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Договор поставки в предпринимательской деятельности

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1.Iiiyoea e i?aaiaay i?e?iaea

aeiaiai?a iinoaaee.

Aeiaiai? iinoaaee – iaeei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo aeaeia
iaycaoaeuenoa, eniieuecoaiuo a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Aeiaiai?
iinoaaee ioaaouaaao i?aeoe/anee aanue oiaa?iiai?io a oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Caeeth/aiea yoiai aeiaiai?a i/aiue
oaeiaii eae aeey i?aaei?eyoee (th?eaee/aneeo eeoe) oae e aeey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Iaeaieaa iioeiaeai aeiaiai? iinoaaee, e i?eia?o, aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey
acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie oiaa?ia e iinoaaueeaie nu?uey,
iaoa?eaeia eeai eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee ;iaaeaeo ecaioiaeoaeyie oiaa?ia
e iioiauie i?aaiecaoeeyie ,niaoeeaeece?othueieny ia ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia.
Oeacaiiua ioiioaiey aeieaeiu ioee/aoueny noaaeeueiinoueth e eiaoue
aeieain?i/iue oa?aeoa?. Iiyoiio a i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee iinoaai/iuo
ioiioaiee i?aiaeaaeathuaa cia/aiea eiatho ia ?aciaua naeaeee ii
ia?aaea/a ia?oee oiaa?ia, a aeieain?i/iua aeiaiai?iua nayce. *1

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy caeiiiaeaoaeueiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oicyenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee ii aeiaiai?o iinoaaee inouanoaeyaony iiaui AE ?O , e,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey noa?uo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia ( Iieiaeaiea i
iinoaaeao i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey;
Iieiaeaiea i iinoaaeao oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey ) , eae
i?ioeai?a/aueo AE ?O , ioiaea.

Iioiaue iai?io oiaa?ia, ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?ioanneiiaeueiuie
i?iaeaaoeaie e iieoiaoaeyie iaicia/aiu a Eiaeaena eae iinoaaea oiaa?ia .
Ii?aaeaeaiea oneiaee oaeeo eiiia?/aneeo ioiioaiee – aeaei i?aaeaea anaai
eo o/anoieeia. Aianoa n oai anoue i?eciaiiua noaiaea?ou eiiia?/aneiai
iai?ioa, eioi?ua neaaeoao i?aaeoniao?eaaoue a caeiia e i?eiaiyoue a
neo/aa ionoonoaey eiiai niaeaoaiey noi?ii. Eiaeaen a yoie /anoe
o/eouaaao i?aaeea, onoaiiaeaiiua Aaineie eiiaaioeeae i iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeiaiai?ao eoiee – i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia, o/anoieeii eioi?ie yaeyaony
?inney, a oaeaea neiaeeaoeany a iaoae no?aia ii?iu i ia?eiaeao, ii?yaeea
iinoaaee, ainiieiaiee iaaeiiinoaaee oiaa?ia, eo auai?ea, ?an/aoao ca
iinoaaeaiiua oiaa?u, iineaaenoaeyo ia?ooaiey oneiaee iinoaaee.

Aeiaiai?ii iinoaaee no.506 AE i?eciaao oaeie aeiaiai? eoiee – i?iaeaaee
, ii eioi?iio i?iaeaaaoe (iinoaauee), inouanoaeythuee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, iaycoaony ia?aaeaoue a
iaoneiaeaiiue n?ie eee n?iee i?iecaiaeeiua eee caeoiaaiua ei oiaa?u
iieoiaoaeth aeey eniieueciaaiey a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
eee a eiuo oeaeyo, ia naycaiiuo n ee/iui, naiaeiui, aeiiaoiei e eiui
iiaeiaiui eniieueciaaieai.

Aeiaiai? iinoaaee eiaao oaeoth aea yeiiiie/aneoth nouiinoue (
aiciacaeiay ia?aaea/a oiaa?a io iaeiiai noauaeoa e ae?oaiio ) eae e
aeiaiai? eoiee – i?iaeaaee. AE ?O ii?aaeaeee aeiaiai? iinoaaee eae
?aciiaeaeiinoue aeiaiai?a eoiee – i?iaeaaee, e ionthaea i?iniao?eaaaony
aaeeinoai yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey e th?eaee/aneeo i?eciaeia yoeo
aeiaiai?ia:

iie i?ecaaiu iaania/eoue ia?aoiae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe ( eiiai aauiiai
i?aaa ) ia eiouanoai;

caeeth/aiea yoeo aeiaiai?ia i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa naiaiaeiiai
aieaecuyaeaiey noi?ii, eioi?ua aunooiatho eae naiaiaeiua
oiaa?iaeaaeaeueoeu;

iie eiatho aiciacaeii – yeaeaaeaioiue oa?aeoa?, aaea ano?a/iui
i?aaeinoaaeaieai yaeythony aeaiueae.

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen ?O onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi e aeiaiai?o iinoaaee oiaa?ia
i?eiaiythony ia oieueei niaoeeaeueiua ii?iu, ii e iauea iieiaeaiey i
eoiea – i?iaeaaea ( no.454 ). Yoi iieiaeaiea eiaao eae iao/ii –
iiciaaaoaeueiia, oae e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea, iineieueeo a i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee i?aa, auoaeathueo eo eiie?aoiuo iaycaoaeuenoa, a oaeaea i?e
inouanoaeaiee caueou i?aa a a?aeo?aaeiii noaea o?aaoaony e /aoeia eo
ii?aaeaeaiea, e i?aaeeueiay th?eaee/aneay eaaeeoeeaoeey. – *2

Aeiaiai?o iinoaaee i?enoue eaaeeoeoee?othuea i?eciaee, auaeaeythuea aai
a ioaeaeueiue aeae aeiaiai?a eoiee – i?iaeaaee e iaoneaaeeaathuea aai
iniaia i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea:

ia?aaea/a oiaa?ia i?iaeaaoeii ( iinoaaueeii ) iieoiaoaeth aeieaeia
inouanoaeyoueny a iaoneiaeaiiue aeiaiai?ii n?ie eee n?ie. I?eiaieoaeueii
e aeiaiai?o iinoaaee n?ie ( n?iee ) ia?aaea/e oiaa?ia i?eia?aoaao
oa?aeoa? nouanoaaiiiai oneiaey aeiaiai?a;

ii aeiaiai?o iinoaaee iiaeeaaeao ia?aaea/a ia ethaua oiaa?u, a oieueei
i?iecaiaeeiua eee caeoiaaiua iinoaaueeii. Oaeei ia?acii, a ea/anoaa
iinoaaueea aunooiaao eiiia?/aneay i?aaiecaoeey, niaoeeaeece?othuayny ia
i?iecaiaenoaa niioaaonoaothueo oiaa?ia eeai i?ioanneiiaeueii caieiaaony
eo caeoieaie;

eiaao nouanoaaiiia cia/aiea, aeey eaeie oeaee iieoiaoaeai i?eia?aoathony
oiaa?u o iinoaaueea, eai aeiaiai?ii iinoaaee i?eciaaony oieueei oaeie, a
neeo eioi?iai iieoiaoaeth ia?aaeathony oiaa?u aeey eo eniieueciaaiey a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe eee eiuo oeaeyo, ia naycaiiuo n
ee/iui, naiaeiui, aeiiaoiei e eiui iiaeiaiui eniieueciaaieai. Aeaiiue
i?eciae naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi e a ea/anoaa iieoiaoaey ii
aeiaiai?o iinoaaee aeieaeia aunooiaoue, eae i?aaeei, eiiia?/aneay
i?aaiecaoeey, caieiathuayny i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

E?iia oiai, aeiaiai? iinoaaee eiaao e ae?oaea nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey.
Iai?eia?:

nenoaia aeiaiai?iuo naycae i?e iinoaaea ca/anooth neiaeiay, e iiyoiio
iinoaauee ia anaaaea nianoaaiiee ( i?iecaiaeeoaeue ) iinoaaeyaiiai
eiouanoaa, ei iiaeao auoue e iin?aaeiee, ?aaeecothuee iieoiaoaeth oiaa?u
n oeaeueth iieo/aiey i?eauee;

a aeiaiai?a iinoaaee iiiaio caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a ioaeaeai ai a?aiaie io
iiiaioa eniieiaiey, oae eae oiaa?a, iiaeeaaeauaai iinoaaea, iiaeao e ia
auoue ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a;

aeiaiai? iinoaaee nicaeaao aeeeoaeueiua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo noi?iiaie;

eniieiaiea aeiaiai?a iinoaaee, eae i?aaeei, inouanoaeyaony ii /anoyi;

a iauai i?aa e iaycaiiinoae noi?ii aoiaeeo ia oieueei i?iaeaaea
iinoaaeyaiiai oiaa?a, ii e aai aeinoaaea;

naii niaea?aeaiea aeiaiai?a ii?aaeaeyao ienueiaiioth oi?io aai
caeeth/aiey.

Cia/aiea aeiaiai?a iinoaaee ninoieo a oii, /oi ii eae aeiaiai? eoiee –
i?iaeaaee iiin?aaeoao i?ioeannu oiaa?iiai iaiaia a iauanoaa, a /anoiinoe
iaoa?eaeueii – oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea noauaeoia oicyenoaiaaiey.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eoiey- i?iaeaaea yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiie th?eaee/aneie
oi?iie ioiioaiee iaiaia, iicaieythuae iiin?aaeiaaoue ?acee/iua aai
aeaeu, a iauanoaaiii – yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey, ?aaoee?oaiua aeiaiai?ii
iinoaaee e eoiee – i?iaeaaee, a iniiaiii oiaeaeanoaaiiu: iie eaaeao a
noa?a oiaa?iiai ia?auaiey e i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eoieth – i?iaeaaeo a aa
yeiiiie/aneii cia/aiee. – *3

2. Caeeth/aiea e niaea?aeaiea aeiaiai?a iinoaaee , aai
nouanoaaiiua oneiaey .

Aeiaiai? iinoaaee, eae i?aaiaie aeieoiaio, ?aaoee?oao acaeiiioiioaiey
iinoaaueea e iieoiaoaey ii iinoaaea oiaa?ia e yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui
th?eaee/aneei oaeoi?ii, ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai aicieeaao iaycaoaeuenoai
ii iinoaaea. Eae i?aaeei, yoi aaeeiue aeieoiaio, iiaeienaiiue noi?iiaie.
Ii oaeaea nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a iinoaaee iooai
iaiaia aeieoiaioaie iin?aaenoaii ii/oiaie, oaeaa?aoiie, oaeaoiiiie,
oaeaoaeiiie, yeaeo?iiiie eee eiie nayce, iicaieythuae aeinoiaa?ii
onoaiiaeoue, /oi aeieoiaio enoiaeeo io noi?iiu ii aeiaiai?o (i.2 no.434
). “ N iaeiie noi?iiu yoi nicaeaao aiciiaeiinoue iia?aoeaiiai
caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaaeaeaoaeueii aaeaeo
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe acaeiiioiioaiee noi?ii.” – * 4

I?eieiay ai aieiaiea, /oi iniiaiie noa?ie i?eiaiaiey aeiaiai?a iinoaaee
oiaa?ia yaeythony i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea ioiioaiey, a iniiaiuie
noauaeoaie yoeo aeiaiai?ia, eae i?aaeei, – eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee,
i?ioanneiiaeueii caieiathueany i?iecaiaenoaii, caeoieie e ?aaeecaoeeae
oiaa?ia, caeiiiaeaoaeue n/ae iaiaoiaeeiui o?aaoee?iaaoue ioiioaiey,
oi?ie?othueany oaea ia noaaeee i?aaeaeiaiai?iuo eiioaeoia noi?ii ii
iiaiaeo caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a iinoaaee. Yoiio aii?ino iinayuaiu
niaea?aeaueany a AE ii?iu ia o?aaoee?iaaiee ?aciiaeanee i?e caeeth/aiee
aeiaiai?a iinoaaee (no. 507 ). Niaeanii yoie noaouea, noi?iia,
i?iyaeaoay eieoeeaoeao a caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a, o.a. i?aaenoaaeaoay naia
i?aaeeiaeaiea (ioa?oo ) iioaioeeaeueiiio eiio?aaaioo e iieo/eaoay io
iaai i?eioeeieaeueiia niaeanea ia caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?a, ii i?e oneiaee
eciaiaiey iaeioi?uo ioieoia aeiaiai?a, aeieaeia i?eiyoue ia?u, eioi?ua
aianee au ii?aaeaeaiiinoue a ioiioaiey noi?ii. Caeanue aiciiaeiu o?e
aa?eaioa aeaenoaee : ai-ia?auo, niaeaneoueny n eciaiaieai ioaeaeueiuo
ioieoia aeiaiai?a, i?aaeeiaeaiiuo eiio?aaaioii; ai-aoi?uo, iiiuoaoueny
iaeoe ii iiaiaeo nii?iuo ioieoia aeiaiai?a eiii?iienniia ?aoaiea
(niaeaniaaoue aicieeoea ?aciiaeaney ); a-o?aoueeo, ioeacaoueny io
caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a.

