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Будущее предпринимательства в России

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Aaaaeaiea .

Ethaay iaoeey ai?aeeony ieiaeaie aeayoaeueiinoe naieo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.
Ii ethaay iaoeey e eaaeaeue aa ioaeaeueiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue ai?aeyony e
naiae i?e/anoiinoueth e aiieiuaieth eaeie-eeai eiie?aoiie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eaeae. I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai eae iaeia ec
eiie?aoiuo oi?i i?iyaeaiey iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee niinianoaoao ia
oieueei iiauoaieth iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai iioaioeeaea iauanoaa, ia
oieueei nicaeaao aeaaii?eyoioth ii/ao aeey i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee
niiniaiinoae e oaeaioia eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaea, ii e aaaeao e aaeeiaieth
iaoeee, nio?aiaieth aa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeooa e iaoeeiiaeueiie ai?aeinoe.

E niaeaeaieth, a ?innee neooaoeey ana aua inoaaony eiie. O?aaeeoeeiiiay
eiiioienoe/aneay iiaeaeue iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey anaaaea aace?iaaeanue
ia iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeaaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai aeooa a iauanoaa e
i?aaei?eieiaoaey eae iineoaey oaeiai aeooa. Iiuo ia?ano?ieee (iniaaiii
aa ia/aeueiiai ia?eiaea) iieacae, /oi ioeacuaaynue ia neiaao io
o?aaeeoeeiiiie eiiioienoe/aneie iiaeaee iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey,
oaeoe/anee iu ai iiiaii i?iaeieaeaai eiaiii yoo eeieth. Iu oaea
aeinoaoi/ii io/aoeeai iniciaee, /oi, ieacuaaaony, iaei i?iaicaeaneoue
oacen, ?ac?aoathuee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, /oi iaei i?eiyoue eaeea-oi
caeiiu, niinianoaothuea yoiio… Oaeeaeoaeueiia aeaei — ?ac?aoaiea
iieo/aii, a “i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai aoia” ia iaaethaeaaony! Ii/aio?
?acaa no?aia aaaeia ?ano?naie? Eee e?ecen ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa? *oi, o ian
iao ethaeae, niiniaiuo inouanoaeyoue cia/eoaeueiua i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea
i?iaeou?

Anaiauaa iai?eyoea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iinoaiaiii ia?aoiaeeo a
iniciaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiey oneiaee aeey aai auno?aeoaai e
yooaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey. Ca i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii a ?innee aoaeouaa,
i?ioeann iaeiieaiey e?eoe/aneie iannu iaecaaaeii i?eaaaeao e
“i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiio aoio”. Iiyoiio ia aeaiiii yoaia /?acau/aeii
aaaeii eco/eoue iiaaaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaey , /oiau a iineaaenoaee ia
aeiioneaoue ioeaie , naeaeaiiuo ?aiaa . Aeaeaa y iiiuoathnue eceiaeeoue
iaoa?eae i i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa , i aai nouiinoe , aeaeao , noauaeoao
, ?acaeoee , ain. iiaeaea?aeea .

Aeaaa I I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai : nouiinoue, aeaeu, noauaeou.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a ie?a ia nouanoaoao iauai?eiyoiai ii?aaeaeaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Aia?eeaineee o/aiue, i?ioanni? ?iaa?o Oec?e/
ii?aaeaeyao “i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai eae i?ioeann nicaeaiey /aai-oi
iiaiai, /oi iaeaaeaao noieiinoueth, a i?aaei?eieiaoaey — eae /aeiaaea,
eioi?ue cao?a/eaaao ia yoi ana iaiaoiaeeiia a?aiy e neeu, aa?ao ia naay
aanue oeiainiaue, ineoieiae/aneee e nioeeaeueiue ?ene, iieo/ay a
iaa?aaeo aeaiueae e oaeiaeaoai?aiea aeinoeaiooui*. A aia?eeaineie
o/aaiie e iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a aeaaony iiiaeanoai e ae?oaeo ii?aaeaeaiee,
oa?aeoa?ecothueo i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai e i?aaei?eieiaoaey n
yeiiiie/aneie, iieeoyeiiiie/aneie, ineoieiae/aneie, oi?aaeai/aneie e
ae?oaeo oi/ae c?aiey.

Aiaeeeneee i?ioanni? Aeai Oineeia ooaa?aeaeaao: “Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui
i?aaei?eieiaoaeai yaeyaony eeoei, eioi?ia aaaeao aeaei ca naie n/ao,
ee/ii caieiaaony oi?aaeaieai aecianii e ianao ee/ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue
ca iaania/aiea iaiaoiaeeiuie n?aaenoaaie, naiinoiyoaeueii i?eieiaao
?aoaiey. Aai aiciaa?aaeaeaieai yaeyaony iieo/aiiay a ?acoeueoaoa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe i?eaueue e /oanoai oaeiaeaoai?aiey,
eioi?ia ii eniuouaaao io caiyoey naiaiaeiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii. Ii
ia?yaeo n yoei ii aeieaeai i?eiyoue ia naay aanue ?ene iioa?ue a neo/aa
aaie?ionoaa aai i?aaei?eyoey*.

Ie ca ?oaaaeii, ie o ian iiea aua ia nicaeaia iauai?eiyoay yeiiiie/aneay
oai?ey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa , oioy iio?aaiinoue a oaeie oai?ee aeaaii
oaea noaea aanueia ianouiie. “O?e aieiu” ?acaeoey oai?ee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie ooieoeee — oae oneiaii iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue
?acaeoea i?ioeanna iao/iiai iniuneaiey i?aeoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

“Ia?aay aieia”, eioi?ay aicieeea aua a XVIII a., auea naycaia n
eiioeaio?aoeeae aieiaiey ia ianaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeai ?enea. “Aoi?ay
aieia” a iao/iii iniuneaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa naycaia n auaeaeaieai
eiiiaaoeeiiiinoe eae aai iniiaiie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?ou. “O?aouey aieia”
ioee/aaony nin?aaeioi/aieai aieiaiey ia iniauo ee/iinoiuo ea/anoaao
i?aaei?eieiaoaey (niiniaiinoue ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiey yeiiiie/aneie e
iauanoaaiiie neooaoeee, naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a auai?a e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee,
iaee/ea oi?aaeai/aneeo niiniaiinoae) e ia ?iee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa eae
?aaoee?othuaai ia/aea a o?aaiiaaoeaathuae yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia.

Nia?aiaiiue yoai ?acaeoey oai?ee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie ooieoeee iiaeii
ioianoe e “/aoaa?oie aieia”, iiyaeaiea eioi?ie naycuaaaony n ia?aiinii
aeoeaioa ia oi?aaeai/aneee aniaeo a aiaeeca aeaenoaee i?aaei?eieiaoaey,
a neaaeiaaoaeueii — n ia?aoiaeii ia iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iue o?iaaiue
aiaeeca i?iaeai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo oaeaeyaony aieiaiea ia
oieueei i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao eae niiniao aaaeaiey aeae ia
naiinoiyoaeueiie, iacaaeneiie iniiaa, ii e aioo?eoe?iaiiiio
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao, eee eio?ai?aia?noao . Oa?iei “eio?ai?aia?” aue
aaaaeai a iai?io aia?eeaineei enneaaeiaaoaeai A. Ieioi. Ii aea aia?aua
eniieueciaae e ae?oaie oa?iei, i?iecaiaeiue io ia?aiai, —
“eio?aeaieoae”.

Iiyaeaiea eio?ai?aia?noaa naycaii n oai oaeoi?ii, /oi iiiaea e?oiiua
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua no?oeoo?u ia?aoiaeyo ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth oi?io
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa. Iineieueeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai
i?aaeiieaaaao iaycaoaeueiia iaee/ea naiaiaeu oai?/anoaa, oi
iiae?acaeaeaiey oeaeinoiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo no?oeoo? iieo/atho i?aai ia
naiaiaeo aeaenoaee, /oi iiae?acoiaaaao e iaee/ea e i o ? a e a i e o a e
a — eaieoaea, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ?aaeecaoeee eaeae, eaaeaueo a iniiaa
aioo?eoe?iaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai — yoi iniaue aeae yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe (iiae
eioi?ie iu iiieiaai oeaeaniia?acioth aeayoaeueiinoue, iai?aaeaiioth ia
ecaea/aiea i?eauee), eioi?ay iniiaaia ia naiinoiyoaeueiie eieoeeaoeaa,
ioaaonoaaiiinoe e eiiiaaoeeiiiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eaeaa.

Yeiiiie/aneay aeoeaiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io o/anoey eiaeeaeaea a
iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa e niinia iieo/aiey oeiainiauo n?aaenoa aeey
iaania/aiey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aai naiiai e /eaiia aai naiuee. Oaeie
oi?iie o/anoey eiaeeaeaea a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iaeia
iauanoaaiiay ooieoeeiiaeueiay iaycaiiinoue eee eo eiiaeiaoeey, eiaaea ii
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa:

• nianoaaiieea eaeeo-eeai iauaeoia, iaaeaeaeeiinoe e o. ae., i?eiinyueo
aio iinoiyiiue e aa?aioe?iaaiiue aeioiae (nianoaaiiee i?aaei?eyoey eee
aeiia, naeaaaaiiai a a?aiaeo, e o. ae.);

• iaaiiiai ?aaioieea, i?iaeathuaai naith ?aai/oth neeo (oiea?ue ia
caaiaea, o/eoaeue a oeiea e o. ae.);

• eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai i?iecaiaeeoaey (“naiaiaeiue” ooaeiaeiee, aeeaouee
ia aeioiaeu io ?aaeecaoeee naieo i?iecaaaeaiee, eee aiaeeoaeue,
eniieuecothuee aaoiiiaeeue a ea/anoaa oaene e aeeaouee ia aeioiaeu io
oaeie aeayoaeueiinoe, e o. ae.);

• ainoaea?noaaiiiai eee ioieoeeiaeueiiai neoaeauaai;

• iaiaaeaea?a (oi?aaeythuee /oaeei i?aaei?eyoeai);

• iaineiia?a (ianneaiay oi?ia o/anoey a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa eae
neaaenoaea i?ioeie aeoeaiinoe);

• o/auaainy eee nooaeaioa (eae iiaeaioiaeoaeueiue yoai e o/anoeth a
aoaeouai iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa a eaeie-eeai eiie?aoiie oi?ia);

• aac?aaioiiai (eae auioaeaeaiiay oi?ia iao/anoey eee i?einoaiiaee
o/anoey a iauanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa);

• caiyoiai iai?iiii-io?aiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth (a?iey, ieeeoeey,
ainaaciianiinoue);

• aiaea/aiiiai a yeiiiie/anee i?anooiioth aeayoaeueiinoue (?yeao,
ai?ianoai e ae?.).

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai aunooiaao a ea/anoaa iniaiai aeaea yeiiiie/aneie
aeoeaiinoe, eai aai ia/aeueiue yoai naycai, eae i?aaeei, eeoue n eaeaae
— ?acoeueoaoii iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aiineaaenoaee i?eieiathuae
iaoa?eaeeciaaiioth oi?io.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaycaoaeueiui iaee/eai
eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iiiaioa — aoaeue oi i?iecaiaenoai iiaiai oiaa?a, niaia
i?ioeey aeayoaeueiinoe eee iniiaaiea iiaiai i?aaei?eyoey. Iiaay nenoaia
oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii, ea/anoaii, aiaae?aiea iiauo iaoiaeia
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa eee iiauo oaoiieiaee — yoi oiaea
eiiiaaoeeiiiua iiiaiou.

Iniiaiui noauaeoii i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeoeaiinoe aunooiaao
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue. Iaeiaei i?aaei?eieiaoaeue — ia aaeeinoaaiiue noauaeo,
a ethaii neo/aa ii auioaeaeai acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n iio?aaeoaeai eae
iniiaiui aai eiio?aaaioii, a oaeaea n ainoaea?noaii, eioi?ia a ?acee/iuo
neooaoeeyo iiaeao aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa iiiiuieea eee i?ioeaieea. E
iio?aaeoaeue e ainoaea?noai oaeaea ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee noauaeoia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeoeaiinoe, eae e iaaiiue ?aaioiee (anee, eiia/ii,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ?aaioaao ia a iaeeii/eo), e ia?oia?u ii aeciano (anee
i?iecaiaenoai ia iineo eciee?iaaiiiai io iauanoaaiiuo naycae oa?aeoa?a)
(?en. 1).

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 1 Noauaeou i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe

Ai acaeiiioiioaieyo i?aaei?eieiaoaey e iio?aaeoaey i?aaei?eieiaoaeue
ioiineony e eaoaai?ee aeoeaiiai noauaeoa, a iio?aaeoaeth naienoaaiia
i?aaeaea anaai ianneaiay ?ieue. I?e aiaeeca noi?iiu yoeo acaeiiioiioaiee
iio?aaeoaeue auiieiyao ?ieue eiaeeeaoi?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai
i?ioeanna. Yoi iiiyoii, iiyoiio ana oi, /oi ninoaaeyao i?aaeiao
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaey, eiaao i?aai ia ?aaeecaoeeth oieueei a
neo/aa iiceoeaiie (iieiaeeoaeueiie) yenia?oiie ioeaiee iio?aaeoaey.
Oaeay ioeaiea inouanoaeyaony iio?aaeoaeai e aunooiaao eae aioiaiinoue
iineaaeiaai i?eia?anoe oio eee eiie oiaa?. I?aaei?eieiaoaeue, i?e
ieaie?iaaiee e i?aaiecaoeee naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ieeiei ia?acii ia
iiaeao eaii?e?iaaoue iano?iaiey, aeaeaiey, eioa?anu, iaeeaeaiey, ioeaiee
iio?aaeoaey.

O i?aaei?eieiaoaey a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie nenoaiu ioiioaiee iao eiiai iooe
aicaeaenoaey ia iio?aaeoaey, e?iia eae aeaenoaiaaoue a oienii n aai
eioa?anaie. Iaeiaei oaeay neooaoeey aiana ia icia/aao, /oi
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iaycai aeaenoaiaaoue oieueei a no?iaii niioaaonoaee n
oaea auyaeaiiuie eioa?anaie iio?aaeoaey. Nai i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iiaeao
oi?ie?iaaoue ni?in iio?aaeoaey, nicaeaaaoue iiaua iieoiaoaeueneea
iio?aaiinoe (io eoi ec iio?aaeoaeae i?aaeiieaaae i?eia?anoe
aeaeaiiaaieoioii, eiaaea ii aua ia i?iecaiaeeeny, a oieueei aioiaeeny e
i?iecaiaenoao?). E yoiio eae ?ac e naiaeeony iieiaeaiea i aeaoo niiniaao
i?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeoeaiinoe: ia iniiaa auyaeaiiiai
eioa?ana iio?aaeoaey eee ia iniiaa “iaaycuaaiey” aio iiaiai oiaa?a.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeaeueth i?aaei?eieiaoaey aunooiaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
“caaiaaaoue’ iio?aaeoaey, nicaeaoue e?oa nianoaaiiuo iio?aaeoaeae.

Iniiaiuie n?aaenoaaie aicaeaenoaey i?aaei?eieiaoaey ia iio?aaeoaey
aunooiatho neaaeothuea oaeoi?u:

• iiaecia oiaa?a e aai niioaaonoaea eioa?ano iio?aaeoaey;

• ea/anoai;

• oeaia, aeinooiiinoue oiaa?a;

• noaiaiue oieaa?naeueiinoe oiaa?a;

• aiaoiee aeae e oiaeiaea;

• iiceoeaiua ioee/eoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee oiaa?a io oiaa?ia ae?oaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e aiciiaeiinoue iio?aaeoaey iciaeiieoueny n oaeeie
ioee/eyie;

• aiciiaeiinoue ainiieueciaaoueny oneoaaie iineai?iaeaaeiiai na?aena;

• niioaaonoaea iauai?eiyoui eee ainoaea?noaaiiui noaiaea?oai;

• i?anoeaeiinoue e i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue ?aeeaiu oiaa?a e o. ae.

