?ueaciay i?iaeaia ii ioianaieth
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ia ?anoiaeu eeceiaiiieo/aoaey, oae eae
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?aaeoniio?aiu oaeea ii?iu aii?oecaoeee, eioi?ua
naiaeyo ia iao eeanne/aneee oeiainiaue eeceia, aea e n iia?aoeaiui
iiyaeythony i?iaeaiu.

Eeceiaiaay naeaeea ?anoyaeaaaony ai a?aiaie e ie aeey eeceiaiiieo/aoaey,
ie aeey eeceiaiaeaoaey yoi ia auaiaeii. Naeaeea oeiainiaiai eeceiaa
?anoyaeaaaony ia ainaiue eao (/oiau aeinoe/ue caaaoiuo 60%), e iioii ana
?aaii i?eoiaeeony ieaoeoue IAeN ia inoaoi/ioth noieiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey.

Ioianaiea eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ia aaeiaua ?anoiaeu a?aiaeiaeaoaey Caeii
Oe?aeiu “I iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee” io 19.06.97 a.
?27/97-A? 1.18.2 Oeiainiaue eeceia (a?aiaea) – oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey
oece/aneiai eee th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay i?eia?aoaiea
a?aiaeiaeaoaeai ii caeaco a?aiaeaoi?a iniiaiuo oiiaeia n aeaeueiaeoae eo
ia?aaea/ae a iieueciaaiea a?aiaeaoi?o ia n?ie, ia i?aauoathuee n?iea
iieiie aii?oecaoeee oaeeo iniiaiuo oiiaeia, n iaycaoaeueiie aeaeueiaeoae
ia?aaea/ae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia oaeea iniiaiua oiiaeu a?aiaeaoi?o.
?anoiaeu a?aiaeiaeaoaey ia iieoieo iauaeoia oeiainiaiai eeceiaa ia
aeeth/athony a ninoaa aaeiauo ?anoiaeia eee ninoaa iniiaiuo oiiaeia
oaeiai a?aiaeiaeaoaey Aeey a?aiaeiaeaoaey caeanue anoue ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?iaeaiu, oae eae a Oe?aeia iao eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee, eioi?ua ?aaioaee au
ca n/ao nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea, a iniiaiii iie aa?oo e?aaeeou a aaieao,
oi anoue yoi aea/ao ca niaie oaei?iaeaiea eeceiaiauo ?ano?nia.

Aeeth/aiea noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey a aaeiaua aeioiaeu e a aaeiaua
?anoiaeu Caeii Oe?aeiu “I iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee” io
19.06.97 a. ?27/97-A? 7.9.1. N o/aoii iniaaiiinoae, onoaiiaeaiiuo
ianoiyuei Caeiiii, ia aeeth/athony a aaeiaue aeioiae e ia iiaeeaaeao
iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth n?aaenoaa eee eiouanoai, i?eaea/aiiua
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii a nayce n iieo/aieai iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii oeiainiauo
e?aaeeoia io ae?oaeo eeoe – e?aaeeoi?ia, a oaeaea aica?aoii iniiaiie
noiiu oeiainiauo e?aaeeoia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii ae?oaei
eeoeai – aeaaeoi?ai; i?eaea/aieai iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii eiouanoaa ia
iniiaaiee aeiaiai?a eeceiaa (a?aiaeu), eiioeannee, eiiennee,
eiineaiaoeee, aeiaa?eoaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, o?aiaiey (ioaaonoaaiiiai
o?aiaiey), a oaeaea niaeanii ae?oaei a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui aeiaiai?ai,
ia i?aaeoniao?eaathuei ia?aaea/e i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia oaeia eiouanoai.

7.9.2. N o/aoii iniaaiiinoae, onoaiiaeaiiuo ianoiyuei Caeiiii, ia
aeeth/athony a aaeiaua ?anoiaeu n?aaenoaa eee eiouanoai,
i?aaeinoaaeaiiua iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii a nayce n aica?aoii
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii iniiaiie noiiu e?aaeeoa ae?oaei eeoeai –
e?aaeeoi?ai, a oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeaieai e?aaeeoa ae?oaei eeoeai –
aeaaeoi?ai; i?aaeinoaaeaieai iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii eiouanoaa ia iniiaaiee
aeiaiai?ia eeceiaa (a?aiaeu), eiioeannee, eiiennee, eiineaiaoeee,
aeiaa?eoaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey, o?aiaiey (ioaaonoaaiiiai o?aiaiey) eee
niaeanii ae?oaei a?aaeaeainei-i?aaiaui aeiaiai?ai, ia
i?aaeoniao?eaathuei ia?aaea/e i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia oaeia eiouanoai
ae?oaiio eeoeo.

Iiae oa?ieiii “iniiaiay noiia” neaaeoao iiieiaoue noiio
i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai e?aaeeoa eee aeaiiceoa (n?i/iuo, aeiaa?eoaeueiuo
n/aoia) aac o/aoa i?ioeaioia (oeene?iaaiiuo auieao, i?aiee, auea?uoae).
Ia?aaeaiiua a iia?aoeaiue eeceia iniiaiua oiiaeu /eneyony ia aaeaina
eeceiaiaeaoaey n auaeaeaieai a ?aaeno?ao aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa a
iainiaeaiioth a?oiio n iaicia/aieai, /oi iie ia?aaeaiu a iia?aoeaiue
eeceia. I?eiyoua a iia?aoeaiue eeceia iniiaiua oiiaeu ca/eneythony ia
caaaeainiaue n/ao 001 “A?aiaeiaaiiua iniiaiua n?aaenoaa”.

?aaeno?aie aiaeeoe/aneiai o/aoa oaeeo iniiaiuo oiiaeia neoaeeo eiiey
eiaaioa?iie ea?oi/ee yoiai iauaeoa eee auienea ec eiaaioa?iie eieae.

Ia?aaea/a a oeiainiaue eeceia iniiaiuo oiiaeia io?aaeaaony o
a?aiaeiaeaoaey ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 11 “Eiouanoai a a?aiaea”, noan/ao 2
“A?aiaeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa e iinooieaieth” e e?aaeeoo n/aoa 01 “Iniiaiua
n?aaenoaa”.

O a?aiaeaoi?a ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 01 “Iniiaiua n?aaenoaa” (niioaaonoaothuee
noan/ao o/aoa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, acyouo a oeiainiaue eeceia) e e?aaeeoo
n/aoa 99 “Caaeieaeaiiinoue ca eiouanoai a a?aiaea”, noan/ao 2
“Iaycaoaeuenoaa ii oeiainiaie a?aiaea”.

Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aeioiaea eeceiaiaeaoaey Caeii Oe?aeiu “I
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee” io 19.06.97 a. ?27/97-A? 4.1.14.
A aaeiaue aeioiae aoiaeyo (oi anoue iaeaaathony iaeiaii ii aaciaie
noaaea 30%) aeioiaeu io inouanoaeaiey iia?aoeee a?aiaeu (eeceiaa).
Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?aeiu eaeea-eeai eueaiou ii aaaeaieth eeceiaiauo
iia?aoeee ia i?aaeoniio?aiu.

Ia?aceaeaio a Oe?aeia e aai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea Ioieo 13.3 Caeiia Oe?aeiu
“I iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee i?aaei?eyoee” io 16.06.97 a. ?27/97-A?.
?aceaeaiou, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyo auieaoo aeioiaea ia?aceaeaioai (a oii
/enea ia n/aoa ia?aceaeaioia, eioi?ua aaaeoony a a?eaiyo) io
inouanoaeaiey ii?ooaeueiuo eiaanoeoeee a i?ioeaioiua iaeeaaoeee eee
i?ioeaioiua eacia/aeneea iaycaoaeuenoaa, auiouaiiua (yieoe?iaaiiua) ii
?aoaieth ?aceaeaioa, a /anoiinoe, oiieiiii/aiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
i?aaia eee i?aaia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey (ca eneeth/aieai iaeeaaoeee
aiaoieo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia Oe?aeiu), iaycaiu oaea?aeeaaoue ai a?aiy
auieaou oaeiai aeioiaea e oiea/eaaoue iaeia a ?acia?a 30% io noiiu
oaeiai aeioiaea ca n/ao oaeie auieaou aac i?eiaiaiey iaeiaa,
onoaiiaeaiiiai yoei ioieoii. Anee ia?aceaeaio yaeyaony eeceiaiaeaoaeai,
oi ii iiaeao iiianoue iiae aeaenoaea iieiaeaiea i 15% ?aiao?eaoeee
aeioiaeia. Iaeiaei, anee oaeie eeceiaiaeaoaeue iaoiaeeony a no?aia, n
eioi?ie caeeth/ai aeiaiai? ia ecaaaeaiee aeaieiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, oi
ia iaai aeaiiia iieiaeaiea ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eeceia Caeii Oe?aeiu “I iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee
i?aaei?eyoee” io 19.06.97 a. ?27/97-A?. Noaouey 13. Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea
ia?aceaeaioia.

