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Экономическая и коммерческая деятельность предприятия

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Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao Oi?aaeaiey

? a o a ? a o

ii eo?no

“Yeiiiie/aneay e eiiia?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey”

Auiieieee:

nooaeaiou EENO

a?oiiu II III-2

Aeaenaaiei Ae.A.,

Aaoeaoia A.I.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: AEaeacei A.A.

Iineaa, 1998

Iaeaaeaiea:

I?aaiecaoeey i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia ia ie?iaii ?uiea………………3

Oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee………13

Oiaa?iay iieeoeea
i?aaei?eyoey……………………………………………..19

Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue
oiaa?a……………………………………………….24

Ae?aeaaay e aoeoeeiiiay
oi?aiaey…………………………………………….26

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
oi?ae………………………………………………………….
…..

Nienie
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………………..
……………

1. I?aaiecaoeey i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia ia ie?iaii ?uiea.

Ii/aio ainoaea?noaa oi?aotho? *oi ninoaaeyao iniiao oi?aiaee iaaeaeo
no?aiaie? A iauai aeaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey yaeyaony n?aaenoaii,
n iiiiuueth eioi?iai no?aiu iiaoo ?acaeaaoue niaoeeaeecaoeeth,
iiauoaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue naieo ?ano?nia e oaeei ia?acii
oaaee/eaaoue iauee iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. Noaa?aiiua ainoaea?noaa, eae e
ioaeaeueiua eeoea e ?aaeiiu no?aiu, iiaoo auea?aoue ca n/ao
niaoeeaeecaoeee ia ecaeaeeyo, eioi?ua iie iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue n
iaeaieueoae ioiineoaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoueth, e iineaaeothuaai eo
iaiaia ia oiaa?u, eioi?ua iie ia a ninoiyiee naie yooaeoeaii
i?iecaiaeeoue. A iniiaa aieaa oaeoaeaiiiai eco/aiey aii?ina “Ii/aio
no?aiu oi?aotho?” eaaeao aeaa ianoiyoaeuenoaa. Ai-ia?auo,
yeiiiie/aneea ?ano?nu – i?e?iaeiua, /aeiaa/aneea,
eiaanoeoeeiiiua – ?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo no?aiaie ie?a e?aeia
ia ?aaiiia?ii; no?aiu nouanoaaiii ioee/athony ii naiae
iaania/aiiinoe yeiiiie/aneeie ?ano?naie. Ai-aoi?uo, yooaeoeaiia
i?iecaiaenoai ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia o?aaoao ?acee/iuo oaoiieiaee eee
eiiaeiaoeee ?ano?nia. Oa?aeoa? e acaeiiaeaenoaea yoeo aeaoo
ianoiyoaeuenoa iiaeii eaaei i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue. ssiiiey, iai?eia?,
iaeaaeaao aieueoie e oi?ioi ia?aciaaiiie ?aai/ae neeie;
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue o?oae noieo aeaoaai, iineieueeo eiaaony a
eciaeeee. A nayce n yoei ssiiiey niiniaia yooaeoeaii
i?iecaiaeeoue (n ieceeie ecaea?aeeaie) ?aciiia?aciua oiaa?u, aeey
ecaioiaeaiey eioi?uo o?aaoaony aieueoia eiee/anoai
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai o?oaea. Oioieaia?u, ?aaeeii?eaiieee
e aeaeaiiaaieoioiiu – yoi eeoue iaeioi?ua i?eia?u iiaeiaiuo
o?oaeiaieeo oiaa?ia. Iai?ioea, Aano?aeey iaeaaeaao iaoe?iuie
caiaeueiuie i?ino?ainoaaie, ii iaaeinoaoi/iuie ethaeneeie ?ano?naie e
eaieoaeii, e iiyoiio iiaeao aeaoaai i?iecaiaeeoue oaeea
“caieaaieea” oiaa?u, eae ioaieoea, oa?noue, iyni. A?aceeey eiaao
ieiaei?iaeiua ii/au, o?iie/aneee eeeiao, oai auiaaeaao aieueoia
eiee/anoai inaaeeia, a eciaeeee eiaaony

iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue o?oae, oi anoue ana iaiaoiaeeiia aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaoaaiai eioa. I?iiuoeaiii ?acaeoua no?aiu
iaoiaeyony a eo/oai no?aoaae/aneii iieiaeaiee a ieaia i?iecaiaenoaa
eaieoaeiaieeo oiaa?ia, iai?eia? aaoiiiaeeae, naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey, iaoei e oeieeaoia. Aaaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi
yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue, n eioi?ie no?aiu niiniaiu i?iecaiaeeoue
?acee/iua oiaa?u, iiaeao eciaiyoueny e aeaenoaeoaeueii eciaiyaony ni
a?aiaiai.

Naeaeae a ?ani?aaeaeaiee ?ano?nia e oaoiieiaee iiaoo i?eaiaeeoue
e naeaeaai a ioiineoaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia a
?acee/iuo no?aiao. Iai?eia? ca iineaaeiea 40-50 eao a ?innee
nouanoaaiii iiauneeinue ea/anoai ?aai/ae neeu e cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eeny
iauai iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Iiyoiio no?aia, yenii?oe?iaaaoay iieaaea
iacaae i?aeiouanoaaiii naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oiaa?u e nu?uea, oaia?ue
auaiceo ecaeaeey ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oi/ii oae aea iiaua
oaoiieiaee, eioi?ua niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth i?iecaiaenoaa
neioaoe/aneeo aieieii e eneonnoaaiiiai eao/oea, ?aaeeeaeueii
eciaieee no?oeoo?o ?ano?nia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ecaioiaeaiey yoeo
oiaa?ia e, oaeei ia?acii, eciaieee ioiineoaeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue eo
i?iecaiaenoaa. Ei?i/a aiai?y, ii ia?a yaiethoeee iaoeeiiaeueiuo
yeiiiiee iiaoo eciaiyoueny eiee/anoai e ea/anoai ?aai/ae neeu, iauai e
ninoaa eaieoaea, aicieeaoue iiaua oaoiieiaee. Iiaoo i?aoa?iaoue
eciaiaiey aeaaea ianooaau e ea/anoai caiaeueiuo e i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.
Ii ia?a oiai eae i?ienoiaeyo yoe eciaiaiey, ioiineoaeueiay
yooaeoeaiinoue, n eioi?ie no?aiu i?iecaiaeyo ?acee/iua oiaa?u, aoaeao
oaeaea eciaiyoueny.

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi ie?iaay yeiiiieea ninoieo ec aeaoo no?ai, iai?eia?
NOA e A?aceeee. Aeiionoei, /oi eaaeaeay ec ieo niiniaia i?iecaiaeeoue
eae ioaieoeo, oae e eioa, ii n ?acee/iie noaiaiueth
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe. I?iecaiaenoaaiiua aiciiaeiinoe NOA e
A?aceeee ia niaiaaeatho, /oi naycaii n ?acee/eyie a no?oeoo?a
?ano?nia e o?iaiy oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu e eioa aeaoo no?ai ?aciua. I?e i?aaeiieiaeaiee
iieiie caiyoinoe, NOA iiaoo oaaee/eoue auione ioaieoeu ia 30o,
ioeacaaoenue io i?iecaiaenoaa 30o eioa. Oi anoue ca eaaeaeoth
i?eiineioth a aea?oao oiiio eioa iiaeii iieo/eoue oiiio ioaieoeu.
Oaeei ia?acii a NOA niioiioaiea iaiaia aioo?e no?aiu eee niioiioaiea
ecaea?aeae aeey aeaiiuo aeaoo i?iaeoeoia ninoaaeyao 1o ioaieoeu ca
1o eioa (eee 1I=1E). A?aceeey aea aeieaeia iiaea?oaiaaoue 20o eioa
aeey oiai, /oiau iieo/eoue 10o ioaieoeu. Yoi icia/aao, /oi
niioiioaiea aioo?aiieo ecaea?aeae aeey aeaoo oiaa?ia ninoaaeyao 1o
ioaieoeu e 2o eioa (eee 1I=2E). Anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea ?acee/ey a
niioiioaiee ecaea?aeae, aicieeaao aii?in: nouanoaoao eaeia eeai
i?aaeei, eee i?eioeei, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, ii
eaeei i?iaeoeoai neaaeoao ?acaeaaoue niaoeeaeecaoeeth a NOA e
A?aceeee? Aea, nouanoaoao. Yoi i?eioeei n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoa,
aeanyuee, /oi niaieoiiue iauai auionea i?iaeoeoeee aoaeao
iaeaieueoei oiaaea, eiaaea eaaeaeue oiaa? aoaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny oie
no?aiie, a eioi?ie aiaiaiiua ecaea?aeee. A NOA

ecaea?aeee ieaea aeey ioaieoeu, oi anoue NOA aeieaeiu ioeacaoueny
eeoue io 1o eioa, /oiau i?iecaanoe 1o ioaieoeu, a oi a?aiy eae
A?aceeey aeieaeia ioeacaoueny io i?iecaiaenoaa 2o eioa. Oaeei
ia?acii Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou iaeaaeatho n?aaieoaeueiui (noieiinoiui)
i?aeiouanoaii a i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu e aeieaeiu
niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny eiaiii ia iai. Ie?iaay yeiiiieea (NOA e A?aceeey)
yaii iayeiiiie/ii ?anoiaeotho naie ?ano?nu, anee ii?aaeaeaiiue
i?iaeoeo (ioaieoea) ecaioaaeeaaaony i?iecaiaeeoaeai n aunieeie
ecaea?aeeaie (A?aceeeae), oiaaea eae ii iia au auioneaoueny
i?iecaiaeeoaeai n ieceeie ecaea?aeeaie (NOA). Anee A?aceeey
noaiao au?aueaaoue ioaieoeo, oi yoi icia/aao, /oi ie?iaay yeiiiieea,
aeieaeia aoaeao ioeacaoueny io aieueoaai eiee/anoaa eioa, /ai
iaiaoiaeeii aeey iieo/aiey oiiu ioaieoeu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
aiaiaiiua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa eioa ieaea o A?aceeee, oi
anoue A?aceeey aeieaeia iiaea?oaiaaoue oieueei 1/2o ioaieoeu aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa 1o eioa, a oi a?aiy eae NOA aeieaeiu ioeacaoueny io
1o ioaieoeu. A?aceeey iaeaaeaao n?aaieoaeueiui i?aeiouanoaii a
i?iecaiaenoaa eioa, e iiyoiio ae neaaeoao niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny ia
iai. Iiyoue-oaee ie?iaua ?ano?nu ia aoaeoo ?aoeeiiaeueii
eniieueciaaiu, anee eioa noaiao ecaioaaeeaaoue i?iecaiaeeoaeue n
aunieeie ecaea?aeeaie (NOA). ?aoeeiiaeueiia aaaeaiea oicyenoaa
– eniieueciaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa ia?aie/aiiiai ?ano?na
aeey iieo/aiey iaeaieueoaai niaieoiiiai iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa – o?aaoao,
/oiau ethaie eiie?aoiue oiaa? i?iecaiaeeeny oie no?aiie, o eioi?ie
ieaea aiaiaiiua ecaea?aeee eee, ae?oaeie neiaaie, eioi?ay
?aniieaaaao n?aaieoaeueiuie i?aeiouanoaaie. A iaoai i?eia?a
Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai neaaeoao i?iecaiaeeoue ioaieoeo, a A?aceeee –
eioa. Niaoeeaeece?oynue oeaeeeii ia ioaieoea, NOA iiaoo aiiaua ia
caieiaoueny i?iecaiaenoaii eioa. Oi/ii oae aea, niaoeeaeece?oynue
iieiinoueth ia eioa, A?aceeey iiaeao ia au?aueaaoue ioaieoeo.

Iaeiaei iio?aaeoaee a iaaeo no?aiao oioyo eiaoue eae eioa, oae e
ioaieoeo. Niaoeeaeecaoeey ii?iaeaeaao iio?aaiinoue a oi?aiaea eee
iaiaia yoeie aeaoiy i?iaeoeoaie. Eaeiau aoaeoo oneiaey oi?aiaee? A eaeii
iaiiaii ioiioaiee NOA e A?aceeey noaioo oi?aiaaoue ioaieoeae e eioa?
Iineieueeo a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao 1I=1E, oi iie aeieaeiu iieo/eoue
aieueoa 1o eioa ca eaaeaeoth oiiio yenii?oe?oaiie ioaieoeu. A
i?ioeaiii neo/aa NOA ia auea?aao io yenii?oa ioaieoeu a iaiai ia
a?aceeueneee eioa. Ae?oaeie neiaaie, NOA aeieaeiu iieo/eoue eo/ooth
oeaio (aieueoa eioa) ca naith ioaieoeo ia ie?iauo ?uieao, ii n?aaiaieth
n oai, /oi iie iieo/eee au aioo?e no?aiu, eee aea oi?aiaey ia aoaeao
auaiaeiie. Aiaeiae/ii yoiio, iineieueeo aeey A?aceeee 1I=2E, iia
aeieaeia eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aoue 1o ioaieoeu, yenii?oe?oy iaiaa
2o eioa. A?aceeey aeieaeia eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue ieaoeoue aieaa ieceoth
oeaio ca ioaieoeo ia ie?iauo ?uieao, /ai aioo?e no?aiu. A i?ioeaiii
neo/aa iia ia iiaeaeaao o/anoaiaaoue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea. Oaeei
ia?acii, iiaeii auoue oaa?aiiui, /oi eiyooeoeeaio iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
iaiaia, eee oneiaey oi?aiaee, aoaeoo iaoiaeeony iaaeaeo 1I=1E e 1I=2E.
Ii aaea oi/iaa a yoeo i?aaeaeao aoaeao iaoiaeeoueny eiyooeoeeaio
ie?iaiai iaiaia? Yoio aii?in /?acau/aeii aaaeai, iineieueeo
eiyooeoeeaio iaiaia, eee oneiaey ii?aaeaeyao, eaeei ia?acii auaiaeu io
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee ?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo aeaoiy no?aiaie.
Eiia/ii, Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou ioaeaaeoo i?aaeii/oaiea e o?iaith,
aeeceiio e 1I=2E. Aia?eeaioeu oioyo iieo/eoue aieueoa eioa ca
eaaeaeoth oiiio ioaieoeu, eioi?oth iie yenii?oe?otho. Oi/ii oae
aea aeey A?aceeee aoaeao aeaeaoaeai o?iaaiue, aeeceee e 1I=1E.
A?aceeey no?aieoueny auaacoe eae iiaeii iaiueoa eioa ca eaaeaeoth oiiio
ioaieoeu, eioi?oth iia iieo/aao a iaiai. Oaeoe/aneee eiyooeoeeaio
iaiaia, eioi?ue ?aniieaaaaony iaaeaeo aa?oiei e ieaeiei i?aaeaeaie,
caaeneo io niioiioaiey ie?iaiai ni?ina ia yoe oiaa?u e eo
i?aaeeiaeaiey. Anee niaieoiiue ie?iaie ni?in ia eioa ieaea aai
i?aaeeiaeaiey, a ni?in ia ioaieoeo cia/eoaeueii auoa i?aaeeiaeaiey, oi
oeaia ia eioa aoaeao ieceie, a oeaia ia ioaieoeo – aunieie. Eiyooeoeeaio
iaiaia a yoii neo/aa onoaiaaeeaaaony aeecei ii o?iaith 1I=2E,
eioi?iio ioaeaaeoo i?aaeii/oaiea NOA. I?e ia?aoiii niioiioaiee
ie?iaiai

ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey eiyooeoeeaio onoaiiaeony aeecei e o?iaith
1I=1E, iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiiio aeey A?aceeee.

Ia nia?aiaiiii ycuea aii?in i naiaiaeiie oi?aiaea naiaeeony e
neaaeothuaio oaaaeeoaeueiiio auaiaeo. Aeaaiaea?y naiaiaeiie
oi?aiaea, aace?othuaeny ia i?eioeeia n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae,
ie?iaay yeiiiieea iiaeao aeinoeaiooue aieaa yooaeoeaiiai ?aciauaiey
?ano?nia e aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy iaoa?eaeueiiai aeaaininoiyiey.
No?oeoo?a ?ano?nia e o?iaaiue oaoiieiae/aneee ciaiee eaaeaeie no?aiu
?acee/iu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eaaeaeay no?aia iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue
ii?aaeaeaiiua oiaa?u n ?aciuie ?aaeueiuie ecaea?aeeaie. Eaaeaeay
no?aia aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoue oa oiaa?u, ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa
eioi?uo ioiineoaeueii ieaea ecaea?aeae a ae?oaeo no?aiao, e
iaiaieaaoue oiaa?u, ia eioi?uo iia niaoeeaeece?oaony, ia i?iaeoeou,
ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?uo a no?aia auoa ioiineoaeueii ae?oaeo
no?ai. Anee eaaeaeay no?aia aoaeao iinooiaoue oaeei ia?acii, ie?

iiaeao a iieiie noaiaie eniieueciaaoue i?aeiouanoaa aaia?aoe/aneie
e /aeiaa/aneie niaoeeaeecaoeee. Oi anoue ie? – e eaaeaeay naiaiaeii
oi?aothuay no?aia – iiaeao iieo/eoue aieueoee ?aaeueiue aeioiae io
eniieueciaaiey oiai iauaia ?ano?nia, eioi?uie iie ?aniieaaatho.
I?ioaeoeeiieci – aa?uea?u ia iooe naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee – oiaiueoatho
eee naiaeyo ia iao auaiaeu io niaoeeaeecaoeee. Anee no?aiu ia
iiaoo naiaiaeii oi?aiaaoue, iie aeieaeiu ia?aa?ineoue ?ano?nu n
yooaeoeaiiai eo eniieueciaaiey ia iayooaeoeaiia a oeaeyo oaeiaeaoai?aiey
naieo ?aciiia?aciuo iio?aaiinoae.

Iiai/iay auaiaea io naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
iineaaeiyy noeioee?oao eiieo?aioeeth e ia?aie/eaaao iiiiiieeth.
Aic?inoay eiieo?aioeey eiino?aiiuo oe?i canoaaeyao ianoiua oe?iu
ia?aoiaeeoue e i?iecaiaenoaaiiui oaoiieiaeyi n aieaa ieceeie
ecaea?aeeaie. Yoi oaeaea auioaeaeaao aaiaeeoue iiaoanoaa e aea?aeaoue
?oeo ia ioeuena oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, iiauoay ea/anoai
i?iaeoeoeee e eniieuecoy iiaua iaoiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa, e oaeei
ia?acii niaeaenoaiaaoue yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo.

Naiaiaeiay oi?aiaey i?aaeinoaaeyao iio?aaeoaeyi aiciiaeiinoue auai?a
ec aieaa oe?ieiai anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee. I?e/eiu, ii eioi?ui
neaaeoao ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea oi?aiaea, a nouiinoe, oa aea, ii eioi?ui
iaiaoiaeeii noeioee?iaaoue eiieo?aioeeth. Iiyoiio iao ie/aai
oaeeaeoaeueiiai a oii, /oi iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia
ioeaieaaao naiaiaeioth oi?aiaeth eae yeiiiie/anee iainiiaaiiia yaeaiea.

Ianiio?y ia ia anth oaaaeeoaeueiinoue a?aoiaioia a iieueco naiaiaeiie
oi?aiaee, a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia yoii iooe noieo aieueoia
eiee/anoai aa?uea?ia:

– Iioeeiu. Iioeeiu yaeythony aeoeeciui iaeiaii ia eiii?oiua oiaa?u;
iie iiaoo aaiaeeoueny n oeaeueth iieo/aiey aeioiaeia eee aeey
caueou. Oeneaeueiua iioeeiu, eae i?aaeei, i?eiaiythony a ioiioaiee
ecaeaeee, eioi?ua ia i?iecaiaeyony aioo?e no?aiu. Noaaee oeneaeueiuo
iioeei a iniiaiii ia aaeeee, eo oeaeueth yaeyaony iaania/aiea
oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa iaeiaiauie iinooieaieyie. I?ioaeoeeiienoneea
iioeeiu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey caueou ianoiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae io
eiino?aiiie eiieo?aioeee. Oioy i?ioaeoeeiienoneea iioeeiu, eae
i?aaeei, iaaeinoaoi/ii auniee aeey i?ae?auaiey eiii?oa
eiino?aiiuo oiaa?ia, iie ana aea noaayo eiino?aiiiai
i?iecaiaeeoaey a iaauaiaeiia eiieo?aioiia iieiaeaiea i?e oi?aiaea ia
aioo?aiiai ?uiea.

– Eiii?oiua eaiou. N iiiiuueth eiii?oiuo eaio
onoaiaaeeaathony iaeneiaeueiua iauaiu oiaa?ia, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue
eiii?oe?iaaiu ca eaeie-oi ia?eiae a?aiaie. *anoi eiii?oiua eaiou
aunooiatho aieaa yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii naea?aeeaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee, /ai iioeeiu. Ianiio?y ia aunieea iioeeiu,
ii?aaeaeaiiia ecaeaeea iiaeao eiii?oe?iaaoueny a ioiineoaeueii
aieueoeo eiee/anoaao. Ieceea aea eiii?oiua eaiou iieiinoueth
cai?auatho eiii?o oiaa?a naa?o ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiee/anoaa.

– Iaoa?eoiua aa?uea?u. Iiae iaoa?eoiuie aa?uea?aie iiieiaaony
nenoaia eeoeaice?iaaiey, nicaeaiea iaii?aaaeaiiuo noaiaea?oia ea/anoaa
i?iaeoeoeee e aai aaciianiinoe eee i?inoi ath?ie?aoe/aneea cai?aou
a oaiiaeaiiuo i?ioeaaeo?ao. Oae, ssiiiey e aa?iiaeneea no?aiu
o?aaotho io eiii?oa?ia iieo/aiey eeoeaicee. Ia?aie/eaay auione
eeoeaicee, iiaeii yooaeoeaii ia?aie/eaaoue eiii?o. Eiaiii oae
iinooieea Aaeeeia?eoaiey, cai?aoea eiii?o oaey.

– Aeia?iaieueiua yenii?oiua ia?aie/aiey. Iie yaeythony
ioiineoaeueii iiaie oi?iie oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia. Oae, yiiineea
aaoiiiaeeano?ieoaee iiae oa?icie aaaaeaiey Niaaeeiaiiuie Ooaoaie
aieaa aunieeo oa?eoia eee ieceeo eiii?oiuo eaio niaeaneeenue ia
aaaaeaiea aeia?iaieueiuo yenii?oiuo ia?aie/aiee ia naie yenii?o a NOA.

