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Униженные и оскорбленные в изгнании /Россия, начало века/

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O?aeueneay Ainoaea?noaaiiay TH?eaee/aneay Aeaaeaiey

?AOA?AO

OIEAEAIIUA E INEI?AEAIIUA A

ECAIAIEE

Auiieieea: Naooeia THeey

Nooaeaioea a?.? 116

I?iaa?eea: ssiiaa A.I.

Aeaoa?eiao?a 1998 a.

OIEAEAIIUA E INEI?AEAIIUA. A ECAIAIEE

?onneea, ieacaaoeany iinea 1919 a. ca i?aaeaeaie auaoae ?inneeneie
eiia?ee, auee aaaeaioeaie a iieiii niunea yoiai neiaa. Aeaaiie i?e/eiie
eo aaanoaa noaee aiaiiia ii?aaeaiea e naycaiiay n iei oa?ica ieaia e
?ani?aau, a oaeaea aieiae, eeoaiey, iianiinoue, iaaenoay iaae aeeciueth
e naiaiaeie a ?acoeueoaoa neiaeeaoeony iieeoe/aneeo ianoiyoaeuenoa.
Anei?a, iaeiaei, iie noaee yiea?aioaie a oii niunea yoiai neiaa, eioi?ue
i?eiaiyaony e o?aioeocai, inoaaeaoei O?aioeeth iinea iaaeaiey ancien
regime. ?onneee yiea?aio — yoi /aeiaae, ioeacaaoeeny i?eciaoue
aieueoaaenoneee ?aaeei, eioi?ue ooaa?aeeeny ia aai ?iaeeia. Aeey
aieueoeinoaa ec ieo ioeac noae aaniiai?ioiui iinea aeae?aoa ?NON? 1921
a., iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiiai e aeiiieiaiiiai a 1924 a., eeoaaoaai eo
a?aaeaeainoaa e i?aa?auaaoaai a eeoe aac a?aaeaeainoaa eee aiao?eaeia
(eiaiii yoi o?aioeocneia neiai aioei a ea/anoaa ioeoeeaeueiiai oa?ieia a
aeieoiaiou Eeae Iaoeee).

Aaciaiai?i/iia iai?eyoea niaaoneiai ?aaeeia, a a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa e
naiie ?aaiethoeee, iaaeaaeaea ia aica?auaiea aeiiie iinea iaaeaiey
iaiaaenoiie nenoaiu auee i?enoue anai aaaeaioeai. Yoi ieacuaaei aeeyiea
ia eo iiaaaeaiea, oai?/aneoth aeoeaiinoue, i?iaoaeaeay, aii?aee anai
iieeoe/aneei ?aciiaeaneyi, /oanoai aaeeiaiey, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e
«iauanoao a ecaiaiee», iaeeaeathuaio aiciiaeiinoue aica?auaiey. Iaeiaei
niaaoneee ?aaeei ia iaia?oaeeaae ieeaeeo i?eciaeia e?aoa, e iaaeaaeaeu
ia aica?auaiea noaee oayoue.

Iniaaiiinoe iouacaea a yiea?aoeeth ii?aaeaeyee e naiaia?acea ?acee/iuo
a?oii yiea?aioia a iiauo ianoao eo i?iaeeaaiey. Ca eneeth/aieai
aaeeieoe, iieeioaoeo ?inneth a oa/aiea 1917 a., e iaiiiaeo (a iniiaiii
aeeoaeae Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa) oaoaaoeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinea caoaaoa
aeanoe aieueoaaeeaie a ieoya?a 1917 a., yiea?aoeey ec ?innee yaeeanue
i?yiui neaaenoaeai oiaea e eoiaia a?aaeaeaineie aieiu. Aiaiiua,
iioa?iaaoea ii?aaeaiea io E?aniie

A?iee e ooaaeoea ca a?aieoeo eee yaaeoe?iaaiiua ii?ai, ninoaaeee
iniiaiie eiioeiaaio ia?aie aieiu aaaeaioeaa. Ca ieie iineaaeiaaee eo
aeeceea e ae?oaea a?aaeaeaineea eeoea, noiaaoea i?eniaaeeieoueny e iei.
A ?yaea neo/aaa ia?aoiae a?aieoeu eee yaaeoaoeey ii?ai auee a?aiaiiui e
iaiaoiaeeiui iiiaioii aeey ia?aa?oiie?iaee nee ia?aae iiaie noaaoeie n
niaaoneei ?aaeeiii e iieo/aiey iiiiue nithcieeia.

Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi ia?aue ioieo inoaiiaee aaaeaioeaa ?aaeei
noaiiaeeny iinoiyiiui ianoii eo i?iaeeaaiey. Oaeaea ia anaaaea auei
ynii, eoi aue nianoaaiii yiea?aioii, o.a. ia aeaeathuei aica?auaoueny, a
eoi eioa?ie?iaaiiui eee aiaiiiieaiiui ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu, iaeeaeathuei
?aiao?eaoeee. Aeiiieieoaeueiay neiaeiinoue ninoiyea a oii, /oi a iiauo
ainoaea?noaao, ia?aciaaaoeony e caiaaeo io Niaaoneie ?innee (Iieueoa,
?oiuiee, Aaeoeeneeo ?anioaeeeao, /anoi iacuaaaiuo i?ea?aie/iuie
ainoaea?noaaie — Limitrophes), auei ei?aiiia ?onneia ianaeaiea, aeaaiui
ia?acii e?anoueyia, eioi?ua i?iaeeaaee caeanue ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea.
A yoeo no?aiao iie ia anaaaea iieo/aee a?aaeaeaineea i?aaa a iieiii
iauaia. Iinea ieii/aiey aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueau, nianaynue io aieueoaaeeia,
aaaeaioeu no?aieeenue caoa?youeny n?aaee yoiai ?onneiai iaiueoeinoaa. A
aiaeu aieiaea e eieeaeoeaecaoeee, aei oaeanoi/aiey eiio?iey, yoe
iia?aie/iua ciiu aeaaaee aiciiaeiinoue aua?aoueny ec NNN?, nianoenue io
aaaenoaee e iianiinoae, iiaenoa?aaaaoeo oai.

Iiniio?ei, a eaeeo ianoao inouanoaeyeny ia?aoiae a?aieoeu, e iiiuoaainy
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue ?onneeo aaaeaioeaa, ono?aieyaoeony e eaaeaeiio eo ieo.
Iaeaieaa aaaeiui ?aeiiii auei iiaa?aaeuea *a?iiai ii?y (Iiai?inneene,
E?ui, Iaeanna, A?ocey). Iiyoiio Eiinoaioeiiiieue (Noaiaoe) noae ia?aui
cia/eoaeueiui ioieoii ?annaeaiey yiea?aioia. A?iee aaia?aea A. Aeaieeeia
e aa?iia I. A?aiaaey auee yaaeoe?iaaiu a Noaiaoe n iineaaeieo ?oaaaeae
naiae iai?iiu ii?neeie o?ainii?oaie nithcieeia. Aiaiiuo nii?iaiaeaeaee
a?aaeaeaineea eeoea — /eaiu naiae ioeoea?ia e nieaeao e oa, eiio
oaeaeinue iiianoue ia ei?aaee. Ia ana o?ainii?ou inoaiaaeeaaeenue a
Noaiaoeueneii ii?oo, iaeioi?ua iai?aaeyeenue aeaeueoa — ia ino?iaa
I?aii?iiai e Yaaeneiai ii?ae e ia iieoino?ia Aaeeeiiee.

Anoanoaaiii, ie Noaiaoe, ie ino?iaa ia iiaee i?eiyoue anao aaaeaioeaa.
Aieueoeinoai iaoiaeeeinue a oyaeaeii oece/aneii e ii?aeueiii ninoiyiee,
a?aiaiii eo ?aciauaee a auaoeo aiaiiuo eaaa?yo e ainieoaeyo. Oae eae
oo?aoeeea aeanoe e eiiennee nithcieeia, i?aaeinoaaeyaoea iniiaioth
iaoa?eaeueioth iiiiuue, ia niae?aeenue iaanaaaea acaaeeoue ia naay a?aiy
caaio ii niaea?aeaieth aaaeaioeaa, oi iie auee caeioa?aniaaiu a eo
aeaeueiaeoai ia?aacaea ooaea, aaea iie iiaee iaeoe ?aaioo e i?i/ii
iainiiaaoueny. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi, ai-ia?auo, a Noaiaoea e ia
aeeceaaeaueo ino?iaao neiieeinue naiia aieueoia eiee/anoai aaaeaioeaa ec
?innee. Ai-aoi?uo,

aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai n?aaee ieo ninoaaeyee aiaiiua.
Aeaaiieiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae A?aiaaeue no?aieeny nio?aieoue a oeaeinoe
aiaiioth i?aaiecaoeeth, iaaeaynue anei?a i?iaeieaeeoue aii?oaeaiioth
ai?ueao. A-o?aoueeo, n?aaee a?aaeaeaineeo eeoe i?aiaeaaeaee
eioaeeeaaioeey , i?aaenoaaeoaee ao?aeoacee, eiiia?naiou,
eioaeeaeooaeueiay yeeoa, ethaee, naycaiiua n i?eaeai?iuie e?oaaie e
aaeieieno?aoeeae (n?aaee iineaaeieo auee iaeioi?ua /eaiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa,
nicaeaiiiai A?aiaaeai a E?uio, — I. No?oaa, A. Aa?iaaeneee e I.
Oaaaioeaa).

Oi, /oi iniiaioth ianno aaaeaioeaa ninoaaeyee a?iaeneea /anoe, iaeaa/aei
ianoiui oo?aoeeei aeanoyi e i?aaenoaaeoaeyi aea?aeaa nithcieoe eo
?annaeaiea e i?aaieciaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea iiiiue. O?oaeiaa auei n
a?aaeaeaineeie eeoeaie, neiieaoeieny a ?aeiia Noaiaoea e ioaeaeaaoeieny
a cia/eoaeueiie iiiiue io ca?oaaaeiuo aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee.
Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue — e yoi noaaeo iiae niiiaiea ?anoiaeee oacen i
ianiiniaiinoe ?onneeo e i?aaiecaoeee, — /oi aaaeaioeu e naie nicaeaaaee
aeia?iaieueiua iauanoaa iiiiue aeaiueiai, aeaoyi e aieueiui. Iie
iniiauaaee aieueieoeu, ynee e i?ethou aeey ne?io, niae?aee
iiaea?oaiaaiey io aiaaouo niioa/anoaaiieeia e ?onneie caa?aie/iie
aaeieieno?aoeee (aeeieiiaoe/aneeo iennee, ioaeaeaiee E?aniiai E?anoa), a
oaeaea io ca?oaaaeiuo oeeaio?iiia eee i?inoi io ni/oanoaothueo.

Aieaa?ey, eniuouaaaoay yeiiiie/aneea o?oaeiinoe, ii aianoa n oai ino?i
ioaeaeaaoayny a ?aai/ae neea (aeey ?aaiou a oaooao) e a
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ao aeey oieaa?neoaoia e oeie, oaeaea au?aceea
aeaeaiea i?eiyoue ?onneeo aaaeaioeaa. E eiioeo 1921 a. a Aieaa?neii
oea?noaa eo ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 12 000, a 1922 a. — i?eia?ii 30 000
/aeiaae. Iieiaeua ioae/eiu ec a?iee aaia?aea A?aiaaey, ainnoaiiaeaoea
neeu iinea ?aiaiee e aieaciae a eaaa?yo ia Ainoi?a, auee iai?aaeaiu ia
oaieueiua oaoou aeec Ia?ieea. AEeciue ai a?aiaiiuo aa?aeao, aac
ii?iaeueiuo auoiauo oneiaee e ionoonoaea i?eau/ee e oyaeaeiio
oece/aneiio o?oaeo i?eaaee e oiio, /oi aieueoeinoai ec ieo ia
caaea?aeaeenue oai iaaeieai e ia?aaoaee eeai a Nioeth e ae?oaea
aieaa?neea ai?iaea, aaea auea aiciiaeiinoue iaeoe ?aaioo eee iieo/eoue
ia?aciaaiea, eeai a ae?oaea no?aiu Aieaa?ey aeaea i?etho oaeaea
ianeieueeei aeanyoeai niaoeeaeenoia e o/aiuo, eioi?ua aianee
cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea iaoee e ia?aciaaiey ?iaenoaaiiiai
neaayineiai ia?iaea. Oai ia iaiaa ia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe Aieaa?ee,
onoaiiaeaiea aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee n Niaaoneei Nithcii e
iiaeiyaoayny a eiioea 20 — ia/aea 30-o aa. aieia iaoeeiiaeecia canoaaeee
iiiaeo ?onneeo aiiaue iiiaiyoue ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
Aieaa?ey oae e ia noaea caiaoiui eoeueoo?iui oeaio?ii ?onneie
yiea?aoeee, ianiio?y ia i?enoonoaea a Nioee oaeeo ecaanoiuo o/aiuo, eae
I. O?oaaoeeie e iieiaeie A. Oei?ianeee (eioi?ua, ai?i/ai, nei?i oaoaee)
e I. I. Aeoeeeee, noaaoaai i?ioanni?ii Nioeeneiai oieaa?neoaoa.