13.1. Ethaua aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua ia?aceaeaioii, enoi/iee eioi?uo
iaoiaeeony a Oe?aeia, io inouanoaeaiey oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe (a
oii /enea ia n/aoa ia?aceaeaioa, aaaeoueany a a?eaiyo) iaeaaathony
iaeiaii a ii?yaeea e ii noaaeai, ii?aaeaeaiiui yoie noaoueae.

Aeey oeaeae yoie noaouee iiae aeioiaeaie, iieo/aiiuie ia?aceaeaioii n
enoi/ieeii eo i?ienoiaeaeaiey ec Oe?aeiu, neaaeoao iiieiaoue:

…a) eeceiaiaay (a?aiaeiay) ieaoa, oiea/eaaaiay (ia/eneyaiay)
?aceaeaioaie eee iinoiyiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaaie a iieueco
ia?aceaeaioa – eeceiaiaeaoaey (a?aiaeiaeaoaey)… Aaeeinoaaiiay i?iaeaia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eeceiaa – yoi iieo/aiea a IAO ?aceaeaioaie eeoeaicee
ia aaaeaiea iineaaeiaai. Aeey iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee i noieiinoe, n?ieao
e o?aaiaaieyo e iieo/aieth eeoeaicee iaiaoiaeei ienueiaiiue cai?in,
ioaao ia eioi?ue aoaeao iieo/ai a oa/aiea ianyoea.

Caeii Oe?aeiu “I eeceiaa” io 16.12.97 a. ?723/97-A?. Noaouey 21.
?aaeno?aoeey aeiaiai?ia eeceiaa

2. I?e auiieiaiee aeiaiai?ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eeceiaa eeceiaiaeaoaeai
-?aceaeaioii aaethoiua iia?aoeee inouanoaeythony i?e iaee/ee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie eeoeaicee Iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaiea Oe?aeiu a niioaaonoaee
n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?aeiu.

2.3 Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey eeceiaa a Oe?aeia.

A oneiaeyo iiaaeueiiai aeaoeoeeoa aeaiaa eeceia noaiiaeony aeey iiiaeo
oe?aeineeo i?aaei?eyoee aaeaa ee ia aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii
i?eia?aoaiey n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa.

A eiioea iicai?ioeiai aiaea, eiaaea Caeii “I eeceiaa” i?eieiaeny
Aa?oiaiie ?aaeie, auneacuaaeenue i?iaiicu ao?iiai ?acaeoey eeceiaiaiai
aeaea a Oe?aeia. A naiii aeaea, eeceia, eae ia?niaeoeaiue eino?oiaio
nauoa aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie
io?anee), iia au niinianoaiaaoue iiaea?iecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa aac
ioaea/aiey iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa. Iaeeaeaeinue e ianniaia iaoanoaea a
Oe?aeio eiino?aiiuo eiiiaiee n eeceiaiauie i?iaeoaie.

Ia iaiaioee iaeeaeaiee oieueei eiino?aioeu: ia oneiaeyo eeceiaa
i?iaeaaony cia/eoaeueiay aeiey aaoiiiaeeueiie oaoieee aa?iiaeneeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae, a oaeaea eia-eaeay i?iaeoeoeey iaoeiino?iaiey.

Ioa/anoaaiiua eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, ianiio?y ia iiyaeaiea
niioaaonoaothuaai Caeiia, ia ii?aaeiaaee. Naaiaeiy a Oe?aeia, iiieii
eiino?aioeaa, eeceiaii oeaeaiai?aaeaiii caieiathony n/eoaiiua no?oeoo?u,
a iauee iauai caaeaenoaiaaiiuo a eeceiaiauo iia?aoeeyo n?aaenoa
niaoioai?ii iae.

Ioiaoei iiiooii, /oi ia i?eianee oniaoa e iiiuoee aea?aeaau “iiea?aoue”
ia aeaiiii iiea n oeaeueth iiaeaea?aeee ioa/anoaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey.

Aeaaiuie i?e/eiaie oaiaoaiiiai ninoiyiey “i?iaeaae a ?ann?i/eo” (oae
eiiaaea iacuaatho oeiainiaue eeceia) niaoeeaeenou n/eoatho
ianiaeaniaaiiinoue i?eiyoiai a 1997 a. Caeiia “I eeceiaa” n inoaeueiui
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii, a oaeaea ionoonoaea a naiii Caeiia iaeioi?uo
aaaeiaeoeo ii?i.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a Eaaeiaoa ieieno?ia iaoiaeyony i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
aianaieth iii?aaie a eeceiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, ?ac?aaioaiiua
oeiainiai-eeceiaiaui aeiiii (OEAe) aaiea “Oe?aeia” e a?eoaineei oiiaeii
“Know how”. Iii?aaee yoe iai?aaeaiu, anoanoaaiii, a ia?aoth, ia
iaeaa/aiea iieiaeaiey eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee. E iio?aaeoaeyi eeceiaiauo
oneoa, a neo/aa i?eiyoey iii?aaie, aeeoue noaiao aanaeaa [5].

Oeiainiaue eeceia naaiaeiy ai iiiaii iaiiieiaao oiaeaeaiea ii eaiaoo.
Eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee ieacaeenue aaccaueoiuie e ia?aae iaaeia?iniaanoiuie
eeeaioaie, e ia?aae i?iecaieii iaeiaiaeeia.

Oae, ii neiaai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae OEAe, e?aeia neiaeiie i?ioeaaeo?ie
ieacaeinue aica?auaiea iauaeoa eeceiaa, eiaaea eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue
ia?ooaao oneiaey aeiaiai?a.

A niioaaonoaee n Caeiiii “I eeceiaa”, aica?ao eiouanoaa a oaeeo neo/ayo
i?iecaiaeeony a aannii?iii ii?yaeea ia iniiaaiee eniieieoaeueiie
iaaeiene iioa?eona. Iaeiaei i?e ia?auaiee a ainoaea?noaaiioth
iioa?eaeueioth eiioi?o eiiiaiey ia?aaeanue ia ioeac ia oii iniiaaiee,
/oi a ia?a/ia aeieoiaioia, acuneaiea caaeieaeaiiinoe ii eioi?ui
i?iecaiaeeony a aannii?iii ii?yaeea, iao aeiaiai?ia eeceiaa. Enee i
aica?auaiee eiouanoaa, ia?aaeaiiiai ii eeceiaiaiio aeiaiai?o,
ioeacuaathony ?anniao?eaaoue e a?aeo?aaeiua noaeu, iineieueeo iiaeiaiua
i?ioeannu aeieaeiu i?ienoiaeeoue ia iniiaaiee eniieieoaeueiie iaaeiene
iioa?eona. Iieo/aaony caeieaeiaaiiue e?oa. A neo/aa iaee/ey o
eeceiaiiieo/aoaey ceiai oiunea, ii iiaeao aaciieaoii iieueciaaoueny
iieo/aiiui eiouanoaii aanueia aeeeoaeueiue n?ie. Iiaeiaiua aii?inu,
eiia/ii, iiaeii ?aoaoue e iaoi?iaeueiuie iaoiaeaie, ii e?oiiua eiiiaiee,
aei?iaeauea naiei eiaiai, oaeeo iaoiaeia /o?athony.

Neaaeothuay, aieaa ianooaaiay i?iaeaia eeceiaiaiai aeciana ninoieo a
oii, /oi i?eia?aoaiea eeceiaiaeaoaeai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey iineaaeothuae
ia?aaea/e aai a oeiainiaue eeceia o?aeooaony iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie eae
iia?aoeey eoiee-i?iaeaaee, a ia eae i?eia?aoaiea eiiiaieae iauaeoa
eeceiaa aeey nianoaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioaeae.

Niaeanii aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, iia?aoeeae eoiee-i?iaeaaee
n/eoaaony ethaay oicyenoaaiiay iia?aoeey, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay ia?aoiae
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia eiouanoai, yaeythuaany i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a.
Oeiainiaue eeceia, eae ii?aaeaeaii a Caeiia “I iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee i?eauee
i?aaei?eyoee”, caeai/eaaaony ia?aoiaeii i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?anniao?eaaaony eae ?aciiaeaeiinoue oi?aiaie iia?aoeee.

