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Этика поведения в конфликте и управление коллективом

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NIa EINOEOOO AIAOIAYEIIIIE*ANEEO NAssCAE, YEIIIIEEE E I?AAA I?AAA

IV – EO?N II – NEIIANO?

TH?EAeE*ANEEE OAEOEUeOAO CAI*IIA IOAeAEAIEA

II EO?NO “INEOIEIAEss E YOEEA AeAEIAUO EIIIOIEEAOeEE”

(*A?IIAEE)

NIE?IIA AAEA?EE EAAIIAE*

NAIEO-IAOA?AO?A

1997

OAIA

6. YOEEA IIAAAeAIEss A EIIOEEEOA E OI?AAEAIEA EIEEAEOEAII.

IEAI

I. INEOIEIAEss.

II. EIIOEEEOU E IOOE EO ?AC?AOAIEss.

III. NIOeEAEUeII-INEOIEIAE*ANEAss NO?OEOO?A A?OIIU.

I. INEOIEIAEss.

Ineoieiaey a aoeaaeueiii cia/aiee yoiai neiaa – iaoea i aeooa. Enoi?ey
aa, eae eco/aiea aeooe /aeiaaea, aai ineoe/aneiai ie?a iaoiaeii
naiiiaaethaeaiey (eio?iniaeoeee) e naiiaiaeeca, ooiaeeo aeaeaei a aeoaue
aaeia, a oeeinioneea e iaaeeoeeineea o/aiey. Ineoieiaey eae
naiinoiyoaeueiay iaoea ooaa?aeeeanue eeoue a eiioea i?ioeiai noieaoey,
iinea oiai, eae iieo/eea yenia?eiaioaeueioth aaco e anoanoaaiiiiao/ioth
oeceieiae/aneoth iniiao.

Aeaoie ia/aea iao/iie ineoieiaee n/eoaaony 1879a., eiaaea a Eaeioeeaa
Aoiaeoii auea ioe?uoa ia?aay ineoieiae/aneay eaai?aoi?ey.

A /ai aea nooue e iniaaiiinoe i?aeoe/aneie ineoieiaee?

Ecaanoiua ineoieiae TH.I.Caa?iaeei e A.A.Iiaeeia ioia/atho, /oi ?acee/ea
oai?aoe/aneie (iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie) e iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
ineoieiaee ninoieo i?aaeaea anaai a i?aaeiaoa e iauaeoa eco/aiey.
Iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneay ineoieiaey anaaaea eiaao aeaei n ?aaeueiui iauaeoii,
a eioi?ii anoue ana: e ee/iinoiay no?oeoo?a, e nenoaia ineoe/aneeo
i?ioeannia, naienoa, ooieoeee, e nenoaia ooieoeeiiaeueiuo e i?i/eo
ineoe/aneeo ninoiyiee ni naiae aeeiaieeie.

Iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu ?aaeueiiai iauaeoa i?e ?aaioa i?aeoe/aneiai ineoieiaa
aeieaeii iie?aoueny ia oieueei ia ioaeaeueiia i?aaeiaoiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea, eioi?ia anoue a ineoieiae/aneie iaoea (eee aa iaeanoe),
ii e ia oo ?aaeueiinoue, a eioi?oth aeeth/ai yoio ?aaeueiue iauaeo –
/aeiaae.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a oeaio?a aieiaiey i?aeoe/aneie ineoieiaee aeieaeai
noiyoue ?aaeueiue aeeaie /aeiaae ni anaie aai iniaaiiinoyie, aeeth/aiiue
a ?aaeueioth noa?o aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe (i?ioanneiiaeueioth, auoiaoth e
ee/ioth) e iaiieiaiiue ?acee/iuie aeeciaiiuie i?iaeaiaie, eioi?ua iiaoo
aai ?aaeiaaoue e io/eoue.

Caaea/a ineoieiaee e ineoieiaia – iiii/ue /aeiaaeo ?acia?aoueny a naaa,
a naieo neiaeiuo i?iaeaiao e iaeoe ?aoeeiiaeueiue auoiae ec neiaeeaoeony
neooaoeee aac cia/eoaeueiuo ia?aii-ineoe/aneeo iai?yaeaiee.

A yoii nooue i?aeoe/aneie ineoieiaee, eioi?ay iiieiaaony iaie eae
eioaa?aoeey ciaiee e iaoiaeia ec ?acee/iuo iaeanoae ineoieiaee n
oeaeueth ?aoaiey i?iaeai, aicieeathueo o /aeiaaea a ?acee/iuo noa?ao aai
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.

A niioaaonoaee n yoei iiieiaieai iu ?anniao?eaaai no?oeoo?o, iaoiaeu
i?aeoe/aneie ineoieiaee e ?acoeueoao, e eioi?iio iiaeii i?eeoe,
eniieuecoy ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?aeoe/aneie ineoieiaee.

I?aeoe/aneay ineoieiaey ninoieo ec /aou?ao /anoae:

1) ineoieiaey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe;

2) ineoieiaey acaeiiioiioaiee e acaeiiaeaenoaey a a?oiia;

3) ineoieiaey i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

4) ineoieiaey ee/iie e iauaeaiiie aeecie.

Eiaeea oaeiai ?acaeaeaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a oeaio?a noieo
/aeiaae n aai iaiiaoi?eiie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoueth, eioi?ue aeieaeai
ciaoue e iiieiaoue ae?oaiai /aeiaaea. Ii /aeiaae ?aaeei auaaao iaeei,
iau/ii ii aeeth/ai a a?oiiiaua ioiioaiey. Iineaaeiea iiaoo auoue i/aiue
?acee/iuie, ii aianoa n oai eiathony ii?aaeaeaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe
acaeiiioiioaiee e acaeiiaeaenoaey a a?oiia, ciaiea eioi?uo iiiiaaao
/aeiaaeo ?aoeeiiaeueii no?ieoue naia iiaaaeaiea. Aeaa inoaeueiuo /anoe
i?aeoe/aneie ineoieiaee ?ane?uaatho aiciiaeiinoe e niiniaiinoe
iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea a iniiaiuo noa?ao aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe:
i?ioanneiiaeueiie, ee/iie e iauaeaiiie aeecie. A oeaeii, iu iiaeoiaeei e
iiieiaieth oiai, /oi oaeia aioo?aiiyy aa?iiiey /aeiaaea, eae nai /aeiaae
iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue aa ?acaeoeth e oe?aieaieth ineoe/aneiai
caei?iauey.

II. EIIOEEEOU E IOOE EO ?AC?AOAIEss.

Ainiiieiaiey i eiioeeeoao eae i?aaeei aucuaatho iai?eyoiua annioeeaoeee:
oa?icu, a?aaeaeaaiinoue, iaiiieiaiea, iiiuoee, ii?ie aaciaaeaaeiua,
aeieacaoue naith i?aaioo, iaeaeu…A ?acoeueoaoa neiaeeeinue iiaiea, /oi
eiioeeeo – anaaaea yaeaiea iaaaoeaiia, iaaeaeaoaeueiia aeey eaaeaeiai ec
ian, a a iniaaiiinoe aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, iaiaaeaea?ia, oae eae ei
i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny n eiioeeeoaie /aua ae?oaeo. Eiioeeeou
?anniao?eaathony eae ia/oi oaeia, /aai ii aiciiaeiinoe neaaeoao
ecaaaaoue.

I?aaenoaaeoaee ?aiieo oeie oi?aaeaiey, a oii /enea noi?iiieee oeieu
/aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee, n/eoaee, /oi eiioeeeo – yoi i?eciae
iayooaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee e ieioiai oi?aaeaiey. A iaoa
a?aiy oai?aoeee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey ana /aua neeiiythony e oie oi/ea
c?aiey, /oi iaeioi?ua eiioeeeou aeaaea a naiie yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee
i?e naiuo eo/oeo acaeiiioiioaieyo ia oieueei aiciiaeiu, ii e
aeaeaoaeueiu. Iaaei oieueei oi?aaeyoue eiioeeeoii. ?ieue eiioeeeoia e eo
?aaoee?iaaiey a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa noieue aaeeea, /oi ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia OO aaea auaeaeeeanue niaoeeaeueiay iaeanoue ciaiey –
eiioeeeoieiaey. Aieueoie aeeaae a aa ?acaeoea aianee nioeeieiaey,
oeeinioey, iieeoieiaey e, eiia/ii, ineoieiaey.

Eiioeeeou aicieeatho ii/oe ai anao noa?ao /aeiaa/aneie aeecie. Caeanue
iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue oieueei oa, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a
i?aaiecaoeeyo.

*oi aea oaeia eiioeeeo?

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua ii?aaeaeaiey eiioeeeoa, ii ana iie iiae/a?eeaatho
iaee/ea i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?ia i?eieiaao oi?io ?aciiaeanee, anee ?a/ue
eaeao i acaeiiaeaenoaee ethaeae. eiioeeeou iiaoo auoue ne?uouie eee
yaiuie, ii a iniiaa eo eaaeeo ionoonoaea niaeaney. Iiyoiio ii?aaeaeei
eiioeeeo eae ionoonoaea niaeaney iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee aieaa noi?iiaie –
eeoeaie eee a?oiiaie.

Ionoonoaea niaeaney iaoneiaeaii iaee/eai ?aciiia?aciuo iiaiee,
acaeyaeia, eaeae, eioa?ania, oi/ae c?aiey e o.ae. Iaeiaei iii, eae oaea
ioia/aeinue, ia anaaaea au?aaeaaony a oi?ia yaiiai noieeiiaaiey,
eiioeeeoa. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea nouanoaothuea
i?ioeai?a/ey, ?aciiaeaney ia?ooatho ii?iaeueiia acaeiiaeaenoaea ethaeae,
i?aiyonoaotho aeinoeaeaieth iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. A yoii neo/aa ethaee
i?inoi auaatho auioaeaeaiu eaeei-eeai ia?acii i?aiaeieaoue ?aciiaeaney e
anooiatho a ioe?uoia eiioeeeoiia acaeiiaeaenoaea. A i?ioeanna
eiioeeeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aai o/anoieee iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue
au?aaeaoue ?acee/iua iiaiey, auyaeyoue aieueoa aeueoa?iaoea i?e i?eiyoee
?aoaiey, e eiaiii a yoii caeeth/aaony aaaeiue iiceoeaiue niune
eiioeeeoa. Neacaiiia, eiia/ii, ia icia/aao, /oi eiioeeeo anaaaea iineo
iieiaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Iaaea?oiiiaua e iaaeee/iinoiua eiioeeeou i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
noieeiiaaiea eiaeeaeaeia n a?oiiie eee a?oii iaaeaeo niaie.