Auaiae, eioi?ue iiaeii auei au naeaeaoue ec ?anniao?eaaaiie i?iaeaiu,
naiaeeony e neaaeothuaio: anee n oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa eiaiii i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aunooiaao a ?iee aeoeaiiai
noauaeoa, oi n oi/ee c?aiey naiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai i?ioeanna, aai
niaea?aeaiey e yooaeoeaiinoe aeoeaioth ?ieue ea?aao iio?aaeoaeue, e
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia iiaeao eaii?e?iaaoue yoio oaeo.

?ieue ainoaea?noaa eae noauaeoa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai i?ioeanna iiaeao
auoue ?acee/iie a caaeneiinoe io iauanoaaiiuo oneiaee, neooaoeee,
neeaaeuaathuaeny a noa?a aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe, e oao oeaeae, eaeea noaaeo
ia?aae niaie ainoaea?noai.

A caaeneiinoe io eiie?aoiie neooaoeee ainoaea?noai iiaeao auoue:

• oi?iicii ?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eiaaea iii nicaeaao e?aeia
iaaeaaii?eyoioth ianoaiiaeo aeey ?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa eee
aeaaea cai?auaao aai;

• iinoi?iiiei iaaethaeaoaeai, eiaaea ainoaea?noai i?yii ia
i?ioeaiaeaenoaoao ?acaeoeth i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ii a oi aea a?aiy e
ia niinianoaoao yoiio ?acaeoeth;

• onei?eoaeai i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai i?ioeanna, eiaaea ainoaea?noai
aaaeao iinoiyiiue e aeoeaiue iiene ia? ii aiaea/aieth a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee i?ioeann iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo aaaioia (ia?aaeei
oaeay oeaeaiai?aaeaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaa aucuaaao “ac?ua”
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeoeaiinoe e i?eaiaeeo e “aoio”
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa).

Eaeiau aea ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa eae onei?eoaey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai
i?ioeanna?

Ai-ia?auo, ainoaea?noai aa?ao ia naay ia?aciaaoaeueiua ooieoeee, o. a.
ooieoeee ii i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaea e ainieoaieth
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo eaae?ia. I?e yoii ai aieiaiea i?eieiaaony oio
oaeo, /oi inouanoaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a
nia?aiaiiie neooaoeee aiciiaeii eeoue i?e oneiaee oiaeiai ni/aoaiey ii
e?aeiae ia?a o?ao iniiaiuo yeaiaioia e eo yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey a
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe:

a) iauayeiiiie/aneie oai?ee;

a) eiie?aoiuo yeiiiie/aneeo (i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo) ciaiee;

a) eiee/anoaaiiuo iaoiaeia a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, o. a. oiaiey
inouanoaeyoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea ?an/aou i?eiaieoaeueii e ethaie
ieaie?oaiie naeaeea eee iia?aoeee, a oaeaea oiaiey i?aaeoniio?aoue
aeaeaeaiea n?aaenoa ia n/aoao naiaai i?aaei?eyoey i?e ieaie?iaaiee e
inouanoaeaiee eaeie-eeai naeaeee.

Ai-aoi?uo, ainoaea?noai iiaeaea?aeeaaao a oeiainiaii ioiioaiee oieueei
/oi anooieaoeo eee anooiathueo a noa?o aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Iau/ii n yoie oeaeueth ainoaea?noaii ?ac?aaaouaathony
niaoeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu iiaeaea?aeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, a eioi?uo
o/eouaathony ia?u ii eueaioiiio e?aaeeoiaaieth. Iniaua eueaiou
i?aaeinoaaeythony oai, eoi aa?aony ca ?aaeecaoeeth eaeeo-eeai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo i?iaeoia.

A-o?aoueeo, ainoaea?noai iau/ii oaeaea aa?ao ia naay ooieoeee nicaeaiey
aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae o?aaoaiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie eio?ano?oeoo?u,
o. a. anao oao aniiiiaaoaeueiuo (n oi/ee c?aiey iniiaiiai niaea?aeaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo i?iaeoia) no?oeoo?, eioi?ua iiaee au ieacaoue
i?aaei?eieiaoaeth oneoae, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey yooaeoeaiie ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoia. Ainoaea?noai iau/ii niaaaeaao i?aaei?eieiaoaey iaiaoiaeeiie
(/aua anaai ia?eaoeiaiaie) eioi?iaoeeae, aa?ao ia naay oaeaea ?anoiaeu
ii aaaeaieth iao/iuo, iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo, i?iaeoii-ecuneaoaeueneeo e
eiuo ?aaio n i?aaeinoaaeaieai eo ?acoeueoaoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi ia
aacaiciacaeiie eee eueaioiie iniiaa. Ainoaea?noai oaeaea no?aieony e
o/?aaeaeaieth eiinoeueoaoeeiiiuo, th?eaee/aneeo e eiuo oe?i,
iaeaa/athueo aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, a oaeaea aa?ao ia naay
ooieoeee ii iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia ioaeiie eaaeeoeeaoeee aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo no?oeoo?.

Iaaiiue ?aaioiee eae ?aaeecaoi? eaeae i?aaei?eieiaoaey oaeaea ioiineony
e a?oiia noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai i?ioeanna. Eiaiii io iaai
caaeneo yooaeoeaiinoue e ea/anoai ?aaeecaoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
eaeae.

Ecaanoii, /oi eaaeaeiio yeiiiie/aneiio noauaeoo naienoaaiiu naie
nianoaaiiua eioa?anu. *oi eanaaony i?aaei?eieiaoaey e iaaiiiai
?aaioieea, oi /anoue eo ieaiia niaiaaeaao (/ai auoa i?eaueue, oai auoa
ca?aaioiay ieaoa, e i?eia?o), a /anoue iineo iiey?ii i?ioeaiiieiaeiue
oa?aeoa? (i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia caeioa?aniaai a aunieie iieaoa o?oaea, a
iaaiiue ?aaioiee caeioa?aniaai). A oaeeo neo/ayo noi?iiu auioaeaeaiu
eaeoe ia iiene eiii?iienniuo aa?eaioia, /oi a iauai-oi e ninoaaeyao
iniiao acaeiiioiioaiee yoeo aeaoo noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai
i?ioeanna.

A ?aieao oaeeo acaeiiioiioaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iaicia/aao aeey naay
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iaeaiu a naiae iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe e noa?aaony
?ac?aoeoue eo n iaeaieueoei yooaeoii. Eaeea aea yoi i?iaeaiu?

I?aaeaea anaai, iiaeai? eaae?ia ioaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee e o?aaoaiiai o
?iaiy eaaeeoeeaoeee. Yoa i?iaeaia ?ac?aoaaony aeaoiy aiciiaeiuie iooyie:

• iiaeaioiaea oaeeo eaae?ia ia nianoaaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie e oeiainiaie
aaca (ii oaeie iooue ia anaaaea yooaeoeaai ii iiiyoiui i?e/eiai);

• i?eaea/aiea eaae?ia, caiyouo a ae?oaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo eee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo no?oeoo?ao , aeey /aai o?aaoaony nicaeaiea aeey
?aaioieeia eo/oeo, aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo .

Ae?oaie i?iaeaiie aunooiaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aiaea/aiey iaaiiiai
?aaioieea a eioa?an i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie no?oeoo?u. I?e yoii ?acee/atho
aeaa oi?iu:

• aiaea/aiea iaaiiiai ?aaioieea a i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eioa?an
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie no?oeoo?u;

• aiaea/aiea iaaiiiai ?aaioieea a eiiia?/aneee eioa?an oe?iu.

Ia?aay oi?ia naienoaaiia aa?iiaeneie nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea, eiaaea
eaaeaeue iaaiiue ?aaioiee oi/ii ciaao naie i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ooieoeee e
auiieiyao eo n i?enouae aio oiaeinoueth.

Aoi?ay oi?ia oa?aeoa?ia aeey yiiii-aia?eeaineie nenoaiu i?aaiecaoeee
o?oaea, eiaaea eaaeaeue iaaiiue ?aaioiee caeioa?aniaai ia oieueei a
aeieaeiii eniieiaiee naieo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ooieoeee, ii e iaaniieiai
iauei ?acoeueoaoii aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie no?oeoo?u. Yoa
oi?ia aiaea/aiey ?aaioieea yaeyaony, eiia/ii, aieaa yooaeoeaiie ii
n?aaiaieth n ia?aie e iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiie eae n oi/ee c?aiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, oae e n oi/ee c?aiey iauanoaa.

Oi?ia aiaea/aiey iaaiiiai ?aaioieea a eioa?an i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
no?oeoo?u caaeneo io eniieuecoaiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeai nenoaiu iieaou
o?oaea. Ia naaiaeiyoiee ?acee/atho neaaeothuea :

Oaa?aeay aa?aioe?iaaiiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

Oaa?aeay aa?aioe?iaaiiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa n aaeaiany/iie
(aaeaeaa?oaeueiie eee aaeaaiaeiie) i?aieae,

Naeaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

N eniieueciaaieai eiyooeoeeaioa yooaeoeaiinoe.

Naeaeueii-i?aieaeueiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

Oa?eoiay ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

Ii/aniaay ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

I?aaaea, ana yoe oi?iu iieaou o?oaea niinianoaotho aiaea/aieth ?aaioieea
eeoue a i?iecaiaenoaaiiue (ii ia a eiiia?/aneee) eioa?an oe?iu. Aeey
?aaioieea a oaeie neooaoeee aeaaiia — auiieieoue iaaeeaaeauei ia?acii
naie iaycaiiinoe a eaeia aoaeao iauee ?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu,
i?aaei?eyoey, eieeaeoeaa, aeey iaai ia oae aaaeii.

Aeey aiaea/aiey ?aaioieea a eiiia?/aneee eioa?an oe?iu aaaeii nicaeaoue
oaeoth neooaoeeth, eiaaea ?aaioiee iaeiia?aiaiii aoaeao caeioa?aniaai
eae a naieo ee/iuo ?acoeueoaoao, oae e a ?acoeueoaoao eieeaeoeaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeie aeaiyeee eioa?an ?aaioieea iiaeii noeioee?iaaoue
oieueei iaeiei-aaeeinoaaiiui n?aaenoaii — onoaiiaeaieai i?eaieaiiai
o?iaiy ca?aaioiie ieaou.

A nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey eaaeaeue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue
ooieoeeiie?oao a oneiaeyo aeinoaoi/ii aeoaieie niaoeeaeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, aicieeoae ia iniiaa ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea.

Ethaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ioaeaeaaony a yooaeoeaiuo ia?oia?neeo naycyo:
oieueei a oaeii neo/aa ii iiaeao yooaeoeaii aeaenoaiaaoue a ?aieao oiai
eee eiiai o?aaiaioa oeaeinoiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna.
Eaeaaeueiie yaeyaony neooaoeey, eiaaea ana i?aaei?eieiaoaee ia?acotho
ioiineoaeueii eciee?iaaiioth io iauaai yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeanna oeaii/eo
ia?oia?neeo naycae. Anee acyoue aeey aiaeeca oeaeinoiue i?ioeann
i?iecaiaenoaa, oi ii ninoieo eae au ec iiiaeanoaa o?aaiaioia, eaaeaeue
ec eioi?uo oieone?oaony a eiie?aoiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaey
(?en. 2).

?enoiie 2 No?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna:

1 — aeiau/a e caaioiaea nu?uey; 2 — i?iecaiaenoai iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey
aeey aeiau/e e caaioiaee nu?uey; 3 — ia?a?aaioea nu?uey e ecaioiaeaiea
iieooaa?eeaoia; 4 — i?iecaiaenoai iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey aeey ia?a?aaioee
nu?uey e ecaioiaeaiey iieooaa?eeaoia; 5 — i?iecaiaenoai iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aioiauo e iio?aaeaieth oiaa?ia; 6 —
i?iecaiaenoai aioiauo e iio?aaeaieth oiaa?ia; 7 — ?aaeecaoeey aioiauo e
iio?aaeaieth oiaa?ia; 8 — i?iecaiaenoai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey i?aaei?eyoee
ii ?aaeecaoeee aioiauo e iio?aaeaieth oiaa?ia

A oneiaeyo ?uiea io i?aaei?eieiaoaey o?aaoaony oiaiea — e aeaaea
i?aae?aniieiaeaiiinoue — aeaenoaiaaoue a nithca n ae?oaeie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie e aanoe iinoiyiiue iiene iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo
ia?oia?neeo naycae, a oiaea eioi?iai i?aaei?eieiaoaeue inouanoaeyao
ia?ai?eaioaoeeth naiae aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ia?oia?neea nayce (?aaeueiua e iioaioeeaeueiua) ea?atho aanueia aaaeioth
?ieue a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Eaaeaeue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue i?e
ieaie?iaaiee naiae aeayoaeueiinoe, i?e ?ac?aaioea aecian-ieaia
iaycaoaeueii o/eouaaao aiciiaeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo
ia?oia?neeo naycae. E i?eia?o, anee Au ieaie?oaoa i?iecaiaeeoue,
neaaeai, eooiiioth iaaaeue, oi Au, anoanoaaiii, iaycaoaeueii
iinoa?aaoanue ii?aaeaeeoue, aaea, o eiai e ia eaeeo oneiaeyo
i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii (e anoue ee oaeay aiciiaeiinoue) Au niiaeaoa
i?eia?aoaoue ana iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
(ae?aaaneio, eiua eiiiiiaiou, oo?ieoo?o, iai?oaeiaaiea, iaoeiu e o.
ae.). Aac oaeiai iiaeoiaea iaaiciiaeii ieaie?iaaiea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Auai? ia?oia?neeo naycae caaeneo io oeaeiai ?yaea oaeoi?ia. Ia?oia?neea
nayce iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii.

1. Aeieaia?aiaiiua (eee iinoiyiiua).

2. E?aoeia?aiaiiua (eee ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie).

3. Neo/aeiua.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e ieaie?iaaiee naiae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eieiaoaeue
?anniao?eaaao ia?oia?a (ia?oia?ia) eae noauaeo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai
i?ioeanna, io oi?iu acaeiiioiioaiee n eioi?ui caaeneo o?iaaiue
yooaeoeaiinoe aai aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oeaeueth i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeoeaiinoe yaeyaony i?iecaiaenoai e
i?aaeeiaeaiea ?uieo oaeiai oiaa?a, ia eioi?ue eiaaony ni?in e eioi?ue
i?eiineo i?aaei?eieiaoaeth i?eaueue. I?eaueue — yoi eceeoae aeioiaeia
iaae ?anoiaeaie, iieo/aaiue a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeecaoeee i?eiyoiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ?aoaiey ii i?iecaiaenoao e iinoaaea ia ?uiie
oiaa?a, a ioiioaiee eioi?iai i?aaei?eieiaoaeai auyaeai ia
oaeiaeaoai?yaiue eee ne?uoue ni?in iio?aaeoaey.

