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Niaea?aeaiea.

TOC \o “1-3” ENOI?Ess E YAIETHOeEss IAOAIOIA GOTOBUTTON
_Toc469310805 PAGEREF _Toc469310805 3

I?eaeeaaee (1) GOTOBUTTON _Toc469310806 PAGEREF _Toc469310806 3

Iaoeeiiaeueiua iaoaiou (2) GOTOBUTTON _Toc469310807 PAGEREF
_Toc469310807 6

Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey (3) GOTOBUTTON _Toc469310808 PAGEREF
_Toc469310808 8

ENOI?Ess E YAIETHOeEss OIAA?IUO CIAEIA GOTOBUTTON _Toc469310809
PAGEREF _Toc469310809 9

ENOI?Ess E YAIETHOeEss AAOI?NEIAI I?AAA GOTOBUTTON _Toc469310810
PAGEREF _Toc469310810 14

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a: GOTOBUTTON _Toc469310811 PAGEREF
_Toc469310811 18

ENOI?Ess E YAIETHOeEss IAOAIOIA

A enoi?ee e yaiethoeee iaoaioia auaeaeythony o?e aaaeiuo ia?eiaea:

(1) I?eaeeaaee (XV—XVIII aaea): noaa?ai i?aaeinoaaeyao iiiiiieeth ii
naiaio oniio?aieth; eiioeaioeey iieaciinoe e eiiaaea eiioeaioeey
oaai?eoecia ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue;

(2) Iaoeeiiaeueiua iaoaiou (1790—1883 aiaeu): ethaie ecia?aoaoaeue
ai?aaa iiaeaoue cayaeo ia iaoaio, auaea/a eioi?iai caaeneo
eneeth/eoaeueii io iauaeoeaiuo oneiaee; io?aia ianoiuo ecia?aoaiee ca
?oaaaeii ia i?aeoeeoaony;

(3) Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey (n 1883 aiaea ii ianoiyuaa a?aiy): io?aia
ecia?aoaiee ca i?aaeaeaie no?aiu i?ienoiaeaeaiey ?acaeaaaony aianoa n
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaeae; anaie?iua eee ?aaeiiaeueiua eiiaaioeee
niinianoaotho yoiio ?acaeoeth.

I?eaeeaaee (1)

I?eaeeaaeae yaeyaony aeieoiaio, ii eioi?iio noaa?ai i?aaeinoaaeyao
iniaia i?aai ioaeaeueiiio eeoeo. Yoe i?eaeeaaee iiaee niaea?aeaoue i?aaa
aanueia ?acee/iiai ?iaea aeey aaiaoeoeea?ey, a /anoiinoe inaiaiaeaeaiea
io i?aaee aeeueaeee, inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, i?aaeinoaaeaiea
caiaeue, aani?ioeaioiua caeiu, iaoo?aeecaoeeth e aeaaea aeai?yineea
oeooeu. I?e/eiu, ii eioi?ui iie auaeaaaeenue, auee oaeaea aanueia
?aciiia?aciu. I?eaeeaaee, auaeaaaaoeany ia ?ac?aaioeo iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo, n/eoathony i?aaeaanoieeaie i?iiuoeaiiuo i?eaeeaaee. Naiua
?aiiea i?eaeeaaee, i?aaeinoaaeyaoeany ia eniieueciaaiea iiaie oaoieee,
ia aeaeaee ?acee/ee iaaeaeo ecia?aoaoaeai a nia?aiaiiii niunea neiaa e
eeoeii, aiaae?eaoei oaoieeo, oaea ecaanoioth ca ?oaaaeii. Noaa?ai aue
caeioa?aniaai a oii, /oiau eiiiaaoeey caiaiyea eiii?o iooai aioo?aiiaai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Aaiaoeeaineay ?anioaeeea aia?aua i?eiyea iieiaeaiea ia
yoie oi?ia i?eaeeaaee, “Ia?oa Aaiaoeeaia” 1474 aiaea.

Oaea yoi iieiaeaiea caeiaeeei i?eioeeiu, ia eioi?uo aeieaeiu auee
no?ieoueny nia?aiaiiua iaoaiou: iieaciinoue iiauo ecia?aoaiee aeey
ainoaea?noaa, eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa ia?aiai ecia?aoaoaey ia
ia?aie/aiiue ia?eiae, iaeacaiea ca ia?ooaiea i?aaa.

I?aeoeea ia?aaea/e oaoiieiaee e nicaeaiey iiauo i?iecaiaenoa a Aiaeee
ia/aea ?anoe a XII noieaoee, e aei XIV noieaoey auaea/a iniauo
i?eaeeaaee inouanoaeyeanue ei?ieaaneie aeanoueth ioaeaeueiui eeoeai aeey
caueou eo ai a?aiy iniiaaiey eie iiauo i?iecaiaenoa, iniiaaiiuo ia
eiii?oe?iaaiiie oaoiieiaee. Yoa io?aia i?eieiaea oi?io i?aaeinoaaeaiey
aiaae?yaoaio iiaoth oaoiieiaeth eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa eniieueciaaiey
aa ia ia?eiae, aeinoaoi/ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue aeey aa iaeaaeeaaiey e
iao/aiey ae?oaeo iieueciaaieth ath. Eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai neoaeeei aio
ueoii a oa/aiea o?oaeiuo eao noaiiaeaiey e nicaeaaaei aio oi?o a
ea/anoaa eiiiainaoeee ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea ainoaea?noao iiaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e aieueoae iacaaeneiinoe.

Oaeea a?aiaiiua i?aaa ca/anooth i?aaeinoaaeyeenue iooai iaoaioiuo
a?aiio, /oi icia/aao “ioe?uoua ienueia”, iacuaaaoeony oae iioiio, /oi
ia/aoue iaoiaeeeanue aieco eenoa, a ia ia naa?iooii eenoa. Yoi auei
ioeoeeaeueiui ecaauaieai iauanoaaiiinoe i i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo i?aaao.
Aoaeo/e ia?aiia/aeueii caaeoiaia aeey iiaeaea?aeee iiauo i?iecaiaenoa,
yoa nenoaia i?aaeinoaaeaiey oaeeo i?aa noaea iauaeoii ceioiio?aaeaiee a
oeaeyo iiiieiaiey ei?ieaaneeo aeioiaeia. A ia?eaiaioa auee cayaeaiu
i?ioanou, e ei?ieaaneay aeanoue aeaea iaauaiea, /oi iaoaiou aoaeoo
?anniao?eaaoueny a noaeaaiuo ?acae?aoaeuenoaao.