Ii/aio iioeeiu e eaiou i?eiaiythony a ie?iaie i?aeoeea, anee
ecaanoii, /oi iie i?aiyonoaotho naiaiaeiie oi?aiaea e oaeei ia?acii
nieaeatho yeiiiie/aneoth yooaeoeaiinoue? A oi a?aiy eae no?aiu a
oeaeii auea?uaatho io naiaiaeiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee, ioaeaeueiua
io?anee e a?oiiu iinoaaueeia ?ano?nia iiaoo ieacaoueny a /enea
iino?aaeaaoeo. Eaaei iiiyoue, ii/aio a?oiiu i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, caiyouo
niioaaonoaothuei i?iecaiaenoaii, iuoathony nio?aieoue eeai oeo/oeoue
naie yeiiiie/aneea iiceoeee, oaaaeaeay i?aaeoaeuenoai aaanoe oa?eou eee
eaiou aeey caueou eo io a?aaeiiai aeeyiey naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee.
Yooaeo iniauo eioa?ania eee eiioeaioeey i iiaaaeaiee, iaoneiaeaiiii
“iiaiiae ca ?aioie”,- ea?aao

aaaeioth ?ieue. Neaaeoao oaeaea aeiaaaeoue, /oi ecaea?aeee
i?ioaeoeeiiecia ne?uou, iineieueeo oa?eou e eaiou aeeth/aiu a oeaiu
oiaa?ia. Oaeei ia?acii, iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee noaeeeaathony n
iaiueoeie iieeoe/aneeie ia?aie/aieyie, eaey ia ano?a/o o?aaiaaieyi
aaanoe i?ioaeoeeiienoneea naieoeee.

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi yeiiiieea no?aiu ioe?uoa aeey ie?iaie oi?aiaee e
i?aaei?eieiaoaee ec ae?oaie no?aiu, eiathuae n?aaieoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa
e aeiieie?othuae ia ie?iaii ?uiea a i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiiai
oiaa?a, noaee aai yenii?oe?iaaoue. No?aia-eiii?oa? ?aaae?oao ia oaeea
aeaenoaey aaaaeaieai iioeeiu. Yoio oaa i?eaaaeao e ?inoo aioo?aiiae
oeaiu e aoaeao eiaoue oeaeue ?yae iineaaenoaee.

Ai-ia?auo, iio?aaeaiea oiaa?a oiaaeao. Iio?aaeoaee, aaconeiaii,
iino?aaeatho a nayce n aaaaeaieai iioeeiu; iie aoaeoo ieaoeoue
aieueoa ca eaaeaeoth aaeeieoeo oiaa?a. E?iia oiai iioeeia
auioaeaeaao iio?aaeoaeae nie?aoeoue eiee/anoai iieoiaaiiai oiaa?a e
ia?aaae?aniaaoue naie ?anoiaeu ia iieoieo iaiaa aeaeaiiuo oiaa?ia.

Ai-aoi?uo, ianoiua i?iecaiaeeoaee, ia eioi?uo iioeeia ia
?ani?ino?aiyaony, iieo/aao aieaa aunieoth oeaio ca aaeeieoeo
oiaa?a. Iineieueeo yoa iiaay oeaia auoa niioaaonoaothuae oeaiu aei
aaaaeaiey iioeei, eee ie?iaie oeaiu, ianoiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue oaaee/eo
iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa e ainiieuecoaony eae aieaa aunieie oeaiie, oae e
oaaee/eaoeiny iauaiii i?iaeaae. Yoi iauyniyao eioa?an ianoiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae a eiaaenoneie aeayoaeueiinoe a iiaeaea?aeeo caueoiuo
iioeei. Iaeiaei, n oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaa ?anoe?aiea ianoiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa io?aaeaao oio oaeo, /oi iioeeia iicaieeea ianoiui
i?iecaiaeeoaeyi ia?aoyiooue ?ano?nu ec ae?oaeo, aieaa yooaeoeaiuo
io?aneae.

A-o?aoueeo, iino?aaeatho i?iecaiaeeoaee no?aiu-yenii?oa?a. Oioy
i?iaeaaeiua oeaiu noaee auoa, yoa ?acieoea a oeaia io/eneyaony ia
ei. Ie?iaay oeaia iinea onoaiiaeaiey iioeeiu e, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iiooo/iue aeioiae nio?aiythony ia oii aea o?iaia, a oi a?aiy eae
iauaiu eiii?oa iaaeatho.

E, iaeiiaoe, aeioiaeu io iioeeiu, a nouiinoe, yaeythony
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai aeioiaea io iio?aaeoaey a iieueco ainoaea?noaa e
ia ieacuaatho aeeyiey ia yeiiiie/aneia aeaaininoiyiea no?aiu; a
?acoeueoaoa ainoaea?noai auea?uaaao oi, /oi oa?yao iio?aaeoaeue.

Nouanoaotho ae?oaea, iaiaa caiaoiua iineaaenoaey aaaaeaiey iioeei.
Ec-ca nie?aoeaoeony i?iaeaae no?aia-yenii?oa? oaia?ue iieo/eo
iaiueoa n?aaenoa aeey eiii?oa oiaa?ia ec ae?oaeo no?ai, a eioi?uo
i?iecieaeao nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e aunaiaiaeaeaiea ?ano?nia.
Oaeei ia?acii, iioeeiu i?yii niinianoaotho yeniainee ioiineoaeueii
iayooaeoeaiuo io?aneae, eioi?ua ia iaeaaeatho n?aaieoaeueiuie
i?aeiouanoaaie, e einaaiiui ia?acii niinianoaotho naa?ouaaieth
ioiineoaeueii yooaeoeaiuo io?aneae, eiathueo n?aaieoaeueiua
i?aeiouanoaa. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi iioeeiu neoaeao i?e/eiie
ia?aaeeneieaoeee ?ano?nia a iaaa?iii iai?aaeaiee. Yoi ia
oaeeaeoaeueii. Ecaanoii, /oi niaoeeaeecaoeey e ia neiaaiiay ie/ai
ie?iaay oi?aiaey, aace?othuayny ia n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoaao,
aaaeoo e yooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth ie?iauo ?ano?nia e ?anoe?aieth
?aaeueiiai iauaia ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oeaeue e iineaaenoaey
caueoiuo iioeei – nie?auaiea ie?iaie oi?aiaee. Ionthaea iiieii naieo
niaoeeoe/aneeo iineaaenoaee aeey iio?aaeoaeae, a oaeaea eiino?aiiuo
e ianoiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae iioeeiu nie?auatho iauaiu ?aaeueiiai
ie?iaiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oioy a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?aiaeaaeaao eiioeaioeey naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee,
iiaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iaaaeaiey i?ioaeoeeiienoneie iieeoeee
aua aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii. Eaeea a?aoiaiou
i?eaiaeyo i?ioaeoeeiienou aeey ii?aaaeaiey oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia?
Ianeieueei aaniiu yoe a?aoiaiou?

A?aoiaio yoio eiaao aiaiii-iieeoe/aneee /ai yeiiiie/aneee
oa?aeoa?: caueoiua iioeeiu ioaeiu aeey nio?aiaiey e oneeaiey io?aneae
auioneathueo no?aoaae/aneea oiaa?u e iaoa?eaeu, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu
aeey iai?iiu eee aaaeaiey aieiu. Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi a
ianoaaeeueiii ie?a aiaiii-iieeoe/aneea oeaee aeieaeiu a?aoue aa?o
iaae yeiiiie/aneeie. Oneeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, e ineaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie yooaeoeaiinoe, n
ae?oaie, nii?iaiaeaeathony ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieai ?ano?nia a iieueco
no?aoaae/aneeo io?aneae. E niaeaeaieth iauaeoeaiiai e?eoa?ey aeey
ioeaiee ioiineoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae e auaiae yoiai i?ioeanna ia
nouanoaoao. Yeiiiieno iiaeao i?eaea/ue aieiaiea oieueei e oiio
oaeoo, /oi aaaaeaiea iioeei aeey oneeaiey iai?iiiniiniaiinoe
naycaii n iaeioi?uie yeiiiie/aneeie ecaea?aeeaie.

Eicoia “Nianaeoa ?aai/ea ianoa!”, eniieuecoaiue a caueoo iioeei,
noaiiaeony ana aieaa iiaeiui ii ia?a oiai eae yeiiiieea i?eaeeaeaaony e
niaaeo. Ii ei?aieony a iae?iaiaeeca. Niaieoiiua ?anoiaeu a ioe?uoie
yeiiiieea ninoiyo ec iio?aaeoaeueneeo ?anoiaeia,
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, /enoiai yenii?oa.
*enoue yenii?o ?aaai ?aciinoe iaaeaeo yenii?oii e eiii?oii.
Oaaee/aiea niaieoiiuo ?anoiaeia a ?acoeueoaoa nie?auaiey eiii?oa
ieaaeao noeioee?othuaa aicaeaenoaea ia aioo?eyeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea,
iineieueeo iiaea/ao ca niaie ?aceee ?ino aeioiaeia e caiyoinoe. Ii oaeay
iieeoeea eiaao na?ueaciua aeaoaeou:

– Oaaee/aiea eiii?oa i?eaiaeeo e nie?auaieth iaeioi?iai eiee/anoaa
?aai/eo iano, ii a oi aea a?aiy nicaeaao ae?oaea ?aai/ea ianoa.
Eiii?o niinianoaiaae eeeaeaeaoeee onoa?aaoeo io?aneae, ii a oiaea
a?aiy niinianoaoao aicieeiiaaieth iiauo. Oaeei ia?acii, oioy
eiii?oiua ia?aie/aiey eciaiytho no?oeoo?o caiyoinoe, iie a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iiaoo eeoue iacia/eoaeueii, eeai aiiaua ia iaiyoue
o?iaaiue caiyoinoe.

– I/aaeaeii, /oi ana no?aiu ia iiaoo iaeiia?aiaiii aeiaeoueny
oniaoa i?e aaaaeaiee eiii?oiuo ia?aie/aiee. Yenii?o iaeiie no?aiu
yaeyaony eiii?oii aeey ae?oaie. A oie aea noaiaie, a eaeie i?aauoaiea
yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii, aeinoeaiooia iaeiie no?aiie, iiaeao
noeioee?iaaoue aa yeiiiieeo, ecauoie eiii?oa iaae yenii?oii a ae?oaie
yeiiiieea iaino?yao i?iaeaio aac?aaioeoeu. Iao ie/aai
oaeeaeoaeueiiai a oii, /oi aaaaeaiea iioeei e eiii?oiuo eaio a oeaeyo
aeinoeaeaiey iieiie caiyoinoe a no?aia iacuaaaony iieeoeeie “?aci?th
ninaaea”. N aa iiiiuueth aioo?aiiea i?iaeaiu no?aiu ?aoathony ca n/ao
?aci?aiey oi?aiauo ia?oia?ia.

– No?aiu, iino?aaeaaoea io iioeei e eaio, aa?iyoii i?aaei?eioo
ioaaoiua aeaenoaey, aucuaay iiaia iiauoaiea oaiiaeaiiuo
aa?uea?ia, eioi?ua a eiioea eiioeia caaeooao oi?aiaeth aei oaeie
noaiaie, /oi anai no?aiai noaiao ooaea.

– A aeieain?i/iii ieaia i?aauoaiea yenii?oa iaae eiii?oii a ea/anoaa
a ea/anoaa noeioee?iaaiey aioo?aiiae caiyoinoe ia?a/aii ia iaoaea/o.
Neaaeoao iiiieoue: /a?ac eiii?o ainoaea?noaa ca?aaaouaatho aaethoo,
eioi?oth iie o?aoyo ia oiaa?u ianoiiai yenii?oa. A aeieain?i/iii ieaia,
aeey oiai /oiau yenii?oe?iaaoue, no?aia aeieaeia eiii?oe?iaaoue.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieain?i/iay oeaeue caeeth/aaony ia a oii, /oiau
oaaee/eoue aioo?aiithth caiyoinoue, a a oii, a eo/oai neo/aa,
ia?aaeeneioee?iaaoue ?aai/eo ec yenii?oiuo io?aneae a caueuaiiua
io?anee, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia aioo?aiiee ?uiie. Yoi ia?aiauaiea
i?eaiaeeo e iaiaa yooaeoeaiiio ?aciauaieth ?ano?nia. Iioeeiu
ia?ae?uaatho iooue ?ano?nai a oa io?anee, a eioi?uo i?iecaiaenoai
ianoieueei yooaeoeaii, /oi iaania/eaaao n?aaieoaeueiua
i?aeiouanoaa. Iao ieeaeeo niiiaiee, /oi i?e auai?a
aioeoeeeee/aneeo ia? ?acoiiay naiaa?aiaiiay aeaiaaeiay e
iaeiaiaay iieeoeea i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa iaieioee?iaaiey iioeeiaie e
eaioaie.

Eoae, ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iioeeiu oaaee/eaatho /enoue yenii?o e iiyoiio
nicaeatho iiaua ?aai/ea ianoa,- cia/eo oieeaoue ia eiaeiue iooue.

Ecaanoai e ae?oaie a?aoiaio aeey ii?aaaeaiey iioeei: iaiaoiaeeiinoue
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee ?aaee noaaeeueiinoe. Ioi?aaiui iiiaioii caeanue
yaeyaony oi, /oi aeioiaeu aunieiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo yeiiiiee,
iai?eia? iaooyiie yeiiiieea Eoaaeoa eee i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia
i?iecaiaenoaa naoa?a ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa Eoau, neeueii caaenyo io
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?uieia. Aieiu, oeeeee/aneea eieaaaiey, iaaaoeaiua
eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a i?iiuoeaiiinoe aucuaatho e?oiiiianooaaiua
e ca/anooth aieaciaiiua i?ioeannu ia?ano?ieee oaeeo yeiiiie/aneeo
nenoai. Ionthaea yeiau neaaeoao, /oi caueoa iioeeiaie e eaioaie
iaiaoiaeeia a yoeo no?aiao aeey aeeaa?neoeeaoeee e, eae neaaenoaea,
oiaiueoaiey caaeneiinoe io eiiutheoo?u ia ie?iauo ?uieao iaeiiai eee
aeaoo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi iiiiaeao ia?aaeeoue aioo?aiithth
yeiiiieeo io aeeyiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iieeoe/aneeo niauoee, Niaaea
i?iecaiaenoaa ca ?oaaaeii, io neo/aeiuo eieaaaiee ni?ina, oaeei ia?acii
iaania/ea aieueooth aioo?aiithth noaaeeueiinoue.

A neacaiiii auoa anoue aeiey enoeiu. Ii eiathony oaeaea na?ueaciua
ia?aie/aiey e iaaeinoaoee. Ai-ia?auo, yoio a?aoiaio eiaao neaaia
ioiioaiea e ?acaeoui no?aiai. Ai-aoi?uo, yeiiiie/aneea ecaea?aeee
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee iiaoo auoue cia/eoaeueiuie; iai?eia? a
iiiieoeueoo?iuo yeiiiieeao ia?aaaouaathuay i?iiuoeaiiinoue iiaeao
ieacaoueny e?aeia iayooaeoeaiie.

*anoi n/eoatho, /oi caueoiua iioeeiu iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oiai, /oiau
aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue ooaa?aeeoueny iiaui io?aneyi
ioa/anoaaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A?aiaiiay caueoa iieiaeuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo
oe?i io aeanoeie eiieo?aioeee aieaa c?aeuo e iiyoiio ia oaeouee iiiaio
aieaa yooaeoeaiuo eiino?aiiuo oe?i iicaieyao ia?iaeaeathueiny
io?aneyi ie?aiiooue e noaoue yooaeoeaiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie. Yoio
a?aoiaio a iieueco i?ioaeoeeiiecia ceaeaeaony ia niiieoaeueiii
aic?aaeaiee i?ioea naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee. Aic?aaeaiea caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi i?e iaee/ee c?aeie eiino?aiiie eiieo?aioeee ie o iaeiie
io?anee ia auei aea ia aoaeao aiciiaeiinoe aeey inouanoaeaiey
aeieain?i/iuo ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa
e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe. Caueoa iieiaeuo io?aneae n iiiiuueth
iioeei nei??aeoe?oao nouanoaothuaa iai?aaeeueiia ?aciauaiea ie?iauo
?ano?nia, enoi?e/anee noi?ie?iaaeinue ec-ca ?acee/ee a o?iaiyo
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey ioa/anoaaiiie e eiino?aiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Oioy oaeay iiceoeey eiae/anee aa?ia, iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea
iaiai?ee. Ai-ia?auo iiaeiaiua a?aoiaiou ia eiatho ioiioaiey e
eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeoui no?aiai. Ai-aoi?uo, a neaai ?acaeouo no?aiao
i/aiue neiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeay ec io?aneae yaeyaony oai
iiai?iaeaeaiiui, eioi?ue niiniaai aeinoe/ue yeiiiie/aneie c?aeinoe e
iiyoiio caneoaeeaaao caueou. A-o?aoueeo, a ioee/ea io noa?uo nieaeao,
caueoiua iioeeiu iiaoo ia en/aciooue, a nei?aa neeiiiu e nio?aiyoueny,
aeaaea eiaaea i?iiuoeaiiay c?aeinoue aoaeao aeinoeaiooa. Iaeiiaoe,
aieueoeinoai yeiiiienoia n/eoatho, /oi anee ia?iaeaeathueiny io?aneyi
o?aaoaony iiiiuue, oi aeey yoiai nouanoaotho aieaa i?eaieaiua
niiniau, /ai iioeeiu. I?yiua noaneaeee, iai?eia?, iaeaaeatho oai
i?aeiouanoaii, /oi iie aieaa ioe?uoi iieacuaatho, eaeie io?anee
ieacuaaaony iiiiuue e a eaeie noaiaie.

N/eoaaony, /oi oa?eou iaiaoiaeeiu oaeaea aeey caueou oe?i, io
eiino?aiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae, eioi?ua nauaatho ecauoi/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth
ii aeaiieiaiaui oeaiai ieaea aa naaanoieiinoe. Nouanoaoao aeaa
i?e/eiu, ii/aio eiino?aiiua oe?iu iiaoo auoue caeioa?aniaaiu a
i?iaeaaea naieo oiaa?ia ii oeaiai ieaea naaanoieiinoe. Ai-ia?auo,
yoe oe?iu iiaoo eniieueciaaoue aeaiieia aeey iiaeaaeaiey ianoiuo
eiieo?aioia, caoaaoa iiiiiieueiiai iieiaeaiey e iineaaeothuaai
iiauoaiey oeai. Ai-aoi?uo, aeaiieia iiaeao yaeyoueny neiaeiie
oi?iie oeaiiaie aeene?eieiaoeee – iacia/aiey ?aciuo oeai ?aciui
eeeaioai. A oeaeyo iaeneiecaoeee naieo i?eaueae eiino?aiiue i?iaeaaaoe
iiaeao i?eiyoue ?aoaiea i ?aaeecaoeee naiae i?iaeoeoeee ii aunieei
oeaiai ia iiiiiieece?iaaiiii aioo?aiiai ?uiea, e na?ina ecauoi/iie
i?iaeoeoeee ii ieceei oeaiai a ae?oaie no?aia. Ecauoi/iua
iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa iiaoo auoue iaiaoiaeeiu aeey nieaeaiey

ecaea?aeae ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee i?e e?oiiiianooaaiii
i?iecaiaenoaa. A nayce n oai, /oi aeaiieia aucuaaao iainiiaaiioth
icaai/aiiinoue, a niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?yaea no?ai ii
cai?auai. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aeaiieia eiaao ianoi e
iaiineo oua?a ianoiui i?iecaiaeeoaeyi, i?aaeoaeuenoai aaiaeeo
“aioeaeaiieiaiaua iioeeiu” ia niioaaonoaothuea oiaa?u. Iaeiaei a
n?aaiaiee n iauei iauaiii eiii?oe?oaiuo oiaa?ia
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo neo/aaa i?eiaiaiey aeaiieiaa iaiiiai. Iiyoiio
aeaiieia ia iiaeao yaeyoueny ii?aaaeaieai aeey nouanoaiaaiey
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo, iinoiyiii aeaenoaothueo iioeei. E?iia oiai,
iaaeiaiey a eniieueciaaiee aeaiieiaa aeieaeiu ouaoaeueii
i?iaa?youeny aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eo ninoiyoaeueiinoe.
Eiino?aiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaee /anoi ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi aieineiaiua
iaaeiaiey a aeaiieiaa e aioeaeaiieiaiaua iioeeiu eniieuecothony eae
niinia ia?aie/aiey caeiiiie oi?aiaee. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iaeioi?ua
eiino?aiiua oe?iu ii?ie i?iecaiaeyo ii?aaeaeaiiua oiaa?u n aieaa
ieceei ecaea?aeeaie, /ai eo eiieo?aiou a no?aia-eiii?oa?a.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oi, /oi ia ia?aue acaeyae iiaeao auoue ?anniio?aii
eae aeaiieia, ia aeaea ca/anooth yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii aeaenoaey
i?eioeeia n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoa. Ceioiio?aaeaiea
aioeaeaiieiaiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iiaeao oaaee/eoue oeaio eiii?oa, a
eiieo?aioeey ia ?uiea ia?aie/eony. Ineaaeaiea eiieo?aioeee iicaieyao
oe?iai iiaeieiaoue oeaiu ca n/ao iio?aaeoaey. Ii aeaaea oiaaea,
eiaaea aeaiieia eiaao ianoi, iio?aaeoaee auea?uaatho io aieaa ieceeo
oeai ia oiaa?u a oaeie aea noaiaie – ii e?aeiae ia?a a e?aoein?i/iii
ieaia, – a eaeie iie auea?uaatho io aieiu oeai iaaeaeo ianoiuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie.