Ai anao yoeo neo/ayo noi?iia, i?aaeeiaeeaoay caeeth/eoue aeiaiai?
iinoaaee e iieo/eaoay io ae?oaie noi?iiu i?aaeeiaeaiea i niaeaniaaiee
aicieeoeo ?aciiaeanee, iaycaia ia iicaea /ai a 30-aeiaaiue n?ie ni aeiy
iieo/aiey yoiai i?aaeeiaeaiey oaaaeiieoue yoo noi?iio i naiai ?aoaiee.
Yoi iaiaoiaeeii, iineieueeo eiio?aaaio ai?aaa ?ann/eouaaoue ia oi, /oi
aeiaiai? aoaeao caeeth/ai, e oaea ia yoie noaaeee iiaeao ia/aoue
iiaeaioiaeo e eniieiaieth aeiaiai?a: iiene iinoaaueeia nu?uey eee
eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee, ia?ai?ioeee?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e o.i. Iiyoiio
noi?iia, ia oaaaeiieaoay eiio?aaaioa i i?eiyoii ath ?aoaiee, aeieaeia
aoaeao aicianoeoue oauoee, aucaaiiua oeeiiaieai io niaeaniaaiey oneiaee
aeiaiai?a.

“ A iuiaoieo oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey aeey noi?ii /?acau/aeii aaaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue a iiaeienuaaaiii aeieoiaioa, eaeie aeiaiai? eie
caeeth/aaony, e /aoei ii?aaeaeeoue a iai i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe noi?ii. Oae
eae, eiaaea iaaeaeo noi?iiaie ii aeiaiai?o aicieeaao nii?, a noaea
o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeie aea eiaiii aeiaiai? aue caeeth/ai. Iai?eia?,
i?e ?ac?aoaiee nii?a a a?aeo?aaeiii noaea Aieaia?aaeneie iaeanoe ii eneo
AI “Ai?enianeee caaiae aaoio?aeoi?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey “ e III “Aeiaai “ i
acuneaiee 50 iei. ?oaeae ca iaauiieiaiea ioaao/eeii aeiaiai?iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa a aeieacaoaeuenoai eo iaee/ey aue i?aaeuyaeai aeiaiai? aac
iauaai iacaaiey n iaeiaiiaaieai noi?ii “ Caeac/ee “ e “ Eniieieoaeue “,
ii eioi?iio ioaao/ee aeieaeai aue ecaioiaeoue e iinoaaeoue enooeo
iaaieou i?e oneiaee i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaou. Iaeiaei iinea iieaou oiaa?
ia aue iinoaaeai. *oiau iaeacaoue aeiiaioth noi?iio, noae, enoiaey ec
no.431 i oieeiaaiee aeiaiai?ia, aaea aiai?eoueny, /oi ?aoathuei i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee i?aaiaie i?e?iaeu iiaeienaiiiai noi?iiaie aeieoiaioa
yaeyaony ia aai iacaaiea, a naii niaea?aeaiea, i?eiaiee naieoeee eae ii
aeiaiai?o iinoaaee. * 5

Niaea?aeaiea aeiaiai?a iinoaaee ninoaaeytho aai oneiaey, eioi?ua noi?iiu
niaeaniauaatho a i?ioeanna caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a.

Iacaaeneii io i?aaeiaoa aeiaiai?a iinoaaee, ninoaaa aai o/anoieeia, a
oaeaea iniiaaiee, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ii caeeth/aaony,
nouanoaaiiuie oneiaeyie aeiaiai?a iinoaaee yaeythony: oneiaey i oiaa?a
(anni?oeiaio, eiee/anoai, ea/anoai), n?iee e ii?yaeie iinoaaee, n?iee e
ii?yaeie iieaou. I?e ionoonoaee oioy au iaeiiai ec yoeo oneiaee a
aeiaiai?a ii n/eoaaony iacaeeth/aiiui. Nouanoaaiiuie i?eciathony oaeaea
ana oa oneiaey, ioiineoaeueii eioi?uo ii cayaeaieth iaeiie ec noi?ii
aeieaeii auoue aeinoeaiooi niaeaoaiea (no.432 AE).

I?aaeaea anaai niaeaniaaieth iiaeeaaeao oneiaey i oiaa?a, o.a. i aai
iaeiaiiaaiee, eiee/anoaa e ea/anoaa, /oi a niaieoiiinoe e ninoaaeyao
i?aaeiao aeiaiai?a iinoaaee eee iauaeo naeaeee. Iaiaa?eaay i?aaeiao
aeiaiai?a, neaaeoao oeacaoue oi/ii iacaaiea i?iaeoeoeee (oiaa?a), ia
aeiioneathuaa iiaeiaiu, a oaeaea iiia?a noaiaea?oia, oaoie/aneeo
oneiaee, a?oeeoeia e ae?oaeo iaiaoiaeeiuo aeieoiaioia, ia niioaaonoaea
eioi?ui i?aaenoieo i?iaa?youe iinooieaooth i?iaeoeoeeth (oiaa?u). A oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia ecaeaeeyo iaeiiai iaeiaiiaaiey, ii n
?acee/iuie i?eciaeaie, noi?iiu iaycaiu i?aaeoniio?aoue yoi a oaenoa
aeiaiai?a. Aiciiaeii, /oi iinoaaeyaiay i?iaeoeoeey eiaao neiaeiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Oiaaea eo iienaiea aeaaony ioaeaeueii a niaoeeaeueiii
i?eeiaeaiee, eioi?ia yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth aeiaiai?a. Oaeei aea
ia?acii iinooiatho a neo/ayo n iaiaeii?iaeiuie oiaa?aie. Eae i?aaeei,
iienaiea neiaeiuo oa?aeoa?enoee i?aaenoaaeyaony a oi?ia oaoie/aneeo
oneiaee (OO) eee oaoie/aneie niaoeeoeeaoeee (ON). Noieue iiae?iaiia
iienaiea iauaeoa naeaeee iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue ?aciiaeanee, a oaeaea
eneeth/eoue aiciiaeiinoue iaaeia?iniaanoiiai ioiioaiey e naiei
iaycaiiinoyi eaeie-eeai ec noi?ii.

Eiee/anoai iinoaaeyaiiai oiaa?a a aeiaiai?a iinoaaee ii?aaeaeyaony ii
niaeaoaieth noi?ii enoiaey ec iio?aaiinoae iieoiaoaey e n o/aoii
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eee eiuo aiciiaeiinoae iinoaaueea. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
eiee/anoaa iinoaaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee (oiaa?ia) e ii?yaeea aai
onoaiiaeaiey eniieuecotho iauai?eiyoua ia?aiao?u aana, aeeeiu, iauaia;
oooee, eiiieaeou e o.ae. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?iaeoeoeey (oiaa?)
iinoaaeyaony ii aano, a oaenoa aeiaiai?a iaiaoiaeeii iaiai?eoue aan
a?oooi eee iaooi, eeai e oio e ae?oaie, aaea iaooi – yoi aan aac oa?u e
oiaeiaee; a?oooi – n oa?ie e oiaeiaeie.

Ia eneeth/aia neooaoeey, eiaaea aeey ii?aaeaeaiey eiee/anoaa oiaa?a
noi?iiu ainiieuecothony ianoaiaea?oiuie aaeeieoeaie ecia?aiey, oaeeie,
eae iaoee, ia/ee, iauai aooueee.

Iaeioi?ua i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e eciaiaieth
naiaai aana a i?ioeanna o?ainii?oe?iaee e o?aiaiey. Oi/iue aan oaeie
i?iaeoeoeee a aeiaiai?a ii?aaeaeeoue iaaiciiaeii. E iiyoiio /anoi
eniieuecoaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiia niaeaoaiea i?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a
(iioeeii), e a ?yaea neo/aaa iaicia/aiea eiee/anoaa aeiiieiyaony
iaiai?eie “ieiei”. Eae i?aaeei, iioeeii eniieuecoaony i?e aeaeueieo
ia?aaiceao iaiuae e o?oeoia. Ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth noi?ii, ii?aaeaeea
aan, aeiioneaaony naeaeaoue caienue “+- 10 %”, ii i?e yoii iaiaoiaeeia
iaiai?ea i oii, eiio ec o/anoieeia aeiaiai?a i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai
iieueciaaoueny ionooieaieai io onoaiiaeaiiie oeeo?u.

Iiae ea/anoaii iinoaaeyaiiai oiaa?a iiieiaaony niioaaonoaea aai naienoa
o?iaith o?aaiaaiee aeiaiai?a eee caeiia, a oaeaea niaieoiiinoue
i?eciaeia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho aai i?eaiaeiinoue aeey eniieueciaaiey ii
iacia/aieth.

Ii?aaeaeyoue eiee/anoai oiaa?a iiaeii neaaeothueie niiniaaie: ii
noaiaea?oai, oaoie/aneiio iienaieth, ii ia?acoeai, eaoaeiaai eee
i?iniaeoai iinoaaueea, eioi?ua yaeythony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth aeaiiiai
aeiaiai?a. “Oa?aeoa? iinoaaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeyao ia
o?aaiaaiey e aai ea/anoao. Iai?eia?, ea/anoai aeinoaoi/ii i?inoie
i?iaeoeoeee iaicia/aaony noaiaea?oaie (ee?ie/, aaoii e o.ae.), i /ai a
aeiaiai?a aeaeatho caienue: “Ea/anoai a niioaaonoaee ni noaiaea?oaie,
onoaiiaeaiiuie a ?O “. I?e iinoaaeao i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoee
noaieino?iaiey, iaoeiino?iaiey e ae?., a oaeaea oiaa?ia, ia eioi?ua
noaiaea?ou ionoonoaotho, eeai ei i?aaeuyaeythony eaeea-eeai
niaoeeaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, ea/anoai, eae i?aaeei, ii?aaeaeyaony
oaoie/aneeie oneiaeyie, iienaiiuie a i?eeiaeaiee e aeiaiai?o. “ * 6

Eiaaea i?aaeiaoii aeiaiai?a iinoaaee yaeythony i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua
oiaa?u, oi eo ea/anoai aeieaeii iiaeoaa?aeaeaoueny na?oeoeeaoii
ea/anoaa, eioi?ue auaeaaony oiieiiii/aiiie ia oi ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeeae, a oaeaea aaoa?eia?iui e naieoa?iui na?oeoeeaoii.
Iineaaeiee auaeaaony ia eaaeaeoth ia?oeth iinoaaeyaiiai oiaa?a.

A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea caeeth/aaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aeiaiai?, eioi?ue
onoaiaaeeaaao eiua i?aaeea na?oeoeeaoeee, ioee/iua io i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
Caeiiii ?O, oi i?eiaiythony i?aaeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?a.

I?aaiaua iniiau iaycaoaeueiie e aeia?iaieueiie na?oeoeeaoeee i?iaeoeoeee
e oneoa a ?O, a oaeaea i?aaa, iaycaiiinoe e ioaaonoaaiiinoue o/anoieeia
na?oeoeeaoeee ii?aaeaeyao Caeii ?O “I na?oeoeeaoeee i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa”
io 10.06.93 aiaea.

Na?oeoeeaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee, eioi?ua aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue eee iiaeoaa?aeeoue niioaaonoaea i?iaeoeoeee
onoaiiaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi. Na?oeoeeaoeey aeieaeia iiaeoaa?aeeoue
niioaaonoaea na?oeoeoee?iaaiiuo ecaeaeee ( oiaa?ia ) o?aaiaaieyi
ii?aaeaeaiiuo noaiaea?oia. E?iia yoiai, na?oeoeeaoeey i?iaeoeoeee
aeieaeia iiaeoaa?aeeoue, /oi ecaioiaeoaeue a ninoiyiee iaania/eoue
cayaeaiiia ei ea/anoai a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa e /oi
naienoaa auioneaaiiai ei oiaa?a ia oooaeoathony a oa/aiea n?iea
aeaenoaey iieo/aiiiai na?oeoeeaoa.

Anee i?aaenoieo ii?aaeaeyoue ea/anoai iinoaaeyaiiai oiaa?a ii ia?acoeai,
oi iinoaauee iaycai i?aaenoaaeoue eo iieoiaoaeth aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey.
Oieueei iinea oaeiai ooaa?aeaeaiey yoio ia?acaoe aoaeao n/eoaoueny
yoaeiiii. A iiaeiaiuo neo/ayo a aeiaiai?a aeieaeiu auoue o/oaiu
naaaeaiey i eiee/anoaa ioia?aiiuo ia?acoeia e ii?yaeea n?aaiaiey eo n
iinoaaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeeae (oiaa?aie). Ai ecaaaeaiea a aeaeueiaeoai
nii?ia ia eaeaioe/iinoe ia?acoeia o?aoee yecaiiey? noieo ia?aaeaoue ia
o?aiaiea iaeo?aeueiiio i?aaei?eyoeth, i?aaiecaoeee, a a oaenoa aeiaiai?a
naeaeaoue niioaaonoaothuoth iaiai?eo e oeacaoue iaeiaiiaaiea yoiai
o/?aaeaeaiey.