Iaeii ec iaeaieaa ciaiaieouo noaeaaiuo ?acae?aoaeuenoa oaeiai ?iaea
ninoiyeinue ii aeaeo “Noeiiueeia ec Einae/a”, a oiaea eioi?iai auei
neacaii: “Ii anee eoi-oi aian iiaia ecia?aoaiea e iiaia i?iecaiaenoai a
ei?ieaanoaa n ?eneii aeey naiae aeecie e n cao?aoie naiaai ninoiyiey eee
caiania e o.ae. eee eoi-oi nicaeae eaeia-eeai iiaia ioe?uoea, oi a oaeeo
neo/ayo ei?ieue ii naiaio aeaai?aniieiaeaieth e ieeinoe aeey
eiiiainaoeee aai n?aaenoa e oneeee iiaeao onoaiiaeoue, /oi eeoue oieueei
ii aoaeao eiaoue i?aai iieueciaaoueny oaeei i?iecaiaenoaii eee oi?aiaeae
a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie, iineieueeo aia/aea ethaee a
ei?ieaanoaa ia ciatho i iai e ia eiatho ciaiee e ianoa?noaa aeey aai
eniieueciaaiey. Iaeiaei, eiaaea iaoaio i?ae?aoeo aeaenoaea, ei?ieue ia
iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeoue aai aiiaue”.

Ceioiio?aaeaiey i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee iniauo i?aa i?iaeieaeaeenue aieioue
aei 1628 aiaea, eiaaea auei i?eiyoi Iieiaeaiea i iiiiiieeyo. Niaeanii
aio ana iiiiiieee, inaiaiaeaeaiey e i?aaeinoaaeaiey i?aa iauyaeyeenue
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiuie, ca eneeth/aieai:

“anao iaoaioiuo a?aiio e i?aaeinoaaeaiey i?eaeeaaee ia n?ie a
/aou?iaaeoeaoue eao eee iaiaa oiai, eioi?ua aoaeoo o/eiaiu iicaeiaa, ia
eneeth/eoaeueiia caiyoea eee nicaeaiea iiauo i?iecaiaenoa a yoii
ei?ieaanoaa, iiaeeeiiiio e ia?aiio ecia?aoaoaeth oaeeo i?iecaiaenoa,
eioi?uie ia eiatho i?aaa iieueciaaoueny ae?oaea eeoea ia a?aiy o/eiaiey
oaeeo iaoaioiuo a?aiio e i?aaeinoaaeaiey i?aa”.

Nenoaia i?eaeeaaee ?acaeaaeanue a Aiaeee iin?aaenoaii aeayoaeueiinoe
noaeia a iai?aaeaiee nenoaiu i?aaeinoaaeaiey i?aa, iniiaaiiie
eneeth/eoaeueii ia i?ioeannoaeueiuo oneiaeyo, iaeioi?ua ec eioi?uo,
oaeea, eae i?aaeinoaaeaiea iiae?iaiiai “iienaiey”, eioi?ia noaei
o?aaiaaoueny n 1711 aiaea, auee i?aaeaicaanoieeaie nia?aiaiiuo iaoaioia.

N 1760 aiaea /enei iaoaioia, auaeaaaaoeony a Aiaeee, auno?i
oaaee/eaaeinue a i?yiie nayce n i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeeae. A ae?oaeo
no?aiao, iaeiaei, aaea eiaeono?eaeecaoeey ia/aeanue iicaeiaa, /enei
iaoaioia inoaaaeinue iaaieueoei; ai O?aioeee iaaeiaa?ea, au?aaeaaoaany
aiiaua a ioiioaiee ethauo i?aiyonoaee naiaiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa e oi?aiaee,
aianoa n iaaunieeie ?acoeueoaoaie, iau/ii aeinoeaaaoeieny iaeaaeaoaeyie
“iaoaioiuo a?aiio”, i?eaaei e oiio, /oi ii ?aoaieth iiia?oa ana
aaiaoeoeea?ee oa?yee naie i?aaa, anee iie ia i?eiaiyee naie ecia?aoaiey
a oa/aiea iaeiiai aiaea (aeaeea?aoeey 1762 aiaea), a oaeaea e
ioeeiiaieth aieueoiai /enea oiaeaoaenoa i i?eaeeaaeyo.

Iaoeeiiaeueiua iaoaiou (2)

Ii/oe iaeiia?aiaiii Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou (1790) e O?aioeey (1791) i?eiyee
iaoaioiua caeiiu, iniiaaiiua ia auaea/a iaoaioia anai ecia?aoaoaeyi,
anee auiieiyeenue ii?aaeaeaiiua iauaeoeaiua oneiaey. Noaouey 1
o?aioeocneiai caeiia io 7 yiaa?y 1791 aiaea auea iniaaiii cia/eiie:
“Ethaia ioe?uoea eee iiaia ecia?aoaiea a ethaii aeaea i?iecaiaenoaa
yaeyaony nianoaaiiinoueth aai aaoi?a; aneaaenoaea yoiai caeii aeieaeai
aa?aioe?iaaoue aio ananoi?iiiaa e iieiia iieueciaaiea ei a niioaaonoaee
n oneiaeyie e ia n?ie, eioi?ua aoaeoo onoaiiaeaiu aeaeaa”.

Caeiiiaeaoaeue, iaeiaei, au?acee oaeaea e iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneoth
icaai/aiiinoue: i?eiyoay a 1793 aiaeo iii?aaea e caeiio a Niaaeeiaiiuo
Ooaoao iicaieyea i?aaeinoaaeyoue iaoaiou eeoue naiei a?aaeaeaiai; ai
O?aioeee eeoei, i?eaiinyuaa ca?oaaaeioth oaoieeo, ?anniao?eaaeinue
ia?aaia n iiaeeeiiui ecia?aoaoaeai; oio ecia?aoaoaeue, eioi?ue iieo/ae
iaoaio ia naia ecia?aoaiea ca ?oaaaeii iinea iieo/aiey iaoaioa ai
O?aioeee, oa?ye i?aai iieueciaaiey iineaaeiei’