Iinaio, iai?eia?, i?e “?anoaiiaeea” eiii?oiiai iai?oaeiaaiey,
aeeth/aiiiai a ia?a/aiue oiaa?ia e?eoe/aneiai eiii?oa, oaiiaeiy o?aaoao
io eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee oieaou IAeN, eai n/eoaaony, /oi iai?oaeiaaiea
i?eia?aoaaony aeey i?iaeaaee. Iaaeaeo oai, e eaoaai?ee oiaa?ia
e?eoe/aneiai eiii?oa ioianaia e ca?iioai?i/iay oaoieea, e iaoaieciu aeey
ia?a?aaioee naeueoici?iaeoeoeee, e iiiai aua /aai, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao
eioa?an aeey oe?aeineiai iio?aaeoaey eeceiaiauo oneoa.

Ii iiaieth niaoeeaeenoia, iiaeiaiay o?aeoiaea eeceiaa yaeyaony ioeai/iie
e ia niioaaonoaoao nooe eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee. I?e/eiu oiio neaaeothuea:
ieceay ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue oe?aeineeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae i?eaiaeeo e oiio,
/oi iaiiaeaiea iniiaiuo oiiaeia, eae i?aaeei, i?ienoiaeeo ia iooai
i?yiie iieoiee ca nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa, a n iiiiuueth i?eaea/aiey
e?aaeeoiuo ?ano?nia.

Iaeiie ec oi?i e?aaeeoiaaiey oaeiai ia?aaii?oaeaiey e yaeyaony eeceia.

Oi anoue, eeceiaiaeaoaeue i?iaeaao ia oaoieeo eee iai?oaeiaaiea, a
oeiainiaoth oneoao, iicaieythuoth eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth oaeoth oaoieeo
eniieueciaaoue.

Iiieii anaai i?i/aai, iniiaiie i?eciae naeaeie eoiee-i?iaeaaee –
ia?aoiae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe – aiana ia yaeyaony iaecaaaeiui eoiaii
oeiainiai-eeceiaiaie naeaeee. Nouanoaoao ianna eiuo aiciiaeiinoae.

Ai-ia?auo, iauaeo eeceiaa iiaeeaaeeo aica?auaieth, anee
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue i?in?i/ee aeaa e aieaa ieaoaaea, ia?ooaao oneiaey
yenieoaoaoeee iauaeoa…

Ai-aoi?uo, eeceiaiaia iai?oaeiaaiea ia iaiyao nianoaaiieea a neo/aa
aaie?ionoaa eeceiaiiieo/aoaey.

A-o?aoueeo, iiaeao auoue e aua eioa?aniae. I?aaiecaoeey i?eia?aoaao ia
oneiaeyo eeceiaa eiiiuethoa?ioth e ioenioth oaoieeo. E iiiaioo ieii/aiey
n?iea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a oeiainiaiai eeceiaa (a aai aeeeoaeueiinoue ia
iiaeao auoue iaiueoa n?iea aii?oecaoeee 60% noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey –
ieiei iyoe eao) e eiiiuethoa?u, e oaenu aoaeoo aiaeeoueny ?acaa /oi aeey
iocay. Aianoa n oai, ca ieo aua i?aaenoieo aeiaiineoue cia/eoaeueiua
noiiu. A oaeie neooaoeee eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth i?yiie ?acii ioeacaoueny io
ieii/aoaeueiiai aueoia iiaeiaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey.

Ec neacaiiiai neaaeoao, /oi eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee e iia?aoeee
eoiee-i?iaeaaee n/eoaoue yeaeaaeaioiuie iaeuecy.

Aua iaeei ee?ie/ ia aieiau eeceiaiaeaoaeae na?ineei eieoeee?iaaiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoaii a?aiaiiia nieaeaiea ii?i aii?oecaoeee. Iii cia/eoaeueii
oaeeeiyao n?ie aeaenoaey eeceiaiauo aeiaiai?ia, aeaeay eo
iaeii?eaeaeaoaeueiuie aeey eeceiaiaeaoaey. E?iia oiai, iinea nieaeaiey
ii?i aii?oecaoeee iiaoo auoue i?eciaiiuie iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie
aeaenoaothuea eeceiaiaua aeiaiai?u, caeeth/aiiua a niioaaonoaee ni
noa?uie ii?iaie.

Eeceia – i?aaeaea anaai iia?aoeey, i?ecaaiiay auoue ?aioaaaeueiie e
i?eiineoue i?eaueue. Iinaio i?aaei?eieiaoaee, ?aaioathuea a aeaiiie
iaeanoe, eniieuecotho ana aiciiaeiua ooeu?aiey, /oiau inoaaaoueny ia
ieaao.

Oae, aeoeaii yenieoaoe?oaony ii?ia Caeiia “I eeceiaa”, eioi?ay iicaieyao
noi?iiai aeiaiai?a onoaiaaeeaaoue ieaoaaee ia?aaiuie aeieyie.

Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, n?iee eeceiaiauo aeiaiai?ia iiaoo
aa?uee?iaaoueny a i?aaeaeao /aou?ao-oanoe eao e aieaa. A naie
eeceiaiaeaoaee, i?aeiouanoaaiii, ?aaioatho ia caaiiuo n?aaenoaao, anee,
eiia/ii, yoi ia i?iecaiaeeoaeue,”oieeathuee” iin?aaenoaii eeceiaa
nianoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. Aeieain?i/iia aea e?aaeeoiaaiea – i?iaeaia
aeey iaoeo noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aeaaea i?e ?aaioa n
caiaaeiuie aaieaie.

A Oe?aeia aea aaiee ia aeaaeoo e?aaeeo ia ianeieueei eao aeaaea
nianoaaiiui eeceiaiaui iiae?acaeaeaieyi e iiae oa?icie nia?oiie eacie.
*oiau ?aoeoue i?iaeaio “aeeeiiuo” e?aaeeoia, eeceiaiaeaoaee caeeth/atho
aeiaiai?u oaeei ia?acii, /oiau 99% n?aaenoa auee auiea/aiu a ia?aua
iieoi?a-aeaa aiaea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a. Inoaeueiua n?aaenoaa
nouanoaaiiie ?iee ia ea?atho, e eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee aioiau i?eie?youeny
n eo iieo/aieai a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo eao.

A oe?aeineii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa niaa?oaiii ionoonoaoao iiiyoea
noaeeceiaa, yaeaiey, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai ia Caiaaea. Oaiioiea
aecianiaiu ianoieueei ioaueee ?aaioaoue ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa,
/oi ca/anooth i?aeoeeotho o?ao-/aou?aonooiai/aoue eeceia.

Niaoeeaeenou Oeiainiai-eeceiaiaiai aeiia aaiea “Oe?aeia” i?aaeeaaatho
aaanoe noaeeceia e a Oe?aeineoth i?aeoeeo. A niioaaonoaee n eo
i?aaeeiaeaieyie, eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue niiaeao ia?aaeaaaoue iieo/aiiue
iauaeo eee aai /anoe a noaeeceia n ?ac?aoaiey eeceiaiaeaoaey.

A i?iaeoa eciaiaiee e Caeiio “I eeceiaa” niaea?aeaony neaaeothuea
iieiaeaiey:

* i?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?ia noaeeceiaa noaeeceiaiaeaoaeue iiaeao
ia?aaeaaaoue noaeeceiaiiieo/aoaeth oieueei oa i?aaa ia iauaeo eeceiaa
eee aai /anoe, eioi?uie iaaeaeai ii nai a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii
eeceiaa;

* eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ia eiaao i?aaa ia?aaeaaaoue naie iaycaoaeuenoaa ii
aeiaiai?o eeceiaa ia?aae eeceiaiaeaoaeyie o?aoueei eeoeai i?e
caeeth/aiee n ieie aeiaiai?a noaeeceiaa. Oaeie eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue
naiinoiyoaeueii ianao anth i?aaeoniio?aiioth aeiaiai?ii ioaaonoaaiiinoue
ia?aae eeceiaiaeaoaeai.

A neo/aa iiyaeaiey iiiyoey noaeeceiaa a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu, iaoe
eeceiaiaua eiioi?u niiaoo cia/eoaeueii ia?anoeoue iai?iou, i?eia?aoay
iai?oaeiaaiea a eeceia o e?oiiaeoeo caiaaeiuo eiiiaiee. Oa iiaoo
iicaieeoue e aeeeoaeueiua n?iee auieao, e iacia/eoaeueioth ia?aeo
aeioiaeiinoe.

Oe?aeineea ia?oia?u, iiieii caaiaaaiey ?uiea, auee au eioa?aniu
caiaaeiui iiino?ai aua e oai, /oi niiniaiu eiiieaeoiaaoue caeacu ia
aieueoea ia?oee ec aeanyoeia iaeeeo cayaie [5].

