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История предпринимательства в России

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Enoi?ey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?innee

Ae?aaia?onneia ainoaea?noai, nicaeaiiia a eiioea IX aaea neeaaeuaaaony
iooai iauaaeeiaiey ainoi/iineaayineeo ieaiai, ?aniieaaaaoeony aaeieue
ciaiaieoiai oi?aiaiai iooe “ec aa?ya a a?aee”. Oi?aiaey yaeyeanue iaeiie
ec iniia oicyenoaaiiie aeecie neaayi.

Iieioii ?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia ?one noaiiaeeenue ai?iaea, a
eioi?uo nin?aaeioa/eaaeenue iannu oiaa?ia, ?ani?aaeaeyaiua ionthaea eae
ii no?aia, oae e ca ?oaaae. Aie?oa ai?iaeia aicieeaei iiiaeanoai
oi?aiauo e i?iiuneiauo iinaeaiee. Nthaea noiaeeeenue aeey oi?aiaee
eoioeu, aia?iaieee, ai?oieee, caa?ieiau, eueiaea?u e ae?oaea oiaaeaoiea
“i?iiuoeaiieee”. Ianoa yoe iieo/aee iacaaiey iiainoia. Iinea i?eiyoey
o?enoeainoaa caeanue niaa?oaeenue naeaeee, caeeth/aeenue aeiaiai?u,
ionthaea iioea o?aaeeoeey y?ia?i/iie oi?aiaee. A iiaeaaeao oea?eaae
o?aieeny iaiaoiaeeiue aeey oi?aiaee eiaaioa?ue, neeaaeuaaeenue oiaa?u, a
oaeaea o?aieeenue oi?aiaua aeiaiai?u.

Eoioeu e i?aaei?eieiaoaee a Ae?aaiae ?one ia auee auaeaeaiu a
ioaeaeueiia nineiaea. A i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?eieiaee
o/anoea ana neie iauanoaa (a oii /enea eiycuey e aiy?a). Ii neiaai
aecaioeeneiai eiia?aoi?a Eiinoaioeia Aaa?yii?iaeiiai ?onneea eoioeu a
iiya?a ioi?aaeyeenue aaeoaue no?aiu, ia iiainou, /oiau ?ani?iaeaoue
aecaioeeneea oiaa?u e neoieoue oiaa?u aeey ca?oaaaeiie oi?aiaee ia
neaaeothuee aiae. Aaniie iie aica?auaeenue a Eeaa, a ec Eeaaa ia noaeiao
aeiae?aeenue aei Oea?uea?aaea. A aeaiiii ai?iaea ?onneea eoioeu
iieueciaaeenue ?acee/iuie eueaioaie. Oanoue ianyoeaa iie oi?aiaaee a
Oea?uea?aaea e aica?auaeenue e naaa ia ?iaeeio ia ?aiaa ieoya?y. Oaeay
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue aaeanue ?onueth ia iaeii noieaoea.
E?oaiai?io oi?aiaie aeecie nua?ae ia?iiioth ?ieue a inaiaiee e
iauaaeeiaiee ?onneeo caiaeue.

?onneea eoioeu aaee oi?aiaeth ia oieueei n Oea?uea?aaeii. Aieueoay
oi?aiaey aaeanue n aa?yaaie, o eioi?uo iieoiaee a?iiciaua e aeaeaciua
ecaeaeey (iniaaiii ia/e e oiii?u), ieiai e naeiaoe, a oaeaea n a?aaaie,
ioeoaea a no?aio iinooiaee aena?, ae?aaioeaiiua eaiie, eia?u, naoueyi,
naaee, i?yiinoe.

Ia?aue ?onneee naiae caeiiia “?onneay i?aaaea” aue i?iiecai aeooii
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Ii iia aicieeiooue oieueei a iauanoaa, aaea
aaaeiaeoei caiyoeai auea oi?aiaey, a eioa?anu aeeoaeae oanii naycaiu n
?acoeueoaoii oi?aiauo iia?aoeee. A naiaea caeiiia /aoei auee ii?aaeaeaiu
oaeea iiiyoey eae e?aoein?i/iue e aeieain?i/iue caeiu, oi?aiaay eiienney
e aeeaae a oi?aiaia eiiiaiaeneia i?aaei?eyoea, oi?aiaue e?aaeeo e
ae?oaea; aeaaaeny ii?aaeaeaiiue ii?yaeie acuneaiey aeieaia n
ianinoiyoaeueiiai aeieaeieea i?e eeeaeaeaoeee aai aeae.

Oniaoiue ?ino i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a Ae?aaiae ?one
iiaeoaa?aeaeaeny oe?ieei ?acaeoeai e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee. Iiaai?iaeneee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue eoiaoe Eeeiyoa (Eeaiaio), aeeaoee a eiioea XII –
ia/aea XIII aaea, ni/aoae naith oe?ieoth oi?aiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue n
i?aaeinoaaeaieai e?aaeeoia.

Ii ia oieueei i?aaeinoaaeye e?aaeeou, ii e a?ae eo.

Ii iiaiaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai e?aaeeoa ia ?one auei iniaia iiaiea.
N/eoaeinue ia ii-o?enoeainee a?aoue aunieea i?ioeaiou. Iaeiaei i?eoeua
ethaee iuoaeenue caieiaoueny ?inoiaue/anoaii iiae ia?iiiua i?ioeaiou,
/oi ca/anooth eii/aeinue aeey ieo iea/aaii. Iicaeiaa Aeaaeeie?ii
Iiiiiaoii aue aaaaeai Onoaa, eioi?ue ?acei ia?aie/eaae noiio i?ioeaioa,
auiea/eaaaiiai ii e?aaeeoo (ia aieaa 20% a aiae), e oai naiui iiae?uaae
iiceoeee ia?aceoe/aneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, iaaeeaaaoaainy ia
ia?iaeiie ioaeaea.

?onneee enoi?ee A. Aacia?acia, aiaeece?oy oa?aeoa? aaeeei?innia,
ioia/ay /a?ou, eioi?ua iiaee niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth ?onneiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, auaeaeyao iniai:

· /oanoai ia?u

· i?aeoe/aneee ?an/ao

· naiiiaeaaeaiea

· o?acainoue oa?aeoa?a

· neea aiee.