Iiaay nenoaia iieo/eea ?ani?ino?aiaiea a oa/aiea ia?auo aeanyoeeaoee XIX
noieaoey, a iniaaiiinoe a ?acoeueoaoa i?eiaiaiey o?aioeocneiai i?aaa a
no?aiao, caaiaaaiiuo Iaiieaiiii. A iiia?oeyo, eioi?ua nio?aieeenue eee
auee ainnoaiiaeaiu iinea 1815 aiaea, i?eioeei i?eaeeaaee nio?aieeny,
iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea i?aai ia iaoaio auei i?eciaii iianaianoii. N
?ani?ino?aiaieai i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee ia ae?oaea no?aiu i?iecioae
eiee/anoaaiiue ac?ua /enea iaoaioia: a ia?eiae 1815—1820 aiaeia
Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou, O?aioeey e A?eoaiey yaeyeenue aaeeinoaaiiuie
no?aiaie, eioi?ua auaeaaaee aieaa 100 iaoaioia a aiae. A ia?eiae iaaeaeo
1850 e 1854 aiaeaie eaaeaeay ec yoeo o?ao no?ai i?aacioea /enei 1000 e
ianeieueei ae?oaeo no?ai auaeaaaee ii ianeieueei nio, A oi aea naiia
a?aiy, eae i?ienoiaeeei yoi eiee/anoaaiiia ?acaeoea, auee aaaaeaiu
ea/anoaaiiua oniaa?oainoaiaaiey. I?inoi aaiceaoea oaoieeo ia?anoaee
?anniao?eaaoueny eae ecia?aoaoaee, auea ?ac?aaioaia eiioeaioeey iiaeciu,
auee ia?aniio?aiu e a ?yaea neo/aaa oi?iuaiu o?aaiaaiey e oi?ia. Ii/oe
iianthaeo, ca eneeth/aieai Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia, aaea yenia?oeca ii
nouanoao auea aaaaeaia a 1836 aiaeo, i?aiaeaaeaea ?aaeno?aoeeiiiay
nenoaia. Oioy eiino?aioeu, eae i?aaeei, auee ai?aaa iieo/aoue ianoiua
iaoaiou, iaoaioiaaiea iaeiiai e oiai aea ecia?aoaiey a ?yaea no?ai
inoaaaeinue aua ?aaeeinoueth, io/anoe ec-ca ionoonoaey iaiaoiaeeiinoe e
io/anoe ec-ca neiaeiinoae i?ioeaaeo?u, /oi aeaeaei iiiaeanoaaiioth
io?aio caiooaiiui aeaeii n iaii?aaeaeaiiie yooaeoeaiinoueth,

Iaee/ea iaoaioia aini?eieiaeinue, iaeiaei, eae i?aiyonoaea ia iooe
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee. A ainoaea?noaao — /eaiao Oeieeueoa?aeia—
Oaiiaeaiiiai nithca aa?iaineeo ainoaea?noa aei o/?aaeaeaiey
iauaaeeiaiiie eiia?ee a XIX noieaoee iaoaioiiaeaaeaoaeue oa?ye naia
i?aai aini?aiyonoaiaaoue eiii?oo oiaa?ia, iiaeiaaeathueo iiae aai
iaoaio, a neo/aa anee iie auee i?iecaaaeaiu a ae?oaii ainoaea?noaa —
/eaia Oaiiaeaiiiai nithca. N oniaoii naiaiaeu oi?aiaee- aaea i?eia?
iieacuaaea Aiaeey, eacaeinue, /oi iaoaioiay nenoaia aoaeao ioiaiaia
aianoa n oaiiaeaiiuie aa?uea?aie. Iaeiaei ecia?aoaoaee e
annioeee?iaaaoeany n ieie i?iiuoeaiieee oaoie/anee iaeaieaa ?acaeouo
no?ai ?aaae?iaaee ia yoi e i?iaicaeaneee eaeath iaaeaeoia?iaeiie io?aiu
ecia?aoaiee. Ai a?aiy Anaie?iie aunoaaee a Aaia a 1873 aiaeo iaoaioiue
eiia?ann i?aaenoaaee ?acee/iua eaeae ii yoiio aii?ino, A oi aea naiia
a?aiy yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen i?eaae e ionooieaieth iuneue i naiaiaea
oi?aiaee e noae i?e/eiie iai?eyoey ethaie eaeae ioeaca io iaoaioia. A
Ia?eaea ai a?aiy aua iaeiie anaie?iie aunoaaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiia?ann
ia/ae n iiaeaioiaee ?aoaiey i iaaeaeoia?iaeiie io?aia i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe. ?acaeoea i?iaeieaeaeinue a 1880 aiaeo, e aeeieiiaoe/aneay
eiioa?aioeey a eiioea eiioeia i?eaaea 20 ia?oa 1883 aiaea e iiaeienaieth
eiiaaioeee, o/?aaeeaoae Nithc ii io?aia i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey (3)

N iiaeienaiey Ia?eaeneie eiiaaioeee ia/aeny ia?eiae
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, e a /anoiinoe
iaoaioiie nenoaiu. Ia?eaeneee nithc nicaeae iniiao, ia eioi?ie auei
iaania/aii aeinoeaeaiea i?ia?anna iooai ia?eiaee/aneeo ia?aniio?ia
Eiiaaioeee, /oi aeaeaei aieaa aiciiaeiui iieo/aiea io?aiu e iiauoaiea
yooaeoeaiinoe io?aiu ecia?aoaiee, nicaeaaaaiuo a iaeiie ec no?ai-/eaiia
a ae?oaeo no?aiao-/eaiao.

Ia Noieaieueineie aeeieiiaoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee a 1967 aiaeo auei
caeeth/aii niaeaoaiea i nicaeaiee Anaie?iie i?aaiecaoeee
eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe (AIEN), eioi?ay noaea
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieai I?aaiecaoeee Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee,
iaania/eaoae iinoiyiioth no?oeoo?o aeey nithcia ii i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe e ii aaoi?neiio i?aao. Iniaua iio?aaiinoe e oeaee
?acaeaathueony no?ai yaeyeenue iaeiie ec aeaaiuo /a?o aeayoaeueiinoe
AIEN.

N naiiai ia/aea naiaai nicaeaiey Ia?eaeneay eiiaaioeey i?aaeoniao?eaaea
aiciiaeiinoue caeeth/aiey ainoaea?noaaie-/eaiaie “iniauo niaeaoaiee”
iaaeaeo niaie a ioiioaiee i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe. Yoa aiciiaeiinoue
eioaineaii eniieueciaaeanue, a iniaaiiinoe aeey caeeth/aiey Aeiaiai?a i
iaoaioiie eiiia?aoeee (?NO) (1970; aaeieieno?aoeaiua ooieoeee auiieiyao
AIEN) e Aa?iiaeneie iaoaioiie eiiaaioeee (1973 – aaeieieno?aoeaiua
ooieoeee auiieiyao Aa?iiaeneia iaoaioiia aaaeiinoai (AIA)). Yoe
niaoeeaeueiua niaeaoaiey aeatho aiciiaeiinoue aeinoeaeaiey i?ia?anna a
ia?aie/aiiuo ?aieao, oai, aaea ia ana ainoaea?noaa /eaiu Ia?eaeneiai
nithca eniuouaatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaaee/eoue naith aiaea/aiiinoue a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa; ca eneeth/aieai oaeeo niaeaoaiee,
eioi?ua iniiauaathony ia aaia?aoe/aneii i?eioeeia, ana iie ioe?uou aeey
o/anoey anao no?ai —o/anoieoe Nithca

ENOI?Ess E YAIETHOeEss OIAA?IUO CIAEIA

Oiaa?iua ciaee — yoi ia ii?iaeaeaiea iaoaai a?aiaie ianiio?y ia oi /oi
eo iianaianoiia i?enoonoaea eiaao iaaeaaiaa i?ienoiaeaeaiea.