Aeaeaiea eiioeeeoia ia aeaeu aeinoaoi/ii oneiaii, aeanoeie a?aieoeu
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aeaeaie ia nouanoaoao e ia i?aeoeea aicieeatho
eiioeeeou: i?aaiecaoeeiiiua aa?oeeaeueiua iaaeee/iinoiua;
ai?eciioaeueiua ioe?uoua iaaea?oiiiaua e o.ae.

?anniio?aiiua eiioeeeou iiaoo auiieiyoue naiua ?aciua ooieoeee, eae
iiceoeaiua, oae e iaaaoeaiua. Iniiaiua ooieoeee eiioeeeoia i?aaenoaaeaiu
a oaaeeoea ?1.

Oaaeeoea ?1.

Ooieoeee eiioeeeoia

Iiceoeaiua Iaaaoeaiua

?ac?yaeea iai?yaeaiiinoe iaaeaeo eiioeeeoothueie noi?iiaie aieueoea
yiioeeiiaeueiua, iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ia o/anoea a eiioeeeoa

iieo/aiea iiaie eioi?iaoeee ia iiiiiaioa oaieueiaiea nio?oaeieeia,
nieaeaiea aeenoeeieeiu, oooaeoaiea nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa
a eieeaeoeaa

niei/aiea eieeaeoeaa i?aaiecaoeee i?e i?ioeaiai?noaa n aiaoiei a?aaii
i?aaenoaaeaiea i iiaaaeaeaiiuo a?oiiao, eae i a?aaao

noeioee?iaaiea e eciaiaieyi e ?acaeoeth /?acia?iia oaea/aiea i?ioeannii
eiioeeeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey a oua?a ?aaioa

niyoea neiae?iia iiei?iinoe o iiae/eiaiiuo iinea caaa?oaiey eiioeeeoa –
oiaiueoaiea noaiaie nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo /anoueth nio?oaeieeia

aeeaaiinoeea aiciiaeiinoae iiiiiaioia neiaeiia ainnoaiiaeaiea aeaeiauo
ioiioaiee (“oeaeo eiioeeeoa”).

I?e/eiu, aucuaathuea eiioeeeou, oae aea ?aciiia?aciu, eae e naie
eiioeeeou. Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue iauaeoeaiua i?e/eiu e eo aini?eyoea
eiaeeaeaeaie.

Iauaeoeaiua i?e/eiu a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie oneiaii iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
a aeaea ianeieueeeo oe?aieaiiuo a?oii:

ia?aie/aiiinoue ?ano?nia, iiaeeaaeaueo ?ani?aaeaeaieth;

?acee/ea a oeaeyo, oeaiiinoyo, iaoiaeao iiaaaeaiey, o?iaia
eaaeeoeeaoeee, ia?aciaaiey;

acaeiicaaeneiinoue caaeaiee iai?aaeeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
ioaaonoaaiiinoe;

ieioea eiiioieeaoeee.

Aianoa n oai iauaeoeaiua i?e/eiu oieueei oiaaea yayony i?e/eiaie
eiioeeeoa, eiaaea naeaeatho iaaiciiaeiui ee/iinoe eee a?oiia
?aaeeciaaoue naie iio?aaiinoe, caaeaioo ee/iua e/eee a?oiiiaua eioa?anu.
?aaeoeey eiaeeaeaea ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony nioeeaeueiie c?aeinoueth
ee/iinoe, aeiionoeiuie aeey iaa oi?iaie iiaaaeaiey, i?eiyouie a
eieeaeoeaa nioeeaeueiuie ii?iaie e i?aaeeaie. E?iia oiai, o/anoea
eiaeeaeaea a eiioeeeoa ii?aaeaeyaony cia/eiinoueth aeey iaai
iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae e oai, ianeieueei aicieeoaa i?aiyonoaea iaoaao eo
?aaeeciaaoue. /ai aieaa aaaeiay oeaeue noieo ia?aae noauaeoii, /ai
aieueoa oneeee ii i?eeaaaao, /oiau aa aeinoe/ue, oai neeueiaa aoaeao
nii?ioeaeaiea e aeano/a eiioeeeoiia acaeiiaeaenoaea n oaie, eoi yoiio
iaoaao.

Auai? niiniaa i?aiaeieaiey i?aiyonoaee aoaeao, a naith i/a?aaeue,
caaenaoue io yiioeeiiaeueiie onoie/eainoe ee/iinoe, ?aniieaaaaiuo
n?aaenoa caueou naieo eioa?ania, iauaia ?aniieaaaaiie aeanoe e iiiaeo
ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.

Ineoieiae/aneay caueoa ee/iinoe i?ienoiaeeo aanniciaoaeueii eae nenoaia
noaaeeecaoeee ee/iinoe aeey i?aaeio?aiaiey noa?u niciaiey eiaeeaeaea io
io?eoeaoaeueiuo ineoieiae/aneeo aicaeaenoaee. A ?acoeueoaoa eiioeeeoa
aeaiiay nenoaia n?aaaouaaao iai?iecaieueii, iiieii aiee e aeaeaiey
/aeiaaea. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a oaeie caueoa aicieeaao i?e iiyaeaiee iuneae
e /oanoa, i?aaenoaaeythueo oa?ico naiioaaaeaieth, noi?ie?iaaaoaiony “y –
ia?aco” eiaeeaeaea, nenoaia oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee, nieaeathueo
naiiioeaieo eiaeeaeaea.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aini?eyoea neooaoeee eiaeeaeaeii iiaeao auoue
aeaeaeei io ?aaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aeae, ii ?aaeoeey /aeiaaea ia
neooaoeeth aoaeao oi?ie?iaaoueny enoiaey ec aai aini?eyoey, ec oiai, /oi
aio eaaeaony e yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai nouanoaaiii cao?oaeiyao ?aoaiea
eiioeeeoa. Aicieeoea a ?acoeueoaoa eiioeeeoa io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee
aeinoaoi/ii auno?i iiaoo auoue ia?aianaiu n i?iaeaiu ia ee/iinoue
iiiiiaioa, /oi aeiiieieo eiioeeeo ee/iinoiui i?ioeaiaeaenoaeai. *ai
aieueoa oneeeaaaony eiioeeeo, oai iai?eaeyaeiaa auaeyaeeo ia?ac
iiiiiaioa, /oi aeiiieieoaeueii oneiaeiyao aai ?aoaiea. Iiyaeyaony
ii?i/iue e?oa, eioi?ue e?aeia neiaeii ?aci?aaoue. Oeaeaniia?acii yoi
naeaeaoue ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee ?acaa?ouaaiey niauoey, iiea neooaoeey ia
auoea ec-iiae eiio?iey.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei niiniaia eee iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey i?e/ei
eiioeeeoiiai iiaaaeaiey. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a ?anniio?ei iaeei ec ieo –
iaoiae ea?oia?aoee eiioeeeoa. Nooue yoiai iaoiaea ninoieo a a?aoe/aneii
ioia?aaeaiee ninoaaeythueo eiioeeeoa, a iineaaeiaaoaeueiii aiaeeca
iiaaaeaiey o/anoieeia eiioeeeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, a oi?ioee?iaaiee
iniiaiie i?iaeaiu, iio?aaiinoae e iianaiee o/anoieeia, niiniaia
ono?aiaiey i?e/ei, i?eaaaeoeo e eiioeeeoo.

?aaioa ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo yoaiia.

Ia ia?aii yoaia i?iaeaia iienuaaaony a iaueo /a?oao. Anee, iai?eia?,
?a/ue eaeao i ianiaeaniaaiiinoe a ?aaioa, i oii, /oi eoi-oi ia “oyiao
eyieo” aianoa ni anaie, oi i?iaeaio iiaeii ioia?aceoue eae
“?ani?aaeaeaiea iaa?ocee”. Anee eiioeeeo aiciee ec-ca ionoonoaey
aeiaa?ey iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e a?oiiie, oi i?iaeaio iiaeii au?aceoue eae
“iauaiea”. Ia aeaiiii yoaia aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue naio i?e?iaeo eiioeeeoa,
e iiea ia aaaeii, /oi yoi ia iieiinoueth io?aaeaao nooue i?iaeaiu. Ia
yoii – iicaea. Ia neaaeoao ii?aaeaeyoue i?iaeaio a oi?ia aeaiyeiai
auai?a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoae “aea eee iao”, oeaeaniia?acii inoaaeoue
aiciiaeiinoue iaoiaeaeaiey iiauo e i?eaeiaeueiuo ?aoaiee.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia auyaeythony aeaaiua o/anoieee eiioeeeoa. A nienie iiaeii
aaanoe ioaeaeueiua eeoea eee oeaeua eiiaiaeu, ioaeaeu, a?oiiu,
i?aaiecaoeee. A oie ia?a, a eioi?ie aiaea/aiiua a eiioeeeo ethaee eiatho
iauea iio?aaiinoe ii ioiioaieth e aeaiiiio eiioeeeoo, eo iiaeii
iauaaeeieoue aianoa. Aeiioneaaony oaeaea nia?oue a?oiiiauo e ee/iuo
eaoaai?ee.

Iai?eia?, anee ninoaaeyaony ea?oa eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo aeaoiy nio?oaeieeaie
a i?aaiecaoeee, oi a ea?oo iiaeii aeeth/eoue yoeo ?aaioieeia, a
inoaaoeony niaoeeaeenoia iauaaeeieoue a iaeio a?oiio, eeai auaeaeeoue
ioaeaeueii aua e ia/aeueieea aeaiiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey.