Eiaiii yoe /a?ou ii?aaeaeyee aai oniao aieaa ouny/e eao.

Iaeiei ec naiuo oa?aeoa?iuo ai?iaeia ?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aue
Iiaai?iae Aaeeeee. Oi?aiaeae e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii caeanue aeeea
aieueoay /anoue ianaeaiey, e i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aue aeaaiie oeao?ie, i
eioi?ie neeaaeuaaeenue neacee e eaaaiaeu. Iaeiie ec ieo yaeyaony aueeia
i Naaeei, eoioea- i?aaei?eieiaoaea, eioi?ue iieacai eae aa?ie-aiaaou?ue,
i?e/ai iiaeaeaii i?aaenoaaeaia aai oi?aiaay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Iiaai?iaeneea eoioeu aaee naith oi?aiaeth e i?iiuneiaoth
aeayoaeueiinoue a?oaeyie, eee eiiiaieyie, i?aaenoaaeyaoeie ec naay
oi?ioi aii?oaeaiiua io?yaeu. Naiua iniiaaoaeueiua iiaai?iaeneea
i?aaei?eieiaoaee iauaaeeiyeenue a oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiioth annioeeaoeeth,
eiaioaioth oiaaea “Eaaiiai noi”, eiaaooth naie oeaio? ieiei o?aia
nayoiai, Eiaiia I?aaeoa/e a Iiieao. Caeanue ?aniieaaaeny iauanoaaiiue
ainoeiue aeai?, aaea eoioeu neeaaeuaaee naie oiaa?u, a oaeaea
iaoiaeeeanue “a?eaeieoea” (aieueoay iaeaoa), aeey i?iaaaeaiey aeaeiauo
niaauaiee.

Aicieeathuea iaaeaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie e iio?aaeoaeyie i?ioeai?a/ey
?aoaeenue a niaoeeaeueiii oi?aiaii noaea.

Eoioeu, aoiaeeaoea a “Eaaiiai noi”, iaeaaeaee aieueoeie i?eaeeaaeyie. A
neo/aa oeiainiauo cao?oaeiaiee ei i?aaeinoaaeyee e?aaeeo eee aeaaea
aacaiciacaeioth iiiiuue. I?e iianiuo oi?aiauo iia?aoeeyo io “Eaaiiai
noi” iiaeii auei iieo/eoue aii?oaeaiiue io?yae aeey io?aiu. Iaeiaei
anooieoue a “Eaaiiai noi” iia oieueei i/aiue ninoiyoaeueiue
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue.

Neeueii ?acaeoay nenoaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aeoia n ia?iaeiui
naiioi?aaeaieai auee aeaaiuie oneiaeyie yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeaaoaiey
ae?aaiaai Iiaai?iaea, eioi?ia iaiaeiie?aoii ioia/aeinue eiino?aiiuie
eoioeaie e iooaoanoaaiieeaie.

E?iia “Eaaiiai noi”, a ?onneeo ai?iaeao nouanoaiaaee e ae?oaea
i?ioanneiiaeueiua iauaaeeiaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Iai?eia?, a XIV-XVI
aaeao oi?aiaua i?aaei?eieiaoaee, eiaaoea eaaee ia ai?iaeneii oi?ao
(“?yaea”), iauaaeeiyeenue a naiioi?aaeyaiua i?aaiecaoeee, /eaiu eioi?uo
iacuaaeenue “?yaeiae/aie”.

Oaa?neie eoiaoe Aoaianee Ieeeoei a naieo caieneao “Oiaeaiea ca o?e ii?y
– Eanieeneia, Eiaeeeneia e *a?iia” ?anneacuaaao i oii, eae, ianiio?y ia
ana o?oaeiinoe ii i?aiaeieaaaao iieiue nia?oaeueiuo iianiinoae iooue io
Oaa?e aei thaeiuo aa?aaia Eanieeneiai ii?y, /a?ac anth Ia?neth, Eiaeeth,
a caoai aica?auaaony ia ?onue.

A yiioo Eaaia A?iciiai neiaieii ?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
noaiiaeony yia?ae/iay aeayoaeueiinoue eoioeia No?iaaiiauo. Naiue
ciaiaieoue iniiaaoaeue ?iaea No?iaaiiauo Aieea Oaaei?iae/ i?iaeieaeee e
aeiaae aei niaa?oainoaa nieueau/aaiaeneea aa?ieoeu e iino?iee iiiaeanoai
aa?ieoe ia Eieueneie aoaa. Ii oaeaea aae aieueooth oi?aiaeth n
eiino?aiiuie eoioeaie. No?iaaiiau oi?aiaaee e n ia?iaeaie O?aea e
I?eo?aeuey, /oi niinianoaiaaei ia/aeo aeoeaiiai inaiaiey ?onneeie
ethaeueie O?aea e Neae?e.

Iioiiee Aieee Oaaei?iae/a no?ieee ai?iaea, i?aaei?eyoey, iiiaeanoai
?aciuo o?aiia, auee eieoeeaoi?aie ioi?aaeaiey io?yaeia A?iaea ia
caaiaaaiea Neae?e, any/anee niinianoaiaaee inaiaiaeaeaieth ?one io
eioa?aaioia. No?iaaiiau i?ineaaeeenue ia oieueei i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, ii e iaoeaiaonoaii.

?yaeii ni No?iaaiiauie oniaoii ?aaioaee eo iiiai/eneaiiua eiieo?aiou,
e?oiiua nieai?iiuoeaiieee, oi?aiaoeu, ainoe: Ieeeoieeiau, Oi?eiu,
Naaoaoieeiau, Aaiaaeoeiiau e ae?oaea.

Iineaa XV aaea, ii naeaeaoaeuenoao iiiaeo eiino?aioeaa, auaoeo oai,
ioee/aeanue iniaui eciaeeeai aeaoaauo nuanoiuo i?iaeoeoia, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i oe?ieii ?acaeoee oiaa?iuo ioiioaiee n?aaee
e?anoueyi. ?aianeaiiuie ecaeaeeyie oi?aiaaee a eaaeao, ia ?uieao e a
ianoa?neeo. N aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe ?yae aeaoaauo ianniauo oiaa?ia,
ecaioaaeeaaaiuo ai?iaeneeie ?aianeaiieeaie, ?ani?ino?aiyeny
eoioeaie-ei?iaaeieeaie ii anae no?aia.

