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Тоталитаризм как феномен

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Niaea?aeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea. 3

Ec enoi?ee oa?ieia “oioaeeoa?eci”. 3

Iyoue iniiaiuo i?eciaeia oioaeeoa?ecia: 5

Aaniethoiay eiioeaio?aoeey aeanoe e ionoonoaea ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a
oioaeeoa?iii ainoaea?noaa; 5

Iaeiiia?oeeiay iieeoe/aneay nenoaia – n?aaenoai inouanoaeaiey
iieeoe/aneie aeanoe a oioaeeoa?iii ainoaea?noaa; 8

Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea e aoiiecaoeey iauanoaa – iniiaa
nouanoaiaaiey oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia; 12

Oa??i? – eiae/aneia i?iaeieaeaiea oioaeeoa?iie i?iiaaaiaeu; 16

Yeiiiie/aneay aaoa?eey, ainoaea?noaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea e i?eioaeeoaeueiue
o?oae a oioaeeoa?iii ainoaea?noaa. 17

IV. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaiey oioaeeoa?ecia. 19

V. Caeeth/aiea. Auaiaeu. ?ieue iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a
oioaeeoa?ecia. 21

VI. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. 23

Aaaaeaiea.

OO aae iaea?ee /aeiaa/anoai cia/eoaeueiui ?anoe?aieai ai?eciioia ciaiey,
aeinoeaeaieyie iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna. Aiciiaeii, aua aieaa
aaaeai oieeaeueiue iiuo aeooiaiiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

A 20-30-a aiaeu a a?oiia ainoaea?noa – NNN?, Aa?iaiee, Eoaeee, caoai
Eniaiee, ?yaea no?ai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu (a iicaeiaa e Acee) – neiaeeeenue
iieeoe/aneea ?aaeeiu, iaeaaeaaoea oeaeui eiiieaenii noiaeiuo i?eciaeia.
I?iaicaeaoay ?ac?ua n o?aaeeoeeyie i?ioeiai, iaauay iino?ieoue ia aai
?oeiao iiaue ie?, i?eaanoe ia?iaeu e i?ioeaaoaieth e eciaeeeth, yoe
?aaeeiu ia?ooeee ia ieo oa??i? e ?ai?annee, aoyioee ie? a /a?aaeo
e?iaaauo aiei.

?aaeeiu, iieo/eaoea iacaaiea oioaeeoa?iuo, iinoaiaiii nioee ni noeaiu.
Aaaeiaeoeie aaoaie e?ooaiey oioaeeoa?ecia auee 1945 aiae, eiaaea
iioa?iaea e?ao oaeay aai oi?ia, eae oaoeci, e 1989-1991 aiaeu, eiaaea
oioaeeoa?iua ?aaeeiu a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia, a caoai e a NNN?, iinoaiaiii
i?aoa?iaaaaoea y?iceth iinea nia?oe E. A. Noaeeia, ?ooioee
ieii/aoaeueii.

*oi aea i?aaenoaaeye niaie oioaeeoa?iue oaiiiai? Eae inouanoaeyeanue
aeanoue? Ii/aio yoe ?aaeeiu i?inouanoaiaaee oae aeieai? Iiaeii ee iaeoe
iiaeaeue oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu? Iaeiicia/iuo ioaaoia ia yoe aii?inu
nia?aiaiiay iieeoe/aneay iaoea ia aeaao.

Ec enoi?ee oa?ieia “oioaeeoa?eci”.

Naii iiiyoea “oioaeeoa?eci” aioei a iaeoiae a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a Caiaaea
a eiioea 30-o aiaeia iaoaai aaea. Iai?eia?, “Yioeeeeiiaaeey nioeeaeueiuo
iaoe”, ecaeaiiay a 1930-1935 aa. , ia niaea?aeeo yoiai oa?ieia. Oaea a
naiii ia/aea oioaeeoa?eci iaeiicia/ii ioiaeaeanoaeyeny n oaoeciii e
eiiioieciii, ?anniao?eaaaoeony eae aeaa aai ?acee/iuo ioaaoaeaiey.

Oa?iei “oioaeeoa?eci” noae oiio?aaeyoueny aeey iaicia/aiey oaoenoneiai
?aaeeia a Eoaeee e aa?iaineiai iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeenoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey
aua a 20-a aiaeu. N 1929 aiaea, ia/eiay n ioaeeeaoeee a aacaoa “Oaein”,
aai noaee i?eiaiyoue e e iieeoe/aneiio ?aaeeio Niaaoneiai Nithca.

Ec iieeoe/aneie ioaeeoeenoeee yoio oa?iei aoiaeeo a iao/iue iai?io aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee oaoenoneeo ?aaeeiia e Niaaoneiai Nithca.

Ia neiiiceoia, i?aaieciaaiiii Aia?eeaineei oeeinioneei iauanoaii a 1939
aiaeo, aia?aua auea naeaeaia iiiuoea aeaoue iao/ioth o?aeoiaeo
oioaeeoa?ecio. A iaeiii ec aeieeaaeia ii aue ii?aaeaeai eae “ainnoaiea
i?ioea anae enoi?e/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee Caiaaea. “.

Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia, a caoai ?aca?ii oaoenoneeo ?aaeeiia e ia/aei
“oieiaeiie aieiu” aeaee iiaue eiioeuen oai?aoe/aneiio iniuneaieth
oioaeeoa?ecia.

A 1952 aiaeo a NOA auea i?iaaaeaia eiioa?aioeey, iinayuaiiay yoiio
nioeeaeueiiio oaiiiaio, aaea aue naeaeai auaiae, /oi “oioaeeoa?iui
iiaeii iacaaoue cae?uoia iauanoai, a eioi?ii ana – io ainieoaiey aeaoae
aei auionea i?iaeoeoeee eiio?iee?oaony ec aaeeiiai oeaio?a”.

Nionoy ianeieueei eao auoae ?yae ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo ?aaio ia yoo oaio,
aaaeiaeoeie ec eioi?uo yaeythony: eieaa O. A?aiaeo “I?ienoiaeaeaiea
oioaeeoa?ecia” e niaianoiay iiiia?aoey E. O?eae?eoa E C. Aaeaceineiai
“Oioaeeoa?iay aeeeoaoo?a e aaoie?aoey”.

Aaoi?u iineaaeiaai enneaaeiaaiey i?aaeeaaatho aeey ii?aaeaeaiey “iauae
iiaeaee” oioaeeoa?ecia iyoue i?eciaeia:

aaeeiay ianniaay ia?oey, aicaeaaeyaiay oa?eciaoe/aneei eeaea?ii;

ioeoeeaeueiay eaeaieiaey, i?eciaaaaiay anaie;

iiiiiieey aeanoe ia NIE(n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee);

iiiiiieey ia ana n?aaenoaa aii?oaeaiiie ai?ueau;

nenoaia oa??i?enoe/aneiai iieeoeaeneiai eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey
yeiiiieeie.