A?aoiaioia a iieueco i?ioaeoeeiiecia iiiai, ii iie iainiiaaoaeueiu. A
niioaaonoaothueo oneiaeyo a?aoiaio i caueoa iieiaeuo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aunooiaao eae ni?aaaaeeeaia eneeth/aiea,
eiathuaa yeiiiie/aneia ii?aaaeaiea. A?aoiaio a iieueco
naiiiaania/aiiinoe iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny aeey iainiiaaiey
i?ioaeoeeiiecia n aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo iiceoeee. Iaeiaei iaa yoe
a?aoiaioa caneoaeeaatho na?ueaciaeoae e?eoeee. Iaa iie eaii?e?otho
aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue aeueoa?iaoeaiua n?aaenoaa aeey iiiu?aiey
i?iiuoeaiiiai ?acaeoey e aiaiiie naiiiaania/aiiinoe. Aieueoeinoai
ae?oaeo a?aoiaioia yaeyaony ai iiiaii yiioeeiiaeueiuie i?ecuaaie,
iniiaaiiuie ia yaiuo auiuneao. Yoe a?aoiaiou ioia/atho oieueei
iaiin?aaenoaaiiua e i?yiua iineaaenoaey caueoiuo iioeei. Iie
eaii?e?otho i?inooth enoeio, /oi a eiia/iii n/aoa no?aia
aeieaeia eiii?oe?iaaoue aeey oiai, /oiau yenii?oe?iaaoue.

2. Oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa i?iaeoeoeee.

I?aaiecaoeey ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie i?ioeann inouanoaeaiey eiie?aoiuo ia?ii?eyoee a niioaaonoaee n
?ac?aaioaiiui ieaiii. A naith i/a?aaeue, iauaeoeaiie i?aaeiinueeie
?acaeoey ia?eaoeiaa yaeyaony eiiieaeniia eco/aiea ?uiea (aioo?aiieo,
?aaeiiaeueiuo, ie?iauo) iiaiee e iio?aaiinoae iieoiaoaeae i?iaeoeoeee,
iauaia i?iaeaae. E /eneo caaea/ eiiieaeniiai eco/aiey ?uiea iiaeii
ioianoe: ii?aaeaeaiea aiciiaeiinoae ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a; ieaie?iaaiea
anni?oeiaioa i?iaeoeoeee; ieaie?iaaiea ?aeeaiu e noeioee?iaaiea nauoa.

N iiiaioa iiyaeaiey e iinooieaiey ia ?uiie aei ooiaea n ?uiea oiaa?
i?ioiaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiue aeeciaiiue oeeee. Eiioeaioeey aeeciaiiiai oeeeea
oiaa?a iicaieyao i?aaei?eieiaoaeth no?ieoue no?aoaae/aneea ieaiu
ioiineoaeueii ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey oe?iu. Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a aeeth/atho iauai nauoa, aeeiaieeo i?eauee,
caaea/e ?aeeaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A?aiy aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a
ninoieo ec /aou?ao yoaiia. Ia ia?aii yoaia i?ienoiaeeo aiaae?aiea
oiaa?a, ia aoi?ii ?ino, aunoia ?anoe?aiea nauoa, ia o?aoueai yoaia
c?aeinoe i?ienoiaeeo nieaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa, ia /aoaa?oii yoaia niaae.

?aaeecaoeey oiaa?ia oanii naycaia n iaiiaeaieai oiaa?iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.
Iineaaeiaa iicaieyao i?aaei?eyoeyi ooaa?aeeony ia ?uiea, ?anoe?eoue
iauai i?iaeaae.

Aiaae?aiea ia ?uiie e ?aaeecaoeey iiaiai oiaa?a no?ieony ia aeaoo
eeth/aauo i?eioeeiao: iauaeoeaiii, naiaeyueiny e o/aoo ?aaeueiuo ioaeae
e iio?aaiinoae, e noauaeoeaiii, naiaeyuainy e o/aoo ineoieiaee
iieoiaoaey.

Ethaiio oiaa?o, iiyaeythuaiony ia ?uiea, niioaaonoaoao naie iio?aaeoaeue
eee naie naaiaio ?uiea. Nei?inoue ?ani?ino?aiaiey e i?eciaiey oiaa?a
caaeneo io oiai ianeieueei iio?aaeoaee aioiau aai i?eiyoue, io eo
?aaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey, ninoiyiey ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, o.a. io
aini?eei/eainoe e yeanoe/iinoe niioaaonoaothuaai naaiaioa ?uiea.

Ii iio?aaeoaeueneiio iiaaaeaieth ioiineoaeueii iiauo oiaa?ia iieoiaoaee
?acaeaeythony ia «iiaaoi?ia» e «eieoaoi?ia». «Iiaaoi?u» neeiiiu e
auno?iio i?eciaieth oiaa?ia, a oi a?aiy eae «eieoaoi?u», iie?aynue ia
iiuo «iiaaoi?ia», i?eia?aoatho oiaa?u, eiaaea iie ia?anoatho
aini?eieiaoueny eae iiaua. Niioiioaiea a ninoaaa iio?aaeoaeae
«iiaaoi?ia» «eieoaoi?ia», n?aaee eioi?uo anoue e ioe?iaaiiua
?ao?ia?aaeu, neacuaaaony ia eioaineaiinoe aiaae?aiey iiaiai oiaa?a ia
?uiie.

Anee i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi /enei ”iiaaoi?ia” e “eieoaoi?ia” a aeaiiii
naaiaioa ?uiea i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeeiaeiai oi oiaa? iiaeao ioeaieaaoueny
eae iiaue aei oao ii?, iiea aai i?eia?aoaea ia?aay iieiaeia naaiaioa. Ii
ia?a oiai, eae ii caaiaauaaao iio?aaeoaeae – «eieoaoi?ia», oiaa?
ia?anoaao auoue iiaui e i?aa?auaaony a o?aaeeoeeiiiue.

Neiaeiinoe ?aaeecaoeee iiauo oiaa?ia naycaiu n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth eo
aiaae?aiey ia ?uiie. Ia yoaia ?ac?aaioee e aiaae?aiey inouanoaeyaony
naaiaioaoeey ?uiea – auaeaeyaony /anoue iio?aaeoaeae, eioi?ua
ioeaieaathony eae iioaioeeaeueiua iieoiaoaee oiaa?a. Aeaaiay oeaeue
naaiaioaoeee – iaania/eoue aae?aniinoue aiiaue ?ac?aaaouaaaiiio e
?aaeecoaiiio ecaeaeeth. N iiiiuueth yoiai iaoiaea i?iecaiaeeony ioeaiea
aiciiaeiinoe nauoa oiaa?a caaeneiinoe io iauaia ?uiea e niioiioaiey
oneiaiuo a?oii iieoiaoaeae, iaeaaeathueo iaueie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e
neeiiiinoueth e iiaaaeaieth ia ?uiea. I?iaaaeaiiay i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
ioeaiea iioaioeeaeueiiai ni?ina neoaeeo iniiaie ii?aaeaeaiey ianooaaia
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?niaeoea ?aaeecaoeee.

Ia yoaia aiaae?aiey oiaa?a ia ?uiea iniaia cia/aiea eiaao aeoeaiia
eniieueciaaiea oeaeaaiai aicaeaenoaey ia ni?in e, i?aaeaea anaai
?aeeaia.

A caaea/e ?aeeaiu ia yoii yoaia aoiaeeo i?eaea/aiea aieiaiey e oiaa?o,
eioi?ie?iaaiea i aai iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoaao, i?aeiouanoaao ia?aae
aiaeiae/iuie oiaa?aie. ?aeeaiiia aicaeaenoaea iineo i?e yoii
iciaeiieoaeueiue e oaaaeaeathuee oa?aeoa? e noaaeo oeaeueth
noeioee?iaaiea ?inoa iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina ia iiaue oiaa?. ?ieue
?aeeaiu a i?iaeaeaeaiee oiaa?a ia ?uiie i/aiue aaeeea e aa cia/aiea aeey
eiiia?/aneiai oniaoa oe?iu ian?aaieii auoa, /ai ia ae?oaeo yoaiao
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a.

Iciaeiieoaeueiue oa?aeoa? ?aeeaiu naycai n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
iiaeaioiaeoue iio?aaeoaey e auoiaeo oiaa?a ia ?uiie. Caeanue aeaenoaoao
i?inoie i?eioeei : eoieoue iiaeii eeoue oi, i /ai ciaaoue. I?e yoii
ciaeiinoai aeieaeii auoue aeaoaeueiui : iaiaoiaeeii i?aaenoaaeyoue
iio?aaeoaeueneea naienoaa oiaa?a, ciaoue, eaeea iieaciua ooieoeee ii
auiieiyao, e i?aaenoaaeyoue, eae aai eniieueciaaoue a naiae aeecie.
Iiyoiio, anee i?iaeaaaoue ia/oi iiaie, iaaei iinoa?aoueny acaeyiooue ia
oiaa? eee oneoao aeacaie iieoiaoaey e e o/anoue aai ineoieiaeth.

?aeeaia i?e aiaae?aiee oiaa?a ia ?uiie aoaeao iaeaieaa yooaeoeaia, anee
aa aicaeaenoaea aoaeao eiiieaeniui. Iio?aaeoaeue iiaeao oneuoaoue ii
?aaeei i iinooieaoai a i?iaeaaeo oiaa?a, i?i/anoue iauyaeaiea a aacaoa,
iieo/eoue ?aeeaiiue i?iniaeo ii ii/oa e o.ae. Iaeiaei a neo/aa, anee
oaeay aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaoao, n/eoaaony oeaeaniia?aciui iiieii
iau/iie, o?aaeeoeeiiiie ?aeeaiu i?e aiaae?aiee oiaa?a ia ?uiie
i?aaieciaaoue aeaiiino?aoeeth iniauo iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa oiaa?a
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ianoao aai i?iaeaaee. Iaiaeiaaaeii oaeaea e oi, eoi
aoaeao i?iaiaeeoue yoo aeaiiino?aoeeth. Anee oiaa? ieaaeaony a ?oeao
y?eie iieiaeie aeaaooee, oi oe?ia auea?aao aaeaieia : aeaiiino?e?oy
iiaue oiaa?, iia i?eaea/ao iieoiaoaeae ia oieueei aai naienoaaie, ii e
naiae aiaoiinoueth, io /aai oainu ia ?aaeecaoeeth oiaa?a oieueei
aic?anooo. Oaeaea iaaei iiiieoue , /oi o/ao ineoieiaee iieoiaoaey –
eeth/aaie iiiaio oniaoa ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a. Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa i?inouo
aai oi?i yaeythony onoiua ii?inu e ii?inu n iiiiuueth naiaia?aciuo
aieao, io?aaeathueo ioiioaiea iieoiaoaeae e aeaiiiio iiaiio oiaa?o.
I?iaiaey iiaeiaiua ii?inu iiaeii ia oieueei ociaoue iiaiea iieoiaoaeae,
ii e i?eaea/ue e iaio aeiiieieoaeueiia aieiaiea, yoi ?anoe?eoue e?oa aai
iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae.

No?aoaaey iaoiaeia nauoa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee ninoieo a oii,
/oiau iaania/eoue aeinoaaeo oiaa?ia (a caaeneiinoe io aua?aiiiai eaiaea
oiaa?iaeaeaeaiey e o?ainii?oa) a ioaeiia ianoi e a ioaeiii eiee/anoaa a
niioaaonoaee n iio?aaiinoyie iieoiaoaeae. Enoiaey ec no?aoaaee
i?aaei?eyoey ?ac?aaaouaathony e ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee, /oiau
iieo/eoue iaeneiaeueioth i?eaueue.

E /eneo caaea/ a iaeanoe nauoa i?iaeoeoeee iiaeii ioianoe neaaeothuea:

PRIVATE Aania?aaieiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea o?ainii?oiiai ia?ea
i?aaei?eyoey eee iaai o?ainii?oa ii aeiaiai?ai aeey aeinoaaee
i?iaeoeoeee neoaeau nauoa

Ioi?ieaiea o?ainii?oiuo aeieoiaioia

O?aiaiea ia i?iiaaeooi/iuo neeaaeao

Nio?aiiinoue i?iaeoeoeee

PRIVATE

PRIVATE Oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina iio?aaeoaeae

Ia?ii?eyoey ii noeioee?iaaieth oi?aiauo ?aaioieeia e iio?aaeoaeae

?aeeaiiua iaoa?eaeu e aeaiiino?aoeeiiiia iai?oaeiaaiea

Noeioee?iaaiea i?iaiuo i?iaeaae

PRIVATE

PRIVATE Eiinoeueoaoeee aeey oi?aiauo aaaioia i i?iaeoeoeee, ieacaiea
oneoa ii aeaiiino?aoeee eee iauyniaieth ono?ienoa (ecaeaeee):
?aeiiaiaeaoeee i?iaeaaoeai i iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo i?eaiao nauoa n
i?aaeeiaeaieai na?aeniuo oneoa

Iao/aiea oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea i?eaiai i?aaei?iaeaaeiiai na?aena

PRIVATE ia?eaoeiaa

PRIVATE Eioi?iaoeey i ?uieao, eiieo?aioao

I?aaeeiaeaiey ii a?oiiai oiaa?ia aeey niaianoiie i?iaeaaee; aiaeec
yooaeoeaiinoe nauoa; eino?oeoeee aeey ninoaaeaiey i?ia?aiiu ia?eaoeiaa a
iaeanoe nauoa

Eioi?iaoeey i aiciiaeiinoyo e ?enea a nauoa, naycaiiuo n eciaiaieai
aiaoieo oneiaee; i nouanoaothueo eaiaeao ?ani?aaeaeaiey aiaeiae/iie
i?iaeoeoeee

PRIVATE

PRIVATE ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i n?ieao auoiaea i?iaeoeoeee ia ?uiie, ?acia?ao
iiauo ia?oee oiaa?a

I?iaiic nauoa ii iiiaieeaoo?a, iauaiai e n?ieai i?iaeaae

?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oeaiiaie iieeoeea e i?iaiic cao?ao ia nauo

I?e yoii ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaei?eyoeai aeieaeii o/eouaaoue a nauoiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe e auai?a eaiaeia nauoa neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

Ianeieueei i?iecaiaeeoaeue ?aniieiaeai eee ia ?aniieiaeai
naiinoiyoaeueii caieiaoueny nauoii naiae i?iaeoeoeee e a?aoue ia naay
naycaiiue n yoei eiiia?/aneee ?ene?

Niiniaii ee i?aaei?eyoea iaania/eoue iinoiyiioth e iaeneiaeueioth
caa?oceo oi?aiaiai ia?niiaea oe?iu?

?aniieaaaao ee oe?ia niioaaonoaothueie ciaieyie e iiuoii a iaeanoe
eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea, iaoiaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey e oi?aiaee?

Eiathony ee aiciiaeiinoe iaania/eoue o?aaothueeny o?iaaiue
?ani?aaeaeaiey e nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, iniaaiii eiaaea oe?ia iaaieueoay eee
iaaeinoaoi/ii ecaanoiay?

Eaeiaa ioiineoaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue e noieiinoue oneoa iin?aaeieeia,
eioi?ua ia oi?aotho oiaa?aie eiieo?e?othueo oe?i e ia eiyeueiinoue
eioi?uo iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue, ciay, /oi iie i?eeiaeao iaeneioi oneeee
aeey nauoa i?iaeoeoeee? Iaeiaei i?e anao i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo
?aoathuaa cia/aiea aeey auai?a eaiaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiatho iio?aaiinoe
e oaeianoaa eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey oiaa?a.

Ia?yaeo n ia?a/eneaiiuie, o/eouaathony e aiaoiea oaeoi?u, eioi?ua
iiae?acaeaeythony ia 4 a?oiiu o?aaiaaiee:

e naiie oe?ia;

e oiaa?o;

e ?uieo;

e yooaeoeaiinoe ioaeaeueiuo eaiaeia nauoa.

Ana yoe oaeoi?u oanii naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie e i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey
ioeaieaathony a eiiieaena.

Eco/aiea eiiuthieoo?u e aieinoe ?uiea

Ae?oaei o?oaeiui e i/aiue aaaeiui iai?aaeaieai eiiieaeniiai eco/aiey
?uiea (enneaaeiaaiea ia?eaoeiaa) yaeyaony aiaeec e i?iaiic eiiuthieoo?u
e aieinoe ?uiea. Iiiaea oai?aoeee ia?eaoeiaa e i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaeiauo
e?oaia aeaaea noaayo yoi iai?aaeaiea ia ia?aia ianoi a eiiieaena ?aaio
ii enneaaeiaaieyi ia?eaoeiaa, iiae/a?eeaay aai aieueoia i?aeoe/aneia
cia/aiea aeey oniaoiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee ia ?uiea.

Eae oaea oeacuaaeinue, nia?aiaiiue ia?eaoeia ia?aaeei ii?aaeaeytho eae
aeayoaeueiinoue ii eco/aieth, oi?ie?iaaieth e oaeiaeaoai?aieth ni?ina,
eniieuecoy i?ioeann ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee. ?ane?uaay yoo oi?ioeo,
aeaaiue niune eioi?ie caeeth/aaony a aa iineaaeiae /anoe (“eniieuecoy
i?ioeann ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee”), oai?aoeee ia?eaoeiaa oae iauyniytho
oeaeaaia iacia/aiea e niaea?aeaiea eco/aiey, oi?ie?iaaiey a eco/aiee
ni?ina.

Eco/aiea ni?ina inouanoaeyaony ?aaee oiai, /oiau i?aaieciaaoue
i?iecaiaenoai e aeinoaaeo ia ?uiie oieueei ioaeiie iio?aaeoaeth
i?iaeoeoeee (oiaa?ia, oneoa, eaeae, ?aaio e o.ae.). Iii aeieaeii
inouanoaeyoueny nenoaiaoe/anee e ia iinoiyiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie iniiaa, n
eniieueciaaieai niaoeeaeueii i?aaieciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia e eaiaeia
iieo/aiey iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ni?ina eiaao naiae oeaeueth aicaoaeeoue o iio?aaeoaey
aeaeaiea i?eia?anoe i?iecaiaeeiua oe?iie oiaa?u, a oaeaea nicaeaoue
oneiaey, iaeaa/athuea eo iieoieo e iio?aaeaiea. N?aaenoaaie aeinoeaeaiey
yoie oeaee yaeythony ia?aaeiaie aeecaei, aunieea ynoaoe/aneea naienoaa
i?iaeoeoeee, aeoeaiay i?iiaaaiaea e oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay ?aeeaia,
ia?aieeanniia oi?aiaia ianeoaeeaaiea, i?aaeinoaaeaiea oe?ieie aaiiu
oi?aiauo e iineai?iaeaaeiuo oneoa.

?aaoee?iaaiea ni?ina inouanoaeyaony a oeaeyo iaania/aiey aania?aaieiie
i?iaeaaee e ?aaiiia?iiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey ni?ina ia i?ioyaeaiee eaa?oaea
eee aiaea, iniaaiii a ia?eiae ieea naciiiuo i?iaeaae eee a neooaoeee,
eiaaea ni?in i?aauoaao i?aaeeiaeaiea. A iineaaeiai neo/aa oe?ia iiaeao
i?eaaaiooue e oae iacuaaaiie aeaia?eaoecaoeee oiaa?a, o.a. i?iaanoe
ia?ii?eyoey ii niaea?aeaieth ?inoa ni?ina, iai?eia?, n iiiiuueth
iiauoaiey oeai, a?aiaiiiai i?ae?auaiey eee ia?ai?eaioaoeee ?aeeaiu e
ae?oaeo ia?.

Oaeiaeaoai?aiea ni?ina i?aaeiieaaaao iinoiyiiua oneeey oi?iu ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth anni?oeiaioa e ea/anoaa oiaa?a, i?aaeinoaaeaieth
iieoiaoaeyi aiciiaeiinoae oe?ieiai auai?a oiaa?ia, ?aciiia?aciuo
oi?aiai-na?aeniuo oneoa e ae?oaeo n?aaenoa, /oiau aicaoaeeoue o
iio?aaeoaey i?aaeii/oaiea e naiae i?iaeoeoeee.

Aeinoeaeaieth anao yoeo oeaeae e i?ecaaii neoaeeoue eco/aiea
eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea. Aai iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie caaea/aie yaeythony:

ii?aaeaeaiea aieinoe ?uiea, aiaeec oaiaeaioeee aai ?acaeoey e naciiiuo
oaeoi?ia;

ioeaiea e aiaeec aiciiaeiinoae nauoa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee e iiauo
oiaa?ia ia aeaiiii e ae?oaeo ?uieao;

aiaeec naeaeaia e eciaiaiee ni?ina e auyaeaiea iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee
?acaeoey iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?aaeii/oaiee a ioiioaiee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo,
oaoie/aneeo e ynoaoe/aneeo naienoa i?iaeoeoeee;

ii?aaeaeaiea no?oeoo?u ?uiea, o.a. eiioeiaaioia iioaioeeaeueiuo
iio?aaeoaeae, aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo ii iieo, aic?anoo, ianoo
aeeoaeuenoaa, nioeeaeueiie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, ninoaao naiuee,
iniaaiiinoyi iiaaaeaiey a i?ioeanna auai?a e iieoiee oiaa?ia,
iio?aaeoaeueneeo i?eau/ae e ae?oaei nouanoaaiiui e?eoa?eyi;

eco/aiea onoaiiaie, iiaiee, iioeaaoeee, a oaeaea cai?inia iio?aaeoaeae
ia eniieueciaaiee iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeeth aeey iiauoaiey
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe oe?iu i?e ieaie?iaaiee anni?oeiaioa, nauoa e
?aeeaiu;

aiaeec aeeiaieee iauaiia, a oaeaea oaeaeueiiai aana ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee a noiia?iie aaee/eia iai?ioa niioaaonoaothueo ecaeaeee a
neaaeothueo ?ac?acao: ?aaeiiaeueiue, nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneee, oei
eaiaea ?ani?aaeaeaiey, io?aneaaay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue
i?aaei?eyoee-iio?aaeoaeae (aeey oiaa?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai
iacia/aiey); iauai oiaa?iiai?ioa e no?oeoo?u oeai. Oeaeue oaeiai aiaeeca
– auyaeaiea neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii iiceoeee oe?iu ia inaaeaaaiii
?uiea.

A niioaaonoaee n yoei iniiaiuie caaea/aie ii enneaaeiaaieth iaoiaeia e
oi?i ?ani?aaeaeaiey e nauoa yaeythony:

aiaeec yooaeoeaiinoe nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe a oeaeii e ii eaaeaeiio ec
iin?aaeieeia ii neaaeothuei iieacaoaeyi: eiee/anoai e iauai i?eiyouo
caeacia; a?aiy, cao?a/aiiia ia ia?aaiai?u n iieoiaoaeyie; eiee/anoai e
oa?aeoa? ?aeeaiaoeee; aeaenoaaiiinoue oaoieee iaoiaeia i?aaeeiaeaiey
oiaa?ia iieoiaoaeyi; eniieueciaaiea iaaeyaeiuo iaoa?eaeia; ea/anoai
io/aoiinoe;

ii?aaeaeaiea eee ia?aniio? a?aieoe oa??eoi?ee, ia eioi?ie inouanoaeyaony
?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoeoeee; aiaeec aiciiaeiinoae e ia?niaeoea nauoa a
niioaaonoaothueo ?aaeiiao, a oaeaea ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii
ii?aaeaeaiiui oa??eoi?eyi.