Aieueoeinoai ?onneeo, aieath noaeaa ieacaaoeony a Noaiaoea, iaoee i?etho
a iaaeaaii nicaeaiiii Ei?ieaanoaa na?aia, oi?aaoia e neiaaioeaa (NON),
aoaeouae THaineaaee. Enoiaey ec niia?aaeaiee eae naioeiaioaeueiiai (anee
iicaieeoaeueii i?eiaieoue yoi neiai e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui ?aoaieyi), oae
e i?aaiaoe/aneiai ii?yaeea, aeanoe Ei?ieaanoaa ?aniaoioee aeaa?e naiae
no?aiu ia?aae aieineeie iiae?acaeaeaieyie e iiiai/eneaiiuie
a?aaeaeaineeie eeoeaie, iiiiaee ei iainiiaaoueny a e?oiiaeoeo ai?iaeao e
a naeueneie ianoiinoe. Niia?aaeaiey naioeiaioaeueiiai oieea
iniiauaaeenue ia /oanoaa aeaaiaea?iinoe e ?innee, i?eoaaeoae ia iiiiuue
na?aai a 1914 a., i?i?onneie, ii ?aoeoaeueii aioeaieueoaaenoneie
iiceoeee ei?iey Aeaenaiae?a 1, eioi?ue a naia a?aiy ainieouaaeny i?e
?onneii eiia?aoi?neii aeai?a. I?e/eiu i?aaiaoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a auoaeaee
ec ino?ie iio?aaiinoe iiaiai ainoaea?noaa a eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoao. Iiiaea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, oaoie/aneea o/eeeua e
aaeieieno?aoeaiua i?aaiu iaoiaeeeenue a noaaeee noaiiaeaiey e eniuouaaee
ioaeaeo a iao/aiiuo eaae?ao. Na?aneee iaoeeiiaeeci oiaea ea?ae caeanue
iaiaeoth ?ieue: na?aneay i?aayuay yeeoa, caieiaaoay aaaeouea iiceoeee a
iauanoaaiiie aeecie iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, neeiiia auea
aieueoa aeiaa?youe ?onneei yiea?aioai, eioi?ua anaoeaei caaenaee io aa
?aniieiaeaiey, iaaeaee i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ae?oaeo i?iaeeaaaoeo a yoie
no?aia iaoeee.

Nouanoaiaaaoea aaeainee caiieiyeenue ca n/ao oaoie/aneeo niaoeeaeenoia
auaoae aaeie a?iee, a?aaeaeaineeo aaaeaioeaa, eiaaoeo iiuo iao/iie e
aaeieieno?aoeaiie ?aaiou. Aeecinoue ycueia e iauiinoue ?aeeaee
niinianoaiaaee auno?ie anneieeyoeee ?onneeo. E?iia oiai, na?aneee
iao?ea?o, iieo/eaoee ia?aciaaiea a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee, aunooiee
io eiaie naiae oea?eae e ieacae ainoai?eeinoai ?onneei ieo?iiieeoai e
aunoaio aeooiaainoao, auioaeaeaiiui nianaoueny aaanoaii io ia?ooeaoeony
ia oea?eiaue aiiaiee ni noi?iiu aieueoaaeeia. Iaeiiaoe, iaoa?eaeueiue
oua?a e ethaeneea iioa?e, iiianaiiua Na?aeae ai a?aiy ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu, nicaeaee aiciiaeiinoue ?annaeaiey aaaeaioeaa e a naeueneie
ianoiinoe. Oae, i?eauaoea a Ei?ieaanoai eacaee iiaee naeeoueny iaueiaie
e nio?aiyoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua niiniau aaaeaiey naeueneiai oicyenoaa. E
neooaoeee a THaineaaee iu aoaeai aua aica?auaoueny a nayce n ae?oaeie
ianoiyoaeuenoaaie. Caeanue aea ioiaoei eeoue, /oi THaineaaey, iniaaiii
Aaea?aae, noaea cia/eoaeueiui eoeueoo?iui oeaio?ii ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey,
oioy e ia oaeei ?aciinoi?iiiei e oai?/anee aeoeaiui, eae Ia?eae, Aa?eei
eee I?aaa. Oieueei /oi ia?aciaaiiay *aoineiaaoeeay ?anioaeeea oaeaea
i?aaeinoaaeea oaaaeeua iiiaei eacaeai e ae?oaei a?oiiai e?anoueyi. Oaeei
ia?acii, aieueoay /anoue aaaeaioeaa, iaoiaeeaoeony ia?aiia/aeueii a
Oo?oeee, ia?aianoeeanue caoai a neaayineea e aaeeaineea no?aiu.

Aoi?ie ia?o?oo ?onneeo aaaeaioeaa i?ieaaae naaa?i-caiaaeiaa *a?iiai
ii?y. Ia?aciaaeny ii aneaaenoaea iauaai oaina, oea?eaoaai a yoii ?aaeiia
a ia?eiae ao?iuo iieeoe/aneeo niauoee. Iu ia aoaeai inoaiaaeeaaoueny
caeanue ia oao oaeoi?ao, eioi?ua iaoneiaeee oaeoth iieeoe/aneoth
ianoaiiaeo. Ia?aie/einy eeoue neaaeothueie caia/aieyie: a aic?iaeaeaiiie
Iieueoa e a Ainoi/iie Aa?iaiee auei nin?aaeioi/aii iiiai ?onneeo
aiaiiiieaiiuo (ia?aie ie?iaie e niaaonei-iieueneie aiei e niioonoaothueo
ei eiioeeeoia ?acee/iuo oe?aeineeo ?aaeeiia n Aa?iaieae). Aieueoeinoai
ec ieo aa?ioeinue ia ?iaeeio, iaeiaei iiiaea i?aaeii/ee inoaoueny ia
oa??eoi?ee, ia eiio?iee?oaiie Niaaoaie, e noaee aaaeaioeaie-yiea?aioaie.
ssae?i ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey a yoii ?aaeiia, oaeei ia?acii, ninoaaeee
ocieee eaaa?ae aeey aiaiiiieaiiuo. Aia/aea caeanue auee oieueei ioae/eiu
i?ecuaiiai aic?anoa, aiineaaenoaee e iei i?eniaaeeieeenue aeaiueiu e
aeaoe — oa, eiio oaeaeinue ainniaaeeieoueny ni naieie ioaeueyie,
iooeaie, nuiiaueyie. Iieuecoynue ia?acaa?eoie ia a?aieoea, iiiaea
aaaeaioeu ia?aoiaeeee a?aieoeo Iieueoe, a ioooaea iai?aaeyeenue aeaeueoa
a Aa?iaieth. Niaaoneea aeanoe aeaaaee ?ac?aoaiea ia auacae oai, eoi
aeaaeae nianoaaiiinoueth eee i?iaeeaae ia oa??eoi?ee, ioioaaeoae ei
aiiaue ia?aciaaiiui iaoeeiiaeueiui ainoaea?noaai. Aiineaaenoaee, iinea
e?aoeiai i?iaeeaaiey a oiiiyioouo ainoaea?noaao a ea/anoaa
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?onneiai yoie/aneiai iaiueoeinoaa, yoe ethaee oaeaea
noaiiaeeenue /anoueth ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey. Iaeaieaa /anoiethaeaua e
aeayoaeueiua eioaeeeaaiou e niaoeeaeenou, iieiaeua ethaee, no?aieaoeany
caeii/eoue ia?aciaaiea, ia caaea?aeeaaeenue iaaeieai n?aaee yoiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai iaiueoeinoaa, ia?aacaeaee eeai a noieeoeu yoeo
ainoaea?noa, eeai a no?aiu Oeaio?aeueiie e Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Oaeei
ia?acii, a Iieueoa, o?ao i?eaaeoeeneeo ainoaea?noaao e Oeieyiaeee
nouanoaiaaee aieueoea a?oiiu yiea?aioia, n/eoaaoeo naay /anoueth ?innee
ca ?oaaaeii. Iaee/ea a yoeo no?aiao ?onneiai yoie/aneiai iaiueoeinoaa
(eae i?aaeei, e?anoueyi eee noa?iaa?ia) ia icia/aei, iaeiaei, /oi
yiea?aiou /oanoaiaaee naay caeanue eiioi?oii eee iieo/aee iiaeaea?aeeo
aeey ieiaeioai?iiai ?acaeoey naiae eoeueoo?u. Ia neaaeoao caauaaoue i
aiieia iauynieiuo aioe?onneeo iano?iaieyo, eioi?ua auee oa?aeoa?iu aeey
ianoiie yeeou, aeieaia a?aiy iiaeaaeyaoaeny e aeene?eieie?iaaaoaeny
oea?neeie aeanoyie. O?oaeii auei iaeeaeaoue io iaa aeia?iai
?aniieiaeaiey e ni/oanoaaiiiai ioiioaiey e eaeaa ?an oeaaoa eoeueoo?iie,
nioeeaeueiie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaoeee, ninoaaeyaoae
i?aayuaa aieueoeinoai a auaoae eiia?ee.

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo (iai?eia?, a Ynoiiee e Eeoaa) iio?aaiinoue a
aunieiia?aciaaiiuo o/aiuo e niaoeeaeenoao auioaeaeaea ianoiua aeanoe
i?eaeaoaoue ?onneeo o/aiuo-yiea?aioia ia aeieaeiinoe ai aiiaue
nicaeaaaaiuo aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo e oaoie/aneeo neoaeaao. Ii oae
aea, eae e a Aieaa?ee, ?ino iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo iano?iaiee e
iieeoe/aneee aaoi?eoa?eci, ooaa?aeeaoeeny a Iieueoa, Eeoaa e Eaoaee a
eiioea 20-o aa., ineiaeieee iieiaeaiea yiea?aioia. Iiiaea auioaeaeaiu
auee oaoaoue a oaeea aeoeaiua oeaio?u ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey, eae I?aaa,
Aa?eei eee Ia?eae. Ana neacaiiia auoa iauyniyao, ii/aio, ianiio?y ia
i?enoonoaea cia/eoaeueiiai /enea ?onneeo aaaeaioeaa, a i?ea?aie/iuo
ainoaea?noaao oae e ia aicieeei aeaenoaeoaeueii caiaoiuo oeaio?ia
yiea?aioneie eoeueoo?u. A oi aea a?aiy i?iaeeaaaoea a yoeo no?aiao
yiea?aiou ninoaaeyee aeaaiaea?ioth aoaeeoi?eth, aeeai aini?eieiaaooth
oai?/aneoth i?iaeoeoeeth ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey — eieae, aeo?iaeu,
eaeoeee, oaao?aeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey e eiioea?ou — e ieacuaaaooth ae
noieue iaiaoiaeeioth ii?aeueioth e iaoa?eaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo. Enoeiiui
i?acaeieeii aeey ?onneie eieiiee a ?eaa yaeeny aeceo Eaaia Aoieia iinea
iieo/aiey ei Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee ii eeoa?aoo?a. Aio auee ieacaiu caeanue
ainoi?aeaiiue i?eai e oeiainiaay iiiiuue. AEeciue iiiaeo ienaoaeae,
oaeeo, iai?eia?, eae A. Aioeoaao?ia, iieiinoueth caaenaea io ioaeeeaoeee
eee ia?aia/aoie eo ynna e ?anneacia a aaeaaeiaaiie ?onneie i?anna
Aa?oaau e ?eae.