Eiioeaioeey O?eae?eoa e Aaeaceineiai, iieo/eaoay a enoi?eia?aoee
iacaaiea “oioaeeoa?iue neiae?ii”, ieacaea aieueoia aeeyiea ia
iineaaeothuea enneaaeiaaiey a yoie iaeanoe. A oi aea a?aiy iaiaeiie?aoii
oeacuaaeinue ia ianiaa?oainoai eo oi?ioeu, /oi, ai?i/ai, i?eciaaaee e
naie aaoi?u.

Neiaeiinoue nicaeaiey i?eaieaiie eiioeaioeee i?eaaea e e?eoeea naiie
eaeae iiaeaee?iaaiey oioaeeoa?ecia, iniiaiua iieiaeaiey eioi?ie
naiaeeeenue e neaaeothuaio:

n iiiiuueth eiioeaioeee oioaeeoa?ecia iaeuecy enneaaeiaaoue aeeiaieeo
i?ioeannia a nioeeaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao (A. Aeannia?);

ia auaaao oeaeeeii eiio?iee?oaiie eee iaeiio?iee?oaiie nenoaiu (A. Eoi);

iiaeaee oioaeeoa?ecia iao, oae eae acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie
aa yeaiaioaie ieeiaaea ia auee ?acuyniaiu (O.Aeaeiin);

oioaeeoa?iay iiaeaeue eaii?e?oao “enoi/ieee iauanoaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee ”
oioaeeoa?ecia a NNN?(A. Eieaeuen).

Iaeiaei iiene iioeiaeueiie iiaeaee i?iaeieaeaaony ii nae aeaiue.

Aaniethoiay eiioeaio?aoeey aeanoe e ionoonoaea ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a
oioaeeoa?iii ainoaea?noaa.

Iooaeeeaaynue io ?acoeueoaoia aiaeeca, i?aaeaea anaai oioaeeoa?iuo
no?oeoo? aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee e noaeeineiai NNN?, eioi?ua iiaeii
iacaaoue “oioaeeoa?iui iaeneioiii”, auaeaeei iyoue iniiaiuo i?eciaeia
oioaeeoa?ecia. Iineieueeo a ianoiyuai enneaaeiaaiee iu enoiaeei a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ec aiaeeca “oioaeeoa?iiai iaeneioia”, oi e ana yoe
i?eciaee yaeythony a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie eaeaaeueiuie e i?iyaeythony a
?acee/iuo oioaeeoa?iuo ?aaeeiao a iaiaeeiaeiaie noaiaie, aieioue aei
oaiaeaioeee.

Eoae, ia?aue i?eciae – aaniethoiay eiioeaio?aoeey aeanoe, ?aaeecoaiay
/a?ac iaoaieciu ainoaea?noaa e i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie yoaoeci, oi anoue
aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiie/aneoth e iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue
no?aiu, aicaaaeaiiia a aunooth noaiaiue. Oaeay eiioeaio?aoeey aeanoe n
oi/ee c?aiey oi?iu i?aaeaiey iai?aiaiii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aaoie?aoeth, aeey eioi?ie oa?aeoa?iu:

Niaaeeiaiea eniieieoaeueiie e caeiiiaeaoaeueiie aeanoe a iaeiii eeoea
i?e oaeoe/aneii ionoonoaee iacaaeneiie noaeaaiie aeanoe.

I?eioeei “aiaeaeecia”, i?e/ai aiaeaeue oa?eciaoe/aneiai, ienoe/aneiai
oeia.

?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa ioieo a).

Oioaeeoa?iia ainoaea?noai ia iiaei e ia iiaeao noaoue i?aaiaui, oi anoue
oaeei, aaea noae ia aue au caaenei io aeanoae, a caeiiu ?aaeueii
niaethaeaeenue. Oaeiai ainoaea?noaa nenoaia ia i?eaieao. Iacuaeaiinoue
noaea e oi?aeanoai caeiiiinoe iaecaaaeii ioe?uaaee iooue iiyaeaieth
iiiiceoeee.

I?eciaaay oi?iaeueii a?aaeaeaineea naiaiaeu, oioaeeoa?iua ?aaeeiu
noaaeee iaeii, ii ?aoathuaa oneiaea: iieueciaaoueny eie iiaeii auei
eneeth/eoaeueii a eioa?anao oie nenoaiu, eioi?oth i?iiiaaaeiaaee
aiaeaee, /oi icia/aei au iiaeaea?aeeo eo aeaaeu/anoaa.

Ionthaea auoaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue nio?aiaiey oi?iu caeiiiinoe e
iaeiia?aiaiii iiiiiieee i?aaeaiey. Aeaaiui ia?acii ii yoie i?e/eia
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay aeanoue ia iiaea ioaeaeeoueny io eniieieoaeueiie. I?e
iaeiiia?oeeiie nenoaia yoi eae ?ac e aue iaeei ec enoi/ieeia, ieoathueo
i?iecaie e anaiiaouanoai i?aaeoaeae. Oi/ii oae aea i?aeoe/anee
iaaiciiaeii auei ioaeaeeoue aeanoue iieeoeaeneoth io noaeaaiie.

Oae ca/ai a oaeii neo/aa oioaeeoa?iay aeeeoaoo?a i?eaaaaea e caeiio,
ca/ai i?ee?uaaeanue caeiiiinoueth?

E?iia aiaoiaiieeoe/aneeo e i?iiaaaiaeenoneeo ?aciiia iaiaeiaaaeii e oi,
/oi oioaeeoa?iue ?aaeei iaycai aue iaania/eoue i?aaiaua aa?aioee oai, ia
eiai ii iie?aeny, oi anoue ia?oee. Oi?iaeueii caeiiu io?aiyee i?aaa anao
a?aaeaeai, ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe oieueei oao, eoi ia iiiae a ?ac?yae
“a?aaia ia?iaea” eee “a?aaia ?aeoa”.

A neeo auoaeceiaeaiiiai iieeoe/aneea noaeaaiua i?ioeannu-einoeaie?iaee,
aaea aeiieie?iaae iieeoe/aneee oacen; io noaea o?aaiaaeinue oeiaeeoue a
?aiee i?aaa caaioiaeaiiue iieeoe/aneee auaiae i a?aaeaeaaiuo i?ieneao
iaaeiyaiiai.

I?e oaeii niiniaa noaeeoue aaaeiaeooth ?ieue ea?aei i?eciaiea
iaaeiyaiiai.

Anee ii nai iacuaae naay a?aaii, oiaaea oacen iiaeoaa?aeaeaeny.
“Iineianeea i?ioeannu” -yoi iaeaieaa a?ioaneiue e e?iaaaue i?eia?
noaeaaii-th?eaee/aneiai oa?na a eiiioiecia. Iau/ii iieeoe/aneea
i?ioeannu caoaaaeenue ii “?acia?yaeea”. Oaeiay iieeoeey(IEAAe, AIO, e
ae?. ) iieo/aea /enei o?aaoaiuo e a?anoo “a?aaia ia?iaea” e ia/eiaea
aeaenoaiaaoue. Ieeaeeo aeieacaoaeuenoa ia o?aaiaaeinue – ioaeii auei
eeoue i?eciaiea.