Oiaa?iua ciaee eae ciaee i?ienoiaeaeaiey i?inoaaeyeenue ecaioiaeoaeyie
ee?ie/a:

eiaee, eiea, i?oaeey, eooiiiie ooaa?e e ae?oaeo aauae aeaaea a ae?aaieo
eoeueoo?ao. Yoeie ciaeaie auee eeai aoeau, iau/ii eieoeeaeu, eeai eiua
neiaiee/aneea iaicia/aiey, i?enoonoaiaaaoea a aeaea eeaeia ia oiaa?ao
aeey oeacaiey ecaioiaeoaey i?iaeoeoeee. Aaconeiaii, yoe ciaee ia
auiieiyee eo naaiaeiyoithth ooieoeeth iaeaa/aiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey oiaa?a
a neiaeiie yeiiiieea. Oai ia iaiaa iie iaicia/aee aaaeiue yeaiaio a
i?aaa ia oiaa?iue ciae, eioi?ue aeaenoaoao e naaiaeiy, a eiaiii oi – /oi
ciaee nicaeatho naycue iaaeaeo oiaa?ii e aai i?iecaiaeeoaeai. Oaeay
ia?ee?iaea eniieueciaaeanue oaeaea a ea/anoaa iaicia/aiee aeaaeaiey.
Aiaeeeneia neiai “brand” (oaa?i), eioi?ia /anoi eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa
neiiieia “oiaa?iiai ciaea” aeaaea e naaiaeiy, io?aaeaao yoio iau/ae:
“brand” auei ia?ee?iaeie neioa eeaeiii oa?ia?aie n iiiiuueth
?aneaeaiiiai aeaeaca.

Oiaa?iua ciaee — oioy iie aua ia iacuaaeenue oae a ea/anoaa
“i?ioanneiiaeueiiai oa?ieia” oae eae yoi neiai auei nicaeaii eeoue a XIX
noieaoee — i?iaeieaeaee ea?aoue noiaeioth ?ieue ia i?ioyaeaiee aieueoiai
enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea, aeeth/ay n?aaeiaaaeiauea e noieaoey ca aai
i?aaeaeaie.

Oiaa?iua ciaee eiaee iniaia cia/aiea a ?anoouai i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia
aeey yenii?oa. Oae, ecaeaeey ec iaoaeea ecaioaaeeaaeenue a Aiaeee
caaeieai aei i?iiuoeaiiiai aaea, e i?iecaaaeaiiua noaeue, i?oaeea e
noieiaua i?eai?u ianee ia naaa o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaicia/aiey eo aiaeeeneeo
ecaioiaeoaeae. Yoi noieue aea aa?ii ii ioiioaieth e e ae?aaioeaiiui
iaoaeeai. Aeaaea naaiaeiy ciaee, i?inoaaeaiiua ecaioiaeoaeyie na?aa?yiuo
/aeieeia eee iiaeiinia a Aoanao?aa, A?aoioaaeaa, Eiiaeiia, Ia?eaea,
Ainoa?aeaia eee Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa (noa?ia iaeiaiiaaiea Eaieia?aaea) a XVI
e XVII noieaoeyo, aeiiuia neoaeao a ea/anoaa oeacaoaeae aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey ea/anoaa e i?ienoiaeaeaiey oaeeo oiaa?ia.

Aeeueaeee i?aaenoaaeyee niaie iniiaioth oi?io ?aianeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
ni a?aiai, eiaaea ia/aeinue i?aia?aciaaiea ai?iaeneie aeecie,
iniiauaathuaeny ia i?ioanneyo, aicaeaaeyaiuo ianoa?aie-?aianeaiieeaie,
eioi?ua aeinoeaaee yoiai noaoona, eeoue i?ieaey o/aie/anoai e nicaeaa
naie oaaeaa?. Oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeoaa?aeaeaeenue einiaeoi?aie
aeeueaeee. Eniieueciaaeenue ?acee/iua iaicia/aiey: iaicia/aiey
aeeueaeee, iaicia/aiea ianoa?a-?aianeaiieea, eioi?ia ecae?aeinue ?ac e
iaanaaaea i?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee aio noaoona ianoa?a; eiiaaea
eniieueciaaeinue iaicia/aiea iiaeianoa?uey eee ianoiue ciae. Yoe
iaicia/aiey iiaee i?eieiaoue oi?io ia/aoae, i?ee?aieyaiuo e iaoa?eaeai,
eee i?iae?iuo eeaei ia ecaeaeeyo ec ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia.

Oeaeue caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oiau onoaiiaeoue, niaethaeaaony ee
i?ioanneiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey eae a ioiioaiee i?aaee i?iecaiaenoaa, oae
e a ioiioaiee niaethaeaiey ?acaeaeaiey caaea/ ?acee/iuo i?ioannee. Yoe
ciaee, iaoeaeaiiua ia iiyaeaiea o ?aianeaiieeia /oanoaa,
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa auee iaycaoaeueiuie e, eae
eaaeaony, ia ea?aee neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiie ?iee a i?eaea/aiee
iieoiaoaeae.

Cai?auaeinue eniieueciaaiea ciaea, i?eiaaeeaaeauaai ae?oaiio, e
no?iainoue iaeacaiee, onoaiiaeaiiuo a XVI noieaoee ca iiaeaeaeee,
iieacuaaao, /oi ia?ooaiey i?aaee noaiiaeeenue ana aieaa /anouie aianoa n
oiaaeeii aeeueaeee. I?eia?aie yaeythony yaeeeo 1544 aiaea Ea?ea Iyoiai,
eioi?ui i?aaeienuaaeinue eneeth/aiea ec i?ioannee e iona/aiea i?aaie
?oee, e o?aioeocneee Ei?ieaaneee Yaeeeo 1564 aiaea, eioi?ue onoaiaaeeaae
nia?oioth eaciue ca iiaeaeaeueioth ia?ee?iaeo ia?/e.