?onneea eoioeu aaee oi?aiaeth n Eeoaie, Ia?neae, Oeaie, Aooa?ie,
E?uiii, Eaoie, Aciaii e ae?oaeie no?aiaie.

Oaea a XVI-XVII aaeao ?inney iaeaaeaao neeueii ?acaeoie oi?aiaie
naoueth. A ai?iaeao, iinaaeao, naeao, aicea iiianou?ae, ia y?ia?eao
aaaeoo iaeeaeaiioth oi?aiaeth iiiaea ouny/e eoioeia e oi?aiaoeaa, eaeao
eioaineaiue iaiai oiaa?aie iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ?aeiiaie no?aiu, o. a.
aicieeaao ana?inneeneee ?uiie.

A XVII aaea a Iineaa oi?aiaia, eoia/aneia nineiaea ec ?ac?yaea oyaeuo
ethaeae auaeaeyaony a iniaoth a?oiio ai?iaeneeo eee iinaaeneeo ethaeae,
eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue ?acaeaeyeanue ia ainoae, ainoeioth e noeiiioth
nioie e neiaiaeu. Naiia aunoaa e iiae/aoiia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeaei ainoyi.
Caaiea yoi iieo/aee io oea?y naiua e?oiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee n oi?aiaui
iai?ioii ia iaiueoa 20 ouny/ a aiae. Iie auee naiaiaeiu io oieaou
iioeei, aiineiuo eoioeaie ?aiaii iiieaea, caieiaee aunoea oeiainiaua
aeieaeiinoe, a oaeaea eiaee i?aai iieoiaoue a naia aeaaeaiea aio/eiu.

*eaiu ainoeiie e noeiiiie nioai iieueciaaeenue oaeaea aieueoeie
i?eaeeaaeyie, caieiaee aeaeiia ianoi a oeiainiaie ea?a?oee, ii onooiaee
ainoyi a “/anoe”. Ainoeiua e noeiiiua nioie eiaee naiioi?aaeaiea, eo
iauea aeaea aa?oeee auai?iua aieiau e noa?oeiu.

Iecoee ?ac?yae eoia/anoaa i?aaenoaaeyee aeeoaee /a?iuo nioai e neiaiae.
Yoi auee i?aeiouanoaaiii ?aianeaiiua naiioi?aaeyaiua i?aaiecaoeee, naie
i?iecaiaeeaoea oiaa?u, eioi?ua iioii i?iaeaaaee.

Noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe ?onneeo eoioeia e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae XVII aaea auea
ia?iiia, io?aaeaea anth aaia?aoeth yeiiiie/aneiai inaiaiey ?innee. Ec
Iineau a?aee ia/aei 6 iniiaiuo iooae oi?aiai-i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ?onneeo eoioeia: Aaeiii?neee (Aieiaiaeneee),
Iiaai?iaeneee, Iiaieaeneee, Neae?neee, Niieaineee e Oe?aeineee.

Aaeiii?neee iooue oae /a?ac Aieiaaeo ii Nooiia e Naaa?iie Aeaeia a
A?oaiaaeuene e ia Aaeia ii?a, a ioooaea a ca?oaaaeiua no?aiu. Oeaio?aie
?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia yoii iooe auee: Aaeeeee Onotha,
Oioueia, Nieueau/aaiaene, ss?aine, Onoue-Nunieuene.

Iiaai?iaeneee (Aaeoeeneee) oi?aiaue iooue oae ec Iineau a Oaa?ue,
Oi?aeie, Auoiee Aiei/ae, Aaeaeae, Iiaai?iae, Ineia, caoai e Aaeoeeneiio
ii?th.

Iiaieaeneee iooue i?ioiaeee ii ?aeai Iineaa, Iea e Aieaa, a caoai /a?ac
eanieeneia ii?a a Ia?neth, Oeao e Aooa?o. Aeaaiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei
oeaio?ii ia yoii iooe aue Ieaeiee Iiaai?iae.

Neae?neee iooue oae aiaeie ec Iineau aei Ieaeiaai Iiaai?iaea e aei
Nieeeainea. Io Nieeeainea eoioeu aieieii aeaeaaeenue aei Aa?oioo?uey, a
caoai niiaa aiaeie aei Oiaieuenea, /a?ac Oo?eine e Othiaiue. Aeaeaa
aei?iaa oea ia Aienaene ieii No?aooa, Ia?uia. Io Aienaenea eoioeu
aeaeaaeenue a noi?iio Eeeineiai ino?iaa ii Ooiaonea e Eeeio. *anoue
eoioeia i?iaeieaeaea iooue e aeaeueoa, aeinoeaay sseoonea e Ioionea,
i?iieeay aeaaea ia Aio?. Aeaaiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei oeaio?ii ?one ii
oi?aiaea n Eeoaai aue Ia?/eine.

Niieaineee (Eeoianeee) iooue oae ec Iineau /a?ac Niieaine e Iieueoo, ii
ec-ca iinoiyiiuo aiei yoio iooue aeey oe?ieie oi?aiaee eniieueciaaeny
n?aaieoaeueii iaei.

Noaiiie Iaei?inneeneee (E?uineee) iooue i?ieaaae /a?ac ?ycaineea,
oaiaianeea, ai?iiaaeneea e?ay, auoiaeee e aeiineei noaiyi, a ioooaea a
E?ui. Aeaaiuie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeie oeaio?aie aeaiiiai iooe auee
Eaaaaeyiue, Iooeaeue, Aeaoe, Eiceia, Ei?ioiye, Ino?iaiaene, Aaeai?iae,
Aaeoeee.

A yeiiiie/aneia inaiaiea ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee ?innee i?aaei?eieiaoaee
aeiaeeee aeaaioneea oneeey. Inouanoaeyy oi?aiaeth oaie eee eiuie
oiaa?aie, iie ia?aaeei i?eieiaee o/anoea a i?aaiecaoeee eo
i?iecaiaenoaa.