I?e iinoaaeao i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay a niioaaonoaee ni no.470 AE aeieaeia
aacioeacii ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ( aa?aioeeiiai )
n?iea, aai i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue neaaeoao oeacaoue a oaenoa aeiaiai?a,
anee yoi ia i?aaeoniio?aii a niioaaonoaothuai noaiaea?oa. Eiaaea
iinoaauee ia yaeyaony ecaioiaeoaeai iinoaaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee ( oiaa?a ),
oi iieoiaoaeue iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue iacaaoue a oanoa aeiaiai?a
eiie?aoiiai ecaioiaeoaey, aai aae?an e ?aeaeceou.

Ae?oaei aaaeiui yeaiaioii niaea?aeaiey aeiaiai?a iinoaaee, aai
nouanoaaiiui oneiaeai yaeythony oneiaey i oeaia e ii?yaeea ?an/aoia ca
iinoaaeaiiua oiaa?u. Ionoonoaea naaaeaiee i oeaia iiaeao i?eaanoe e
i?eciaieth aeiaiai?a iaaeaenoaeoaeueiui.

Oeaia ii?aaeaeyaony noi?iiaie ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a.
I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia niaeaniaaiea oeaiu iiaeii i?iaiaeeoue eae a onoiie
oi?ia, oae e n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa nayce. Oaeei ia?acii, niaeaniaaiea
oeaiu i?ienoiaeeo aei caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeao
auoue ioi?ieaii a ienueiaiiii aeaea.

Aunoee A?aeo?aaeiue Noae ?O, eanaaii nii?a i ii?yaeea e n?ieao
niaeaniaaiey oeaiu, aicieeoaai i?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a e ia?aaeaiiiai
a a?aeo?aaeiue noae ii niaeaoaieth noi?ii, a naiai Ienueia io 20.03.95
aiaea ?acuyniee, /oi yoe nii?u i?eieiathony e ?anniao?eaathony noaeii ia
iaueo iniiaaieyo. A iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea Aunoee A?aeo?aaeiue Noae i?eaiaeeo
?yae i?eia?ia ec i?aeoeee :

” iaaeaeo iinoaaueeii e iieoiaoaeai aicieeee ?aciiaeaney ii aii?ino,
eanathuaiony ii?yaeea niaeaniaaiey oeaiu ia iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth.

Iinoaauee i?aaeeiaeee inouanoaeyoue iinoaaeo ii oeaiai, ii?aaeaeyaiui a
niioaaonoaee ni neiaeeaoaeny eiiuthieoo?ie oeai ia iiiaio ioa?ocee iooai
iai?aaeaiey iieoiaoaeth ieaoaaeiiai o?aaiaaiey iinea ioa?ocee
i?iaeoeoeee. Iieoiaoaeue niaeaneeny n i?aaeeiaeaieai iinoaaueee i
?an/aoao ca iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeeth ii neiaeeaoeiny eiiuthieoo?iui oeaiai,
ii auaeaeioe o?aaiaaiey i niaeaniaaiee n iei oeaiu aei ia/aea ioa?ocee
iooai ioi?ieaiey iaiaoiaeeiiai i?ioieiea.

?anniio?aa nii?, a?aeo?aaeiue noae auian ii?aaeaeaiea i i?ae?auaiee
i?iecaiaenoaa ii aeaeo, iineieueeo, ii aai iiaieth, noi?iiu ia
onoaiiaeee oeaio ia iiaeeaaeauoth iinoaaea iaoaeeii?iaeoeoeee.

Iaaeaeo oai, caeeth/ay aeiaiai?, noi?iiu i?aaeoniio?aee a iai oneiaey i
i?iaaaeaiee ?an/aoia ca iinoaaeyaioth i?iaeoeoeeth ii neiaeeaoeiny
eiiuthieoo?iui oeaiai, ii ia aeinoeaee niaeaoaiey i ii?yaeea e a?aiaie
niaeaniaaiey oeaiu. Iiyoiio o a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea ia auei iniiaaiee
n/eoaoue aeiaiai? iacaeeth/aiiui.

O/eouaay, /oi ?aciiaeaney eanaeenue ii?yaeea e a?aiaie niaeaniaaiey
oeaiu e yoe ?aciiaeaney auee ia?aaeaiu ia ?ac?aoaiea a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea
ii niaeaoaieth noi?ii, iie iiaeeaaeaee ?anniio?aieth ii nouanoao. “
(Iaci? i?aeoeee ?ac?aoaiey a?aeo?aaeiuo nii?ia, naycaiiuo n
onoaiiaeaieai e i?eiaiaieai oeai – a Ienueia io 20.03.95 aiaea ).

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oeaia caaeneo io oneiaee iinoaaee. Anee
i?iaeoii aeiaiai?a i?aaeoniao?eaaaony aeinoaaea i?iaeoeoeee neeaie
iinoaaueea ia neeaae iieoiaoaey, oi oeaia oaaee/eaaaony ia noieiinoue
aeinoaaee, ?anoiaeia ia no?aoiaaiea a?ocia, iia?oci/iuo ?aaio e o.ae.
Anee iieoiaoaeue aeinoaaeyao i?iaeoeoeeth naiinoiyoaeueii, oi oeaia
aoaeao oaaee/aia oieueei ia noieiinoue ?anoiaeia, naycaiiuo n iia?oceie.

Aeiaiai?iay oeaia iiaeao auoue o?ao aeaeia: oeene?iaaiiie, neieuecyuae e
n iineaaeothuae oeenaoeeae.

Anee noi?iiu aeiaiai?eeenue i i?eiaiaiee oaa?aeie oeene?iaaiiie oeaiu e
ii?aaeaeeee aa eiie?aoioth oeeo?o, oi iia ia iiaeeaaeeo eciaiaieth i?e
iieaoa. E a aeaeueiaeoai, i?e aicieeiiaaiee eiioeeeoia, a?aeo?aaeiue
noae aeieaeai ioeacaoue a oaeiaeaoai?aiee o?aaiaaiee iaeiie ec noi?ii ia
oaaee/aiee eee oiaiueoaiee oeaiu, onoaiiaeaiiie aeiaiai?ii (i.13
Iinoaiiaeaiey Ieaioia Aunoaai a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea ?O io 22.12.93 ). A
niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eciaiaiea oeaiu a oaeeo neo/ayo
aiciiaeii oieueei ii acaeiiiio niaeaoaieth noi?ii.

“I/aaeaeii, /oi a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee i?eiaiaiea oeene?iaaiiie oeaiu
iiaeao auoue auaiaeii oieueei iieoiaoaeth. E a aaniethoii iaauaiaeiuo
oneiaeyo ieacuaaaony iinoaauee, iniaaiii i?e aeeeoaeueiii n?iea
aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a. A oaeiaiay aeey iinoaaueea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay iieaoa
i?iaeoeoeee ia anaaaea ono?aeaaao iieoiaoaey. Ec iiaeiaiie neooaoeee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie iaeaeai auoiae: iie eniieuecotho i?eai, iieo/eaoee
iacaaiea “aaethoiie iaiai?ee”. Nooue aai a oii, /oi noi?iiu
onoaiaaeeaatho oeaio a iaeiie ec eiino?aiiuo aaetho, iai?eia?, a
aeieea?ao NOA, e ii?aaeaeytho noieiinoue aaeeieoeu i?iaeoeoeee a
ia?a?an/aoa ia yoo aaethoo. Caoai iauay noieiinoue iinoaaeyaiie
i?iaeoeoeee oeene?oaony a oie aea aaethoa, a a aeiaiai?a iaicia/aaony
oi/iay aa oeeo?a n i?eia/aieai, /oi iieaoa aoaeao i?iecaiaeeoueny a
?oaeyo ii eo?no ia aeaiue ieaoaaea (eee aeaiue iieo/aiey i?iaeoeoeee
iieoiaoaeai) a ii?aaeaeaiiii aaiea.

Iineieueeo aaieianeea eo?nu eiino?aiiuo aaetho iiaoo ?acee/aoueny, oi
nnueea a oaenoa aeiaiai?a ia aaie e aai ianoiiaoiaeaeaiea aaniethoii
iaiaoiaeeia. Caeeth/aiiue ia yoeo oneiaeyo aeiaiai? i?aaeoniao?eaaao
oieueei oaeoth noaio iieaou, iacaaeneii io eieaaaiee eo?na eiino?aiiie
aaethou ia aeaiue ieaoaaea. E aii?in i aiciauaiee aiciiaeiuo oauoeia,
iiianaiiuo iaeiie ec noi?ii a yoie nayce, caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia
?anniao?eaaaony.” * 7

A neo/aa eniieueciaaiey neieuecyuae oeaiu a aeiaiai?a noi?iiu naycuaatho
aa n ?uii/iuie oeaiaie, aeaenoaothueie a iiiaio eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a.
Yoio niinia i?eiaiyaony a neo/ayo, eiaaea ii?aaeaeeoue oaa?aeoth oeaio a
iiiaio caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a o?oaeii. E oiaaea noi?iiu iiaoo ia
aeeth/aoue a oaeno aeiaiai?a eiie?aoioth oeeo?o, ii aeieaeiu
i?aaeoniio?aoue oeenaoeeth enoiaeiie (aaceniie) oeaiu. Iia eciaiyaony a
i?ioeanna eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a i?e eciaiaiee oeaiiia?acothueo yeaiaioia
ii iaoiaeo, eioi?ue noi?iiu niaeaniauaatho iaaeaeo niaie. I?aaeae
ioeeiiaiey ?uii/iie oeaiu io aeiaiai?iie iaiaa?eaaaony ca?aiaa, ii a
ethaii neo/aa a oaenoa aeiaiai?a iaiaoiaeeii oeacaoue enoi/iee
ii?aaeaeaiey oeaiu (eee ianeieueei enoi/ieeia), ii eioi?iio aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny n?aaeia?uii/iay oeaia. Anee a?aiy eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a
iinoaaie i?iaeoeoeee i?aauoaao iaeei aiae, oi neieuecyuay oeaia
ii?aaeaeyaony a iiiaio eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a iooai ia?aniio?a aeiaiai?iie
oeaiu. I?e yoii o/eouaathony eciaiaiey a ecaea?aeeao i?iecaiaenoaa,
eiaaoeo ianoi ca enoaeoee ia?eiae n iiiaioa caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a.

Anee noi?iiu i?aaeii/ooo eniieueciaaoue oeaio n iineaaeothuae
oeenaoeeae, oi eiie?aoiay oeeo?a a oaenoa aeiaiai?a iiaeao ia
oeacuaaoueny (yoi aaeeinoaaiiue neo/ae aeey aiciacaeiiai aeiaiai?a).
Iaaeaeo oai a aeiaiai?a neaaeoao iiae?iaii iienaoue niiniau aa
ii?aaeaeaiey, a oaeaea oa eiie?aoiua enoi/ieee, ia eioi?ua aoaeoo
i?eaioe?iaaoueny noi?iiu a iiiaio iieaou. Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi a
aeiaiai?a aeieaeiu auoue io?aaeaiu eae iauay ii aeiaiai?o oeaia, oae e
oeaia ca aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee.

Eciaiaiea oeaiu, i?aaeoniio?aiiie aeiaiai?ii, aeiioneaaony a neo/ayo e
ia oneiaeyo, onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eee aeiaiai?ii. Ec
Ienueia Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea io 20.03.95 aiaea: “A?aeo?aaeiue
noae, ?anniio?aa eneiaia cayaeaiea eani?iioica (iinoaaueea) ia eciaiaiee
oeaiu ia ieeiiaoa?eaeu, onoaiiaeaiiie noi?iiaie a aeiaiai?a iinoaaee,
i?eciae o?aaiaaiey cayaeoaey i?aaiia?iuie e aian a aeiaiai?
niioaaonoaothuea eciaiaiey. Naia ia?auaiea a a?aeo?aaeiue noae
eani?iioic iainiiaae oaaee/aieai oaeniaie oeaiu ca iinoaaeyaioth
i?iaeoeoeeth.

Iaaeaeo oai, iiauoaiiue eiyooeoeeaio e oaenai ia ae?aaaneio aue
onoaiiaeai i?aeneo?aioii, aaaaeaiiui a aeaenoaea aei caeeth/aiey
noi?iiaie aeiaiai?a iinoaaee.

Iinoaauee, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue i.1 no.424 AE aeae niaeanea ia ioione
ieeiiaoa?eaeia ii aeiaiai?iui oeaiai aac i?eiaiaiey iiauoathuaai
eiyooeoeeaioa iooai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaou anae i?iaeoeoeee n?aco aea
iinea caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a. Iieoiaoaeue naie iaycaoaeuenoaa ii iieaoa
ieeiiaoa?eaeia auiieiee.

A niioaaonoaee n i.2 no.424 AE eciaiaiea oeaiu aeiaiai?a iinea aai
caeeth/aiey aeiioneaaony eeoue a neo/ayo e ia oneiaeyo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
aeiaiai?ii, caeiiii eeai a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii ii?yaeea. A ia?eiae
aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a oeaiu ia ieeiiaoa?eaeu a oeaio?aeeciaaiiii ii?yaeea
ia eciaiyeenue. Aiciiaeiinoue eciaiaiey oeaiu aeiaiai?a iinea aai
caeeth/aiey noi?iiu ia onoaiiaeee.