O?aoee yoai i?aaeiieaaaao ia?a/eneaiea iniiaiuo iio?aaiinoae e iianaiee,
naycaiiuo n yoie iio?aaiinoueth, anao iniiaiuo o/anoieeia eiioeeeoiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey. Iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue iioeau iiaaaeaiey, noiyuea ca
iiceoeeyie o/anoieeia a aeaiiii aii?ina. Iinooiee ethaeae e eo onoaiiaee
ii?aaeaeythony eo aeaeaieyie, iio?aaiinoyie, iioeaaie, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii onoaiiaeoue.

A?aoe/aneia ioia?aaeaiea iio?aaiinoae e iianaiee (ni. ?en?2.) ?anoe?yao
aiciiaeiinoe e nicaeaao oneiaey aeey aieaa oe?ieiai e?oaa ?aoaiee,
aiciiaeiuo iinea ieii/aiey anaai i?ioeanna ea?oia?aoee.

?en.?2

Ea?oa eiioeeeoa.

Oa?iei “iianaiey” icia/aao icaai/aiiinoue, o?aaiao ee/iinoe i?e
iaaiciiaeiinoe ?aaeeciaaoue eaeoth-oi ec naieo iio?aaiinoae. A aeaiiii
neo/aa ia neaaeoao ianoaeaeaoue n o/anoieeaie eiioeeeoa, ianeieueei
iainiiaaiiu eo no?aoe e iianaiey, iiea iie ia aianaiu a ea?oo. Iai?eia?,
o iaeiiai ec o/anoieeia eiioeeeoa aicieeei iianaiea ii iiaiaeo /aai-oi,
/oi i?e ninoaaeaiee ea?ou eaaeaony iaeiaa?iyoiui. Aianoa n oai iianaiea
nouanoaoao e aai iaycaoaeueii iaaei aianoe a ea?oo, i?eciaoue aai
iaee/ea. I?aeiouanoai iaoiaea ea?oia?aoee ninoieo a oii, /oi eiaaony
aiciiaeiinoue auneacuaaiey a i?ioeanna ninoaaeaiey ea?ou e io?aaeaiey
e??aoeeiiaeueiuo no?aoia ia iae. Iianaiey iiaoo aeeth/aoue neaaeothuea
iiceoeee: i?iaae e oieaeaiey, aiyciue iieioaoue, oeiainiaue e?ao,
aiciiaeiinoue auoue ioaa?aiooui, iioa?y eiio?iey iaae neooaoeeae,
iaeeii/anoai, aiciiaeiinoue auoue iiaeaa?aiooui e?eoeea eee
inoaeaeaieth, iioa?y ?aaiou, ieceay ca?aaioiay ieaoa, aiyciue, /oi ei
(o/anoieeii eiioeeeoa) aoaeoo eiiaiaeiaaoue, /oi ana i?eaeaony ia/eiaoue
nia/aea. Eniieuecoy iiiyoea ”iianaiey”, aiciiaeii auyaeoue iioeau, ia
iacuaaaiua aneoo o/anoieeaie eiioeeeoa. Iai?eia?, aeey iaeioi?uo ethaeae
eaa/a neacaoue, /oi iie ia oa?iyo iaoaaaeaiey, /ai i?eciaoueny a oii,
/oi iie ioaeaeathony a oaaaeaiee.

A ?acoeueoaoa ninoaaeaiey ea?ou i?iyniythony oi/ee niaiaaeaiey eioa?ania
eiioeeeoothueo noi?ii, aieaa ynii i?iyaeythony no?aoe e iianaiey
eaaeaeie e noi?ii, ii?aaeaeythony aiciiaeiua iooe auoiaea ec
nicaeaaoaeny neooaoeee.

Eniieueciaaiea iaoiaea ea?oia?aoee eiioeeeoa ?anniio?ei ia i?eia?a
neooaoeee, neiaeeaoaeny a iaeiii ec ioaeaeia aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa.

Neooaoeey

Yeiiiie/aneee ioaeae aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa ninoieo ec 9 /aeiaae e
oieueei aeaiuei. ?oeiaiaeeoaeai iiae?acaeaeaiey yaeyaony Nie?eaeiiiaa
E.A. – aeaiueia n?aaeiaai (i?aaeiaineiiiiai) aic?anoa, aeaaii
?aaioathuay a aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee e oniaoii ni?aaeythuayny ni naieie
iaycaiiinoyie.

A ioaeae ia oae aeaaii (ieiei aiaea) iinooiee ia ?aaioo iiaue nio?oaeiee
– A?eai?ueaaa I.I. – iieiaeay, neiiaoe/iay aeaiueia, eioi?ay caeai/eaaao
yeiiiie/aneee einoeooo. Aa i?eoiae aue ano?a/ai aeinoaoi/ii
ae?oaeaethaii ni noi?iiu anao nio?oaeieeia ioaeaea e, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue ia/aeueieea, o eioi?ie anoue aei/ue oaeiai aea aic?anoa.

Ia/aeueiee ioaeaea Nie?eaeiiiaa E.A. iaeioi?ia a?aiy “ii-iaoa?einee”
iiaeaea iiaoth nio?oaeieoeo, ii iioii ianooiee ia?aeii a eo
acaeiiioiioaieyo, e ii iaiiiyoiui aeey A?eai?ueaaie I.I. i?e/eiai
ioiioaiey ?acei oooaeoeeenue. Nie?eaeiiiaa E.A. noaea iinoiyiii
i?eaee?aoueny e A?eai?ueaaie I.I., noa?aynue oieceoue aa eae ee/iinoue,
ia aeaaaea niieieii ?aaioaoue. Aeey A?eai?ueaaie anoae aii?in: /oi
aeaeaoue e ia ia?aeoe ee ia ?aaioo a ae?oaia iiae?acaeaeaiea?

Ae?oaea nio?oaeieoeu ioaeaea aiaoia ieeae ia ?aaae?iaaee ia
nicaeaaoothny neooaoeeth. Ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o Nie?eaeiiiaa E.A.
aeinoaoi/ii aeanoiue /aeiaae, aeaaii iaoiaeeony ia ?oeiaiaeyuae
aeieaeiinoe.

Ninoaaei ea?oo aeaiiiai eiioeeeoa (?en.?3).

?en.?3

I?eia? ea?ou eiioeeeoa

NIE?EAeIIIAA

iianaiey:

iio?aaiinoe:

iioa?y eiio?iey

oaaaeaiea iiae/eiaiiuo

au auoue iiaeaa?aiooie e?eoeea

ACAEIIIOIIOAIEss

A?EAI?UeAAA

EIEEAEOEA IOAeAEA

iio?aaiinoe: iianaiey: iio?aaiinoe: iianaiey:

naii?aaeecaoeey ouaieaiea aeinoieinoaa ii?iaeueiua ioiioaiey

eioa?aniay ?aaioa iaaiciiaeiinoue

naiinoiyoaeueiinoue ii?iaeueii ?aaioaoue

O/anoieeaie yoiai eiioeeeoa yaeythony: Nie?eaeiiiaa, A?eai?ueaaa e
?aaioieee ioaeaea. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia caeeth/aaony ai acaeiiioiioaieyo
ia/aeueieea e iiae/eiaiiie. Iio?aaiinoe e iianaiey eaaeaeie ec noi?ii
i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?en. ?3

Iiiaea niaoeeaeenou, caieiathueany aii?inaie ?ac?aoaiey eiioeeeoia
i?ioanneiiaeueii, /oi i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey eiioeeeoaie caaeneo io
iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue eioi?uo ieioi iiaeaeaaony
oi?aaeythuaio aicaeaenoaeth. Iai?eia?, acaeyaeu ee/iinoe, iioeau e
iio?aaiinoe eiaeeaeaeia, a?oii. Neiaeeaoeany noa?aioeiu, i?aaenoaaeaiey,
i?aae?annoaeee, i?aaeoaaaeaeaiey iiaoo eiiaaea naanoe ia iao oneeey oao,
eoi au?aaaouaaao ?aoaiey. A caaeneiinoe io aeaea eiioeeeoa iieneii
?aoaiee iiaoo caieiaoueny ?aciua neoaeau: ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaiecaoeee,
neoaeaa oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii, ioaeae ineoieiaa e nioeeieiaa,
i?ionithciue eiieoao, noa/eii, ieeeoeey, noaeu.

?aoaiea eiioeeeoa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ono?aiaiea iieiinoueth eee
/anoe/ii i?e/ei, ii?iaeeaoeo eiioeeeo, eeai eciaiaiea oeaeae o/anoieeia
eiioeeeoa.

Oi?aaeaiea eiioeeeoaie – yoi oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea ii
ono?aiaieth (ieieiecaoeey) i?e/ei, ii?iaeeaoeo eiioeeeo, eee ia
ei??aeoeeth iiaaaeaiey o/anoieeia eiioeeeoa.

Nouanoaoao aeinoaoi/ii iiiai iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey eiioeeeoaie. Oe?oiiaiii
eo iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea ianeieueeeo a?oii, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo
eiaao naith iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey:

aioo?eee/iinoiua, o.a. iaoiaeu aicaeaenoaey ia ioaeaeueioth ee/iinoue;

no?oeoo?iua, o.a. iaoiaeu ii ono?aiaieth i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo eiioeeeoia;

iaaeee/iinoiua iaoiaeu eee noeee iiaaaeaiey a eiioeeeoia;

ia?aaiai?u;

ioaaoiua aa?anneaiua aeaenoaey, yoo a?oiio iaoiaeia i?eiaiytho a e?aeieo
neo/ayo, eiaaea en/a?iaiu aiciiaeiinoe anao i?aaeuaeoueo a?oii.

Aioo?eee/iinoiua iaoiaeu caeeth/athony a oiaiee i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaoue
naia nianoaaiiia iiaaaeaiea, auneacaoue naith oi/eo c?aiey, ia aucuaay
caueoiie ?aaeoeee ni noi?iiu ae?oaiai /aeiaaea. Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u
i?aaeeaaatho eniieueciaaoue niinia “y – auneacuaaiea”, o.a. niinia
ia?aaea/e ae?oaiio eeoeo aaoaai ioiioaiey e ii?aaeaeaiiiio i?aaeiaoo,
aac iaaeiaiee e o?aaiaaiee, ii oae, /oiau ae?oaie /aeiaae eciaiee naia
ioiioaiea.