?onneee eoiaoe ec iinaaeneeo ethaeae ai?iaea ss?ineaaey A?eai?ee
Eaiioueaae/ Ieeeoieeia aae e?oiioth oi?aiaeth a Aa?iiaeneie ?innee,
Neae?e, N?aaeiae Acee e E?aia. Ii iniiao aai aiaaonoaa ninoaaeea
oi?aiaey neae?neie iooieiie. A 1614 aiaeo ii iieo/aao caaiea ainoy.
Ieeeoieeia aeeaaeuaae eaieoaeu a nieaaa?aiioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue. A eiioea
30-o aiaeia a Nieeeaineii oacaea Ieeeoieeiao i?eiaaeeaaeaee 30 aa?ieoe.
Ii oi?aiaae nieueth ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao ?innee.

Aeieaia a?aiy oeaio?ii oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe Ieeeoieeiaa aue
ss?ineaaeue. Aai onaaeueaa yaeyeanue ianoiyuei oi?aiaui oeaio?ii
ss?ineaaey, oceiaui oi?aiaui ioieoii , a eioi?ii eiaeenue aieaeneea,
ainoi/iua e caiaaeiua oiaa?u. A naiae onaaeueaa Ieeeoieeia iino?iee
aea?aayiioth oea?eiaue ?iaeaeanoaa Aiai?iaeeoeu. A 1622 aiaeo Ieeeoieeia
ii i?eeaco oea?y ia?aacaeaao a Iineao, eoaea ia?aiauaaony e oi?aiaue
oeaio? aai aeayoaeueiinoe. A Eeoae-ai?iaea Ieeeoieeia no?ieo aiaaoua
iaeaou e e?aneaaeooth oea?eiaue O?ieoeu a Ieeeoieeao. Ia E?aniie
ieiuaaee Ieeeoieeia iacaaiaeeony nianoaaiiuie eaaeaie; aicaiaeeo
aieueoea neeaaeu aeey aaaeaiey iioiaie oi?aiaee.

Ieeeoieeia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaiaae ia caineeo niai?ao, o/anoaiaae a
ninoaaeaiee /aeiaeoiuo oea?th io ainoae e eoioeia, eneaaoeo caueou
eioa?ania ?onneie oi?aiaee e ia?aie/aiey i?eaeeaaee eiino?aiiuo eoioeia.

Iaeiei ec oa?aeoa?iuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae XVII aaea aue eoiaoe Aaa?eea
?iiaiiae/ Ieeeoei. Naith oi?aiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue Ieeeoei ia/eiae a
ea/anoaa i?eeac/eea ainoy I. E. Oeeaoueaaa. A 1679 aiaeo ii noae /eaiii
ainoeiie nioie Iineau, a a 1681 aiaeo iieo/ee caaiea ainoy. Iinoaiaiii
Ieeeoei nin?aaeioi/ee a naieo ?oeao aieueooth oi?aiaeth. Ii aae aeaea n
Neae?ueth e Eeoaai, aai eaieoae a 1697 aiaeo ninoaaeye 20 ouny/ ?oaeae.

Eoiaoe Naaoaoieeia auoae ec y?ineaaneeo iinaaeneeo ethaeae. Caneoae
ia?aae iiaie aeeianoeae i?eianee aio iiaeaeiaaiea a ainoe. Ii aae
e?oiiua iia?aoeee ii oi?aiaea iooieiie, caieiaeny ?inoiaue/anoaii,
aeeaaeuaae naie n?aaenoaa a nieai?iiuoeaiiinoue e aeaaeae ianeieueeeie
aea?aaiyie. Aai aiaaonoai ioeaieaaeinue e na?aaeeia XVII aaea a 35,5
ouny/ ?oaeae. Yoi i?eia? e?oiiiai oi?aiaiai eaieoaea e ia?a?anoaiey aai
a i?iiuoeaiiue.

Iao? I nicaeae aeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey aeey ?aaeecaoeee eo/oeo ea/anoa
?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey e ?aaioieea. Ii naeaeae noaaeo ia
eniieueciaaiea eo oai?/aneie eieoeeaoeau e naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. Iao? I,
ii neiaai aeaaeaieea No?oieeeia, naieie ?aoi?iaie aia?aua ioe?uaae
oe?ieoth aei?iao eiaeono?eaeueiiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao.

Aanueia oa?aeoa?ii, /oi aieueoay /anoue ?onneeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
Iao?ianeiai a?aiaie, eae e a aieaa iicaeiee ia?eiae, auoea ec e?anoueyi
eee iinaaeneeo ethaeae. E yoi, i?aaeaea anaai, naiua auaeathueany
oaieeee ?onneeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae – Ii?iciau, ?yaooeineea, I?ioi?iau,
Aa?aeeiu, A?a/aau, Eieaeiau, Ai?aoiiau, Neai?oeiau e iiiaea ae?oaea.
Eaaeaeue ec yoeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae i?aaieciauaae ia?iiiua i?iecaiaenoaa,
eioi?ua niaaaeaee naiae i?iaeoeoeeae aeanyoee, a oi e nioie ouny/
ethaeae a ?innee e ca a?aieoeae.

Aeey ?acaeoey eiaeono?eaeueiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa i?e Iao?a I
nicaeathony niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua i?aaiu – Aa?a-eieeaaey e
Iaiooaeoo?-eieeaaey, eioi?ua ?ac?aaaouaatho i?ia?aiio ia?ii?eyoee
niaeaenoaey i?iiuoeaiiiio ?acaeoeth iooai i?aaeinoaaeaiey ?acee/iuo
i?eaeeaaee e eueaio. *anoiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee aeey ono?ienoaa oaa?ee e
caaiaeia iieo/aee nnoaeu aac i?ioeaioia; eo niaaaeaee eino?oiaioaie e
i?oaeeyie i?iecaiaenoaa; inaiaiaeaeaee io ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau;
i?aaeinoaaeyee a?aiaiiua eueaiou io iiaeaoae e iioeei, aaniioeeiiue
i?eaic ec-ca a?aieoeu iaoei e eino?oiaioia; iaania/eaaee
aa?aioe?iaaiiuie ainoaea?noaaiiuie caeacaie.