Iineaaeiee aaaeiue ia?o?oo aaaeaioeaa ec Niaaoneie ?innee i?ieaaae ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea — a iaiue/aeo?neee ai?iae Oa?aei. Oa?aei, n naiiai
naiaai iniiaaiey a 1898 a., aue ?onneei ai?iaeii, aaeieieno?aoeaiui e
yeiiiie/aneei oeaio?ii ?onneie Eeoaenei-Ainoi/iie aeaeaciie aei?iae
(EAAEAe). Ii au?in ia ianoa eeoaeneie ?uaa/ueae aea?aaooee,
?aniieiaeaiiie ia aa?aao ?aee Noiueooaoeeiue (Noiaa?e). Aienea, ?acaeoua
E?aniie A?ieae e iooaniaiiua e ainoi/iui a?aieoeai auaoae eiia?ee,
ia?aoiaeeee a Iaiue/aeo?eth, eioi?ay iaoiaeeeanue iiae eeoaeneei
noaa?aieoaoii. Neaaeii ca ieie i?eauaaee a?aaeaeaineea eeoea —
i?aaenoaaeoaee oea?neie aaeieieno?aoeee e ae?oaeo, a?aiaiiuo, ?aaeeiia,
nouanoaiaaaoeo a Neae?e, eacaee, eoioeu e aeaaea e?anoueyia. Iineaaeiyy
aieia aaaeaioeaa auea ioia/aia a 1922 a., iinea iaaeaiey Aeaaeeainoiea
iiae iaoeneii E?aniie A?iee e aeeth/aiey aai a ninoaa Aeaeueiaainoi/iie
?anioaeeee. Oae Oa?aei noae /anoueth ?innee ca ?oaaaeii e inoaaaeny
oaeiaie a oa/aiea 20-o aa. Oiaaeie Oa?aeia ia/aeny, eiaaea yiiioeu noaee
niauaoue eeoaeneoth aaeieieno?aoeeth, a iinea ?ac?aceaoaainy a 1931 a.
yiiii-eeoaeneiai eiioeeeoa eoeueoo?iay e oai?/aneay aeeciue caeanue
i?ae?aoeeanue.

?acee/iua iooe oi?ie?iaaiey oeaio?ia ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey aeatho eeth/ e
iiieiaieth iniaaiiinoae eaaeaeiai ec ieo, a oaeaea i?iecaaaeaiiie a ieo
eoeueoo?iie i?iaeoeoeee. Yoio «oii» iu iinoiyiii aeieaeiu eiaoue a
aeaeo, ?anniao?eaay yiea?aoeeth e aa eoeueoo?ioth enoi?eth.

Auoa y oaea aiai?eea i a?aaeaeaineeo eeoeao e oeaeuo aieineeo
iiae?acaeaeaieyo, aaaeaaoeo n oa??eoi?ee, eiio?iee?oaiuo Niaaoaie, e
?annaeeaoeony ii anaio caiiiio oa?o. Ai-ia?auo, oain, oea?eaoee ai a?aiy
aaanoaa e yaaeoaoeee, ia aeaaae aiciiaeiinoe naeaeaoue neieueei-ieaoaeue
oi/iua iiaen/aou e caiene. Neaaeoao iiiieoue oaeaea, /oi iaeaaaeueiue
auacae e iinaeaiea ec-ca neiaeiinoae n ioi?ieaieai ianii?oia, aec,
aeaeia ia aeeoaeuenoai e ?ac?aoaiee ia o?oaeiono?ienoai oaeaea ia
inoaaeee i naaa naeaeaoaeuenoa. Ai-aoi?uo, e i?aaiecaoeee naieo
aaaeaioeaa, e aaeieieno?aoeaiua i?aaiu, caieiaaoeany i?iaeaiaie
aaaeaioeaa a oao no?aiao, aaea ei i?aaeinoaaeee i?etho, auee aeinoaoi/ii
i?eieoeaiu e ioithaeue ia i?aneaaeiaaee oeaee oi/iiai e iieiiai
noaoenoe/aneiai o/aoa.

Iaiaoeeee enoi?ee Oain oii ?eioa a 1921 a. ioeaieaae iauoth /eneaiiinoue
?onneeo yiea?aioia a 2 935 000, a oi a?aiy eae aia?eeaineee E?aniue
E?ano a naiai aeieeaaea ioia/ae, /oi ia 1 iiya?y 1920 a. eo auei 1 965
500. Ii aeaoi ?aciui iacaaeneiui ioeaieai eo /eneaiiinoue ninoaaeyea 1
020 000 ia 1 yiaa?y 1921 a. e 635 600 — 755 200 ia 1 yiaa?y 1922 a. A
1930 a. iiaeeiieoao ii iai?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui i?aaiecaoeeyi i?e Aa?oiaiii
eiienna?a Eeae Iaoeee ii aeaeai aaaeaioeaa ooaa?aeaeae, /oi anaai a
Aa?iia iaoiaeeony 500 000 ?onneeo aaaeaioeaa, oiaaea eae, anee neiaeeoue
aianoa ana oeeo?u, i?aaenoaaeaiiua yoiio i?aaio i?aaeoaeuenoaaie
?acee/iuo no?ai, iieo/eony 829 000. E?iia oiai, ?onneee E?aniue E?ano
ca?aaeno?e?iaae 50 000 /aeiaae, ioaeaeathueony a iiiiue, ia Aeaeueiai
Ainoiea. Iineaaeothuea aieiu yiea?aoeee, aaconeiaii, oaaee/eee eo
/eneaiiinoue, oae /oi e 1934 a. ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea i?iaeeaaei ieiei
130 000 ?onneeo yiea?aioia.

Eae neaaeoao ec i?eaaaeaiiuo oeeo?, /eneaiiinoue ?onneeo yiea?aioia (ca
eneeth/aieai Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea) a oa/aiea 20-o e a ia/aea 30-o aa.
auno?i nie?auaeanue. Iaeia ec i?e/ei yoiai — iniaaiiinoe
aeaiia?aoe/aneiai ninoaaa yiea?aioia. Ae?oaay caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi
iiiaea yiea?aiou, ianiio?y ia neiaeiinoe e i?aiyonoaey, /eieiua,
iai?eia?, aeanoyie O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee, noaee iieiii?aaiuie a?aaeaeaiaie
aa?iiaeneeo no?ai. Oai ia iaiaa aieueoeinoai ec ieo i?iaeieaeaei
n/eoaoue naay «a?aaeaeaiaie» ?innee ca ?oaaaeii. E?iia oiai, ii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao iiiaeo no?ai, aeaoe, ?iaeaeaiiua ia eo oa??eoi?ee
(n?aco eee — e?aeia ?aaeei — ii aeinoeaeaiee niaa?oaiiieaoey),
n/eoaeenue iieiii?aaiuie a?aaeaeaiaie no?aiu e ioeoeeaeueii yiea?aioaie
oaea ia auee. Oaeei ia?acii, ianiio?y ia ieceee o?iaaiue ?iaeaeaaiinoe
n?aaee yiea?aioia, aeaaea iaaieueoia /enei aeaoae, caienaiiuo i?e
?iaeaeaiee a?aaeaeaiaie no?aiu i?aauaaiey, aeeyei ia iauoth
noaoenoe/aneoth ea?oeio ianaeaiey ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey. A aeaaiuo
oeaio?ao ?onneie yiea?aoeee aeaoe, aeaaea anee iie iinauaee ianoiua
oeieu, ainieouaaeenue a ?onneii aeooa e iiiaea ec ieo iuouaee naith
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e Ca?oaaaeiie ?innee.

Auoa y ioiaoeea iaeioi?ua oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou oao a?oii aaaeaioeaa,
eioi?ua a 1920-1922 aa. iniiaaee ?inneth ca ?oaaaeii. Iineieueeo
aieueoeinoai ec ieo yiea?e?iaaee (eee auee auioaeaeaiu yiea?e?iaaoue)
ec-ca ii?aaeaiey a a?aaeaeaineie aieia, n?aaee ?onneie yiea?aoeee aue
iai?iii?oeeiiaeueii aunie i?ioeaio iaeeiieeo (/oi ia anaaaea icia/aei
iaaeaiaouo, /aua — ?aceo/aiiuo n aeaiaie) ioae/ei i?ecuaiiai (o.a. io 18
aei 40 eao) aic?anoa. Yoi auei iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ii aeey a?oii,
i?ioaaeoeo /a?ac Noaiaoe e inaaoeo ia Aaeeaiao (aeaaiui ia?acii, a
THaineaaee), a oaeaea aeey auaoeo aiaiiiieaiiuo, niaea?aeaaoeony ia
oa??eoi?ee Aa?iaiee e Iieueoe. Iaiaa oeie/ia oaeay ea?oeia auea aeey
aaaeaioeaa, inaaoeo a i?eaaeoeeneeo ainoaea?noaao e a Iaiue/aeo?ee, aaea
neiieeinue aieueoia /enei a?aaeaeaineeo eeoe e /eaiia naiae
aiaiiineoaeaueo. Aieaa oiai, a ia?aua aiaeu niaaoneie aeanoe, i?e
eaieineii iyia, ia/aei eioi?iio auei iieiaeaii aaniie 1921 a., iaeioi?ua
yiea?aiou, oaea inaaoea a oeaio?ao ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey, niiaee aucaaoue
a Aa?iio naie naiuee ec NNN?.

Iaoa?eaeueiua iaacaiaeu e oeiainiaay ianoaaeeueiinoue, n eioi?uie
noaeeeaaeinue aieueoeinoai aaaeaioeaa, i?aiyonoaiaaee nicaeaieth naiae;
oa aea, eoi ana-oaee anooiae a a?ae, ec-ca iayniuo e aeaeaei ia
aeanoyueo aeaeia ia aoaeouaa ia iiaee iicaieeoue naaa eiaoue iiiai
aeaoae. Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaei e oi, /oi aaconeiaiia i?aaeii/oaiea i?e
auai?a niooieea aeecie ieacuaaeinue niioa/anoaaiieeai e aaeeiiaa?oeai.
N?aaee yiea?aioia, aeaaea anee o/eouaaoue aeaaooae, aeinoeaoeo c?aeinoe
a eiioea 20-o — ia/aea 30-o aa., auei iaei aeaiuei a?a/iiai aic?anoa.
Ii/oe ana aeaiueiu yoie aic?anoiie eaoaai?ee eeai ninoiyee a a?aea, eeai
aaeianoaiaaee. Iaeeiieea ioae/eiu-yiea?aiou aeeee eciee?iaaiii io
ie?oaeathuaai iauanoaa, ca/anooth a aa?aeao. Iaaeaynue aa?iooueny
aeiiie, iie nii?ioeaeyeenue anneieeyoeee, a oii /enea eoeueoo?iie. Aea e
aeaiueiu no?ai, i?eiyaoeo ?onneeo yiea?aioia, ia no?aieeenue auoiaeeoue
caioae ca /oaeaeia n iaiaaeaaeiui oeiainiaui e i?aaiaui iieiaeaieai.
Ianeieueei eiay neooaoeey auea n?aaee yiea?aioia, naeeaoeony a
THaineaaee e Aieaa?ee, aaea ycueiaay e eiioanneiiaeueiay aeecinoue,
noiaeiue ia?ac aeecie niinianoaiaaee caeeth/aieth iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo
a?aeia.

Anoanoaaiiui neaaenoaeai neooaoeee ia «y?ia?ea iaaano» yaeeny aanueia
ieceee i?ioeaio aeaoae a Ca?oaaaeiie ?innee. Ii ia?a oiai eae aeaoe,
?iaeaeaiiua a niaoaiiuo a?aeao, oo?a/eaaee naycue n ?onneie eoeueoo?ie,
yoa aeeni?iii?oeey aua aieaa oaaee/eaaeanue. Iaeiaei e nai ii naaa
oaeoi? ieceiai anoanoaaiiiai i?e?inoa ianaeaiey noaiiaeeny aua iaeiie
iiaoaeeoaeueiie i?e/eiie, canoaaeyaoae ?iaeeoaeae-yiea?aioia aeaaaoue
naiei aeaoyi ?onneia ia?aciaaiea. «*oiau aeaoe inoaaaeenue ?onneeie»,
?iaeeoaee oee ia ethaua aea?oau, a iniaaiiinoe iiea iie nio?aiyee oioy
au iaeaeooth iaaeaaeaeo ia aica?auaiea aeiiie. Iie ioi?aaeyee naieo
aeaoae a /anoiua oeieu, ?acaiaa?eaaee ii-?onnee aeiia, noa?aeenue
iiaeaaeoue anoanoaaiiia no?aieaiea naieo aeaoae aaeaioe?iaaoueny e
ia?onneiio ie?oaeaieth. Aeayoaeueiinoue ?onneeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee
aoaeao ?anniio?aia iaie a o?aoueae aeaaa.