Iaeiaei iieo/aiea i?eauee naienoaaiii ia oieueei i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie,
ii e ethaie ae?oaie oi?ia aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe. A yoie nayce aaaeii
ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia auaeaeaiea oaeie yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?ee, eae
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay i?eaueue, eee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee aeioiae.
Aeioiaeu io eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, o. a. io aaaaeaiey iiauo
iaoiaeia e i?eaiia i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, e ninoaaeytho
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee aeioiae. Iiae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei aeioiaeii
neaaeoao iiieiaoue i?aaeaea anaai aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae, aeioiae io
oi?aaeaiey, eceeoae, iieo/aaiue i?aaei?eieiaoaeai aeaaiaea?y aai
i?e?iaeiui ea/anoaai eee iniaiio oiaieth aiaeece?iaaoue e ii-iiaiio
eiiaeie?iaaoue oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa a caaeneiinoe io aiaoieo oneiaee.

Ae?oaeie neiaaie, i?eaueue i?aaei?eieiaoaey (anee ?a/ue eaeao
aeaenoaeoaeueii i i?aaei?eieiaoaea, a ia ia iau/iii aeaeiaii /aeiaaea)
neeaaeuaaaony eae au ec aeaoo yeaiaioia:

• iau/iay i?eaueue aeaeiaiai /aeiaaea;

• eceeoae iaae iau/iie i?eaueueth aeaeiaiai /aeiaaea.

Aoi?ie yeaiaio e aunooiaao a ea/anoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai aeioiaea
(i?eauee), o. a. oi?iu iauanoaaiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ca i?iyaeaiiue
eiiiaaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae, iiaaoi?noai a i?iecaiaenoaa.

Anyeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue, oaeei ia?acii, aunooiaao a ea/anoaa aeaeiaiai
/aeiaaea, ii ia anyeee aeaeiaie /aeiaae iiaeao auoue ioianai e eaoaai?ee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, anee ?a/ue eaeao i aeaenoaeoaeueiii oaiiiaia
i?aaei?eieiaoaey.

?acaeoea i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aiciiaeii eeoue i?e iaee/ee iaiaoiaeeiuo
noauaeoia oaeiai ?iaea aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoe noauaeou e aeaeatho
aiciiaeiui ?acaeoea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee (a ia iaiai?io, eae yoi aeaeeony
iiiaei a ?innee). Iiyaeaiea noauaeoia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
iiae?acoiaaaao iaee/ea ii?aaeaeaiiie iauanoaaiiie neooaoeee, eiaaea
eaeaieiae/aneay, iieeoe/aneay e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneay ianoaiiaea
i?iaioee?oao “i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee aoi”.

Inouanoaeaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia yooaeoeaiii
o?iaia, oaeei ia?acii, aiciiaeii eeoue i?e iaee/ee ii?aaeaeaiiie
iauanoaaiiie neooaoeee — i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie n?aaeu, iiae eioi?ie
iiieiaaony i?aaeaea anaai ?uiie, ?uii/iay nenoaia ioiioaiee, a oaeaea
ee/iay naiaiaea i?aaei?eieiaoaey, o. a. aai ee/iay iacaaeneiinoue,
iicaieythuay i?eiyoue oaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneia ?aoaiea, eioi?ia, n
aai oi/ee c?aiey, aoaeao iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui, aeaenoaaiiui e
iaeneiaeueii i?eaueueiui.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai eae iniaay oi?ia yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny eae a ainoaea?noaaiiii, oae e a /anoiii naeoi?a
yeiiiieee. A niioaaonoaee n yoei ?acee/atho: a) i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai
ainoaea?noaaiiia; a) i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai /anoiia.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai anoue oi?ia inouanoaeaiey
yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe io eiaie i?aaei?eyoey, o/?aaeaeaiiiai: a)
ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ua oiieiiii/aiu (a
niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii) oi?aaeyoue
ainoaea?noaaiiui eiouanoaii (ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea), eee a)
i?aaiaie ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey (ioieoeeiaeueiia i?aaei?eyoea).
Nianoaaiiinoue oaeiai ?iaea i?aaei?eyoee anoue oi?ia iainiaeaiey /anoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai eee ioieoeeiaeueiiai eiouanoaa, /anoe athaeaeaoiuo
n?aaenoa, ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia. Aaaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee
aunooiaao oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iie ioaa/atho ii naiei iaycaoaeuenoaai
oieueei eiouanoaii, iaoiaeyueiny a eo nianoaaiiinoe (ie ainoaea?noai ia
ioaa/aao ii eo iaycaoaeuenoaai, ie iie naie ia ioaa/atho ii
iaycaoaeuenoaai ainoaea?noaa).

*anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai anoue oi?ia inouanoaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie
aeoeaiinoe io eiaie i?aaei?eyoey (anee iii ca?aaeno?e?iaaii a ea/anoaa
oaeiaiai) eee i?aaei?eieiaoaey (anee oaeay aeayoaeueiinoue
inouanoaeyaony aac iaeia ?aai/ae neeu, a oi?ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe).

Eiia/ii, eaaeaeue ec yoeo aeaeia — ainoaea?noaaiiia e /anoiia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai — eiaao naie ioee/eoaeueiua i?eciaee, ii iniiaiua
i?eioeeiu eo inouanoaeaiey ai iiiaii niaiaaeatho. E a oii e a ae?oaii
neo/aa inouanoaeaiea oaeie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeiieaaaao
eieoeeaoeaiinoue, ioaaonoaaiiinoue, eiiiaaoeeiiiue iiaeoiae, no?aieaiea
e iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee. Noiaeae yaeyaony e oeiieiaey iaieo aeaeia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai eae oi?ia eieoeeaoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iai?aaeaiiie ia ecaea/aiea i?eauee (i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai aeioiaea),
i?aaeiieaaaao:

1) inouanoaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo ooieoeee, o. a.
i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?a (i?iaeoeoa) eee ieacaiea oneoae (iai?eia?,
iaoeiino?ieoaeueiay oe?ia, oo?enoneay eiiiaiey, eiaeeie?eiaiaay oe?ia
eee eiino?oeoi?neia ath?i);

2) inouanoaeaiea iin?aaeie/aneeo ooieoeee, o. a. ieacaiea oneoa,
naycaiiuo n i?iaeaeaeaieai oiaa?a ia ?uiie e aai ia?aaea/ae a
iaaeeaaeauai (iauanoaaiii i?eaieaiii) aeaea io iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaeeoaey oaeiai oiaa?a aai iio?aaeoaeth.

Iauanoaaiiia iiieiaiea i?iaeaiu naiaeeony e oiio, /oi, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
i?ei?eoaoiia cia/aiea eiaao ia?aue oei i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iineieueeo iauanoaaiiia aiaaonoai (eae iaiauaiiue eoia
o?iaiy e ea/anoaa aeecie eaaeaeiai /eaia iauanoaa) caaeneo io ninoiyiey
aeae eiaiii a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo e
na?aeniuo oneoa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oaeia iauanoaaiiia ioiioaiea e yoiio
oeio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia i?aeoeea ia iineo aeaenoaeoaeueii
i?ei?eoaoiiai oa?aeoa?a — iauanoai niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth e aoi?iai oeia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. iin?aaeie/anoaa. Ii/aio?
I?aaeaea anaai iioiio, /oi o?iaaiue e ea/anoai aeecie, oaeianoai e
eiioi?o eaaeaeiai /eaia iauanoaa a iaiaeie noaiaie caaenyo io o?iaiy
?acaeoey a iauanoaa iin?aaeie/aneie noa?u (oaeiaiay aeey iieoiaoaey
i?aaiecaoeey oi?aiaee, ?aeeaia, aeinoaaea oiaa?ia ia aeii, caeac oiaa?a
ii ii/oa, oaeaoiio e o. ae.); oi aea naiia ioiineony e e iio?aaeoaeyi
oiaa?ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey.

Ii oaeia iauanoaaiiia aini?eyoea iin?aaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia
yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiie e iniiaiie i?e/eiie. Aeaaiia caeeth/aaony a
ae?oaii — iin?aaeie/aneay i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, aa
iaee/ea e oneiaeiaiea aei ?acoiiuo i?aaeaeia aaaeao:

1) e oaaee/aieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaa?ia ia iniiaa oaeoaeaiey niaoeeaeecaoeee;

2) e onei?aieth oaiiia iai?a/eaaaiinoe (e?oaiiai?ioa) eaieoaea;

3) e ianuuaieth oiaa?iuo ?uieia aei iauaeoeaii o?aaoaiuo ?acia?ia e
ooieoeeiie?iaaieth iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae a
niioaaonoaee n eioa?anaie eiia/iuo iio?aaeoaeae (iineieueeo iin?aaeiee
niaoeeaeece?oaony aeaaiui ia?acii ia eco/aiee iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina e
caeaca eee i?eia?aoaiee oieueei oie i?iaeoeoeee, iio?aaeoaeueneee
eioa?an e eioi?ie ii oaea auyaee; ethaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, i?iecaiaeeioth
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeai, ii i?eia?aoaoue ia aoaeao).

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue, naycaiiay n iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
i?iecaiaenoaii oiaa?ia, iiaeao iineoue:

1) o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoneee oa?aeoa? {o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoneia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai),

2) eiiiaaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? (eiiiaaoeeiiiay i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, eiiiaaoeeiiiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai).

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a noa?a iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia
iiaeao, oaeei ia?acii, i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia i?iecaiaenoai e iinoaaeo ia
?uiie o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eee eiiiaaoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia. I?aeoeea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a ethaie aa oi?ia aeeth/aao a naay
eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann. I?eaiaeeiia auoa aeaeaiea oeiia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe iniiauaaaony ia oaaaeaeaiee, /oi
i?iecaiaenoai e iinoaaea ia ?uiie o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oiaa?ia inouanoaeyaony
oaeaea n eniieueciaaieai eaeeo-oi iiauo iaoiaeia eee i?eaiia, naycaiiuo
n i?aaiecaoeeae i?iecaiaenoaa, oaoie/aneeie yeaiaioaie i?iecaiaenoaa eee
eciaiaieyie ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee i?iecaiaeeiiai oiaa?a.

?uiie, eae ecaanoii, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ianoi ano?a/e aeaoo iniiaiuo
noauaeoia yeiiiie/aneeo (oicyenoaaiiuo) ioiioaiee. A ?ac yoi oae, oi ia
?uiea aeieaeiu i?enoonoaiaaoue eee naie i?iecaiaeeoaeue e iio?aaeoaeue,
eee aea eo i?aaenoaaeoaee.

Eeoea (th?eaee/aneea eee oece/aneea), i?aaenoaaeythuea eioa?anu
i?iecaiaeeoaey eee iio?aaeoaey (a /anoi e aeaenoaothuea io eo eiaie), ii
naie ia yaeythueany oaeiauie, iacuaathony iin?aaeieeaie.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeoeaiinoue a noa?a iin?aaeie/anoaa iicaieyao
niaianoeoue a naiua naeaoua n?iee yeiiiie/aneea eioa?anu i?iecaiaeeoaey
e iio?aaeoaey. Iin?aaeie/anoai, n oi/ee c?aiey i?iecaiaeeoaey, iiauoaao
noaiaiue yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou iineaaeiaai, iineieueeo aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue nin?aaeioi/eoue naith aeoeaiinoue oieueei ia naiii
i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aaeaaay iin?aaeieeo ooieoeee ii i?iaeaeaeaieth oiaa?a
e iio?aaeoaeth. E?iia oiai, aeeth/aiea iin?aaeieea a ioiioaiey iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaeeoaeai e iio?aaeoaeai nouanoaaiii nie?auaao n?ie
iai?a/eaaaiinoe eaieoaea, a cia/eo, iiauoaao i?eaueueiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue a iin?aaeie/anoaa inouanoaeyaony
anaaaea a eaeie-oi eiie?aoiie oi?ia. Naiie ?ani?ino?aiaiiie oi?iie
iin?aaeie/anoaa yaeyaony aaaioe?iaaiea, o.a. oaeie oei ioiioaiee, a
eioi?uo aaaio aunooiaao iin?aaeieeii iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeai e
iio?aaeoaeai.

Aaaio — eeoei, aeaenoaothuaa io eiaie e a eioa?anao i?iecaiaeeoaey
oiaa?a eee iio?aaeoaey. Eeoei, a eioa?anao e io eiaie eioi?iai
aeaenoaoao aaaio, iacuaaaony i?eioeeiaeii. I?eioeeiaeii iiaeao auoue eae
nianoaaiiee oiaa?a, ii?o/athuee aaaioo i?iaeaoue aai, oae e iio?aaeoaeue
oiaa?a, ii?o/athuee aaaioo eoieoue yoio o?aaoaiue oiaa?.

Oaeei ia?acii, iin?aaeie/anoai n o/anoeai aaaioa aeeth/aao
acaeiiioiioaiey oaea ia aeaoo, a o?ao noauaeoia (?en. 3).

?enoiie 3 Noaia ioiioaiee i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaey n o/anoeai aaaioa
.

Oeiu aaaioia

?acee/atho ianeieueei oeiia aaaioia:

1) aaaiou i?iecaiaeeoaeae;

2) iieiiii/iua aaaiou ii nauoo;

3) aaaiou ii caeoieai.

Aaaiou i?iecaiaeeoaeae (i?aaenoaaeoaee i?iecaiaeeoaeae) — i?aaenoaaeytho
eioa?anu aeaoo eee ianeieueeeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae aeiiieiythueo ae?oa
ae?oaa oiaa?ia.

Iieiiii/iua aaaiou ii nauoo iieo/atho i?aai ia nauo anae i?iaeoeoeee e
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie eae au ioaeae nauoa, ii ia aoiaeyo a no?oeoo?o
oe?iu-i?iecaiaeeoaey, a acaeiiaeaenoaotho n iae ia aeiaiai?iuo oneiaeyo.

Aaaiou ii caeoieai /aua anaai caieiathony iiaeai?ii ioaeiiai oiaa?iiai
anni?oeiaioa (iai?eia?, aeey iaeeeo ?icie/iuo oi?aiaoeaa).

A?iea?noai

A?iea? — iin?aaeiee i?e caeeth/aiee naeaeie, niaoeeaeece?othueeny ii
ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaeai oiaa?ia eee oneoa, aeaenoaoao ii ii?o/aieth e ca
n/ao eeeaioia, iieo/ay io ieo niaoeeaeueiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea. Ioiineony
e eaoaai?ee i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aeaeiauo iin?aaeieeia.

Eiienney

Eiiaaea aaaio aunooiaao a ea/anoaa iioiaeea-eiienneiia?a, eioi?ue
naiinoiyoaeueii ?anii?yaeaaony oiaa?ii, i?eieiay aai ia eiienneth.
Eiienneiia? aeaenoaoao ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a eiiennee, caeeth/aaiiai
iaaeaeo eiienneiia?ii (aaaioii) e i?eioeeiaeii, eioi?ue a oaeii neo/aa
aunooiaao a aeaea eiieoaioa.

Eiienneiiiua iia?aoeee — yoi ?aciiaeaeiinoue oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneeo
iia?aoeee, niaa?oaaiuo iaeiie noi?iiie (eiienneiia?ii) ii ii?o/aieth
ae?oaie noi?iiu (eiieoaioa) io naiaai eiaie, ii ca n/ao eiieoaioa.
Ioiioaiey noi?ii ?aaoee?othony aeiaiai?ii eiiennee.

Eiienneiia? — iin?aaeiee, oece/aneia eee th?eaee/aneia eeoei,
niaa?oathuaa ca ii?aaeaeaiiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea (eiienneiiiia
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea) naeaeee a iieueco e ca n/ao eiieoaioa, ii io naiaai
eiaie.