Anee i?e Iao?a aua nouanoaiaaee iaeioi?ua ia?aie/aiey e noaniyeanue
naiaiaea oi?aiaee, oi oaea i?e Aeaoa?eia II eeeaeaee?oaony
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iieo/aiey “?ac?aoeoaeueiuo oeacia” ia ioe?uoea
i?aaei?eyoey e aai ono?ienoai. Aeaoa?eia II nicaeaao naiua aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey ?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iia ioiaiyao ana
aiciiaeiua ia?aie/aiey. Iaeiia?aiaiii iauyaeyaony ia oie/oiaeaiee
iiiiiieee e aaaaeaiea iieiie naiaiaeu oi?aiaee.

A 1785 aiaeo ?inneeneea i?aaei?eieiaoaee iieo/atho io Aeaoa?eiu
aeaeiaaiioth a?aiioo, eioi?ay neeueii aicauneea eo iieiaeaiea. Niaeanii
yoie a?aiioa, ana eoioeu auee ?acaeaeaiu ia o?e aeeueaeee. E ia?aie
aeeueaeee ioiineeenue eoioeu, aeaaeaaoea eaieoaeii ia iaiaa 10 ouny/
?oaeae. Iie iieo/aee i?aai iioiaie oi?aiaee a ?innee e ca a?aieoeae, a
oaeaea i?aai caaiaeeoue oaa?eee e caaiaeu. Ei aoi?ie aeeueaeee
i?eiaaeeaaeaee eoioeu n eaieoaeii io 5 aei 10 ouny/ ?oaeae. Iie iieo/aee
i?aai iioiaie e ?icie/iie oi?aiaee a ?innee. O?aoueth aeeueaeeth
ninoaaeyee eoioeu n eaieoaeii io 1 aei 5 ouny/ ?oaeae. Yoa eaoaai?ey
eoioeia eiaea i?aai oieueei ia ?icie/ioth oi?aiaeth. Eoioeu anao
aeeueaeee auee inaiaiaeaeaiu io iiaeooiie iiaeaoe, a oaeaea io ee/iie
?ae?ooneie iiaeiiinoe.

Aaiaeeeinue oaeaea iiiyoea “eiaieoue a?aaeaeaiei”. Ii noaoono ii aue
auoa eoioea ia?aie aeeueaeee, eai aeieaeai aue iaeaaeaoue eaieoaeii ia
iaiaa, /ai ia 100 ouny/ ?oa. “Eiaieoua a?aaeaeaia” iieo/aee i?aai eiaoue
caai?iaeiua aea/e, naaeu, caaiaeu e oaa?eee. Ca XVIII aae eiee/anoai
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee oaaee/eeinue a 10-12 ?ac. Ii ?yaeo
yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ?inney auoea ia naiua ia?aaeiaua ?oaaaee.

I?aaei?eyoey o?aeueneeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e, i?aaeaea anaai,
aeaieaeianeea caaiaeu noaee iaoa?eaeueiie aacie no?aieoaeueiiai ?uaea
?innee a XVIII aaea. ?onneea i?aaei?eieiaoaee eiaee ia?iiiue oniao a
oaoie/aneie iaeanoe. *a?iay iaoaeeo?aey ?innee auea naiie ia?aaeiaie a
ie?a. Oaea ia?aua o?aeueneea aeiiiu, iino?iaiiua ia caaiaeao
Aeaieaeiauo, ieacaeenue cia/eoaeueii e?oiiaa, i?iaeoeoeaiaa e
yeiiiie/iaa aiaeeeneeo, eioi?ua a oi a?aiy n/eoaeenue eo/oeie.

Aeoeaiui aiaae?aieai oaoie/aneeo iiaoanoa oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue ?onneia
i?iiuoeaiiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai e a ae?oaeo io?aneyo, ia?aaeei
iia?aaeay eo/oea aeinoeaeaiey ie?iaie oaoie/aneie iunee. E oaeei
iiaoanoaai ioiinyony: aeaoooeeeeiae?iaay ia?iaay iaoeia, nicaeaiiay
iaoaieeii-naiio/eie Iiecoiiaui (1765 a.); niaa?oaiiue eiie?iaaeueiue
oiea?iue noaiie n iaoaie/aneei noiii?oii, caiaiythuei ?oeo /aeiaaea,
eioi?ue ecia?ae iaoaiee Aiae?ae Ia?oia; /anaeueiay e i?yaeeeueiay
iaoeiu; i?ieaoiua aaeee e noaiu e iiiaea ae?oaea.

?onneia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai auei e?aiei naiae ?iaeiaie
i?aainoaaiiinoueth e nineiaiie niei/aiiinoueth. Eoia/aneea ?yaeu
iiaeaea?aeeaaee ae?oa ae?oaa, ?iaeieeenue iaaeaeo niaie.

Oe?ieia ?acaeoea /anoiie eieoeeaoeau nieco ii?iaeeei iiuiia
i?iiuoeaiiia aeaeaeaiea. Oae, a ?aeiiao noa?eiiiai oea/anoaa iinaaeneea
e e?anoueyineea aeaoe, ia/eiay n eonoa?iie naaoaeee ?o/iiai oea/a e
iaaieueea, iinoaiaiii nicaeatho e?oiiua oaenoeeueiua i?aaei?eyoey.

E?aiinoiie a?aoa Oa?aiaoaaa Aoo?eiia A. E. a 1741 aiaeo iniiaae
oaenoeeueioth iaiooaeoo?o, ia eioi?ie ?aaioaee aieueiiiaaiiua ?aaioiua
ethaee. Iaiooaeoo?a i?e iai auno?i ?anoe?yeanue. Iinea aai nia?oe
iaiooaeoo?a ia?aoiaeeo a ?oee ae?oaiai e?aiinoiiai e?anoueyieia
(A?a/aaa).