Iineieueeo iniiaaiey aeey eciaiaiey onoaiiaeaiiie aeiaiai?ii oeaiu ia
ieeiiaoa?eaeu ionoonoaiaaee, eannaoeeiiiay eieeaaey a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea
?aoaiea ii aeaeo ioiaieea e a oaeiaeaoai?aiee eneiauo o?aaiaaiee
iinoaaueea ioeacaea.”

Iniaia ianoi a aeiaiai?a ioaiaeeony oneiaeyi i oa?a e oiaeiaea. A ?yaea
neo/aaa iinoaauee iaycai ia?aaeaoue iieoiaoaeth oiaa? a oa?a e (eee)
oiaeiaea, ca eneeth/aieai oiaa?a, eioi?ue ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o ia o?aaoao
caoa?eaaiey e (eee) oiaeiaee. Eiie niinia ioa?ocee oiaa?ia iiaeao auoue
onoaiiaeai a aeiaiai?a. Anee a aeiaiai?a o?aaiaaiey e oa?a e oiaeiaea ia
ii?aaeaeaiu, oiaa? aeieaeai auoue caoa?ai eee oiaeiaai iau/iui aeey
oaeiai oiaa?a niiniaii. Ai anyeii neo/aa iinoaauee iaycai iaania/eoue
nio?aiiinoue oiaa?a i?e iau/iuo oneiaeyo o?aiaiey e o?ainii?oe?iaee.

Iaycaoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey e oa?a e (eee) oiaeiaea, i?aaeoniio?aiiua a
onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii ii?yaeea, yaeythony iaycaoaeueiuie aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

Caeiiiaeaoaeue oaeaea i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaycaiiinoue iieoiaoaey ii
aeiaiai?o iinoaaee aica?aoeoue iinoaaueeo iiiaiiai?ioioth oa?o e
n?aaenoaa iaeaoe?iaaiey, a eioi?uo iinooiee oiaa?, anee eiia ia
i?aaeoniio?aii aeiaiai?ii iinoaaee (no.517 AE ). Ii?yaeie e n?iee
aica?aoa oeacaiiuo n?aaenoa onoaiaaeeaathony caeiiii, eiuie i?aaiauie
aeoaie, i?eiyouie a niioaaonoaee n ieie iaycaoaeueiuie i?aaeeaie eee
aeiaiai?ii.

Iinoaaeyaiue oiaa? aeieaeai auoue iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii caia?ee?iaai.

Oiaa?u, auioneaaiua th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie, aeieaeiu eiaoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth ia?eo e oiaa?iue ciae, e?iia neo/aaa,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Oiaa?u, ecaioiaeaiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, inouanoaeythueie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue aac ia?aciaaiey th?eaee/aneiai
eeoea, aeieaeiu eiaoue yoeeaoeo.

Ia?ee?iaee iiaeeaaeao eae oiaa?u, oae e oa?a. Noi?iiu ia eiatho i?aaa
eciaieoue o?aaiaaiey e ia?ee?iaea, onoaiiaeaiiua a
ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee, ii iie ai?aaa onoaiiaeoue a
aeiaiai?a o?aaiaaiey e ia?ee?iaea, ia onoaiiaeaiiua a
ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee.

Oneiaea i ?an/aoao a aeiaiai?a iinoaaee yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaeaieaa
cia/eiuo. “Naiia aieueoia eiee/anoai i?aoaicee e eneia, i?aaeuyaeyaiuo a
nayce n iaeniieiaieai iaycaoaeuenoa ii aeiaiai?ai, naycaii n
iaiaaeeaaeauei eniieiaieai eee iaeniieiaieai eiaiii oneiaee ii ?an/aoai
ca oiaa?.

Auai? oi?iu ?an/aoia eiaaea i?aaei?eyoea aunooiaao a ea/anoaa
Iinoaaueea, caaeneo io noaiaie ?enea iaeniieiaiey Iieoiaoaeai
iaycaoaeuenoaa ii iieaoa, ?anoiaeia Iinoaaueea ii inouanoaeaieth
?an/aoia. Yoio auai? oaeaea ii?aaeaeyaony niioiioaieai ai a?aiaie
iinoaaee oiaa?a e iieaou ca iaai. N o/aoii yoiai i?e iioeiaeueiii auai?a
oi?ia ?an/aoia a aeiaiai?a iinoaaee aoaeao auiieiyoue aua e ooieoeee
i?aaiaiai n?aaenoaa iaania/aiey iaycaoaeuenoaa. “ * 8

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee oneiaee aeiaiai?a iinoaaee i ii?yaeea ?an/aoia neaaeoao
o/eouaaoue aeaa iniiaiuo iiiaioa: o/ao aoaeouae ieaie?oaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ii auiieiaieth aeiaiai?a (a aeaiiii neo/aa – ii
inouanoaeaieth ieaoaaea) e o/ao ianoiyoaeuenoa, eioi?ua iiaoo
aicieeiooue a aoaeouai e aini?aiyonoaiaaoue aeayoaeueiinoe a
niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii. Iniaaiiinoue aeaiiiai oneiaey – a
aiciiaeiinoe ni/aoaoue iaa yoeo iiiaioa, iineieueeo oneiaea i ii?yaeea
?an/aoia ianao ia naaa iaeiia?aiaiii eae ooieoeeth ?aaoee?iaaiey –
ii?aaeaeaiea aoaeoueo aeaenoaee (a iniiaiii iieoiaoaey (eee
ieaoaeueueea) ii inouanoaeaieth ieaoaaeae ca iinoaaeaiiue oiaa?, oae e
ooieoeeth n?aaenoaa caueou io aiciiaeiuo iaaeiiinoaaie oiaa?a eee
iainouanoaeaiey ieaoaaeae. “Anee o/eouaaoue ieaie?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe,
oi oeaeaniia?acii oneiaey i ?an/aoao iiiauaoue a iaeiii ?acaeaea
aeiaiai?a n oneiaeai i oeaia. A iieueco oaeie no?oeoo?u iiaeaee
aeiaiai?a aiai?eo iauaaeeiaiea a iaeiii ?acaeaea ii?aaeaeeoaeueiiai
oneiaey ( i oeaia ) e eniieieoaeueiiai oneiaey ii iieaoa noieiinoe
oiaa?a, eioi?ia aiciiaeii inouanoaeoue oieueei i?e iaee/ee yoiai
ii?aaeaeeoaeueiiai oneiaey.” * 9

A AE ?O ii?iu, i?yii ?aaoee?othuea oneiaey i ?an/aoao a aeiaiai?a
iinoaaee, niaea?aeaony a no.516, a oaeaea a no.486-489. E?iia oiai,
ii?aaeaeaiea oi?iu ?an/aoia e ii?yaeea inouanoaeaiey ieaoaaea aeey
aua?aiiie oi?iu ?an/aoia onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?iaie, niaea?aeaueieny a
aeaaa 46 AE. Oaeaea nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai i?aaee, ?aaoee?othueo
iaycaiiinoe ii ?an/aoo, niaea?aeaueony a ae?oaeo i?aaiauo aeoao,
aaaeiinoaaiiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao, ooaa?aeaeaaiuo OeA ?O, Ieioeiii ?O.

I?aaeea Eiaeaena auaeaeytho iiiaio iieaou a niioiioaiee n iiiaioii
ia?aaea/e oiaa?a: iaiin?aaenoaaiii aei eee iinea ia?aaea/e oiaa?a;
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiay iieaoa; iieaoa oiaa?a, ia?aaeaiiiai a e?aaeeo
(iineaaeothuay iieaoa); iieaoa oiaa?a a ?ann?i/eo (oieaoa oeaiu
ia?aaeaiiiai oiaa?a ia n?aco iieiinoueth, a niaeaniaaiiuie /anoyie e a
niaeaniaaiiua a aeiaiai?a n?iee).

Caeanue ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aaeei aac.2 i.1 no.489 AE eiaao
eiia?aoeaiue oa?aeoa? e o?aaoao iaycaoaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey a aeiaiai?a,
anee a iai i?aaeoniio?aia iieaoa a ?ann?i/eo, oeaiu oiaa?a, n?ieia e
?acia?a ieaoaaeae. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa aeiaiai? n/eoaaony iacaeeth/aiiui,
o.a. yoe ia?a/eneaiiua oneiaey yaeythony nouanoaaiiuie aeey caeeth/aiey
aeiaiai?a.

I?e caeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a noi?iiu iiaoo aua?aoue ethaoth oi?io iieaou,
niioaaonoaothuoth aeaenoaothuaio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao. Naiaiaeiu iie
oaeaea e a auai?a n?ieia iieaou, ii caeanue nouanoaoao aua iaeia
eiia?aoeaiay ii?ia, onoaiiaeaiiay Oeacii I?aceaeaioa io 20.12.94 aiaea
“Ia iaania/aiee i?aaiii?yaeea i?e inouanoaeaiee ieaoaaeae ii
iaycaoaeuenoaai ca iinoaaeo oiaa?ia”. Oeacii onoaiaaeeaaaony, /oi
iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai aeiaiai?ia, i?aaeoniao?eaathueo iinoaaeo oiaa?ia,
yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea n?iea eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa ii ?an/aoai ca
iinoaaeaiiua ii aeiaiai?o oiaa?u. I?aaeaeueiue n?ie eniieiaiey
iaycaoaeuenoa ii ?an/aoai ca iinoaaeaiiua ii aeiaiai?o oiaa?u ?aaai o?ai
ianyoeai n iiiaioa oaeoe/aneiai iieo/aiey oiaa?ia. I?e i?aaeuyaeaiee
yoeo o?aaiaaiee I?aceaeaio enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi ianaiaa?aiaiiia
eniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa ii ?an/aoai i?aaei?eyoeyie – aeieaeieeaie, a
oaeaea iaeno?aaiaaiea i?aaei?eyoeai – e?aaeeoi?ii a noaeaaiii ii?yaeea
iaycaoaeuenoa yaeyaony iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai oeaee ia niaa?oaiea ie/oiaeiie
naeaeee e niioaaonoaothuaai oiunea noi?ii.

Oi?ia ?an/aoia aeieaeia niioaaonoaiaaoue aua?aiiiio noi?iiaie iiiaioo
iieaou a niioiioaiee n iiiaioii iinoaaee oiaa?a ii aeiaiai?o.

Iaeaieaa auaiaeiui e i?inoui aeey iinoaaueea yaeyaony oneiaea i ?an/aoao
ca oiaa? a aeaea iieiie i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaou oiaa?a, inouanoaeyaiie
a oi?ia ieaoaaeiiai ii?o/aiey iieoiaoaey naiaio aaieo ( no.863-866 AE).
Yoa oi?ia ?an/aoia iaeaieaa iaaeaaeii iaania/eaaao eniieiaiea
iaycaoaeuenoaa ii iieaoa, iineieueeo aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa iinooiatho aei
ioa?ocee oiaa?a e ia o?aaoaony ieeaeeo naycaiiuo n ?an/aoaie ?anoiaeia
ni noi?iiu iinoaaueea.

O iieoiaoaey a yoii neo/aa iao aa?aioee naiaa?aiaiiie iinoaaee oiaa?a e,
e?iia oiai, ii ca?aiaa ianao iioa?e, naycaiiua n ioaea/aieai ec iai?ioa
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, oaeoe/anee aeaaay aani?ioeaioioth nnoaeo
iinoaaueeo. Iiyoiio /anoi iieoiaoaeue ianoaeaaao ia aeeth/aiea a
aeiaiai? oneiaey iieaou i?ioea iieo/aiey n/aoia, ioa?oci/iuo e eiuo
aeieoiaioia. Yoio aeae iieaou iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny a oi?ia
aee?aaeeoeaa.

*anoi eniieuecoaony iieaoa /aeii i?ioea i?aaenoaaeaiey ?aano?ia n/aoia,
ioa?oci/iuo e eiuo niaeaniaaiiuo a aeiaiai?a aeieoiaioia ( no.877-888 AE
). Yoa oi?ia ?an/aoia oaeiaia oai, /oi oiaiueoaao aei ieieioia ?ac?ua ai
a?aiaie iaaeaeo ia?aaea/ae oiaa?a iieoiaoaeth e iieaoie aai iinoaaueeo,
iineieueeo iicaieyao inouanoaeoue yoe aeaenoaey acaeiinaycaii i?inoui
iaiaiii aeieoiaioia, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo ioa?oceo oiaa?a, ia /ae.

I?e iinoaaea ia oneiaeyo iineaaeothuae iieaou ia?aaeei eniieuecotho
iieaoo a oi?ia ieaoaaeiiai ii?o/aiey a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a
aeiaiai?a n?iea iinea iinoaaee oiaa?a, a oaeaea ?an/aou ii eieanni
(no.874-876 AE ), eioi?ua nae/an inouanoaeythony ieaoaaeiuie
o?aaiaaieyie – ii?o/aieyie (eo eniieueciaaiea ?aaoee?oaony ?acaeaeii 6
Iieiaeaiey i aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoao) eee ieaoaaeiuie o?aaiaaieyie ia
iniiaaiee oaeaa?aii e ienai OeA ?O.