Eiieoaio — eeoei (iau/ii i?iecaiaeeoaeue eee nianoaaiiee oiaa?a),
aeathuaa ii?o/aiea ae?oaiio eeoeo (eiienneiia?o) caeeth/eoue
ii?aaeaeaiioth naeaeeo eee ?yae naeaeie io eiaie iineaaeiaai, ii ca n/ao
eiieoaioa.

Aeaeuee?aaea?a

Ioiioaiey iaaeaeo eiienneiia?ii e eiieoaioii, ?aaoee?oaiua aeiaiai?ii
eiiennee, iiaoo aeeth/aoue e iaycaoaeuenoai, eioi?ia eiienneiia? aeaao
eiieoaioo e niaea?aeaiea eioi?iai naiaeeony e aa?aioee oiai, /oi
caeeth/aaiue eiienneiia?ii aeiaiai? n eaeie-eeai o?aoueae noi?iiie
aoaeao eniieiai. Oaeia iaycaoaeuenoai (aa?iaa — ?o/aoaeuenoai)
iacuaaaony aeaeuee?aaea?a e i?aaeiieaaaao ia?aaea/o eiienneiia?o
aeiiieieoaeueiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey.

Eiaeaio

A iaaeno?aiiauo ioiioaieyo ia?aaeei eniieuecotho oaeoeeo ?aciauo
eiienneiiiuo ii?o/aiee — eiaeaioia. Yoi ?aciiaeaeiinoue eiienneiiiie
iia?aoeee, eiaaea eiii?oa? iaeiie no?aiu aeaao ii?o/aiea eiienneiia?o
ae?oaie no?aiu ia iieoieo ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?oee eaeiai-eeai eiie?aoiiai
oiaa?a.

Eiineaiaoeey

E eiienneiiiui iia?aoeeyi ioiinyo e iia?aoeee eiineaiaoeee. Yoi aeae
oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneie iia?aoeee, eiaaea eiineaiaoi? (iin?aaeiee)
i?iaeaao oiaa? ni naiaai neeaaea ia iniiaa aeiaiai?a ii?o/aiey (?aaea —
eiineaiaoeeiiiiai niaeaoaiey).

Eiineaiaoi? iau/ii aeaenoaoao a noa?a ioiioaiee iaaeaeo eiineaiaioii e
?icie/iuie oi?aiaoeaie. Aeayoaeueiinoue eiineaiaoi?a, eioi?ui iau/ii
yaeyaony nianoaaiiee neeaaeneeo iiiauaiee e iaeiia?aiaiii
eoiaoe-iioiaee, naiaeeony e oiio, /oi ii i?eieiaao o eiineaiaioa oiaa?u
ia ioaaonoaaiiia o?aiaiea n oeaeueth eo iineaaeothuae ?aaeecaoeee
(iau/ii — iioii). Ii i?e yoii aeaao iaycaoaeuenoai ia i?iaeaoue, a eeoue
i?aaeeiaeeoue oiaa? iioaioeeaeueiiio iieoiaoaeth i?e ia?aie iiyaeaoaeny
aiciiaeiinoe (i?e oiouaiiie aiciiaeiinoe ii iau/ii ianao
ioaaonoaaiiinoue).

Noaia acaeiiioiioaiee i?e inouanoaeaiee eiineaiaoeeiiiie iia?aoeee
oaeiaa (?en. 4):

?enoiie 4 Noaia ioiioaiee i?iecaiaeeoaey e iio?aaeoaey n o/anoeai
eiineaiaoi?a (iin?aaeieea)

Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiineaiaoeey iieo/eea a noa?a iioiauo
iinoaaie ?icie/iui oi?aiaoeai (a yoii niunea eiineaiaoeeiiiua neeaaeu
iiaeii n?aaieoue n ?inneeneeie iioiauie aacaie). E?oiiua eiienneiiiua
oe?iu iau/ii ia?yaeo n iin?aaeie/aneeie ieacuaatho e ae?oaea aeaeu oneoa
— i?eieiatho ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca o?ainii?oe?iaeo, inouanoaeytho
no?aoiaaiea, aa?aioeeiia ianeoaeeaaiea e o. ae.

Aeiaieueii /anoi iin?aaeieee aunooiatho a oi?ia iioiaeeia-eoioeia (a
NOA, e i?eia?o, ia eo aeieth i?eoiaeeony aieaa iieiaeiu iauaai iioiaiai
iai?ioa).

Iioiaeee-eoioeu — iacaaeneiua eiiia?/aneea i?aaei?eyoey, i?eia?aoathuea
i?aai nianoaaiiinoe ia ana oiaa?u, n eioi?uie iie eiatho aeaei. Yoi
i?ioanneiiaeueiue aeae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee aeioiae neeaaeuaaaony ec ?acieoeu iaaeaeo iioiaie
oeaiie iieoiee oiaa?ia iioiaeeii-eoioeii e iioiaie oeaiie i?iaeaaee.
Iioiaee-eoiaoe iau/ii i?iaeaao oiaa? ?icie/iui oi?aiaoeai.
Iioiaeee-eoioeu ooieoeeiie?otho a ?acee/iuo oi?iao:

1) iioiaay oe?ia,

2) iioiaue aeeno?eauethoi?,

niaaaeai/aneee (oi?aiaue) aeii.

Oi?aiaue iaeea? — yoi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue-iin?aaeiee, eioi?ue nai ia
o/anoaoao a caeeth/aiee naeaeee, a oieueei oeacuaaao ia aiciiaeiinoue aa
caeeth/aiey. Iau/ii aai ooieoeee naiaeyony e oiio, /oi ii eeoue naiaeeo
ia?oia?ia ii naeaeea. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneee aeioiae ii iieo/aao a oi?ia
iaeea?neiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, ?acia? eioi?iai caaeneo io noiiu
caeeth/aiiie naeaeee. Iaeea? oaeaea caieiaaony iin?aaeie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?e caeeth/aiee oi?aiauo naeaeie ia ae?aeao. Iau/ii
iaeea? ia ?inneeneeo ae?aeao aaaeao oi?ae.

Aeeno?eauethoi? — iin?aaeiee, niaoeeaeece?othueeny ia i?eia?aoaiee
oiaa?ia o i?iecaiaeeoaeae e ?aaeecothuee eo (?ani?aaeaeythuee) naiei
iinoiyiiui eeeaioai. ?acee/atho aeeno?eauethoi?ia oiaa?ia i?iiuoeaiiiai
iacia/aiey (eo ia?oia?aie yaeythony i?aaei?eieiaoaee, i?iecaiaeyuea
oiaa?u, aioiaua e iio?aaeaieth) e aeeno?eauethoi?ia, i?iaeathueo oiaa?u
?icie/iui oi?aiaoeai.

Aanueia ?ani?ino?aiaiiie oi?iie iin?aaeie/aneeo iia?aoeee neoaeeo
aeeea?noai. E aeeea?ai ioiinyony iin?aaeie/aneea no?oeoo?u, iiae
eioi?uie iiaoo iiieiaoueny eae th?eaee/aneea, oae e oece/aneea eeoea.
Iau/ii aeeea? inouanoaeyao ia?ai?iaeaaeo oiaa?ia io naiaai eiaie e ca
naie n/ao. Aeeea?neay i?eaueue ia?acoaony ca n/ao ?acieoeu iaaeaeo
oeaiie i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?ia e oeaiie i?iaeaaee oiaa?ia naiei aeeea?ii.
Ii iniaiio aeiaiai?o n i?iaeaaoeaie aeeea? iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeyoue ei
eioi?iaoeeth i ?uiea, ieacuaaoue oneoae ii ?aeeaia, a oaeaea
inouanoaeyoue iineai?iaeaaeiia ianeoaeeaaiea ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia.

E iin?aaeieeai ioiinyony oaeaea e aeaeiaaa?u — noauaeou iin?aaeie/aneie
noa?u, eioi?ua iaeaaeatho caianaie aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, iaania/eaatho
o?aiaiea e iinoaaeo (o?ainii?oe?iaeo) oiaa?ia. Iaeiaei iniiaiua
i?eioeeiu eo aeayoaeueiinoe aiaeiae/iu aaaioneei ooieoeeyi. Ia?auaiea e
oneoaai aeaeiaaa?ia oeaeaniia?acii a oii neo/aa, anee aeey
i?iecaiaeeoaey ii eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai iayooaeoeaii nicaeaaaoue
nianoaaiioth nauoiaoth naoue (naoue i?iaeaaoeia), eee aea a neo/aa,
eiaaea ii no?aieony aueoe ca ?aiee oie oa??eoi?ee, aaea ?aniieiaeaiu aai
nianoaaiiua nauoiaua (oi?aiaua) o/?aaeaeaiey.

Iinueoi?aiaaoe — i?aaei?eieiaoaeue-iin?aaeiee, eioi?ue caieiaaony
?aaeecaoeeae oiaa?ia iooai ?annueee eaoaeiaia oiaa?ia iioaioeeaeueiui
iieoiaoaeyi. A yoii neo/aa iin?aaeiee aeieaeai i?aaeoniio?aoue iaee/ea o
iaai neeaaeneiai iiiauaiey. E?iia oiai, iau/ii i?aaeoniao?eaaaony
iaee/ea (eee aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey) eaeiai-eeai yooaeoeaiiai
aeaea o?ainii?oa.

Oi?aiaue i?aaenoaaeoaeue eae naiinoiyoaeueiue i?aaei?eieiaoaeue oaeaea
ioiineony e eaoaai?ee iin?aaeieeia. Ii iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeao
i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?anu ianeieueeeo i?eioeeiaeia.

Eiiieaiyaea? — i?aaei?eieiaoaeue-iin?aaeiee, eioi?ue ia oieueei
i?iaeaao, ii e aeinoaaeyao oiaa? iieoiaoaeth (i?iaeaaea n aeinoaaeie). E
eiiieaiyaea?ai iau/ii ioiinyo ?acuacaeiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae oi?aiauo oe?i,
eioi?ua i?aaeeaaatho iieoiaoaeyi oiaa?u ii eiathueiny ia?acoeai.
Eiiieaiyaea?u iaania/eaatho aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaioth ?aeeaio oiaa?ai e
nicaeatho i?i/iua eaiaeu nauoa i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea aa
iineai?iaeaaeiiai ianeoaeeaaiey.

Aoeoeeiiiay oi?ia oi?aiaee oaeaea ioiineony e eaoaai?ee iin?aaeie/aneeo
iia?aoeee. A inouanoaeaiee oaeeo iia?aoeee o/anoaotho o?e noauaeoa
acaeiiioiioaiee (?en.5).

?enoiie 5 Noaia ioiioaiee i?e aoeoeeiiiie naeaeea

Aoeoeeiiaoi? — eeoei, ia?aaeathuaa oiaa? aoeoeeiienoo ii aeiaiai?o aeey
aai iineaaeothuae ?aaeecaoeee ia aoeoeeiia a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie
aeiaiai?a e i?aaeeaie aoeoeeiia. Aoeoeeiieno — eeoei, i?iaiaeyuaa
aoeoeeii.

Aoeoeeiia?u — o/anoaothuea a aoeoeeiia iioaioeeaeueiua iieoiaoaee.

Aoeoeeii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ioaee/iue oi?a. Yoi ni?aaiiaaiea
iieoiaoaeae ca i?aai i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?a, aunoaaeyaiiai ia aoeoeeiiioth
i?iaeaaeo. Oiaa?u, aunoaaeyaiua ia aoeoeeii, eiatho noa?oiaoth oeaio e
iau/ii i?aaeeaaathony e i?iaeaaea eioaie.

Noa?oiaay oeaia — ia/aeueiay oeaia, iacia/aaiay aoeoeeiiaoi?ii e
aoeoeeiienoii a aoeoeeiiiii aeiaiai?a, n eioi?ie ia/eiaaony oi?a ai
a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey aoeoeeiia.

Eio — iaaeaeeiay ia?oey oiaa?a, aunoaaeyaiay ia aoeoeeiiioth i?iaeaaeo.
Ana eiou iiae iiia?aie iau/ii aunoaaeythony aeey i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai
iniio?a aei ia/aea aoeoeeiia. Oiaa? (eio) n/eoaaony i?iaeaiiui iinea
o?aoueaai oaea?a iieioea aoeoeeiienoa oiio aoeoeeiia?o, eioi?ue
i?aaeeiaeee iaeaunooth oeaio. Ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aoeoeeiiu
aunoaaeythony iooieia, neaeiaua eioaaee, i?yiinoe, /ae, oaaae, oa?noue,
?yae ae?oaeo oiaa?ia, aeeth/ay aioeeaa?eao.

Ae?aeaaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie oi?iaie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe eiaao ?yae
niaoeeoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae, /oi iicaieyao auaeaeeoue aai a iniaue oei e
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue eae naiinoiyoaeueiia iai?aaeaiea aeaeiaie i?aeoeee.
Ai-ia?auo, ae?aee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iin?aaeie/aneea no?oeoo?u. I?e
yoii, iaeiaei, iie auaeaeythony ec anaai ?yaea iin?aaeieeia oai, /oi
i?aeoe/anee ie iaeei i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia iaoiaeeony aac ia?auaiey e
iei. Ai-aoi?uo, ae?aee ianeoaeeaatho eeeaioia — yoi eo aeaaiay ooieoeey.

Iaiouaieaiui yeaiaioii ae?aeaaie oi?aiaee anaaaea aunooiaea niaeoeyoeey.
Iia i?enoua yeiiiie/aneei (oi?aiaui) ioiioaieyi, iniiao eioi?uo
ninoaaeyao iaiai. A iaiai anaaaea (eee a iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa) ?aniaaeaaony ia aeaa ioaeaeueiua iia?aoeee — i?iaeaaeo e
iieoieo. A oneiaeyo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe ?uiea e ionoonoaey aeinoiaa?iie
eioi?iaoeee yoi aeaeaao aiciiaeiui inouanoaeaiea iia?aoeee ii “aeaeaieth
aeaiaa” aac ia?auaiey e i?ioeanno i?iecaiaenoaa. Niaeoeyoeey
ii?aaeaeyaony eae oi?aiaey a iaaeaaeaea iieo/eoue i?eaueue io eciaiaiey
?uii/iie oeaiu. Iia naycaia n iaeeaeaieyie i?iaeaaoeia ioiineoaeueii
iiauoaiey eee iiieaeaiey oeai. Niaeoeyioia a caaeneiinoe io
iai?aaeaiiinoe eo aeaenoaee iacuaatho aueaie e iaaeaaaeyie.

Aue — ae?aeaaie ea?ie, iieaaathuee, /oi oeaiu nei?i aic?anooo, e
neoiathuee ii yoie i?e/eia eee nio?aiythuee ?aiaa i?eia?aoaiiua
eiio?aeou. Niaeoeyio, ea?athuee ia iiauoaiea.

Iaaeaaaeue — ae?aeaaie ea?ie, iieaaathuee, /oi oeaiu anei?a iieaeoo ia
nieaeaiea, e ii yoie i?e/eia i?iaeathuee eiio?aeou. Niaeoeyio, ea?athuee
ia iiieaeaiea.

E naeaeeai niaeoeyoeaiiai oa?aeoa?a ioiineony oaaeaee?iaaiea (io
“oaaeaee?iaaoue” — ia?aaeaeaoue, no?aoiaaoue naay io aiciiaeiuo
iioa?ue).

Oaaeae — no?aoiaea io oeaiiauo ?eneia eee oueth/a?niue eiio?aeo ii
no?aoiaaieth io oeaiiauo ?eneia. Oaaeaea? — oe?ia, inouanoaeythuay
oaaeaee?iaaiea.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe iiaeao auoue naycaii:
1) n i?aaiecaoeeae aeayoaeueiinoe ae?aee eae eiiia?/aneie no?oeoo?u; 2)
n i?aaiecaoeeae a?iea?neie eiioi?u eee a?iea?neie oe?iu.