Yoio niinia iiiiaaao /aeiaaeo oaea?aeaoue iiceoeeth, ia i?aa?auay
ae?oaiai a naiaai a?aaa. “ss – auneacuaaiea” iiaeao auoue iieacii a
ethaie ianoaiiaea, ii iii iniaaiii yooaeoeaii, eiaaea /aeiaae
?anna?aeai, ?acae?aaeai, iaaeiaieai. Neaaeoao n?aco iaiai?eoueny, /oi
i?eiaiaiea aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea o?aaoao i?aeoeee e iaaueia, ii yoi auaaao
ii?aaaeaiiui a aeaeueiaeoai. “ss – auneacuaaiea” iino?iaii oae, /oiau
iicaieeoue auneacaoue ee/iinoe naia iiaiea i nicaeaaoaeny neooaoeee,
au?aceoue naie iiaeaeaiey. Iii iniaaiii iieacii, eiaaea /aeiaae oi/ao
ia?aaeaoue /oi-oi ae?oaiio, ii ia oi/ao, /oiau oio aini?eiye yoi
iaaaoeaii e ia?aoae au a aoaeo.

Iai?eia?, i?eaey oo?ii ia ?aaioo, au iaia?oaeeaaaoa, /oi eoi-oi
ia?aaeaeioe ana ia aaoai noiea. Au oioeoa, /oiau aieueoa yoiai ia
iiaoi?yeinue, ii e ii?oeoue ioiioaiey n nio?oaeieeaie iaaeaeaoaeueii. Au
cayaeyaoa: ”Eiaaea iie aoiaae ia?aaeaeaatho ia iiai noiea, iaiy yoi
?acae?aaeaao. Iia oioaeinue au a aoaeouai iaoiaeeoue ana, eae y
inoaaeyth ia?aae ooiaeii”.

Eiiiiiiaea cayaeaiee io “y” ninoieo ec: niauoey, ?aaeoeee eiaeeaeaea,
i?aaeii/eoaaiiai enoiaea aeey ee/iinoe.

Niauoea. Nicaeaaoayny neooaoeey n o/aoii i?eiaiyaiiai iaoiaea o?aaoao
e?aoeiai iauaeoeaiiai iienaiey aac eniieueciaaiey noauaeoeaiuo e
yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaiiuo au?aaeaiee. Iiaeii oae ia/aoue o?aco: “Eiaaea
ia iaiy e?e/ao…”, ”Eiaaea ia iiai noiea ?aca?anuaatho iie aaue…”,
”Eiaaea iia ia aiai?yo, /oi y aue aucaai e ia/aeueieeo…”.

?aaeoeey eiaeeaeaea. *aoeia auneacuaaiea, ii/aio aan ?acae?aaeatho
eiaiii oaeea iinooiee ie?oaeathueo, iiiiaaao ei iiiyoue aan, a eiaaea au
aiai?eoa io “y”, ia iaiaaeay ia ieo, ii oaeay ?aaeoeey iiaeao
iiaeoieeiooue ie?oaeathueo ia eciaiaiea naiaai iiaaaeaiey. ?aaeoeey
iiaeao auoue yiioeeiiaeueiie: “y iaeaeai ia aan…”, ”y aoaeo n/eoaoue,
/oi iaiy au ia iiieiaaoa…”, ”y ?aoath ana aeaeaoue nai…”.

I?aaeii/eoaaiue enoiae niauoey. Eiaaea eiaeeaeae auneacuaaao naie
aeaeaiey ia enoiaea eiioeeeoa, aeaeaoaeueii i?aaeeiaeeoue ianeieueei
aa?eaioia. I?aaeeueii ninoaaeaiiia “y – auneacuaaiea”, a eioi?ii
iiaeaeaiey eiaeeaeaea ia naiaeyony e oiio, /oiau ia?oia? naeaeae oieueei
auaiaeiia aeey iaai, iiae?acoiaaaao aiciiaeiinoue ioe?uoey iiauo
aa?eaioia ?aoaiee.

No?oeoo?iua iaoiaeu, o.a. iaoiaeu aicaeaenoaey i?aeiouanoaaiii ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua eiioeeeou, aicieeathuea ec-ca iai?aaeeueiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey iieiiii/ee, i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea, i?eiyoie nenoaiu
noeioee?iaaiey e o.ae. E oaeei iaoiaeai ioiinyony: ?acuyniaiea
o?aaiaaiee e ?aaioa, eii?aeeiaoeeiiiua e eioaa?aoeeiiiua iaoaieciu,
iauai?aaiecaoeeiiiua oeaee, eniieueciaaiea nenoai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

?acuyniaiea o?aaiaaiee e ?aaioa yaeyaony iaeiei ec yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia
oi?aaeaiey e i?aaeioa?auaiey eiioeeeoia. Eaaeaeue niaoeeaeeno aeieaeai
/aoei i?aaenoaaeyoue, eaeea ?acoeueoaou io iaai o?aaothony, a /ai
ninoiyo aai iaycaiiinoe, ioaaonoaaiiinoue, i?aaeaeu iieiiii/ee, yoaiu
?aaiou. Iaoiae ?aaeecoaony a aeaea ninoaaeaiey niioaaonoaothueo
aeieaeiinoiuo eino?oeoeee (iienaiee aeieaeiinoe), ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?aa e
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii o?iaiyi oi?aaeaiey,

Eii?aeeiaoeeiiiua iaoaieciu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eniieueciaaiea
no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee a i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua a neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaoo aiaoaoueny e ?ac?aoeoue nii?iua aii?inu iaaeaeo
ieie.

Iauai?aaiecaoeeiiiua oeaee. Aeaiiue iaoiae i?aaeiieaaaao ?ac?aaioeo eee
ooi/iaiea iauai?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oeaeae n oai, /oiau oneeey anao
nio?oaeieeia auee iauaaeeiaiu e iai?aaeaiu ia eo aeinoeaeaiea.

Nenoaia aiciaa?aaeaeaiee. Noeioee?iaaiea iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii eae
iaoiae oi?aaeaiey eiioeeeoiie neooaoeeae, i?e a?aiioiii ieacaiee aeeyiey
ia iiaaaeaiea ethaeae iiaeii ecaaaeaoue eiioeeeoia. Aaaeii, /oiau
nenoaia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ia iiiu?yea iaeiino?oeoeaiia iiaaaeaiea
ioaeaeueiuo eeoe eee a?oii. Iai?eia?, anee aiciaa?aaeaeaoue
?oeiaiaeeoaeae ioaeaeia nauoa oieueei ca oaaee/aiea iauaia i?iaeaae, oi
yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e i?ioeai?a/eth n iaia/aiiui o?iaiai iieo/aiey
i?eauee. ?oeiaiaeeoaee yoeo ioaeaeia iiaoo oaaee/eoue iauaiu nauoa,
i?aaeeaaay aieueoea neeaeee e oai naiui nieaeay o?iaaiue n?aaeiae
i?eauee eiiiaiee.

Iaaeee/iinoiua iaoiaeu. I?e nicaeaiee eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee eee ia/aea
?acaa?ouaaiey naiiai eiioeeeoa aai o/anoieeai iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue
oi?io, noeeue naiaai aeaeueiaeoaai iiaaaeaiey n oai, /oiau yoi a
iaeiaiueoae noaiaie io?aceeinue ia eo eioa?anao.

E.Oiian e ?.Eeeiaii auaeaeeee neaaeothuea iyoue iniiaiuo noeeae
iiaaaeaiey a eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee:

i?eniiniaeaiea, onooi/eainoue;

oeeiiaiea;

i?ioeaiai?noai;

nio?oaeie/anoai;

eiii?iienn.

Iniiao eeanneoeeaoeee ninoaaeytho aeaa iacaaeneiuo ia?aiao?a: 1)noaiaiue
?aaeecaoeee nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania, aeinoeaeaiey naieo oeaeae, 2)o?iaaiue
eiiia?aoeaiinoe, o/ao eioa?ania ae?oaie noi?iiu.

Anee i?aaenoaaeoue yoi a a?aoe/aneie oi?ia, oi iieo/ei naoeo Oiiana –
Eeeiaiia, iicaieythuoth i?iaiaeece?iaaoue eiie?aoiue eiioeeeo e aua?aoue
?aoeeiiaeueioth oi?io iiaaaeaiey (ni.?en.?4).

?en?4

Oi?iu iiaaaeaiey a eiioeeeoa

i?ioeaiai?noai

nio?oaeie/anoai

EIII?IIEN

oeeiiaiea

onooi/eainoue

o?iaaiue eiiia?aoeaiinoe, o/aoa
eioa?ania ae?oaiai

Eaaeaeue /aeiaae iiaeao a eaeie-oi noaiaie eniieueciaaoue ana yoe oi?iu
iiaaaeaiey, ii iau/ii eiaaony i?ei?eoaoiay oi?ia.

?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa yoe noeee iiaaaeaiey.

Oeeiiaiea (ecaaaaiea, ooiae). Aeaiiay oi?ia iiaaaeaiey auae?aaony
oiaaea, eiaaea eiaeeaeae ia oi/ao ionoaeaaoue naie i?aaa, nio?oaeie/aoue
aeey au?aaioee ?aoaiey, aicaea?aeeaaaony io auneacuaaiey naiae iiceoeee,
oeeiiyaony io nii?a. Yoio noeeue i?aaeiieaaaao oaiaeaioeeth ooiaea io
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ?aoaiey. Oaeia iiaaaeaiea aiciiaeii, anee enoiae
eiioeeeoa aeey eiaeeaeaea ia iniaaiii aaaeai, eeai, anee neooaoeey
neeoeii neiaeia e ?ac?aoaiea eiioeeeoa iio?aaoao iiiai nee o aai
o/anoieeia, eeai o eiaeeaeaea ia oaaoaao aeanoe aeey ?aoaiey eiioeeeoa a
naith iieueco.