No.862 AE ?O a i.1 aeaeaao aiciiaeiui inouanoaeaiea ?an/aoia e a eiuo
oi?iao i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii, onoaiiaeaiiui a niioaaonoaee n iei
aaieianeeie i?aaeeaie e i?eiaiyaiuie a aaieianeie i?aeoeea iau/ayie
aeaeiaiai iai?ioa. Oaeie oi?iie ?an/aoia iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaiea
aaenaey. “Aaenaeue a ?an/aoao oaeiaai oai. *oi iaeiia?aiaiii n
ieaoaaeiie ooieoeeae auiieiyao ooieoeee yooaeoeaiiai n?aaenoaa
iaania/aiey eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoaa ii iieaoa, iineieueeo iicaieyao
iinoaaueeo naiiio aua?aoue noaiaiue iaaeaaeiinoe eniieiaiey
iaycaoaeuenoaa ii ?an/aoai a aeiaiai?a. “ *10

?an/aou ca oiaa? ii aeiaiai?o iinoaaee iiaoo inouanoaeyoueny iooai
i?inoiai iiaaoaiey acaeiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe (no.410 AE e i.1.4
Iieiaeaiey i aaciaee/iuo ?an/aoao).

Iniiaioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee oneiaey aeiaiai?a ii ?an/aoai aoaeao
ea?aoue oeiainiaue ieai oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe iieoiaoaey
(ieaoaeueueea). Ii i?aaeinoaaeyao eioi?iaoeeth ia enoi/ieea
oeiaine?iaaiey (e?aaeeo, nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa, aoaeouea iinooieaiey io
aeieaeieeia) e ii?aaeaeyao nei?inoue aica?aoa aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa io
iineaaeothuae i?iaeaaee i?eia?aoaaiiai (iinoaaeyaiiai) oiaa?a, /oiau
?ann/eoaoueny n iinoaaueeii ca iinoaaeyaiue oiaa?.

“Aeey iinoaaueea aea aaaeii eae iiaeii auno?aa iieo/eoue aeaiaaeiua
n?aaenoaa a iieaoo iinoaaeaiiiai oiaa?a, /oiau oiaiueoeoue iioa?e io
ioaea/aiey aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoaa ec iai?ioa e cano?aoiaaoueny io
aiciiaeiie iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe iieoiaoaey (ieaoaeueueea) n
ieieiaeueiuie cao?aoaie i?e yoii. Iineieueeo aeey iinoaaueea
niia?aaeaiea cia/eoaeueiinoe ?enea oauoeia a niioiioaiee “i?eaueue e
?eneo” /aua anaai cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey i?eauee
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ii i?aaeii/eoaao iieioth i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth iieaoo ca
oiaa?u. Eiii?iienniui aa?eaioii iaaeaeo noi?iiaie, iaeaieaa /anoi
eniieuecoaiui ia i?aeoeea, yaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiay iieaoa iinea
iinoaaee ia?oee i?iaeoeoeee.” * 11

N?ie iinoaaee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaeaniaaiiua noi?iiaie e
i?aaeoniio?aiiua a aeiaiai?a a?aiaiiua ia?eiaeu, a oa/aiee eioi?uo
iinoaauee iaycai ia?aaeaoue i?iaeoeoeeth (oiaa?u) iieoiaoaeth. A
aeiaiai?a n?iee iinoaaee iiaoo ii?aaeaeyoueny neaaeothueie niiniaaie:
iooai oeacaiey oeene?iaaiiie aeaou iinoaaee; ia?eiaea a?aiaie, a oa/aiee
eioi?iai aeieaeia auoue i?iecaaaeaia iinoaaea (ianyoe, eaa?oae, aiae); n
i?eiaiaieai niaoeeaeueiuo oa?ieiia – “iaiaaeeaiiay iinoaaea”, “ni
neeaaea” e o.ae.

Eiaaea aeiaiai?ii ii?aaeaeaia iinoaaea i?iaeoeoeee /anoyie, iau/ii
ninoaaeyaony a?aoee oaeeo iinoaaie, e a iai oeacuaaaony aeaoa e
eiee/anoai eaaeaeie iinoaaeyaiie ia?oee i?iaeoeoeee (oiaa?a). Anee aea
i?e aiaeiae/iuo oneiaeyo a?aoee ia aue niaeaniaai, oi i?iaeoeoeey
aeieaeia iinoaaeyoueny ?aaiuie /anoyie e ?aaiiia?ii (no.508 AE).

Aiciiaeiinoue aein?i/iie iinoaaee ii aeiaiai?o aeieaeia auoue
i?aaeoniio?aia a oaenoa eiio?aeoa. Anee oaeia oneiaea ia iaiaa?eaaeinue
a aeiaiai?a, oi aein?i/iay iinoaaea aiciiaeia oieueei n niaeaney
iieoiaoaey. Oneiaea aein?i/iie iinoaaee i?aaeiieaaaao aein?i/ioth iieaoo
iieoiaoaeai iinoaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?iaeoeoeey,
iinoaaeaiiay aein?i/ii e i?eiyoay iieoiaoaeai, can/eouaaaony eae
iinoaaea neaaeothuaai ii a?aoeeo ia?eiaea. Anee aea iinoaauee iinoaaee
i?iaeoeoeeth aein?i/ii aac niaeaniaaiey n iieoiaoaeai, iineaaeiee ai?aaa
ioeacaoueny io aa i?eaiee aei ianooieaiey n?iea, onoaiiaeaiiiai a
aeiaiai?a eee a?aoeea iinoaaie, eioi?ue yaeyaony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth
aeiaiai?a. Oaeia aea i?aai nio?aiyaony ca iieoiaoaeai e a neo/aa
aeieain?i/iie iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee. E?iia oiai, iieoiaoaeue ai?aaa
ioeacaoueny i?eieiaoue iaeiia?aiaiii aieueooth ia?oeth oiaa?ia,
?ann/eoaiioth, niaeanii aeiaiai?o, ia iinoaaeo ii?aaeaeaiiuie /anoyie.

N?iee iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee iiaoo auoue naycaiu ia oieueei n a?aiaiiuie
aeaoaie, ii e n eaeeie-eeai aeaenoaeyie iieoiaoaey, iai?eia?,
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaoie, ia?a/eneaieai aaaina, iieo/aieai ecaauaiey ec
aaiea i iinooieaiee aee?aaeeoeaa e ae?. Oaeea oneiaey aeieaeiu auoue
io?aaeaiu a oaenoa aeiaiai?a iinoaaee.

A neo/aa ioeaca iieoiaoaey i?eiyoue aein?i/ii iinoaaeaiioth ii aeiaiai?o
i?iaeoeoeeth, ii aeaenoaothuei i?aaeeai, ii ai?aaa i?eiyoue aa ia
ioaaonoaaiiia o?aiaiea aac iieaou e iieaoeoue a n?ie, i?aaeoniio?aiiue
aeiaiai?ii.

“Anee, ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai n?ie iinoaaee a aeiaiai?a ia iaiai?ai
aiiaua e ia naeaeaii ieeaeeo oeacaiee i niiniaa aai ii?aaeaeaiey, oi, a
niioaaonoaee ni no.314 AE, a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iaycaoaeuenoai ia
i?aaeoniao?eaaao e ia iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue n?ie aai eniieiaiey, iii
aeieaeii auoue eniieiaii a ?acoiiue n?ie iinea aicieeiiaaiey
iaycaoaeuenoaa. ?acoiiue n?ie iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai, enoiaey ec
eiie?aoiuo oneiaee naeaeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo aeiaiai?ii, eee ec nouanoaa
iaycaoaeuenoa, a oaeaea ec iau/iuo oneiaee naeaeie iiaeiaiiai oeia. I?e
yoii o/eouaaaony ?annoiyiea, ia eioi?ia aeieaeai auoue ia?ai?aaeai
oiaa?, aeae o?ainii?oa, eiee/anoai oiaa?a e o.i.” * 12

I?e ioi?ieaiee aeiaiai?ia iinoaaee iniaaiii aaaeii iiae?iaii eceiaeeoue
a oaenoa aeiaiai?a i?ioeaaeo?o i?eaiee iieoiaoaeai iinoaaeaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee ii eiee/anoao e ea/anoao. I?e yoii iaaei o/eouaaoue
oa?aeoa?iua i?eciaee i?iaeoeoeee, ioaeaeueiua iiaeaeaiey eae iinoaaueea,
oae e iieoiaoaey, iniaaiiinoe aa aeinoaaee e aeaeueiaeoaai
eniieueciaaiey.

Ia?yaeo n caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie aeaenoaotho ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou,
?aaeaiaioe?othuea aii?inu iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee, i?eaiee e o?aiaiey:
“Eino?oeoeey i ii?yaeea i?eaiee i?iaeoeoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey e oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai
iio?aaeaiey ii ea/anoao “ (ooa.Iino.Aina?aeo?aaea NNN? io 29.12.73 aiaea
?81 e io 14.11.74 aiaea ?98); “Eino?oeoeey i ii?yaeea i?eaiee
i?iaeoeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiai iacia/aiey e oiaa?ia
ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey ii eiee/anoao” (ooa. Iino. Aina?aeo?aaea NNN? io
15.06.65 aiaea ?I-a).

Eniieiaiea aeiaiai?a iinoaaee. Iaycaiiinoe noi?ii.

Aeiaiai? iinoaaee yaeyaony aeaonoi?iiiei, iiyoiio e iinoaauee, e
iieoiaoaeue eiatho iaycaoaeuenoaa ii aai eniieiaieth.

Aeiaiai? aeieaeai auoue eniieiai iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii a niioaaonoaee n
iieiaeaieyie naiiai aeiaiai?a eee a niioaaonoaee n oeacaieyie caeiia.

Aeiaiai? iinoaaee eniieiyaony, eae i?aaeei, ii /anoyi, oae eae iineo
aeeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, iiyoiio iiiaio eniieiaiey eanaaony oie /anoe
iinoaaee, eioi?ay aeieaeia auoue eniieiaia a niioaaonoaothuee ia?eiae.
Eniieiaiea anaai aeiaiai?a a oeaeii neeaaeuaaaony ec iaaeeaaeauaai
eniieiaiey ioaeaeueiuo ia?eiaeia iinoaaee.

A iniiaiua iaycaiiinoe iinoaaueea, iacaaeneii io ae?oaeo oneiaee
aeiaiai?a iinoaaee, aoiaeyo: iinoaaea i?iaeoeoeee (oiaa?ia) ia oneiaeyo
aeiaiai?a, naiaa?aiaiiia oaaaeiieaiea iieoiaoaey i aioiaiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee e ioi?aaea (ioa?ocea), iaania/aiea i?iaa?ee ea/anoaa
iinoaaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee (oiaa?a). A nayce n yoei iinoaauee iaycai: ca
naie n/ao oiaeiaaoue oiaa?u (i?iaeoeoeeth) ca eneeth/aieai oiaa?ia,
eioi?ua i?eiyoi iinoaaeyoue aac oiaeiaee; ianoe ?ene e ?anoiaeu ii
o?ainii?oe?iaea aei iiiaioa i?aaeinoaaeaiey oiaa?a iieoiaoaeth a ianoa,
onoaiiaeaiiii oneiaeyie iinoaaee, e a iaoneiaeaiiue aeiaiai?ii n?ie.

Oneiaeyie iinoaaee iiaoo auoue iaiai?aiu aeaeu oiaeiaee e ia?ee?iaee
i?iaeoeoeee, iniaaiiinoe iia?ocee ia o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, niiniau
aeinoaaee aei iniiaiiai ia?aaic/eea, iia?ocee ia iniiaiie o?ainii?o e
iieaoa aai oneoa, aua?ocee ia neeaae i?aaei?eyoey, aii?inu no?aoiaaiey
iniiaiie ia?aaicee. Ii oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a iinoaaee iinoaauee iiaeao
iinoaaeyoue oiaa? oieueei aei ia?aiai ia?aaic/eea, iieaoea i?e yoii
iia?oceo ia o?ainii?oiia n?aaenoai e aeinoaaeo i?iaeoeoeee aei iniiaiiai
ia?aaic/eea. Aeaeaa ana ?enee e ?anoiaeu ianao iieoiaoaeue. Anee
aeiaiai?ii i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi iieoiaoaeue auaiceo i?iaeoeoeeth (oiaa?)
ni neeaaea iinoaaueea (eee ecaioiaeoaey), oi ana iaycaiiinoe ii
o?ainii?oe?iaea e ?eneo neo/aeiie aeaaee eiaeaony ia iieoiaoaey.

Iiiaio ia?aoiaea ia iieoiaoaey ?enea neo/aeiie aeaaee eee ii?/e
i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeyao iiiaio ia?aoiaea e iaio i?aa nianoaaiiinoe. N
yoiai iiiaioa ana ?anoiaeu e oauoee, naycaiiua n oie/oiaeaieai eee
ii?/ae oiaa?a ii i?e/eiai, ia caaenyuei ie io iinoaaueea, ie io
iieoiaoaey, ianao oieueei iieoiaoaeue. Iiiaio ia?aoiaea i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony ii iauei i?aaeeai i iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey
i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe o i?eia?aoaoaey ii aeiaiai?o (no.223 AE).
I?eia?aoaoaeue noaiiaeony nianoaaiieeii a iiiaio iieo/aiey eiouanoaa,
a?o/aiey oiaa?i?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia ia iaai iieoiaoaeth, a
?aaii naea/e eiouanoaa o?ainii?oiie i?aaiecaoeee, aeey ioi?aaee
iieoiaoaeth eee ia ii/oo aeey ia?anueee, anee ii oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a
i?iaeaaaoe (iinoaauee) ia iaycai aeinoaaeyoue iieoiaoaeth i?eia?aoaiiia
ei eiouanoai.