Inouanoaeaieai anao iia?aoeee ia ae?aea caieiathony ae?aeaaua a?iea?u —
iin?aaeieee, eioi?ua niaeaenoaotho niaa?oaieth naeaeie iaaeaeo
caeioa?aniaaiiuie noi?iiaie — eeeaioaie. Naeaeee caeeth/athony a?iea?aie
iau/ii io eiaie,

A?iea?neea ianoa ia ae?aea i?iaeathony e iieoiathony. I?iaeaaee
a?iea?neeo iano inouanoaeyao ae?aeaaie eiieoao. I?ioanneiiaeu-a?iea?u
?aaioatho a ae?aeaaii caea. Eeeaio (eee caeac/ee), o. a. oio, eoi oi/ao
i?iaeaoue eee eoieoue aeoeee, iiaeao iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth ii oaeaoiio
io a?iea?a, i?aaenoaaeythuaai aai eioa?anu ii ii?o/aieth e ca n/ao
eeeaioa. Iie iiaoo oaeaea aeaenoaiaaoue io naiaai eiaie, ii ca n/ao
aeiaa?eoaey ia iniiaa caeeth/aiiuo n eeeaioaie niaeaoaiee. Ca niaa?oaiea
naeaeie a?iea? iieo/aao a?iea?neia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea eee a ?acia?a,
niaeaniaaiiii n eeeaioii, eee ii oaena, onoaiiaeaiiie ae?aeaaui
eeeaioii. Noaia inouanoaeaiey iia?aoeee ia ae?aea i?eaaaeaia ia ?en. 6

?enoiie 6 Noaia ioiioaiee ii ae?aeaaie naeaeea:

1 — ii?o/aiea i?iaeaaoea a?iea?o; 2 — ii?o/aiea iieoiaoaey a?iea?o; 3 —
niaa?oaiea naeaeee a niioaaonoaee n ii?o/aieyie i?iaeaaoea e iieoiaoaey

Auaiae. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny,
eae iu oaea ioia/aee, a ?acee/iuo oi?iao. Yoe oi?iu acaeiiaeiiieiytho
ae?oa ae?oaa, i?aa?auay i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?ia e
oneoa e iio?aaeoaeth a oeaeinoiue e aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiue i?ioeann
(?en.7).

?enoiie 7 Oeiieiaey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe

Aeaaa II ?acaeoea iaeiai aeciana a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

A ?aoi?ie?iaaiee ?inneeneie yeiiiieee aua ni a?aiai ia?ano?ieee iaeua
i?aaei?eyoey (II) acyee ia naay ?ieue nicaeaoaey ii/au aeey iiaie
nenoaiu oicyenoaiaaiey. Aeiieie?othuee naaiaeiy /anoiue naeoi?
ca?iaeaeaeny eiaiii a noa?a iaeiai aeciana. E aiieia caeiiiia?ii, /oi e
ianoiyuaio a?aiaie, ii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui, ia aeieth /anoiuo
noauaeoia iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a iauai eiee/anoaa /anoiuo,
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e ioieoeeiaeueiuo, iauanoaaiiuo II i?eoiaeeony 84%.
Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey, ?aniieaaay 3,4°i noieiinoe iniiaiuo n?aaenoa
yeiiiieee ?innee e 14°i /enea caiyouo, i?iecaiaeyo 12% AAI e aeatho
anae i?eauee ii ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao. Yoi aiai?eo i oe?ieeo, ii aua
aeaeaei ia iieiinoueth ?ane?uouo aioo?aiieo aiciiaeiinoyo ?acaeoey
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

A 90-a aiaeu noaaeeueii ?inea aeiey II a iauai iauaia AAI. Yoi – aaniiue
oaeo, iniaaiii ia oiia i?iaeieaeathuaainy niaaea i?aeoe/anee ai anao
noa?ao ?inneeneie yeiiiieee. Ii ioeoeeaeueiui noaoenoe/aneei aeaiiui
Aineiinoaoa ?O, ia 1.01.1996 a. a ?innee ian/eouaaeinue 877 oun. iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee, ia eioi?uo auei caiyoi 8,9 iei. /aeiaae (ii
n?aaeianieni/iiio ninoaao), a n o/aoii aoi?e/iie caiyoinoe – 13,8 iei.
/aeiaae. A io?aneaaie no?oeoo?a aeiieie?oao oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, a a ?aaeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?a -Oeaio?aeueiue
yeiiiie/aneee ?aeii n yae?ii a Iineaa (oaae. 1, 2).

A ?acaeoee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ca iineaaeiea 1-2 aiaea
iaiaoeeenue ea?aeeiaeueii iiaua oaiaeaioeee, au?aceaoeany a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue a nouanoaaiiii caiaaeeaiee oaiiia ?inoa /enea iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Anee a ia/aea 90-o aiaeia aeey aeeiaieee ?acaeoey II aue
oa?aeoa?ai onoie/eaue ?ino eae eo /enea, oae e eiee/anoaa caiyouo i?e
n?aaeiaaiaeiauo cia/aieyo i?e?inoia ia o?iaia ieiei 80%, oi a 1994 a.
i?e?ino /enea II ninoaaee eeoue 4%, a a 1995 a. i?iecioei oaea nieaeaiea
eo /enea ia 2,2°i.

Aeey oaeoaeaiiiai iiieiaiey iuiaoiae neooaoeee n ?acaeoeai ?inneeneeo II
iaiaoiaeeii e?eoe/anee ?anniio?aoue iaeioi?ua no?aieoeu “iiaaeoae
enoi?ee”.

?inneeneia iaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a naiai noaiiaeaiee ca iineaaeiea
aeanyoue eao oaea i?ioei aeaa yoaia e iaoiaeeony iaeaioia aoiaeaeaiey a
iiaue, /aoaa?oue, yoai. Ia?aue e iaeaieaa y?eee ec ieo iaaethaeaeny aua
a oneiaeyo auaoaai NNN? a eiioea 80-o aiaeia. Ia?iiiua eueaiou anao
aeaeia, a oii /enea ca n/ao n?aaenoa ainathaeaeaoa, a oeaeii aieaa
aeaaii?eyoiia iieiaeaiea aeae a yeiiiieea iaoneiaeee ioiioaiea aaoa?aiia
e aeaiiiio ia?eiaeo eae e “cieioiio aaeo” iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?ienoiaeeei i/aiue auno?ia e eaaeia iaeiieaiea
eaieoaeia, ?acaeaaeenue i?iecaiaenoai aeaoeoeeoiuo oiaa?ia oe?ieiai
iio?aaeaiey e noa?a anaaiciiaeiuo e noieue aea aeaoeoeeoiuo oiaaea
auoiauo oneoa, ?icie/iie oi?aiaee, iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e i?.

Eciaieie “cieioiai aaea” auei, iaeiaei, oi, /oi iaeua i?aaei?eyoey
auiieiyee ?ieue eaiaea ia?aea/ee ?ano?nia eiiaiaeii oi?aaeyaiuo
aini?aaei?eyoee a oaiaaoth yeiiiieeo, a iieueco iieoe?eieiaeueiiai e
i?inoi e?eieiaeueiiai inaaaei?uii/iiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Naiia
ia/aeueiia iineaaenoaea oaeie ia?aea/ee caeeth/aeinue e caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi n?aaenoaa, iaeaieeaaaiua a ia?oii i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
iaoiaeii “aei?aca?aaeaiey” ainnaeoi?a, ca iaaieueoei eneeth/aieai
i?aeoe/anee iaanaaaea ooiaeeee ec noa?u iaeiieaiey e ia eniieueciaaeenue
aeey ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e aai eio?ano?oeoo?u.

Oaaeeoea 1

Io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa (a %)

– Io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a /enea II Io?aneaaay no?oeoo?a iieiie /eneaiiinoe
caiyouo ia II No?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa) ii
iniiaiui io?aneyi II

I?iiuoeaiiinoue 14,6 24,0 20,0

Naeueneia oicyenoai 1,1 0,8 0,3

Eaniia oicyenoai 0,05 0,05

O?ainii?o e naycue 2,3 2,2

No?ieoaeuenoai 16,6 29,9 16,3

Oi?aiaey e iauanoaaiiia

ieoaiea 42,7 24,6 50,5

Iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia

niaaaeaiea e nauo 1,8 1,3 6,0

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia ianeoaee-

aaiea 0,8 0,5 0,2

Iauay eiiia?/aneay

aeayoaeueiinoue 4,8 3,9 2,5

I?i/ay aeayoaeueiinoue a ia-

oa?eaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa 1.5 1,4 0,7

Auoiaua oneoae, aeeeeu-

iia oicyenoai 1,8 1,1 3,3

Cae?aaiio?aiaiea, nii?o,

nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea 1,9 1,3 0,1

Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea 0,9 1,0 0,04

Eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai 0,9 0,7 0,06

Iaoea e iao/iia ianeoaee-

aaiea 5,6 5,3

Oeiainu, iaineiiiia

iaania/aiea 1,3 0,9

I?i/ea 1,05 3,15

Oaaeeoea 2

?aaeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa (a %)

Yeiiiie/aneea ?aeiiu Aeiey a iauai /enea II

Oeaio?aeueiue, 30,5

a oii /enea Iineaa 20,0

Naaa?iue 2,9

Naaa?i-caiaaeiue 9,6

Aieai-ayoneee 2,9

Oeaio?aeueii-*a?iicaiiue 2.7

Iiaieaeneee 9,6

Naaa?i-Eaaeacneee 9,8

O?aeueneee 10,6

Caiaaeii-Neae?neee 10,5

Ainoi/ii-Neae?neee 5,2

Aeaeueiaainoi/iue 5,0

Eiia/ii, a ?acaeoee II eiaee ianoi ia oieueei iaaaoeaiua i?ioeannu. A
aiaeu ia?ano?ieee iaeue aecian aeeth/eeny a iauee, any/anee
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiue i?aaeoaeuenoaii i?ioeann ao?iiai ?acaeoey
eiiia?aoeaiiai aeaeaeaiey. E ?acainoaea?noaeaiea, e iao/aiea oe?ieeo
iann ianaeaiey iniiaai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa i?ienoiaeeee /a?ac ?acaeoea
eiiia?aoeee e iaeiai aeciana.

Iaeiaei iaeuecy ia caiaoeoue, /oi “cieioie aae” iaeiai aeciana e
aiaiyaiua aio ooieoeee onei?eoaey ?aoi?i ai iiiaii ieacaeenue a aeanoeii
i?ioeai?a/ee n ae?oaeie iai?aaeaieyie yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee, a
oi/iaa – n iaoaea/iie iiiuoeie i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i naa?oo, a
aeanoei-oieoa?iuo o?aaeeoeeyo, n iii?ie eneeth/eoaeueii ia aiia?ao
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey. Iiiuoee oeaio?aeueiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa eae-oi ia?aie/eaaoue aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey aeoouo
aeioiaeia io ?acieoeu iaaeaeo oeene?iaaiiuie oeaiaie ainnaeoi?a e
naiaiaeiuie oeaiaie iaainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ?aaeaiaioe?iaaoue
aeayoaeueiinoue II, eniieueciaaoue ?u/aae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
iaoaeeeaaeenue ia yaioth iaaeaaniiniaiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa.

Iaiaoiaeei aue ea?aeeiaeueii eiie yeiiiie/aneee eo?n, eioi?ue aiieioeeny
oaea a iiaie ?innee a ?aoi?iao oeia oieiaie oa?aiee. Ia/aeny iiaue,
aoi?ie, yoai e a ?acaeoee ?inneeneiai iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

1992 aiae – aiae oieiaie oa?aiee – oa?aeoa?eciaaeny naiuie aunieeie n
na?aaeeiu 80-o aiaeia oaiiaie ?inoa /enea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee (a 2,1
?aca) e /eneaiiinoe caiyouo a ieo. Yoio oaeo iineo oaiiiaiaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo inouanoaeaiiay oiaaea eeaa?aeecaoeey oeai e
aaaaeaiea iaeiaiaiai i?anneiaa neeueii iiaei?aaee oeiainiaoth aaco
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Ao?iay eioeyoeey i?eaaea, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, e iaanoeaiaieth naa?aaeaiee ianaeaiey, a n ae?oaie – e ?aceiio
oaaee/aieth i?ioeaioiuo noaaie aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa. Yoi aucaaei
ianoiyuee ia?aee/ eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia i?aiaeieaiiue aei
neo ii?.

Noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua iieacuaatho, /oi aaniethoiui eeaea?ii ii
oaaee/aieth /enea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee noaea oiaaea noa?a iaoee e iao/iiai
ianeoaeeaaiey. A iae /enei iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee aic?inei a 3,4 ?aca.
Eiee/anoai iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a noa?a naeueneiai oicyenoaa oaaee/eeinue
a 3,1 ?aca. Caoai neaaeotho iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneia niaaaeaiea e iauay
eiiia?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ii iaania/aieth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uiea
(2,9 ?aca). E iei oanii i?eiueaao noa?a ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey (2,8
?aca).

A oi aea a?aiy a 1992 a. a iauae no?oeoo?a ?inneeneiai iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa i?iecioei ?aceia oiaiueoaiea aeiee II a noa?a
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiiio iiaieth, iiaeaeue oieiaie oa?aiee auea
iaeieiino?oeoeaia aeey auno?iai e yooaeoeaiiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee no?aiu
e, a /anoiinoe, noa?u iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Ii neaaeoao
i?eciaoue, /oi a oneiaeyo aeoeaecaoeee ?uii/iuo ?aoi?i II
i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee e naie iiceoeaiua aiciiaeiinoe. Aaaeiaeoeie
ooieoeeyie II a oneiaeyo oieiaie oa?aiee noaee nioeeaeueiia
aeaiioe?iaaiea, iaania/aiea auaeeaaiey cia/eoaeueiuo neiaa ianaeaiey a
oneiaeyo ino?iai e?ecena /a?ac naiicaiyoinoue, i?aaeinoaaeaiea
aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo (iiieii iniiaiie, /anoi
oi?iaeueiie caiyoinoe) n?aaenoa e nouanoaiaaieth.

Aianoi naiaai ?iaea ei?iooee n neeueiui e?eieiaeueiui iooaieii, /oi auei
i?enoua ia?eiaeo ia?ano?ieee, a noa?a II noaea ia?aciauaaoueny
ii?iaeueiay eiieo?aioiay i?i?uii/iay n?aaea, oa?aeoa?ecothuayny ai?ueaie
iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee ca auaeeaaiea ia iniiaa iiauoaiey ea/anoaa e
?aciiia?acey oiaa?ia e oneoa. Neacaiiia, i?aaaea, ia icia/aao, /oi
e?eieiaeueiua no?oeoo?u inoaaeee iaeue aecian a iieia.