E?aiinoiie e?anoueyiei Eaai Iaoaaaae/ Aa?aeei nia/aea caieiaeny
iin?aaeie/aneie oi?aiaeae iieioiaie. E 1765 aiaeo ii iaeiiee aeinoaoi/ii
aeaiaa e eoiee iieioiyioth iaiooaeoo?o. Aai ianeaaeieee cia/eoaeueii
i?eoiiiaeeee aeaei. A 1817 aiaeo /enoay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey
i?eaeeaeaeanue e 50 ouny/ai ?oa. A 1828 aiaeo Aa?aeeiu aueoieeenue ia
aieth, oioy auee i?eioaeaeaiu iiiaueeii inoaaeoue a aai nianoaaiiinoe e
iaiooaeoo?o, e aeiia n oicyenoaaiiuie iino?ieeaie, e aieaa 700 aeanyoei
caiee. Oaeaea iiiauee o?aaiaae n ieo aua 25 ouny/ iaee/iuie. Oai ia
iaiaa, Aa?aeeiu a 1837 aiaeo aueoieee o iiiaueea naia i?aaei?eyoea,
ia?aiai?oaeiaaee aai, naeaeaa iaeiei ec naiuo ia?aaeiauo a ?innee e
Aa?iia.

A i?iiuoeaiiinoe neiaeeeinue ?acaeaeaiea noa? i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa – n
iaeiie noi?iiu, ?acaeoea e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?eaioe?iaaiiie
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia caaeeoi/iiai e aiaaoiai ai?iaeaieia, aeai?yinoai,
oea?neee aeai?, auaic ca a?aieoeo; n ae?oaie – ao?iue ?ino iaeeie
e?anoueyineie e eonoa?ii-?aianeaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia
oe?ieea ia?iaeiua iannu.

Aeiiaoiyy e?anoueyineay e eonoa?ii-?aianeaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue
oaea?aeeaaea cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iieoiaoaeueneiai ni?ina i?inoiai
ia?iaea, iio?aaiinoe eioi?iai e?oiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue ia iiaea
auiieieoue eee n/eoaea iaauaiaeiui.

Iaaeaeo e?anoueyineie e e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth iinoiyiii oea
eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa. E?anoueyia, ?aaioaaoea ia aeiio, e eonoa?e
ca/anooth auee e i?iaeaaoeaie naieo ecaeaeee, /oi iicaieyei ei aua aieaa
oniaoii eiieo?e?iaaoue n e?oiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth.

?acaeoea /anoiie eieoeeaoeau iooai ioiaiu ?acee/iuo ia?aie/aiee e
cai?aoia nii?iaiaeaeaeinue aeoeaiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeeie
oaiiaeaiiiai oa?eoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, eiathuae i?aeiouanoaaiii
io?aieoaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Yoi icia/aei ia?aie/aiea aeiionea ia ?onneee
?uiie oiaa?ia, eioi?ua auee niiniaiu na?ueacii eiieo?e?iaaoue n
ioa/anoaaiiuie.

Neiaieii ?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa XIX aaea noaea naiuey
noa?iia?yaeoeaa Ii?iciauo. ?iaeiia/aeueiee naiuee Naaaa Aaneeueaae/
Ii?icia, e?aiinoiie e?anoueyiei, ?aaioae oea/ii ia oaa?eea, a /a?ac
iaeioi?ia a?aiy ii nai noae aeaaeaeueoeai oaeeioeaoeeiai caaaaeaiey. A
1820 aiaeo Naaaa Ii?icia aianoa n nuiiaueyie aueoiaaony ia aieth ca 17
ouny/ ?oa. A 1820 -1840-a aiaeu Ii?iciau nicaeaee /aou?a
oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuo oaa?eee, eioi?ua ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea
au?anoatho a /aou?a ia?iiiuo oe?iu. Ia?aae ?aaiethoeeae nianoaaiiua
eaieoaeu naiuee ninoaaeyee aieaa 110 iei. ?oa.

19 oaa?aey 1861 a. iaieoanoii Aeaenaiae?a II e?aiinoiia i?aai auei
ioiaiaii. Aneaae ca yoei iineaaeiaae ?yae ?aoi?i. Aaeeeea ?aoi?iu 60-70o
aiaeia XIX aaea ?acaeaeee enoi?eth ?innee ia aei?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae e
ii?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae. Ii?aoi?iaiiue ia?eiae, eioi?ue i?iaeeeeny aei
1913 aiaea, iiaeii iacaaoue “cieioui aaeii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa”.
Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa inaiaiaeeea e?anoueyi, aeaa ei e
iioaioeeaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue aeey caiyoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii.
Aaeeeea ?aoi?iu nicaeaee oneiaey aeey auno?iai ?inoa oaa?e/iie nenoaiu,
iniiaaiiie ia i?eiaiaiee iaoei e ia?iauo aeaeaaoaeae, aeaaiaea?y /aio e
80-i aiaeai caaa?oeeny i?iiuoeaiiue ia?aai?io a aaaeiaeoeo io?aneyo:
iaoaeeo?ae/aneie, ai?ii?oaeiie, oaieueiie. Oneeeaaeanue eiioeaio?aoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ay i?eaaea e iiyaeaieth iiiiiieueiuo iauaaeeiaiee.

A oeaeii oaiiu ?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a XIX aaea auee i?inoi
ii?aceoaeueiu. N 1802 ii 1881 aiaeu /eneaiiinoue oaa?ee oaaee/eeanue
ii/oe a 13 ?ac, a /eneaiiinoue ?aai/eo – aieaa, /ai a 8 ?ac. Oieueei ca
1804-1863 aiaeu i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea oaaee/eeanue ii/oe a iyoue
?ac.