Aeiai eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoaa ii iinoaaea n/eoaaony: a) i?e ia?aaea/a
oiaa?a ia neeaaea iieoiaoaey eee iinoaaueea – aeaiue, eioi?ue
ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoie i?eaii-naeaoi/iiai aeoa, eeai ?anienee a iieo/aiee
oiaa?a; a) aeaiue ia?aaea/e oiaa?a ia?aaic/eeo eee i?aaio nayce, eioi?ue
ii?aaeaeyaony aeaoie ia o?ainii?oiii aeieoiaioa eeai ia aeieoiaioa
i?aaia nayce. Ii niaeaoaieth noi?ii a aeiaiai?a iiaeao auoue
i?aaeoniio?ai eiie iiiaio eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoaa.

Eae e a ae?oaeo aeiaiai?ao, iiin?aaeothueo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea
ioiioaiey, aein?i/iia eniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa aeiioneaaony eeoue ii
niaeaoaieth noi?ii. Iniaaiiinoueth aeiaiai?a iinoaaee yaeyaony i?aaeei,
a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui oiaa?u, iinoaaeaiiua aein?i/ii e i?eiyoua
iieoiaoaeai, can/eouaathony a n/ao eiee/anoaa oiaa?ia, iiaeeaaeaueo
iinoaaea a neaaeothuai ia?eiaea (i.3 no.508 AE).

I?eieiay ai aieiaiea aeieain?i/iue oa?aeoa? aeiaiai?iuo ioiioaiee
noi?ii, eiaaea auiieiaiea iinoaaueeii naieo iaycaiiinoae i?ienoiaeeo
iooai iiiaie?aoiuo ioa?ocie ioaeaeueiuo ia?oee oiaa?ia a
niioaaonoaothuea ia?eiaeu iinoaaee, aaaeiia cia/aiea a iinoaai/iuo
ioiioaieyo i?eia?aoaao ?aaoee?iaaiea ii?yaeea ainiieiaiey iaaeiiinoaaee
oiaa?ia. Iinoaauee, aeiionoeaoee iaaeiiinoaaeo a ioaeaeueiii ia?eiaea,
iaycai ainiieieoue iaaeiiinoaaeaiiia eiee/anoai oiaa?ia a neaaeothuai
ia?eiaea (ia?eiaeao) a i?aaeaeao n?iea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a, anee eiia ia
aoaeao i?aaeoniio?aii aeiaiai?ii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ainiieiaiea
iaaeiiinoaaee oiaa?ia ca i?aaeaeaie n?iea aeaenoaey aeiaiai?a aiciiaeii
oieueei i?e iaee/ee niioaaonoaothuaai oneiaey a aeiaiai?a.

“Oaea ia noaaeee iiaeaioiaee i?iaeoa aeiaiai?a e a oiaea aai caeeth/aiey
oeaeaniia?acii aeeth/eoue a aeiaiai? oneiaey, eanathueany i?ioeanna
eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a. A /anoiinoe, ca?aiaa neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue
ii?yaeie ainiieiaiey iaaeiiinoaaee oiaa?ia. A?aeo?aaeii-noaeaaiay
i?aeoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi ec-ca eaii?e?iaaiey iiaeiaiuo aii?inia
ia?aaeei aicieeatho eiioeeeoiua neooaoeee.” * 13

A neo/aa iinoaaee iaea/anoaaiiiai oiaa?a iieoiaoaeue a niioaaonoaee n
i.1 no.475 AE eiaao (ii naiaio auai?o) i?aai: o?aaiaaoue io iinoaaueea
ono?aiaiey iaaeinoaoeia oiaa?a, iacia/ea aeey yoiai i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
ni?acia?iue n?ie; ioeacaoueny io iieaou oiaa?a a oie i?iii?oeee, a eaeie
noieiinoue, eioi?oth oaeoe/anee iinoaaeaiiue oiaa? eiae ia iiiaio
iinoaaee, niioiineony ni noieiinoueth, eioi?oth ia oio aea iiiaio eiae
au oiaa? iaaeeaaeauaai ea/anoaa; ono?aieoue iaaeinoaoee oiaa?a ca n/ao
iinoaaueea, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii oaaaeiiea aai ia yoii. Anee
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai oaaaeiieaiey ia auei, oi iinoaauee eiaao i?aai ia
iiea/eaaoue noieiinoue ono?aiaiey iaaeinoaoeia.

Anee iinoaaea oiaa?a iaiaaeeaaeauaai ea/anoaa yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui
ia?ooaieai aeiaiai?a, o.a. aea/ao aeey iieoiaoaey oaeie oua?a, /oi ii a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eeoaaony oiai, ia /oi aue ai?aaa ?ann/eouaaoue,
caeeth/ay aeiaiai? (iaia?oaeaiea iaono?aieiuo iaaeinoaoeia,
iaaeinoaoeia, eioi?ua ia iiaoo auoue ono?aiaiu a ioiioaiee aeaiiiai
iieoiaoaey aac iani?acia?iuo ?anoiaeia eee cao?ao a?aiaie eee
i?iyaeythony aiiaue iinea eo ono?aiaiey e o.i. iaaeinoaoeia),
iieoiaoaeue iiaeao iio?aaiaaoue caiaiu oiaa?a (i.2 no.475 AE).

Caeiiiaeaoaeue ioaeaeueii eiie?aoece?oao iineaaenoaey iinoaaee
iaeiiieaeoiuo oiaa?ia (no.519 AE), a oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeyao iieoiaoaeth
i?aai i?eia?anoe iaiinoaaeaiiua oiaa?u o ae?oaeo eeoe n ioianaieai anao
iaiaoiaeeiuo e ?acoiiuo ?anoiaeia ii eo i?eia?aoaieth ia iinoaaueea a
neo/aa iaaeiiinoaaee oiaa?a eeai iaauiieiaiey o?aaiaaiey i caiaia
iaaeia?iea/anoaaiiiai oiaa?a eee i aai aeioeiiieaeoiaaiee a
onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie (i.1 no.520 AE). E?iia oiai, iieoiaoaeue ai?aaa
ioeacaoueny io iieaou oiaa?ia iaiaaeeaaeauaai ea/anoaa e iaeiiieaeoiuo,
a anee iie oaea iiea/aiu, iio?aaiaaoue aica?aoa oiea/aiiuo noii ai?aaeue
aei ono?aiaiey iaaeinoaoeia e aeioeiiieaeoiaaiey oiaa?ia eeai eo caiaiu
(i.2 no.520 AE).

A neo/ayo, eiaaea aeiaiai?ii i?aaeoniio?aii i?aai iieoiaoaey aeaaaoue
iinoaaueeo oeacaiea ia ioa?ocea oiaa?ia iieo/aoaeyi (ioa?oci/iua
?acia?yaeee), ioa?ocea oiaa?ia aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoueny iinoaaueeii oai
iieo/aoaeyi, eioi?ua iaicia/aiu a ioa?oci/iie ?acia?yaeea. Niaea?aeaiea
ioa?oci/iie ?acia?yaeee e n?iee aa iai?aaeaiey iieoiaoaeai iinoaaueeo
ii?aaeaeythony aeiaiai?ii.

“I?e iaee/ee a aeiaiai?a oneiaey i iinoaaea oiaa?ia ii ioa?oci/iui
?acia?yaeeai iieoiaoaey iaycaiiinoe iinoaaueea neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue
eae auiieiyaiua a ii?yaeea ano?a/iiai eniieiaiey (no.328 AE).
Iai?aaenoaaeaiea iieoiaoaeai ioa?oci/iie ?acia?yaeee a onoaiiaeaiiue
n?ie aeaao iinoaaueeo i?aai ioeacaoueny io eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a eeai
i?einoaiiaeoue ioa?ocee oiaa?ia.” *14

Iieoiaoaeue (iieo/aoaeue) iaycai niaa?oeoue ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeaenoaey,
iaania/eaathuea i?eiyoea oiaa?ia, iinoaaeaiiuo a niioaaonoaee n
aeiaiai?ii (i.1 no.513 AE).

A iaycaiiinoe iieoiaoaey aeeth/aaony: i?eiyoue caeacaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth
(oiaa?u) eeai oiaa?i?anii?yaeeoaeueiua aeieoiaiou ia iaa a oii ianoa e a
n?ie, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho oneiaeyi aeiaiai?a iinoaaee; iieaoeoue
i?iaeoeoeeth (oiaa?u) a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?ii; ianoe ana ?anoiaeu e
?enee neo/aeiie aeaaee, eioi?ui iiaeao auoue iiaeaa?aiooa iinoaaeaiiay
i?iaeoeoeey iinea ia?aoiaea ia iaa i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. E?iia oiai,
/oiau eneeth/eoue iinoaaeo iieoiaoaeth iaea/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia,
i?ineaaeeoue auiieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa iinoaaueeii, iinoaaeaiiay
i?iaeoeoeey i?eieiaaony ii eiee/anoao (eiiieaeoiinoe) e ea/anoao.
Oneiaey aeiaiai?a iinoaaee aeieaeiu i?aaeoniao?eaaoue ianoi i?eaiee
oiaa?a. I?eai i?iaeoeoeee ii eiee/anoao e ea/anoao i?iecaiaeeony a
iiiaio e a ianoa ia?aoiaea n iinoaaueea ia iieoiaoaey i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe ia eiouanoai iaeiia?aiaiii n ia?aoiaeii ?enea neo/aeiie
aeaaee eiouanoaa eee aai iia?aaeaeaiey.

I?iaa?ea i?iaeoeoeee ii eiee/anoao e ea/anoao caaeneo io aa
oa?aeoa?enoee. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iinoaaeythony iaoeiu, noaiee,
neiaeiia iai?oaeiaaiea, oi eo i?iaa?ytho a ?aaioa. I?e yoii iieoiaoaeth
aeieaeii auoue i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai cayaeoue ?aeeaiaoeee a oa/aiea
aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiiai n?iea (iau/ii – 6-12 ianyoeaa). I?e iinoaaea
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia i?eaiea ii ea/anoao aoaeao caeeth/aoueny ai
aiaoiai iniio?a e yenia?oeca. I??iaiaeeony iia ia iniiaaiee aeieoiaioia,
eioi?ua iiaeoaa?aeaeatho ea/anoai oiaa?ia, aeaoo i?iecaiaenoaa, n?ie e
oneiaey o?aiaiey e o.ae.

“ Niiniau e n?iee i?aaeuyaeaiey i?aoaicee e iinoaaueeo ii ea/anoao
iinoaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (oiaa?a) aeieaeiu auoue iaycaoaeueii
i?aaeonii?aiu a oaenoa aeiaiai?a eee ?anniao?eaaoueny a i?eeiaeaiee e
iaio. Eiaao niune ii?aaeaeeoue niinia oaeiaeaoai?aiey i?aoaicee. Yoi
iiaeao auoue, iai?eia?, ono?aiaiea auyaeaiiiai aeaoaeoa a niaeaniaaiiua
n?iee, /anoe/iay eee iieiay caiaia iaea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, ooeaiea e
o.ae. Anee a aeiaiai?a iao oeacaiee ia yoio n/ao, oi i?aaa iieoiaoaey
ii?aaeaeythony aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii. “ * 15

“ Iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia iniaua i?aaiii/ey iieoiaoaey ii
aeiaiai?o iinoaaee oiaa?ia, eioi?uie ia iaaeaeai iieoiaoaeue ii
aeiaiai?o eoiee – i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia, a neo/aa, eiaaea iinoaaueeii ia
auiieiaiu iaycaiiinoe ii iinoaaea iaoneiaeaiiiai aeiaai?ii eiee/anoaa
oiaa?ia eeai ia oaeiaeaoai?aiu o?aaiaaiey iieoiaoaey i caiaia
iaaeia?iea/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia eee i aeioeiiieaeoiaaiee oiaa?ia a
ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie. A iiaeiaiuo neooaoeeyo iieoiaoaeue iieo/aao i?aai
i?eia?anoe iaiinoaaeaiiua oiaa?u o ae?oaeo eeoe n iineaaeothuei
ioianaieai ia iinoaaueea anao iaiaoiaeeiuo e ?acoiiuo ?anoiaeia ia eo
i?eia?aoaiea (no.520). ” * 16

Iieoiaoaeue iiaeao oaeaea ainiieueciaaoueny i?aaii ioeacaoueny io iieaou
oiaa?ia iaiaaeeaaeauaai ea/anoaa eeai iaeiiieaeoiuo, a anee iie oaea
iiea/aiu, iio?aaiaaoue io iinoaueea aica?aoa oiea/aiiuo noii ai?aaeue
aei ono?aiaiey iaaeinoaoeia e aeioeiiieaeoiaaiey oiaa?ia eeai eo caiaiu.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi i?e iinoaaeao oiaa?ia eiino?aiiui iinoaaueeii
iieoiaoaeue oiaa?ia auiieiyao ana iaycaiiinoe ii eo aeaeea?e?iaaieth e
ianao a iieiii iauaia ioaaonoaaiiinoue, i?aaeoniio?aiioth Oaiiaeaiiui
eiaeaenii, e?iia neo/aaa, onoaiiaeaiiuo caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii (no.172
Oaiiaeaiiiai eiaeaena).