Oaiiiaiaeueiue ?ino /enea II a 1992 a. eiaao naia iauyniaiea. Ao?iia
?acaeoea oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneiai iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa noaei
ioaaoiie ?aaeoeeae ia iiae?ua ia?aiia/aeueiie oeiainiaie aacu.
Eeaa?aeecaoeey aiaoiae oi?aiaee aua a oneiaeyo auaoaai NNN? e niyoea
cai?aoia ia /anoioth oi?aiaeth aioo?e no?aiu nicaeaee aeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeey ethaie oi?aiaie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaaeaiea iio?aaeoaeueneiai ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina oi?aiaia iaeia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai oiaaea aeoeaii eiiiaine?iaaei eiii?oii oiaa?ia,
oioy e ia i/aiue ea/anoaaiiuo (oeia i?iaeoeoeee eeoaeneiai
i?iecaiaenoaa), ii iieueciaaaoeony aaeeioaaeiui ni?inii o ?inneeneiai
iio?aaeoaey. Auno?ay iai?a/eaaaiinoue iaeeeo oi?aiauo eaieoaeia
i?aa?auaea eo a eaieoaeu n?aaeieo ?acia?ia. Aieaa oiai, iaeeay oi?aiaey
auno?i ?aaae?iaaea ia ia?anoathuoth nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth ?inneeneiai iauanoaa, a?oiie?oynue a ieoao
ianeoaeeaaiey eae ianniauo iio?aaeoaeae, oae e iio?aaeoaeae n aunieei
o?iaiai aeioiaeia. Aeinoaoi/ii auno?i ?yaeii n iaeeeie oi?aiauie
iaeaoeaie noaee aicieeaoue yeeoiua iaaaceiu, aeaaeaeueoeu e ?aaioieee
eioi?uo ia?aaeei ia/eiaee n “/aeii/iie” aeayoaeueiinoe. E iiceoeaiie
?iee oi?aiaie e iin?aaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe II neaaeoao ioianoe e eo
o/anoea a nicaeaiee iiauo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae. Eieoeee?iaaiiay
eeaa?aeecaoeeae oeai ?yaeii ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia (naea/a iiceoeee AIE,
oo?aoa ?uieia no?ai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e i?.) iieiay “caeoii?ea” ?aiaa
neiaeeaoeony eaiaeia acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie, iinoaaueeaie
e oi?aiaeae ioe?uea oe?ieia iiea aeey aeayoaeueiinoe iaeuo oe?i ii
niaaaeaieth e nauoo i?iaeoeoeee. Eiia/ii, aeey iiauo oicyenoaaiiuo
naycae a iieiii iauaia ioaeai iiaue oaoiieiae/aneee ea?ean yeiiiieee n
niioaaonoaothueie ?uii/iuie, aunieiyooaeoeaiuie eaiaeaie aeaeaeaiey
oiaa?ia io i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeyi. A no?aoaae/aneii ieaia
caaea/a nicaeaiey oaeiai ea?eana iaeiio aeciano ia ii neeai, oae eae
o?aaoao iiiaeo eao e ia?iiiuo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee.

Iaeiaei iaeue aecian niia nua?aoue ?ieue eaoaeecaoi?a ia?auo oaaia
aeaeaeaiey e iiaie nenoaia aioo?e eiiia?aoeeiiiuo naycae a ?inneeneie
yeiiiieea. E?iia oiai, ii auiieiye ?ieue aeaiioa?a, nianathuaai iiiaea
i?aaei?eyoey io iaiaaeeaiiiai e?aoa ec-ca ?ac?uaa i?aaeieo, oioy e
iayooaeoeaiuo, ii ana aea ?aaioaaoeo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae.

?uaie iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a noi?iio oi?aiaie e iin?aaeie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe noae oaeaea caeiiiia?iie ?aaeoeeae ia aaaaeaiiue
i?aaeoaeuenoaii iaeiaiaue i?anneia. A auaoai NNN? ia auei e a i?eioeeia
ia iiaei auoue iaeiaiaie nenoaiu, aaeaeaaoiie ?uii/iui oneiaeyi. Iiyoiio
aaaaeaiea a i?aeoeeo oicyenoaaiiie aeecie aeaaea yeaiaioia ii?iaeueiie
iaeiaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe aeieaeii auei aucaaoue o ia i?eaueoeo e yoiio
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae anoanoaaiioth ?aaeoeeth iooi?aeaiey. Ii aeaei a oii,
/oi ia yoo ?aaeoeeth iaeiaeeeny yaiue yeno?aieci i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie
iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia ecuyoea aei 70-90% aeioiaeia iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee. I?e yoii i?aaeoaeuenoai e ia ?ann/eouaaei ia oi, /oi
eoi-eeai 6oaeao n?aco aea ieaoeoue iaeiae a iieiie ia?a.
I?aaei?eieiaoaeae oai naiui iiaeoaeeeaaee e oiio, /oiau eneaoue e
iaoiaeeoue niiniau nie?uoey aeioiaeia io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Oi?aiaey e
iin?aaeie/anoai, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ?aaioo n o?oaeii eiio?iee?oaiuie
iaee/iuie n?aaenoaaie, ioe?uaaee aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe aeey ooiaea io
iaeiaia.

A oeaeii neooaoeey 1992 a. iiaeao auoue ioa?aeoa?eciaaia iauai?eiyoui
oa?ieiii “a?thiaea?noai”. Iaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai auei ninoaaiui
yeaiaioii yoiai ianniaiai i?ioeanna o/?aaeeoaeuenoaa. Ae?aee, aaiee,
no?aoiaua oe?iu, e?oiiua /anoiua e iieoainoaea?noaaiiua aeoeeiia?iua
i?aaei?eyoey aicieeaee ii anae ?innee a iaaa?iyoiuo eiee/anoaao. Ethaee
aia?aua a aeecie iieo/eee naiaiaeo aeey naiinoiyoaeueiie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aai caieiaoueny oeiainiaui
ieaie?iaaieai, /oi ?aiaa auei aaniethoiie iiiiiieeae ainoaea?noaaiiuo
no?oeoo? e eo /eiiaieeia. Oaeea iioeaaoeee a ni/aoaiee n ?acaaeii
ainoaea?noaaiiuo, i?aaeaea anaai athaeaeaoiuo i?aaei?eyoee e
i?aaiecaoeee, n iaaeaaeaeie ia iieo/aiea aunieeo aeioiaeii io
aeinoaoi/ii i?inouo aeaeia ?aaio e oneoa ia iiaee ia ii?iaeeoue
e?oiiiianooaaiiai a?thiaea?noaa. Iiaeiaiia a?thiaea?noai iauyniyaony ia
noieueei yeiiiie/aneeie i?e/eiaie, neieueei iaueie caeiiai nioeeaeueiie
ineoieiaee a eo i?eeiaeaiee e i/aaeaeiie aeey ?inne neooaoeee
ea?aeeiaeueiiai iauanoaaiiiai ia?aeiia

Eeethno?aoeeae e auoaneacaiiiio iiaeao neoaeeoue ianniaia iiyaeaiea
yoaia?iuo oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa a no?iauo eeeiaoe/aneeo ciiao e ia
ieceiea/anoaaiiuo ii/aao, aaea n oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiie/aneie
oeaeaniia?aciinoe oaeeo oicyenoa a i?eioeeia ia iiaeao auoue aeaaea a
naiie ?acaeoie ?uii/iie no?aia. Iiiaea iaeua i?aaei?eyoey iiyaeyeenue ia
naao ia a neeo yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe, ia eiay eaeie-eeai
i?ia?aiiu aeieaia?aiaiiiai ?acaeoey, a oieueei ec iauae iaaeaaeaeu,
ia/ou eo i?aaiecaoi?ia ia aeinoaoi/ii aano?aeoioth ” eo/ooth aeeciue” (a
iniiaiii a noeea i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo o?aoa?aoia iauanoaa naiaiaeiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e anaiauaai iio?aaeaiey). A ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea
ineoieiae/aneea iaeeaeaiey nei?iai i?ioeaaoaiey aeiieie?iaaee iaae
o?acaui yeiiiie/aneei ?an/aoii e aeaaea cae?aaui niuneii.

Eiaiii yoei iauyniyaony oaiiiai ao?iiai iiyaeaiey iiiai/eneaiiuo /anoiuo
iaeeeo iao/iuo oe?i a oneiaeyo i/aiue auno?iai naa?ouaaiey eaeiai-eeai
ni?ina ia iao/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth ec-ca ino?aeoaai eiaanoeoeeiiiiai
e?ecena, niaaea eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe e oaioanoe/aneiai aeaoeoeeoa
athaeaeaoia anao o?iaiae. Ineoieiae/anee yoi yaeaiea iauyniyaony aua e
oai, /oi iao/iay aeayoaeueiinoue, ee/iinoue enneaaeiaaoaey a oa/aiea
iiiaeo i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo aeanyoeeaoee auee a ninoiyiee yaiie
iaaino?aaiaaiiinoe. Iiaua oneiaey aeaaaee auaoei iao/iui nio?oaeieeai
iaaeaaeaeo ia naiinoiyoaeueiue auoiae ec oiai ooieeiaiai iieiaeaiey, a
eioi?ii iie iaoiaeeeenue a ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeaaeaie/aneeo, io?aneaauo e
i?i/eo iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaieyo a 70-a e a 80-a aiaeu.

A?thiaea?noai, eae iieacuaaao enoi?e/aneee iiuo, anaaaea ia?aie/aii ai
a?aiaie. Oaea e 1995 a. ieacaeenue i?aeoe/anee en/a?iaiu ieoe e
aiciiaeiinoe naa?oi?eaueueiie oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iiiaea ec aicieeoeo ?aiaa iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee i?aeiouanoaaiii
oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneie eee, iai?eia?, iao/ii-eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie
i?eaioaoeee eeai i?ae?aoeee naia nouanoaiaaiea, eeai
aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaeenue. Oaeay neooaoeey caeiiiia?ii aeieaeia auea
aaia?e?iaaoue iiaua oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee ?inneeneiai iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iaicia/eeny i/a?aaeiie, o?aoee yoai ea/anoaaiiuo
eciaiaiee a aeeiaieea e no?oeoo?a iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
nii?iaiaeaeaaoeeny, eae auei ioia/aii auoa, cia/eoaeueiui nie?auaieai
i?e?inoa /enea II.

Aeaaiuie i?e/eiaie i?einoaiiaee ?inoa /enea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee yaeyeenue
?aceia noaeaiea a?aieoe noa?, oa?aeoa?eciaaaoeony eaaei aeinoeaaaiie
aunieie aeioiaeiinoueth, en/a?iaiea ineoieiae/aneeo iaeeaeaiee
aani?aaeaeueiuo oeiainiauo aiciiaeiinoae naiinoiyoaeueiie
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. A ii?iaeueiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea
iaeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa e i aeioiaeiinoe, e
ii a?aieoeai iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae onooiaao n?aaeiaio e e?oiiiio
aeciano. Iii eaeao aneaae ca ieie a ?iee oioy e aiieia aeinoieiiai, ii
ana aea aoonaeaea?a. Anee a ?innee aua a 1992-94 aa. any yeiiiieea,
aeeth/ay iaeue aecian, aeeea ii noioanoe/aneei caeiiai ia?aiia/aeueiiai
iaeiieaiey eaieoaeia, oi e 1995 a. ana /ao/a noaee aeaenoaiaaoue
caeiiiia?iinoe oeeaeeeciaaiiie ?uii/iie nenoaiu. ?aaea ano?a/aeenue
neo/ae, eiaaea eaeia-eeai iaeia i?aaei?eyoea eaaei neoiaei
aei?iainoiyuea caeaiey e aeaaea n?aaeiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey.
Ii?iie noaiiaeeny aeioiae ia iaeiiai caiyoiai a II ia o?iaia,
eieaaethuainy aie?oa n?aaeiae ca?aaioiie ieaou ii no?aia.

A yeiiiieea ?innee noaea i?ineaaeeaaoueny oaiaeaioeey e ia/aeo iiaie,
?uii/iie eiioeaio?aoeee e oeaio?aeecaoeee eaieoaeia, a oaeaea naiie
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iieo/ee ?acaeoea i?ioeann iiaeiuaiey
i?aaei?eyoee. *anoi iaeaieaa ?aioaaaeueiua iaeua i?aaei?eyoey
ieacuaathony ia?aie aea?oaie oaeeo iiaeiuaiee. Iai?eia?, a Iineaa ia
ianoa aua iaaeaaii iiiai/eneaiiuo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oi?aiauo ea?ueeia
aicieeee oi?ioi ioi?ieaiiua oi?aiaua iaaeeueiiu, i?eiaaeeaaeauea oie eee
eiie e?oiiie oe?ia. Iaiaa ?aioaaaeueiua II oaeaea ia auaea?aeeaatho
yeiiiie/aneie eiieo?aioeee ni n?aaeieie e e?oiiuie oe?iaie e auioaeaeaiu
naa?ouaaoue naith aeayoaeueiinoue. A yoii niunea ia iuiaoiai yoaia
?inneeneeo ?aoi?i i?ioeannu oeaio?aeecaoeee e eiioeaio?aoeee eaieoaeia
oaeaea i?ioeainoiyo oaaee/aieth /eneaiiinoe II. Ii a aeaeueiaeoai, eae
iu iieaaaai, iiaua e?oiiua e n?aaeiea i?aaei?eyoey aoaeoo naiui aeoeaiui
ia?acii noeioee?iaaoue nicaeaiea iiauo II a no?oeoo?a oi?ie?oaiuo iiauo
oicyenoaaiii-oaoiieiae/aneeo oeaii/ae.

Ia ea?aeeiaeueiia caiaaeeaiea i?e?inoa /enea II a 1994-1995 aa. iiaeeyei
e caaa?oaiea ia?a?aaeno?aoeee iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeaiiuo aua ii
caeiiai auaoaai NNN?. Aeaenoaothuea II a oiaea ia?a?aaeno?aoeee
i?eieiaee iiaua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu, a i?ae?aoeaoea naith ?aaioo –
i?inoi eeeaeaee?iaaeenue. Iineieueeo aaee/eia /eneeaoeony
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuie, ii ?aaeueii ia ooieoeeiie?iaaaoeo II auea
aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea, eo ioeoeeaeueiay eeeaeaeaoeey aianea nouanoaaiiue
aeeaae a iauaa caiaaeeaiea oaiiia ?inoa /enea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee ?innee.
Oaeoi? ia?a?aaeno?aoeee e eeeaeaeaoeee ia ?aaioathueo i?aaei?eyoee a
iieiie ia?a i?iyaee naay a 1995 a. a nayce n aaaaeaieai a i?aeoeeo
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iiaiai A?aaeaeaineiai eiaeaena (AE). A
niioaaonoaee n iieiaeaieyie aai ia?aie /anoe iaeua i?aaei?eyoey,
eiathuea oi?io oiaa?euanoa (a yoi i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oicyenoaaiiay
oi?ia iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee), aeieaeiu ia?aioi?ieoue naie o/?aaeeoaeueneea
aeieoiaiou, i?eiya ae?oaea, i?aaeoniio?aiiua AE oicyenoaaiiua oi?iu.
Anee o/anoue, /oi aeaaea ii ioeoeeaeueiui ioeaieai Aineiinoaoa ?O, aieaa
o?aoe ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee eeai ia i?enooiaee e
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eeai i?einoaiiaeee aa, ia
eeeaeaee?iaaaoenue, oi i/aaeaeii, /oi ia/aaoayny a 1995 a.
ia?a?aaeno?aoeey e niioaaonoaaiii ioeoeeaeueiay eeeaeaeaoeey ?aaeueii ia
ooieoeeiie?othueo iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee aeieaeiu i?eaanoe e aeaeueiaeoaio
nouanoaaiiiio nieaeaieth /enea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a ?innee. A n o/aoii
oiai, /oi a ?yaea ?inneeneeo ?aaeiiia ?aaeueii aeaenoaoao /ooue aieaa
iieiaeiu ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo II (ii aeaiiui Aineiinoaoa ?O),
ia?a?aaeno?aoeey aianao ii?aaeaeaiiua ei??aeoeau e a ?aaeiiaeueioth
no?oeoo?o iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa no?aiu.