?aaioa iieeoeee a NNN? /?acau/aeii oi?iuaeanue anaiiaouae 58-e noaoueae
Oaieiaiiai Eiaeaena 1926 aiaea. Iia ninoiyea ec 14 ioieoia. Ii aeaaiia a
yoie noaouea auei ia a? niaea?aeaiea, a oi, /oi a? aiciiaeii auei
enoieeiaaoue “?anoe?eoaeueii”, “aeeaeaeoe/anee”. Iaeei i?eia? – ioieo 3
:”niinianoaiaaiea eaeei au oi ie auei niiniaii eiino?aiiiio
ainoaea?noao, iaoiaeyuaiony n NNN? a ninoiyiee aieiu”. Yoio ioieo aeaaae
aiciiaeiinoue inoaeeoue /aeiaaea ca oi, /oi, iaoiaeynue iiae
ieeoiaoeeae, ii i?eaee eaaeoe iaiaoeeiio nieaeaoo. Ii aeaaiue i?eioeei
eiiioienoe/aneiai noaea au?aaeai a iaeiie o?aca i?aaenaaeaoaey
?aao?eaoiaea a. ?ycaie (1919 a. ): “Iu ?oeiaiaenoaoainy IA CAEIIAIE, a
iaoae ?aaiethoeeiiiie niaanoueth. “.

Oaia?ue iiae?iaiaa i i?eioeeia “aiaeaeecia”. Aeaei a oii, /oi ei aoi?iio
aeanyoeeaoeth OO aaea ?anioaeeea n aa aeaiie?aoe/aneeie einoeoooaie aua
ia noaea i?eau/iie oi?iie ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa a aieueoeinoaa
i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo e ?acaeaathueony no?ai. Ioaeaeueiua ainoaea?noaa
aua nio?aiyee iiia?oeth, a eiua nianai iaaeaaii onoaiiaeee
?anioaeeeaineee no?ie. Yoei, ii-aeaeeiiio, e iauyniyeanue oinea onoaaoeo
io ?aaiethoeeiiiuo iio?ynaiee e aieiu ia?iaeia ii iiaeiaiie iiia?oo
iieeoe/aneie oeao?a eae iauaaeeieoaeueiii ia/aea iaoeee. E anee a
oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee oth?a? niia caianoeoue ooaaeoaai eiia?aoi?a
Aeeueaaeueia II a aeooao iaiaoeeeo a?aaeaeai, oi a Eoaeee A. Ionnieeie
yoiai naeaeaoue ia niia, aeaaiui ia?acii ec-ca nouanoaiaaiey a Eoaeee
anaie i?eciaiiiai iiia?oa, oioy e ia ea?aaoaai aieueoie ?iee a
eoaeueyineii iauanoaa.

A Eniaiee O. O?aiei /a?ac oaeaiao iuoaeny aicauneoueny a iauanoaaiiii
niciaiee eniaioeaa aei o?iaiy naa?aiooiai ei?iey; iaeiaei yoi aio
oaeaaaeinue ieioi. I?eaey e aeanoe, O?aiei ainnoaiiaee iiia?oeth, ii
…aac iiia?oa. A 1945 aiaeo eniaineee ei?ieue a yiea?aoeee ecaeae
iaieoano, inoaeeaoee aeeeoaoo?o, /ai ieii/aoaeueii enii?oee ioiioaiey n
O?aiei.

A nouiinoe, oioaeeoa?eci e iiia?oey – acaeiicaiauathuea nenoaiu, aeey
eioi?uo “aiaeaeeci” ia yaeyaony /ai-oi i?eoaaeoei ecaia. Ii aicieeaao ec
ieceiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey aeaiie?aoe/aneiai niciaiey e iio?aaiinoe ethaeae
a aiaeaea eae a neiaiea aaeeinoaa iaoeee, iniaaiii a ia?eiae
iaoeeiiaeueiie ianoaaeeueiinoe.

I?eia? – i?eioeei “oth?a?noaa” a oaoenoneie Aa?iaiee. Oth?a? noieo ai
aeaaa ainoaea?noaa e au?aaeaao aai aieth: neea ainoaea?noaa enoiaeeo io
oth?a?a. Aa?oiaiue oth?a? iaaeaeyao anao ae?oaeo oth?a?ia ii?aaeaeaiiuie
iieiiii/eyie a no?iai ea?a?oe/aneii ii?yaeea. Eaaeaeue ec oth?a?ia
iiae/eiyaony naiaio iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio ia/aeueieeo, ii i?e yoii, ii
nooe, eiaao iaia?aie/aiioth aeanoue iaae naieie iiae/eiaiiuie.

Aaoi?eoao aiaeaey, oaeei ia?acii, ceaeaeaony ia ia iniciaiiii aeiaa?ee,
e naycue aiaeaey n iannaie iineo nei?aa ienoe/aneee, ee/iinoiue
oa?aeoa?.

Iaeiiia?oeeiay iieeoe/aneay nenoaia – n?aaenoai inouanoaeaiey
iieeoe/aneie aeanoe a oioaeeoa?iii ainoaea?noaa.

Aoi?ie i?eciae – iaeiiia?oeeiay iieeoe/aneay nenoaia, ia aeiioneathuay
ieeaeeo eiuo iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee. Oaeay iieeoe/aneay nenoaia oanii
naycaia n aeaoiy iiiaioaie.

Ai-ia?auo, iniiaie iaeiiia?oeeiie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu iaycaoaeueii
noaiiaeony iiienoe/aneay-aaeeiay, ainiiaenoaothuay eaeaieiaey,
enoiaeyuay eneeth/eoaeueii io i?aayuae ia?oee e ia oa?iyuay ieeaeie
iiiiceoeee eee e?eoeee. A naiie ia?oee oaeaea iiaeaea?aeeaaaony eaeaeiia
aaeeinoai.

Iniiaiui iaoiaeii iiienoe/aneie eaeaieiaee yaeyaony ianniaay
iaieaaieaathuay i?iiaaaiaea, aace?othuayny ia nioeeaeueii –
eeanniaie(NNN?), ?aniai – iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneie (Aa?iaiey) eee ?aeeaeiciie
(E?ai a?aiai ayoieeu Oiiaeie) aeaiaaiaee. A aiaeu eiina?aaoeee ?aaeeia
?oeiaiaeyuay ?ieue ia?oee auea ocaeiiaia 6-e noaoueae eiinoeoooeee NNN?.

Aanue iaoaieci aeanoe aue naaaeai e neaaeothuaio:iieeoe/aneea no?oeoo?u
– yoi eneeth/eoaeueiay i?eaeeaaey ia?oeeoeaa, ai anao inoaeueiuo i?aaiao
e o/?aaeaeaieyo ia?oeeoeu eeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii oicyeie/aee, eeai
aea?aeaee oi?aaeaiea iiae naiei iaaeci?ii.