I?ioeaiai?noai, eiieo?aioeey oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeoeaiie ai?ueaie
eiaeeaeaea ca naie eioa?anu, i?eiaiaieai anao aeinooiiuo aio n?aaenoa
aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae: i?eiaiaieai aeanoe,
i?eioaeaeaiey, ae?oaeo n?aaenoa aeaaeaiey ia iiiiiaioia, eniieueciaaieai
caaeneiinoe ae?oaeo o/anoieeia io iaai. Neooaoeey aini?eieiaaony
eiaeeaeaeii eae e?aeia cia/eiay aeey iaai, eae aii?in iiaaaeu eee
ii?aaeaiey, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao aeanoeoth iiceoeeth ii ioiioaieth e
iiiiiaioai e iai?eie?eiue aioaaiieci e ae?oaei o/anoieeai eiioeeeoa a
neo/aa eo nii?ioeaeaiey.

Onooi/eainoue, i?eniiniaeaiea. Aeaenoaey eiaeeaeaea iai?aaeaiu ia
nio?aiaiea eee ainnoaiiaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiuo ioiioaiee n iiiiiaioii iooai
naeaaeeaaiey ?aciiaeanee ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania. Aeaiiue iiaeoiae
aiciiaeai, eiaaea aeeaae eiaeeaeaea ia neeoeii aaeee eee eiaaea i?aaeiao
?aciiaeaney aieaa nouanoaai aeey iiiiiaioa, /ai aeey eiaeeaeaea. Oaeia
iiaaaeaiea a eiioeeeoa eniieuecoaony, anee neooaoeey ia iniaaiii
cia/eia, anee aaaeiaa nio?aieoue oi?ioea ioiioaiey n iiiiiaioii, /ai
ionoaeaaoue naie nianoaaiiua eioa?anu, anee o eiaeeaeaea iaei oainia ia
iiaaaeo, iaei aeanoe.

Nio?oaeie/anoai icia/aao, /oi eiaeeaeae aeoeaii o/anoaoao a iienea
?aoaiey, oaeiaeaoai?ythuaai anao o/anoieeia acaeiiaeaenoaey, ii ia
caauaay i?e yoii e naie eioa?anu. I?aaeiieaaaaony ioe?uoue iaiai
iiaieyie, caeioa?aniaaiiinoue anao o/anoieeia eiioeeeoa a au?aaioea
iauaai ?aoaiey. Aeaiiay oi?ia o?aaoao iieiaeeoaeueiie ?aaiou e o/anoey
anao noi?ii. Anee o iiiiiaioia anoue a?aiy, a ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu eiaao
aeey anao aaaeiia cia/aiea, oi i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea aiciiaeii
ananoi?iiiaa ianoaeaeaiea aii?ina, aicieeoeo ?aciiaeanee e au?aaioea
iauaai ?aoaiey n niaethaeaieai eioa?ania anao o/anoieeia.

I?e eiii?iienna aeaenoaey o/anoieeia iai?aaeaiu ia iienee ?aoaiey ca
n/ao acaeiiuo onooiie, ia au?aaioeo i?iiaaeooi/iiai ?aoaiey,
ono?aeaathuaai iaa noi?iiu, i?e eioi?ii iniai ieeoi ia auea?uaaao, ii e
ia oa?yao. Oaeie noeeue iiaaaeaiey i?eiaiei i?e oneiaee, /oi iiiiiaiou
iaeaaeatho iaeeiaeiaie aeanoueth, eiatho acaeiieneeth/athuea eioa?anu, o
ieo iao aieueoiai ?aca?aa a?aiaie ia iiene eo/oaai ?aoaiey, eo
ono?aeaaao i?iiaaeooi/iia ?aoaiea ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae a?aiaie.

Noeee ecaaaaiey e onooi/eainoe ia i?aaeiieaaatho aeoeaiiai
eniieueciaaiey eiio?iioaoeee i?e ?aoaiee eiioeeeoa. I?e i?ioeaiai?noaa e
nio?oaeie/anoaa eiio?iioaoeey yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai au?aaioee
?aoaiey. O/eouaay, /oi ?aoaiea eiioeeeoa i?aaeiieaaaao ono?aiaiea
i?e/ei, aai ii?iaeeaoeo, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi oieueei noeeue
nio?oaeie/anoaa ?aaeecoao aeaiioth caaea/o iieiinoueth. I?e ecaaaaiee e
onooi/eainoe ?aoaiea eiioeeeoa ioeeaaeuaaaony, a nai eiioeeeo
ia?aaiaeeony a ne?uooth oi?io. Eiii?iienn iiaeao i?eianoe eeoue
/anoe/iia ?ac?aoaiea eiioeeeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, oae eae inoaaony
aeinoaoi/ii aieueoay ciia acaeiiuo onooiie, a iieiinoueth i?e/eiu ia
ono?aiaiu.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo n/eoaaony, /oi eiio?iioaoeey a ?acoiiuo,
eiio?iee?oaiuo i?aaeaeao aieaa i?iaeoeoeaia n oi/ee c?aiey ?aoaiey
eiioeeeoa, /ai naeaaeeaaiea, ecaaaaiea e aeaaea eiii?iienn, oioy
aeaiiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey i?eaea?aeeaathony ia ana niaoeeaeenou. Aianoa n
oai anoaao aii?in i oeaia iiaaaeu e /oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?aaeaiea
aeey ae?oaie noi?iiu. Yoi e?aeia neiaeiua aii?inu i?e oi?aaeaiee
eiioeeeoaie, oae eae aaaeii, /oiau ii?aaeaiea ia yaeeinue aacie
oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo eiioeeeoia e ia i?eaaei au e ?anoe?aieth ciiu
eiioeeeoiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.

Ia?aaiai?u i?aaenoaaeytho oe?ieee aniaeo iauaiey, ioaaouaathuee iiiaea
noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe eiaeeaeaea. Eae iaoiae ?aoaiey eiioeeeoia
ia?aaiai?u i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaai? oaeoe/aneeo i?eaiia, iai?aaeaiiuo
ia iiene acaeiii?eaieaiuo ?aoaiee aeey eiioeeeoothueo noi?ii.

Aeey oiai /oiau ia?aaiai?u noaee aiciiaeiuie, iaiaoiaeeii auiieiaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaee:

nouanoaiaaiea acaeiicaaeneiinoe noi?ii, o/anoaothueo a eiioeeeoa;

ionoonoaey cia/eoaeueiiai ?acee/ey a aiciiaeiinoyo (neea) noauaeoia
eiioeeeoa;

niioaaonoaea noaaeee ?acaeoey eiioeeeoa aiciiaeiinoyi ia?aaiai?ia;

o/anoea a ia?aaiai?ao noi?ii, eioi?ua ?aaeueii iiaoo i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey
a neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee.

Eaaeaeue eiioeeeo a naiai ?acaeoee i?ioiaeeo ianeieueei yoaiia (ni.
oaae.?5-6).

Oaaeeoea ?5

Aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaiai?ia a caaeneiinoe io yoaia ?acaeoey eiioeeeoa

Yoaiu ?acaeoey eiioeeeoa Aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaiai?ia

iai?yaeaiiinoue

ianiaeanea ia?aaiai?u i?iaiaeeoue ?aii, aua ia ana ninoaaeythuea
eiioeeeoa ii?aaeaeeeenue

niia?ie/anoai, a?aaeaeaaiinoue ia?aaiai?u ?aoeeiiaeueiu

aa?anneaiinoue ia?aaiai?u n o/anoeai o?aoueae noi?iiu

ianeeea

aiaiiua aeaenoaey ia?aaiai?u iaaiciiaeiu, oeaeaniia?aciu ioaaoiua
aa?anneaiua aeaenoaey

Ia iaeioi?ua ec ieo ia?aaiai?u iiaoo auoue ia i?eiyou, oae eae aua ?aii,
a ia ae?oaeo aoaeao oaea iicaeii eo ia/eiaoue e oiaaea aiciiaeiu oieueei
ioaaoiua aa?anneaiua aeaenoaey.

N/eoaaony, /oi ia?aaiai?u oeaeaniia?acii aanoe oieueei n oaie neeaie,
eioi?ua eiatho aeanoue a neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee e iiaoo iiaeeyoue ia
enoiae niauoey. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue ianeieueei a?oii, /uee eioa?anu
cao?aaeaathony a eiioeeeoa:

ia?ae/iua a?oiiu – cao?iioou eo ee/iua eioa?anu, iie naie o/anoaotho a
eiioeeeoa, ii ia anaaaea io yoeo a?oii caaeneo aiciiaeiinoue oniaoiiai
aaaeaiey ia?aaiai?ia,

aoi?e/iua a?oiiu – cao?iioou eo eioa?anu, ii yoe neeu ia no?aiyony e
ioe?uoiio i?iyaeaieth naiae caeioa?aniaaiiinoe, eo aeaenoaey ne?uou aei
ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie. Iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue aua e o?aouee neeu, oaeaea
caeioa?aniaaiiua a eiioeeeoa, ii aua aieaa ne?uoua. I?eia?ii
nouanoaiaaiey iiiaeanoaa nee ca aiaoiei i?iyaeaieai iaeiiai eiioeeeoa
yaeyaony “thaineaaneee e?ecen”.

I?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaiiua ia?aaiai?u i?ioiaeyo iineaaeiaaoaeueii
ianeieueei noaaeee:

iiaeaioiaea e ia/aeo ia?aaiai?ia (aei ioe?uoey ia?aaiai?ia);

i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue ioai? iiceoeee (ia?aiia/aeueiua cayaeaiey o/anoieeia
ia eo iiceoeee a aeaiiuo ia?aaiai?ao);

iiene acaeiii?eaieaiiai ?aoaiey (ineoieiae/aneay ai?ueaa, onoaiiaeaiea
?aaeueiie iiceoeee iiiiiaioia);

caaa?oaiea (auoiae ec aicieeoaai e?ecena eee ia?aaiai?iiai ooieea).