Caiaaeeaiea ?inoa /enea iiauo iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee iauyniyaony aua e oai,
/oi ia i?iyaee naith neeo – e a yeiiiie/aneii, e a nioeeaeueiii ieaia –
oaeie iiuiue oaeoi? oaaee/aiey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoey, eae ?ino
aac?aaioeoeu. Ianiio?y ia ana i?iaiicu aa ao?iiai oaaee/aiey, aieioue
aei 1996 a. ioeoeeaeueiay aac?aaioeoea inoaaaeanue ia o?iaia 2-3%
yeiiiie/anee aeoeaiiai ianaeaiey. ?aaeueiay aac?aaioeoea iiaeao auoue ia
ii?yaeie auoa, ia /oi oeacuaatho aeueoa?iaoeaiua ?an/aou yenia?oia
i?ionithciuo iauaaeeiaiee, iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee e i?. Ii oai ia
iaiaa ioeoeeaeueiue noaoon ?aaioathueo (ionoue aeaaea ia “iieoaeeauo”
i?aaei?eyoeyo), iiea ii aeaenoaoao, nicaeaao nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneee
yooaeo, i?e eioi?ii ethaee ioeacuaathony caieiaoueny eiie
naiinoiyoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, a oii /enea i?iaiaaoue naie neeu a
noa?a iaeiai aeciana. Aieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui ieacuaaaony neo/aeiue,
/anoi ieaaea ia ?aaeno?e?oaiue aniiiiaaoaeueiue ca?aaioie io iaeeeo
ia?ai?iaeaae eee auiieiaiey iiaeniaiuo ?aaio. Ii eae oieueei
i?aaeoaeuenoai ?innee ia aeaea, a ia ia neiaao iieaeao ia aaie?ionoaa
iiiai/eneaiiuo ia?aioaaaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee, ?ino ioeoeeaeueiie
aac?aaioeoeu, ianiiiaiii, auciaao iiaoth aieio oaaee/aiey /enea II.

Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiui iaaaoeaiui iiiaioii auea e inoaaony
e?eieiaeecaoeey iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. A yoie nayce i/aiue
iieacaoaeai iaeaieaa oeie/iue ioaao ia aii?in auai?i/iuo ianeaaeiaaiee
?oeiaiaeeoaeae iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee i aeeyiee ia eo aeayoaeueiinoue
e?eieiaeueiuo no?oeoo?. Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue ?aniiiaeaioia ioaa/atho,
/oi iie aiiaua ie/aai ia ciatho i e?eieiaeueiuo no?oeoo?ao. A iuiaoiae
neooaoeee oaeie ioaao oeacuaaao ia ia i?aiaeieaiea caaeneiinoe II io
e?eieiaeueiuo no?oeoo?, a eae ?ac iaiai?io – ia iniai neeueioth eo
caaeneiinoue io yoeo no?oeoo? e aeaaea ia i?yioth aiaea/aiiinoue a yoe
no?oeoo?u e no?ao ia?aae ieie. E?eieiaeueiinoue i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny
nouanoaaiiui oaeoi?ii, i?aiyonoaothuei ii?iaeueiiio ?acaeoeth
?inneeneiai iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,

?aceee niaae oaiiia i?e?inoa /enea II ii-?aciiio iaoae io?aaeaiea a
ioaeaeueiuo io?aneyo. Oioy e ianeieueei caiaaeeeaoenue, ii aia?aua ca
ianeieueei i?ioaaeoeo eao iia?aaeathueie oaiiaie oaaee/eeinue eiee/anoai
II a no?ieoaeuenoaa e ia o?ainii?oa (ia 18 e 19% a 1995 a.). A oi?aiaea
e noa?a iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey /enei II oiaiueoeeinue i?eia?ii ia 10%. A
iauae eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ii iaania/aieth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
?uiea, a iaoea e iao/iii ianeoaeeaaiee i?iecioei aaniethoiia nie?auaiea
/enea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee (-18,7 e -5,6%).

Aeeiaieea /enea II a ?aaeiiaeueiii ?ac?aca iieacuaaao iaeioi?ia
iia?aaeaiea ?inoa /enea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee a ?aaeiiao Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca
e Naaa?a Aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee. Oioy nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee a
?aaeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?a II ia i?iecioei, ana aea iiaeii caiaoeoue
iiceoeaiue i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai aieaa ?aaiiia?iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee ii ?acee/iui yeiiiie/aneei ?aeiiai ?innee.

A 1995 a. n?aaeianieni/iay /eneaiiinoue caiyouo a II ii n?aaiaieth n
1994 a. oaaee/eeanue ia 0,8% Eiia/ii, aaee/eia i?e?inoa iaaaeeea, ii iia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao aeaiiua nioeeieiae/aneeo ii?inia, a oiaea eioi?uo
?oeiaiaeeoaee II auneacuaaee iiaiea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaaee/aiey
/eneaiiinoe ia?niiaea i?aaei?eyoee. E, /oi i/aiue aaaeii, iie oeacuaatho
ia oi, /oi ianoaei a?aiy ia?aoiaea io iieoeaaaeueiie caiyoinoe e
ii?iaeueiie, aaeaeaaoiie aeaenoaothuei caeiiai.

Iniai iaaei ioiaoeoue oneeaiea eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe II. Iauee
iauai eo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee ca 1995 a. aic?in a 4 ?aca, i?e/ai a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe -a 7,4 ?aca.

Iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi a 1994-1995 aa. i?iaiaeeiay ?inneeneei
i?aaeoaeuenoaii iieeoeea oia?aiii-aeanoeie oeiainiaie noaaeeecaoeee, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, nii?iaiaeaeaeanue cia/eoaeueiui caiaaeeaieai oaiiia
?inoa eiee/anoaa II , ii n ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiaea au?aaeaiiue
naiaoeeiiiue yooaeo. A no?aia noaea oi?ie?iaaoueny i?eioeeieaeueii iiaay
yeiiiie/aneay neooaoeey, a eioi?ie II ia/aee ea?aoue ?ieue, oa?aeoa?ioth
aeey iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ii?iaeueiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Iieeoeea ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee II inouanoaeyeanue ia aaca
iaeiaiauo eueaio, nicaeaiey (oioy aua e a iacaaa?oaiiii aeaea)
oeeaeeeciaaiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa, eioi?iaoeeiiiie
iiaeaea?aeee, iao/aiey eaae?ia, oi?ie?iaaiey naoe aecian-ia?eia,
iaeaaeeaaiey yooaeoeaiie eii?aeeiaoeee a yoie iaeanoe iaaeaeo
oaaea?aeueiui oeaio?ii e noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee, a oaeaea n ianoiuie
i?aaiaie aeanoe.

Iaeua i?aaei?eyoey a ai?ueaa ca auaeeaaiea iao/eeenue naiinoiyoaeueii
i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e neiaeiinoyi ?uiea. Oae, aeey iiauoaiey naiae
aeecianiiniaiinoe II aeoeaii aeeaa?neoeoee?otho oicyenoaaiioth e
eiaanoeoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue. Aieaa /ai iieiaeia II iaoi?aiaiai
i?ioeey iiieii iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe a 1995 a. caieiaeanue aua e
oi?aiaeae eae ianeiaeiie, ii ioiineoaeueii i?eaueueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
n auno?ui n?ieii iai?a/eaaaiinoe eaieoaeia. A oi?aiaua eaieoaeu ana /aua
ono?aieythony a i?iecaiaenoai, oioy e a naiuo i?inouo aai oi?iao.

A oeaeii iu iieaaaai, /oi iiaue ?uaie a aeeiaieea /enea II, a oaaee/aiee
eo iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai aana ii anai iieacaoaeyi iaecaaaeai. Aai neaaeoao
iaeeaeaoue ii ia?a iaeiieaiey i?aaeiinueie aeey oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeinoiie
nenoaiu ?uii/iiai oicyenoaiaaiey, ?aoeoaeueiuo oaaia a iaeanoe
aeaiiiiiieecaoeee yeiiiieee, aeaath?ie?aoecaoeee oi?aaeaiey e, eiia/ii,
iauaai ia?aoiaea e oaca iaeeaeaiey e iiaeuaia i?iecaiaenoaa e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiaanoe?iaaiey.

Aeey cae?aieaiey e aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey iiceoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee ?inoa
?inneeneiai iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ea?aeeiaeueiiai ?anoe?aiey
iiey aai aeayoaeueiinoe o?aaoaony aeoeaecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee II ia anao o?iaiyo. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a iiaeaea?aeea
ioaeaeaaony noa?a e?aaeeoiaaiey e no?aoiaaiey iaeiai aeciana,
noeioee?iaaiey aai eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe. Ianoiyoaeueiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth yaeyaony aeae?eieiaeecaoeey iaeiai aeciana.
*?acau/aeii aaaeii oaeaea ?anoe?aiea eiiiaaoeeiiiie e iao/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe II a eioa?anao ?acaeoey anao noa? ?inneeneie yeiiiieee.
Ia/aei ?aaeueiiai iiaeuaia a yeiiiieea iicaieeo ia?aeoe e /aoaa?oiio
yoaio ii-ianoiyuaio ?uii/iiai ?acaeoey ?inneeneiai iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Aeaaa III I?ia?aiia ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee ?acaeoey iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee .

“N/eoath iiaeaea?aeeo iaeiai aeciana iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey yeiiiieee, noaiiaeaiey n?aaeiaai eeanna e a eiia/iii eoiaa –
oniaoa ?aoi?i”.

A.Aeueoeei

I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai eae iniaay oi?ia yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe, eae
eiie?aoiay oi?ia iaania/aiey naiicaiyoinoe /anoe ianaeaiey e nicaeaiey
iiauo ?aai/eo iano iieuecoaony i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iiaeaea?aeeie ai anao
i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao (a inoaeueiuo no?aiao aieueoia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/aao oae iacuaaaiia oee/iia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai).
Nooue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie (ainoaea?noaaiiie) iiaeaea?aeee naiaeeony /aua
anaai e au?aaioea eiie?aoiuo ia? ii o?ai iai?aaeaieyi:

eiinoeueoaoeeiiiia nii?iaiaeaeaiea i?ioeanna nicaeaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aiiaue nicaeaiiuo oe?i ia ia/aeueiii yoaia (1-3 aiaea
n iiiaioa ia?aciaaiey oe?iu); a NOA, e i?eia?o, n yoie oeaeueth ia
oa??eoi?ee no?aiu aeaenoaotho ?aaeiiaeueiua ioaeaeaiey
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai “Aaaionoaa ii iaeiio aeciano”;

ieacaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee aiiaue nicaeaaaaiie
no?oeoo?a eee i?aaeinoaaeaiea oaeie no?oeoo?a ii?aaeaeaiiuo eueaio
(iau/ii a noa?a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey);

ieacaiea oaoie/aneie, iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eee oaoiieiae/aneie iiiiue
iaeiiiuiui a oeiainiaii ioiioaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneei no?oeoo?ai (a
Ieaea?eaiaeao, e i?eia?o, nicaeaiu ?aaeiiaeueiua iao/ii-oaoie/aneea
ath?i, eioi?ua ia aacaiciacaeiie iniiaa ii cayaeai iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee
o/anoaotho a ?ac?aoaiee eo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo i?iaeai,
naycaiiuo n i?iecaiaenoaaiiui i?ioeannii).

Iaoa ainoaea?noai , oaeaea eae e ae?oaea iuoaaony iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iaeue
aecian. Oae iai?eia? , 1995 aiaeo aue i?eiyo Caeii ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee “I ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”. A ia iniiaaiee yoiai
caeiia Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 4 aeaeaa?y 1995 aiaea aue
ia?aciaai Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Niaeanii Caeiio Oiiae ii?aaeaeai ainoaea?noaaiiui caeac/eeii
Oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiu ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee ?acaeoey iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee .

Iniiaiie caaea/ae Oiiaea yaeyaony oeiainiaia iaania/aiea oaaea?aeueiie
iieeoeee a iaeanoe ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e nicaeaiea yooaeoeaii
aeaenoaothuaai oeiainiaiai iaoaiecia aeey ?aaeecaoeee Oaaea?aeueiie
i?ia?aiiu ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
o/anoea a oeiaine?iaaiee ?aaeiiaeueiuo (iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo) i?ia?aii, a
oaeaea i?iaeoia e ia?ii?eyoee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia iiaeaea?aeeo e ?acaeoea
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Ai eniieiaiea yoie caaea/e ?aaeecothony iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe:

Au?aaioea oeiainiaie no?aoaaee ii i?eaea/aieth ?inneeneiai e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaieianeiai eaieoaea, a oaeaea ae?oaeo
e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo i?aaiecaoeee iiae ainoaea?noaaiiua aa?aioee
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aeey iaania/aiey ?acaeoey iaeiai
aeciana a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Niaeaenoaea oi?ie?iaaieth eueaioiiai iaeiaiaiai ?aaeeia aeey ?aaioathueo
a noa?a iaeiai aeciana.

Oi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu eeceiaa eae iaeiie ec iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuo
aiciiaeiinoae nicaeaiey e ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai aacena iaeiai e
n?aaeiaai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Niaeaenoaea ?acaeoeth aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe noauaeoia iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aiiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia aeey ?aaiou a no?oeoo?ao iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey oniaoiiai ?acaeoey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe iooai oi?ie?iaaiey aeaaii?eyoiie eio?ano?oeoo?u.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia e ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaia iaania/aiea aeayoaeueiinoe iaeuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae.

?acaeoea ?aeeaiii-aunoaai/iie e ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a noa?a
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

?acaeoea eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo
no?oeoo?ao, niaeaenoaea a inaiaiee iiauo oaoiieiaee e ecia?aoaiee.

Aeey ?aaeecaoeee ia?ii?eyoee Oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiu ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa i?e o/anoee Oiiaea nicaeaiu
76 ?aaeiiaeueiuo oiiaeia e oeaio?ia. Iie iaoiaeyony iiae ?aaeueiui
eiio?ieai ianoiuo i?aaiia aeanoe. ?aaeiiaeueiua oiiaeu ia/eiatho a?aoue
ia naay eeth/aaoth ?ieue ii i?iaeoiiio e oeiainiaiio oi?aaeaieth
?aaeiiaeueiuie i?ia?aiiaie ?acaeoey iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia
iniiaa eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea e ?aaeiiia.

Iaeiei ec ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea iiaeaea?aeee
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa , ooaa?aeaeaiiay 7 ethiy 1996 aiaea
iinoaiiaeaieai Ainoaea?noaaiiie Aeoiu ? 444-II AAe , Oaaea?aeueiay
i?ia?aiia ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia 1996-1997 aiaeu . Iniiaiua ?ac?aaio/eee
i?iaeoa Ieiyeiiiieee ?innee, Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, AE?I ?innee, AEAI ?innee, Ieiiaoee ?innee, Oiiae
niaeaenoaey ?acaeoeth iaeuo oi?i i?aaei?eyoee a iao/ii-oaoie/aneie
noa?a, Einoeooo iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa Aunoae oeieu yeiiiieee
Ieiyeiiiieee ?innee e Aineiiaoca ?innee.

Oeaeueth I?ia?aiiu yaeyaony iaania/aiea onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, eiiiaaoeeiiiie e ae?oaeo
noa?ao eae iaiouaieaiie /anoe iiaie no?oeoo?u yeiiiieee, aaaeiaeoaai
iai?aaeaiey nicaeaiey iiauo ?aai/eo iano e yooaeoeaiuo
einoeoooeeiiaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee.