Aeinoaoi/ii auei oeaio?o i?iaanoe canaaeaiea eee iioaeeeiaaoue noaoueth,
eae iaiiaaiii i?eaiaeeeny a aeaenoaea aanue ainoaea?noaaiii-iauanoaaiiue
iaoaieci. A /ooue aaea naie, ia?oey e iieeoeey a e?ao/aeoea n?iee
ono?aiyee “iaeni?aaiinoue”-ioeeiiaiea io iauaai iiaiey.

A iineaaeothuai iiae?iaiaa aoaeao ?anniio?aia eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey,
iaoiaeeaoayny o aeanoe eae a Niaaoneii Nithca, oae e a no?aiao Ainoi/iie
Aa?iiu.

Eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey ia?oeae iniaiai oeia yaeyeanue ia oieueei
iioiio, /oi auea oeaio?aeeciaaiia, ii-a?iaenee aeenoeeieeie?iaaiia,
no?aieeanue e ii?aaeaeaiiui oeaeyi e o. i.

Iaaeaeo oai eeoue a eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee eaeaieiae/aneia aaeeinoai,
oiaeaeanoaaiiinoue ie?iaicc?aiee e acaeyaeia auee iaycaoaeueiu aeey anao
aac eneeth/aiey /eaiia, oioy aeaiiue eiia?aoea eanaeny nei?aa aieiaiuo
i?aaiia e aunoeo einoaioeee ia?oee. Oai, eoi iiieaea, oieueei oi?iaeueii
auei aiaiaii a iaycaiiinoue niaethaeaoue aaeeinoai, “aethnoe eaeaeioth
/enoioo naieo ?yaeia”; eo i?yiie caaea/ae auei auiieiyoue ?aoaiey.
Iaeiaei e iecu aeieaeiu auee onaaeaaoue acaeyaeu aiaeaeae.

Ai a?aiaia Noaeeia eaeaeiia aaeeinoai, oi anoue iaycaoaeueiia
oeeinioneia e i?i/aa, noaei oneiaeai i?aauaaiey a ia?oee.
Aaeeiiaeaniinoue noaea caeiiii aeey anao eiiia?oee.

?ac a ethaie ia?oee aeanoue nin?aaeioi/aia a ?oeao aiaeaeae e aunoeo
einoaioeee, oi eaeaeiia aaeeinoai eae i?eeac ianei n niaie aeaaeu/anoai
oeaio?a iaae oiaie ?yaeiauo ia?oeeoeaa.

I?ae?auaiea anyeie eaeaeiie ai?ueau a ia?oee icia/aei ia?aee/ naiaiaeu a
iauanoaa, oae eae iauanoai oeaeeeii e iieiinoueth a aa aeanoe, a aioo?e
naiie ia?oee – ie i?iaeanea naiaiaeu.

Eaeaieiae/aneia aaeeinoai-aeooiaiay iniiaa ee/iie aeeeoaoo?u, eioi?oth
aac iaai iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue. Iaeii ii?iaeaeaao ae?oaia.

Eaeae – ieiae oai?/anoaa ioaeaeueiuo ethaeae, a i?eeaciie eaeaeiue
iiiiiieeci, inouanoaeyaiue n iiiiuueth i?iiaaaiaeu e oa??i?a, i?eaeaao
yoei eaeayi oa?aeoa? caeiia.

Ono?aiaiea eaeaeiie ?aciiaieineoeu a n?aaea aunoeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
aaoiiaoe/anee oi?acaeieei o?aeoeee e oa/aiey , a n oai e anyeoth
aeaiie?aoeth a eiiioienoe/aneeo nenoaiao.

A eiiioiecia aiciaeaaeae i?eioeei “aiaeaeue ciaao ana»: eaeaieiaaie
ia?oee noaiiaeeenue iaeaaeaoaee aeanoe – ia?oeeiie e i?i/ae – aia
caaeneiinoe io neoaeioiey oaeeo eeaea?ia. Iieo/eeinue oae, /oi iaaei
auei auoue ia i?inoi ia?enenoii , a ia?enenoii a niioaaonoaee n
i?aaeienaieyie aa?oia, oeaio?a.

Eiiioienou ainieouaaeenue ia oaaaeaeaiee, /oi eaeaeiia aaeeinoai,
eaeaeiia iiae/eiaiea anoue iai?eeiniiaaiiaeoay ec nayouiue, a o?aeoeey a
ia?oee – /a?iia ceiaeaenoai.

A ai?ueaa ca aeanoue iaae oiaie ia aiooaeenue ieeaeeie n?aaenoaaie,
oe?iei i?eiaiyee oa??i?, caioaeaaiea, i?iiaaaiaeo eee e?oaiaoth ii?oeo
ii ianoiyoaeuenoaai.

Eiia/ii, Noaeei ciae , /oi O?ioeeee, Aooa?ei e Ceiiaueaa ieeaeea ia
eiino?aiiua oieiiu eee i?aaeaoaee nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ioa/anoaa. Ii
ioaeii auei naaeeoue ia eiai-oi aeio ca ia?aoaiiua aii?inu, a /anoiinoe
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiue, aeaai iie aua e “/enoina?aea/ii” i?eciaeenue, e
ono?aieoue ianiaeaniuo, eiaeiiuneyueo.

Eaeaieiae/aneia aaeeinoai, i?ioaaeoaa iaiaei oac e i?eia?aooaa ia yoii
iooe ?aciiia?aciua oi?iu, auei naiie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ia?oee
aieueoaaenoneiai, eiiioienoe/aneiai oeia.

Ai-aoi?uo, iaeiiia?oeeiay iieeoe/aneay nenoaia nii?iaiaeaeaeanue
oaeoe/aneei ionoonoaeai aeaiie?aoe/aneeo einoeoooia, oaeeo eae
ia?eaiaio, Niaaou aeaiooaoia e ae?. , a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aeinoeaaeinue
oioaeueiia io/oaeaeaiea eiaeeaeaea io iieeoe/aneie aeanoe.

Eiaeeaeae iia iieo/eoue iieeoe/aneoth aeanoue oieueei anooiea a ia?oeth
e “nuaa”, “iiaeneaeaa”, oi anoue oai eee eiui ia?acii ono?aiea
auoanoiyuaai nio?oaeieea, oai naiui caiya aai e?anei.

Aiciiaeiia nouanoaiaaiea iaeioi?uo iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee ie/aai ia
iaiyei, oae eae iie eiio?iee?iaaeenue ia?oeeiuie e ainoaea?noaaiiuie
i?aaiaie. I?eia?ii iiaoo auoue nicaeaiiua oaoenoaie i?ionithcu, iniiaiie
caaea/ae eioi?uo auei aiaae?aiea eaeaieiae/aneeo ieoia a ianniaia
niciaiea e eiio?ieue ca iei.

Io?eoeaieai aeaiie?aoe/aneeo einoeoooia ?aaeei ?aaeeciauaae aaaeioth
caaea/o – eeeaeaeaoeeth oao i?iiaaeooi/iuo caaiueaa, eioi?ua noiyo
iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeii e ainoaea?noaii, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai i?ienoiaeeo
iieiia iiaeiuaiea eiaeeaeaea ainoaea?noaii, i?aa?auaiea aai a “aeioee”
ia?iiiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iaoeiu.