2.4 Aeiaiai? eeceiaa.

Niaeanii iinoaiiaeaieth Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia Oe?aeiu io 16 ethiy 1998 a.
?913 “I ii?yaeea ?aaeno?aoeee aeiaiai?ia eeceiaa” ?aaeno?aoeee
iiaeeaaeao aeiaiai?a eeceiaa, anee iauaeoii eeceiaa yaeyaony
ainoaea?noaaiiia eiouanoai eee aeiaiai? iaaaiai eeceiaa i?aaeoniao?eaaao
i?eaea/aiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa eeai aeey iaania/aiey auiieiaiey
aeiaiai?a eeceiaa i?aaeinoaaeythony ainoaea?noaaiiua aa?aioee.

Aeey ?aaeno?aoeee aeiaiai?a eeceiaa eeceiaiaeaoaeue i?aaeinoaaeyao a
i?aai ?aaeno?aoeee neaaeothuea aeieoiaiou:

– cayaeaiea;

– eiieth aeiaiai?a eeceiaa;

– eiieth aa?aioeeiiai iaycaoaeuenoaa (anee aeey auiieiaiey aeiaiai?a
eeceiaa i?aaeinoaaeythony ainoaea?noaaiiua aa?aioee);

– ni?aaeo ?an/aoa noieiinoe eiouanoaa, ia?aaeaaaaiiai ii aeiaiai?o
eeceiaa [18].

I?eia?iue aeiaiai? oeiainiaiai eeceiaa ooaa?aeaeai i?eeacii Ieienoa?noaa
Oe?aeiu ii aeaeai iaoee e oaoiieiaee io 03.03.98 a. ?59 e i?eaiaeeony
ieaea:

I?eia?iue aeiaiai? oeiainiaiai eeceiaa

a.______________ “___”_____________199__a.

________________________________, eioi?ia a aeaeueiaeoai

(iieiia iacaaiea i?aaei?eyoey)

eiaioaony “Eeceiaiaeaoaeue”, a eeoea _____________________

(oaieeey, eiy e io/anoai)

eioi?ue aeaenoaoao ia iniiaaiee Onoaaa, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e
__________________________________________, a aeaeueiaeoai

(iieiia iacaaiea
i?aaei?eyoey)

eiaioaiue “Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue”, a eeoea __________________,

(oaieeey, eiy e io/anoai)

eioi?ue aeaenoaoao ia iniiaaiee Onoaaa, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aeaeaa –
Noi?iiu, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?aeiu,
caeeth/eee ianoiyuee aeiaiai? (aeaeaa – Aeiaiai?) i neaaeothuai:

1. I?aaeiao aeiaiai?a

1.1 Eeceiaiaeaoaeue ia?aaeaao Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth, a Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue
iieo/aao io Eeceiaiaeaoaey a ieaoiia iieueciaaiea ia iniiaa oeiainiaiai
eeceiaa (aeaeaa – eeceia) eiouanoai ________________________________
(aeaeaa – Iai?oaeiaaiea).

(iacaaiea eiouanoaa)

1.2 Iai?oaeiaaiea, ia?aaeaaaaiia a eeceia, i?eia?aoaii ia iniiaaiee
i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai “Caeaca ia iai?oaeiaaiea” e a
niioaaonoaee n Aeiaiai?ii iinoaaee Iai?oaeiaaiey ?_____io
“___”________199__a., caeeth/aiiui iaaeaeo eeceiaiaeaoaeai,
Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai e _____________.

(iieiia iacaaiea Iinoaaueea)

1.3 Noieiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey, ia?aaeaaaaiiai a eeceia, ninoaaeyao
___________________________ a?eaaiue, aac IAeN.

(noiia i?iienueth)

2. Iauea iieiaeaiey

2.1 Iai?oaeiaaiea ia?aaeaaony Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth a eeceia ii oeaeaaiio
iacia/aieth, a eiaiii – aeey ?aaeecaoeee eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa
“________” ii eiiiaaoeeiiiiio aeiaiai?o ?___io “___”_________199__a.,
caeeth/aiiiio iaaeaeo
_______________________________________________________

(iieiia iacaaiea ioaeaeaiey Aineiiioiiaea)

Eeceiaiaeaoaeai e Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai.

3. N?ie eeceiaa

3.1 N?ie eeceiaa – n iiiaioa ia?aaea/e Iai?oaeiaaiey a eeceia, eioi?ui
yaeyaony aeaoa iiaeienaiey Noi?iiaie “Aeoa i?eaiee-ia?aaea/e
iai?oaeiaaiey a eeceia” ii “__”____199__a.

4. Eeceiaiaay ieaoa

4.1. Iai?oaeiaaiea ia?aaeaaony Eeceiaiaeaoaeai e i?eieiaaony a eeceia
Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai ia oneiaeyo oieaou Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai Eeceiaiaeaoaeth
eeceiaiaie ieaou ca iieueciaaiea Iai?oaeiaaieai iooai ia?a/eneaiey
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae Eeceiaiaeaoaeth.

4.2. ?acia?, n?iee e ii?yaeie oieaou Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai ieaoaaeae
Eeceiaiaeaoaeth onoaiaaeeaathony a “?an/aoa eeceiaiaie ieaou”, eioi?ue
iiaeienuaaaony noi?iiaie iaeiia?aiaiii n aeiaiai?ii. Eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee
oiea/eaathony a aaciaee/iie oi?ia.

4.3. Ia?aue eeceiaiaue ieaoaae aiineony /a?ac ________ ianyoea n iiiaioa
ia?aaea/e Iai?oaeiaaiey a eeceia, iaoneiaeaiiiai a i.3.1 ianoiyuaai
aeiaiai?a, a neaaeothuea eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee aiinyony iineaaeiaaoaeueii
n eioa?aaeaie a ________ ianyoea n aeaou, eiaaea aeieaeai aue auoue
oiea/ai ia?aue eeceiaiaue ieaoaae.

4.4. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycai naiaa?aiaiii oiea/eaaoue i?aaeoniio?aiiua
ianoiyuei aeiaiai?ii eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee. A neo/aa i?in?i/ee
Eeceiaiieo/aoaeai oieaou Eeceiaiaeaoaeth eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae,
Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue oiea/eaaao iaith a ?acia?a ____% io iaaeeaaeauae e
oieaoa noiiu ca eaaeaeue aeaiue i?in?i/ee. Oieaoa iaie ia inaiaiaeaeaao
Eeceiaiiieo/aoaey io i?iaaaeaiey i?aaeoniio?aiiuo Aeiaiai?ii ?an/aoia.

4.5. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ia iiaeao o?aaiaaoue io Eeceiaiaeaoaey ieeaeiai
aiciauaiey eee oiaiueoaiey noiiu eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae a neo/aa ia?a?uaa
a yenieoaoaoeee Iai?oaeiaaiey, ii eaeie au i?e/eia yoi ia i?iecioei,
aeeth/ay oi?n-iaaei?iua ianoiyoaeuenoaa.

4.6. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ia eiaao i?aaa caaea?aeeaaoue eeceiaiaua
ieaoaaee, n?ie iieaou eioi?uo oaea ianooiee, aeaaea ii i?e/eiai
iia?aaeaeaiey Iai?oaeiaaiey eee aneaaenoaea aicieeiiaaiey oi?n-iaaei?iuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa.

4.7. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ?ene neo/aeiiai oie/oiaeaiey eee neo/aeiiai
iia?aaeaeaiey Iai?oaeiaaiey ianao Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue. A neo/aa iieiiai
oie/oiaeaiey Iai?oaeiaaiey noiia neaaeothueo eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae, a
oaeaea ana i?in?i/aiiua noiiu, iaaeeaaeauea e oieaoa Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai,
aeieaeiu auoue oiea/aiu Eeceiaiaeaoaeth a n?iee e ia oneiaeyo
_______________________________________________________

(n?iee e oneiaey oieaou
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae)

5. Ia?aaea/a iai?oaeiaaiey a eeceia.

5.1. Ia?aaea/a Eeceiaiaeaoaeai e i?eai Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai Iai?oaeiaaiey
a eeceia oaeinoiaa?yaony “Aeoii i?eaiee-ia?aaea/e iai?oaeiaaiey a
eeceia”.

5.2. Ia iiiaio ia?aaea/e Iai?oaeiaaiey a eeceia iii iaoiaeeony
________________________________________________

(ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea iai?oaeiaaiey)

6. Eniieueciaaiea, oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio Iai?oaeiaaiey.

6.1. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycoaony aeia?iniaanoii niaethaeaoue iiae naith
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii?iu e i?aaeea yenieoaoaoeee, oaoie/aneiai
ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa iai?oaeiaaiey, onoaiiaeaiiua aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e eino?oeoeeyie i?iecaiaeeoaey.