Iiaeaioiaea e ia/aeo ia?aaiai?ia. Ia?aae ia/aeii ethauo ia?aaiai?ia
e?aeia aaaeii oi?ioi e iei iiaeaioiaeoueny: i?iaanoe aeeaaiinoeeo
ninoiyiey aeae, ii?aaeaeeoue neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu o/anoieeia
eiioeeeoa, ni?iaiice?iaaoue ?annoaiiaeo nee, auynieoue, eoi aoaeao aanoe
ia?aaiai?u e eioa?anu eaeie ec a?oii iie i?aaenoaaeytho.

E?iia nai?a eioi?iaoeee, ia yoie noaaeee iaiaoiaeeii /aoei
noi?ioee?iaaoue naith oeaeue o/anoey a ia?aaiai?ao. A yoie nayce
neaaeoao ioaaoeoue ia oaeea aii?inu:

a /ai ninoieo iniiaiay oeaeue i?iaaaeaiey ia?aaiai?ia (ni.oaae.?5-6)?

eaeea anoue a ?anii?yaeaiee aeueoa?iaoeau? ?aaeueii ia?aaiai?u
i?iaiaeyony aeey aeinoeaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia, eioi?ua auee au iaeaieaa
aeaeaoaeueiuie e aeiionoeiuie;

anee niaeaoaiea ia aoaeao aeinoeaiooi, eae yoi io?aceony ia eioa?anao
iaaeo noi?ii?

a /ai ninoieo acaeiicaaeneiinoue iiiiiaioia e eae yoi au?aaeaaony
aiaoia?

Oaeaea i?i?aaaouaathony i?ioeaaeo?iua aii?inu: aaea eo/oa i?iaiaeeoue
ia?aaiai?u? eaeay aoiinoa?a iaeeaeaaony ia ia?aaiai?ao? aaaeiu ee a
aoaeouai oi?ioea ioiioaiey n iiiiiaioii?

Iiuoiua ia?aaiai?ueee n/eoatho, /oi io aeaiiie noaaeee, anee iia
i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaia, ia 50% caaeneo oniao anae aeaeueiaeoae
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaae. ?6

Aiciiaeiua oeaee e ?acoeueoaou o/anoey a ia?aaiai?ao

Oi?ioee?iaea oeaeae Aiciiaeiua ?acoeueoaou

io?aaeatho a iaeneiaeueiie noaiaie iaoe eioa?anu iaeaieaa aeaeaoaeueiua
aeey ian ?acoeueoaou

o/eouaatho iaoe eioa?anu aeiionoeiua ?acoeueoaou

i?aeoe/anee ia o/eouaatho iaoe eioa?anu iai?eaieaiua ?acoeueoaou

ouaieytho iaoe eioa?anu niaa?oaiii iai?eaieaiua

Aoi?ay noaaeey ia?aaiai?ia – ia?aiia/aeueiue ioai? iiceoeee
(ioeoeeaeueiua cayaeaiey o/anoieeia ia?aaiai?ia). Yoa noaaeey iicaieyao
?aaeeciaaoue aeaa oeaee o/anoieeia ia?aaiai?iiai i?ioeanna: iieacaoue
iiiiiaioai, /oi eo eioa?anu aai ecaanoiu e au eo o/eouaaaoa;
ii?aaeaeeoue iiea aeey iaiaa?a e iiiuoaoueny inoaaeoue a iai eae iiaeii
aieueoa ianoa aeey naay.

Iau/ii ia?aaiai?u ia/eiathony n cayaeaiey iaaeo noi?ii ia eo aeaeaieyo e
eioa?anao. I?e iiiiue oaeoia e i?eioeeieaeueiie a?aoiaioaoeee (iai?eia?,
“caaea/e eiiiaiee”, ”iauee eioa?an”) noi?iiu iuoathony oe?aieoue naie
iiceoeee.

Anee ia?aaiai?u i?ioiaeyo n o/anoeai iin?aaeieea (aaaeouaai,
ia?aaiai?ueea), oi ii aeieaeai eaaeaeie noi?iia aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue
auneacaoueny e naeaeaoue ana io iaai caaenyuaa, /oiau iiiiiaiou ia
ia?aaeaaee ae?oa ae?oaa.

E?iia oiai, aaaeouee ii?aaeaeyao oaeoi?u naea?aeeaaiey noi?ii e
oi?aaeyao eie: aeiionoeiia a?aiy ia ianoaeaeaaiua aii?inu, iineaaenoaey
io iaaiciiaeiinoe i?eeoe e eiii?iienno. I?aaeeaaaao niiniau i?eiyoey
?aoaiee: i?inoia aieueoeinoai, eiinainon. Ii?aaeaeyao i?ioeaaeo?iua
aii?inu.

O?aoee yoai ia?aaiai?ia ninoieo a iienea acaeiii?eaieaiiai ?aoaiey,
ineoieiae/aneie ai?ueaa.

Ia yoii yoaia noi?iiu ii?aaeaeytho aiciiaeiinoe ae?oa ae?oaa, ianeieueei
?aaeueiu o?aaiaaiey eaaeaeie ec noi?ii e eae eo auiieiaiea iiaeao
io?aceoueny ia eioa?anao ae?oaiai o/anoieea. Iiiiiaiou i?aaenoaaeytho
oaeou, auaiaeiua oieueei ei, cayaeytho i iaee/ee o ieo anaaiciiaeiuo
aeueoa?iaoea. Caeanue aea aiciiaeiu ?acee/iua iaieioeyoeee e
ineoieiae/aneia aeaaeaiea ia aaaeouaai, caoaaoeoue eieoeeaoeau anaie
aiciiaeiuie niiniaaie. Oeaeue eaaeaeiai ec o/anoieeia – aeiaeoueny
?aaiiaaney eee iaaieueoiai aeiieie?iaaiey.

Caaea/a iin?aaeieea ia aeaiiii yoaia – oaeaeaoue e i?eaanoe a aeaenoaea
aiciiaeiua eiiaeiaoeee eioa?ania o/anoieeia, niinianoaiaaoue aianaieth
aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aa?eaioia ?aoaiee, iai?aaeoue ia?aaiai?u a ?onei
iienea eiie?aoiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee. A neo/aa, anee ia?aaiai?u ia/eiatho
i?eia?aoaoue ?aceee oa?aeoa?, caaeaaathuee iaeio ec noi?ii, aaaeouee
aeieaeai iaeoe auoiae ec nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey.

*aoaa?oue yoai – caaa?oaiea ia?aaiai?ia eee auoiae ec ooieea.

E yoiio yoaio oaea nouanoaoao cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo
aa?eaioia e i?aaeeiaeaiee, ii niaeaoaiea ii iei aua ia aeinoeaiooi.
A?aiy ia/eiaao iiaeaeeiaoue, oaaee/eaaaony iai?yaeaiiinoue, o?aaoaony
i?eiyoea eaeiai-oi ?aoaiey. Ianeieueei iineaaeieo onooiie, naeaeaiiuo
iaaeie noi?iiaie, iiaoo nianoe aeaei. Ii caeanue aaaeii aeey
eiioeeeoothueo noi?ii /aoei iiiieoue, eaeea onooiee ia aeeytho ia
aeinoeaeaiea eo iniiaiie oeaee (ni. i?aaeuaeouoth oaaeeoeo), a eaeea
naiaeyo ia iao anth i?aaeuaeouoth ?aaioo.

I?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuee, eniieuecoy aeaiioth aio aeanoue, ?aaoee?oao
iineaaeiea ?aciiaeaney e i?eaiaeeo noi?iiu e eiii?iienno.

Iauea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aoaieth eiioeeeoiie neooaoeee iiaoo auoue
naaaeaiu e neaaeothuaio.

I?eciaoue nouanoaiaaiea eiioeeeoa, o.a. i?eciaoue iaee/ea
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo oeaeae, iaoiaeia o iiiiiaioia, ii?aaeaeeoue naieo yoeo
o/anoieeia. I?aeoe/anee yoe aii?inu ia oae i?inoi ?aoeoue, auaaao
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii niciaoueny e cayaeoue aneoo, /oi ou iaoiaeeoueny a
ninoiyiee eiioeeeoa n nio?oaeieeii ii eaeiio-oi aii?ino. Eiiaaea
eiioeeeo nouanoaoao oaea aeaaii, ethaee no?aaeatho, a ioe?uoiai
i?eciaiey aai iao, eaaeaeue auae?aao naith oi?io iiaaaeaiey e
aicaeaenoaey ia ae?oaiai, iaeiaei niaianoiiai ianoaeaeaiey e auoiaea ec
nicaeaaoaeny neooaoeee ia i?ienoiaeeo.

Ii?aaeaeeoue aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaiai?ia. Iinea i?eciaiey iaee/ey
eiioeeeoa e iaaiciiaeiinoe aai ?aoeoue “n oiaeo” oeaeaniia?acii
aeiaiai?eoueny i aiciiaeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey ia?aaiai?ia e ooi/ieoue, eaeeo
eiaiii ia?aaiai?ia: n iin?aaeieeii eee aac iaai e eoi iiaeao auoue
iin?aaeieeii, ?aaii ono?aeaathuei iaa noi?iiu.

Niaeaniaaoue i?ioeaaeo?o ia?aaiai?ia. Ii?aaeaeeoue, aaea, eiaaea e eae
ia/ioony ia?aaiai?u, o.a. iaiai?eoue n?iee, ianoi, i?ioeaaeo?o aaaeaiey
ia?aaiai?ia, a?aiy ia/aea niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Auyaeoue e?oa aii?inia, ninoaaeythueo i?aaeiao eiioeeeoa. Iniiaiay
i?iaeaia ninoieo a oii, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue a niaianoii eniieuecoaiuo
oa?ieiao, /oi yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii eiioeeeoa, a /oi iao. Oaea ia yoii
yoaia au?aaaouaathony niaianoiua iiaeoiaeu e i?iaeaia, auyaeythony
iiceoeee noi?ii, ii?aaeaeythony oi/ee iaeaieueoaai ?aciiaeaney e oi/ee
aiciiaeiiai naeeaeaiey iiceoeee.