Oioaeeoa?iue ?aaeei – aeaoeua OO aaea, oae eae a i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu
oaoieea ia auea noieue ?acaeoa, /oiau /aeiaae auno?i iieo/ae e onaaeaae
i?iiaaaiaeo eaeaeiiai aaeeinoaa-iiaeaea?aeee ?aaeeia. Aei OO aaea
iieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue auea , eae i?aaeei, oaeaeii eioaeeeaaioeee,
a?aiioiuo neiaa iauanoaa, oiathueo /a?ac i?anno e oaeaa?ao, ii/oo
ia?auaoueny e naaa iiaeiaiui. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann cia/eoaeueii
?anoe?ee aiciiaeiinoe iauaiey.

Eneeth/eoaeueiay ?ieue caeanue i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?aaeei, iianaianoiia
?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iai iicaieeei i?eiaueoue e iieeoeea oe?ieea neie
iaa?aiioiiai ianaeaiey, ethiiai-i?ieaoa?eao, /oi aanueia ?anoe?eei aaco
iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau. Eoi ia oiae /eoaoue, iia neooaoue. A eiaaea aue
i?iaaaeai eeeaac, iiaeeeth/eeenue e aacaou.

I?iiaaaiaea oea ii anai eaiaeai: a ia?auo eeannao ia/aeueiie oeieu
i?ioiaeeee eaieineea o?iee, ii ieii/aiee aiaea aea?eeenue eieaeee iiae
iacaaieai “Ec aeecie A. E. Eaieia”, e aoaeouee ia?aieeanniee, aua ia
auo/ea oaaeeoeu oiiiaeaiey, oaea ciae i oii, eaeei oi?ioei ieiaoeii aue
Aeaaeeie? Eeuee/; a oeieueiuo o/aaieeao (iniaaiii ii eiino?aiiiio ycueo)
ionne?iaaeanue oaia eo/oae no?aiu a ie?a – Niaaoneiai Nithca, io a naiay
aieueoay /anoue i?iiaaaiaeu i?eoiaeeeanue ia enoi?eth.

Oe?iei i?aeoeeiaaeenue ?acee/iua oaeueneoeeaoeee; a o/aaieea enoi?ey
i?aaenoaaeyeanue eae enoi?ey iiaaaeu EINN aae ni n?aaeieo aaeia,
?acoiaaony, ie/aai ia aiai?eeinue i”e?aniii oa??i?a”, iieeocaeeth/aiiuo
e aieiaea a ia?eiae Niaaoneie aeanoe.

Ii ?aaeei ia?aaeaaaeenue aaneiia/iua ?a/e aiaeaeae, a aacaoao eaaeaeue
aeaiue ia/aoaeny ii?o?ao Noaeeia, a i?aaeeneiaeyo ethaia i?iecaaaeaiea
?anniao?eaaeinue n oi/ee c?aiey ia?enecia-eaieiecia-noaeeiecia.

I?iiaaaiaea i?aa?auaeanue a ainieoaoaeueiue i?ioeann. A eanoieoea
ieoya?yoa – ieiia?u – eiiniiie – ia?oey auoanoiyuea oaonoaiaaee,
ainieouaaee ieaeanoiyueo.

I?iiaaaiaeie e iiaeaea?aeeie iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, i
eioi?ii iicaea, ?aaeei ?aoae aanueia aaaeioth caaea/o:acya iiae
i?aeoe/anee iieiue eiio?ieue aeooe a?aaeaeai, ii i?eaeaae ethaeyi
oioaeeoa?iia niciaiea, aioiaiinoue iiae/eiyoueny eaeayi, eaeouei ec
oeaio?a.

Iniai noieo neacaoue i ?iee oea?eae. ssaeyynue aieaa ae?aaiei einoeoooii
, /ai iieeoe/aneea ia?oee, iaeaaeay cia/eoaeueiui aanii a iauanoaa,
oea?eiaue noaea oai eaiiai i?aoeiiaaiey, eioi?ue ia iicaieye iieiinoueth
iiae/eieoue aeooo eiaeeaeaea. Iiiuoee oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia ono?aieoue,
eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, nio?oaeie/aoue n iae ia aacaea i?eaiaeeee e
oniaoo. A oao no?aiao, aaea oea?eiaue nio?aieea naie iiceoeee (Eoaeey,
Eniaiey), io?eoeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey oioaeeoa?ecia auee ia noieue
aeoaiee, eae oai, aaea iia auea aeanoiei iiaeaaeaia (Aa?iaiey, ?inney).

Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea e aoiiecaoeey iauanoaa – iniiaa
nouanoaiaaiey oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia.

O?aoee i?eciae – iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, ninoaaeythuaa
ianniaoth nioeeaeueioth aaco ?aaeeia. E niaeaeaieth, a ?aiieo
eiioeaioeeyo oioaeeoa?ecia i?aeoe/anee ia ?anniao?eaaeanue ?ieue naiiai
ia?iaea a nicaeaiee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiee oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia.

Ia?iaeiua iannu /aua aunooiaee a iaeeea ian/anoiuo aea?oa, aaaeiuo
iai?ioeaeaioeaa, yaeythueony iauaeoii i?eeiaeaiey oioaeeoa?iuo nee.
Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee niaaoneiai oioaeeoa?ecia i?iecaiaeyo
eneonnoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea iauanoaa ia ioaeaeueiua /anoe.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, eeaea?-aeeeoaoi? ai aeaaa aaeeinoaaiiie ianniaie
iieeoe/aneie ia?oee, oa??i?enoe/aneee iieeoeaeneee eiio?ieue,
naa?ooeaio?aeeciaaiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey, a n ae?oaie – no?aaeathuee,
ian/anoiue ia?iae. Anee ia?aay /anoue aoeaaeueii aeeoioee?oao a naaa
no?aoiua /a?ou oioaeeoa?ecia, oi aoi?ay /anoue iauanoaa iaoiaeeony eae
au a noi?iia, aucuaay neiiaoee e aeaaea ethaiaue.

Ecaanoii, /oi a Aa?iaiee e Eoaeee onoaiiaeaieth oioaeeoa?iuo ?aaeeiia
i?aaeoanoaiaaee ianniaua aeaeaeaiey, o/anoieee eioi?uo niaa?oaiii
aeia?iaieueii iiaeaea?aeeaaee e ?acaeaeyee oaoenoneoth eaeaieiaeth.

Noaeeineea ?ai?annee ii naeaeaoaeuenoao i/aaeaeoeaa aini?eieiaeenue
cia/eoaeueiie /anoueth ianaeaiey ni/oanoaaiii, ia yoio ?ac ia ?aaeei
?aaioaee oaeaea i?iiaaaiaea e oa??i?.