Caaea/e I?ia?aiiu

Nicaeaiea i?aaiauo, yeiiiie/aneeo e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oneiaee aeey
onoie/eaiai ?acaeoey iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ea/anoaa
aaaeiaeoaai oneiaey iiaeuaia e no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee ?inneeneie
yeiiiieee, o.a. aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea nenoaiu ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai
iaania/aiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, io?aaeaiea a
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e ae?oaeo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e
noauaeoia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee eioa?ania iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa
e iniaaiiinoae noauaeoia iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa n oeaeueth
ono?aiaiey eo iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiiai iieiaeaiey a yeiiiieea ii n?aaiaieth
n aieaa e?oiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie, niaeaenoaey i?iyaeaieth e ?acaeoeth eo
eiieo?aioiuo e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?aeiouanoa;

oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia oi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie e iauanoaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. I?aaeoniao?eaaaony
niaaeeiaiea nicaeaiiuo a ?aieao Oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiu ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia
1994-1995 aiaeu ioaeaeueiuo caaiueaa e yeaiaioia eio?ano?oeoo?u
oaaea?aeueiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai o?iaiy a nenoaio, aeeth/athuoth
?acaaoaeaiioth naoue eio?ano?oeoo?iuo iauaeoia (oiiaeu, oeaio?u e
aaaionoaa iiaeaea?aeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, aunoaai/iua e
aeaiiino?aoeeiiii-aeeea?neea oeaio?u, oaoiiia?ee, aecian-eieoaaoi?u,
eioi?iaoeeiiiua, eiinaeoeiaiaua e o/aaii-aeaeiaua oeaio?u,
eeceiaiaua eiiiaiee, oeaio?u ?aianae e o.ae.).;

nicaeaiea iiauo ?aai/eo iano, ioe?uoea e iiaeaea?aeea iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee
a i?iecaiaenoaaiiie, eiiiaaoeeiiiie e nioeeaeueiie noa?ao aeey
iaania/aiey ?uiea ioa/anoaaiiuie oiaa?aie e oneoaaie, iiaeaea?aeaiea
aeaeiaie e eiaanoeoeeiiiie aeoeaiinoe, ?acaeoea eiieo?aioeee ia ?uiea
oiaa?ia e oneoa. ?aaeecaoeey ia?ii?eyoee ii iaania/aieth
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e eiiiaaoeeiiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee
iicaieeo nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey oaaee/aiey auionea iieuecothuaeny
ni?inii eiieo?aioiniiniaiie i?iaeoeoeee, iiaeaea?aeee ioa/anoaaiiuo
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeae, iiauoaiey oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa e
ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee noauaeoia iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, oneeaiey eo
?iee a ?acaeoee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e aa
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aacu, eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey anao aeaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe a noa?a iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio, inaiaiey e ia?aaea/e a noa?o iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa iiauo oaoiieiaee, iaoaioia e eeoeaicee.
Inouanoaeaiea oeacaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee iicaieeo nicaeaoue cia/eoaeueiia
eiee/anoai iiauo iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee, iniaaiii a e?ecenii-aeai?anneaiuo
?aeiiao, e iiauo ?aai/eo iano, i?aaeaea anaai aeey aeaiuei, iieiaeaaee,
oaieaiiuo a caian aiaiiineoaeaueo, auioaeaeaiiuo ia?anaeaioeaa. Aeey
iaania/aiey aeaenoaaiiie caueou i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e ?aaioieeia iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee aoaeao inouanoaeai eiiieaen ia? ii ai?ueaa n ?yeaoii,
ei??oioeeae, nicaeaia e ?anoe?aia naoue oe?i, iaania/eaathueo
aaciianiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee e i?iecaiaeyueo
niaoeeaeueiua io?aiiua n?aaenoaa.;

eieoeee?iaaiea oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo e eiaanoeoeeiiiuo iaoaieciia, a
oaeaea iiauo enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaeaea anaai ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae
yooaeoeaii ?acaeaathueony iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee. A 1996-1997 aiaeao
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiay e eiaanoeoeeiiiay iiaeaea?aeea iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aeieaeia ni/aoaoue iioeiecaoeeth iaeiaiauo eueaio,
?acaeoea nenoaiu e?aaeeoiaaiey e nicaeaiea aeaaii?eyoiiai
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai eeeiaoa n o/anoeai niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oiiaeia e
ae?oaeo oeiainiauo einoeoooia. Ni/aoaiea ia? i?yiie e einaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee aeieaeii niinianoaiaaoue oi?ie?iaaieth iaiaoiaeeiiai
noa?oiaiai eaieoaea aeey aiiaue nicaeaaaaiuo, a oaeaea ?acaeoeth
nouanoaothueo iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee e i?aiaeieaieth iaaaoeaiie oaiaeaioeee
ooiaea yoeo i?aaei?eyoee io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. A 1996-1997 aiaeao aoaeoo
nio?aiaiu onoaiiaeaiiua aeaenoaothuei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iaeiaiaua
eueaiou aeey noauaeoia iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. I?aaenoieo
oi?inoeoue nenoaio o/aoa e io/aoiinoe noauaeoia iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a oeaeyo iieo/aiey iniiaiie eioi?iaoeee,
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?aoaiey aii?inia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. A oiaea ?aaeecaoeee
I?ia?aiiu i?aaeoniao?eaaaony oi?ie?iaaiea aa?aioeeiiai e eeceiaiaiai
oiiaeia, niinianoaothueo a oneiaeyo iiauoaiiuo ?eneia e?aaeeoiaaieth e
eiaanoe?iaaieth a iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua i?iaeou e i?aaei?eyoey.
Aeieaeai auoue ?ac?aaioai ii?yaeie, i?e eioi?ii ia iaiaa 20 i?ioeaioia
n?aaenoa, iinooiathueo io i?eaaoecaoeee a Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eniieuecoaony aeey
inouanoaeaiey ?aaeiiaeueiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii. Aoaeao aaaaeai a
aeaenoaea iaoaieci ?aciauaiey n?aaee noauaeoia iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia iaiaa 15 i?ioeaioia iauaiia caeacia ia
i?iecaiaenoai e iinoaaeo i?iaeoeoeee, oiaa?ia e oneoa aeey oaaea?aeueiuo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae. ;

oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea oeiiauo yeaiaioia eio?ano?oeoo?u, nicaeaiiuo a
?aieao i?ia?aiiiuo ?ac?aaioie a 1994-1995 aiaeao. I?aeoe/anee a eaaeaeii
?aaeiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aoaeoo nicaeaiu e ia/ioo aeaenoaiaaoue
iiaua eioi?iaoeeiiiua oeaio?u, /oi iicaieeo cia/eoaeueii oeo/oeoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Aoaeoo
?aaeeciaaiu ia?u ii oe?ieie i?iiaaaiaea e iiioey?ecaoeee aiciiaeiinoae e
aeinoeaeaiee a noa?a iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, ieacaia iaiaoiaeeiay
iiiiuue n?aaenoaai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, inaauathuei yoe aii?inu. A
oiaea auiieiaiey niioaaonoaothueo ia?ii?eyoee i?aaeiieaaaaony caaa?oeoue
a oeaeii ?aaioo ii nicaeaieth nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia oaaea?aeueiii e ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaiyo,
io?aaioaoue e aiaae?eoue iaoaieci eii?aeeiaoeee e iaiaia iiuoii ii
inouanoaeaieth i?ia?aii iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
?aaeecoaiuo i?e oaoie/aneii niaeaenoaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee.
I?e oneeaiee cia/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia iiaeaea?aeee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa aeieaeia aic?anoaoue ?ieue iauanoaaiiuo
i?aaiecaoeee a ionoaeaaiee caeiiiuo eioa?ania i?aaei?eieiaoaeae,
nicaeaiee aeaaii?eyoiiai eeeiaoa a iauanoaa, i?eaea/aiee n?aaenoa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, eniieueciaaiee eiie?aoiuo iiceoeaiuo ?acoeueoaoia
aeayoaeueiinoe iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaoaieci ?aaeecaoeee I?ia?aiiu

I?ia?aiia iai?aaeaia ia nicaeaiea oneiaee iiaeaea?aeee iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia iooai eieoeee?iaaiey ?ac?aaioee e
nicaeaiey i?aaiaie aacu, aeaeiai oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiiai iaoaiecia,
oeaeinoiie nenoaiu eioi?iaoeeiiiiai e eaae?iaiai iaania/aiey, aaeeiie
noaoenoe/aneie aacu, oeiiauo i?ia?aiiiuo ?aoaiee ii iauaeoai
eio?ano?oeoo?u a oaniie oaycea n ia?ii?eyoeyie ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ia?aii
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth I?ia?aiiu yaeyaony aieaa /aoeia
?aca?aie/aiea iieiiii/ee e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e aa
noauaeoia ca ?aoaiea aii?inia iiaeaea?aeee e ?aaoee?iaaiey iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue eiieoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii iiaeaea?aeea e
?acaeoeth iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa inouanoaeytho eiio?ieueiua
ooieoeee, iicaieythuea onoaiiaeoue caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo cao?aoaie ia
inouanoaeaiea I?ia?aiiu e eiia/iuie ?acoeueoaoaie, e iaania/eaatho oai
naiui yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa, auaeaeyaiuo ia ?aaeecaoeeth
I?ia?aiiu.

Eii?aeeiaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie
aeanoe e i?aaiia eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe noauaeoia ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee, Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ii auiieiaieth ia?ii?eyoee I?ia?aiiu inouanoaeyaony
Ainoaea?noaaiiui eiieoaoii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii iiaeaea?aeea e
?acaeoeth iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ue ii?aaeaeyao
ia?aii/a?aaeiinoue auiieiaiey ia?ii?eyoee n o/aoii i?ei?eoaoiuo
iai?aaeaiee I?ia?aiiu e iaee/ey n?aaenoa a Oaaea?aeueiii oiiaea
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

I?ia?aiia i?aaeoniao?eaaao iiyoaiiia auiieiaiea iaia/aaiuo ia?ii?eyoee,
aieaa oanioth oayceo iniiaiuo yeaiaioia ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a
iaeanoe iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa n iniiaiuie iaoaieciaie
?aoi?ie?iaaiey ?inneeneie yeiiiieee.

I?ia?aiia aeieaeia a iaeneiaeueiie noaiaie eioaa?e?iaaoue eioa?anu e
aiciiaeiinoe anao no?oeoo? oaaea?aeueiiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai o?iaiae,
caieiathueony iiaeaea?aeeie iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Ieacaiea noauaeoai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee aoaeao
inouanoaeyoueny Oaaea?aeueiui oiiaeii iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa oieueei i?e iaee/ee o ieo ooaa?aeaeaiiuo i?ia?aii
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e auaeaeaiee ec
niioaaonoaothueo athaeaeaoia n?aaenoa ia eo ?aaeecaoeeth.

Iiaeaiaey eoia auoaeceiaeaiiiio a yoie aeaaa , oi/o neacaoue ,/oi
i?aaeoaeuenoai ia/eiaao i?eieiaoue ia?u aeey iiauoaiey oaiiia ?acaeoey
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa . I/aiue ?aaeoao oio oaeo , /oi iaeiiaoe-oi
aue i?eiyo caeii i ?acaeoee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa o.a. iiyaeeny ia?aue
ainoaea?noaaiiue aeieoiaio aeaaoee ia/aei ?acaeoeth eio?ano?oeoo?u
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Ia/aaoee naith
aeayoaeueiinoue Oaaea?aeueiue oiiae iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa yaeeny ia?aui ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaiii
caieiathueiny eneeth/eoaeueii aii?inaie iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai aeciana (
i?e/ai eiathuei ?aaeueiia oeiaine?iaaiea oae iai?eia? ia ?aaeecaoeeth
ia?ii?eyoee Oaaea?aeueiie i?ia?aiiu a 1996 aiaeo Oiiaeo auaeaeaii ec
athaeaeaoa 386,6 ie?ae. ?oaeae, nianoaaiiua n?aaenoaa Oaaea?aeueiiai
oiiaea ninoaaeytho a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ieiei 60,0 ie?ae. ?oaeae) .
?ac?aaioaiiay ei oeaeaaay i?ia?aiia iiaeaea?aeee oaea a i?ioeii 1996
aiaeo i?eianea ?aaeueiua ?acoeueoaou : iauee aeioiae io eniieueciaaiey
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa a 1996 aiaeo ninoaaee aieaa 14,5 ie?ae. ?oaeae. Oae
aea i?iecioee iaeioi?ua iiceoeaiua eciaiaiey a iaeanoe
oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneie e eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaea?aeee ?inneeneiai
iaeiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, oi?ie?iaaiey aai eio?ano?oeoo?u. Ana yoi
iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiae: ia/aaoeany eciaiaiey a noa?a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa , iieacuaatho /oi ia?u ainoaea?noaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeee iaeiai aeciana e aeaeueiaeoai aoaeoo niinianoaiaaoue aai
?acaeoeth e i?ioeaaoaieth .

CAEETH*AIEA

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiaia aiai?eony i aic?iaeaeaiee ?inneeneiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. Iaeiaei, anee auoue oi/iui, oi, /oi naaiaeiy
i?ienoiaeeo a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ?innee, anoue iiiuoea
aoi?e/iiai aic?iaeaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a iaoae no?aia. Ia?aay
iiiuoea (iinea ieoya?y 1917 a.) auea i?aaei?eiyoa a i?ioeanna
?aaeecaoeee oae iacuaaaiie iiaie yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee (IYI),
aaeeinoaaiiie — eae i?aaenoaaeyeinue a oi a?aiy — oi?iu auaiaea ?innee
ec yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai e?ecena.

Iaee/ea a ethaii iauanoaa oneiaee aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa,
nouanoaiaaiea a oaeii iauanoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai ei?iona — yoi ia
oieueei aeaiue iiaea. Yoi e iieacaoaeue o?iaiy yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeu
a?aaeaeai, e io?aaeaiea iiieiaiey i?ia?anneaiiai oa?aeoa?a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ni noi?iiu i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeanoiuo no?oeoo?,
ii?aaeaeythueo, ?ac?aaaouaathueo e ?aaeecothueo yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo,
a oii /enea e a ioiioaiee i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.

Aeaeeii, auei au iaaa?ii niaeaoaoueny n ?ani?ino?aiaiiui oacenii i oii,
/oi aoaeouaa ?innee — ca i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii. Aoaeouaa ?innee — ca
anaie iaie e ai iiiaii aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny iaoae niiniaiinoueth
au?aaioaoue yooaeoeaioth eiioeaioeeth auoioeiaeaiey. Ii aoaeouaa ?innee
— e ca i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie. Iiyoiio o?aaoaony i?ioanneiiaeueiue iiaeoiae
eaaeaeiai, eoi ?aoee caiyoueny yoie oi?iie yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
e eniieiaieth naieo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo ooieoeee.

*oaeeiia N.TH.

13 iiya?y 1997

Oec?e/ ?, Ieoa?a I. I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai. Aui. 1. I., 1991, n. 20.

Ni. Oai aea

*Oineeia A. Eo?n i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa. I., 1993, n. 28. **Ni.:
I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai a eiioea XX aaea. I., 1992, n. 20.

Aeeaineee A. Iaeue aecian : o?oaeiinoe ?inoa .

Aeeaineee A. Iaeue aecian : o?oaeiinoe ?inoa . (ni.oaae1)

PAGE

PAGE 4

Ainoaea?noai

Ia?oia?

I?aaei?eieiaoaeue

Iio?aaeoaeue

Iaaiiue ?aaioiee (?aaioieee)

Aaaio

Iieoiaoaeue

I?eioeeiae

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