?ac?aaioaoue aa?eaiou ?aoaiee. Noi?iiu i?e niaianoiie ?aaioa
i?aaeeaaatho ianeieueei aa?eaioia ?aoaiee n ?an/aoii cao?ao ii eaaeaeiio
ec ieo, n o/aoii aiciiaeiuo iineaaenoaee.

I?eiyoue niaeaniaaiiia ?aoaiea. Iinea ?anniio?aiey ?yaea aiciiaeiuo
aa?eaioia, i?e acaeiiii ianoaeaeaiee e i?e oneiaee, /oi noi?iiu
i?eoiaeyo e niaeaoaieth, oeaeaniia?acii yoi iauaa ?aoaiea i?aaenoaaeoue
a ienueiaiiii aeaea: eiiithieea, ?aciethoeee, aeiaiai?a i
nio?oaeie/anoaa e o.ae. A iniai neiaeiuo eee ioaaonoaaiiuo neo/ayo
ienueiaiiua aeieoiaiou ninoaaeythony iinea eaaeaeiai yoaia ia?aaiai?ia.

?aaeeciaaoue i?eiyoia ?aoaiea ia i?aeoeea. Anee i?ioeann niaianoiuo
aeaenoaee caeai/eaaaony oieueei i?eiyoeai i?i?aaioaiiiai e
niaeaniaaiiiai ?aoaiey, a aeaeueoa ie/aai ia i?ienoiaeeo e ia iaiyaony,
oi oaeia iieiaeaiea iiaeao yaeoueny aeaoiiaoi?ii ae?oaeo, aieaa neeueiuo
e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiuo eiioeeeoia. I?e/eiu, aucaaaoea ia?aue eiioeeeo, ia
en/acee, a oieueei oneeeeenue iaauiieiaiiuie iaauaieyie. Iiaoi?iua
ia?aaiai?u i?iaiaeeoue aoaeao iaiiiai neiaeiaa.

III. NIOeEAEUeII-INEOIEIAE*ANEAss NO?OEOO?A A?OIIU

Anee /aeiaaea iacia/atho ?oeiaiaeeoaeai, anaaaea ee ii caaeoiuaaaony
iaae oai, eae neiaeaony ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie a oie a?oiia,
eioi?ie ii aoaeao ?oeiaiaeeoue. Iiieiatho ee aai aoaeouea nio?oaeieee
ae?oa ae?oaa e iieioo ee iiaiai /aeiaaea – ?oeiaiaeeoaey. Iano?iaiea
eaaeaeiai ec ian a ia?iiiie noaiaie caaeneo io iiaaaeaiey e ioiioaiey
ethaeae, n eioi?uie iu iauaainy. Oi?ioaa ioiioaiea ?aaeoao, ieioia
iai?/aao, o?aaiaeeo, ianoi?aaeeaaao. A ?oeiaiaeeoaeth aua o?oaeiaa,
iioiio /oi ii naiaio nioeeaeueiiio noaoono ii eae au i?ioeainoieo a?oiia
ethaeae, iauaaeeiaiiuo iauei “iu”. E aio oaeia acaeiiaeaenoaea
/aeiaa/aneiai “y” e a?oiiiaiai “iu” i/aiue neiaeii e i?ioeai?a/eai,
eciai/eai e iaonoie/eai. Iu /anoi, aiai?y i eieeaeoeaa, ?anniao?eaaai
yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea eae niioiioaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe e
eieeaeoeaiinoe, i?e yoii, eae i?aaeei, ioaeaai i?aaeii/oaiea
eieeaeoeaiinoe. Ionthaea – no?aieaiea e on?aaeiaieth, o?aaieaaieth
ethaeae e iaethaiaue e “aunei/eai”, aeaeaiea iinoaaeoue eo “ia ianoi”.

Oaeay oaiaeaioeey i/aiue a?aaeia aeey ?acaeoey iauanoaa, iniaaiii aai
oai?/aneiai, eioaeeaeooaeueiiai iioaioeeaea. Ieacuaaaony, /oi /ai y?/a e
aiaa/a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, auoa o?iaaiue ?acaeoey eaaeaeiai /eaia
eieeaeoeaa, oai aieaa aeaaniiniaiui, /aeiaa/iui yaeyaony e eieeaeoea a
oeaeii. Iiyoiio oae aaaeii i?iieeiooue a iniaaiiinoe oii/aeoae oeaie
acaeiiioiioaiee “y” e ”iu”, neeaaeuaathueony a nioeeaeueiie a?oiia, o.a.
a eieeaeoeaa, eioi?ui iu ?oeiaiaeei eee niae?aainy ?oeiaiaeeoue.
Ineoieiaey iiaeao noaoue caeanue oi?ioei iiiiuieeii.

Ineoieiae A.A.Aiaeaeaa, A.I.Iaioa?ia niaoeeaeueii eco/aee a
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo oneiaeyo, /oi i?iecaiaeeo iaeaieaa neeueiia
aia/aoeaiea i?e ciaeiinoaa. Ieacaeinue, ia?aia /oi a?inaaony a aeaca e
caiiieiaaony /aeiaaeo – yoi i?e/anea, eioi?ay iiaeao iaiyoue eeoei aei
iaociaaaaiinoe. Iai?eia?, anee aeaiueia iaaeaaaao ia?ee e aeieai aai
iineo, noieo ae iiyaeoueny aac ia?eea – iia noaiiaeony iaociaaaaiie.
Iau/ii yeno?aaaaaioiay iiaea, iniaaiii n?aaee iieiaeaaee, ia/eiaaony n
i?e/anee, aniiiiei iaieia, oeiie e ae?. Yoi ?acei auaeaeyao eo ia oiia
ae?oaeo ethaeae. I?aeoe/aneee niaao: anee Au oioeoa, /oiau ia Aan
ia?aoeee aieiaiea a iauanoaa – niaieoa i?e/aneo. E aua: anaaaea neaaeeoa
(iniaaiii aeaiueiu) ca naiae i?e/aneie, /oiau anaaaea i?iecaiaeeoue
oi?ioaa aia/aoeaiea.

Iinea i?e/anee iu ia?auaai aieiaiea ia aeaca /aeiaaea, eioi?ua, eae
ecaanoii, ca?eaei aeooe. Aeaca iiaoo auoue aeia?uie, oieiaeiuie,
eo/enouie, oeo?uie, ceuie, eieth/eie. Iie eae au iano?aeaatho ae?oaiai
/aeiaaea ia ii?aaeaeaiiue eaae: aeiaa?eoaeueiue, ianoi?iaeaiiue,
aa?anneaiue. E, eiia/ii aea, oeuaea /aeiaaea ian i/aiue i?eaeaeaao,
iniaaiii, anee iia aeia?ay e i?eaaoeeaay, a ia ceay e iaoyiooay. Ia c?y
ecaanoiue aia?eeaineee niaoeeaeeno ii iauaieth Aeaee Ea?iaae a ea/anoaa
ia?aie caiiaaaee oi?ioaai iauaiey i?iaicaeanee: anee oioeoa iii?aaeoueny
/aeiaaeo – oeuaaeoanue, o/eoanue oeuaaoueny, aeaeaeoa niaoeeaeueiua
oi?aaeiaiey ia?aae ca?eaeii.

A oeaeii, au?aaeaiea eeoea oi?ie?oaony ieieeie, eioi?ay o iaeieo ethaeae
i/aiue aeeiaie/iay, ?aciiia?aciay, a o ae?oaeo aaaeiay, io /aai
nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea oa?thiinoe, iai?eaaoeeainoe, ne?uoiinoe.

Eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea ioee/aao oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiiay iaia?a iiaaaeaiey,
aeanou, iioiaeea, aeaeaeaiey oaea. Eioa?anii, /oi eiaaea ethaee aeieai
ia aeaeyony (aeiionoei, nieo?nieee ano?a/athony /a?ac 30 eao iinea
ieii/aiey einoeoooa), iie ociatho ae?oa ae?oaa /aua anaai ia ii eeoeo,
eioi?ia i/aiue eciaieeinue, a ii ioaeaeueiui aeanoai e iaia?a
aeaeaeaiey. Iaeei eae-oi iniaaiii iiaeeiae iea/aie, ae?oaie ?aciaoeaae
?oeaie, o?aoee acaea?aeaae aieiaie.

Eiaaea iu ia/eiaai n /aeiaaeii aiai?eoue, oi a ?a/e auaeaeythony aeaa
noi?iiu: nai oaeno (neiaa) – /oi aiai?eo, e iiaeoaeno – eae aiai?eo, n
eaeie eioiiaoeeae. Iaeii e oi aea neiai: “aea”, “cae?aanoaoeoa” – iiaeii
i?iecianoe i?eaaoeeai, oaaaeeoaeueii, a iiaeii – cei e na?aeeoi.
Eioiiaoeey yaeyaony iiao/ei au?aceoaeueiui n?aaenoaii, iia anaaaea
aiaa/a, iieiaa e neiaeiaa oaenoa. Aeey ethaeae /oanoaeoaeueiuo /anoi
aieaa cia/eii ia /oi aiai?yo, a eae aiai?yo.

?oeiaiaeeoaee ia anaaaea yoi iiieiatho. “Aaaeue y ieeaeeo iaeaeiuo neia
ia neacae”, – aeaeothony iie. A iaeaeaoue iiaeii e aac neia, ia oaenoii,
a iiaeoaenoii. Iineaaeeoa, iiaeaeoenoa, ca naieie eioiiaoeeyie, e Au
oaeaeeoa, eae n?aco eciaieony ioiioaiea e Aai ethaeae.

Aiaoiaa aia/aoeaiea ninoaaeaii. Iiaeii aeiaaaeoue: iaeaaeaea /aeiaaea
oiaea aeeyao ia aai aini?eyoea, ia c?y nouanoaoao iineiaeoea:”ii
iaeaaeea ano?a/atho, ii aeaeo i?iaiaeatho”. Ii a “iaeaaeaeo”, ii iaoaio
iiaieth, aeeth/aaony ana aiaoiaa aia/aoeaiea io /aeiaaea.