Niaaoneee iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi oioaeeoa?eci anaaaea eiae
nioeeaeueioth iii?o a ia?iaea. Aac iaa ii ia iia au oae aeieai
nouanoaiaaoue e aeaeieciaiyoueny. Aeieoiaioaeueiua eaae?u: aeaeaaao io
aeiy?ie iaae?uaii e?e/eo e io eiaie eieoica eiaie Aoaeaiiiai o?aaoao
nia?oe aeey “a?aaia ia?iaea”. Eacaeinue, eaaeaeue eieoic, oaa?eea,
ia?eeiaoa?neay, noieiaay aeieaeiu ioiaoeoueny e iio?aaiaaoue “aunoae
ia?u”; eeoea o?aaothueo niaiythony, ii neiaa ii?aceoaeueii iioiaee.

Ec caiaaeiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae ia?aie ia?aoeea aieiaiea ia oaeoi?
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey O. A?aiaeo, eioi?ay n/eoaea, /oi
oioaeeoa?iua ?aaeeiu aicieeatho ia aai aaca.

Eaeiaa aea ?ieue oioaeeoa?iiai IIAe ?

A oa?aeoa?a oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia oaeoi? IIAe caieiaao ii?aaeaeythuaa
ianoi ii neaaeothuei i?e/eiai.

Ai-ia?auo, eiaiii /a?ac IIAe eae nioeeaeueioth aaco ?aaeeia i?ienoiaeeo
oi?ie?iaaiea a iauanoaaiiii niciaiee “oioaeeoa?iie eaeae”.

Ai-aoi?uo, /a?ac IIAe aeinoeaaaony anaioaaouaathuee eiio?ieue iaae anaie
i?iyaeaieyie iauanoaaiiie aeecie, /oi e iaania/eaaao inouanoaeaiea
oioaeeoa?iiai ainiiaenoaa aeanoe.

A-o?aoueeo, /a?ac IIAe oioaeeoa?iue ?aaeei aiaae?yao ieou a iauanoaaiiia
niciaiea, oi?ie?oao iiceoeaiia ioiioaiea iann e oioaeeoa?iiio ?aaeeio,
oioaeece?oao iannu ecioo?e, a anao ianiaeaniuo, iaiiaeaeathueony
oie/oiaeatho.

N IIAe naycaia oaeaea e aoiiecaoeey iauanoaa.

Aua aei i?eoiaea e aeanoe oioaeeoa?iia aeaeaeaiea no?ieony ia i?eioeeiao
i?aaeaeueiie aoiiecaoeee naieo /eaiia; nia/aea aeinoeaaaony aa?iinoue
aeaeaeaieth, i?aiaeaaeaiea naycae n aeaeaeaieai iaae ee/iuie naycyie, a
caoai eo iieiay oo?aoa a iieueco naiaai ianoa a aeaeaeaiee.

Iinea onoaiiaeaiey oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia aoiiecaoeey ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
oe?ieea neie iauanoaa n iiiiuueth aiia?aoa ono?aoaiey, aeeth/athuaai a
naay, e?iia oa??i?a, oaeaea e aacaou, ?aaeei; iaeiaei naiue iiuiue
yooaeo eiaao ?acaeoay nenoaia aeiiineoaeuenoaa e e?oaiaie ii?oee,
cae?aieythuay oaeei ia?acii yooaeo ianniaie oioaeeoa?iie i?iiaaaiaeu.

“A ianoaiiaea anaiauae acaeiiie iiaeic?eoaeueiinoe, eiaaea eiyeueiinoue
?aaeeio ecia?yaony /eneii aeiiinia, ethaua ee/iua nayce noaiiayony
iaithaeiiianiuie. Yeaiaioa?iay inoi?iaeiinoue o?aaoao ioeaca io oaniuo
naycae, /oiau ia noaaeoue aeeceeo ethaeae a oaeia iieiaeaiea , eiaaea
iie oeaiie nianaiey naiae nianoaaiiie aeecie aoaeoo auioaeaeaiu
iiaoaeoue oaay.

A ?acoeueoaoa aeinoeaaaony i?aaeaeueii aiciiaeiay aoiiecaoeey iauanoaa,
e ethaia ianiaeanea n iieeoeeie oioaeeoa?iiai ainoaea?noaa [e n
oioaeeoa?iie eaeaae ] eeai ?aneie iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeii e iauanoaii n?aco
aea noaaeo eiaeeaeaea aia caeiia. Aaeeinoaaiiie iieiaeeoaeueiie /a?oie
noaiiaeony aaconeiaiay e iaeciaiiay i?aaeaiiinoue Aeaeaeaieth ni noi?iiu
eaaeaeiai aai /eaia.”

Eoae, /a?ac IIAe aoiiece?iaaiiiai iauanoaa aeinoeaaaony yooaeo “neeyiey
n aeanoueth”(aeanoue aeiiina), ianiio?y ia aaniethoioth iono?aiaiiinoue
ethaeae io iaa , e eae ?acoeueoao-“ia?iae ia aaciieanoaoao, eae a
oaiaeaeueiuo ainoaea?noaao i?ioeiai, – iao, ia?iae iiao, e?e/eo “o?a” e
?oeiieauao eaciyi. “.

E nai ei niinianoaoao, aeiaaaei.

Oaia?ue ianeieueei neia i oii, /oi oaeia oioaeeoa?iay eaeay.
Oioaeeoa?iay eaeay caeeth/aao a naaa iniiaiie oeaiiinoiue e?eoa?ee
i?aaiecaoeee oioaeeoa?iiai iauanoaa; eiaiii oioaeeoa?iie eaeaae
ioee/athony ?acee/iua oi?iu oioaeeoa?ecia .

A caaeneiinoe io iniiaiiai oeaiiinoiiai e?eoa?ey iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e
oi?iu oioaeeoa?ecia.

I?aaie oi?ia niioaaonoaoao iaoeeiiaeueiue e?eoa?ee (oaoenoneea ?aaeeiu
Aeoea?a, Ionnieeie e ae?. ).

Eaaie oi?ia – eeanniaue(nioeeaeueiue) e?eoa?ee (noaeeieci).

?aeeaeiciie oi?ia-?aeeaeiciue e?eoa?ee i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa(eneaineee
ooiaeaiaioaeeci a E?aia ia?eiaea Oiiaeie).

A oi aea a?aiy, iiaeaeoe, yoi ?acee/ea iaaeaeo oi?iaie ana-oaee ia
yaeyaony i?eioeeieaeueiui; ii aeoaeiiie nooe naiae ana oioaeeoa?iua
?aaeeiu i/aiue aeecee.

I?eciaee oioaeeoa?iiai IIAe neaaeothuea:

Oeaeue Aeaeaeaiey – onoaiiaeaiea aeeeoaoo?u a eaeie-eeai oi?ia;

ia?auaiea e neea a ea/anoaa aeaaiiai eino?oiaioa aeey aeinoeaeaiey
oeaee, a ionthaea – oa??i?enoe/aneea iioaioeee Aeaeaeaiey;

iai?eyoea iiiiceoeeiiiuo iiaiee, iai?eie?eiinoue e ae?oaei ia?oeyi,
aeaeaeaieyi;

eaeay naiaai iniaiai i?aaeiacia/aiey.