Ai O?aioeee aeeueaeee auee oi?acaeiaiu Caeiiii io 17 ia?oa 1791 aiaea, a
i?eaeeaaee aiaeeeneeo aeeueaeee en/acee a 1835 aiaeo. Iaeiaei nenoaia
aeeueaeee i?eoiaeeea a oiaaeie caaeieai aei yoiai a?aiaie, onooiay ianoi
ia?aaoee?oaiui i?ioanneyi, iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea e, ia/eiay n
i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee, e?oiiiianooaaiui i?aaei?eyoeyi. En/aciiaaiea
i?aaee aeeueaeee i?eaaei e en/aciiaaieth ciaeia aeeueaeee, eioi?ua auee
caiaiaiu aieaa nia?aiaiiuie oeiaie oiaa?iuo ciaeia a XVIII noieaoee.

Oiaa?iua ciaee ia/aee ea?aoue naith naaiaeiyoithth ?ieue a oa/aiea
i?aaeuaeouaai noieaoey. Iiyaeaiea ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, onoaiiaeaiea
aieaa neiaeiie nenoaiu ?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?ia io ecaioiaeoaey aei
iieoiaoaey, ?anoouay oi?aiaey oiaa?aie — ana yoi i?eianei n niaie
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iianaianoii i?eiaieiie eaeaioeoeeaoeee oiaa?ia:

oiaa?u aeieaeiu auee iieo/aoue iiaua iaeiaiiaaiey aeiiieieoaeueii e
naiei anoanoaaiiui iaeiaiiaaieyi, oaeei, eae eino?oiaiou, nie/ee, ieai e
o.ae.

N oaaee/aieai eniieueciaaiey oiaa?iuo ciaeia ianooieei e oaaee/aiea
eiie?iaaiey. Aeaoaaua iiaee e aeeee iiaee nieoe ca noieiaua i?eai?u,
iai?eia?, ec Oaooeeaea, iooai eiie?iaaiey ecaioiaeoaeae ec Oaooeeaea.
Oaeeo neo/aaa auei iiiai. Iau/ii caeiiiua iieueciaaoaee ciaeia ia eiaee
n?aaenoa inoaiiaeoue iiaeaeaeuaaoaeae. Ia?ee?iaea eo oiaa?ia ia
i?aaeinoaaeyea ei ieeaeiai th?eaee/anee i?eciaaaaiiai i?aaa, a i?aai a
oeaeii a?yae ee auei ?acaeoi aaea-eeai aei oaeie noaiaie, /oiau oaeay
iiaeaeaeea iiaea i?aneaaeiaaoueny a ea/anoaa iaiaiiiai aeaenoaey eee,
aiai?y iaoei nia?aiaiiui ycueii, a ea/anoaa aeaenoaey, i?ioeai?a/auaai
/anoiie aeaeiaie i?aeoeea. Eiiia?/aneay ii?aeue iau/ii oaeaea ia
?anniao?eaaea oaeea aeaenoaey eae iai?aaua. Iaeiaei n oa/aieai a?aiaie
noaee ?ac?aaaouaaoueny n?aaenoaa caueou noaeaie eeai noaee i?eieiaoueny
ia?u e cai?auaieth iiaeaeaeie oiaa?iuo ciaeia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

A Aiaeee n?aaenoai caueou io oaeiai ia?ooaiey auei au?aaioaii noaeaie,
ia/eiay n na?aaeeiu i?ioeiai noieaoey. Aeinoaoi/ii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi
ianooieei a?aiy, eiaaea iieueciaaoaeue oiaa?iui ciaeii noae
?anniao?eaaoueny eae eeoei, eiathuaa i?aai ia eneeth/aiea ae?oaeo eeoe
io oiuoeaiiiai eniieueciaaiey ?aiooaoeee, i?eia?aoaiiie ei iiae aeaiiui
ciaeii. Yoi auei ?iaeaeaieai ciaiaieoie aeieo?eiu “auaea/e ca eiia”:
ieeoi ia ai?aaa auaeaaaoue naie oiaa?u ca oiaa?u ae?oaiai eeoea.

A?eoaineia i?aai a oi a?aiy aeaenoaiaaei ai iiiaeo no?aiao, aeeth/ay
?aaeii Naaa?iie Aia?eee, eioi?ue noaae Niaaeeiaiiuie Ooaoaie Aia?eee.

Iinea iieo/aiey iacaaeneiinoe Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia Aia?eee a 1776 aiaeo
i?ioeann. i?eaaaeoee e ioaeaeueiiio i?aaiaiio ?acaeoeth a yoie no?aia,
aue, eiia/ii, iaaeeaiiui. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aaiaay nenoaia
Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia, eiathuay ana aua iiiai iauaai n i?aaiaie nenoaiie
Niaaeeiaiiiai Ei?ieaanoaa, aaconeiaii yaeyaony niaa?oaiii ioaeaeueiie e
iacaaeneiie, A iaeanoe oiaa?iuo ciaeia auee au?aaioaiu noaeaaiua ?aoaiey
– noiaeiua n ?aoaieyie a Niaaeeiaiiii Ei?ieaanoaa. A eiia/iii n/aoa
eiaeeoeey aeaaeaeueoeaa oiaa?iuo ciaeia noaea ianoieueei neeueiie, /oi
oaaaeeea oaaea?aeueiue caeiiiaeaoaeueiue i?aai, Eiia?ann- i?eiyoue caeii
i oiaa?iuo ciaeao. Yoi auei naeaeaii a 1870 aiaeo, iaeiaei yoio caeii
i?inouanoaiaae eeoue naiue eao, eiaaea ii aue iauyaeai
iaeiinoeoooeeiiiui. Ai anyeii neo/aa iio?aaiaaeinue a?aiy aei 1905
aiaea, eiaaea aue i?eiyo iiaue anaiauaiethuee caeii i oiaa?iuo ciaeao.
Aeiaieueii ethaiiuoii, /oi yoi auei a oii aea aiaeo, eiaaea a
Niaaeeiaiiii Ei?ieaanoaa aue i?eiyo iiaue caeii i oiaa?iuo ciaeao,