6.2. A neo/aa auaiaea Iai?oaeiaaiey ec no?iy Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue a
oa/aiea iyoe aeiae iaycai ienueiaiii oaaaeiieoue ia yoii Eeceiaiaeaoaey,
anee aei yoiai a?aiaie iaeni?aaiinoe ia aoaeoo ono?aiaiu.

6.3. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ca naie n/ao, aac aeaeueiaeoae eiiiainaoeee
Eeceiaiaeaoaeai e ii niaeaniaaieth n Eeceiaiaeaoaeai i?iaiaeeo
oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea e ana aeaeu ?aiiioa, iiaea?iecaoeee e
?aeiino?oeoeee Iai?oaeiaaiey.

6.4. A neo/aa caiaiu a i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee Iai?oaeiaaiey eaeeo-eeai
aeaoaeae e oceia eee eo oniaa?oainoaiaaiey iie noaiiayony iaiouaieaiie
/anoueth Iai?oaeiaaiey e ia?aoiaeyo a nianoaaiiinoue Eeceiaiaeaoaey.

6.5. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca niioaaonoaea o?iaiy
eaaeeoeeaoeee ia?niiaea neiaeiinoe auiieiaiiuo ?aaio ii yenieoaoaoeee e
ianeoaeeaaieth Iai?oaeiaaiey e iaycai i?iaanoe niioaaonoaothuaa iao/aiea
?aaioieeia.

6.6. Iieo/aiea iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ac?aoaiee ia yenieoaoaoeeth Iai?oaeiaaiey
aiceaaaaony ia Eeceiaiiieo/aoaey.

6.7. Eeceiaiaeaoaeue inaiaiaeaeaaony a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie
ianoiyuaai aeiaiai?a io ethauo iaycaiiinoae e ioaaonoaaiiinoe a
ioiioaiee oaoie/aneie aa?aioee ia Iai?oaeiaaiea. Ana ?an/aou ii
?anoiaeai, eneai e eiiiainaoeeyi, naycaiiua n auoaoeacaiiie aa?aioeae,
i?iecaiaeyony iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaaeaeo Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeai e Iinoaaueeii.

7. Ia?aaea/a ?enea. No?aoiaaiea.

7.1. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue ca naie n/ao iaycai cano?aoiaaoue Iai?oaeiaaiea
io i?aaeoniio?aiiuo Aeiaiai?ii ?eneia, i /ai Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue
iaycoaony caeeth/eoue ni no?aoiaie eiiiaieae “Aeiaiai? no?aoiaaiey”, a
eioi?ii i?aaeoniio?aoue aiciauaiea aiciiaeiiai i?e/eiaiiiai oauoea a
i?aaeaeao no?aoiaie noiiu a iieueco Eeceiaiaeaoaey. Aeaenoaea no?aoiaiai
aeiaiai?a aeieaeii ioaaouaaoue aanue ia?eiae aeaenoaey aeaiiiai
Aeiaiai?a.

7.2. Ii aeiaiai?o no?aoiaaiey Iai?oaeiaaiea aeieaeii auoue cano?aoiaaii
io oece/aneiai oie/oiaeaiey eee iia?aaeaeaiey, aeeth/ay neo/ae iiaea?a,
iaaiaeiaiey, oece/aneiai iia?aaeaeaiey, noieeiiaaiey, ac?uaa, oaea?a
iieiee; ia?aaeaiey, oie/oiaeaiey, oeuaiey e ae?oaeo i?ioeaii?aaiuo
aeaenoaee o?aoueeo eeoe,
_________________________________________________

(ae?oaea aeaeu no?aoiauo ?eneia)

7.3. Iai?oaeiaaiea aeieaeii auoue cano?aoiaaii a iany/iue n?ie n iiiaioa
ia?aaea/e Iai?oaeiaaiey a eeceia, iaoneiaeaiiiai a i.3.1. ianoiyuaai
aeiaiai?a. Aei iiiaioa no?aoiaaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoue ioiineoaeueii
oauoeia, i?e/eiaiiuo a nayce n ethaui iia?aaeaeaieai eee oie/oiaeaieai
Iai?oaeiaaiey, aiceaaaaony ia Eeceiaiiieo/aoaey.

7.4. I?e ianooieaiee no?aoiaiai neo/ay Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycai a
o?aoaeiaaiue n?ie n iiiaioa ianooieaiey no?aoiaiai neo/ay iai?aaeoue
Eeceiaiaeaoaeth oaeaa?aiiie eee ii oaeno niiauaiea i no?aoiaii neo/aa. A
neo/aa ioeaca no?aoiaie eiiiaiee oieaoeoue no?aoiaia aiciauaiea
Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycoaony i?eiyoue iaiaoiaeeiua ia?u ii ?ac?aoaieth
nii?a a i?aoaiceiiii-eneiaii ii?yaeea a niioaaonoaee n
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii Oe?aeiu.

7.5. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycoaony ianoe iaoa?eaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue
ca ethaua aeiiieieoaeueiua iia?aaeaeaiey yoiai Iai?oaeiaaiey, eioi?ua
aicieeioo a ?acoeueoaoa aai eniieueciaaiey aei ia/aea aiciauaiey oauoeia
a niioaaonoaee n ?anii?yaeaieai no?aoiaie eiiiaiee eee ?aoaieai noaea.

8. I?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia Iai?oaeiaaiea.

8.1. A oa/aiea anaai n?iea aeaenoaey ianoiyuaai aeiaiai?a Iai?oaeiaaiea
yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth Eeceiaiaeaoaey. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycoaony
cae?aieoue ia aeaeiii ianoa e o?aieoue oai a oa/aiea anaai n?iea
aeaenoaey Aeiaiai?a iauyaeaiea: “Yoi iai?oaeiaaiea yaeyaony
nianoaaiiinoueth
______________________________________________________”.

(iieiia
iacaaiea Eeceiaiaeaoaey)

A niioaaonoaothueo ?aaeno?aoeeiiiuo e aooaaeoa?neeo aeieoiaioao aeieaeii
auoue i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea: “Nianoaaiiee –
_______________________________________________________,

(iieiia
iacaaiea Eeceiaiaeaoaey)

iieueciaaoaeue – ______________________________________.

(iieiia iacaaiea
Eeceiaiiieo/aoaey)

8.2. A oa/aiea anaai n?iea aeaenoaey aeaiiiai Aeiaiai?a
Eeceiaiieo/aoaeth cai?auaaony aac niaeaney Eeceiaiaeaoaey naeaaaoue
Iai?oaeiaaiea a noaa?aiaeo, aeaaaoue acaeiu o?aoueae noi?iia, ioaeaaaoue
aai a caeia eee io/oaeaeaoue ethaui ae?oaeo niiniaii, eniieueciaaoue ia
ae?oaea, ia i?aaeoniio?aiiua eiiiaaoeeiiiui i?iaeoii, oeaee.

8.3. Oneiaey ia?aoiaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia Iai?oaeiaaiea:
__________________________________________________.

8.4. A neo/aa ia?aoiaea i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia Iai?oaeiaaiea a
Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth ioi?ieythony ana iaiaoiaeeiua, i?aaeoniio?aiiua
aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aeieoiaiou.

9. Aein?i/iia i?ae?auaiea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a

9.1. Aeaenoaea aeiaiai?a iiaeao auoue aein?i/ii i?ae?auaii:

9.1.1. Ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth Noi?ii, i /ai caeeth/aaony
aeiiieieoaeueiia niaeaoaiea e ianoiyuaio Aeiaiai?o;

9.1.2. A i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii neo/ayo;

9.1.3. Ii eieoeeaoeaa Eeceiaiaeaoaey, anee Eeceiaiiio/aoaeue ia
auiieiyao ethaia ec naieo iaycaoaeuenoa ii ianoiyuaio Aeiaiai?o. A oaeii
neo/aa Eeceiaiaeaoaeue i?aaeuyaeyao i?aoaiceth Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeth i
i?ae?auaiee aeaenoaey ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai?a a niioaaonoaee n
aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

9.2. A neo/aa aein?i/iiai i?ae?auaiey aeaenoaey ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai?a a
niioaaonoaee n ii.9.1.3 aeiaiai?a Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue iaycai a oa/aiea
___ aaieianeeo aeiae n aeaou iieo/aiey i?aoaicee Eeceiaiaeaoaey
ia?a/eneeoue aio noiio iaaeeaaeaueo e oieaoa eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae e
oo?aoiuo naieoeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo ianoiyuei aeiaiai?ii.