O?aaeeoeey y?ia?ie noaea na?aeoeai ?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eai
y?ia?ee auee aeey ?innee naiaai ?iaea ae?aeaie. Auei a ?innee ianoi,
eoaea aaeaaiaeii a aaaonoa ni anao eiioeia no?aiu e naaoa noaeaeinue
ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ethaeae. Yoi Ieaeaai?iaeneay Iaea?ueaaneay y?ia?ea.
Caeanue iiaeii auei eoieoue eee aeiaiai?eoueny i iieoiea ethaiai oiaa?a,
i?iecaiaeeiiai a ?innee, caeeth/eoue naeaeee, ia?yaeo n e?oiii-iioiaie
oi?aiaeae auea e iaei/iay – ?icie/iay, ?aciiniay.

ss?ia?ea oiaa?ia auea iaeiia?aiaiii e y?ia?eie-niio?ia anao oai?/aneeo
nee, oaoie/aneeo iiaeiie, ooo aea ?iaeaeaeanue i?aaei?eei/eainoue,
neiea/eaaeenue a?oaee, oiaa?euanoaa.

ss?ia?ea auea naiui /ooeei aa?iiao?ii yeiiiie/aneie aeecie e aa
iaaeaaeiui ?aaoeyoi?ii. Eiaiii caeanue oi?ie?iaaeny aaeain iaaeaeo
ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai, i?iecaiaenoaii e iio?aaeaieai aeaaiuo
?inneeneeo i?iaeoeoia.

Aeey ?onneeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae y?ia?ea auea iaeiie ec naiuo iiiyoiuo,
aeinooiiuo e i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo oi?i oicyenoaaiiiai iauaiey, ?acaeaaaoeony
a ?aieao ia?iaeiuo o?aaeeoeee e iau/aaa.

Iniaue yoai ?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa i?eoiaeeony ia eiiaoe XIX –
ia/aei XX aaeia. I?ienoiaeeo iaiiaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Eeaea?noai a aeaeiaii ie?a ia/eiaao iinoaiaiii ia?aoiaeeoue io
oaa?eeaioia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo io?aneae (oaenoeeueiie, ia?a?aaioee
naeueoici?iaeoeoia e o. i.) e oaa?eeaioai ia?aaeiauo oaoiieiaee –
iaoeiino?iaiey e iaoaeeiia?aaioee. I?ienoiaeeo aeaaioneia oneeaiea ?iee
aaieia e no?aoiauo o/?aaeaeaiee. Ia/eiaao i?aiaeaaeaoue aeoeeiia?iay
oi?ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Neiaieii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iiaie yiioe noaiiaeony aeayoaeueiinoue
naiuee ?yaooeineeo.

?yaooeineea, auoiaeoeu ec e?anoueyi, a na?aaeeia XIX aaea i?aaiecotho
ianeieueei iaaieueoeo oaenoeeueiuo oaa?ee. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia aaea iie
?anoe?ytho naith aeayoaeueiinoue, no?iyo oeii/aoiaoiaaeiua i?aaei?eyoey,
caieiathony e?aaeeoiuie iia?aoeeyie, i?iieeatho a eueiyioth,
noaeieueioth, aoiaaeioth e iieea?aoe/aneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue. No?iyo
iaeei ec ia?auo a ?innee aaoiiiaeeueiuo caaiaeia, ay?iaeeiaie/aneee
einoeooo iiae Iineaie. A 1902 a. ?yaooeineea nicaeatho Aaiee?neee aeii
a?aoueaa ?yaooeineeo, ?ai?aaieciaaiiue iicaeiaa a Iineianeee aaie.

A eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX aaeia inouanoaeyaony ei?aiiia oaoie/aneia
ia?aaii?oaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Aeiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iaeiieaiey
ninoaaeyea 15-20% iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea.

Onei?aiiuie oaiiaie oea iaoaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa. Iauee iauai
ca?oaaaeiuo aeiaeaiee a i?iiuoeaiiinoue ninoaaeye ia aieaa 9-14% anao
i?iiuoeaiiuo eaieoaeia. Oaiiu ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa
ia /anoiuo ?onneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo auee a 2 ?aca auoa oaiiia ?inoa eaaeie
e ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ii oaiiai ?inoa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e ii
oaiiai ?inoa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ?inney auoea ia ia?aia ianoi a
ie?a.

N iiiaioa ioiaiu e?aiinoiiai i?aaa ii 1913 a. iauai i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa au?in a 10-12 ?ac. Oi?aiaey e iauanoaaiiia ieoaiea auee
iaeieie ec naiuo ?acaeouo a ie?a.

Oaeiau auee ieiaeu ?onneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, iaauaaoea a aoaeouai
aua aieueoee o?iaeae, ii ?aaiethoeey 1917 a. oie/oiaeeea yoe iaaeaaeaeu.

Ieoya?ue 1917 a. ia?aaa?ioe ?inneth. I?eoaaeoea e aeanoe aieueoaaeee ia
eiaee eiie?aoiie yeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiiu, ii eo yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea
iniiauaaeanue ia io?eoeaiee /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. N ia?auo aea aeiae
nouanoaiaaiey niaaoneie aeanoe ia/aeny i?ioeann iaoeeiiaeecaoeee. 25
ieoya?y 1917 a. aue i?eiyo Aeae?ao i caiea, iauyaeyaoae aa iauaia?iaeiie
nianoaaiiinoueth. 14 aeaeaa?y 1917 a. aue iiaeienai ia?aue aeae?ao i
iaoeeiiaeecaoeee ?yaea /anoiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Aaieianeia
aeaei iauyaeyeinue iiiiiieeae ainoaea?noaa. Iicaeiaa auee
iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiu oi?aiaue oeio, aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. Ii aeae?aoo i
iaoeeiiaeecaoeee anao e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee (ethiue 1918 a.)
iaoeeiiaeece?iaaee aieaa o?ao ouny/ i?aaei?eyoee. E?oiiia ?inneeneia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai i?aeoe/anee ia?anoaei nouanoaiaaoue. O /anoiiai
eaieoaea iiea inoaaaeenue oi?aiaey, iaeeea e /anoue n?aaeieo
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

N ia/aeii a?aaeaeaineie aieiu a no?aia aei i?aaeaea iaino?eeanue
ianoaiiaea. Ii aeae?aoo io 29 iiya?y 1920 aiaea auea iaoeeiiaeece?iaaia
iaeeay e n?aaeiyy i?iiuoeaiiinoue; aaiaeeeanue ainoaea?noaaiiay
iiiiiieey aioo?aiiae oi?aiaee. A ?acoeueoaoa auea eeeaeaee?iaaia /anoiay
nianoaaiiinoue, ec ia?auaiey ecuyou aeaiaaeiua ciaee e naa?ioou
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiua ioiioaiey. A yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia “aiaiiiai
eiiioiecia” ia inoaeinue ianoa aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