Nia?oiinoue a ?innee ca ?oaaaeii auea /?acau/aeii auniea, oae /oi aeaaea
aieaa aunieea oaiiu ?iaeaeaaiinoe ia niiaee au eiiiaine?iaaoue oaueue
ianaeaiey. Iiiaea yiea?aiou ieacaeenue a ecaiaiee oaea iiaeeeuie
ethaeueie. Oooaeoaieth caei?iauey e auno?iio noa?aieth ethaeae
niinianoaiaaee iiiai/eneaiiua aaaenoaey, niioonoaiaaaoea ?aaiethoeee e
a?aaeaeaineie aieia — ?aiu, aieacie, aieiae, — e no?annu, aucaaiiua
ieuaoie e aani?aaeai ca a?aieoeae. Iaueiu yiea?aioia e oa, eoi ieacuaae
ei niaeaenoaea, iinoiyiii noaeeeaaeenue n i?iaeaiie iiiiue noa?athuaio
ianaeaieth ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey. Iiiaea ec i?ia?aii iiiiue noa?eeai e
aieueiui inouanoaeyeenue ii eeiee ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaiecaoeee, /oi a naith
i/a?aaeue niinianoaiaaei aic?iaeaeaieth ?aeeaeiciuo /oanoa o /anoe
yiea?aioia.

?anniio?aiea aeaiia?aoe/aneie neooaoeee — eeoue iaeei ec aniaeoia
ainnicaeaiey aieaa oe?ieie ea?oeiu aeecie ?onneie yiea?aoeee. Aeaaiaea?y
eeiioeeueiai e eeoa?aoo?iui i?iecaaaeaieyi oei?aieeny ii?aaeaeaiiue
noa?aioei ?onneiai yiea?aioa: yoi auaoee aiaaoue a?enoie?ao (/aua anaai
eiycue eee a?ao), auioaeaeaiiue aeiauaaoue i?iieoaiea, ?aaioay
aiaeeoaeai oaene, ioeoeeaioii eee oaaeoea?ii ii/iiai eeoaa”. Yoa
a?onoiay e iacaiuneiaaoay ea?oeiea eiaao aanueia iaei iauaai n
?aaeueiinoueth. Yiea?aiou, iaeaaeaaoea i?aaeaea aieueoeie ninoiyieyie,
oeooeaie eee aunieei iieiaeaieai a iauanoaa, ninoaaeyee a i?ioeaioiii
ioiioaiee ia aieueooth (a aiciiaeii, aeaaea e iaiueooth) aeieth, /ai a
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a ?onneii Ca?oaaaeuea aue
ai?acaei aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiiinoe ii n?aaiaieth ni
n?aaeieie iieacaoaeyie, oa?aeoa?iuie aeey ianaeaiey noa?ie ?innee.

I?eia?ii aeaa o?aoe ac?ineuo yiea?aioia eiaee n?aaeiaa ia?aciaaiea,
ii/oe ana — ia/aeueiia, eaaeaeue naaeueiie — oieaa?neoaoneee aeeieii.
N?aaee ieo auei oaeaea aieueoa eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia,
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaoee, eioaeeeaaioeee, caaeeoi/iuo neiaa ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey (iineaaeiea a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie auee i?aaenoaaeaiu
aa?ayie). E oae aea, eae e ia ?iaeeia aei 1917 a., yoe neie, a
iniaaiiinoe niaoeeaeenou e eioaeeaeooaeueiay yeeoa, ea?aee aanueia
caiaoioth e aeoeaioth ?ieue a ?onneii Ca?oaaaeuea.

Iiieii ia?aciaaiiuo eeannia a yiea?aoeee auee oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu
ai?iaeneay ao?aeoacey, iaeeea caieaaeaaeaeueoeu, eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua
?aai/ea (iai?eia?, ia/aoieee) e e?anoueyia (aeaaiui ia?acii, eacaee).
O?aaeeoeeiiiia aaeeei?onneia e?anoueyinoai ninoaaeyei iacia/eoaeueiia
iaiueoeinoai, /oi ?acei eiio?anoe?iaaei n neooaoeeae, nouanoaiaaaoae a
?innee aei 1917 a. Aieueoay /anoue iieiaeuo ethaeae, n?aaeaaoeony a
?yaeao aaeuo a?iee, i?ienoiaeeea ec n?aaeieo neiaa ai?iaea e iaeeeo
caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa, iiiaea i?a?aaee iao/aiea a n?aaeieo e aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaieyo. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo ia iiaeaeaee aiciaiiaeoue o/aao eee noaoue
niaoeeaeenoaie n?aaeiaai caaia a no?aiao, i?aaeinoaaeaoeo ei oaaaeeua.
Iaeiaei, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, auei iiiai oaeeo, eoi no?aieeny caaa?oeoue
naia ia?aciaaiea, iaeaaeaoue i?ioanneae eee iaaueaie, eioi?ui iie
?ann/eouaaee iaeoe i?eiaiaiea a inaiaiaeaeaiiie ec-iiae aeanoe
aieueoaaeeia ?innee. Eo ?aoeiinoue e iio?aaiinoe noeioee?iaaee nicaeaiea
a ?innee ca ?oaaaeii oeaeie naoe o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee e o/?aaeaeaiee
eoeueoo?u.

I?aiaeaaeathuaa aieueoeinoai ?onneeo yiea?aioia i?eiaaeeaaeaei e ?onneie
i?aaineaaiie oea?eae, e iiiaeo ec ieo cao?iioe i?ioeann iaeeaeaiey
aeoeaiie ?aeeaeiciie aeecie, eioi?ue iaaethaeaeny n?aaee aeeanii?u.
Iaaieueoea a?oiiu ethaeae ioiineeenue e ae?oaei eiioanneyi:
i?ioanoaioaie auee a iniiaiii o?iaeaioeu I?eaaeoeee e oae iacuaaaiua
?inneeneea iaioeu, eioi?uo ioee/aei aeaoycu/ea e i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
aeaoi eoeueoo?ai — ?onneie e caiaaeiie. *enei eaoieeeia auei e?aeia
iacia/eoaeueiui, n?aaee iaiiiai/eneaiiuo yiea?aioia n Eaaeaca e ec
N?aaeiae Acee ano?a/aeenue ionoeueiaia e aoaeaeenou.

A yiioo, ioia/aiioth ?inoii iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo iano?iaiee e oneeaieai
eiio?iey ainoaea?noaa iaae iiiaeie iaeanoyie iauanoaaiiie aeecie,
ioiioaiea e ?onneei yiea?aioai a no?aiao eo i?iaeeaaiey auei ?acee/iui.
Oa?aeoa? iieeoeee, i?iaiaeeiie a ioiioaiee aaaeaioeaa, ii?aaeaeyeny eae
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeeae, oae e aioo?eiieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaeie,
neiaeeaoaeny a yoeo no?aiao. Oai ia iaiaa iiaeii n aeinoaoi/iui
iniiaaieai auaeaeeoue caeanue o?e ia?eiaea: n 1920 a. aei eiioea 20-o
aa. (1923—1925 aa., I?aaaea, ia?acotho caeanue ii?aaeaeaiioth
«oeaco?o»), i?eia?ii n 1929 ii 1935 a. e ei?ioeee yieeia iaaeaeo 1936 a.
e ia/aeii aieiu a 1939 a. (eee aei aioethna Aano?ee e caoaaoa
*aoineiaaeee, eiaaea

?a/ue eaeao ia yoeo no?aiao). A neeo oeacaiiuo auoa i?e/ei a Aa?iaiee
ia?aiia/aeueii iaoiaeeeinue iaeaieueoaa /enei ?onneeo yiea?aioia. Eo
/eneaiiinoue aeinoeaaea iaeneioia a ia?eiae eioeyoeee a Aa?iaiee, eiaaea
noieiinoue aeecie aeey eiino?aioeaa caeanue auea iaeaieaa ieceie,
ioe?uaaeenue aiciiaeiinoe aeaoaai ioaeeeiaaoue eeoa?aoo?iua
i?iecaaaeaiey e auioneaoue ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey, /oi iicaieyei
auiineoue ia oe?ieia iauanoaaiiia iaic?aiea ?acoeueoaou oai?/aneeo
oneeee yiea?aoeee. Noaaeeecaoeey ia?ee, ianooieaoay iinea 1924 a.,
ae?aiaoe/aneei ia?acii iiaeeyea ia ?ino noieiinoe aeecie e iaoneiaeea
ianniaue enoiae yiea?aioia ec Aa?iaiee. Iiaua aieiu iouacaeia
iiaeieiaeenue ii ia?a oooaeoaiey iieeoe/aneie ianoaiiaee a Aaeia?neie
?anioaeeea, eiaaea iinoaiaiii nicaeaeanue oa?ica ia oieueei naiaiaea
neiaa, ii e ee/iie aaciianiinoe ethaeae (a iniaaiiinoe yoi cao?aaeaaei
iiiai/eneaiiuo ?onneeo nioeeaeenoia, eeaa?aeia e yiea?aioia aa?aeneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey). A oi aea a?aiy ?ino aac?aaioeoeu a ia?eiae Aaeeeie
aeai?annee, ia/aaoaeny a 1931 a., aucaae e aeecie oeaeue ?yae
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, ia?aie/eaaaoeo aiciiaeiinoe o?oaeiono?ienoaa
eiino?aioeaa, oae /oi iiiaea ?onneea yiea?aiou auee auioaeaeaiu eneaoue
n/anouey a ae?oaii ianoa. Niaeanii i?eaaaeaiiui auoa noaoenoe/aneei
aeaiiui, ?onneay iaueia a Aa?iaiee, ian/eouaaaoay a 1922 a. ieiei 230
000—250 000 /aeiaae, e 1930 a. nie?aoeeanue aei 90 ouny/. I?eoiae e
aeanoe Aeoea?a, ianiio?y ia iiyaeaiea iiauo ?aai/eo iano, aeinooiiuo,
i?aaaea, eeoue iiae no?iaei eiio?ieai iaoeenoia, iineoaeee iiaui
noeioeii e iouacaeo ec Aa?iaiee eeaa?aeueii e aioeoaoenonee iano?iaiiuo
yiea?aioia e aa?aaa. Oae, iai?eia?, oeeinio e nioeeieia
neaayiioeeueneiai oieea O.A.Noaioi aue oaieai n i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneie
?aaiou a Ae?acaeaineii oaoie/aneii oieaa?neoaoa. Ii, i?aaaea, inoaeny a
Aa?iaiee, ia?aaeaaynue neo/aeiuie ca?aaioeaie, i?aiiaeaaaieai e
ioaeeeaoeeae noaoae a ae?oaeo no?aiao. Ia 1936-1937 aa. /eneaiiinoue
?onneeo a Aa?iaiee, ii ioeaieai neoaeau Iainaia, ninoaaeyea 45 000
/aeiaae.