10. Ae?oaea oneiaey.

10.1. Anee a aeaeueiaeoai aoaeoo oaaee/aiu noaaee aeaenoaothueo ia
iiiaio caeeth/aiey Aeiaiai?a iaeiaia, nai?ia e ae?oaeo i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ieaoaaeae, eioi?ua eiatho ioiioaiea e
Iai?oaeiaaieth eee e ii?aaeaeaieth ?acia?a eeceiaiaie ieaou, eeai aoaeoo
aaaaeaiu iiaua eo aeaeu, oi ?acia? eeceiaiaie ieaou iiaeeaaeeo
ia?aniio?o, i /ai noi?iiu caeeth/atho aeiiieieoaeueiia niaeaoaiea e
ianoiyuaio aeiaiai?o.

10.2. Oneiaey ia?aioeaiee Iai?oaeiaaiey: _______________.

10.3. Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue eiaao i?aai ia i?iiuoeaiiia eniieueciaaiea
Iai?oaeiaaiey oieueei i?e oneiaee aai no?aoiaaiey.

10.4. Eeceiaiaeaoaeue eiaao i?aai ia: aani?aiyonoaaiiue aeinooi e
Iai?oaeiaaieth; inouanoaeaiea i?iaa?ee oneiaee aai o?aiaiey,
ianeoaeeaaiey, yenieoaoaoeee e ae?.

10.5. Ae?oaea oneiaey: ________________________________.

11. Oi?n-iaaei?

11.1. E oi?n-iaaei?iui ianoiyoaeuenoaai ioiinyony: ianoiyoaeuenoaa
iai?aiaeieeiie neeu eee niauoey /?acau/aeiiai oa?aeoa?a, oaeea eae
aieia, iiaea?, iaaiaeiaiea, caieao?ynaiea; cai?auathuea ia?u aunoeo
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e/eee eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe,
aicieeoea iinea caeeth/aiey ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai?a e eioi?ua noi?iiu ia
iiaee i?aaeoniio?aoue eee i?aaeioa?aoeoue eo i?eaieaiuie ia?aie, anee
yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa iiaeeyee ia auiieiaiea eie naieo iaycaoaeuenoa ii
aeaiiiio Aeiaiai?o.

A oaeii neo/aa n?ie auiieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa ii ianoiyuaio aeiaiai?o
eciaiyaony ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth, i /ai noi?iiu caeeth/atho
aeiiieieoaeueiia niaeaoaiea e ianoiyuaio aeiaiai?o.

11.2. A neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey oeacaiiuo a i.11.1 aeiaiai?a ianoiyoaeuenoa
noi?iiu a oa/aiea iyoe eaeaiaea?iuo aeiae ienueiaiii oaaaeiieytho ae?oa
ae?oaa i iaee/ee aeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, iiaeoaa?aeaeay yoi
niioaaonoaothueie ioeoeeaeueiuie aeieoiaioaie. Anee noi?iiu aac
oaaaeeoaeueiuo i?e/ei ia oaaaeiieee a oeacaiiue n?ie i aicieeiiaaiee
oi?n-iaaei?iuo ianoiyoaeuenoa, oi iie a aeaeueiaeoai ia eiatho i?aaa
o?aaiaaoue eciaiaiey n?ieia auiieiaiey n?ieia oneiaee ianoiyuaai
aeiaiai?a.

11.3. Anee oi?n-iaaei?iua ianoiyoaeuenoaa aeeyony aieaa ____ ianyoeaa,
oi noi?iiu iiaoo i?eiyoue ?aoaiea ia eciaiaiee n?ieia auiieiaiey oneiaee
ianoiyuaai aeiaiai?a eee i aai i?ae?auaiee, i /ai caeeth/aaony
aeiiieieoaeueiia niaeaoaiea.

12. ?ac?aoaiea nii?ia

12.1. Ana aiciiaeiua nii?u e ?aciiaeaney, aicieeoea ai a?aiy aeaenoaey
ianoiyuaai Aeiaiai?a eee a nayce n iei, noi?iiu aoaeoo noa?aoueny
?ac?aoaoue ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe, iooai ia?aaiai?ia.

12.2. Anee Noi?iiu ia niiaoo aeinoe/ue niaeaney ii aeiaiai?aiiinoe, oi
aeey ?anniio?aiey e ?ac?aoaiey nii?a caeioa?aniaaiiay Noi?iia ia?auaaony
a a?aeo?aaeiue noae.

13. Caeeth/eoaeueiua iieiaeaiey

13.1. Aeaiiue Aeiaiai? anooiaao a neeo n iiiaioa iiaeienaiey aai
oiieiiii/aiiuie eeoeaie Noi?ii Aeiaiai?a.

13.2. N?ie aeaenoaey Aeiaiai?a iaoneiaeai n?ieii eeceiaa. Aeiaiai?
oa?yao naith neeo iinea auiieiaiey Noi?iiaie naieo iaycaoaeuenoa ii
iaio.

13.3. Eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey a ianoiyuee Aeiaiai? iiaoo auoue naeaeaiu
oieueei a ienueiaiiie oi?ia.

13.4. Noi?iiu iaycaiu naiaa?aiaiii oaaaeiieyoue ae?oa ae?oaa ia
eciaiaieyo th?eaee/aneiai aae?ana, ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey, aaieianeeo
?aeaeceoia, iiia?ia oaeaoiiia, oaeaoaenia e oaeaena, ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
i?aaei?eyoey, onoaaiuo aeieoiaioia, eciaiaiee oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe e iai
anao ae?oaeo eciaiaieyo, eioi?ua niiniaiu iiaeeyoue ia ?aaeecaoeeth
Aeiaiai?a e auiieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa ii iaio. Iiaeienaiea ianoiyuaai
Aeiaiai?a naycuaaao ia oieueei aai Noi?iiu, a e eo i?aaii?aaiieeia.

13.5. Ianoiyuee Aeiaiai? ninoaaeai a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao, eioi?ua eiatho
iaeeiaeiaoth th?eaee/aneoth neeo, ii iaeiiio aeey Eeceiaiaeaoaey e
Eeceiaiiieo/aoaey.

13.6. Ana i?eeiaeaiey e aeiiieiaiey e aeaiiiio Aeiaiai?o yaeythony aai
iaiouaieaiie /anoueth.

?aeaeceou e iiaeiene noi?ii:

Eeceiaiaeaoaeue Eeceiaiiieo/aoaeue

______________________ ______________________

______________________ ______________________

______________________ ______________________

2.5 Iaoiaeu o/anoey aaieianeiai eaieoaea a eeceiaiaii aeciana.

Nicaeaaaaiua ioa/anoaaiiua eeceiaiaua oe?iu, iniaaiii ia ia?auo ii?ao,
a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe caaenyo io aiaoiaai
enoi/ieea i?eaea/aiey ?ano?nia a aeaea aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa. Yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai a iieiie ia?a iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ca?oaaaeiui iiuoii.
Oae, ca ?oaaaeii aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo iia?aoeee eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee
i?aeiouanoaaiii eniieuecotho caaiiua n?aaenoaa; ca eo n/ao oi?ie?oaony
aei 75 i?ioeaioia anao eo ?ano?nia. E?aaeeoiua acaeiiioiioaiey
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia e eeceiaiaeaoaeae iiaoo no?ieoueny ii-?aciiio.
Aaiee i?aaeinoaaeytho aa?aioe?iaaiiua e?aaeeou, eioi?ua auaeathony
ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeie iia?aoeee iinea eco/aiey ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe
eeeaioa e ii n?ieai iau/ii niaiaaeatho ni n?ieaie eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a,
e iaaa?aioe?iaaiiua e?aaeeou, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie iau/iua aaieianeea
e?aaeeou eiiiaiee, eae e ethaiio caaiueeo.

Ca ?oaaaeii ainoaea?noai, eae i?aaeei, no?aieony nicaeaoue aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey eniieueciaaiey eeceiaiauie eiiiaieyie caaiiuo n?aaenoa.

Eniieueciaaiea eeceiaiauie eiiiaieyie a oe?ieeo ianooaaao aeey oniaoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe caaiiuo n?aaenoa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oaniie acaeiinayce
aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa, auaeaaaaiiai eeceiaiaui eiiiaieyi a aeaiaaeiie
oi?ia, e eeceiaa, i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie iniaoth oi?io e?aaeeoa
eeceiaiiieo/aoaeyi a oiaa?iie oi?ia; ii nooe aeaea, i?ienoiaeeo
o?ainoi?iaoeey iaeiie oi?iu e?aaeeoa a ae?oaoth.