Ieaea iieacaiu iniiaiua iaoiaee/aneea iiaeoiaeu, oacu ieaie?iaaiey,
yoaiu eco/aiey eiiuthieoo?u, aieinoe ?uiea e aa?eaiou ?aoaiey ii
inaiaieth ?uiea:

aiaeec ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie naoe aeey auyaeaiey n?aaieoaeueiie cia/eiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo eaiaeia (a /anoiinoe, eciaiaiea eo
aaaeiinoe a nenoaia nauoa i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu), a oaeaea eniieuecoaiuo a
eo ?aieao iaoiaeia ianeoaeeaaiey iioiauo iieoiaoaeae;

aiaeec ecaea?aeae ia?auaiey ii oeiai ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee,
eiay a aeaeo auyaeoue e oi?acaeieoue ia?aioaaaeueiua ecaeaeey e oneoae,
a oaeaea ioeacaoueny io iaauaiaeiuo caeac/eeia, caeacia e ?aeiiia nauoa;

eco/aiea iiaiey e iocuaia ?aaioieeia oi?aiauo e ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeee i ?aiooaoeee i?iaeoeoeee eiiiaiee e aa eiieo?aioia, aiaeec
iieeoeee oeai, iaoiaeee nauoa, niiniaia ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee,
eniieueciaaiey ?aeeaiu a ae?oaeo ia?ao ii noeioee?iaaieth nauoa e o.
ae.;

?acaeoea oi?aiai-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie naoe, i?aaeiieaaathuaa
ia?eiaee/aneee iiaeoiae e ?aaeno?aoeeth eiee/anoaa caeoieaiiuo e
?ani?iaeaiiuo ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie ia?oee i?iaeoeoeee,
eiathueony o ieo oiaa?iuo caiania ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae;

aiaeec noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo i ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ii ioaeaeueiui
aa aeaeai, eaoaai?eyi iieoiaoaeae, ?acia?ai caeacia, nauoiaui
oa??eoi?eyi, ioaeaeueiui nauoiaui aaaioai e o.i.;

i?iaiic nauoa ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee caeac/eeaie nauoiauo
oa??eoi?ee, ii?aaeaeaiea caaeaiee ii i?iaeaaea i?iaeoeoeee nauoiauie
i?aaiecaoeeyie-iin?aaeieeaie;

eco/aiea iaoiaeia ia?eaoeiaiaiai iiiu?aiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae oi?aiaee
(niaoeeaeueiua i?aiee, o?eiaaeoeaoay ca?ieaoa, iiiu?aiey a ?icie/iie e
iioiaie oi?aiaea e o.ae.) aeey auyaeaiey iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiuo oi?i e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoiaeia noeioee?iaaiey oi?aiai-?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ecaanoii, /oi iaeioi?ua /anoiua i?iaeaiu iiaoaeaeatho e aiaeeco ?uiea e
iiaeieiatho i?iaeaiu, o?aaothuea ?aoaiey.

3. Oiaa?iay iieeoeea i?aaei?eyoey.

A i?ioeanna naiae aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoea a auionea oiaa?ia
neaaeoao ?acee/iui no?aoaaeyi.

I?ioeann auai?a no?aoaaee ninoieo ec yoaiia ?ac?aaioee, aeiaiaeee e
aiaeeca (ioeaiee). Ia i?aeoeea yoe yoaiu o?oaeii ?acaeaeeoue, oae eae
iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?aciua o?iaie iaeiiai i?ioeanna aiaeeca, ii
eniieuecotho ?aciua iaoiaeu. Ia ia?aii yoaia nicaeathony no?aoaaee,
iicaieythuea aeinoe/ue iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. Caeanue aaaeii ?ac?aaioaoue
aiciiaeii aieueoaa /enei aeueoa?iaoeaiuo no?aoaaee, i?eaea/ue e yoie
?aaioa ia oieueei aunoeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, ii e iaiaaeaea?ia n?aaeiaai
caaia. Yoi nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eo auai? e iicaieeo ia i?iionoeoue
iioaioeeaeueii eo/oee aa?eaio. Ia aoi?ii – no?aoaaee aei?aaaouaathony
aei o?iaiy aaeaeaaoiinoe oeaeyi ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee ai anai eo
iiiaiia?acee e oi?ie?oaony iauay no?aoaaey. Ia o?aoueai – aiaeece?othony
aeueoa?iaoeau a ?aieao aua?aiiie iauae no?aoaaee oe?iu e ioeaieaathony
ii noaiaie i?eaiaeiinoe aeey aeinoeaeaiey aa aeaaiuo oeaeae. Ia yoii
yoaia i?ienoiaeeo iaiieiaiea iauae no?aoaaee eiie?aoiui niaea?aeaieai.

Nia?aiaiiay eiioeaioeey no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey i?aaeoniao?eaaao
i?e ?ac?aaioea no?aoaaee i?aaiecaoeee eniieueciaaiea yooaeoeaiiai
iaoiaee/aneiai i?eaia

– no?aoaae/aneie naaiaioaoeee e auaeaeaiey no?aoaae/aneeo cii
oicyenoaiaaiey (NCO). Yoi eae au acaeyae ni noi?iiu ia aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee, aiaeec, i?aaeiieaaathuee eco/aiea aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey
oe?iu n oi/ee c?aiey ioaeaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee, iianiinoae, iiauo
aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua auoaeatho ec ninoiyiey ie?oaeaiey. Iauaeoii
oaeiai aiaeeca yaeyaony no?aoaae/aneay ciia oicyenoaiaaiey – ioaeaeueiue
naaiaio aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey, ia eioi?ue i?aaiecaoeey eiaao eee aeaeaao
iieo/eoue auoiae.

Ia?aiia/aeueiue aiaeec no?aoaaee ninoieo a auai?a cii, eo enneaaeiaaiee
aia nayce n nouanoaothueie no?oeoo?ie e iaai?ii i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeie
aiaeec iicaieyao ioeaieoue ia?niaeoeau, eioi?ua ioe?uaathony a aeaiiie
ciia ethaiio eiieo?aioo n oi/ee c?aiey ?acaeoey ii?iu i?eauee,
noaaeeueiinoe e oaoiieiaee, a yoi iicaieyao ?aoeoue, eae i?aaiecaoeey
niae?aaony eiieo?e?iaaoue a aeaiiie ciia n ae?oaeie oe?iaie. Iinea
auai?a NCO i?aaiecaoeey: aeieaeia ?ac?aaioaoue niioaaonoaothuoth
iiiaieeaoo?o i?iaeoeoeee, n eioi?ie niae?aaony aueoe ia ?uiie a aeaiiie
iaeanoe.

Naaiaioaoeey aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee NCO
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeioth caaea/o. Iiiaei ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi e
niaoeeaeenoai i?eoiaeeony eciaiyoue naie acaeyaeu ia ia?niaeoeau
?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee, oae eae iie i?eaueee ?anniao?eaaoue aiaoiaa
ie?oaeaiea n iiceoeee o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iaai?a i?iaeoeoeee, auioneaaiie a
oa/aiea iiiaeo eao. ?uiie aea canoaaeyao ?anniao?eaaoue aiaoithth n?aaeo
eae noa?o ?iaeaeaiey iiauo iio?aaiinoae, eae noa?o aeanoeie
eiieo?aioeee. Ae?oaay i?e/eia neiaeiinoe naaiaioaoeee caeeth/aaony a
aii, /oi NCO iienuaaaony iiiaeanoaii ia?aiaiiuo, a oii /enea oaeeie
ia?aiao?aie, eae: ia?niaeoeau ?inoa e ?aioaaaeueiinoe, iaeeaeaaiue
o?iaaiue ianoaaeeueiinoe, aeaaiua oaeoi?u oniaoiie eiieo?aioeee e o.ae.
Ana iie o?oaeii i?aaeneacoaiu. Aeey oiai, /oiau i?eiyoue ?aoeeiiaeueiia
?aoaiea ii auai?o NCO e ?ani?aaeaeaieth ?ano?nia iaaeaeo ieie,
?oeiaiaeeoaee aeieaeiu ia?aa?aoue aieueoia /enei eiiaeiaoeee ia?aiao?ia
a i?ioeanna naaiaioaoeee. Aiaeec naieo ia?aiao?ia oiaea i?aaenoaaeyao
neiaeioth caaea/o. Oae, iai?eia?, ia?niaeoeau ?inoa aeieaeiu
ioeaieaaoueny ia oieueei oaiiaie ?inoa io?anee, ii e ii oa?aeoa?enoeeai
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ni?ina. Anee enneaaeiaaiea aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ni?ina
ia i?iaeoeoeeth oe?iu auyaeo, /oi iia iaoiaeeony ia noaaeee ianuuaiey
eee noaaeee caiaaeeaiiiai ?inoa, oi ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeii
aeoiaoue i ?ac?aaioea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, iiaea?iecaoeee auioneaaiie eee
niaia NCO, /oiau iiaeaea?aeaoue aeaeaaiua oaiiu ?inoa. Iaeeaeaaiue
o?iaaiue ianoaaeeueiinoe iiaeao aeinoeaaoue oaeie ioiaoee, i?e eioi?ie
ia?niaeoeau iiaoo eciaieoueny. Oae, yeiiiie/aneay ianoaaeeueiinoue,
aunieea oaiiu eioeyoeee e iaaeaaii?eyoiay nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
aeaeatho ooiaiiuie e iaii?aaeaeaiiuie ia?niaeoeau eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee
a i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai.

Ia?aiia/aeueii oi?ie?oaony iaai? NCO, caoai inouanoaeyaony ioai?
aeinoaoi/ii oceiai e?oaa NCO, eia/a ?aoaiey ii iei iioa?ytho iieiioo e
inouanoaeiinoue. Iiieii ioia/aiiuo auoa ia?aiao?ia a iniiaa iaoiaeia
ioai?a NCO eaaeao e?eoa?ee iauaia eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee, eioi?ua
i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao auaeaeeoue ia ?acaeoea NCO, e o?iaie ?aioaaaeueiinoe
a ieo.

Auai? no?aoaaee – oeaio?aeueiue iiiaio no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey.
*anoi i?aaiecaoeey auae?aao no?aoaaeth ec ianeieueeeo aiciiaeiuo
aa?eaioia. Oae, anee i?aaiecaoeey oi/ao oaaee/eoue naith aeieth ia
?uiea, iia iiaeao aeinoeaiooue oeaee ianeieueeeie iooyie: iiieceoue
oeaiu ia i?iaeoeoeeth, i?iaeaaaoue oiaa? /a?ac aieueoaa /enei iaaaceiia,
i?aaenoaaeoue ia ?uiie iiaoth iiaeaeue, /a?ac ?aeeaio nicaeaoue aieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiue ia?ac oiaa?a e o.i. Eaaeaeue iooue ioe?uaaao ?aciua
aiciiaeiinoe. Iai?eia?, oeaiiaay iieeoeea eaaei inouanoaeia e aeaea, ii
e eaaei eiie?oaony eiieo?aioaie, a no?aoaaey, iniiaaiiay ia iiaie
oaoiieiaee, o?oaeii eiie?oaony, ii o?aaoao aieueoeo cao?ao e iaiaa aeaea
e o. ae. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao noieeiooueny n aieueoei
/eneii aiciiaeiuo aeueoa?iaoeaiuo no?aoaaee.

Ana iiiaiia?acea no?aoaaee, eioi?ua eiiia?/aneea e iaeiiia?/aneea
i?aaiecaoeee aeaiiino?e?otho a ?aaeueiie aeecie, yaeythony ?acee/iuie
iiaeeoeeaoeeyie ianeieueeeo aaciauo no?aoaaee, eaaeaeay ec ieo
yooaeoeaia i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo e ninoiyiee aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae
n?aaeu, iiyoiio aaaeii ?anniao?eaaoue i?e/eiu, ii/aio i?aaiecaoeey
auae?aao oo, a ia ae?oaoth no?aoaaeth.

Ia?aie/aiiue ?ino. Yoo no?aoaaeth i?eiaiyao aieueoeinoai i?aaiecaoeee a
neiaeeaoeony io?aneyo ni noaaeeueiie oaoiieiaeae. I?e no?aoaaee
ia?aie/aiiiai ?inoa oeaee ?acaeoey onoaiaaeeaathony “io aeinoeaiooiai” e
ei??aeoe?othony ia eciaiythueany oneiaey (iai?eia?, eioeyoeeth). Anee
?oeiaiaenoai a iniiaiii oaeiaeaoai?aii iieiaeaieai oe?iu, oi i/aaeaeii,
a ia?niaeoeaa iii aoaeao i?eaea?aeeaaoueny oie aea no?aoaaee, oae eae
yoi naiue i?inoie e iaeiaiaa ?eneiaaiiue iooue aeaenoaee.

?ino. Yoa no?aoaaey /aua anaai i?eiaiyaony a aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathueony
io?aneyo n auno?i iaiythuaeny oaoiieiaeae. Aeey iaa oa?aeoa?ii
onoaiiaeaiea aaeaaiaeiiai cia/eoaeueiiai i?aauoaiey o?iaiy ?acaeoey iaae
o?iaiai i?aaeuaeouaai aiaea.

Nie?auaiea eee no?aoaaey iineaaeiaai n?aaenoaa. Yoa no?aoaaey auae?aaony
i?aaiecaoeeyie ?aaea anaai. Aeey iaa oa?aeoa?ii onoaiiaeaiea oeaeae
ieaea o?iaiy, aeinoeaiooiai a i?ioeii. E no?aoaaee nie?auaiey
i?eaaaatho oiaaea, eiaaea iieacaoaee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee
i?eia?aoatho onoie/eaoth oaiaeaioeeth e oooaeoaieth e a ieeaeea ia?u ia
eciaiytho yoie oaiaeaioeee.

Eiiaeie?iaaiiay no?aoaaey. Yoa no?aoaaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ethaia
ni/aoaiea ?anniio?aiiuo aeueoa?iaoea – ia?aie/aiiiai ?inoa, ?inoa e
nie?auaiey. Eiiaeie?iaaiiie no?aoaaee, eae i?aaeei, i?eaea?aeeaathony
e?oiiua i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua aeoeaii ooieoeeiie?otho a ianeieueeeo
io?aneyo. Oae, i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao i?iaeaoue eee eeeaeaee?iaaoue iaeii
ec naieo i?iecaiaenoa e acaiai i?eia?anoe iaeii eee ianeieueei ae?oaeo.
A iaoai neo/aa aoaeao eiaoue ianoi ni/aoaiea aeaoo aaciauo
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo no?aoaaee – nie?auaiey e ?inoa.

Eaaeaeay ec auoaoiiiyioouo no?aoaaee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaciaoth
no?aoaaeth, eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue eiaao iiiaeanoai aeueoa?iaoeaiuo
aa?eaioia. Oae, no?aoaaey ?inoa iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny iooai
i?eia?aoaiey ae?oaie oe?iu (aiaoiee ?ino) eee iooai cia/eoaeueiiai
?anoe?aiey anni?oeiaioa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeo (aioo?aiiee ?ino).
No?aoaaey nie?auaiey eiaao aeueoa?iaoeau: eeeaeaeaoeey – naiue
?aaeeeaeueiue aa?eaio, eiaaea i?aaiecaoeey ia?anoaao nouanoaiaaoue;
iona/aiea eeoiaai, i?e eioi?ii oe?ia eeeaeaee?oao eee ia?ai?ioeee?oao
naie iayooaeoeaiua iiae?acaeaeaiey.

Aaciaua no?aoaaee neoaeao aa?eaioaie iauae no?aoaaee i?aaiecaoeee,
iaiieiyynue a i?ioeanna aeiaiaeee eiie?aoiui niaea?aeaieai. I?iaa?yaony
ia niioaaonoaea oeaeyi i?aaiecaoeee, niiinoaaeyaony n niioaaonoaothueie
noaaeeyie aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a, ni?ina eee oaoiieiaee,
oi?ioee?othony no?aoaae/aneea caaea/e, eioi?ua i?eaeaony ?aoaoue a
i?ioeanna aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae, onoaiaaeeaathony n?iee ?aoaiey caaea/ (ii
yoaiai), ii?aaeaeythony: iio?aaiua ?ano?nu (oe?oiiaii).

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei iaoiaee/aneeo iiaeoiaeia e ieaie?iaaieth
no?aoaae/aneeo aeueoa?iaoea e eo ioeaiea. ?anniio?ei iaeei ec oaeeo
i?eaiia, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue oniaoii eniieueciaai a iaoeo oneiaeyo aeey
au?aaioee iauae no?aoaaee i?aaiecaoeee. Ia ?enoiea (ni. ieaea)
i?aaenoaaeaia iao?eoea “aiciiaeiinoae ii oiaa?ai/?uieai”, eioi?ay aeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea i eiioeaioeee iauae no?aoaaee. Au?aaioaiiua n iiiiuueth
yoie iao?eoeu iauea no?aoaaee iiaeeaaeao a aeaeueiaeoai aeiaiaeea iaeiei
ec niiniaia aei iieiie aaeaeaaoiinoe oeaeyi ?acaeoey oe?iu. A iao?eoea
i?aaenoaaeaiu ana i?iaeoeou e ?uiee, iacaaeneii io oiai, nouanoaotho iie
eee oieueei i?iaeoe?othony. Eaaeaeue eaaae?aio iao?eoeu ii?aaeaeyao
eaeoth-eeai iauoth no?aoaaeth e aa yeaiaiou.

?UIEE

nouanoaothuea iiaua

O

I nouanoaothuea

A I

No?aoaaey – «oeo/oae oi, /oi ou oaea aeaeaaoue» II

N?ao?aoaaey

?acaeoey ?uiea

A

? iiaua

U III

No?aoaaey ?ac?aaioee iiauo i?iaeoeoia IV

No?aoaaey
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee

Eaaae?aio I iieacuaaao iai?aaeaiiinoue no?aoaaee i?aaiecaoeee ia
nouanoaothuea i?iaeoeou e ?uiee. Yoo no?aoaaeth iacuaatho iaoiaeii
yeiiiiee ecaea?aeae, eee «oeo/oae oi, /oi oaea aeaeaaoue». Yoa no?aoaaey
auae?aaony oaie no?aoaae/aneeie oicyenoaaiiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie (NOI –
oaeia iai?aaeaiea oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eee a?oiia niaaeiuo
iai?aaeaiee oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua eiatho
y?ei au?aaeaiioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth, ii?aaeaeaiiue e?oa iinoaaueeia,
iio?aaeoaeae, eiieo?aioia e ?uieia.) i?aaiecaoeee, /ae ?uiie
i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeaaoueny, eee aua ia ianuuai. I?aaiecaoeey no?aieony
?anoe?eoue nauo auioneaaiuo oiaa?ia ia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?uieao iooai oaeeo
ia?eaoeiaiauo oneeee, eae onoaiiaeaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiuo oeai,
ianooiaoaeueiay ?aeeaia eee eioaineoeeaoeey i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia e o.i.

Eaaae?aio II iieacuaaao iai?aaeaiiinoue no?aoaaee ia ?acaeoea ?uiea,
o.a. ia nicaeaiea iiauo ?uieia aeey auioneaaiie oaea aeinoaoi/ii aeieai
i?iaeoeoeee. Yoa no?aoaaey yooaeoeaia, anee i?aaiecaoeey no?aieony
?anoe?eoue naie ?uiie ca n/ao i?iieeiiaaiey ia iiaua aaia?aoe/aneea
?uiee, a oii /enea a ae?oaeo no?aiao; aiaae?aiey a iiaua naaiaiou ?uiea,
ni?in ia eioi?ua aua ia oaeiaeaoai?ai; iiauo i?aaeeiaeaiee nouanoaothueo
oiaa?ia e eioaineoeeaoeee ?aeeaiu; inaiaiey iiauo naaiaioia ?uiea,
eiaaea aeey ecaanoiie i?iaeoeoeee auyaeythony iiaua iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey e
o.i.

Eaaae?aio III – icia/aao iai?aaeaiiinoue no?aoaaee ii ?ac?aaioeo iiauo
i?iaeoeoia aeey neiaeeaoeony e aeaaii inaiaiiuo ?uieia. Yoa no?aoaaey
i?eiaiyaony oiaaea, eiaaea NOI eiaao ?yae oniaoiuo iiaeaeae ecaeaeee,
caaiaaaaoeo aieueooth iiioey?iinoue o iio?aaeoaeae. A yoii neo/aa
i?aaiecaoeey ?ac?aaaouaaao iiaua eee iiaeeoeoee?oao noa?ua oeo/oaiiiai
ea/anoaa e ?aaeecoao eo eiyeueii iano?iaiiui eeeaioai.

Eaaae?aio IV – no?aoaaey aeeaa?neoeeaoeee. Yoa no?aoaaey i?eiaiyaony n
oeaeueth ecaaaeaoue /?acia?iie caaeneiinoe i?aaiecaoeee io iaeiiai NOI
eee iaeiiai anni?oeiaioiiai iaai?a i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea a oii neo/aa,
anee oe?ia aeaeaao iieeiooue naa?ouaathueany ?uiee eee ?uiee,
iaoiaeyueany a ninoiyiee canoiy. Iaeiaei ?aaeecaoeey no?aoaaee
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee i?aaeiieaaaao ?ac?aaioeo iiauo i?iaeoeoia e iiauo
?uieia, iiyoiio iia yaeyaony iaeaieaa ?eneiaaiiie, oae eae ieeiaaea iao
iieiie oaa?aiiinoe, /oi iiaua ?uiee aioiau i?eiyoue iiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth,
e iia aoaeao iieueciaaoueny aieiaieai iieoiaoaeae.