Ia eiioeiaioa Aa?iiu a ?acoeueoaoa ionoonoaey nenoaiu iaiiaeiaea
a?eoaineiai iau/iiai i?aaa io?aia oiaa?iuo ciaeia iiaea auoue
onoaiiaeaia oieueei caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoueth. Iaeiie ec ia?auo no?ai,
i?eiyaoeo anaiauaiethuee caeii, auea O?aioeey, a eioi?ie caeii io 1857
aiaea inoaaaeny a neea a oa/aiea aieaa 100 eao. Iiiaea aa?iiaeneea
no?aiu, oaeea, eae Aa?iaiey e Eoaeey, ana aua aeieaeiu auee ia?anoe naia
iaoeeiiaeueiia aaeeinoai. Oae, a Aa?iaiee i?aaiaay io?aia
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo oiaa?iuo ciaeia aia?aua auea aaaaeaia i?onneei
?anii?yaeaieai io 1874 aiaea. Ia?aue Eiia?neee caeii 1874 aiaea,
i?eiyoue nionoy eeoue o?e aiaea iinea ia?aciaaiey aa?iaineie eiia?ee,
aue aanueia ia?aie/ai ii i?aaeiaoo ?aaoee?iaaiey e aeiioneae e
?aaeno?aoeee oieueei ecia?aceoaeueiua oiaa?iua ciaee. Ia?aue
anaiauaiethuee caeii a Aa?iaiee aue i?eiyo a 1896 aiaeo. ?acaeoea a
ninaaeieo ainoaea?noaao auei aanueia noiaeiui.

?acaeoea i?aaa ia oiaa?iue ciae a yoii noieaoee iiaeii naanoe e
ianeieueeei ?oa?eeai: eniieueciaaiea eee ?aaeno?aoeey eae iniiaa aeey
aicieeiiaaiey i?aa; i?eciaiea nia?aiaiiuo niiniaia eniieueciaaiey
oiaa?iuo ciaeia (onooiea, eeoeaice?iaaiea); i?eciaiea iiauo oai?ee
io?aiu oiaa?iuo ciaeia,

Oaeia ?acaeoea aeinoeaaeinue ia oieueei caeiiiaeaoaeueiui iooai;
ca/anooth cia/eoaeueiua iiaeoiaeu au?aaaouaaeenue noaeaaiuie ?aoaieyie.

A ioiioaiee i?eciaiey iiauo oai?ee io?aiu oiaa?iuo ciaeia a yoii
noieaoee iiaeii nineaoueny ia a?eoaineee Caeii 1938 aiaea e ia Caeii
Aaieethena i oiaa?iuo ciaeao io 1970 aiaea.

A?eoaineee caeii aia?aua nicaeae iiaua i?aaa aeey aeaaeaeueoea oiaa?iiai
ciaea, a eiaiii i?aai eneeth/eoue ethaia eniieueciaaiea oiaa?iiai ciaea,
iacaaeneii io oiai, eiaaony ee aa?iyoiinoue niaoaiey eee iao. Oae.
niaeanii a?eoaineiio i?aao i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi anee eiieo?aio nnueaaony
ia iaeoth i?iaeoeoeeth n oiaa?iui ciaeii aeey oiai, /oiau iiae/a?eiooue
i?aeiouanoaa naiae nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oi aio iiaeii ii noaeo
cai?aoeoue ia?ooaoue i?aai ia oiaa?iue ciae. Caeii Aaieethena oaeaea
ii?iaeee iiaia i?aai, a eiaiii i?aai cai?auaoue ethaia eniieueciaaiea,
aucuaathuaa oua?a aeaaeaeueoea oiaa?iiai ciaea, iacaaeneii io noiaenoaa
oiaa?ia. Yoe i?eia?u iieacuaatho, /oi o?aaeeoeeiiiia iiiyoea oiaa?iiai
ciaea eae ia aieaa /ai oeacaoaey i?ienoiaeaeaiey oaea ia niioaaonoaoao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aeaaea a i?aaeaeao aeaenoaothuaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,

?acaeoea i?aaa ia oiaa?iua ciaee aioo?e no?ai a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
eniuouaaei aeeyiea ?acaeoey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iaeanoe. Iniai oiiiyiooa
aeieaeia auoue Ia?eaeneay eiiaaioeey. Ia?eaeneay eiiaaioeey yaeyaony
iniiaiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiiaaioeeae a iaeanoe i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe, aeeth/ay oiaa?iua ciaee. Iia aeiiieiyaony Iaae?eaeneei
niaeaoaieai i Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie ?aaeno?aoeee ciaeia, iiaeienaiiie a 1891
aiaeo, i?aaenoaaeyaoei niaie niaoeeaeueiue nithc aeey no?ai — /eaiia
Ia?eaeneie eiiaaioeee. A aniaeoa enoi?ee i?aaa ia oiaa?iua ciaee aaaeiui
iiiaioii yaeyaony oi, /oi ?aoeoeeaoeey yoeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aeiaiai?ia
e eo o?ainoi?iaoeey a iaoeeiiaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai nouanoaaiii
niinianoaiaaee i?aa?auaieth iaeanoe i?aaa i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe a
oo iaaeaeoia?iaeioth iaeanoue, eaeiaie iii yaeyaony iuia.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua eiiaaioeee aiieiuatho iauea ie?iaicc?aiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai niiauanoaa ia i?aai i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, e
noaiaea?oiua iieiaeaiey yoeo aeiaiai?ia iinoiyiii aiineeenue a
iaoeeiiaeueiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai – a iniaaiiinoe i?e ia?aniio?a yoeo
eiiaaioeee.

ENOI?Ess E YAIETHOeEss AAOI?NEIAI I?AAA

Eaeay io?aiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa ia/aea iiyaeyoueny n ecia?aoaieai
ia/aoaiey, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio noaei aiciiaeiui ?aciiiaeaoue
eeoa?aoo?iua i?iecaaaeaiey n iiiiuueth iaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia aianoi
ia?aienuaaiey eo io ?oee. Yoi i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth iiaie i?ioannee —
ia/aoieeia e eieaii?iaeaaoeaa, iacuaaaiuo a Aiaeee “stationers”
(oi?aiaoeu ia/aoiie i?iaeoeoeeae). Yoe i?aaei?eieiaoaee eiaanoe?iaaee
cia/eoaeueiua noiiu a iieoieo aoiaae, a iieoieo eee ecaioiaeaiea
ia/aoiuo iaoei, a oaeaea a iaai ?aai/ae neeu, /oi i?aaeoniao?eaaei
aaaine?iaaiea n?aaenoa, eioi?ia a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie iiaei
auoue aiciauaii ?acoiiuie iinooieaieyie. A yoie neooaoeee aac eaeie-eeai
oi?iu io?aiu io eiieo?aioeee iooai i?iaeaaee iacaeiiiuo eiiee
eiaanoe?iaaiea a ia/aoaiea e i?iaeaaeo eiea auei iianiui e ?eneiaaiiui
i?aaei?eyoeai; iiiaea ?aci?yeenue. Oneeeaaeny iaaeei a iieueco
iaania/aiey eaeie-oi oi?iu io?aiu; e iia iiyaeeanue a aeaea i?eaeeaaee,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ?acee/iuie aeanoyie; a Aiaeee e ai O?aioeee — ei?ieyie;
a Aa?iaiee — eiycueyie ?acee/iuo ainoaea?noa. Yoe i?eaeeaaee aeaaaee
aaiaoeoeea?eyi eneeth/eoaeueiua i?aaa aini?iecaaaeaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey
ia ia?aie/aiiia a?aiy n i?aaeinoaaeaieai n?aaenoa caueou aeey
inouanoaeaiey i?aaa iooai oo?aoia, a?anoia, eiioeneaoeee iiaeaeaeueiuo
eiiee e, aiciiaeii, acuneaiey oauoeia. Nicaeaaoayny a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai
neooaoeey iaeaaeaea iiiaeie ec iniiaiuo /a?o nenoaiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa,
eioi?ay ecaanoia iai naaiaeiy.