Ai O?aioeee a oeaeii ioiioaiea e yiea?aioai auei aanueia eeaa?aeueiui,
e?iia auaea/e ?ac?aoaiee ia o?oaeiono?ienoai. O?aioeocneea aeanoe
auaeaaaee aeaeu ia aeeoaeuenoai ia aieueoea n?iee, aeey oao aea, eoi
?aniieaaae ii?aaeaeaiiuie n?aaenoaaie, ia?aie/aiee aiana ia
nouanoaiaaei. ?onneea eiaee aiciiaeiinoue ianeaaeeoueny naiaiaeiie e
aieiothuae aoiinoa?ie eoeueoo?iie aeecie Ia?eaea e a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a
aiineee e naie aeeaae a aa ?acaeoea. Ia oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi Ia?eae noae
ianoiyuae iieeoe/aneie e eoeueoo?iie noieeoeae Ca?oaaaeiie ?innee, aaea
auee i?aaenoaaeaiu ana iooaiee iieeoe/aneeo acaeyaeia e ana eoeueoo?iua
oa/aiey. Iniiaiie i?iaeaiie yaeyeny iaaeinoaoie ?aai/eo iano ni anaie
auoaeathueie ec yoiai iineaaenoaeyie. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi o?aioeocu
ioioii i?aaeinoaaeyee ?aaioo aeaeathuei o?oaeeoueny a oaooao e a i?i

euoeaiiinoe, ia no?ieoaeuenoaa e ainnoaiiaeaiee ?ac?ooaiiuo aieiie
?aeiiia. Ioaeaea a ?aai/ae neea iaoneiaeea cia/eoaeueiue i?eoie ?onneeo,
eioi?ue aua aieaa oneeeeny iinea acaei?iaeaiey aeecie a Aa?iaiee.

A ia?aie iieiaeia 20-o aa. eiaiii O?aioeey iaeaieaa ioioii auaeaaaea
?ac?aoaiey ia o?oaeiono?ienoai, /oi ia ?ani?ino?aiyeinue, ai?i/ai, ia
i?aaenoaaeoaeae oae iacuaaaiuo naiaiaeiuo i?ioannee — th?enoia, a?a/ae,
o/eoaeae. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue iaeaaeaoue o?aioeocneei a?aaeaeainoaii eee
noaoonii aaoa?aia o?aioeocneie a?iee, a oaeaea naea/e yecaiaia ia
o?aioeocneee aeeieii aeey iiiaeo (aeacuaaeanue iai?aiaeieeiui aa?uea?ii.
I?aaaea, aai eaa/a i?aiaeieaaaee oa, eoi ?aaioae iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
o?aioeocneeo eieeaa e iieueciaaeny eo iiaeaea?aeeie. Yoa neooaoeey ia
iaiyeanue a oa/aiea anaai ia?eiaea nouanoaiaaiey ?innee ca ?oaaaeii,
oioy a 30-a aa. oneiaey iaoo?aeecaoeee oi?inoeeenue, /oi iicaieeei
iaeioi?ui iieiaeui yiea?aioai aeeoueny a ?yaeu niaoeeaeenoia aunieie
eaaeeoeeaoeee.

Eiaaea a ia/aea 30-o aa. aeai?anney, /ooue iicaeiaa, /ai Aa?iaieth,
cao?iioea e O?aioeeth, iineaaeiyy oaeaea ia?aie/eea i?eoie eiino?aiiie
?aai/ae neeu. Iinoaiiaeaieyie i?aaeoaeuenoaa auea cia/eoaeueii
oneiaeiaia i?ioeaaeo?a iieo/aiey eee i?iaeeaiey ?ac?aoaiee ia
o?oaeiono?ienoai. Iiaeiaiua ia?u iniaaiii aieueii oaea?eee ii oai, eoi
ioaeaeaeny a ia?aioi?ieaiee aeieoiaioia iinea oaieueiaiey n i?aaeiaai
ianoa ?aaiou. Niaeanii ?anii?yaeaieth ieieno?a aioo?aiieo aeae
neaaeiaaei auaeai?eoue ec no?aiu anao, eoi ia eiae oaeeo ?ac?aoaiee, a
oaeaea eeoe, i?anooieaoeo o?aioeocneea caeiiu, aeaaea anee ?a/ue oea
anaai eeoue i ia?ooaiee i?aaee aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey. Auneaiiua
iiaeiaiui ia?acii ec no?aiu ia ciaee, eoaea iiaeaoueny, iineieueeo
ae?oaea aa?iiaeneea no?aiu oaeaea ia aeaeaee eo i?eiyoue, a ia?aacae ca
ieaai aue neeoeii neiaeiui e aei?iainoiyuei. Iu eiaai naeaeaoaeuenoaa i
iiiai/eneaiiuo neo/ayo, eiaaea ?onneea ecaiaiieee a?anoiauaaeenue,
ia?ai?aaeyeenue ca a?aieoeo, a aeanoe ninaaeieo no?ai ioeacuaaeenue eo
i?eiyoue, ionueay ia?aoii ai O?aioeeth. Oai eo niiaa a?anoiauaaee,
naaeaee a oth?ueio, iinea /aai niauoey aiiaue ?acaeaaeenue ii oiio aea
noeaia?eth. Ia oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi iiiaea i?aaeii/eoaee i?iaeeaaoue a
no?aia iaeaaaeueii eee aea, io/ayaoenue, eii/aee aeeciue naiioaeenoaii.
Iaeiiaoe, a 1936 a. i?aaeoaeuenoai Eaiia Aethia iieiaeeei eiiaoe yoie
i?aeoeea, niya/ea iieeoeeo a ioiioaiee yiea?aioia. I?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa
Ia?iaeiiai o?iioa ?aai/ea-yiea?aiou noaee iieueciaaoueny oaie aea
i?aaaie, /oi e o?aioeocu, eo ioioii i?eieiaee a i?ionithcu, a e?oiiaeoee
i?ionithc no?aiu — Anaiauay eiioaaea?aoeey o?oaea — aeaaea nicaeae
?onneoth naeoeeth, /eaiu eioi?ie iaoiaeeeenue iiae aai caueoie ia?aaia n
o?aioeocaie.

AEanoeia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, i?eiyoia a ia/aea 30-o aa., yaeeinue
Neaaenoaeai ia oieueei ia?aaeeaaaiuo O?aioeeae yeiiiie/aneeo

o?oaeiinoae, ii e iaiaoeaoaainy iinea ia?aaiai?ia Iuea?a Eaaaey e
Noaeeia naeeaeaiey O?aioeee n Niaaoneei Nithcii. Aieaa oiai, i?enooi
enaiioiaee aue ii?iaeaeai ia noieueei oai ianoiyoaeuenoaii, /oi
i?aceaeaio ?anioaeeee Iieue Aeoia? a 1932 a. aue oaeo ?onneei
yiea?aioii, neieueei iauei nioeeaeueiui e iieeoe/aneei e?ecenii,
neiioiiaie eioi?iai yaeeenue aeaei Noaaenneiai e iyoaae 6 oaa?aey 1934
a. Aa?anneaii oiaeienoe/aneea, i?ioaoenonee iano?iaiiua i?aaiecaoeee
oeia «Iaiaiiuo e?anoia» eee «Ei?ieaaneeo iieiae/eeia» o?aaiaaee aeanoeeo
ia? ii ioiioaieth e i?iaeeaaaoei ai O?aioeee eiino?aioeai-aiao?eaeai. A
?eoi?e/aneii caiaea ieeoi, ?acoiaaony, ia aniiieiae i oii, /oi
eiino?aioeu auee caiyou ia oao ?aaioao, aaea o?aioeocu ia niaeaoaeenue
o?oaeeoueny.

Ana yoe niauoey ia ieacaee iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia eoeueoo?ioth
aeeciue ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey a Ia?eaea eee ai O?aioeee a oeaeii, oioy e
nicaeaoaee e iio?aaeoaee eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae no?aaeaee io oooaeoaiey
yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee: eieae e aeo?iaeu ?anoiaeeeenue ooaea, /ai
i?aaeaea, iaiueoa iinauaeenue e neoaeiaa noaneaee?iaaeenue eoeueoo?iua
ia?ii?eyoey. Ii a oeaeii eoeueoo?iay aeeciue, ianiio?y ia ieuaineea
oneiaey nouanoaiaaiey aa o/anoieeia, inoaaaeanue ianuuaiiie, /oi aua ?ac
i?iyaeeinue, iai?eia?, a 1937 a., a aeie, eiaaea ioia/aeinue noieaoea ni
aeiy nia?oe A. N. Iooeeia.

Iieiaeaiea a *aoineiaaeee a iaueo /a?oao iaei ioee/aeinue io Aa?iaiee,
oioy iieeoe/aneea iiiaiou ea?aee caeanue, iiaeaeoe, aieaa caiaoioth
?ieue. Oae iacuaaaiay «?onneay aeoeey» (Action russe), ia/aei eioi?ie
auei iieiaeaii a I?aaa a 1922 a., niinianoaiaaea nicaeaieth oeaeiai
?yaea ?onneeo iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Eo aeayoaeueiinoue, iaeiaei, ia/aea
naa?ouaaoueny oaea a eiioea 20-o aa. ec-ca nie?auaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
noaneaeee. *eneaiiinoue iioaioeeaeueiuo nooaeaioia e nio?oaeieeia yoeo
o/?aaeaeaiee nie?auaeanue a neeo anoanoaaiiie oauee ianaeaiey, ia?aacaea
a ae?oaea no?aiu e ana aieueoaai aiaea/aiey iieiaeiai iieieaiey
yiea?aioia a nenoaio ia?aciaaiey caiaaeiuo no?ai. *aoneia i?aaeoaeuenoai
e ca?oaaaeiua aeaaioai?eoaeueiua i?aaiecaoeee ana n iaiueoae ioioie
aeeaaeuaaee n?aaenoaa a ?acaeoea yoeo o/?aaeaeaiee, a iiaeaea?aeeo
nooaeaioia e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, iineieueeo aieueoeinoai auioneieeia a
iieneao eo/oae aeiee inoaaeyei *aoineiaaeeth. Naiue nie?ooeoaeueiue
oaea? ii ?onneie aeoeee aue iaianai oiaaea, eiaaea e /aoe, e naie
?onneea iniciaee, /oi oainu yiea?aioia eiaaea-eeai aa?iooueny a ?inneth
no?aieoaeueii iaaeatho. Oaeei ia?acii, noaaeeenue iiae niiiaiea naiua
iniiau ?onneie aeoeee, /oi iinoaaeei ia iiaanoeo aeiy aii?in i
oeaeaniia?aciinoe a? aeaeueiaeoaai i?iaaaeaiey. Iaeiiaoe, a na?aaeeia
30-o aa. *aoineiaaeey anaeeea a iieino ino?iai e?ecena. Iaoeeiiaeueiua
iaiueoeinoaa ana aieaa ioe?uoi au?aaeaee naia iaaeiaieuenoai,
yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, iniaaiii ino?i neacaaoeeny a i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ao
Noaeaoneie iaeanoe, iiaeeee ianea

y iaiiue, niinianoaoy ?acaeoaaieth iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie i?iiaaaiaeu,
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiie ec aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee. Nicaeaeanue oa?ica
aeaeueiaeoaio nouanoaiaaieth naiie *aoineiaaoeeie ?anioaeeee.
Anoanoaaiii, iiyoiio, /oi /aoneea aeanoe auee a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
iaaniieiaiu ioithaeue ia iieiaeaieai ?onneeo a I?aaa. Ithioaineea
niaeaoaiey 1938 a. iieiaeeee eiiaoe nouanoaiaaieth eeaa?aeueiie,
aeaiie?aoe/aneie *aoineiaaeee. Iiiaea ?onneea iieeioee no?aio ii
nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa, inoaaoeany o/?aaeaeaiey auee cae?uou aiae
nionoy iinea iaaeaiey ?anioaeeee. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
/aoineiaaoeei-niaaoneea niaeaoaiey 1935 a., iiaeienaiiua iinea i?eciaiey
*aoineiaaeeae NNN? a 1934 a., ia io?aceeenue ie ia iieiaeaiee ?onneeo
yiea?aioia, ie ia nicaeaiiuo eie o/?aaeaeaieyo. I?aaaea, a ecaanoiie
ia?a iie niinianoaiaaee oei?aiaieth neaioe/aneiai acaeyaea aeaaea
eeth/aauo oeao? /aoneie iauanoaaiiie aeecie ia oeaeaniia?aciinoue
i?iaeieaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe yoeo o/?aaeaeaiee”