N ieii/aieai a?aaeaeaineie aieiu noaea iaaeyaeiie iayooaeoeaiinoue
i?eiyoie yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaee. Ainnoaiiaeoue ?ac?ooaiiia aieiie
oicyenoai aac i?eiaiaiey iaoa?eaeueiie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe, iniiauaaynue
oieueei ia i?eiaiaiee /?acau/aeiuo ia?, auei iaaiciiaeii. A ia?oa 1921
a. a ?innee auea aaaaeaia iiaay yeiiiie/aneay iieeoeea (IYI), aeaaiaea?y
eioi?ie aieueoaaeee oioaee ainnoaiiaeoue yeiiiieeo no?aiu e niaa?oeoue
ia?aoiae e nioeeaeecio.

Aeaaiie ia?ie IYIa noaea caiaia a aea?aaia i?iae?acaa?noee
i?iaeiaeiaii. Oaia?ue e?anoueyia naeaaaee ainoaea?noao oaea ia ana
eceeoee, a eeoue no?iai ii?aaeaeaiioth eo /anoue. Iie noaee aieaa
caeioa?aniaaiiuie a ?acaeoee naiaai oicyenoaa. Neaaeothuae aaaeiie ia?ie
yaeeinue aaaaeaiea naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee , ii oe?ieiio ?acaeoeth oi?aiaee
i?aiyonoaiaae aeaoeoeeo i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia. Iiyoiio e a i?iiuoeaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa, e a noa?a ia?auaiey auei ?ac?aoaii /anoiia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai. A iaa 1921 a. eiiia?aoeau e /anoiua eeoea
iieo/eee i?aai a?aiaeiaaoue iaoeeiiaeece?iaaiiua iaeeea e n?aaeiea
i?aaei?eyoey. I?e IYIa iiyaeeenue iiaua niaaoneea i?aaei?eieiaoaee,
eioi?ua ai iiiaii i?eiaaeeaaeaea caneoaa ?acaeoey oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo
ioiioaiee. Ii yeiiiie/aneay iiaeaeue, neiaeeaoayny ai a?aiaia IYIa,
anooieea a eiioeeeo n aiaiii-eiiioienoe/aneie eaeaieiaeae. Ia iniiaa
IYIa e 1925 a. oaeaeinue ainnoaiiaeoue ia?iaeiia oicyenoai no?aiu, ii a
iaae?ao aa neeaaeuaaeanue eiiaiaeiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie
aieueoa niioaaonoaothuay i?aaenoaaeaieyi eiiioienoia i no?iyueiny
iauanoaa. A yoo nenoaio ia oeeaaeuaaeenue i?aaei?eieiaoaee, iacuaaaiua a
ai?iaea i?ac?eoaeueii iyiiaiaie, a a aea?aaia – eoeaeaie.

A ethia 1926 a. aue aaaaeai naa?o iaeia ia iyiiaiia. Caieiaoueny
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth noaei ia oieueei iaauaiaeii, ii
e iianii. Nia/aea /anoiee ooae ec i?iecaiaenoaa, a caoai ec oi?aiaee. A
?acoeueoaoa ianniaiai nicaeaiey eieoicia eoea/anoai auei iinoaiaiii
eeeaeaee?iaaii. I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a neiaeeaoaeny a Niaaoneii Nithca
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaia ieacaeinue iaioaeiui; ainoaea?noai
i?eciaei i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue oaieiaii-iaeacoaiui
caiyoeai.

Iinea aeieaeo eao canoiy, oa?aeoa?ecothuaainy, i?aaeaea anaai,
yenoaineaiie yeiiiieeie, a 1985 a. a Niaaoneii Nithca ia/aeanue
ia?ano?ieea, a yeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiia eioi?ie aue caeiaeai ia?aoiae e
?uii/iui oneiaeyi oicyenoaiaaiey. A 1986 a. 55 ieienoa?noa e aaaeiinoa,
aieaa 100 i?aaei?eyoee, iauaaeeiaiee e i?aaiecaoeee iieo/eee i?aai
naiinoiyoaeueiie oi?aiaee ia aiaoiai ?uiea. ?yae iinoaiiaeaiee a 1986 a.
i?aaeoniao?eaae nicaeaiea niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

A 1987 a. auoae Caeii ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iieiaeeaoee ia/aei oi?ie?iaaieth iiaiai ?inneeneiai i?aaei?eieiaoaey. A
aic?iaeaeaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa yoaia. Ia?aue
– yoai aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, eioi?ua, ?eneoy, acyeenue ca iiaia aeaei,
ianiio?y ia inoaeaeaiea ie?oaeathueo. Iie ioe?uaaee aeaeainaeiiu,
nicaeaaaee /anoiua no?aoiaua eiiiaiee, ecaeaaaee naie aacaou.
Ia?ano?ieea caaeoiuaaeanue aeey iaiiaeaiey nioeeaeecia, e ?uii/iua
ioiioaiey iiaee auoue eniieueciaaiu eeoue eae ia?a auoiaea ec e?ecena e
nicaeaiey aieaa oeeaeeeciaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie iiaeaee.

Aoi?ie yoai aic?iaeaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia/eiaaony n 1992 a.
Iiaia i?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee i?iaicaeaneei ?aoeoaeueiue ia?aoiae e ?uieo.
Ia/aeinue nicaeaiea eiiai ainoaea?noaa, a eioi?ii aeinoieiia ianoi
aeieaeii i?eiaaeeaaeaoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi.

Nae/an io i?aaei?eieiaoaeae caaeneo ai iiiaii aic?iaeaeaiea ?innee, ii
aeey yoiai iie aeieaeiu i?iaeieaeaoue o?aaeeoeee ?onneiai eoia/anoaa e
caaioeoueny ia oieueei i nianoaaiiii iaiaauaiee, ii e ia yeiiiie/aneii e
aeooiaiii i?ioeaaoaiee naiaai ioa/anoaa.

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