Oa??i? – eiae/aneia i?iaeieaeaiea oioaeeoa?iie i?iiaaaiaeu.

*aoaa?oue i?eciae – ainoaea?noaaiii i?aaieciaaiiue oa??i?, iniiaaiiue ia
iinoiyiiii e oioaeueiii ianeeee. Iniiaie oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia iiaeao
auoue oieueei anaiauay eiyeueiinoue a?aaeaeai, a iaania/aiee eioi?ie
oa??i? ea?aao ia iineaaeithth ?ieue, i?aaenoaaeyy niaie eiae/aneia
i?iaeieaeaiea oioaeeoa?iie i?iiaaaiaeu.

Ia?auaiiay ia e ?acoio, ii e /oanoaai oioaeeoa?iay i?iiaaaiaea ,
yaeyynue ii nooe ianeeeai iaae aeooii, iiaee?aieyaony ianeeeai
oece/aneei. Aeaieiie aiao ?aceaaaao ee/iinoue, aaneo aa iuneeoaeueiua
niiniaiinoe, inoaaeyy ianoi eeoue ii/oe iai?iecaieueiui ?aoeaenai
yiooceacia e no?aoa.

Oaeia aeaaeaiea ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaa eeeaeaee?oao ia oieueei ethaoth
iiiiceoeeth, ii e ethaoth iiiuoeo e eiaeiiuneeth.

Oa??i? iaian ia?iiiue oua?a iaoeee, i?aeoe/anee oie/oiaeea aa aaiioiiae:
i?aaenoaaeoaeae eioaeeeaaioeee, ethaeae iaoee oie/oiaeaee eae
ioiinyueony e ao?aeoacee, eae “nioeeaeueii-/oaeaeuo”.

I/aiue oi/ii iienae aoiinoa?o ainoaea?noaaiiiai oa??i?a N. Oeaaea:
“Nenoaiaoe/anee niaa?oainoaoaiue, aeaniioe/anee inouanoaeyaiue
ainoaea?noaaiiue oa??i? ia?aeecoao aieth ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea [ii/iia
iaeeaeaiea – a ca eai i?eoee? a ia ca iiie?-e ieeaeie iiiuoee e
nii?ioeaeaieth. ] , ineaaeyao e iiaeoa/eaaao anyeoth iauiinoue. Ii
auaaeaaony a aeooe, eae ecio?eoaeueiay aieaciue, e … anei?a anaiauay
o?oninoue noaiiaeony aio iiiiuieeii e i?eaaaeeuai, iioiio /oi, anee
eaaeaeue /oanoaoao naay iiaeic?aaaaiui, ii ia/eiaao iiaeic?aaaoue
ae?oaiai, a aiyceeaua ec-ca no?aoa aua e oi?iieeai iia?aaeatho i?eeacu e
cai?aou naiaai oe?aia. “. A aiyceeaui iiaeao noaoue i?aeoe/anee ethaie –
iaeacaiea ca iaaeiianaiea cae?aieaii caeiiiaeaoaeueii.

Yeiiiie/aneay aaoa?eey, ainoaea?noaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea e i?eioaeeoaeueiue
o?oae a oioaeeoa?iii ainoaea?noaa.

Iyoue i?eciae – yeiiiie/aneay aaoa?eey i?e aeanoeie ?aaeaiaioaoeee
yeiiiieee e nouanoaaiiie aeiea aiayeiiiie/aneeo oi?i i?eioaeaeaiey.

Iiyaeaiea oioaeeoa?iuo oaiaeaioeee a iauanoaaiiii ?acaeoee auei
iaoneiaeaii auoiaeii ?yaea no?ai ec iao?ea?oaeueiiai, oaiaeaeueiiai
ninoiyiey e aeeth/aieai eo a iiaoth nenoaio ainoaea?noa n ?acaeoie
yeiiiieeie. I?e yoii ?acaeaathueany ainoaea?noaa anooiaee a eiioeeeo n
oaea ?acaeouie, caieiay iiae/eiaiiia iieiaeaiea, iiaeiaiia iieiaeaieth
iieoeieiiee. Ionthaea no?aieaiea e yeiiiie/aneie aaoa?eee eae caeiaa
iacaaeneiicoe.

N oi/ee c?aiey aioo?aiiaai ?acaeoey oioaeeoa?iiio ?aaeeio oaeaea
o?aaiaaeanue aeanoei ?aaeaiaioe?iaaiiay, caieiooay ia ainoaea?noai
yeiiiie/aneay no?oeoo?a. Aieaa oiai, noiyuae o ?oeiaiaenoaa a?oiie?iaea
auea iaiaoiaeeia oaeay yeiiiie/aneay no?oeoo?a, eioi?ay ia i?inoi
caiueaeanue ia ainoaea?noai, ii a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaenaea io aiee
eeaea?ia.

Eiiioienoe/aneea aiaeaee , ene?aiia oaaaeaeaiiua a naiai ciaiee
yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia, n/eoaee, /oi iiaoo n iao/iie oi/iinoueth
oi?aaeyoue i?iecaiaenoaii.

A Aa?iaiee aaoie?aoe/aneay oi?ia aeanoe, iaaiaeyuay “aeaeaciie ?oeie”
“iiaue ii?yaeie” a no?aia, auea aeey iiiiiieee i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa
neiaeiiai iaoaiecia aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa.

E a Aa?iaiee, e a NNN? ia oa?iyuay ieeaeie iiiiceoeeiiiie i?aaiecaoeee
oioaeeoa?iay iieeoe/aneay no?oeoo?a, eioi?ay i?aeoe/anee naaea ia iao
?ieue i?ionithcia(eee iie neoaeeee i?oaeeai i?iiaaaiaeu), iicaieyea
yenieoaoe?iaaoue o?oae naiuie eciu?aiiuie niiniaaie.

AEanoeay oeaio?aeecaoeey e oa??i? iicaieyee a Aa?iaiee oanii naycaiiui n
?aaeeiii iiiiiieeyi ecaeaeaoue iaeneiaeueiua i?eauee i?e ieieiaeueiuo
ecaea?aeeao. A iiiiiieee aeaaiaea?y oeiainiaie iiiiue nicaeaaaee aeey
?oeiaiaenoaa oaoenoneiai ?aaeeia yeiiiie/aneoth aaco.

Oioaeeoa?iui oa?aeoa?ii nianoaaiiinoe, eae e neeoeii cia/eoaeueiie
?ieueth, eioi?oth a yeiiiieea ea?aea eaeaieiaey, iiaeii iauynieoue
iniaoth neooaoeeth n i?iecaiaeeoaeyie i?e eiiioiecia. Naiaiaea o?oaea a
Niaaoneii Nithca auea ia?aie/aia n?aco iinea ?aaiethoeee, a iieiinoueth
n iae auei iieii/aii a 1940 aiaeo.

Iinoiyiii eniieueciaaeenue o?oaeiaua eaaa?y, aaea a iieiie ia?a aue
eniieueciaai aieiae eae aaaeiaeoee noeioe e o?oaeo. A?aieoe iaaeaeo
eaaa?yie e oaa?e/iui o?oaeii i?aeoe/anee ia auei.