Iieiaeaiea ?onneie yiea?aoeee a Ei?ieaanoaa NON a oa/aiea anaai ia?eiaea
nouanoaaiii ia iaiyeinue. I?aaeoaeuenoai ioiineeinue e ?onneei
ae?oaeaethaii, a ioeac ei?iey i?eciaoue NNN? aieioue aei eiioea 30-o
aa., o.a. ii/oe aei naiie aieiu, i?aaeioa?auae iiiuoee ieacuaaoue ia ieo
eaeia-eeai aeaaeaiea. Eniuouaaaiay no?aiie iio?aaiinoue a niaoeeaeenoao
aeey a?iee, aaeieieno?aoeaiuo i?aaiia e ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee
aeaea iiiaei ?onneei aiciiaeiinoue iaeoe iinoiyiioth ?aaioo. I?aaaea, a
oa/aiea iaeioi?iai a?aiaie ?onneea iiaeaa?aaeenue aeene?eieiaoeee, ia
iieo/ay noaoona iinoiyiiiai nio?oaeieea, a ?aaioay ia iniiaaiee
a?aiaiiuo e ai?acaei ooaea iiea/eaaaiuo o?oaeiauo niaeaoaiee. Iinoaiaiii
?onneea ana aieaa eioaa?e?iaaeenue a thaineaaneea ainoaea?noaaiiua
no?oeoo?u, oioy a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iie caieiaee iaiaa iiea/eaaaiua
aeieaeiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n a?aaeaeaiaie THaineaaee eee eniuouaaee
o?oaeiinoe n i?iaeaeaeaieai aaa?o ii neoaeaaiie eanoieoea. N Ae?oaie
noi?iiu, ei ia /eieee i?aiyonoaee a i?aaiecaoeee annioeeaoeee e a
iauanoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Anoanoaaiiay oaueue, a oaeaea aic?inoea
oaiiu iaoo?aeecaoeee e anneieeyoeee i?eaaee e nie?auaieth /eneaiiinoe
?onneeo, caiyouo ia ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeaa. A inoaeueiii aea neooaoeey
inoaaaeanue noaaeeueiie, oae /oi ai a?aiy aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu a ninoaaa
aioeeiiioienoe/aneeo nee aaia?aea Ieoaeeiae/a n?aaeaeenue io?yaeu,
ninoiyaoea ec ?onneeo yiea?aioia. Eiaaea Niaaoneay A?iey e ia?oae Oeoi
onoaiiaeee eiio?ieue iaae no?aiie, aieueoeinoao ?onneeo I?eoeinue ai
aoi?ie ?ac noaoue aaaeaioeaie.

Ia?aiia/aeueiia ainoai?eeinoai Aieaa?ee iinea onoaiiaeaiey
Aeeieiiaoe/aneeo ioiioaiee n Niaaoneei Nithcii niaieeinue ianoi?iaeaiiui
ioiioaieai e yiea?aioai. Oneiaey o?oaea e aeecie, iniaaiii a aieueoeo
ai?iaeao, ?acei oooaeoeeenue ec-ca ioaaoeaoae Ie? aeai?annee. Oae eae
iiaua yiea?aiou ia i?eauaaee, iaiai?io, iiiaea oacaeaee ec Aieaa?ee a
iieneao eo/oae aeecie, /eneaiiinoue ?onneie iaueiu caeanue iinoiyiii
nie?auaeanue e iaeaioia aieiu ninoaaeyea iaiaa 15 000 /aeiaae.
Ianeieueei iia ecaanoii, aieaa?u i?iaeieaeaee ieacuaaoue iiaeaea?aeeo
yiea?aioai e a ia?eiae iaiaoeeie ieeoiaoeee e a eiioea aieiu.

Aaeoeeneea ainoaea?noaa, aia/aea i?eiyaoea yiea?aioia ainoai?eeiii,
caoai, iniaaiii iinea i?eoiaea e aeanoe aaoi?eoa?iuo e?aeia
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo ?aaeeiia E. Oeueiaiena a Eaoaee e A.Niaoiiu a Eeoaa,
ia/aee /eieoue ei i?aiyonoaey, aeaaiui ia?acii a oii, /oi eanaeinue
o?oaeiono?ienoaa. Aeene?eieiaoeey iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa e
yiea?aioia iniaaiii i?iyaeyeanue i?e i?eaia ia ainoaea?noaaiioth neoaeao
e a ioiioaiee eeoe naiaiaeiuo i?ioannee. Yoa oaiaeaioeey iaaaoeaii
neacaeanue ia iaoa?eaeueiii iieiaeaiee e aeaaea ia naiii nouanoaiaaiee
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, iniiaaiiuo yiea?aioaie e i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa. A oi aea a?aiy iio?aaiinoue a
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ao o/aiuo auioaeaeaea Eeoao ia?auaoueny ca
iiiiuueth e i?aaenoaaeoaeyi ?onneie yiea?aoeee. Eaoianneee oieaa?neoao
i?aaeinoaaee E.E.Eaiii, A.N.ssuaiei e E.I.Ea?naaeio eaoaae?u aeey
iinoiyiiie ?aaiou. *oiau auoue aiieia ioe?iaaiiui, y aeieaeai ioiaoeoue,
/oi neooaoeey a Aaeoeeneeo ainoaea?noaao anaaaea ineiaeiyeanue
i?enoonoaeai iiiai/eneaiiiai ?onneiai yoie/aneiai iaiueoeinoaa, aeaaiui
ia?acii e?anoueyinoaa, i?iaeeaaaoaai a i?ea?aie/iuo n NNN? ?aeiiao.
Iieeoeea ii ioiioaieth e yiea?aioai iiyoiio oanii ia?aieaoaeanue n
iieeoe/aneie eeieae a ioiioaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa, oae /oi ?ino
oiaeienoe/aneeo iano?iaiee a 30-a aa. eiae i?yiua iineaaenoaey e aeey
yiea?aoeee. Iaeuecy, i?aaaea, caauaaoue e i oii, /oi ianiio?y ia
iauiinoue ycuea, yoie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey e ?aeeaee, yiea?aiou auee
ioaeaeaiu io yoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai iaiueoeinoaa i?iianoueth — ie/ooue ia
iaiueoa oie, /oi ?acaeaeyea ia?aciaaiiua eeannu e e?anoueyinoai a
?inneeneie eiia?ee. Iiyoiio ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia yiea?aioia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eanaaoaainy iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa, a?yae ee
neeueii aiciouaei ?onneeo, iinoiyiii i?iaeeaathueo a yoeo no?aiao.

Iieeoeea a ioiioaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo iaiueoeinoa, ca/anooth
i?ioeai?a/auay iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aeiaiai?ai, neeueii aeeyea e ia
iieiaeaiea yiea?aioia a ?oiuiee e Iieueoa. Ia aaeaaaynue a iiae.
?iaiinoe, ioiaoei, /oi i?iaeeaaaoea a ?oiuiee ?onneea ia noaee
iieiioeaiiie /anoueth ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey. Iaoiaeeaoeany oai yiea?aiou,
a iniiaiii auaoea caieaaeaaeaeueoeu ec Aanna?aaee, auee iaiiiai/eneaiiu
e ia iaeaaeaee aieueoie eoeueoo?ie. AEanoeia aeene?eieiaoeeiiiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, iai?aaeaiiia i?ioea ?onneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
iaiueoeinoaa a Aanna?aaee, nua?aei iaaaoeaioth ?ieue e a ?acaeoee
eoeueoo?iie aeecie aieueoeinoaa yiea?aioia. A Iieueoa i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie
iiaeaea?aeeie iieueciaaeenue eeoue iaeioi?ua iieeoe/aneea oa/aiey e
ecaeaiey, eioi?ua aeanoe ?ann/eou

aaee eniieueciaaoue a naiae aioeniaaoneie iieeoeea. A ethaii neo/aa,
iaeiaei, iieyee a oeaeii ioithaeue ia neiiaoece?iaaee ?onneei
yiea?aioai, oioy aeaaeaeueoeai, ai?i/ai, auee aica?auaiu iiianouey,
?aniieiaeaiiua a ainoi/iie Iieueoa. Eoeueoo?iay aeeciue aa?oaaneie
yiea?aoeee ioee/aeanue ai?acaei iaiueoei aeeiaieciii, /ai oiai iicaieyee
iaeeaeaoue /eneaiiinoue e oa?aeoa? ?onneiai yiea?aioneiai ianaeaiey. Oa
?onneea o/aiua e niaoeeaeenou, eiio oaeaaaeinue iaeoe ?aaioo,
auioaeaeaiu auee eioaa?e?iaaoueny a iieueneia iauanoai. Ai?i/ai,
ecaeaaaaoeany a ae?oaeo no?aiao yiea?aioneea ecaeaiey iieueciaaeenue
ni?inii o caeaoiae /eoathuae ioaeeee, a i?eacaeea eaeoi?u auee /anouie e
aeaeaiiuie ainoyie.

Eae auei iieacaii auoa, yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea iiaeaaeythuaai
aieueoeinoaa iaeoaoaeae ?innee ca ?oaaaeii auei aeaeaei ia aeanoyuei.
Aieueoay /anoue yiea?aioia eia-eae naiaeeea eiioeu n eiioeaie,
caieiaynue oai, e /aio iie ia auee iiaeaioiaeaiu naiae i?aaeiae
aeeciueth. Ai?acaei no?aoiaa aaaeiinoe auei /oanoai aaccaueoiinoe,
/oaeaea, caaenyuaai io /ueae-oi ieeinoe. Oa?ica aac?aaioeoeu iaaenaea
iaae ieie, iiaeiaii aeaiieeiao ia/o. AEaiu yiea?aioia /anoi ca?aaaouaaee
ia aeeciue, ?aaioay oaayie eee i?eneoaie, ono?aeaaynue ia iiaeaiioth
?aaioo eee caieiaynue ?oeiaeaeeai aeiia. Aeaa nano?u a ?iiaia Aeaeicaoa
Eannaey ca?aaaouaaee ia aeeciue, ninoaaeyy eiiiiceoeee ec oeaaoia;
naiuey iieo ciaeiiuo ii/oe iieiinoueth caaenaea io aeaiaa, iieo/aaiuo io
i?iaeaaee aioaaeoeo a iiaeo a 30-a aa. e?oaeaaiuo ai?ioie/eia aeey
aeaineeo aeocie, eioi?ua ieaee iiaeeeay iaoue e aa caioaeiyy aei/ue;
aeoeaiay o/anoieoea Iieeoe/aneiai E?aniiai E?anoa (ii ieacuaae iiiiuue
iieeocaeeth/aiiui a NNN?) caieiaeanue ecaioiaeaieai aeaineeo noii/ae. ?a

coiaaony, yiea?aiou noaiiaeeenue iauaeoii aanniaanoiie yenieoaoaoeee ni
noi?iiu ?aaioiaeaoaeae, eae niioa/anoaaiieeia, oae e ianoiuo. I?aaaea,
a no?aiao n ?ac?aaioaiiui nioeeaeueiui

. caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?onneea iiaee iieo/aoue iaeioi?ua iiniaey, oioy e
ia anaaaea a oii aea iauaia, /oi e ei?aiiua aeeoaee aeaiiie No?aiu.
A?aiaiaie aeeciue ?onneeo ineiaeiyeanue ianoiyoaeuenoaaie iieeoe/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a. Oae, ia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, aaea ?aai/ea neiiaoece?iaaee
?aaiethoeee e niaaoneie aeanoe, yiea?aiou /anoi noaiiaeeenue ecaiyie.
?aai/ea-yiea?aiou eiaee aiciiaeiinoue caueuaoue naie i?aaa /a?ac
i?ionithcu, ii iiiaea ioeacuaaeenue io anooieaiey a i?ionithc eee
iaaiaeiaaee ii iiaiaeo iaycaoaeueiiai /eainoaa a ieo. Yoi iaaeaeaiea
auei iaoneiaeaii e eo iieeoe/aneeie acaeyaeaie, e anai iiuoii i?aaeiae
aeecie a ?innee, eioi?ue noaaee eo a iiiiceoeeth e ethaie oi?ia
i?ionithciiai aeaeaeaiey. Aieaa oiai, iineieueeo ia?ae/iua i?ionithciua
i?aaiecaoeee /anoi caieiaee ioe?iaaiii i?ieiiioienoe/aneea iiceoeee eee
aunooiaee ca i?iaaaeaiea nioeeaeenoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee a iauanoaa,
iie ia neeoeii ioioii anooiaeenue ca ethaeae, raison d’etre eioi?uo
ninoiye a io?eoeaiee yoeo i?aia?aciaaiee.