Oneiaey aeiaiai?a iinoaaee a ia?eiae aai eniieiaiey iiaoo auoue eciaiaiu
ii acaeiiiio niaeaneth noi?ii. Noi?iiu iiaoo aeinoe/ue niaeaoaiey i
aein?i/iii ?anoi?aeaiee aeiaiai?a. Oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo aeiioneaaony
iaeiinoi?iiiaa ?anoi?aeaiea aeiaiai?a, aeieaeiu auoue i?aaeoniio?aiiu
aeiaiai?ii. Iaeiinoi?iiiee ioeac io eniieiaiey aeiaiai?a iinoaaee
(iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii) eee iaeiinoi?iiiaa aai eciaiaiea
aeiioneathony oieueei a neo/aa nouanoaaiiiai ia?ooaiey aeiaiai?a iaeiie
ec noi?ii (no.523 AE). Aeiaiai? aoaeao n/eoaony eciaiaiui eee
?anoi?aiooui n iiiaioa iieo/aiey iaeiie noi?iiie oaaaeiieaiey i
?anoi?aeaiee aeiaiai?a iieiinoueth eee /anoe/ii, anee eiie n?ie
?anoi?aeaiey eee eciaiaiey aeaiiiai aeiaiai?a ia i?aaeoniio?ai a
oaaaeiieaiee eeai ia ii?aaeaeai niaeaoaieai noi?ii.

A?aaeaeaineee eiaeaen a no.452 ii?aaeaeyao ii?yaeie eciaiaiey e
?anoi?aeaiey aeiaiai?a: niaeaoaiea ia yoii niaa?oaaony a oie aea oi?ia,
/oi e aeiaiai?, anee ec caeiia, eiuo i?aaiauo aeoia, aeiaiai?a eee
iau/aaa aeaeiaiai iai?ioa ia auoaeaao eiia. O?aaiaaiea ia eciaiaiee eee
?anoi?aeaiee aeiaiai?a iiaeao auoue cayaeaii noi?iiie a a?aeo?aaeiue
noae oieueei iinea iieo/aiey ioeaca ae?oaie noi?iiu ia i?aaeeiaeaiea
eciaieoue eee ?anoi?aiooue aeiaiai? eeai iaiieo/aiey ioaaoa a n?ie,
oeacaiiue a i?aaeeiaeaiee eee onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiii eeai aeiaiai?ii, a
i?e aai ionoonoaee – a 30-aeiaaiue n?ie.

A aeiaiai?a noi?iiai neaaeoao onoaiiaeoue ii?yaeie ?ac?aoaiey nii?ia,
aicieeathueo i?e eniieiaiee aeiaiai?ia.

Aeaenoaothuaa caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?aai iioa?iaaoae
noi?iiu ia?aoeoueny a a?aeo?aaeiue noae ca caueoie ia?ooaiiuo i?aa
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinea eo ia?ooaiey (aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
o?aaoee?iaaiey ?aciiaeanee a i?aoaiceiiiii ii?yaeea).

“ A?aeo?aaeii-noaeaaiay i?aeoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi aeey
?inneeneeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae yoi iiaiaaaaeaiea ieacaeinue iaoaeiaiui e
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiui. Oicyenoaaiieee i?eaueee e i?aoaiceiiiiio ii?yaeeo
o?aaoee?iaaiey ?aciiaeanee e iioiio iieo/aiea eie eiiee eneiauo
cayaeaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo a a?aeo?aaeiue noae, neoaeeo aeey ieo neaiaeii i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe n?i/iiai ?anniio?aiey cayaeaiiuo o?aaiaaiee. I?aaiia?iua
o?aaiaaiey oaeiaeaoai?ythony, a cayaeoaee ia?auathony a a?aeo?aaeiue
noae n oiaeaoaenoaii i aica?aoa eneiauo cayaeaiee. Ii aica?ao eneiaiai
cayaeaiey aiciiaeai oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee iii aua ia i?eiyoi
a?aeo?aaeiui noaeii e ia iacia/aia aeaoa ?anniio?aiey. Eae i?aaeei, yoe
i?ioeannoaeueiua aeaenoaey a?aeo?aaeiui noaeii oaea inouanoaeaiu e nii?,
eioi?iai i?aeoe/anee ia nouanoaoao, ?anniao?eaaaony ii nouanoao n
acuneaieai n aeiiaiie noi?iiu a?aeo?aaeiuo ?anoiaeia.” * 17

4. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue noi?ii ii aeiaiai?o iinoaaee.

Aaaeiui ?acaeaeii aeiaiai?a iinoaaee yaeyaony aai /anoue, a eioi?ie
onoaiaaeeaathony aeaeu e ia?u ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia?ooaiea aeiaiai?iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa e ii?yaeie aa i?eiaiaiey.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue noi?ii ii aeiaiai?o iinoaaee oa?aeoa?ecoaony
neaaeothueie iniiaiuie i?eciaeaie:

– i?eiaiaiea naieoeee ca iaeniieiaiea e iaiaaeeaaeauaa eniieiaiea
oneiaee aeiaiai?a iinoaaee yaeyaony i?aaii, a ia iaycaiiinoueth noi?ii;

-noi?iiu iiaoo onoaiaaeeaaoue a aeiaiai?a naieoeee ii naiaio
oniio?aieth, anee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ia i?aaeoniio?aii iaycaoaeueiuo
naieoeee, a oaeaea oaaee/eaaoue ?acia?u naieoeee, onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii;

-ioaaonoaaiiinoue noi?ii ca iaeniieiaiea eee iaiaaeeaaeauaa eniieiaiea
aeiaiai?a iinoaaee iiaeao ianooieoue e aac iaee/ey eo aeiu a yoii,
iineieueeo no.401 AE onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii
caeiiii eee aeiaiai?ii, eeoei, ia eniieieaoaa eee iaiaaeeaaeauei ia?acii
eniieieaoaa iaycaoaeuenoai i?e inouanoaeaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue, anee aeieaaeao, /oi iaaeeaaeauaa
eniieiaiea ieacaeinue iaaiciiaeiui aneaaenoaea iai?aiaeieeiie neeu, o.a.
/?acau/aeiuo e iai?aaeioa?aoeiuo i?e aeaiiuo oneiaeyo ianoiyoaeuenoa.
E oaeei ianoiyoaeuenoaai ia ioiinyony, a /anoiinoe, ia?ooaiea
iaycaiiinoae ni noi?iiu eiio?aaaioia aeieaeieea, ionoonoaea ia ?uiea
ioaeiuo aeey eniieiaiea oiaa?ia, ionoonoaea o aeieaeieea iaiaoiaeeiuo
aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa;

-oi?iaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe noi?ii ii aeiaiai?o iinoaaee yaeythony auieaoa
iaonoieee e aiciauaiea oauoeia;

-ii iauaio i?aaeeo iaonoieea yaeyaony ca/aoiie, oae eae i?e/eiaiiua
iaeniieiaieai aeiaiai?a oauoee aiciauathny a noiia, ia iie?uoie
iaonoieeie (i.1 no.394);

-a niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiii iieiiai aiciauaiey oauoeia aiciauaieth
iiaeeaaeao iaa aeaea oauoeia: iieiaeeoaeueiue oua?a a eiouanoaa e
oiouaiiay auaiaea (i.2 no.15).

Iniiaaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe iinoaaueea a aeiaiai?a iinoaaee neaaeothuea:
i?in?i/ea oiaa?a – ia?aaea/a iinoaaueeii iieoiaoaeth oiaa?a iinea
enoa/aiey n?iea iinoaaee, i?aaeoniio?aiiiai aeiaiai?ii; iaaeiiinoaaea –
ia?aaea/a iinoaaueeii iieoiaoaeth a onoaiiaeaiiue n?ie iaiueoaai
eiee/anoaa oiaa?a, /ai i?aaeoniio?aii aeiaiai?ii; iinoaaea
iaea/anoaaiiiai oiaa?a; iinoaaea iaeiiieaeoiiai oiaa?a.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi AE ?O ?aaoee?oao eeoue iauea aii?inu
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia?ooaiea aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa ii aeiaiai?o
iinoaaee, i?aaeinoaaeyy noi?iiai i?aai naiinoiyoaeueii onoaiiaeoue a
aeiaiai?a ?acia?u oo?aoia e ii?yaeie eo acuneaiey. AE aeiioneaao
onoaiiaeaiea naieoeee caeiiii eee eiuie i?aaiauie aeoaie.

Iau/ii ca ia?ooaiey ni noi?iiu iinoaaueea aeaiiay noi?iia auiea/eaaao
iieoiaoaeth iaonoieeo a i?ioeaioiii ioiioaiee e noieiinoe ia
iinoaaeaiiiai a n?ie oiaa?a. A niioaaonoaee ni no.330 AE iaonoieea
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?aaeaeaiioth a aeiaiai?a eee caeiia aeaiaaeioth
noiio, eioi?oth aeieaeiee iaycai oieaoeoue e?aaeeoi?o i?e iaeniieiaiee
eee iaiaaeeaaeauai eniieiaiee iaycaoaeuenoa, a /anoiinoe i?e i?in?i/ea
eniieiaiey. Iaonoieea iineo oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa?. I?aeoe/anee ethaia
iaycaoaeuenoai, yaeythuaany aeaenoaeoaeueiui ii caeiio, iiaeii
iaania/eoue iaonoieeie. I?e yoii caaeaaia?aiaiii oeacuaaaony eiie?aoiay
oeeo?a iaonoieee, e i?e iaeniieiaiee iaycaoaeuenoaa aeiiaiay noi?iia
aeieaeia caieaoeoue eiaiii yoi noiio, iacaaeneii io ?aaeueiiai ?acia?a
oauoeia ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?aaii eae e i?e eo ionoonoaee.

Iaonoieea iiaeao auoue “caeiiiie” e aeiaiai?iie. Caeiiiay iaonoieea
i?aaeoniio?aia o?aaiaaieyie caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ii?aaeaeyaony
ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie a oaa?aeie noiia eeai a i?ioeaioao e aeaiaaeiie
ioeaiea iaycaoaeuenoa. Iaonoieea, onoaiiaeaiiay ii?iaoeaiuie aeoaie,
i?eiaiyaony noi?iiaie aeiaiai?a iacaaeneii io oiai, aini?iecaaaeaiu eee
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu niioaaonoaothuea ii?iu a oaenoa aeiaiai?a iinoaaee.
Niaeanii no.331 AE aeiaiai?iay iaonoieea onoaiaaeeaaaony ii niaeaoaieth
noi?ii e iaycaoaeueii a ienueiaiiie oi?ia iacaaeneii io oi?iu iniiaiiai
iaycaoaeuenoaa. Ianiaethaeaiea yoiai o?aaiaaiey aea/ao
iaaeaenoaeoaeueiinoue niaeaoaiey noi?ii i iaonoieea.

Iineieueeo acuneaiea iaonoieee i?aaeiieaaaao iaauiieiaiea eee
iaiaaeeaaeauaa auiieiaiea aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa, oi o?aaiaaiea ia
oieaoa iaonoieee iiaeao niaiaaeaoue n o?aaiaaieai i aiciauaiee oauoeia.
A aeiaiai?ao iinoaaee aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao iaonoieea ca iaaeiiinoaaeo
e i?in?i/eo iinoaaee oiaa?ia ( no.521 AE). Onoaiiaeaiiay caeiiiaeaoaeai
eee oneiaeyie aeiaiai?a iaonoieea ca iaaeiiinoaaeo eee i?in?i/eo
iinoaaee caeacaiiie i?iaeoeoeee acuneeaaaony n iinoaaueea aei
oaeoe/aneiai eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoaa a i?aaeaeao aai iaycaiiinoe
ainiieieoue iaaeiiinoaaeaiiia eiee/anoai i?iaeoeoeee a iineaaeothueo
ia?eiaeao iinoaaee, anee caeiiii eee aeiaiai?ii ia i?aaeoniio?ai eiie
ii?yaeie oieaou iaonoieee.

Eiiaaea i?eiaiyaony oo?aoiay iaonoieea. A yoii neo/aa n aeiiaiie noi?iiu
oauoee acuneeaathony a iieiii ?acia?a, aac o/aoa iaoiea/aiiie iaonoieee.
Oaeei ia?acii, iieoiaoaeue iieo/aao anth noiio iaonoieee e iieiia
aiciauaiea oauoeia. Oo?aoioth iaonoieeo eniieuecotho a neo/aa iinoaaee
i?iaeoeoeee iaiaaeeaaeauaai ea/anoaa, eiaaea iinea ono?aiaiey
iinoaaueeii auyaeaiiuo iaaeinoaoeia o iio?aaeoaey (iieoiaoaey) inoathony
iaiie?uoua ?anoiaeu (oauoee). Oiaaea a niioaaonoaee ni no.393 AE
aeieaeiee iaycai aicianoeoue e?aaeeoi?o oauoee, i?e/eiaiiua
iaiaaeeaaeauei eniieiaieai iaycaoaeuenoa.