Iiuo au?aaioee no?aoaaee ?acee/iuo oe?i iieacuaaao, /oi iie ?aaeei
inoaiaaeeaatho naie auai? ia eaeii-oi iaeiii aa?eaioa. *aua anaai iauay
no?aoaaey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiaeiaoeeth ia?a/eneaiiuo no?aoaaee.
I?e/ai eo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony cia/eiinoueth e
iaeeaeaaiuie ?acoeueoaoaie eaaeaeie. A yoii neo/aa iauay no?aoaaey
i?aaiecaoeee oi?ioee?oaony n eniieueciaaieai neia – “nia/aea” e “caoai”.
Iai?eia?, nia/aea nin?aaeioi/eaaai iaoe oneeey ia i?iaeieaeaiee auionea
inaiaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e iinoaaea aa ia i?aaeiea ?uiee, oae eae ni?in ia
iaa aua aunie; caoai ia?auaai aieiaiea ia iiaua ?uiee e iinoaaeyai ia
ieo oo aea i?iaeoeoeeth; caoai nicaeaai iiaua iiaeeoeeaoeee iiioey?iuo
ecaeaeee e iinoaaeyai eo ia noa?ua ?uiee n oeaeueth noeioee?iaaoue
iiaoi?iua iieoiee.

Eae ioia/aeinue auoa, neaaeothuee yoai au?aaioee no?aoaaee caeeth/aaony
a aeiaiaeea iauae no?aoaaee aei o?iaiy aaeaeaaoiinoe aa oeaeyi ?acaeoey
i?aaiecaoeee. Iaoiaeu aeiaiaeee iiaoo auoue naiua ?aciiia?aciua. Aeey
yoiai eniieuecotho oeaee e caaea/e ?acaeoey, ana aeaeu no?aoaae/aneie
eioi?iaoeee. *anoi aeiaiaeeo no?aoaaee inouanoaeytho n iiiiuueth
eiioeaioeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a (ni?ina), eioi?ay iicaieyao
oaycaoue no?aoaaeth ?acaeoey ni no?oeoo?ie aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oiaa?a.
Anee i?aaiecaoeey oi/ao aua?aoue no?aoaaeth ?inoa, a auioneaaiue ath
oiaa? iaoiaeeony ia noaaeee ianuuaiey naiaai aeeciaiiiai oeeeea, ca
eioi?ie neaaeoao noaaeey niaaea, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi oe?ia ia neaaeoao
naycuaaoue ia?niaeoeau naiaai ?inoa n yoei oiaa?ii, a ioaeii
iicaaioeoueny i ?ac?aaioea iiaiai i?iaeoeoa eee iiaea?iecaoeee noa?iai.

Eoeueieiaoeeiiiui iiiaioii auai?a no?aoaaey ?acaeoey yaeyaony aiaeec e
ioeaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo aa?eaioia. Caaea/a ioeaiee caeeth/aaony a auai?a
oaeie no?aoaaee, eioi?ay iaania/eaaea au iaeneiaeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue
?aaiou i?aaiecaoeee a aoaeouai. No?aoaae/aneee auai? aeieaeai auoue
iniiaai ia /aoeie eiioeaioeee ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee, a naia oi?ioee?iaea
– iaeiicia/iie e yniie, oae eae aua?aiiay no?aoaaey ia aeeeoaeueiia
a?aiy ia?aie/eaaao naiaiaeo aeaenoaey ?oeiaiaenoaa e ieacuaaao aeeyiea
ia ana i?eieiaaiua ei ?aoaiey. Iiyoiio aua?aiiay aeueoa?iaoeaa
ouaoaeueii enneaaeoaony e ioeaieaaaony. I?e yoii aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny
ai aieiaiea iiiai/eneaiiua oaeoi?u : ?ene, iiuo i?ioeuo no?aoaaee,
aeeyiea aeaaeaeueoeaa aeoeee, oaeoi? a?aiaie e o.ae.

4. Eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue oiaa?a.

Ino?ay eiieo?aioeey iiaoaeaeaao i?aaei?eieiaoaeae auioneaoue
aunieiea/anoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, iaeneiaeueii oeo/oaoue ianeoaeeaaiea
iieoiaoaeae. Eco/aiea ?uiea yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii e ninoaaeyao
iniiao aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa niioaaonoaothuaai oiaa?a e anao
aniaeoia nauoiaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeaaiay oeaeue enneaaeiaaiey ia?eaoeiaa ninoieo a eiiieaeniii eco/aiee
?uiea e aeoaieii i?iieeiiaaiee ai ana i?ioeannu e iia?aoeee,
i?ienoiaeyuea ia ?uiea, a oaeaea iieo/aiee ia yoie iniiaa iaaeaaeiie,
iauaeoeaiie eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee e ia?niaeoeaao ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiee, oeaiiia?aciaaiey, oaiaeaioeeyo ?uii/iie eiiuthieoo?u,
aeaenoaeyo eiieo?aioia.

Oi?ioaa ciaiea iieiaeaiey ia ?uiea niinianoaoao i?eiyoeth iioeiaeueiiai
oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey, ono?aiaieth iio?aaeoaeueneeo ioeaie,
i?aaeeueiiio auai?o eaiaeia nauoa.

Iiiaea ia?eaoieiae iieaaatho, /oi iniiaiiieaaathueie oaeoi?aie
caaiaaaiey ?uiea yaeythony naiaa?aiaiiia aiaae?aiea ia?ii?eyoee IOI e
iaee/ea oeiainiauo n?aaenoa. Aeoiaaony, /oi iieiinoueth yoe oaeoi?u
io?eoeaoue iaeuecy, ii aianoa n oai, eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea e
ia?aaeiaie iiuo a yoie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, oniao ca/anooth a aieueoae
noaiaie i?eiineo eaaeeoeeaoeey ?aaioieeia neoaea ia?eaoeiaa, eco/athueo
?uiie e yooaeoeaii eniieuecothueo ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey ?uiea.

Nianai ia ?aaee iiaeu iiiaea oe?iu caiaaeiuo no?ai i?eeaaatho iaeneioi
oneeee ii eco/aieth ?uiea. Ii aiciiaeiinoe oe?i ii i?iaaaeaieth
naiinoiyoaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia ia anaaaea yaeythony
yooaeoeaiuie, o.e. iie aanueia ia?aie/aiu eaae?iaui iioaioeeaeii e
iaaeinoaoi/iui oeiaine?iaaieai. A oeaeii oaeea enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeyo
ia aieaa 50% i?aaei?eyoee e oe?i caiaaeiuo, aa?iiaeneeo e yiiineeo
ei?ii?aoeee.

Yoe ianoiyoaeuenoaa i?eaaee e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaoue aeey
i?iaaaeaiey ?uii/iuo enneaaeiaaiee iin?aaeie/aneea i?aaiecaoeee,
aiciiaeiinoe eioi?uo ieacaeenue cia/eoaeueii aieueoeie, /ai o naieo
oe?i.

Yoe i?aaiecaoeee (annioeeaoeee, ath?i, aaaionoaa, oieaa?neoaou,
eieeaaeaee) inouanoaeytho oaeea enneaaeiaaiey ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa.
Iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaeeo
iin?aaeie/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee i?iaeeeoiaaia ?aceei iaino?aieai i?iaeaiu
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, aucaaiiui oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii, i?eaiaeyuei e
oaaee/aieth oiaa?iuo iann.

Oai?eae e i?aeoeeie aeieacaii, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy enneaaeiaaiey
ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia ?uiea inouanoaeythony ii o?ai iniiaiui
iai?aaeaieai. I?aaeiaoii eco/aiey yaeythony :

eco/aiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo naienoa oiaa?a e aai ea/anoaaiiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee;

aieinoue ?uiea e aai eiiuthieoo?a;

iaoiaeu e oi?iu nauoa oiaa?ia.

Iao/iinoue e aeinoiaa?iinoue eioi?iaoeee i ?uiea e i?ioeannao,
niaa?oathueony ia iai, caaenyo ia oieueei io iiuoa e eaaeeoeeaoeee
neoaea ia?eaoeiaa e iin?aaeie/aneeo oe?i, ii e io i?aaeeueiinoe
i?eiaiaiey eiie?aoiuo iao/iuo iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey.

Iaeaieaa /anoi a enneaaeiaaiee naienoa oiaa?ia, eo iaoiaeia nauoa,
eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea eniieuecothony nioeeieiae/aneea iaoiaeu.

Eco/aiea oiaa?ia e aai naienoa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiao aeey
?aaeecaoeee aaaeiaeoaai i?eioeeia ia?eaoeiaa – i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa oaeeo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua au iaeneiaeueii niioaaonoaiaaee
o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea e ni?ino iio?aaeoaeae. Yoi aaaeiaeoee yeaiaio
ia?eaoeiaa a aai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie oaca, eiaaea ii?aaeaeytho aai oeaee,
caaea/e e iaoiaeu.

Eiie?aoiuie caaea/aie eco/aiey oiaa?a e aai naienoa yaeythony:

ioai? iiauo eaeae e ecaeaeee;

ananoi?iiiyy i?iaa?ea i?eaieaiinoe aeey iio?aaeoaeae oaoie/aneeo,
iio?aaeoaeueneeo, ynoaoe/aneeo e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo naienoa iiauo
oniaa?oainoaiaaiiuo ecaeaeee: aeon, caiao, oeaao, ?acia?, oanii,
i?i/iinoue, iaaeaaeiinoue, oaeianoai a yenieoaoaoeee, a oaeaea
aini?eyoea eie iacaaiey ecaeaeey, ioiioaiea e oi?aiaie ia?ea, ianoi,
eioi?ia ioaiaeeony aio n?aaee ae?oaeo ecaeaeee i?e auai?a e iieoiea e o.
ae.;

aiaeec ?aaeoeee iieoiaoaeae ia iiaua eee o?aaeeoeeiiiua ecaeaeey oe?iu a
n?aaiaiee n ?aaeoeeae ia aiaeiae/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth eiieo?aioia;

ioeaiea naienoa oiaeiaee, aeeth/ay oece/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee,
eiino?oeoeeth, aiaoithth i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue, noaiaiue aicaeaenoaey ia
iio?aaeoaey, niiniaiinoue auaeaeeoue ecaeaeey ec iauae iannu, oaeianoai
iieueciaaiey, aiciiaeiinoue iineaaeothuaai eniieueciaaiey (a
aeaei?aoeaiuo eee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oeaeyo);

eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoae oi?iuaiey anni?oeiaioiie no?oeoo?u a oeaeyo
oi?acaeiaiey eceeoieo e iayeiiiie/aneeo ?acee/ee a oaniiao, ?anoeaaoeao,
?acia?ao, ni?oao e o.ae.;

aiaeec oe?iou anni?oeiaioa ecaeaeee, eiay a aeaeo iaania/eoue
iaiaoiaeeioth iieiioo i?aaenoaaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee oe?iu ii n?aaiaieth n
eiieo?e?othueie ecaeaeeyie ia anao iniiaiuo naaiaioao ?uiea;

eco/aiea aii?inia oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey, eiathuaai iniaia cia/aiea
aeey i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, oae eae iiioaae e
iaeaaeea, iai?eia?, iniiaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey iiaoo iio?aaiaaoue
ianeieueei ianyoeaa iinea oaeoe/aneiai caeeth/aiey naeaeee ia i?iaeaaeo.

Aaaeiinoue ia?eaoeiaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe ii eco/aieth oiaa?a e naienoa
iauyniyaony i?aaeaea anaai ?acei oneeeaoeiny aicaeaenoaeai
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna ia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa e ?uiea. A
?acoeueoaoa inaiaiey iiaaeoeo aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee, oeiee a
oiaa?iiaiai iinoiyiii oe?ieei iioieii aeeaathony i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua,
?aiaa ia auioneaaoeany oiaa?u. Iaeiia?aiaiii i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann
onei?aiey, ia?aaeei – aaeaaiaeiiai iaiiaeaiey e niaa?oainoaiaaiey
auioneaaiuo iiaeaeae n o/aoii iineaaeieo aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee.

5. Ae?aeaaay e aoeoeeiiiay oi?aiaey.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea oa?ieia «ae?aea» naycuaatho, n iaeiie noi?iiu, n
eaoeineei neiaii «bursa», icia/athuei eiaeaiue iaoie eee eioaeae, a
eioi?ii o?aieeenue aeaiueae, n ae?oaie — n ai?iaeii A?thaaa a
Ieaea?eaiaeao, aaea ia ieiuaaee aicea aeiia eoioea Aai aee? Ao?na a
ia/aea 16 aaea niae?aeenue eoioeu, /oiau ociaoue, /oi e aaea iiaeii
eoieoue, i naeaeeao, i?eia?anoe aaenaey. I?aaeaanoieeii ae?ae auee
y?ia?ee, ia eioi?uo iaee/iue oiaa? ia i?iaeaaaeny, ii aunoaaeyeenue aai
ia?acoeu aeey iineaaeothuaai caeeth/aiey oi?aiauo naeaeie. Ia?aie a ie?a
n/eoaaony iniiaaiiay a 1531 aiaeo a Aioaa?iaia ae?aea, ia caeaiee
eioi?ie auea iaaeienue: «Aeey oi?aiauo ethaeae anao ia?iaeia e ycueia».

Aiai?y i ?innee, iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi noaiiaeaiea ae?aeaauo
o/?aaeaeaiee iai?yioth naycaii n Iao?ii I, iciaeiieaoeiny n
aeayoaeueiinoueth aieeaiaeneeo ae?ae ai a?aiy naiaai “noaaea?noaa” a
ea/anoaa ei?aaaea ia aa?oyo Ieaea?eaiaeia. Eiaiii ii eieoeeaoeaa oea?y
a ?innee aicieeee ia?aua oi?aiai-iaeea?neea o/?aaeaeaiey. E aiey
?aoi?iaoi?a i?aaeaa?eea oio ia?eiae, eiaaea iauaeoeaiay
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?anoe?aiey oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee caaiaey
nicaeaao iaoaieci, eioi?ue aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue yoei i?ioeannai a
Ioa/anoaa.

Ia?aay oiaa?iay ae?aea auea o/?aaeaeaia aua a 1703 aiaeo, ii iauaeoeaiua
oneiaey ia niinianoaiaaee aa ?acaeoeth. *a?ac aeaaaeoeaoue eao
aieaaui oeacii 1723 aiaea ainoaea?ue i?aaeienuaae “i?eiaaieeoue”
eoioeia e iinauaieth yoeo iiauo eiiia?/aneeo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ioee/ea io Caiaaea eieoeeaoeaa nicaeaiey ae?aee
i?eiaaeeaaeaea ia oi?aiaoeai, a ainoaea?noao.

Ia?aay ?inneeneay ae?aea auea ioe?uoa a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa a 1724
aiaeo. Nicaeaiea aea Iineianeie ae?aee naycaii n aeae?aoii Aeaoa?eiu II
“Ia ooaa?aeaeaiee ieaia iino?iaiey Ainoeiiiai aeai?a n ae?aeae i?e
iai”, iiaeienaiiiai eiia?ao?eoeae a 1789 aiaeo. Iaeiaei i?aeoe/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue Iineianeie ae?aee, ?aniieiaeaiiie ia Eeueeiea, ia/aeanue
eeoue iinea aieiu 1812 aiaea. A /enea ia?auo ?inneeneeo ae?ae auea
Iaeanneay, iniiaaiiay a 1796 aiaeo.

Caiaoiia ?acaeoea ae?aeaaiai aeaeaeaiey a ?innee i?iecioei a 30-40-o
i?ioeiai noieaoey, eiaaea ?ino oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneeo e eonoa?iuo
i?aaei?eyoee noeioee?iaae ?anoe?aiea oi?aiai-?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. A yoe
aiaeu aicieeee ae?aee a E?aiai/oaa, ?uaeinea, Ieaeiai Iiaai?iaea e
ae?oaeo oi?aiauo oeaio?ao ?innee.

Iniiaiui aea ia?eiaeii ooaa?aeaeaiey ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?innee
auee 60-70-a aiaeu, /oi iaiin?aaenoaaiii auei naycaii n anieaneii
yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia a no?aia a nayce n ?aoi?iaie 1861 aiaea, eiaaea
ae?aee aicieeee i?aeoe/anee ai anao e?oiiuo ai?iaeao ?innee.

Any aeayoaeueiinoue ae?aeaauo o/?aaeaeaiee ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeanue
iieiaeaieyie Onoaaa. A iai no?iai ii?aaeaeyeanue i?ioeaaeo?a, oneiaey
e i?aaeea caeeth/aiey naeaeie, i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe o/anoieeia.

E 1917 aiaeo a ?innee auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 115 oi?aiauo e
oieaa?naeueiuo ae?ae e niioaaonoaothuaa /enei ae?aeaauo eiieoaoia.

Iinea Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee aeayoaeueiinoue ae?aeaauo eiieoaoia, eae
e naieo ae?ae, auea i?ae?auaia: iie ia aienuaaeenue a oai?eth e
i?aeoeeo “aiaiiiai eiiioiecia”. Iaeiaei IYI ainnoaiiaee ae?aee a
i?aaao. Ia?aua oiaa?iua ae?aee a no?aia Niaaoia aicieeee a eiioea 1921
aiaea (Ayoneay, Ieaeaai?iaeneay), ii caoai ae?aee auee eeeaeaee?iaaiu e
oieueei /a?ac 60 eao aiiaue caiyee aeinoieiia ianoi a ?inneeneie
yeiiiieea.

Ae?aea anoue ianoi, a eioi?ii caeeth/athony naeaeee eoiee-i?iaeaaee
oiaa?ia, aaea iiaeii iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth i e?oiiuo i?iaeaaeao e
oaeoueo oeaiao ia ia?oee oiaa?ia.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii naiae i?e?iaea ae?aea anoue ?uiie iioiaie oi?aiaee
?aciiia?aciuie oiaa?aie iaeiaei yoi ia ?uiie iaiin?aaenoaaiiie
eoiee-i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia, a ?uiie, ia eioi?ii caeeth/athony oi?aiaua
naeaeee, eiio?aeou, oi?ie?othony oeaiu ia iniiaa ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey,
ieacuaathony oneoae, iiiiaathuea i?iaeaaoeai e iieoiaoaeyi iaeoe ae?oa
ae?oaa.

Ii niiniao i?iaaaeaiey oi?oiauo iia?aoeee aeeaea anaai e ae?aea noiyo
iioiaua y?ia?ee, aaea oiaa?u i?iaeathony ii ia?acoeai. Anee oiaa?,
i?aaenoaaeaiiue ia y?ia?ea, aai iiaeoiaeeo, au aeiaiaa?eaaaoanue n aai
i?iecaiaeeoaeai eee iinoaaueeii i iineaaeothuae i?iaeaaea ia
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo ia?oee oaeiai oiaa?a. Oae /oi ae?aea ia noieueei
i?iaeathuay, neieueei iin?aaeie/aneay i?aaiecaoeey, niaaeeiythuay
i?iaeaaoea n iieoiaoaeai e iieo/athuay ca yoi eiienneiiiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?ioeaioa. E?iia oiai, ae?aea
iieo/aao aeioiaeu ca n/ao i?iaeaaee a?iea?neeo iano, iinooieaiey
o/?aaeeoaeueneeo aciinia.

Ii oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe ae?aee anoue /aua anaai aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa.
Ii iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue e ainoaea?noaaiiua ae?aee, ieacuaathuea e oiio
aea aacaiciacaeiua oneoae. Yoi ioiineony a iniiaiii e ae?aeai o?oaea.
Ae?aee ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa i?aaeaea anaai aaiaeii ae?aeaaiai
oiaa?a.

Oiaa?iua ae?aee — i?aaieciaaiiue ?uiie, ia eioi?ii oi?aotho nu?ueai,
iaoa?eaeaie, iai?oaeiaaieai, i?iaeiaieuenoaeai. Iau/ii ia oiaa?iie
ae?aea i?iaeaaony aeaaiui ia?acii iaeii?iaeiue oiaa?, iai?eia? iaooue,
no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu, ca?ii, iaoaeeieii. Oaeea ae?aee iacuaatho
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie. Ii a i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey ae?ae a ?innee
i?aiaeaaeatho oieaa?naeueiua ae?aee. Oiaa?u i?iaeathony ia?oeyie n
oeacaieai eiee/anoaa, ninoaaa, iniiaiuo ea/anoaaiiuo i?eciaeia. Naeaeee
ia oiaa?iuo ae?aeao onoaiaaeeaathony ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie, a oa/aiea
eioi?iai i?iaeaaoeu aeieaeiu auoue iinoaaeaiu, a iieoiaoaeyi iiea/aiu
oiaa?u, /aua anaai yoio n?ie ia i?aauoaao 6 ianyoeaa.

Oiiaeiaua ae?aee i?aaenoaaeytho iinoiyiii ooieoeeiie?othuee ?uiie
oeaiiuo aoiaa, i?aeiouanoaaiii aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee, ia eioi?ii
caeeth/athony naeaeee ia eo eoiea-i?iaeaaea n iaeiia?aiaiiui
onoaiiaeaieai oeaiu. Oi?aiaey oeaiiuie aoiaaaie ia oiiaeiaie ae?aea
aaaeaony ia i?eioeeiao aoeoeeiiiie i?iaeaaee, oi anoue ioaee/iiai oi?aa,
ia eioi?ii i?aai ia i?eia?aoaiea iieo/aao i?aaeeiaeeaoee iaeaieueooth
oeaio. E oiiaeiaui ae?aeai aeecee aaethoiua ae?aee, aaea i?ienoiaeeo
oi?aiaey e?oiiuie ia?oeyie aaethou. Ia oiiaeiauo ae?aeao a i?ioeanna
oi?aia onoaiaaeeaaaony ae?aeaaie eo?n oeaiiuo aoiaa, ecia?yaiue
ioiioaieai ?uii/iie oeaiu e iiieiaeueiie noieiinoe aeoeee eee
iaeeaaoeee. Eiiaaea oiaa?iua e oiiaeiaua ae?aee iauaaeeiythony a aaeeiua
oiaa?ii-oiiaeiaua ae?aee.

Ae?aee o?oaea — iniaue aeae ae?ae, niaoeeaeece?othueony ia i?aaiecaoeee
i?ioeannia eoiee-i?iaeaaee ?aai/ae neeu eae niaoeeoe/aneiai oiaa?a.
Ae?aee o?oaea aunooiatho a ea/anoaa iin?aaeieeia iaaeaeo iaieiaoaeyie,
ioaeaeathueieny a ?aaioieeao, e iaieiathueieny, euoueie ?aaioo. Aeaaiay
oeaeue oaeeo ae?ae — nie?aoeoue a?aiy iienea ?aaiou e i?aaeinoaaeoue
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue aeaeaaioth ?aaioo. Iaeiia?aiaiii iie auiieiytho
?aaeno?aoeeiiiua e ?aaoee?othuea ooieoeee, oeene?oy aac?aaioiuo e
eiio?iee?oy i?aai iieo/aiey aac?aaioiuie iiniaee.