Eae au oi ie auei, iniiaiay oa?ica aaciianiinoe yiea?aioia oaeeanue ia
noieueei a ianoaaeeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee i?eiyaoeo eo no?ai,
eioi?ay a ia/aea 30-o aa. iaoeeiiii oooaeoaeanue, neieueei a i?aaiauo
ia?aie/aieyo, n eioi?uie ?onneea ecaiaiieee (eae, ai?i/ai, e ae?oaea
aaaeaioeu) noaeeeaaeenue a /oaeie no?aia. Yoe ia?aie/aiey ana aieaa
oaeanoi/aeenue ii ia?a oooaeoaiey nioeeaeueiie e yeiiiie/aneie
ianoaiiaee e iaaiaoaiey iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo iano?iaiee e enaiioiaee.
O?oaeii neacaoue, yaeyeanue ee enaiioiaey iineaaenoaeai yeiiiie/aneiai
niaaea eee aea nai yoio niaae yaeeny ieiaeii iaaeaeueiiaeaeiie
iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie iieeoeee. A ethaii neo/aa, i?aiaeieaiea
aaeieieno?aoeaiuo aa?uea?ia aeaaaeinue ?onneei yiea?aioai aei?iaie
oeaiie, eae a ineoieiae/aneii, oae e a iaoa?eaeueiii niunea.

Iaoo?aeecaoeey ?aaeei aini?eieiaeanue eae aeinoieiue auoiae ec
nicaeaaoaainy iieiaeaiey. Ai-ia?auo, ie a iaeiie ec no?ai Noa?iai Naaoa
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay iieeoeea e o?aaeeoeee ia i?aaeiieaaaee aaoiiaoe/aneie
iaoo?aeecaoeee, oa?aeoa?iie aeey NOA e iaeioi?uo eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo
ainoaea?noa. Ai-aoi?uo, naie ?onneea n/eoaee, /oi iaoo?aeecaoeey
yaeyaony i?aaeaoaeuenoaii ii ioiioaieth e eo ?onneei ei?iyi e
aiceiaeaiiie ia ieo iennee yaeyoue niaie aeueoa?iaoeao Niaaoneiio
Nithco. Iie ia i?aaei?eieiaee na?ueaciuo iiiuoie iieo/eoue iiaia
a?aaeaeainoai, ii e?aeiae ia?a aei oao ii?, iiea a ieo aeeea iaaeaaeaea
ia aica?auaiea aeiiie. Eiaaea aea iaoo?aeecaoeey noaiiaeeanue aiciiaeiie
eee aeaaea iaiaoiaeeiie, iie anoaaaee ia?aae aeeeaiiie ii?aeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a: iaeioi?ua neeiiiu auee aini?eieiaoue aa eae /enooth
oi?iaeueiinoue, eioi?ay ia io?aaeaeanue ia eo aa?iinoe ?innee e ia eo
?onneii naiiniciaiee. Oaeia ioiioaiea, iaeiaei, ia ono?aeaaei aeanoe,
aeaaaaoea niaeanea ia iaoo?aeecaoeeth. Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, raison
d’etre yiea?aoeee ninoiye a iaeeaeaiee aica?auaiey ia ?iaeeio, a no?ao
«aeaiaoeeiiaeecaoeee», eae iie iacuaaee anneieeyoeeth, yaeyeny
oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey. Noauaeoeaii eaeay iieo/aiey
iiaiai a?aaeaeainoaa nicaeaaaea iiaua neiaeiinoe a aeiiieiaiea e oai
iauaeoeaiui i?aiyonoaeyi, eioi?ua i?eiyaoea yiea?aoeeth no?aiu /eieee ia
iooe iaoo?aeecaoeee.

A yoie nayce iao ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai a oii, /oi aeey ?aoaiey i?iaeai
iaoa?eaeueiiai e i?aaiaiai ii?yaeea ?onneea ecaiaiieee, eae auei
iieacaii auoa, iauaaeeiyeenue a annioeeaoeee e iaueiu, eioi?ua a naith
i/a?aaeue noaiiaeeenue y/aeeaie ?innee ca ?oaaaeii. A iniiaa anao
oneeee, i?eeaaaaiuo yiea?aioaie aeey nio?aiaiey naiaai aaeeinoaa,
eaaeaei /oanoai iauiinoe i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iai?eyoea niaaoneie nenoaiu e
iinoaeueae/aneay ia/oa i aica?auaiee a ?inneth. A eiia/iii n/aoa yoi
auei iuouaiea aaeeiie noaeueau, eioi?ay naaea eo aianoa aii?aee anai
iauanoaaiiui, yeiiiie/aneei e i?ioanneiiaeueiui ?acee/eyi a i?ioeie
aeecie. Eae e ai anyeie aeeanii?a, naiie i?i/iie naycueth auei
iaaeaeaiea ioeacuaaoueny

io naiaai naiiniciaiey e iaaeaaeaea ia aica?auaiea e i?ioeiio. Yoa
«oinea ii aeiio» noiyea ca anaie iiiuoeaie iaeaaeeoue acaeiiiiiiuue eae
n?aaee /eaiia eaeie-eeai oceie a?oiiu, iauaaeeiyaiie aei
i?ioanneiiaeueiiio, ?aeeaeiciiio eee iieeoe/aneiio i?eciaeo, oae e a
oeaeii a ianooaaao anaai ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey. Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y yoei
oneeeyi yiea?aioai oaeaeinue nicaeaoue e nio?aieoue o ?annaeeaoeony ii
anaio naaoo ethaeae /oanoai aaeeinoaa.

A?oiiu aaoa?aiia ioia/aee aiaeiaueiu ioaeaeueiuo niauoee, niae?ay aianoa
naieo ?aca?inaiiuo ii naaoo iaeiiiie/ai, /oiau oe?aieoue a ieo
i?aaeaiiinoue iauaio i?ioeiio e iaaeaaeaeo ia eo/oaa aoaeouaa, eioi?ia
noaeaeaii eo ?iaeeia. A iniiaiuo oeaio?ao ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey ia
?aaoey?iua aine?aniua e i?acaeie/iua neoaeau a o?aiao aaoa?aiu
i?eoiaeeee a ia?aaeiie oi?ia ni naieie aiaauie yiaiaiaie. Oeieu, eaoiea
eaaa?y e io?yaeu neaooia, nicaeaaaaiua Aeey aeaoae yiea?aioia, ia
oieueei aiineee naie aeeaae a eioaeeaeooaeueiia e oece/aneia ?acaeoea
iiae?anoathuaai iieieaiey, ii e oe?aieyee nieeaea?iinoue ?iaeeoaeae. Eae
aoaeao iieacaii a neaaeothuae oeaaa, i?aaiecaoeey e i?iaaaeaiea
i?acaeiiaaiee iaiyoiuo aeao iauaaeeiyee ecaiaiieeia n ianoiaeei i?ioeui,
i?eaea?aeeaaaoeony ?acee/iuo oaaaeaeaiee. Enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iia aaeeinoai
oe?aieyeinue e oea?eiaueth, iniaaiii aeaaiaea?y aa i?eaa?aeaiiinoe
iauaio aeey anao yiea?aioia ycueo e o?aaeeoeeiiiui ?eooaeai. Niaianoiua
iieeoau auee ia oieueei aeoii aa?u, ii e iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai i?aaeaiiinoe
aaeeiie iaoeeiiaeueiie e eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeee, eioi?ay ioaeaeyea
oiaa?euae ii ian/anoueth io iauanoaa i?eiyaoae eo no?aiu.

Eae anaaaea auaaao n ethaeueie, ieacaaoeieny a /oaeaeii ie?oaeaiee,
ee/iua eiioaeou e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua nayce ea?aee cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue
eae aeey nio?aiaiey naiiniciaiey yiea?aioia, oae e i?inoi aeey eo
auaeeaaiey. A oao no?aiao, aaea ?onneea ia inaee niei/aiiuie a oie eee
eiie ia?a iaueiaie e aaee aieaa iainiaeaiyoth aeeciue, iai?eia? a
aieueoeo ai?iaeao, ee/iua eiioaeou eiiiaaee iaeoe ?aaioo, i?iaeaoue
ecaioiaeaiiua oiaa?u, ono?ieoueny a o/aaiua e iaaeeoeeineea caaaaeaiey,
oeaaeeoue i?iaeaiu, aicieeaattme n ianoiuie aeanoyie. Neo/aeii
caaycaaoeany ciaeiinoaa Iaaeaeo yiea?aioaie iiaee iaiaeeaeaiii iiii/ue a
ieiooo io/ayiey eee niinianoaiaaoue ainniaaeeiaieth naiae. A
aaeaaeiaaiuo e aaeaiaaeaeueiuo aacaoao yiea?aoeee, eiaaoeo oe?ieia
oiaeaeaiea, ioaeeeiaaeenue eieiiee iauyaeaiee i iienea iioa?yiiuo
?iaenoaaiieeia eee i aeaeaiee onoaiiaeoue eiioaeou eiiai ?iaea. Ee/iia
ciaeiinoai ai a?aiy yaaeoaoeee eee a ia?aii ianoa i?iaeeaaiey /anoi
i?eaiaeeei e iineaaeothuae ae?oaeaa e iinoiyiiiio iauaieth. Iiaeiaiua
Eiioaeou eaaeaee a iniiaa niaianoiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe,
ssonoue ia anaaaea aiieia oniaoiie, — a?aiaea oa?i, iniiaaiee iaaieueoeo
oi?aiauo, ?aianeaiiuo, oaaeiuo i?aaei?eyoee e o.i. Eeeaioaie yoeo
i?aaei?eyoee, eae i?aaeei, noaiiaeeenue ae?oaea aaaeaioeu, /oi
iiyoue-oaee eeethno?e?oao aaaeiinoue ee/iuo eiioaeoia

e /oanoaa aaeeinoaa. Iiaeiaiia iiaaaeaiea, oeie/iia aeey yiea?aioia,
ca/anooth oneeeaaao eo ecieyoeeth, ioithaeue ia niinianoaoy eioaa?aoeee
a iiaia iauanoai.

Ei?ie /oanoaa eciee?iaaiiinoe io ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu o ?onneeo, a
ioee/ea io ae?oaeo yiea?aioia, ne?uaaeenue a noieeie aa?a a aica?auaiea,
aiciaiiaeaiea aeecie ia ?iaeeia, inaiaiaeaeaiiie io niaaoneiai ?aaeeia.
Naie aa?iiaeneea no?aiu ia iaeaa/aee eee aeaaea i?ioeaeeenue iieiie
anneieeyoeee yiea?aioia. Yoi oieueei oneeeaaei no?ao iineaaeieo ia?aae
aeaiaoeeiiaeecaoeeae. Aeaaea aeaoe yiea?aioia noaeeeaaeenue n
o?oaeiinoyie i?e iiiuoeao eioaa?e?iaaoueny a iauanoai, i?aaeinoaaeaoaa
oaaaeeua eo ?iaeeoaeyi. Ianiio?y ia naiaiaeiia aeaaeaiea ycueii e
iao/aiea a ianoiuo oeieao, iie inoaaaeenue /oaeaeaie. Iiaeiaiay
neooaoeey auea iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ia aeey O?aioeee, Aa?iaiee e
Iaiue/aeo?ee, a iaiueoae noaiaie, aa?iyoii, aeey THaineaaee,
*aoineiaaeee e i?ea?aie/iuo ainoaea?noa. Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia aianea
?aaeeeaeueiua ei??aeoeau a yoi iieiaeaiea, iniaaiii ai O?aioeee.