Aianoa n oai eniieueciaaiea eeceiaiaie oe?iie a cia/eoaeueiuo ?acia?ao
e?aaeeoia aeaeaao aa neeoeii caaeneiie io yoiai enoi/ieea e iioiio
oycaeiie. Yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu a yoeo oneiaeyo caaeneo io
aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey aaieianeeo e?aaeeoia, eieaaaiee ?acia?a nnoaeiiai
i?ioeaioa e ae?oaeo ianoiyoaeuenoa, ii?aaeaeyaiuo iaueie onoaiiaeaie
aaieianeie iieeoeee.

I?eaea/aiea ioa/anoaaiiuie eeceiaiauie oe?iaie caaiiuo n?aaenoa
noaeeeaaaony e n ae?oaie na?ueaciie i?iaeaiie. Aeaei a oii, /oi iniiaiie
eo oi?iie a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeythony e?aoein?i/iua e?aaeeou
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia, oiaaea eae eeanne/aneea eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee iinyo
oa?aeoa? aeieain?i/iuo. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aiaeieaiey yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey
nicaeaao ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe a eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
eeceiaiaie oe?iu, a oaeaea a oi?ie?iaaiee aa no?aoaaee e oaeoeee
iiaaaeaiey ia eeceiaiaii ?uiea. Yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa auioaeaeatho
eeceiaiaoth oe?io i?e caeeth/aiee eeceiaiaiai niaeaoaiey i?in/eouaaoue
ana aai ia?aiao?u n oeaeueth niaeaniaaiey noiiu eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae n
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ?anoiaeaie ii i?eaea/aieth n?aaenoa, a oaeaea
iaania/aiey o?aaoaiiai o?iaiy eeeaeaeiinoe e auiieiaiey naieo ieaoaaeiuo
iaycaoaeuenoa.

Oaeiaeaoai?yy cia/eoaeueiua e?aaeeoiua iio?aaiinoe eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee,
e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey oai naiui iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue
aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ianooaau, iai?aaeaiey e ?acaeoea eiie?aoiuo aeaeia
eeceiaa. A ?acoeueoaoa neeueiie caaeneiinoe eeceiaiauo eiiiaiee io
oeiaine?othueo eo aaieianeeo o/?aaeaeaiee aicieeaao einaaiiue iaoiae
o/anoey aaieianeiai eaieoaea a eeceiaiaii aeciana.

I?e i?aaiecaoeee e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee n eeceiaiauie oe?iaie eiiia?/aneea
aaiee iiaoo ainiieueciaaoueny iauai?eiyoui ii?yaeeii e?aaeeoiaaiey e
?anniao?eaaoue yoe e?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee eae iau/iua aeoeaiua iia?aoeee
ii auaea/a nnoae eeeaioai. Ii iiaeao auoue ?ac?aaioai e iniaue iaoaieci
auaea/e e iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoia aeey yoiai oeia caaiueeia, auaeaeaiu
niaoeeoe/aneea i?eioeeiu oeaiiia?aciaaiey ia caaiiua n?aaenoaa e
ii?aaeaeaiu iiaua iiaeoiaeu e onoaiiaeaieth ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe
eeceiaiauo i?aaei?eyoee.

?acaeoea eeceiaiaiai aeciana a iaoae no?aia noaeeeaaaony n i?iaeaiie
iiaeeecaoeee cia/eoaeueiuo aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua iiaee au noaoue
enoi/ieeii aeey caeoiee iai?oaeiaaiey n oeaeueth aai aeaeueiaeoae
ia?aaea/e iieueciaaoaeyi ii eeceiao. Aiaeec ninoiyiey ioa/anoaaiiiai
eeceiaiaiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /oi
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa ?aaeueiuie oicyenoaothueie noauaeoaie,
?aniieaaathueie a?aiaiii naiaiaeiuie aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie eee
eiathueie aeinooi e oaeiaui, yaeythony aaieianeea o/?aaeaeaiey.
Ca?oaaaeiue iiuo iiaeoaa?aeaeaao i?aaeeueiinoue oaeiai auaiaea, a
eiathuayny a iaoae no?aia i?aeoeea aeieacuaaao oeaeaniia?aciinoue
aeeth/aiey eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee a aeayoaeueiinoue aaieia.

Aunooiay a ?iee ia nnoaeiaeaoaey eeceiaiaie eiiiaiee, a iaiin?aaenoaaiii
eeceiaiaeaoaey, eiiia?/aneea aaiee, oaeei ia?acii, eniieuecotho i?yiie
iaoiae o/anoey a eeceiaiaii aeciana.

Ii n?aaiaieth n nicaeaaaaiuie eeceiaiauie eiiiaieyie aaiee iaeaaeatho
oai aaaeiui i?aeiouanoaii, /oi iie oaea i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieaiu; aeey
i?iaaaeaiey eie eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee o?aaoaony oieueei auaeaeaiea a eo
no?oeoo?a niaoeeaeueiiai ioaeaea eee a?oiiu, a ninoaa eioi?uo aeieaeiu
aieoe nio?oaeieee n ii?aaeaeaiiui iiuoii aaieianeie ?aaiou e ciathuea
niaoeeoeeo aeaiiie iia?aoeee.

I?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue eeceiaiaie iia?aoeee aeey eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
iauyniyaony iaee/eai o yoie aaieianeie iia?aoeee ?aaeueiiai
iaoa?eaeueiiai iaania/aiey. E?iia oiai, ?acaeoea eeceiaiaiai aeciana
aeano aaieai aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?eoue e?oa naieo iia?aoeee, iiauneoue
ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey eeeaioia e oai naiui oaaee/eoue eo /enei,
oe?aieoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua nayce e onoaiiaeoue iiaua acaeiiauaiaeiua
ia?oia?neea ioiioaiey n eeeaioo?ie.

A oneiaeyo iaino?aiey eiieo?aioeee ia ?uiea aaieianeeo oneoa i?iaaaeaiea
eiiia?/aneeie aaieaie eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee iiaeao noaoue yooaeoeaiui
niiniaii ?anoe?aiey noa?u aaieianeiai aeeyiey. Aeeaaeuaay n?aaenoaa a
i?eia?aoaiea eiouanoaa e auiieiyy ooieoeeth eeceiaiaeaoaey, eiiia?/aneea
aaiee iiaoo aianoe naie aeeaae a oi?ie?iaaiea no?aoaaee e oaeoeee
iaiiaeaiey iniiaiuo oiiaeia, ii?aaeaeyoue iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey eeceiaa,
eiio?iee?iaaoue neooaoeeth ia eeceiaiaii ?uiea.

I?aeiouanoai eeceiaiaie iia?aoeee aeey aaiea ninoieo oaeaea e a
aeinoaoi/ii aunieie aa ?aioaaaeueiinoe. *a?ac eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee aaie
i?eia?aoaao iiaue enoi/iee aeioiaeia a aeaea eiienneiiiuo auieao. E?iia
oiai, eiiia?/aneea aaiee, ?acaeaay eeceiaiaue aecian, iiaoo yeiiiieoue
n?aaenoaa ca n/ao ioiineoaeueiie i?inoiou o/aoa eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee e
eeceiaiauo ieaoaaeae ii n?aaiaieth n iia?aoeeyie aeieain?i/iiai
e?aaeeoiaaiey.

Aianoa n oai eeceiaiaay iia?aoeey ioiineony e /eneo aaieianeeo iia?aoeee
n aeinoaoi/ii aunieie noaiaiueth ?enea. ?ene aaiea aic?anoaao i?e
iia?aoeaiii eeceiaa, eiaaea nouanoaoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aicianoeoue
aunieoth inoaoi/ioth noieiinoue iauaeoa eeceiaa i?e ionoonoaee ni?ina ia
iaai iinea ieii/aiey n?iea eeceiaiaiai aeiaiai?a. Iiyoiio, n oi/ee
c?aiey aaieianeiai ?enea, yeiiiie/aneei eioa?anai aaiea-eeceiaiaeaoaey a
iaeaieueoae noaiaie ioaa/aao oeiainiaue eeceia.

A oi aea a?aiy a oneiaeyo aunieeo oaiiia eioeyoeee ethaua aaieianeea
iia?aoeee, iinyuea n?aaeian?i/iue e aeieain?i/iue oa?aeoa? (a eiaiii e
oaeei ioiinyony iia?aoeee oeiainiaiai eeceiaa), noaiiayony aeey
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia neeoeii ?eneiaaiiuie. Iiyoiio a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
eeceia ia aeieain?i/iie iniiaa i?aeoe/anee ia iieo/ee ?acaeoey a iaoae
no?aia. Eiiia?/aneea aaiee i?aaeii/eoatho ia?aaeaaaoue eiouanoai a
eeceia ia n?iee, ia i?aauoathuea 3 – 6 ianyoeaa.