E eiioeo XVII noieaoey nenoaia i?eaeeaaee, o.a. i?aaeinoaaeaiea
iiiiiieueiuo i?aa ei?ieaaneie aeanoueth, ana aieaa e aieaa
iiaeaa?aaeanue e?eoeea e ana a?ii/a cao/aee aieina aaoi?ia,
ooaa?aeaeaaoeo naie i?aaa. Yoi i?eaaei a Aiaeee a 1709 aiaeo e
iiyaeaieth Noaoooa Aiiu, i?eciaiiiai ia?aui iieiaeaieai ia aaoi?neii
i?aaa. I?aaeiao yoiai caeiia aue au?aaeai a aai aeeeiiii caaieiaea eae
iiaeaea?aeea o/aiey e cae?aieaiea ca oi?aaiii/aiiuie aeaaeaeueoeaie
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ia eiiee eiea. Iniiaiui aai aeaenoaeai auei
iaania/aiea ca aaoi?ii eieae eneeth/eoaeueiiai i?aaa ia iaia/aoaiea e
iioaeeeiaaiea aa a oa/aiea 14 eao n aeaou ia?aie aa ioaeeeaoeee;
anoanoaaiii, ii iia i?iaeaoue yoi i?aai e iau/ii i?iaeaaae aai
eieaii?iaeaaoeo. Caeii oaeaea i?aaeoniao?eaae, /oi a eiioea yoiai
ia?aiai n?iea a 14 eao ia/eiaeny aoi?ie n?ie io?aiu, eioi?ay iiyoue-oaee
i?aaeinoaaeyeanue ia?aiia/aeueii aaoi?o, anee ii aue a aeeauo; oaeei
ia?acii iauaa aeaenoaea caeeth/aeinue a nicaeaiee n?iea io?aiu
aaoi?neiai i?aaa, aeeeaoaainy 28 eao n aeaou ia?aie ioaeeeaoeee. A
ioiioaiee eiea, oaea iaia/aoaiiuo ia iiiaio i?eiyoey Caeiia,
i?aaeoniao?eaaeny aaeeiue n?ie io?aiu a 21 aiae. Oaeei ia?acii. Caeii
aeaeae oaea?aiea ia io?aia io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai eiie?iaaiey
iioaeeeiaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, e ia i?aeoeea iaeaieueooth auaiaeo
iieo/eee ecaeaoaee/eieaii?iaeaaoeu. Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi Caeii
onoaiaaeeaae oneiaea i ?aaeno?aoeee e aeaiiie?iaaiee; iioaeeeiaaiiua
eieae aeieaeiu auee ?aaeno?e?iaaoueny a Stationers Hall (Oeaio?a
eieaiecaeaoaeuenoa), a eiiee aeieaeiu auee aeaiiie?iaaoueny aeey
eniieueciaaiey oieaa?neoaoaie e aeaeeioaeaie (eiee/anoai eiiee a
eiia/iii eoiaa aeinoeaei aeaayoe).

A XVIII noieaoee eiaee ianoi aeeeoaeueiua nii?u e noaeaaiua
?acae?aoaeuenoaa ioiineoaeueii niioiioaiey aaoi?neiai i?aaa niaeanii
iauaio i?aao e aaoi?neiai i?aaa niaeanii Noaoooo Aiiu. Ieii/aoaeueiia
?aoaiea auei au?aaioaii Iaeaoie ei?aeia a aeaea Aeiiaeueaenii i?ioea
Aaeeaoa a 1774 aiaeo, niaeanii eioi?iio ii iauaio i?aao aaoi? eiae
eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai iaia/aoai e iioaeeeiaaiey naieo eiea, ii eae
oieueei eieaa auea iioaeeeiaaia, i?aaa ia iaa ?aaoee?iaaeenue
eneeth/eoaeueii Noaoooii. Yoi ?aaoee?iaaiea iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee ia iniiaa iauaai i?aaa aeeeeinue aei i?eiyoey Caeiia ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa a 1911 aiaeo, eioi?ue aai ioiaiee; e iuia aaoi?neia
i?aai a Aiaeee iniiauaaaony oieueei ia iieiaeaieyo caeiia.

Ai O?aioeee yaiethoeey io nenoaiu i?eaeeaaee e nenoaia aaoi?neiai i?aaa
auea /anoueth iaueo eciaiaiee a aeecie O?aioeee, aucaaiiuo ?aaiethoeeae,
eioi?ay ioiaieea i?eaeeaaee anao aeaeia, aeeth/ay i?eaeeaaee ecaeaoaeae.
A 1791 e a 1793 aiaeao Eiinoeoooeeiiiay annaiaeay i?eiyea aeaa aeae?aoa,
eioi?ua caeiaeeee iniiao o?aioeocneie nenoaiu aaoi?neiai i?aaa.
Aeae?aoii 1791 aiaea iaania/eaaeinue i?aai aaoi?a ia ioaee/iua
eniieiaiey a oa/aiea anae aai aeecie, a oaeaea a oa/aiea 5 eao iinea aai
nia?oe a iieueco aai ianeaaeieeia e eeoe, eioi?ui onooieaii yoi i?aai, a
Aeae?aoii io 1793 aiaea aaoi?o aeaaaeinue eneeth/eoaeueiia i?aai
aini?iecaaaeaiey aai i?iecaaaeaiee a oa/aiea aai aeecie, a oaeaea 10 eao
iinea aai nia?oe a iieueco aai ianeaaeieeia e i?aaii?aaiieeia. Iu n?aco
aea aeaeei ?acee/ea a iiaeoiaea a ioee/ea io Noaoooa Aiiu. Ai O?aioeee
yoe i?aaa iienuaathony eae ”i?aaa aaoi?a” e iie eniieuecothony a
oa/aiea aeecie aaoi?a iacaaeneii ie io iioaeeeiaaiey, ie io niaethaeaiey
oaeeo oi?iaeueiinoae, eae ?aaeno?aoeey.