Nia?aiaiiay ae?aea — eiiia?/aneia i?aaei?eyoea, iaeaaeathuaa
cia/eoaeueiui ooaoii nio?oaeieeia, iiuiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiie.
Ae?aee ieacuaatho oe?ieee e?oa naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo
eioi?iaoeeiiii-iin?aaeie/aneeo oneoa, niinianoaoy caeeth/aieth oi?aiauo
naeaeie, i?aaiecoy iioiaoth oi?aiaey. Ae?aee e aeaenoaothuea a oaniii
eiioaeoa n ieie a?iea?neea oe?iu, a?iea?neea eiioi?u, eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue ioaeaeaieyie ae?ae, niiniaiu ieacuaaoue eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae,
onoaiaaeeaaoue ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey oi?aiauo naeaeie, ?ac?aaaouaaoue e
ninoaaeyoue oi?aiaoth aeieoiaioaoeeth, inouanoaeyoue no?aoiaua iia?aoeee
e aeaaea nicaeaaaoue i?aaei?eyoey. Ae?aee auaatho e ainoaea?noaaiiuie e
/anoiuie, ii /aua anaai ae?aea i?aaenoaaeyao aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai,
nicaeaaaaiia a?oiiie o/?aaeeoaeae. Aeoeeiia?aie ae?aee a i?eioeeia iiaoo
noaoue ethaua oece/aneea e th?eaee/aneea eeoea, ii iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo,
/oi iiieiaeueiay noieiinoue aeoeee aieueoeinoaa ae?ae aeiaieueii auniea,
oae /oi aeaeaei ia eaaeaeue iiaeao i?eia?anoe aeaaea iaeio aeoeeth.
Ae?aea, i?aaenoaaeythuay aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai. oi?aaeyaony ii oai aea
i?aaeeai, /oi e ethaia ae?oaia aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai. Aunoee i?aai
oi?aaeaiey — Iauaa nia?aiea aeoeeiia?ia, i?iaiaeeiia iau/ii ia ?aaea
iaeiiai ?aca a aiae. Nia?aiea ecae?aao Ae?aeaaia niaao, eee Naaao
Aee?aeoi?ia, eioi?ue ?aoaao iaeaieaa aaaeiua aii?inu aeayoaeueiinoe
ae?ae. Oaeouaa oi?aaeaiea ?aaioie ae?aee inouanoaeyao I?aaeaiea,
iacia/aaiia Niaaoii Aee?aeoi?ia. A no?oeoo?o ae?aee aoiaeeo ?yae
iiae?acaeaeaiee a aeaea eiieoaoia eee eiiennee, auiieiythueo
ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee. Eiieoao ii i?aaeeai ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee
caieiaaony ninoaaeaieai e eciaiaieai ii?yaeea inouanoaeaiey oi?aiauo
iia?aoeee ia ae?aea, iciaeiieaieai n iei i?iaeaaoeia e iieoiaoaeae.
Eiieoao ii noaiaea?oai e ea/anoao aaaeaao yenia?oecie oiaa?ia ia
i?aaeiao eo niioaaonoaey o?aaiaaieyi noaiaea?oia e ii?iai ea/anoaa.
Eioe?iaaeueiue eiieoao oeene?oao neeaaeuaathueany ia ae?aea oeaiu ia
oiaa?u, onoaiaaeeaaao eo aa?oiea e ieaeiea o?iaie, i?iaiice?oao oeaiu.
Onoaiiaeaiea i?eia?iiai iaeeaeaaiiai o?iaiy oeai ia ae?aea, enoiaey ec
aiaeeca eo eciaiaiey a i?ioeii e neeaaeuaathuaeny eiiutheoo?u ?uiea,
iacuaaao oeaiu. Eioe?iaaeueiue eiieoao ioaeeeoao ae?aeaaie atheeaoaiue n
oeaiaie, ii eioi?ui oea oi?aiaey a iineaaeiea aeie. ?aaeno?aoeeiiiue
eiieoao oeene?oao ?acoeueoaou naeaeie, a ?an/aoiay iaeaoa i?iaiaeeo
oeiainiaua ?an/aou ii caeeth/aiiie naeaeea. Eioi?iaoeeiiiua neoaeau
ae?aee oeene?otho eioi?iaoeeth i oiaea ae?aeaaiai i?ioeanna e niiauatho
aa o/anoieeai i?ioeanna. Aeaiiua i i?aaeeaaaaiii oiaa?a, iinooieaoeo ia
iaai cai?inao auaiaeyony ia niaoeeaeueiia eioi?iaoeeiiiia oaaei,
aeinooiiia aeey iaic?aiey o/anoieeai oi?aa.

Iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo oeao? a ae?aeaaii aeaea — a?iea?. A?iea?u eee
iaeea?u — iin?aaeieee iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie e iieoiaoaeyie, niinianoaotho
caeeth/aieth oi?aiauo naeaeie ia ae?aeao. A?iea?u aunooiatho io eiaie e
ii ii?o/aieth naieo eeeaioia, i?aaenoaaeyy eo eioa?anu, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, i?iaeaaoeia, a n ae?oaie — iioaioeeaeueiuo iieoiaoaeae. A?iea?u
iaeaaeatho i?aaii caeeth/aoue ii ii?o/aieth eeeaioia naeaeee ia ae?aea.
A ?iee a?iea?ia aunooiatho ia oieueei ioaeaeueiua eeoea, ii e a?iea?neea
eiioi?u e aeaaea oeaeua a?iea?neea oe?iu. A?iea? aeieaeai auoue
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua niaoeeaeenoii, yeiiiienoii e th?enoii
iaeiia?aiaiii, oi?ioi /oanoaiaaoue eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea, ciaoue ae?aeaaia
aeaei.

Eiiaaea a?iea?u noaiiayony /eaiaie ae?aee, aeeaaeuaatho a iaa
nianoaaiiue eaieoae e naie niaa?oatho naeaeee eoiee-i?iaeaaee. A yoii
neo/aa iie i?aa?auathony a aeeea?ia (aeaeiaaa?ia). Aeeea?u, a ioee/ea io
a?iea?ia, oaea ia iin?aaeieee iaaeaeo i?iaeaaoeaie e iieoiaoaeyie, a
i?yiua o/anoieee ae?aeaauo iia?aoeee. Inouanoaeyoue iia?aoeee ia ae?aea
eiatho i?aai oieueei /eaiu ae?aee eee oiieiiii/aiiua eie i?aaenoaaeoaee
e ae?aeaaua a?iea?u. Ae?aee i?iaeatho eee naeatho a a?aiaeo a?iea?neea
ianoa (a?iea?neea noieeee), i?eia?aoaiea eioi?uo ca aeiaieueii
aunieoth oeaio aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iinoiyiiiai o/anoey a oi?aao. Ca
inouanoaeaiea naeaeee a?iea? iieo/aao aiciaa?aaeaeaiea a i?ioeaioao io
noiiu naeaeee. Iau/ii ae?aeaaua a?iea?u ?acaeaeythony ia aeaenoaothueo
io eiaie eeeaioa-i?iaeaaoea e io eiaie eeeaioa-iieoiaoaey. Ia?aua
i?eieiatho cayaee ia i?iaeaaeo, a aoi?ua — ie iieoieo. A?iea?u
aiaeece?otho iinooieaoea cayaee e caoeene?iaaiiua a ieo oneiaey eoiee e
i?iaeaaee, no?aiyony iaeoe niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo ieie, aeathuea
aiciiaeiinoue niaaeeieoue i?iaeaaoea n iieoiaoaeai e oai naiui
inouanoaeoue aeo eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Oi?ae i?ienoiaeyo a iia?aoeeiiiii caea
ae?aee. Eaaeaeue o/anoiee oi?aia i?e aoiaea a iia?aoeeiiiue cae iieo/aao
ea?oi/eo ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeaaoa a niioaaonoaee ni naiei noaoonii.
Ea?oi/ea eniieuecoaony aeey aieiniaaiey. A oi?aao iiaoo o/anoaiaaoue e
eoieaoea aeeaou iinaoeoaee ae?aee. Iie aeaenoaotho eeai naiinoiyoaeueii,
eeai iieuecothony oneoaaie a?iea?ia. Oi?ae i?ienoiaeyo a oi?aiauo
naeoeeyo eioi?ua e?oiiua ae?aee aeaeyony ii aeaeai i?iaeaaaaiiai oiaa?a.

Oi?a a naeoeee aaaeao ae?aeaaie iaeea?, iauyaeythuee i i?iaeaaea
oiaa?ia. I?enoonoaothuea a?iea?u, iiaeieiay ea?oi/eo, aeatho ciaoue, /oi
iie aeaeatho o/anoaiaaoue a oi?aao ia aeaiiue oiaa?. Aeaeaa
a?iea?u-i?iaeaaoeu e a?iea?u-iieoiaoaee, anooiay a oi?a, euoo
acaeiii?eaieaiua niaeaoaiey (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ioiineoaeueii oeaiu) n
oai, /oiau caeeth/eoue aeiaiai? eoiee-i?iaeaaee. Ianoi, aaea
iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?ienoiaeyo oi?ae e caeeth/athony naeaeee, i?eiyoi
iacuaaoue ae?aeaaui eieueoeii eee «yiie», oae eae a yoii ianoa
o?aaeeoeeiiii iie iaoiaeeony ia aieaa ieceii o?iaia, /ai a inoaeueiii
iiiauaiee. Ae?aeaaua naeaeee iiaoo auoue ?aciuo aeaeia a caaeneiinoe io
n?ieia e oa?aeoa?a iinoaaee oiaa?ia. A iniaaiiinoe yoi ioiineony e
oiaa?iui ae?aeai.

Eanniaie («niio») iacuaatho naeaeeo, i?e eioi?ie iieaoa ca eoieaiiue
oiaa? i?ienoiaeeo i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeee eee a aeeaeaeoea ia?o aeiae.
I?e n?i/iie («oi?aa?ae») naeaeea eiio?aeo e i?aaa ia oiaa? ia?aaeathony
iinea caeeth/aiey naeaeee, a aeaiueae oiea/eaathony e oiaa? iinoaaeyaony
/a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. A /enea naeaeie ia n?ie i/aiue eioa?aniu e
iaiau/iu oueth/a?niua naeaeee. Iie caeeth/athony ii oeaiai,
oeene?iaaiiui i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeee, ii ni n?ieii iinoaaee oiaa?ia a
ioaeaeaiiii aoaeouai. Oaeie ae?aeaaie eiio?aeo (oueth/a?n) yaeyaony
no?aoiaui e caeeth/aaony ia?aeeaeueii n iau/iie naeaeeie. I?e yoii
i?iaeaaaoe oiaa?a oneiaii iaycoaony /a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy i?eia?anoe
ia?aoii oaeoth aea ia?oeth oiaa?a o iieoiaoaey ii aoaeouei eaiai. Anee
ca yoi a?aiy oeaia ia oiaa? iiauneeanue, oi anoue i?iaeaaaoe i?iaeae aai
iaauaiaeii, ii ieceie oeaia, iieoiaoaeue aica?auaao aio ?acieoeo. Anee
aea oeaia iiieceeanue, oi anoue iieoiaoaeue i?eia?ae oiaa? iaauaiaeii,
ii aunieie oeaia, oi ?acieoeo aica?auaao i?iaeaaaoe.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oiaa?iua aoeoeeiiu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaoeeaeueii
i?aaieciaaiiua, ia?eiaee/anee aeaenoaothuea a ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoao
?uiee, ia eioi?uo iooai ioaee/iuo oi?aia a ca?aiaa iaoneiaeaiiia a?aiy e
a niaoeeaeueii iacia/aiiii ianoa i?iecaiaeeony i?iaeaaea
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iniio?aiiuo iieoiaoaeai oiaa?ia, ia?aoiaeyueo a
nianoaaiiinoue iieoiaoaey, i?aaeeiaeeaoaai iaeaieaa aunieoth oeaio. Ia
aoeoeeiiao i?iecaiaeeony i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia, iaeaaeathueo
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie naienoaaie. Yoi eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoue caiaiu
ia?oee iaeeiaeiauo ii iacaaieth oiaa?ia, oae eae iie iiaoo eiaoue
?acee/iua naienoaa – ea/anoai, aiaoiee aeae, aeon e o.ae. Iiyoiio
aoeoeeiiiua oiaa?u aei i?iaeaaee ia aoeoeeiia aeieaeiu auoue iniio?aiu
eee aeaaonoe?iaaiu iieoiaoaeai. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue iniio? yaeyaony
iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaee, oae eae ie ono?ieoaee
aoeoeeiia, ie i?iaeaaoeu iinea i?iaeaaee oiaa?a n aoeoeeiia ia
i?eieiatho ieeaeeo i?aoaicee a ioiioaiee ea/anoaa oiaa?a (e?iia ne?uouo
aeaoaeoia).

Iniiaiuie i?aaeiaoaie oi?aa ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aoeoeeiiao yaeythony
iooii-iaoiaua oiaa?u (a nu?uea e ia?a?aaioaiiua), iaiuoay oa?noue,
uaoeia, /ae, oaaae, iaiue, o?oeoo, oeaaou, ?uaa, o?iie/aneea ii?iaeu
eana, neio (a iniiaiii eioaaee). Aeey oaeeo oiaa?ia, eae iooieia,
iaiuoay oa?noue, /ae, oaaae, aoeoeeiiiay oi?ia yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae
oi?iie ?aaeecaoeee ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?uiea. Iai?eia?, /a?ac
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aoeoeeiiu a NOA Eaiaaea ?aaeecoaony nauoa 70 % anae
i?iaeaaaaiie yoeie no?aiaie iooieiu, a ?innee – ieiei 80% a Aeaiee 90% a
Oaaoeee e Ii?aaaee – i?eia?ii 95 %. *a?ac iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aoeoeeiiu
?aaeecoaony ieiei 70 % /ay, i?iaeaaaaiiai ia ie?iaii ?uiea, 90-95%
iaiuoie oa?noe, yenii?oe?oaiie Aano?aeeae e Iiaie Caeaiaeeae.

Aeey eaaeaeiai aoeoeeiiiiai oiaa?a neiaeeeenue naie oeaio?u aoeoeeiiiie
oi?aiaee. Ii iooieia e iaoiaiio nu?ueth ai anai ie?a aaeaaiaeii
i?iaiaeeony aieaa 150 iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aoeoeeiiia. Aeaaiuie oeaio?aie
aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaee ii?eie yaeythony Iueth-Ei?e, Iii?aaeue, Eiiaeii,
Eiiaiaaaai, Inei, Noieaieuei, Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. Aeey iineaaeieo eao
oa?aeoa?ii cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea iauaiia i?iaeaae ii?ee ia
aoeoeeiiao a Neaiaeeiaaneeo no?aiao i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii oiaiueoaiee
cia/aiey Iueth-Ei?ea e Eiiaeiia. Iniiaiuie aoeoeeiiiuie oeaio?aie ii
i?iaeaaea ea?aeoey yaeythony Eiiaeii e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. I?aiaeaaeathuaa
cia/aiea ia eiiaeiineeo aoeoeeiiao eiaao thaeiiao?eeaineee ea?aeoeue.
Aaaeiaeoeie oeaio?aie ii i?iaeaaea ae?oaeo aeaeia iooieiu yaeythony
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a e Eaeioeea. Ia naieoiaoa?ao?aneeo aoeoeeiiao
?aaeecothony a cia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoaao oeo?ee eeneoeu, niaiey, aaeee,
iiaeao?u, no?ea, ai?iinoay, ia?iu e ae?. Aoeoeeiiu ii i?iaeaaea oeo?ie
aieoaiai ianoea i?iaiaeyony a Eiiaiaaaaia, Inei, Eiiaeiia, ii i?iaeaaea
e?ieeea – a Eiiaeiia. Iooiua aoeoeeiiu i?aaiecothony oaeaea a Aa?iaiee,
Oaoa?ee, O?aioeee, Aiieiiaa, THaeiie Ei?aa, EI?, ssiiiee, ii eo ?ieue a
iooiie oi?aiaea iacia/eoaeueia. Aaaeiaeoeie oeaio?aie aoeoeeiiiie
oi?aiaee iaiuoie oa?noueth yaeythony Eiiaeii, Eeaa?ioeue, Eaeioaoi,
Iaeueao?i, Neaeiae (Aano?aeey), Aaeeeiaoii (Iiaay Caeaiaeey).

*a?ac aoeoeeiiu a ia?a/eneaiiuo oeaio?ao ?aaeecoaony 75-80% i?iaeaae
iaiuoie oa?noe ia ie?iaii ?uiea.

Aaaeiaeoei oeaio?ii aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaee eia?iaie oa?noueth yaeyaony
Eeaa?ioeue, aaea ?aaeecoaony a iniiaiii eiaeeeneay e iaeenoaineay
eia?iaay oa?noue. Ia aoeoeeiia a Eeaa?ioea i?iaeaaony oaeaea eicuey
oa?noue.

Aeey aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaee /aai oa?aeoa?ii aa ia?aiauaiea a ianoa
i?iecaiaenoaa yoiai oiaa?a. Eiaeey /a?ac aoeoeeiiu a Eaeueeoooa e
Eii/eia i?iaeaao ieiei 70 % anaai yenii?oe?oaiiai /ay e /a?ac aoeoeeiiu
a Eiiaeiia – 30%. O?e-Eaiea ieiei 70 % auaiceiiai /ay i?iaeaao /a?ac
aoeoeeiiu a Eieiiai e 30 % – /a?ac eiiaeiineee aoeoeeii. Eiaeiiacey
?aaeecoao /ae /a?ac aoeoeeiiu a Eiiaeiia, Aaiao?aa e Aioaa?iaia.
Ao?eeaineea no?aiu iiaeaaeythuoth /anoue yenii?oe?oaiiai /ay ?aaeecotho
/a?ac aoeoeeiiu a Iae?iae (Eaiey) e a Iaeaae. Iai?eia?, /a?ac aoeoeeiiu
a Iae?iae i?iaeaaony 85-90 % eaieeneiai /ay. Ia yoeo aoeoeeiiao
i?iaeaaony oaeaea /ae ec Oaicaiee, Oaaiaeu, a eiiaaea ec Eiiai, n
Iaa?eeey, ?iaeacee e Iicaiaeea. Ie?iaoth ecaanoiinoue i?eia?ae /aeiue
aoeoeeii a Neiaaio?a, aaea i?eieiatho o/anoea oe?iu ec NOA, ssiiiee,
Aano?aeee, EI?. Aaaeiaeoeie oeaio?aie aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaee oaaaeii
yaeythony Iueth-Ei?e, Ainoa?aeai, A?aiai, Eonaea (Caiaey), Eeiaa
(Iaeaae), oeaaoaie – Ainoa?aeai, iaiuaie e o?oeoaie – Aioaa?iai e
Ainoa?aeai; ?uaie – NOA e ii?ou caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai (e?iia
Eneaiaeee e Ii?aaaee), eioaaeueie – Aeiaeeue (O?aioeey), Eiiaeii e
Iineaa.

I?aaiecaoeey e oaoieea i?iaaaeaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aoeoeeiiia eiatho
naie niaoeeoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony oa?aeoa?ii
oiaa?a. Aianoa n oai a eo i?aaiecaoeee anoue iiiai iauaai. ?acee/atho
/aou?a noaaeee i?iaaaeaiey aoeoeeiiia: iiaeaioiaea aoeoeeiia, iniio?
oiaa?ia, aoeoeeiiiue oi?a, ioi?ieaiea e eniieiaiea aoeoeeiiiie naeaeee.

A ia?eiae iiaeaioiaee aoeoeeiia, eioi?ue eiiaaea aeeeony ianeieueei
ianyoeaa, aeaaeaeaoe oiaa?a aeinoaaeyao aai ia neeaae i?aaiecaoi?a
aoeoeeiia. A oa/aiee iiaeaioiaeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea i?iaiaeeony
iiaeaioiaea oiaa?a e ?aaeecaoeee, ninoaaeythony eaoaeiae, inouanoaeyaony
?aeeaiia aeayoaeueiinoue. Iiaeaioiaea, iai?eia?, iooiiai aoeoeeiia
ia/eiaaony ca aeaa-o?e ianyoea aei i?aaenoiyuaai aoeoeeiia. Aeaaeaeaoe,
aeaeathuee ?aaeeciaaoue naie oiaa? ia aoeoeeiia, aeinoaaeyao aai ia
neeaae aoeoeeiiiie eiiiaiee. Niaoeeaeenou aoeoeeiiiie eiiiaiee
i?iecaiaeyo iaiaoiaeeioth ni?oe?iaeo e iiaeai?eo oiaa?a ii aiciiaeii
iaeii?iaeiui ea/anoaaiiui i?eciaeai. ?anni?oe?iaaiiue oiaa? ?acaeaaaony
ia ia?oee, eioi?ua iacuaathony eioaie. A eio iiaeae?aaony oiaa?,
iaeii?iaeiue ii ea/anoao: /ai oeaiiaa oeo?ee, oai eo iaiueoa a eioa.
Iai?eia?, eio aaeee, eae i?aaeei, ninoieo ec 3 oun. oeo?ie, ii?ee –
150-350 oeo?ie, ea?aeoey nu?iai – 300-700 oeo?ie, niaiey – 5-50 oeo?ie.
Eaaeaeiio eioo i?enaaeaaaony iiia?, iiae eioi?ui ii caiineony a eaoaeia
aeaiiiai aoeoeeiia n oeacaieai ni?oa e eiee/anoaa aaeeieoe oiaa?a a
aeaiiii eioa. Ia iniiaaiee eaoaeiaa a ii?yaeea ioia?aoeee i?ienoiaeeo
i?iaeaaea oiaa?ia ia aoeoeeiiiuo oi?aao. Iau/ii a eaoaeiaa iaeeiaeiaua
ii ea/anoaaiiui iieacaoaeyi eiou neaaeotho iaeei ca ae?oaei, ia?acoy
?yaeu-no?eiae, eioi?ua a eaoaeiaa ioaeaeythony ae?oa io ae?oaa eeieyie.
Ec eaaeaeiai eioa eee no?eiaa aa?aony ia?acaoe, eioi?ue aeieaeai
iieiinoueth niioaaonoaiaaoue ii anai ea/anoaaiiui i?eciaeai oiaa?o,
iaoiaeyuaiony a aeaiiii eioa eee no?eiaa. ?acia?u ia?acoeia ii ?acee/iui
oiaa?ai iaiaeeiaeiau e onoaiaaeeaathony a caaeneiinoe io oeaiiinoe e
noaiaea?oiinoe eaaeaeiai aeaea. Iaeiia?aiaiii n iiaeaioiaeie aoeoeeiiiuo
eioia e ia?acoeia iiaeaioaaeeaaaony eaoaeia, Eaoaeia niaea?aeeo
ia?a/aiue anao eioia, i?aaeeaaaaiuo e i?iaeaaea ia aoeoeeiia, n
oeacaieai iiia?a eaaeaeiai ec ieo, ni?oa e eiee/anoaa aaeeieoe oiaa?a a
eaaeaeii eioa.