Aiaeec ?acaeoey eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee aaieia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
?anoe?aiee eo aaia?aoee. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee
iiea aua ia noaee aeey aaieia o?aaeeoeeiiiuie, a eo ianooaau
ianiecia?eiu n eiathueieny iioaioeeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie. Aeiey
eiouanoaa, i?eia?aoaaiiai aeey eeceiaa, ia i?aauoaao 3-4 i?ioeaioia
iauae noieiinoe iniiaiuo n?aaenoa aaieia.

Ianiiinoaaeiu eeceiaiaua iia?aoeee e n iia?aoeeyie eiiia?/aneeo aaieia
ii e?aaeeoiaaieth i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1). Aeaenaiei N. Nianeoaeueiue eeceia//Aecian.-1998.-?45 (304). – n.15.

2). Aaiee e aaieianeea iia?aoeee: O/aaiee aeey aocia/Iiae ?aae. i?io.
A.O.AEoeiaa.-I.: Aaiee e ae?aee, THIEOE, 1997.- n.243-248.

3). Aaoeuaa A. Oeiainiaue eeceia – iniaaiiinoe o/aoa e
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou, eiiiaioa?ee,
eiinoeueoaoeee.-1998.-?40(299). – n.91-94.

4). Aioeiaa I. Ie ii iiiyoeyi, ie ii caeiio//Aecian.-1998.-?11(270). –
n.34.

5). Aie/aiei A. Ai?ueeee i?eaeon eeceiaa//Aecian.-1998.-?38 (297). –
n.29,31.

6). Aeaienia I. Iaeiaiaia ieaie?iaaiea aica?aoa
eeceiaa//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou, eiiiaioa?ee,
eiinoeueoaoeee.-1998.-?39(298). – n.77-79.

7). Aeaeaiae?ia Ae. N iaoei eeceiaii aea a eaea/iue ?yae! //
Aecian.-1997.-?41(248).-n.10.

8). Eenaeaa.A.I. Oai?ey e i?aeoeea nia?aiaiiiai aeciana.-E.:
Ecaeaoaeuenoai EEA?A, 1995. – n.142-144.

9). Eueaia Ae. Oanoueaeanyo i?ioeaioia eioaaee//Aecian.-1998.-?24(283).
– n.13-14.

10). Iaeuoeei A. Oeiainiaue eeceia: iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea e
o/ao//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou, eiiiaioa?ee, eiinoeueoaoeee.-1997.-? 11(218).
– n.27-28.

11). Ianeia N. I iaeioi?uo iniaaiiinoyo eeceiaiauo
iia?aoeee//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou, eiiiaioa?ee,
eiinoeueoaoeee.-1998.-?38(297). – n.44-47.

12). Ie?ai?iaeneee. Aii?inu i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey eeceiaa a
Oe?aeia//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou, eiiiaioa?ee, eiinoeueoaoeee. *anoue
1.-1998.-? 12(271). – n.34-35.

13). Iai?iaeieeia E. Eeceiaiaua (a?aiaeiua) ioiioaiey a iiaii, a oii
/enea iaeiaiaii, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa: i?aaiaua aniaeou, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea
e aooaaeoa?neee o/ao//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou, eiiiaioa?ee, eiinoeueoaoeee.
*anoue 2.-1998. ?13 (272). – n.5-10.

14). Neiaa?ue oa?ieiia nia?aiaiiiai ?uiea/Iiae ?aae. Aai/oe
E.A.-Ia?iue.-”Anyeay any/eia”.-1991. – n.36-37.

15). Oaa?aeiiaae A. Aeaa aii?ina ia oaio oeiainiaiai
eeceiaa//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou, eiiiaioa?ee, eiinoeueoaoeee.-*anoue
1.-1998.-?47(306). – n.66-69.

Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua aeou:

16). Aunoee a?aeo?aaeiue noae Oe?aeiu. Eioi?iaoeeiiiia ienueii io
23.03.98 a. ? 01-8/104 I caeiia Oe?aeiu “I eeceiaa”//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou,
eiiiaioa?ee, eiinoeueoaoeee.-*anoue 1.-1998.-?22(281). – n.125-126.

17). Caeii Oe?aeiu I eeceiaa ? 723/97-A? io 16.12.97// Iiaia a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeia i i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.-O.:III “Iaeenae”,
1998. – n.148-157.

18). Iinoaiiaeaiea Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia Oe?aeiu I ii?yaeea ?aaeno?aoeee
aeiaiai?ia eeceiaa io 16.06.98 a. ?913//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou, eiiiaioa?ee,
eiinoeueoaoeee.-1998.-?27(286). – n.15-16.

19). I?eia?iue aeiaiai? oeiainiaiai eeceiaa. Ooaa?aeaeaii i?eeacii
Ieienoa?noaa Oe?aeiu ii aeaeai iaoee e oaoiieiaee io 03.03.98
?59//Aecian.-Aeieoiaiou, eiiiaioa?ee, eiinoeueoaoeee.-*anoue
1.-1998.-?18(277). – n.112-114.

1 Oioy a enoi?e/aneii ieaia iia?aoeee oeia “eeceia” ecaanoiu auee aua a
ae?aaiai Aaaeeiia

ieiei 2 oun. eao aei i.y., ii ca oi/eo ion/aoa ia/aea eeceiaiauo
iia?aoeee ca?oaaaeiua ennea-

aeiaaoaee i?eieiatho 1877 a., eiaaea aia?eeaineay eiiiaiey “Aaee Oaeaoii
Eiiiaie” i?eiy-

ea ?aoaiea aianoi i?iaeaaee oaeaoiiia naeaaaoue eo a a?aiaeo. Iiuiue
eiioeuen ?acaeoeth ee-

ceiaa aeaei nicaeaiea niaoeeaeueiuo eeceiaiauo iia?aoeee, aeey eioi?uo
eeceia noae ia oieueei

n?aaenoaii oi?aiaie iieeoeee, ii e i?aaeiaoii aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia?aay
eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey

“THiaeoaae Noaeon eeceia ei?i.” auea nicaeaia a 1952 a. a Nai-O?aioeenei
(NOA). A Aa?iia

ia?aay eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey – “Aeie/a eeceia AIaO” – iiyaeeanue a 1962 a.
a Aethnnaeueaei?oa

(O?A). N 1972 a. caeanue nouanoaoao aa?iiaeneee ?uiie eeceiaa.

1 LEASEEUROPE – Aa?iiaeneia iauaaeeiaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo eeceiaiauo
nithcia ni ooaa-eaa?oe?ie a A?thnnaea.

Iaeiie ec i?e/ei auno?iai ?acaeoey eeceiaa a NOA yaeeenue iaeiaiaua
eueaiou: onei?aiiay aii?oecaoeey e eiaanoeoeeiiiay iaeiaiaay eueaioa
(aei 100% noieiinoe iiauo eiaanoeoeee au/eoaeinue ec noiiu iaeiaa).

PAGE

PAGE 6

EEAANEEE IAOeEIIAEUeIUE YEIIIIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

E?UINEEE YEIIIIE*ANEEE EINOEOOO

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii aeenoeeieeia

“Iia?aoeee eiiia?/an-

eeo aaieia”

nooaeaioa a?oiiu ? 42

niaoeeaeueiinoe “Oe-

iainu e e?aaeeo”

Niaeue/oea A.A.

Iao/iue

?oeiaiaeeoaeue –

Aiiaea?ue A.I.

NEIOA?IIIEUe 1999

Eaoaae?a oeiainia e aaieianeiai aeaea

EECEIA

1

t-1

Kt =

(1+A)

Cao?aou,

oun.aeiee.

Eeceia

700

500

Iieoiea ca iaee/iua

600

A

10%

A

400

5%

15%

A

20%

300

Iieoiea ca iaee/iua e 80% nnoaeu

I?ioeaio aeeneiioe?iaaiey

A

1

I?iecaiaeeoaeue

A?aiaeiaeaoaeue

2

1

3

4

A?aiaeaoi?

2

Enoi/iee

aeiiieieoaeueiuo

n?aaenoa

A?aiaeiaeaoaeue

4

1

3

1

5

A?aiaeaoi?

I?iecaiaeeoaeue

4 – ieaoaaee ii nnoaea;

5 – iai?oaeiaaiea;

6 – a?aiaeiua ieaoaaee

1 – cayaea ia iai?oaeiaaiea;

2- 80%-iay nnoaea aac i?aaa

?aa?anna ia a?aiaeaoi?a;

3 – ieaoa ca iai?oaeiaaiea;

6

Iin?aaeiee

2

A?aiaeiaeaoaeue

1

2

1

Iio?aaeoaeue

Noieiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey

I?aaei?eyoea

Eeceiaiaay eiiiaiey

A?aiaeiua ieaoaaee

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