A aeaeueoa iu oaea i?eniao?eaaainy e ee/iui ea/anoaai. Eoi ii? *oi ec
naay i?aaenoaaeyao? Iiaeii ee aeiaa?eoueny yoiio /aeiaaeo? E ooo a oiae,
eae i?aaeei, eaeoo neiaeeaoeany nioeeaeueiua noa?aioeiu, onoaiiaee e
yoaeiiu aini?eyoey, aeeoaeneea i?aaenoaaeaiey, noi?ie?iaaiiua o
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea e, eiia/ii, o?iaaiue ineoieiae/aneie eoeueoo?u a
/anoe oiaiey aini?eieiaoue e ioeaieaaoue ae?oaiai.

I?eia? nioeeaeueiiai noa?aioeia: iiiaea ethaee n/eoatho, /oi i?ioanni?
?annayi, aeeci?oe e ia i?eniiniaeai e iianaaeiaaiie aeecie; nooaeaio
anaaaea ino?ioiai, iiaeaeaeai e ieeiaaea ia aioia e yecaiaio; ana
aiaee/aia ooaeiuaau, iaaeiaiiu e oeaaeiie?iaiu, a o?aioeocu oieueei e
aeoiatho i ethaae.

Aiaoiea i?eciaee: aieueoie eia – oiiue, eaaae?aoiue iiaeai?iaeie –
neeueiay aiey, iieiua ethaee – aeia?iaeooiua, ooaeua – na?aeeoua e
caieiooua.

Ano?a/ay iiaiai /aeiaaea, iu n?aco ioiinei aai e ii?aaeaeaiiie eaoaai?ee
e no?iei naia iiaaaeaiea a niioaaonoaee ni neiaeeaoeiny noa?aioeiii.

Ineoieiae ?acee/atho o?e oeia onoaiiaee ia aini?eyoea ae?oaiai /aeiaaea:
iiceoeaiay, iaaaoeaiay e aaeaeaaoiay. I?e iiceoeaiie onoaiiaea iu
ia?aioeaieaaai iieiaeeoaeueiua ea/anoaa e aeaai /aeiaaeo aieueoie aaain,
eioi?ue i?iyaeyaony a iainiciaaaaiie aeiaa?/eainoe. Iaaaoeaiay onoaiiaea
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aini?eieiathony a iniiaiii io?eoeaoaeueiua
ea/anoaa ae?oaiai /aeiaaea, /oi au?aaeaaony a iaaeiaa?/eainoe,
iiaeic?eoaeueiinoe.

Eo/oa anaai, eiia/ii, aaeaeaaoiay onoaiiaea ia oi, /oi o eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea anoue eae iieiaeeoaeueiua, oae e io?eoeaoaeueiua ea/anoaa.
Aeaaiia, eae iie naaeaine?iaaiu e ioeaieaathony naiei /aeiaaeii. Iaee/ea
onoaiiaie ?anniao?eaaaony eae iainiciaaaaiay i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue
aini?eieiaoue e ioeaieaaoue ea/anoaa ae?oaeo ethaeae. Yoe onoaiiaee
eaaeao a iniiaa oeie/iuo eneaaeaiee i?aaenoaaeaiey i ae?oaii /aeiaaea.

I?e ioai?a ia?niiaea iaieiaoaee eiatho aeaei n ethaeueie, eioi?ua
no?aiyony ?aaeeciaaoue naie oeaee, auae?ay oo eee eioth i?aaiecaoeeth.
Oi/ii oae aea iaiaaeaea?u no?aiyony ?aaeeciaaoue naie oeaee, ioae?ay
eaiaeeaeaoa. E oiio aea iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ethaee euoo ia i?inoi
eaeoth-eeai ?aaioo, a eiaiii oo, eioi?ay eo ono?aeaaao. Iai?aaeeueiue
auai? ?aaiou iiaeao eiaoue iaainiieieiua iineaaenoaey eae aeey
?aaioieea, iaiaaeaea?a, oae e aeey i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii.

Aia/aea ?anniio?ei, eae ?aoaaony aii?in i oii, eaeie eiaiii oei
eniieieoaey iaiaoiaeei aeey ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea ?aaiou. Ii ia?aae yoei
naeaeaai iaeii iaeaiueeia, ii aaaeiia caia/aiea. Iauaynue n ?aciuie
ethaeueie, Au, iaaa?iia, ia?aoeee aieiaiea ia oi, eae eaaei iu
iiaeaeaainy eneooaieth ninoaaeoue noaeaeaiea i ethaeyo oieueei ii eo
aiaoiaio aeaeo e eae iu i?eaeoiuaaai eo oa?aeoa?enoeee ia iniiaaiee
iiaa?oiinoiuo naaaeaiee. Iiyoiio iinoa?aeoanue ioa?ineoue (a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa) oaeia eiaeiia ia?aia aia/aoeaiea.

Eiaaea iiyaeyaony aaeainey ii i?e/eia, iai?eia?, eciaiaiey ?aaiou eee
i?iaeaeaeaiey ii neoaeaa aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee, oi enoiaeiui iiiaioii
aeieaeii auoue ?anniio?aiea naiie ?aaiou. Anee au niae?aaoanue iaeoe
iiaeoiaeyuaai /aeiaaea aeey ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aaiou, oi aeieaeiu iieo/eoue
oi/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oa?aeoa?a naiie ?aaiou, eaaeeoeeaoeee e
ea/anoaa i?aoaiaeaioa, eioi?ua o?aaothony aeey aa auiieiaiey. Yoi
iaeaieaa aaaeiay /anoue aeey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee i?e ioai?a
i?aoaiaeaioa, eioi?ay eae ?ac /anoi e iaaeiioeaieaaaony. Nai? oaeie
eioi?iaoeee iau/ii i?iaiaeeony a o?e yoaia:

aiaeec niaea?aeaiey ?aaiou;

iiaeienaiea oa?aeoa?a ?aaiou (aeieaeiinoiay eino?oeoeey);

o?aaiaaiey e ia?niiaeo (o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua ?aaioie).

Aeaeiaay ioeaiea ia?niiaea – yoi oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue i?ioeann onoaiiaeaiey
niioaaonoaey ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?niiaea (niiniaiinoae,
iioeaaoeee e naienoa) o?aaiaaieyi aeieaeiinoe eee ?aai/aai ianoa.

Ia iniiaaiee noaiaie oeacaiiiai niioaaonoaey ?aoathony aeaaiui ia?acii
neaaeothuea caaea/e:

auai? ianoa a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a e onoaiiaeaiee ooieoeeiiaeueiie
?iee ioeaieaaaiiai nio?oaeieea;

?ac?aaioea aiciiaeiuo iooae niaa?oainoaiaaiey aeaeiauo eee ee/iinoiuo
ea/anoa nio?oaeieea;

ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie niioaaonoaey caaeaiiui e?eoa?eyi iieaou o?oaea e
onoaiiaeaiea aa aaee/eiu.

E?iia oiai, aeaeiaay ioeaiea ia?niiaea iiaeao iiii/ue a ?aoaiee ?yaea
aeiiieieoaeueiuo caaea/:

onoaiiaeaiea ia?aoiie nayce n nio?oaeieeii ii i?ioanneiiaeueiui,
i?aaiecaoeeiiiui e eiui aii?inai;

oaeiaeaoai?aiea iio?aaiinoe nio?oaeieea a ioeaiea nianoaaiiiai o?oaea e
ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee.

Aeaeiaay ioeaiea yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae ninoaaeythuae i?ioeanna ioai?a e
?acaeoey ia?niiaea. ?acee/atho aeaa iniiaiuo aeaea aeaeiaie ioeaiee:

ioeaieo eaiaeeaeaoia ia aaeaioioth aeieaeiinoue;

oaeouoth ia?eiaee/aneoth ioeaieo nio?oaeieeia i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaa aeaea ioeaiee iicaieytho ?aoaoue a iniiaiii aiaeiae/iua (ec
i?eaaaeaiiuo auoa) caaea/e, iiyoiio a eo oi?ioee?iaea iiae neiaii
“nio?oaeiee” neaaeoao iiieiaoue oaeaea ”eaiaeeaeao ia aeieaeiinoue”.

Ioa/anoaaiiay e ca?oaaaeiay i?aeoeea aeaeiaie ioeaiee eaiaeeaeaoia ia
aaeaioioth aeieaeiinoue iicaieyao aiai?eoue i /aou?ao iniiaiuo yoaiao,
ii?aaeaeythueo niaea?aeaiea i?ioeanna ioeaiee aeaiiiai aeaea. E yoei
oeiiaui yoaiai iiaeii ioianoe: aiaeec aieaoiuo aeaiiuo; iaaaaeaiea
ni?aaie ia eniuooaiii ?aaioieea (ii ianoo i?aaeiae ?aaiou eee o/aau);
i?iaa?i/iua eniuoaiey; niaanaaeiaaiea.

Oaeouay ia?eiaee/aneay ioeaiea nio?oaeieeia naiaeeony, eae i?aaeei, e
aeaoi iniiaiui yoaiai: (a) ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou e oaeoi?ia,
ii?aaeaeythueo noaiaiue aeinoeaeaiey yoeo ?acoeueoaoia; (a) aiaeeco
aeeiaieee ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe o?oaea ca ii?aaeaeaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie,
a oaeaea aeeiaieee ninoiyiey oaeoi?ia (oneiaee), aeeythueo ia
aeinoeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia.

EEOA?AOO?A.

1. I?AEOE*ANEAss INEOIEIAEss Aeess IAIAAeAEA?IA.

Eioi?iaoeeiiii-ecaeaoaeueneee aeii “OEEEIU”. IINEAA 1996aiae.

Eieeaeoea aaoi?ia. Ioaaonoaaiiue ?aaeaeoi? i?ioanni? Oooooeeia I.E.

2. YOEEA a th?eni?oaeaioeee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

IAUANOAI “CIAIEA” ?INNEE. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a 1995 aiae.

I?ioanni? A.E. Aaneeueaa.

3. OI?AAEAIEA IA?NIIAEII I?AAIECAOeEE.

Aunoaa ia?aciaaiea EIO?A-I. IINEAA 1997 aiae.

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