Iaeiaei e a Aiaeee e ai O?aioeee yoe i?aaa ?anniao?eaaeenue ii nouanoao
eae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, i?inoi iaania/eaay aaoi?o eeai aai ianeaaeieeo
eee i?aaii?aaiieeo eiouanoaaiioth oeaiiinoue io?aiyaiiai i?iecaaaeaiey,

Aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai, eioi?ia neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, auei iiyaeaiea a
Aa?iaiee oeeinioneeo eiioeaioeee, au?aaioaiiuo oaeeie oeeinioaie, eae
Eaio, eioi?ua aeaeaee a aaoi?neii i?aaa eee i?aaa aaoi?a ia i?inoi oi?io
nianoaaiiinoe, iaania/eaaaooth aaoi?o eee aeaaeaeueoeo i?aaa
eiouanoaaiiua auaiaeu. Iie ?anniao?eaaee eeoa?aoo?ioth e eioth
oai?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue aaoi?a eae i?iaeieaeaiea eee io?aaeaiea
ee/iinoe aaoi?a, a ioiioaiee eioi?ie ii eiae i?aai a neeo anoanoaaiiie
ni?aaaaeeeainoe ia io?aio eae /anoe aai ee/iinoe Yoa eiioeaioeey ieacaea
aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea aaoi?neiai i?aaa a eiioeiaioaeueiie Aa?iia,
e a /anoiinoe i?eaaea e ?acaeoeth “droit tira!” eee ii?aeueiuo i?aa
(iaeiouanoaaiiuo i?aa aaoi?ia),

A caeeth/aiea yoiai e?aoeiai enoi?e/aneiai iaci?a neaaeoao ia?aoeoueny e
Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai Aia?eee e ioiaoeoue, /oi aei 1976 aiaea, eiaaea aue
i?eiyo aeaenoaothuee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy Caeii Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia ia
aaoi?neii i?aaa, aaoi?neia i?aai a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao aace?iaaeinue a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ia ia?aiia/aeueiuo iieiaeaieyo aiaeeeneiai Noaoooa
Aiiu. Oae, ia?aue oaaea?aeueiue aia?eeaineee caeii, i?eiyoue a 1790
aiaeo, i?aaeoniao?eaae io?aio eiea, ea?o e ii?neeo ea?o ia n?ie a 14 eao
n aeaou ia?aie ioaeeeaoeee, eioi?ue iia auoue i?iaeeai ia neaaeothuee
n?ie, anee aaoi? inoaaaeny a aeeauo ii enoa/aiee ia?aiai n?iea, i?e
oneiaee niaethaeaiey no?iaeo o?aaiaaiee ?aaeno?aoeee e aeaiiie?iaaiey.
Yoe /a?ou nio?aieeenue a i?aaa Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia aei 1976 aiaea,
eiaaea aue i?eiyo aeaenoaothuee iuia caeii, eioi?ue eciaiee n?ie io?aiu
ia a?aiy aeecie aaoi?a iethn 50 eao, oai naiui i?eaaaey aai a
niioaaonoaea i?aeoe/anee ni anaie no?aiaie, aaea aeaenoaoao aaoi?neia
i?aai; Caeii 1976 aiaea, iaeiaei – nio?aiee o?aaiaaiey ?aaeno?aoeee e
aeaiiie?iaaiey – eioi?ua eiatho enoi/ieeii naiaai i?ienoiaeaeaiey Noaooo
Aiiu 1709 aiaea.

Nouanoai eiioeaiooaeueiuo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo nenoaiaie iauaai i?aaa e
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: no?aiu iauaai i?aaa
?anniao?eaatho aaoi?neia i?aai oaeoe/anee eae oi?io nianoaaiiinoe,
eioi?ay iiaeao auoue nicaeaia aaoi?ii oece/aneei eee th?eaee/aneei
eeoeii e eioi?ay, aoaeo/e nicaeaiiie, iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny
eiiia?/aneei niiniaii oae aea, eae ethaay eiay oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe, i?e
yoii ninoaaeythuea aai i?aaiii/ey iai?aaeaiu eneeth/eoaeueii ia
iieueciaaiea eiouanoaaiiui iioaioeeaeii yoie nianoaaiiinoe. A no?aiao
a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa i?aai aaoi?a oaeaea ?anniao?eaaaony a ea/anoaa
eiathuaai /a?ou “nianoaaiiinoe” e aaoi?neia i?aai a oie aea noaiaie, /oi
e a nenoaia iauaai i?aaa, no?aieony io?aiyoue eiouanoaaiiia niaea?aeaiea
yoie nianoaaiiinoe; iaeiaei, e a yoii caeeth/aaony ?acee/ea, eiaaony
aeiiieieoaeueiia ecia?aiea i?aa aaoi?a, o.a. eioaeeaeooaeueiay eee
oeeinioneay eiioeaioeey oiai, /oi i?iecaaaeaiea aaoi?a yaeyaony
au?aaeaieai aai ee/iinoe, eioi?ia a neeo anoanoaaiiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe
o?aaoao io?aiu a oie aea noaiaie, /oi e eiouanoaaiiue iioaioeeae
i?iecaaaeaiey.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eiae io?aiu aaoi?neeo i?aa ia/aeny n iiaeienaiey
Aa?ineie eiiaaioeee ia io?aia eeoa?aoo?iuo e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee a 1886 aiaeo. Iineaaeothuea ia?aniio?u Aa?ineie eiiaaioeee
i?iaeieaeaee niaa?oainoaiaaoue iaaeaeoia?iaeioth nenoaio io?aiu
aaoi?neiai i?aaa a naaoa iinoiyiiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ia?anna,
cao?aaeaaaoaai aaoi?neea e niaaeiua i?aaa.

Eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a:

Vincent, ?ieue e ooieoeee iaoaioia, i?iiuoeaiiuo i?iaeoia e iiaeaeae
iauaeoia eae eino?oiaio i?eiaiaiey oaoiieiaee., TMP/KL/9 V. Plasseraud,
Yeneo?n a enoi?eth i?aa ia i?iiuoeaiioth nianoaaiiinoue,
WIPO-CEIPI/IP/SB/93/l.

Aaaaeaiea a eioaeeaeooaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue. AIEN. AEaiaaa. 1998.

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