A ia/aea eaoaeiaa iau/ii iiiauaaony iaeaaeaiea n iaicia/aieai iauaai
eiee/anoaa ?acee/iuo aeaeia iooieiu, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey i?iaeaaee.
Aeaeaa neaaeotho oneiaey aoeoeeiiiie i?iaeaaee. A yoeo oneiaeyo oeacai
ii?yaeie iniio?a oiaa?ia, ii?yaeie i?iaeaae e oeenaoeee oeai, ii?yaeie
caeeth/aiey eiio?aeoia, i?aai i?iaeaaee oiaa?a o?aoueei eeoeai, ii?yaeie
niyoey oiaa?a n oi?aia, ii?yaeie iieaou aoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia n oeacaieai
aaieia, /a?ac eioi?ua aeieaeii i?iecaiaeeoueny ioe?uoea aee?aaeeoeaia e
iieaoa. A oneiaeyo oeacuaaaony, eaeie i?ioeaio aceiaaony n eoieaiiuo
oiaa?ia a iieueco aaeieieno?aoeee aoeoeeiia, e onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?yaeie
a?aiaie ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia iaaeaeo noi?iiaie. A eaoaeiaa niiauaaony aeaoa
ioe?uoey aoeoeeiia e aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue, ianoi i?iaaaeaiey
aoeoeeiia a?aiy, onoaiiaeaiiia aeey iniio?a oiaa?ia, a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey
oi?aia, a oae aea iineaaeiee aeaiue ieaoaaea ca i?eia?aoaiiua oiaa?u.

A iiaeaioiaeo aoeoeeiia aoiaeeo oaeaea iiiaauaiea aiciiaeiuo iieoiaoaeae
i ianoa e a?aiaie i?iaaaeaiey aoeoeeiia, i eiee/anoaa e anni?oeiaioa
oiaa?ia, i?aaeeaaaaiuo ia aoeoeeiia. Aeey yoiai ca iieoi?a-aeaa
ianyoea-aei ia/aea aoeoeeiia a iauae e niaoeeaeueiie i?anna iiiauathony
?aeeaiiua iauyaeaiey, a eioi?uo oeacuaathony aeaoa e ianoi i?iaaaeaiey
aoeoeeiia, e i?eia?iua eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia, i?aaeeaaaaiuo e i?iaeaaea.
Iinoiyiiui e aiciiaeiui iieoiaoaeyi aoeoeeiiiua eiiiaiee aunueatho
?aeeaiioth a?ioth?o-i?iniaeo, a eioi?ie oeacuaathony iniiaiua oneiaey
aeaiiiai aoeoeeiia e i?eeaaaaony i?eaeaoaiea i?eiyoue o/anoea a oi?aao.

Iniio? oiaa?ia iieoiaoaeyie, i?aaeiieaaathueie i?eiyoue o/anoea a
aoeoeeiiiii oi?aa, – yoi aoi?ay noaaeey a i?iaaaeaiee aoeoeeiia. Iniio?
oiaa?ia iau/ii ia/eiaaony ca iaaeaeth eee ca 10 aeiae aei ioe?uoey
oi?aia. Eiee/anoai aeiae, ioaaaeaiiuo aeey iciaeiieaiey n aoeoeeiiiie
eieeaeoeeae, caaeneo io aa ?acia?ia e io ?aoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee
iniio?a. Nie?auaiea n?ieia, ioaiaeeiuo aeey iniio?a, aeinoeaaaony iooai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey caeia, aaea i?iaiaeeony iniio? oiaa?ia
(onoaiiaea oaeiaiuo aaoaeie aeey iooieiu, niaoeeaeueiuo noieia aeey
iniio?a ia?acoeia, eaii aeiaaiiai inaauaiey, ooi? ia ieiao, iiaeaeaeiuo
oaeaaeae aeey ia?acoeia).

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue iniio? oiaa?ia, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, yaeyaony
iaycaoaeueiui, oae eae ii oneiaeyi aoeoeeiiiiai oi?aa i?aoaicee a neo/aa
iaia?oaeaiey aeaoaeoia a oiaa?a (e?iia ne?uouo) iinea iieoiee ia
i?eieiathony. Iniio? oiaa?ia i?iaiaeeony a niaoeeaeueiuo iiiauaieyo,
aaea ?aciauathony ioia?aiiua io eaaeaeiai eioa ia?acoeu oiaa?ia.
Ia?acoeu aeieaeiu iieiinoueth io?aaeaoue ana iniaaiiinoe oiaa?a a
i?aaenoaaeyaiii eie eioa. I?aaiecaoi?u aoeoeeiia ianoo ca yoi
ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

Iieoiaoaee aieiaoaeueii iniao?eaatho yoe ia?acoeu e aeaeatho a eaoaeiaa
ioiaoee i iii?aaeaoeony ei eioao e oeaia, eioi?oth iie iiaee au ca ieo
oieaoeoue. Iieoiaoaeue iiaeao iciaeiieoueny ia oieueei n ia?acoeaie, ii
e ni anai eioii, ii iau/ii ii yoiai ia aeaeaao, aeiaa?yy i?aaiecaoi?ai
aoeoeeiia, ca eneeth/aieai aei?iaeo oeo?ie, eioi?ua iieoiaoaeue
iniao?eaaao iieiinoueth a eioa.

Ia aoeoeeiiao /ay e oaaaea i?iecaiaeeony aeaaonoaoeey ioia?aiiuo
iieoiaoaeai ia?acoeia. E?iia oiai, iieoiaoaee ai a?aiy iniio?a iiaoo
i?eia?anoe ia?acoeu iii?aaeaoeony ei ia?oee aeey aeiiieieoaeueiie
i?iaa?ee eo ea/anoaa. Aoeoeeiiiue oi?a yaeyaony o?aoueae noaaeeae a
i?iaaaeaiee aoeoeeiia. Ii ioe?uaaaony a ca?aiaa iacia/aiiue aeaiue e /an
e i?iaiaeeony iau/ii a niaoeeaeueiii aoeoeeiiiii caea, eiathuai aeae
aioeoaao?a. Ca noieii ia aicauoaiee ia?aae iieoiaoaeyie ?aniieaaaaony
i?aceaeeoi aoeoeeiia – aoeoeeiieno, aaaeouee i?iaeaaeo, e aai iiiiuieee,
a caaea/o eioi?uo aoiaeeo iaaethaeaiea ca iiaaaeaieai iieoiaoaeae,
i?eieiathueo o/anoea a oi?aa. Iaae noieii auaaoeaaaony oaaei, aaea
caai?athony ii?yaeeiaua iiia?a i?aaeeaaaaiuo e i?iaeaaea eioia.
Iieoiaoaee ?aciauathony ca ioaeaeueiuie noieaie eee ?yaeaie,
?aniieiaeaiiuie aioeoaao?ii. Ia?aae eaaeaeui iieoiaoaeai onoaiaaeeaaaony
iiia?, iiae eioi?ui ii ca?aaeno?e?iaai ia aeaiiii aoeoeeiia. Oaoieea
i?iaaaeaiey aoeoeeiia naiaeeony e neaaeothuaio. Aoeoeeiieno iauyaeyao
iiia? i/a?aaeiie ia?oee eioa i?aaeeaaaaiiai e i?iaeaaea, e iaeiia?aiaiii
n yoei, ia niaoeeaeueiii oaaei caai?aaony iacaaiiue iiia?. Aoeoeeiieno
iacuaaao enoiaeioth i?iaeaaeioth oeaio, eioi?ay iau/ii yaeyaony
i?eia?iie ?uii/iie oeaiie, nouanoaiaaaoae a aei aoeoeeiiiue ia?eiae.
Anee ieeoi ec iieoiaoaeae ia iiaeano aio ciae iiaeiyoeai ?oee eee
ea?aiaeaoa, eeaeii aieiau eee aue?eeii “aea” i naiai niaeanee eoieoue
oiaa?, aoeoeeiieno nieaeaao oeaio aei oao ii?, iiea iaeei ec iieoiaoaeae
ia au?aceo naia aeaeaiea eoieoue aai. Anee iaeei eee ianeieueei
iieoiaoaeae iiaeaaeoo ciae i naiai aeaeaiee eoieoue aeaiiue eio,
aoeoeeiieno iiauoaao oeaio. Nouanoaotho aeaa niiniaa iiauoaiey oeaiu –
aeaniue e iaaeaniue.

I?e aeaniii niiniaa aoeoeeiieno iauyaeyao iiia? eioa, aunoaaeyaiiai ia
i?iaeaaeo, iacuaaao ia/aeueioth oeaio e ni?aoeaaao: “Eoi aieueoa?”
Iieoiaoaeue, aeaeathuee i?eia?anoe eio ii aieaa aunieie oeaia, iacuaaao
iiaoth oeaio, eioi?ay auoa i?aaeuaeouae ia aaee/eio ia ieaea
ieieiaeueiie iaaeaaaee, oeacaiiie a i?aaeeao i?iaaaeaiey oi?aia.
Aoeoeeiieno iacuaaao iiia? iieoiaoaey, iiae eioi?ui ii ca?aaeno?e?iaai
ia aoeoeeiia, iiaoth oeaio eioa e niiaa caaeaao aii?in: “Eoi aieueoa?”
Anee iinea o?iae?aoiiai iiaoi?aiey aii?ina ia neaaeoao iiaiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey, aoeoeeiieno oaea?yao iieioeii, iiaeoaa?aeaeay i?iaeaaeo
eioa iieoiaoaeth, eioi?ue iineaaeiei iacaae iaeaunooth oeaio.

I?e iaaeaniii niiniaa iieoiaoaee iiaeatho aoeoeeiienoo oneiaiue ciae i
niaeanee iiaeiyoue oeaio. Iaaeaaaea e oeaia noaiaea?oia, iaiai?aia a
i?aaeeao oi?aia e ninoaaeyao, iai?eia?, i?e oeaia aei 10 aeiee.-10
oeaioia, i?e oeaia nauoa 10 aeiee. – 25 oeaioia. Iieoiaoaeth, eoieaoaio
ia?aue eio a no?eiaa e aeaeathuaio i?eia?anoe ii oie aea oeaia ae?oaea
eiou ec aeaiiie ia?oee (no?eiaa), aeaaony i?aaeii/oaiea ia?aae ae?oaeie
iieoiaoaeyie. A neo/aa aicieeiiaaiey ?aciiaeanee ca aaeieieno?aoeeae
aoeoeeiia nio?aiyaony i?aai ia?ai?iaeaaee ethaiai eioa. Anyeea i?aoaicee
aeieaeiu auoue cayaeaiu aaeieieno?aoeee aei ia/aea i?iaeaaee
neaaeothuaai eioa.

Aaeieieno?aoeey aoeoeeiia ai?aaa niyoue n aoeoeeiia ethaie eio, iiea ii
ia i?iaeai, aac iauyniaiey i?e/ei. Iinea i?iaeaaee anao eioia
iai?iaeaiiua eiou iiaoo niiaa auoue aunoaaeaiu aeey i?iaeaaee.

Oaii aoeoeeiiiuo oi?aia i/aiue aunie, e o?aaoao io iieoiaoaey e
aoeoeeiienoa iinoiyiiiai aieiaiey e auno?ie ?aaeoeee. Aeey i?iaeaaee
iaeiie ia?oee (eioa) a n?aaeiai o?aaoaony iaiaa 30 naeoiae. Oaeei
ia?acii ca /an eiiaaea i?iaeatho aieaa 300 eioia. Ia naieoiaoa?ao?aneeo
iooiuo aoeoeeiiao a oa/aiea 9 /ania i?iaeaaony 1 iei. oeo?ie ii?ee.

Ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey aoeoeeiiia ii ae?oaei oiaa?ai a i?eioeeia ia
ioee/aaony io ii?yaeea i?iaaaeaiey iooiuo aoeoeeiiia. Aianoa n oai ia
iaeioi?uo aoeoeeiiao i?eiaiythony eiua niiniau i?iaaaeaiey aoeoeeiiiiai
oi?aa. *aua anaai ia aoeoeeiiao eniieuecoaony iiauoaoaeueiue niinia, i?e
eioi?ii aoeoeeiieno iinoaiaiii iiauoaao oeaio, iacaaiioth
ia?aiia/aeueii, iiea ia aoaeao aeinoeaiooa iaeaieaa aunieay oeaia, ii
eioi?ie e niaa?oaaony naeaeea.

A iaeioi?uo no?aiao ia aoeoeeiiao eniieuecoaony iiieaeaoaeueiue niinia
iacia/aiey oeaiu. Yoi oae iacuaaaiua “aieeaiaeneea” aoeoeeiiu. Nooue
yoiai niiniaa ninoieo a neaaeothuai. Aoeoeeiieno iacia/aao
iaeneiaeueioth oeaio, eioi?ay caai?aaony ia oeeoa?aeaoa, onoaiiaeaiiii a
aoeoeeiiiii caea, e nieaeaao aa aei oao ii?, iiea iaeei ec o/anoieeia
oi?aa ia auneaaeao naia aeaeaiea niaa?oeoue naeaeeo iooai iaaeaoey
eiiiee ia cae?aieaiiii ca iei ianoa. Iaaeaoeai eiiiee ii inoaiaaeeaaao
aeaeaeouothny no?aeeo, e ia oeeoa?aeaoa iiyaeyaony iiia?, iiae eioi?ui
aeaiiue iieoiaoaeue ca?aaeno?e?iaai o i?aaiecaoi?ia aoeoeeiia.
Iieoiaoaeue, iaaeaaoee eiiieo iinea ia?aiai, a n/ao ia i?eieiaaony.
Caienaa iiia? iieoiaoaey, aoeoeeiieno aaneo oeeoa?aeao e ia?aoiaeeo e
i?iaeaaea neaaeothuaai eioa. I?eiaiaiea oaeiai ono?ienoaa cia/eoaeueii
onei?yao oaii aoeoeeiiiiai oi?aa e aeaao aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaaaoue a /an
aei 600 eioia. Oaeay nenoaia i?iaaaeaiey aoeoeeiiiiai oi?aa oe?iei
i?eiaiyaony i?e i?iaaaeaiee aoeoeeiiia ii i?iaeaaea iaiuae, o?oeoia e
?uau. A Aieeaiaeee yoa iaoaiece?iaaiiay nenoaia eniieuecoaony i?e
i?iaaaeaiee 150 aoeoeeiiia. E?iia oiai, iia oe?iei i?eiaiyaony a Aeaiee,
Aa?iaiee e Aaeueaee e a iaiueoae noaiaie – ai O?aioeee, Eoaeee e
Eaiaaea. Oeacaiiay nenoaia, oioy e iieo/eea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea, ia
niaethaeaao iniiaiiai i?eioeeia aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaee, a eiaiii:
ia?aaea/o oiaa?a a ?anii?yaeaiea iieoiaoaey, i?aaeeiaeeaoaai a
?acoeueoaoa oi?aia iaeaieaa aunieoth oeaio. I?e yoie nenoaia ia
i?ienoiaeeo oaeoe/anee ieeaeiai oi?aa iaaeaeo iieoiaoaeyie. I?eia?
oaeiai aoeoeeiia – aoeoeeii ii i?iaeaaee oeaaoia a Aenia?a
(Ieaea?eaiaeu). N iiiaaeaeueieea ii iyoieoeo e ainueie /ania oo?a
iinooiatho e?oiiua ia?oee oeaaoia, i?iaeaaea eioi?uo aaaeaony n?aco a
iyoe aieueoeo caeao. Oeaaou aeaeaeoony ii eiiaaea?o /a?ac aanue cae.
Iioiaua iieoiaoaee neaeyo ca ?aniieiaeaiiuie aioeoaao?ii niaoeeaeueii
iai?oaeiaaiiuie noieaie. Ia?aae eaaeaeui eiaaony eiiiea, naycaiiay n
aieueoei, aenyuei ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noaia oeeoa?aeaoii, ia eioi?ii
no?aeea aeaeaeaony io iaeneiaeueiie aei ieieiaeueiie oeaiu. Ii ia?a
aeaeaeaiey eiiaaea?a n i?iaeaaaaiuie eioaie oeaaoia, aeaeaeaony e
no?aeea. Aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey aeathony n/eoaiiua naeoiaeu. Eoi ia?aui
iaaeiao eiiieo, oio e i?eia?aoaao i?aai ia oeaaou. Iieoiea oeene?oaony e
ioi?ieyaony eiiiuethoa?ii ca 10-15 ieioo – io iaaeaoey eiiiee aei
auaea/e n/aoa. Ii yoiio aea eiiaaea?o oeaaou iiiaaeatho a neaaeothuee
cae, aaea eo auno?i oiaeiauaatho e iaiaaeeaiii aeinoaaeytho a
oieiaeeeueieeao ii ianoo iacia/aiey – a ay?iii?o eee iaaacei.
Iai?iaeaiiua oeaaou eaeoo a eiiiino. Aaeaaiaeii a Aenia?a ca /aou?a /ana
?aaiou i?iaeathony 900 iei. ?ic, 250 iei. otheueiaiia, 220 iei. i?i/eo
oeaaoia a ai?oeao e o.ae., anaai aieaa 3 ie?ae. oooe. A a oeaeii a
Ieaea?eaiaeao ia 12 niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo aoeoeeiiao – aieaa 6 ie?ae.
oeaaoia. I?eaeeceoaeueii 80% ec ieo eaeao a oaeea no?aiu eae Aano?aeey
Neiaaio? e ssiiiey. A oeaeii aeiey Ieaea?eaiaeia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee oeaaoaie ninoaaeyao aieaa 60%, e iie i?i/ii caieiatho a yoii
ioiioaiee ia?aia ianoi a ie?a. Caeeth/eoaeueiay noaaeey aoeoeeiia
ninoieo a ioi?ieaiee aoeoeeiiiie naeaeee e naea/a oiaa?a iieoiaoaeth. Ai
a?aiy aoeoeeiia eee ia neaaeothuee aeaiue aaeieieno?aoeey aoeoeeiia
a?o/aao iieoiaoaeth eiio?aeou ia eoieaiiue oiaa?; yoe eiio?aeou
iiaeienuaathony iieoiaoaeai e yaeythony aeey iaai iaycaoaeueiuie.
Eiio?aeo eiaao oeiiaoth oi?io. A eiio?aeoa ia iooieio, iai?eia?,
oeacuaaaony iaeiaiiaaiea oe?iu-iieoiaoaey, iaeiaiiaaiea oiaa?a, iiia?
eioa, eiee/anoai eoieaiiuo oeo?ie, oeaia ca oeo?eo e iauay noiia
naeaeee. Iieoiaoaeue oaeaea oeacuaaao a eiio?aeoa, ia /uea eiy
iaiaoiaeeii auienaoue niao, eoaea e eaeei aeaeii o?ainii?oa ioi?aaeoue
oiaa?. Iieoiaoaeue iiaeienuaaao eiio?aeo e aica?auaao aai a eiioi?o
aoeoeeiia, inoaaea naaa eiieth. Ia iniiaaiee eiio?aeoa auienuaaaony
n/ao, eioi?ue iiea/eaaaony iieoiaoaeai. Iaiaaeeaiii iinea iiaeienaiey
eiio?aeoa iieoiaoaeue auienuaaao ienueiaiiia ii?o/aiea ia ioi?aaea
oiaa?a, a eioi?ii oeacuaaaony, eae neaaeoao caia?ee?iaaoue oiaa?, oi/iue
aae?an, ii eioi?iio iaiaoiaeeii ioi?aaeoue oiaa?, ii?yaeie no?aoiaaiey
oiaa?a. Ieaoaae ca i?iaeaiiue ia aoeoeeiia oiaa? iau/ii inouanoaeyaony
ii /anoyi: 30-35 % aiinyony i?e iiaeienaiee eiio?aeoa, a inoaeueiay
noiia – i?e iieo/aiee oiaa?a eee iinea aai ioa?ocee, ii ia iicaeiaa
onoaiiaeaiiiai n?iea. Ii oneiaeyi aieueoeinoaa iooiuo aoeoeeiiia
cai?auaaony ia?ai?iaeaaea oiaa?a iieoiaoaeai aei iieiie aai iieaou. Yoi
aa?aioe?oao i?iaeaaoea io iaiieaou i?iaeaiiuo eioia, /oi iio?aaiaaei au
eo o?aiaiey aei neaaeothuaai aoeoeeiia. N?iee auaicu oiaa?a n
aoeoeeiiiiai neeaaea caaenyo io aeaea oiaa?a. Iaeioi?ua aeaeu oiaa?ia –
oeaaou, iaiue, ?uaa e ae?oaea nei?iii?oyueany oiaa?u auaicyony
iaiaaeeaiii iinea ioi?ieaiey eiio?aeoa, iaeioi?ua – /a?ac 2-3 iaaeaee a
caaeneiinoe io oneiaee aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaee.

I?aaiecaoeey aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaee eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua iniaaiiinoe a
caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a oiaa?a e i?aeoeee, neiaeeaoaeny a oi?aiaea
eiie?aoiuie aoeoeeiiiuie oiaa?aie. A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a oiaa?a e
oiaa?aie. A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu,
inouanoaeythuea aoeoeeiiioth oi?aiaeth, iiaeii ?acaeoue oneiaii ia o?e
a?oiiu: niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oe?iu, a?iea?nei-eiienneiiiua oe?iu;
aoeoeeiiiua oe?iu, i?eiaaeeaaeauea eiiia?aoeaai eee nithcai oa?ia?ia.
Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oe?iu caieiathony i?aaiecaoeeae aoeoeeiiia e
i?iaeaaeae ia ieo aoeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia eae ca naie n/ao, oae e ia
eiienneiiiuo ia/aeao e aa?oo ia naay auiieiaiea anao ooieoeee ii
iiaeaioiaea e i?iaaaeaieth aoeoeeiiia. Ca/anooth iie auaeatho
i?iaeaaoeai nnoaeu iiae eo oiaa?u, ia?aaeaiiua aoeoeeiiiie oe?ia aeey
i?iaeaaee n aoeoeeiia.

Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua iooii-iaoiaua oe?iu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oi?aiaua
iiiiiieee, eioi?ua i?iaeatho ia aoeoeeiiao i?eia?aoaiioth, eae i?aaeei,
ca naie n/ao iooieio.

Aianoa n oai iie ?aaeecotho ia eiienneiiiuo ia/aeao oaeaea iooieio,
i?eiaaeeaaeauoth oe?iai-i?iecaiaeeoaeyi, annioeeaoeeyi oa?ia?ia,
eiiia?aoeaai oa?ia?ia. Iaeaieaa e?oiiie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie
iooii-iaoiaie oe?iie ia ie?iaii ?uiea yaeyaony aiaeeeneay eiiiaiey
“Aoaecii aae”, i?aa?aoeaoayny oaeoe/anee a iaaeaeoia?iaeioth iiiiiieeth,
eiathuoth naie oeeeaeu a Iueth-Ei?ea, Iii?aaea, a Eiiaeiia.

Ae?oaie e?oiiie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie eiiiaieae ii i?iaeaaea iooieiu
yaeyaony aia?eeaineay oe?ia “Iueth-Ei?e ieoi Ei eie.”. Iia i?aaiecoao
aoeoeeiiu ii i?iaeaaea ii?ee a Iueth-Ei?ea. E?iia oiai, eiiiaiey eiaao
naie oeeeae a Ieiianioa – “Iueth-Ei?e ieoi Ei(Ieiianioa), eie.,
i?iaiaeyuee aoeoeeiiu ii i?iaeaaea ii?ee a Ieiianioa (NOA), e ioaeaeaiea
a Eaiaaea – “Eaiyaeeyi oa? ieoi naeec E’ (Eaaaae), eoae., i?aaiecothuaa
aoeoeeiiu ii?ee a Iii?aaea. Yoa eiiiaiey niaoeeaeece?oaony ia i?iaeaaea
aeaaiui ia?acii i?iaeoeoeee caa?iaiaenoaa, a oaeaea iooieiu, aeiauoie
ioioie a NOA e Eaiaaea.

Iiiiiieenoii a aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaea oeo?eaie eioeea yaeyaony
aia?eeaineay eiiiaiey “Oioe oa? Ei”, nin?aaeioi/eaoay a naieo ?oeao
oi?aiaeth e ia?aaioeo (auaeaeea, e?aoaiea) nauoa 90 % aeiauaaaiuo a
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao oeo?ie.

Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua aoeoeeiiiua a?iea?nei-eiienneiiiua oe?iu ea?atho
aaaeouoth ?ieue a oi?aiaea /aai, oa?noueth, oaaaeii, iooii-iaoiauie
ecaeaeeyie e ae?oaeie oiaa?aie.

Iau/ii iie i?aaiecotho aoeoeeiiu e i?iaeatho ia ieo oiaa?u ii ii?o/aieth
naieo eeeaioia ca eiienneiiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. Iai?eia? aoeoeeiiiay
oi?aiaey iaiuoie oa?noueth a Aano?aeee e Iiaie Caeaiaeee aieaa /ai ia
90% inouanoaeyaony a?iea?neeie oe?iaie. Naeaeee ia yoeo aoeoeeiiao
inouanoaeyaony /a?ac a?iea?ia iieoiaoaey e a?iea?ia i?iaeaaoea. Ana
a?iea?u, inouanoaeythuea aoeoeeiiioth oi?aiaeth oa?noueth a Aano?aeee e
Iiaie Caeaiaeee, iauaaeeiaiu a annioeeaoeee a?iea?ia i?iaeaaoea e
a?iea?ia iieoiaoaey.

Aoeoeeiiiay oi?aiaey /aai eae a /aai?iecaiaeyueo no?aiao, oae e a
Eiiaeiia, nin?aaeioi/aia a ?oeao aiaeeeneeo a?iea?neeo oe?i eee eo
oeeeaeia e aei/a?ieo eiiiaiee. Eiiaaea iie naie neoiatho oiaa? e
aunooiath ia aoeoeeiia nianoaaiieeaie oiaa?a, ii /aua i?iaeatho /ae ia
eiienneiiiuo ia/aeao. Oa?ia?u i?iecaiaeeoaey /ay, e o/anoeth a
aoeoeeiiao ia aeiioneaaony. Aoeoeeiiiua oe?iu, i?eiaaeeaaeauea
eiiia?aoeaai eee nithcai (annioeeaoeeyi) oa?ia?ia-caa?iaiaeia, iieo/eee
?ani?ino?aiaiea a Neaiaeeiaaneeo no?aiao. A eaaeaeie no?aia – Aeaiee,
Ii?aaaee, Oaaoeee – eiaaony – ii iaeiie oe?ia, caieiathuae iiiiiieueiia
iieiaeaiea a aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaea iooieiie naiae no?aiu. Aeaoneay oe?ia
“Aeyieo oa? naeec” yaeyaony oi?aiaie i?aaiecaoeeae aeaoneie annioeeaoeee
caa?iaiaeia. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey aoeoeeiiia aeaoneay oe?ia “Aeyieo oa?
naeec” iauaaeeieeanue n oeineie oe?iie “Oeiieo oa? naeec”. Niaianoiay
oe?ia “Aeyieo, oeiieo oa? naeec” i?aaiecoao i?iaeaaeo eae aeaoneie, oae
e oeineie ii?ee ia aoeoeeiia a Eiiaiaaaaia. A Ii?aaaee iooiua aoeoeeiiu
i?aaiecoao oe?ia “Inei aoa? ieoic”, eioi?ay i?iaeaao ii?eo,
iinooiathuoth aieaa /ai io 6,5 oun. oa?ia?ia, aieueoeinoai eioi?uo
iauaaeeiaii a annioeeaoeeth “Ii?oeaeaeeai oa? a?eaea?c annineyeoi”.

Oaeei ia?acii, iu ii?aaeaeeee nouiinoue, iiae?iaii ?anniio?aee /aou?a
noaaeee i?iaaaeaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aoeoeeiiia, a oii /enea i?eia?
i?iaaaeaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aoeoeeiiia ii i?iaeaaea oeaaoia a Aenia?a,
e ii?aaeaeaiiua iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee aoeoeeiiiie oi?aiaee. Iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi aoeoeeii yaeyaony naiui aeaeei e auno?ui niiniaii
i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia (ca /an i?iaeaaony aei 300 ia?oee), /oi iniaaiii
aaaeii aeey oaeeo auno?iii?oyueony oiaa?ia, eae oeaaou eee o?oeou.
Oaeaea aoeoeeiiiay oi?aiaey yaeyaony aaaeiaeoae oi?iie ?aaeecaoeee
iooieiu, /ay e oaaaea ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?uiea.

6. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oi?ae.

Yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey iaaeaeo no?aiaie aicieeee a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe.
A ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneoth yiioo Ae?aaiee Aaeiao, A?aoeey, ?ei oi?aiaaee n
ae?oaeie no?aiaie. A n?aaeiea aaea aiaoithth oi?aiaeth aaee eoaeueyineea
ai?iaea Aaioy, Aaiaoeey, ?inneeneee Iiaai?iae; oi?aiaue nithc iaiaoeeeo
ai?iaeia Aaica inouanoaeye iin?aaeie/aneoth oi?aiaeth iaaeaeo caiaaeiie,
naaa?iie e ainoi/iie Aa?iiie. Oioy iauaiu oi?aiaee auee iaaaeeee, iia
ea?aea ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue a oicyenoaaiiie aeecie. No?aiu iaiaieaaeenue
i?aeiouanoaaiii ?aianeaiiuie ecaeaeeyie, ae?aaioeaiiuie iaoaeeaie,
i?aaeiaoaie ?ineioe, i?yiinoyie, i?iaeoeoeeae naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Oai
ia iaiaa oaeei iia?aoeeyi auee naienoaaiiu iaaieueoea ianooaau e
yieciaee/aneee oa?aeoa?. Ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey
ieacuaaee aeeyiea oaeea aiayeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u, eae aieia, a?aaaaee,
ie?aonoai. Ca eneeth/aieai ioaeaeueiuo neo/aaa, aiaoiyy oi?aiaey eiaea
ia?aie/aiiia cia/aiea a oicyenoaa. Eaaeaeay no?aia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
no?aieeanue iaania/eoue naay naieie oiaa?aie. ?acaeoea oi?aiauo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo no?aiaie naea?aeeaaeinue neaaui o/anoeai a ieo aeaiaa.
Iniiaiay /anoue aiaoiae oi?aiaee eiaee oi?io i?yiiai iaoo?aeueiiai
oiaa?iiaiaia.

?anoe?aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee naycaii n
oi?ie?iaaieai i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iiyaeaiea iiauo io?aneae e aeaeia
i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ?anoe?ee aiciiaeiinoue
auaica e i?iaeaaee ca ?oaaae cia/eoaeueiie /anoe i?iecaiaeeiie
i?iaeoeoeee. A oi aea a?aiy ?acei aic?inea iio?aaiinoue ?yaea no?ai a
nu?ueaauo ?ano?nao A iineieueeo aiciiaeiinoe aeiau/e ?acee/iuo aeaeia
nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia a ioaeaeueiie no?aia /aua anaai iaaeinoaoi/iu,
aicieeea iio?aaiinoue i?eia?aoaiey nu?uey, oiieeaa e iaoa?eaeia a
ae?oaeo no?aiao.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei iiyaeaiea iiauo aeaeia o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa
iicaieeei ia?aaiceoue oiaa?u ia cia/eoaeueiia ?annoiyiea e a aieueoeo
eiee/anoaao. Ana yoi niinianoaiaaei eioaineaiiio ?inoo iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee ?anoe?aieth yeiiiie/aneeo naycae iaaeae1 no?aiaie.

A 16—18 aaeao ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny ie?iaie ?uiie.

Ie?iaie ?uiie — yoi niaieoiiinoue acaeii naycaiiuo e acaeiiaeaenoaothueo
ae?oa n ae?oaii iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?uieia ioaeaeueiuo ainoaea?noa,
o/anoaothueo a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaea e ae?oaeo oi?iao yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua
yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiiy i?aaenoaaeytho eiiieaen oi?aiauo,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo, oeiainiauo naycae iaaeaeo
ainoaea?noaaie, i?eaiaeyueo iaiaio yeiiiie/aneeie ?ano?naie, niaianoiie
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iie aeeth/atho aiaoithth oi?aiaeth,
aeaeaeaiea eaieoaeia iaaeaeo no?aiaie, aaethoiua ioiioaiey iea?aoeeth
?aai/ae neeu, iao/ii-oaoie/aneee iaiai.

N oaeoaeaieai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, ?inoii
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee oicyenoaiiie aeecie, oneeaieai yeiiiie/aneie
acaeiicaaeneiinoe ainoaea?noa iinoaiaio neeaaeucaaony ie?iaia oicyenoai,
i?aaenoaaeythuaa niaieoiiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo oicyeno ioaeaeueiuo no?ai,
naycaiiuo nenoaiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee, oi?ie?oaony
ie?iaia yeiiiie/aneia niiauanoai.

Oi?ae (aiae. tenders) — iaoiae caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?ia eoiee-i?iaeaaeie
eee iiae?yaea, i?e eioi?ii iieoiaoaeue (caeac/ee) iauyaeyao eiieo? aeey
i?iaeaaoeia (iinoaaueeia) ia oiaa? n ca?aiaa ii?aaeaeaiiuie
oa?aeoe?enoeeaie e iinea n?aaiaiey iieo/aiiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee iiaeienuaaao
eiio?aeo n oai i?iaeaaoeii, eioi?ue i?aaeeiaeee oiaa? ia aieaa auaiaeiuo
aeey iieoiaoaey oneiaeyo.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo oi?ae yaeythony ?ani?ino?aiaiiui niiniaii
?aciauaiey caeacia ia iinoaaee iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey, auiieiaiea
iao/iuo, i?iaeoiuo e ecuneaoaeueneeo ?aaio, nii?oaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiuo e
nioeeaeueiuo iauaeoia. I?e yoii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa aieueoeinoaa no?ai
?ac?aoatho i?aaiecaoeeyi n o/anoeai ainoaea?noaaiiiai eaieoaea
?aciauaoue caeacu ia i?eia?aoaiea oiaa?ia e oneoa oieueei /a?ac oi?ae.

Oaeei ia?acii, oi?ae — yoi eiieo?niay oi?ia iienea aeaeiauo ia?oia?ia,
i?e eioi?ie oe?ia — eieoeeaoi? (caeac/ee) eee ianeieueei oaeeo oe?i
iooai ioaeeeaoeee eioi?iaoeee i i?aaenoiyueo oi?aao i?eaeaeatho e
onoaiiaeaiiiio n?ieo i?aaeeiaeaiey (ioa?ou) io caeioa?aniaaiiuo oe?i
(ioa?aioia). Caeac/eee nicaeatho oaiaea?iua eiieoaou, a ninoaa eioi?uo
aoiaeyo oaoie/aneea e eiiia?/aneea yenia?ou, i?aaenoaaeoaee
aaeieieno?aoeee. Oaiaea?iua eiieoaou inouanoaeytho anth
i?aaiecaoeeiiioth ?aaioo ii i?iaaaeaieth oi?aia. Iie ioaeeeotho
iauyaeaiey i oi?aao, ?ani?ino?aiytho iaaeaeo eo o/anoieeaie oae
iacuaaaioth i?ioi?io oaiaea?iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeythuoth niaie
oeiiaoth oi?io oaiaea?iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Oaiaea?iia i?aaeeiaeaiea (ioa?oa) — ienueiaiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea,
i?aaenoaaeaiiia ioa?aioii (o/anoieeii oi?aia) a aae?an oaiaea?iiai
eiieoaoa n iienaieai i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ioa?oa iiaeao
niaea?aeaoue e aeueoa?iaoeaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey, niaea?aeauea ianeieueei
ioee/athueany oneiaey io iniiaiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, /oi iiauoaao
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue ioa?aioa ia oi?aao.

A nia?aiaiiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea i?eiaiythony ioe?uoua e cae?uoua
oi?ae.

Iiiyoea “ioe?uoua oi?ae” i?ienoiaeeo ia io oiai, /oi eioi?iaoeey ia eo
i?iaaaeaiee ioaeeeoaony a ioe?uoie ia/aoe, a a nayce n aiciiaeiinoueth
ii?aaeaeaiiia ioa?aioii (o/anoieeii oi?aia) a aae?an oaiaea?iith
eiiiaiee, n iienaieai i?aaeeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ioa?oa iiaeao
niaea?aeaoue e aeueoa?iaoeaiua i?aaeeiaeaiey, niaea?aeauea ianeieueei
ioee/athueany oneiaey io iniiaiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, /oi iiauoaao
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue ioa?aioa ia oi?aao.

A nia?aiaiiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea i?eiaiythony ioe?uoua e cae?uoua
oi?ae.

Iiiyoea “ioe?uoua oi?ae” i?ienoiaeeo ia io oiai, /oi eioi?iaoeey ia eo
i?iaaaeaiee ioaeeeoaony a ioe?uoie ia/aoe, a a nayce n aiciiaeiinoueth
O/anoey a ieo anao aeaeathueo oe?i. Iau/ii ioe?uoua oi?ae i?iaiaeyony
i?e ?aciauaiee caeaca ia ioiineoaeueii ianeiaeiia iai?oaeiaaiea e
oneoae, eioi?ua iiaoo i?aaeeiaeeoue iiiaea oe?iu.

I?iaeaaoeu, i?eiyaoea ?aoaiea o/anoaiaaoue a oi?aao, aueoiatho o
oaiaea?iuo eiieoaoia oneiaey oi?aia, noieiinoue eioi?uo ninoaaeyao
oneiaioth aaee/eio io aeanyoeia aei ianeieueeeo nio aeieea?ia, ia
iie?uaathuoth cao?aou ia eo ?ac?aaioeo. Eiiaaea n oeaeueth iona/aiey
iaeiiiuiuo oe?i Oeaiu ia oneiaey oi?aia iiaeieiatho aei ianeieueeeo
ouny/ aeieea?ia. Iaeiaei auione oneiaee oi?aia ia iaeeaaeuaaao ieeaeeo
iaycaoaeuenoa ie ia ono?ieoaeae (caeac/eeia), ie ia o/anoieeia
(i?iaeaaoeia).

I?e cae?uouo oi?aao i?eaeaoaiey e o/anoeth a ieo ?annueathony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ecaanoiui oe?iai, eiathuei aeinoaoi/ii aunieee
aaoi?eoao ia ie?iaii ?uiea.

Oaeea oi?ae i?iaiaeyony ia iinoaaeo neiaeiiai aei?iainoiyuaai
iai?oaeiaaiey, neiaeiua iiae?yaeiua ?aaiou, ia i?iaaaeaiea
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo eee i?iaeoiuo ?aaio, a oaeaea ia nii?oaeaiea
eiiieaeniuo iauaeoia, a oii /enea ia oneiaeyo “iiae eeth/”.

Aeey iauaeoia, i?aaenoaaeythueo aeey caeac/eeia iniaoth aaaeiinoue,
oi?ae i?iaiaeyo a aeaa yoaia: ia?aue — ioe?uoua i?aeaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua
oi?ae; aoi?ie — cae?uoua oi?ae.

Ia ia?aii yoaia ioa?aiou aeieaeiu aeieacaoue naith aunieoth
eiiiaoaioiinoue e iiuo a auiieiaiee iiaeiaiuo caeacia. *anoi /eaiu
oaiaea?iuo ei ieoaoia ia ia?aie/eaathony eco/aieai ioa?o, a iinauatho
iauaeou, ?aiaa auiieiaiiua o/anoieeaie i?aeaaeeoeeaoeeiiiuo oi?aia.

Ec ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia eiiiaiee, o/anoaiaaaoeo a ia?aii yoaia, o.i.
cae?uoua oi?ae aeiioneathony 5-7 oe?i.

N oeaeueth nio?aiaiey eiiia?/aneie oaeiu io eiieo?aioia o/anoiee»
ia?aaeatho naie i?aaeeiaeaiey a iineaaeiea ieioou ia?aae cae?uoeai
oi?aia Iinea ioeoeeaeueiiai cae?uoey oi?aia ioa?ou ia i?eieiathony e
aica?a uathony ioa?aioai a ia?ania/aoaiiii aeaea.

Cae?uoua oi?ae iiaoo i?iaiaeeoueny aeanii e iaaeanii. A ia?aii neo/aa a
aeaiue cae?uoey oi?aia oaiaea?iua eiieoaou ioaee/ii ane?uaatho ioa?ou e
iauyaeytho i?aaeeiaeaiey oe?i n oeacaieai eo oeaiu.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee iaaeaniuo oi?aia ioaee/iia ane?uoea i?aaeeiaeaiee oe?i
ia i?iecaiaeeony, ia iauyaeytho ie ninoaaa o/anoieeia, ie i?aaeeiaeaiiuo
eie oneiaee. Oaiaea?iua eiieoaou a oa/aiea o?ao ianyoeaa eco/atho ioa?ou
a eiiieaena n oeaiaie, oneiaeyie e?aaeeoia, ieaoaaeae, a caoai ?aoaiea i
ia?aaea/a caeacia niiauaaony iiaaaeeoaeyi a eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie oi?ia.

Iaaeaniua oi?ae iau/ii i?iaiaeyony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iieoiaoaee
ieaie?otho aeiiieieoaeueiia ?aciauaiea aiaeiae/iuo caeacia e ia oioyo
i?eaioe?iaaoue eiieo?aioia a o?iaia i?eaieaiuo oneiaee. Iaeiie ec
iaeaieaa neiaeiuo i?iaeai i?e o/anoee a oi?aao yaeyaony eie oneiaee.
Oaiaea?iua eiieoaou a oa/aiea o?ao ianyoeaa eco/atho ioa?aiou a
eiiieaena n oeaiaie, oneiaeyie e?aaeeoia, ieaoaaeae, a caoai ?aoaiea i
ia?aaea/a caeacia niiauaaony iiaaaeeoaeyi a eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie oi?ia,

Iaaeaniua oi?ae iau/ii i?iaiaeyony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iieoiatho e
ieaie?otho aeiiieieoaeueiia ?aciauaiea aiaeiae/iuo caeacia e ia oioyo
i?eaioe?iaaoue eiieo?aioia a o?iaia i?eaieaiuo oneiaee.

Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa neiaeiuo i?iaeai i?e o/anoee a oi?aao yaeyaony
ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiiai o?iaiy oeaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey, eioi?ay aeey
iieo/aiey caeaca aeieaeia auoue ioiineoaeueii ieaea oeai eiieo?aioia, ii
a eioa?anao iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe yenii?oa oaeie ?ac?ua aeieaeai auaue
ieieiaeueiui. A iaeioi?uo no?aiao onoaiiaeai “aa?uea? oeai” i?e
i?iaaaeaiee oi?aia, ?aaiue 6%. Anee oeaiu i?aaeeiaeaiee eiioe?i,
o/anoaothueo a oi?aao, ieaea oeai i?aaeeiaeaiee oe?i no?aiu-caeac/eea
iaiaa /ai ia 6%, oi oaiaea?iua eiieoaou iaycaiu ioaeaaaoue i?aaeii/oaiea
naiei iaoeeiiaeueiui oe?iai.

Iaoiae oi?aia iiaeao auoue eniieueciaai i?e iiaeai?a eiino?aiiuo
ia?oia?ia niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

7. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

No?ianeee A.E., “Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey”,
Iineaa, 1996a.

Aa?/eeiaa E.I., “Iaiaaeaeiaio e iaaeaeoia?iaeii-eiiia?/aneia aeaei”,
Iineaa, 1990a.

Iaeeiiae E.?., A?th N.E. “Yeiiiieen”, Iineaa, “?anioaeeea”, 1992

A?eai?ueaa TH.A. “I?aeoeea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe”,
Iineaa, “Iaein”, 1993

?aecaa?a A.A. “Yeiiiie/aneay yioeeeeiiaaeey aeey aeaoae e ac?ineuo”,
Iineaa, 1995a.

“Iniiau i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai aeaea” / iiae ?aae. Ineiiaa TH.I.

“Iaiaaeaeiaio i?aaiecaoeee” /iiae ?aae. ae.y.i. ?oiyioeaaie C.I.

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