Iniiaiie oi?iie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaeniieiaiea iaycaoaeuenoa n/eoaaony
aiciauaiea oauoeia. Iioa?iaaoay noi?iia eiaao i?aai o?aaiaaoue
aiciauaiey oauoeia a ethaii neo/aa, anee eiia ia i?aaeoniio?aii
aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eee oneiaeyie aeiaiai?a. Anee a
aeiaiai?a ia iaiai?ai aii?in i aiciauaiee oauoeia, oi yoi i?aaenoaaeyao
i?aai e?aaeeoi?o o?aaiaaoue iieiiai aiciauaiey oauoeia a niioaaonoaee ni
no.15 AE. Iieiia aiciauaiea oauoeia aeeth/aao a naay eae ?aaeueiue oua?a
– ?anoiaeu, iiianaiiua iioa?iaaoae noi?iiie, oo?aoo eee iia?aaeaeaiea aa
eiouanoaa, oae e oiouaiioth auaiaeo, eioi?oth e?aaeeoi? iia au iieo/eoue
i?e iaaeeaaeauai auiieiaiee iaycaoaeuenoaa, anee au aai i?aaa ii
aeiaiai?o ia auee au ia?ooaiu. Ia e?aaeeoi?a aiceaaaaony iaycaiiinoue
aeieacaoue iauai iiianaiiuo oauoeia e i?e/eiioth naycue iaaeaeo ieie e
ia?ooaieai oneiaee caeeth/aiiiai aeiaiai?a iinoaaee.

Anee a aeiaiai?a iinoaaee ionoonoaoao oneiaea ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
iai?eia?, ca i?in?i/eo iieaou iinoaaeaiiiai oiaa?a (i.3 no.486 AE) e iao
nnueee ia eiua ii?iaoeaiua aeou, noi?iiu iiaoo ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny i.8
Iinoaiiaeaiey I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?O e I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io
25.05.92 aiaea “I iaioeiaeiuo ia?ao ii oeo/oaieth ?an/aoia a ia?iaeiii
oicyenoaa e iiauoaiee ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee ca eo oeiainiaia
ninoiyiea”, aaea aeaiiay iaonoieea a aeaea iaie onoaiiaeaia a ?acia?a
0,5% a aeaiue ca i?in?i/eo ieaoaaea iinoaaeaiiiai oiaa?a. “ O/eouaay,
/oi oeacaiiui iinoaiiaeaieai aiciiaeiinoue acuneaiey iaie naycuaaaony n
i?in?i/eie iieaou oaea iinoaaeaiiiai oiaa?a e ia i?eiaiyaony, anee
iieoiaoaeai ia?ooaaony n?ie, onoaiiaeaiiue aeiaiai?ii aeey ia?a/eneaiey
i?aaeiieaou, oeaeaniia?acii aeeth/aoue a aeiaiai? iinoaaee naieoeee ca
i?in?i/eo iieoiaoaeai i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaou ca oiaa? ” *18

Aa?oiaiue A?aeo?aaeiue Noae ?O a Ienueia io 28.11.96 aiaea oeacae, /oi
acuneaiea oauoeia ca ia?ooaiea aeiaiai?a iinoaaee niaeanii i.8
Iinoaiiaeaiey, i?iecaiaeeony i?e i?aaenoaaeaiee aeieacaoaeuenoa,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo i?e/eiioth naycue iaaeaeo aicieeiiaaieai oauoeia e
i?in?i/eie.

“ AI cae?uoiai oeia ia?aoeeinue a a?aeo?aaeiue noae n eneii e caaiaeo i
acuneaiee caaeieaeaiiinoe ca iinoaaeaiiue oeaiaio, iaie ca i?in?i/eo
iieaou e oauoeia. ?aoaieai a?aeo?aaeiiai noaea ene aue oaeiaeaoai?ai.
Iinoaiiaeaieai aiaeeyoeeiiiie einoaioeee ?aoaiea inoaaeaii aac
eciaiaiee. Caianoeoaeue I?aaenaaeaoaey Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea ?O
i?aaeeiaeee ninoiyaoeany noaeaaiua aeou ioiaieoue, iai?aaeoue aeaei ia
iiaia ?anniio?aiea. I?aceaeeoi i?ioano oaeiaeaoai?ee ii neaaeothuei
iniiaaieyi: Caaiae ioeacaeny io iieaou noieiinoe /anoe oeaiaioa,
ioa?oaeaiiiai a aai aae?an, n/eoay aai ianiioaaonoaothuei o?aaiaaieyi
AINOa. A?aeo?aaeiue noae i?eciae iaaeieacaiiui oaeo iinoaaee oeaiaioa
iaiaaeeaaeauaai ea/anoaa, iineieueeo ioai? i?ia, i?iaa?ea ea/anoaa
inouanoaeyeenue iieo/aoaeai n ia?ooaieai o?aaiaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
noaiaea?oa, a aeou i?eaiee ia niioaaonoaiaaee o?aaiaaieyi Eino?oeoeee ?
I-7 i ii?yaeea i?eaiee i?iaeoeoeee ii ea/anoao. O/eouaay, /oi a
aeiaiai?a iinoaaee noi?iiu ia ii?aaeaeeee eiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
i?in?i/eo iieaou, a?aeo?aaeiui noaeii i?eiaiaia ioaaonoaaiiinoue,
i?aaeoniio?aiiay i.8 Iinoaiiaeaiey I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?O e
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 25.05.92 aiaea. Iiyoiio ?aoaiea a /anoe acuneaiey
iniiaiiai aeieaa ca iinoaaeaiiue oeaiaio e iaie yaeyaony iainiiaaiiui. A
/anoe acuneaiey oauoeia ?aoaiea yaeyaony iaiainiiaaiiui e iiaeeaaeeo
ioiaia, oae eae enoaoe ia i?aaenoaaee aeieacaoaeuenoa,
iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo iaee/ea i?e/eiiie nayce iaaeaeo iacaeeth/aieai ei
aeiaiai?a ia iinoaaeo i?iaeoeoeee o?aoueaio eeoeo e iaeniieiaieai
ioaao/eeii iaycaoaeuenoaa ii iieaoa oeaiaioa. A naith i/a?aaeue AI
cae?uoiai oeia ia iieiinoueth auiieieei naie iaycaoaeuenoaa ii iinoaaea
oeaiaioa, iiyoiio ioianaiea noieiinoe iaaeiiinoaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e
oiouaiiie auaiaea neaaeoao i?eciaoue iai?aaiia?iui.” (ec Iaci?a
ioaeaeueiuo iinoaiiaeaiee I?aceaeeoia Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea ?O ii
nii?ai, naycaiiui n ?an/aoaie – a Ienueia io 28.11.96 aiaea).

A AE ?O (i.3 no.486 e i.4 no.487) i?aaeoniao?eaaaony aiciiaeiinoue
ianooieaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii aeiaiai?o iinoaaee a aeaea oieaou
i?ioeaioia ca iieueciaaiea /oaeeie aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie. A no.395 AE
onoaiiaeaii, /oi ca iieueciaaiea /oaeeie aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie
aneaaenoaea eo iai?aaiia?iiai oaea?aeaiey, oeeiiaiey io eo aica?aoa,
eiie i?in?i/ee a eo oieaoa eeai iainiiaaoaeueiiai iieo/aiey eee
naa?aaeaiey ca n/ao ae?oaiai eeoea iiaeeaaeao oieaoa i?ioeaiou ia noiio
yoeo n?aaenoa. A niioaaonoaee n aeaiiie noaoueae ?acia? i?ioeaioia
ii?aaeaeyaony nouanoaothuae a ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa e?aaeeoi?a, a anee
e?aaeeoi?ii yaeyaony th?eaee/aneia eeoei, a ianoa aai iaoiaeaeaiey,
o/aoiie noaaeie aaieianeiai i?ioeaioa ia aeaiue eniieiaiey aeaiaaeiiai
iaycaoaeuenoaa eee aai niioaaonoaothuae /anoe.

Noi?iiai “iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniao?eaaoue a aeiaiai?a iinoaaee (iniaaiii
aaea ii?yaeie ?an/aoia onoaiiaeai a aeaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iieaou ca
oiaa?) oneiaea, onoaiaaeeaathuaa, /oi i?e ia?ooaiee iinoaaueeii acyouo
ia naay iaycaoaeuenoa ii iinoaaea oiaa?a iieoiaoaeue ai?aaa acuneaoue n
iaai i?ioeaiou ca iieueciaaiea /oaeeie n?aaenoaaie a ?acia?a,
ii?aaeaeaiiii i.1 no.395 AE, ia/eiay n aeaou, eiaaea iaycaoaeuenoai
iinoaaueeii aeieaeii auei auoue auiieiaii. “ * 19

Niinee

1 – “ Eiiiaioa?ee /anoe 2 AE ?O aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae”, I,1996; –
no?.35

2 – Aiioei A. “Aeiaiai? iinoaaee a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea” //
Oicyenoai e i?aai, 1996 ? 9; – no?. 113

3 – Uaiaeaaa E.I. “ Aeiaiai? iinoaaee “, Ieine,1996; – no?.11

4 – oai aea ; – no?.23

5 – oai aea ; – no?.26

6 – Ionoica?iaa A.I. , Nieiaueaaa A.A. “Aeiaiai? iinoaaee” , I,1996 ;
– no?.25

7 – oai aea ; – no?.34

8 – Aaoiei E. “Auai? oi?iu ?an/aoia a oneiaeyo aeiaiai?a iinoaaee “ //
Oicyenoai e i?aai ,1995 ? 8 ; – no?. 121

9 – Aaoiei E. ”Oi?ie?iaaiea oneiaee e caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?a
iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee ” // Oicyenoai e i?aai, 1997 ? 1; –
no?.145

10 – oai aea; – no?.149

11 – oai aea; – no?.147

12 – Ionoica?iaa A.I. , Nieiaueaaa A.A. “Aeiaiai? iinoaaee” , I,1996 ;
– no?.50

13 – Aiioei A. “Aeiaiai? iinoaaee a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea” //
Oicyenoai e i?aai, 1996 ? 9; – no?. 114

14 – “Eiiiaioa?ee /anoe 2 AE ?O aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae”, I,1996; –
no?.36

15 – Ionoica?iaa A.I. , Nieiaueaaa A.A. “Aeiaiai? iinoaaee” , I,1996 ;
– no?.52

16 – “Eiiiaioa?ee /anoe 2 AE ?O aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae”, I,1996; –
no?.37

17 – Aiioei A. “Aeiaiai? iinoaaee a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea” //
Oicyenoai e i?aai, 1996 ? 9; – no?.118

18 – Aii/a?iaa I. “ Iiaia a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai : aeiaiai?
iinoaaee e ioaaonoaaiiinoue” // Oicyenoai e i?aai, 1996 ? 7 ; – no?.113

19 – oai aea ; – no?.117 .

6. Ii?iaoeaiua aeou e eniieueciaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a

A?aaeaeaineee Eiaeaen ?O

Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O io 20.12.94 “ Ia iaania/aiee i?aaiii?yaeea i?e
inouanoaeaiee ieaoaaeae ii iaycaoaeuenoaai ca iinoaaeo oiaa?ia
(auiieiaiea ?aaio eee ieacaiea oneoa)”

Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aceaeeoia Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa ?O e I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io
25.05.92 “ I iaioeiaeiuo ia?ao ii oeo/oaieth ?an/aoia a ia?iaeiii
oicyenoaa e iiauoaiee ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee ca eo oeiainiaia
ninoiyiea “

Ienueia Aunoaai A?aeo?aaeiiai Noaea io 30.01.95 ; 07.02.95; 25.12.96 ;
28.11.96 ; 17.06.96 ; 20.03.95 .

Oaiiaeaiiue Eiaeaen ?O

Aiioei A. “Aeiaiai? iinoaaee a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea” // Oicyenoai
e i?aai, 1996 , ? 9

Aaeionia E. “ E aii?ino i i?aaiaii ?aaoee?iaaiee ioiioaiee ii aeiaiai?o
iinoaaee” // Oicyenoai e i?aai , 1995 , ? 3

Aaoiei E. “Auai? oi?iu ?an/aoia a oneiaeyo aeiaiai?a iinoaaee “ //
Oicyenoai e i?aai ,1995 ? 8

Aaoiei E. ” Oi?ie?iaaiea oneiaee e caeeth/aiea aeiaiai?a
iinoaaee i?iaeoeoeee ” // Oicyenoai e i?aai, 1997 ? 1

Aii/a?iaa I. “ Iiaia a?aaeaeaineia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai : aeiaiai?
iinoaaee e ioaaonoaaiiinoue” // Oicyenoai e i?aai, 1996 ? 7

“Eiiiaioa?ee /anoe 2 AE ?O aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae”, Iineaa, 1996

Ionoica?iaa A.I. , Nieiaueaaa A.A. “ Aeiaiai? iinoaaee ” , Iineaa, 1996

Uaiaeaaa E.I. “ Aeiaiai? iinoaaee “ , Ieine , 1996

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