Ainiiieiaiey i oii, /oi ei i?eoeinue ia?aaeeoue ia ?iaeeia e ia iooe a
ecaiaiea, oneeeaaei /oanoai eciee?iaaiiinoe o aeeoaeae ?onneiai
Ca?oaaaeuey. Aeaaea anee iie oi?ioi aiai?eee ia ianoiii ycuea, auee
ciaeiiu n enoi?eae e eoeueoo?ie oie no?aiu, aaea iie aeeee, iie
ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaaeenue /oaeaeaie: iaaeaaii i?eia?aoaiiua ciaiey e
iaauee ia noaee aua /anoueth eo naieo. Yoo noi?iio ecieyoeee o?oaeii
i?ineaaeeoue, iaeiaei iia nicaeaao iaaeaeeiue, eiiaaea aeaaea ia
iuouaaiue, ii oai ia iaiaa iinoiyiiue e iai?aiaeieeiue yiioeeiiaeueiue
aa?uea?, i?aiyonoaothuee anooieaieth a oaniue e i?eiinyuee enoeiiia
oaeiaeaoai?aiea eiioaeo n /oaeei iauanoaii. Eiia/ii, yeiiiie/aneay
neooaoeey e i?aaiaie noaoon i?eaeaaaee aiieia iuooeiua i/a?oaiey oai
?acee/eyi, eioi?ua ioaeaeyee ecaiaiieeia io anao inoaeueiuo. N oa/aieai
a?aiaie yoe aiaoiea oneiaey ia en/acaee, eae yoi neo/aeinue a no?aiao,
i?eieiaaoeo ianniaua iioiee eiiea?aioia, — a NOA, Aano?aeee eee Eaiaaea.
Oa yiea?aiou, eioi?ui iin/anoeeaeeinue iacaaanoenue nianoaaiiuie
naiueyie eee eioi?ua auee /eaiaie ?onneeo iauei, ia no?aieeenue e
i?aiaeieaieth ecieyoeee, iineieueeo a naiai caieiooii ie?ea iie
iaoiaeeee yiioeeiiaeueiia ?aaiiaanea e iaoa?eaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo.

Ecieyoeey ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey oaeoaeyeanue a neeo aua iaeiiai oaeoi?a.
Iiiaea yiea?aiou, eae oiiieiaeinue auoa, iioa?yee naie naiuee eeai a
?innee, eeai ia iooe a ecaiaiea. Yoe ethaee ii-i?aaeiaio o?aieee
aa?iinoue naiei ?iaeiui e ae?ocueyi. Iie o?oaeii caaiaeeee iiaua nayce,
iniaaiii iioiio, /oi i?iaeieaeaee iaaeayoueny ia nei?ia aica?auaiea
aeiiie. Oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi eeoue iaiiiaea ioae/eiu eiaee oain iaeoe
niooieoe aeecie e nicaeaoue naiuee, oneeeaaei eo iaeeii/anoai. Yoa
iainiaeaiiinoue auea iniaaiii neeueiie n?aaee ioae/ei, eioi?ua ?aaioaee
a i?iaeioeee, aeeee a 6a

?aeao e iauaaeeoeyo, iiae?uaaee naie neeu iai?eau/iui oece/aneei
o?oaeii e ia eiaee aieueoeo aiciiaeiinoae aeey onoaiiaeaiey eiioaeoia,
ia aiai?y oaea i aieaa oaniuo naycyo, n ianoiui ianaeaieai. Iie
no?aieeenue iiaeaea?aeeaaoue a naaa /oanoai iauiinoe, ineiaaiiia ia
aaeeinoaa i?ioeiai e noaeueau, /oi naii ii naaa eneethaaeei na?ueaciua
iiiuoee e eioaa?aoeee.

*oanoai nieeaea?iinoe e iauiinoe ia eneeth/aei, iaeiaei, aieueoiai
?aca?ina iiaiee iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ee/iinoyie e a?oiiaie. Naiue
caiaoiue e ae?aiaoe/anee aini?eieiaaoeeny enoi/iee iaa?yaeaiiinoe e
eiioeeeoia caeeth/aeny a iieeoe/aneeo ?aciiaeaneyo. Iieeoe/aneee niaeo?
yiea?aoeee iiaoi?ye neooaoeeth aei?aaiathoeeiiiie ?innee, anee,
?acoiaaony, ia n/eoaoue ionoonoaey aieueoaaeeia. Caeanue i?enoonoaiaaee
oa/aiey io e?aeia eaauo — aia?oi-neiaeeeaeenoia, eaauo e i?aauo
iaiueoaaeeia, eaauo e i?aauo eaa?ia e eeaa?aeia ?acee/iiai oieea — aei
e?aeia i?aauo, oeueo?a?aaeoeeiiiuo iiia?oenoia, a n 30-o aa. e
i?ioaoenoneeo a?oiie?iaie. Yoi iieeoe/aneia aeaeaiea, anoanoaaiii,
ieacuaaei aeeyiea ia aeayoaeueiinoue iiiaeo einoeoooia. Iu oaea ioia/aee
eiioeeeo eaaeaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aaia?aea A?aiaaey e Eiioa?aioeeae
iineia. Iiaeiaiua eiioeeeou ia en/a?iuaaeenue i?ioeai?a/eyie a
thoieno?aoeaiie aa?oooea. I?aaeiaoii nii?ia yaeyeinue aoaeouaa ?innee:
noi?iiieee A?aiaaey auee oaaaeaeaiiuie iiia?oenoaie, eiaaea eae
nio?oaeieee i?aaiia ii aeaeai aaaeaioeaa i?e iinieuenoaao aieueoeinoaa
ia iiaeaea?aeeaaee eaeath ?anoaa?aoeee iiia?oee e neiiaoece?iaaee
oia?aiii eeaa?aeueiui acaeyaeai. Oi aea naiia oethaeai?a/ea ?acaeaeyei
annioeeaoeee nooaeaioia e i?aiiaeaaaoaeae. Eeethno?aoeeae iaaaoeaiiai
aeeyiey iieeoe/aneeo ?aciiaeanee ia aeayoaeueiinoue iauanoaaiiuo
einoeoooia iiaeao neoaeeoue i?ioeaiaeaenoaea i?aaenoaaeoaey A?aiaaey,
Iaeaieiaa, aeayoaeueiinoe Caiai?a a THaineaaee. Iieeoe/aneea
i?ioeai?a/ey iiaee nouanoaiaaoue – a ?aieao iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee, aeaaea
oaeie, eioi?ay, ia ia?aue acaeyae, aeieaeia auea au aea?aeaoueny
aaeaeaea io iieeoeee. Oae, ia – i?eia?, Ana?inneeneee nithc aaoa?aiia
/ooue auei ia ?aniaeny ec-ca nii?a i oii, aeieaeiu ee aai /eaiu ioaee/ii
io?a/ueny io anyeeo iieeoe/aneeo i?eno?anoee, e?iia iauae iiaeaea?aeee
iiia?oee. ?acoeueoaoii iiaeiaiuo eiioeeeoia yaeeinue nicaeaiea aeaoo
nooaeai/aneeo annioeeaoeee, aeaoo nithcia aiaeeoaeae oaene a Ia?eaea e
o.ae. Ae?oaie iiaiae aeey ?aciiaeanee, eiaaoee iieeoe/aneoth ie?aneo,
aiciee aneaaenoaea ?aneiea, i?iecioaaeoaai ca a?aieoeae a ?onneie
I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae. A iniiaa aai eaaeae aii?in, eiio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
aeooiaiay aeanoue iaae oea?eiaiuie iaueiaie aeeanii?u — iao?eapxy
Iineianeiio eee Neiiaeo aieneiiia a N?ainee Ea?eiaeoeao Na?aey). Yoi
i?ioeai?a/ea ii?iaeeei iiiai/eneaiiua eiioeeeou n?aaee aa?othueo,
eioi?ua nicaeaaaee i?aiyonoaey e ia?aie/aiey aeey aeayoaeueiinoe iiiaeo
i?aaiecaoeee, oae eee eia/a naycaiiuo n oea?eiaueth. Yoi i?iyaeyeinue,
iai?eia?, i?e i?aaiecaoeee eaoieo eaaa?ae, oeie e iauaaeeiaiee
iieiaeaaee e aeaaea i?e i?iaaaeaiee niaoeeaeueiuo oi?aeanoa. A
ii?aaaeaiea yiea?aoeee, iaeiaei, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iieeoe/aneea
?aciiaeaney ia i?eaiaeeee e acaeiiui iaaeiaieyi, inei?aeaieyi e
iaaeinoieiui ee/iui noieeiiaaieyi a oea?eiaiuo aeaeao, eae yoi eiaei
ianoi a ae?oaeo iaeanoyo. Ia?aaeienaeueiui ia?acii yoi i?ioeainoiyiea
auei niya/aii o?aaiaaieai niaaoneie aeanoe, /oiau ieo?iiieeo Aaeiaee e
ae?oaea aeaaeuee a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia i?eianee ioaee/ioth eeyoao a oii,
/oi oea?eiaue ca ?oaaaeii ia aoaeao i?eieiaoue o/anoey a eaeie au oi ie
auei aioeniaaoneie aeayoaeueiinoe e iicaieyoue naaa aioeniaaoneea
auneacuaaiey. Ieo?iiieeo Aaeiaee ioaaoee ioeacii, oae eae naii ii naaa
i?eiyoea oea?eiaueth iiaeiaiuo iaycaoaeuenoa icia/aei au caiyoea iaeiae
iieeoe/aneie iiceoeee, /oi i?ioeai?a/eei e o?aaeeoeee i?aaineaaey, e aai
eioa?anai. Neaaenoaeai yoiai ioeaca yaeeinue oaeoe/aneia acaeiiia
i?eciaiea eee ii e?aeiae ia?a oa?ieiinoue ai acaeiiioiioaieyo iaaeaeo
Neiiaeii aieneiiia a N?ainee Ea?eiaeoeao e ieo?iiieeoii Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu. Eiioeeeo, iaeiaei, aniuoioe n iiaie neeie i?e eiuo iieeoe/aneeo
oneiaeyo oaea iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu.

*anoi n?aaee yiea?aioia aicieeaee neiaeiinoe ec-ca aii?ina i
iiaeaeainoaa. A ?yaea neo/aaa auoiaeii iiaei noaoue i?eiyoea «aeaieiiai
a?aaeaeainoaa» eee aeaieiiai iiaeaeainoaa. A ae?oaeo neo/ayo iiaeiaioth
aeaienoaaiiinoue iiaee iin/eoaoue ianiaianoeiie n i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e
?onneiio Ca?oaaaeueth. Oae, y oaea oiiieiaea i oii, /oi iiiaea
ecaiaiieee ioeacuaaeenue i?ioiaeeoue iaoo?aeecaoeeth e i?eieiaoue iiaia
a?aaeaeainoai, iineieueeo yoi i?aaenoaaeyeinue ei i?aaeaoaeuenoaii ii
ioiioaieth e ?innee e eo «?onneinoe». Ae?oaea, ?oeiaiaenoaoynue /enoi
i?aeoe/aneeie iiaoaeaeaieyie, niaeaoaeenue ia iaoo?aeecaoeeth a oi?ia
aeaieiiai iiaeaeainoaa: iie noaiiaeeenue a?aaeaeaiaie ae?oaie no?aiu, ii
inoaaaeenue ?onneeie ii eoeueoo?a, aeoaiei ia?aaeeaay ca noaeueao
?innee. Niaeaoaynue ia iiaeiaiue eiii?iienn, iie, iaeiaei, e?aeia ?aaeei
noaiiaeeenue /eaiaie iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a iiaie no?aia, ii ia
ioeacuaaeenue io neoaeau a a?iee. Iaeioi?ua aeaaea n/eoaee, /oi, neoaea
a a?iee, iie aiinyo aeeaae a inaiaiaeaeaiea ?innee. Eae oaea
ioia/aeinue, aicieeaee niiiaiey e ioiineoaeueii anooieaiey a i?ionithcu
oao no?ai, aaea i?iaeeaaee yiea?aiou, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo iiaeiaiue oaa iia nouanoaaiii iaeaa/eoue iaoa?eaeueiia
iieiaeaiea. Iaeiiaoe, ec aiycie aeaiaoeeiiaeecaoeee yiea?aiou iianaeenue
i?eniaaeeiyoueny e i?aaineaaiui oea?eaai ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai.

O/eouaay anaaiciiaeiua o?oaeiinoe, iaeeea i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua
yaeyeenue ca/anooth enoi/ieeii nii?ia e i?ioeai?a/ee, iu ia iiaeai ia
oaeeaeyoueny oiio, /oi ?onneia Ca?oaaaeuea noiaei ia oieueei nio?aieoue,
ii e cia/eoaeueii i?eoiiiaeeoue aeinoeaeaiey ?onneie eoeueoo?u.

– Nienie eeoa?aoo?u –

?iiai Aoeue «ss – oian ?inneth. Aiieiaey

yiea?aoeee», New York 1981

N. Iooea?aa «?onneea ca ?oaaaeii», –

«Iiaue aeo?iae» 1982

3. Ia?e ?aaa «?inney ca ?oaaaeii»

I.:I?ia?ann-Aeaaeaiey, 1994

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