O?oaeiaua eaaa?y e ?aciiai ?iaea “aeia?iaieueiua” o?oaeiaua aeoeee,
iai?eia? noaaioieee , iaycaoaeueiua naa?oo?i/iua, yaeyeenue oyaeaeaeoae,
e?aeiae oi?iie ianaiaiaeiiai o?oaea. Iie iiaee eiaoue a?aiaiiue
oa?aeoa?, nai aea ianaiaiaeiue o?oae – yaeaiea i?e eiiioiecia
iinoiyiiia, a caaeneiinoe io iio?aaiinoae iiiaioa aieaa eee iaiaa y?ei
au?aaeaiiia.

?aaioiee aue iinoaaeai a oaeia iieiaeaiea, /oi naie oiaa? – ?aai/oth
neeo ii aeieaeai aue i?iaeaaaoue ia ia caaenyueo io iaai oneiaeyo aac
aiciiaeiinoe iaeoe ae?oaiai, eo/oaai ?aaioiaeaoaey.

Ia?oeeiay ath?ie?aoey, iiiiiieueii aeaaeay i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie,
inouanoaeyy iieeoe/aneoth aeeeoaoo?o, ia?aea i?aai aeeeoiaaoue ia eaeeo
e a eaeeo oneiaeyo ethaee aoaeoo o?oaeeoueny.

I?e oaeie nenoaia iaaiciiaeiu naiaiaeiua i?ionithcu, a
caaanoiaee-yaeaiea eneeth/eoaeueiia.

Ionoonoaea caaanoiaie eiiioienou iauyniyee oai, /oi ?aai/ee eeann yeiau
iaoiaeeony o aeanoe e iiin?aaeiaaiii – /a?ac “naia” ainoaea?noai e
“aaaiaa?ae” – EINN – yaeyaony nianoaaiieeii n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa:oaeei
ia?acii, caaanoiaee auee au iai?aaeaiu i?ioea iaai naiiai.

Ianoiyuay i?e/eia a oii, /oi ia?oath?ie?aoey ?aniieaaaea anaie ?ano?naie
(e aiia?aoii iiaeaaeaiey a oii /enea) e, aeaaiia, ?aai/ae neeie: ethaay
yooaeoeaiay aeoeey i?ioea iaa, anee iia ia iineo anaiauaai oa?aeoa?a,
auea o?oaeiiinouanoaeia.

Caaanoiaee – i?iaeaia nei?aa iieeoe/aneay , iaaeaee yeiiiie/aneay. A a
Niaaoneii Nithca i?iaeai iao: eiaiii aeey oiai /oiau ne?uoue eo,
i?iecioae ?anno?ae ie?iie aeaiiino?aoeee a Iiai/a?eannea a 1962 aiaeo.
Ia yoii ia ociaee au, anee a ia A.E.Nieaeaieoeui, ?anneacaaoee anaio
ie?o ia yoii.

Eae oieueei ana iaoa?eaeueiua aiaaonoaa auee nin?aaeioi/aiu a iaeieo
?oeao, aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue ieaie?iaaiey. Oeaio? oyaeanoe
ieaie?iaaiey a ethaie eiiioienoe/aneie nenoaia aue ia io?aneyo, eiathueo
?aoathuaa cia/aiea aeey iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe ?aaeeia. Eie auee
oyaeaeay e aiaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue; ei auei iiae/eiaii ana. Eae
neaaenoaea, aicieeaea iaecaaaeiay ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoue e ?acee/iua
ia?aeinu.

Eaeaieiae/aneea e iieeoe/aneea iioeau a aieueoae noaiaie, /ai eioa?anu
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee eae aaeeiiai oeaeiai, yaeyeenue aeaeaeouae
neeie eiiioienoe/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey.

Eiaiii yoe iioeau yaeyeenue aeiieie?othueie eaaeaeue ?ac, eiaaea ?aaeei
aeieaeai aue auae?aoue iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aneei i?ia?annii, o?iaiai aeecie
ia?iaea e naieie iieeoe/aneeie eioa?anaie.

Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaiey oioaeeoa?ecia.

A 30-45-o aiaeao i?aaei?eieiaeenue iiiai/eneaiiua iiiuoee auyaeoue
no?oeoo?ioth e ooieoeeiiaeueioth iauiinoue oioaeeoa?iuo aeeeoaoo? ia
iniiaa n?aaieoaeueiiai eco/aiey aieueoaaecia e oaoecia.

Ia?aui neaaeoao iacaaoue A. Ao?eaia(1931), aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey
naycaiu n eiaiaie I. Ea?ia?a(1935), O. Eiia(1935), E. Oaana(1940), O.
Ai?eaiao(1940) e N. Iieiaia(1942), a oaeaea Aeae. I?oyeea “Neioiue
aeai?”(1945) e E. ?. Iiiia?a “The open society and its enemies.
“(“Ioe?uoia iauanoai e aai a?aae”, 1945).

A yoi a?aiy i?ienoiaeeei ia?a?iaeaeaiea oaeeo ienaoaeae, eae O?aioe
Ai?eaiao, Aeeoi? Aieeaioe, A?oo? Eanoea?, Aeaei?aeae I?oyee e Eaianei
Neeiia, eioi?ua iiae aeeyieai iieeoeee niaaoneeo eiiioienoia ai a?aiy
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu a Eniaiee e oaao?aeeciaaiiuo noaeia a Niaaoneii
Nithca, a oaeaea iaeoa Aeoea?a ni Noaeeiui i?eoee e auaiaeo ia
iaeiioeiiinoe i?aeoeee ainiiaenoaa aieueoaaeeia e oaoenoia.

Aunoee ioieo ?acaeoey oai?ee oioaeeoa?ecia i?eoiaeeony ia 50-a aiaeu.
Ia/aeii yoie oacu iiaeii n/eoaoue ?iiai I?oyeea “1984” (1949), a aa
eiiaoe i?eoiaeeony ia na?aaeeio 60-o aiaeia.

E ?aaioai yoiai ia?eiaea ioiinyony o?oaeu O. A?aiaeo “I?ienoiaeaeaiea
oioaeeoa?ecia” (1951), Ae. E. Ooeeeia (1952), E. E. O?eae?eoa (1954 e
1957), C. E. Aaeaceineiai (1956), E. Ae. A?aoa?a (1957), A. Eaeaoao
(1958), O?eae?eoa e Aaeaceineiai “Oioaeeoa?iay aeeeoaoo?a e aaoie?aoey”
(1956), I. Ae?aooa (1958), O. Aoooaeia (1960 e 1962), ?. Eaaaioaey
(1960) e ?aeiiia A?iia “Aeaiie?aoey e oioaeeoa?eci” (1965).

Yoe ethaee ?anniao?eaaee oaiiiai oioaeeoa?ecia eaaeaeue ?ac naieie
iniauie iaoiaeaie:oeeinioee e “aaeeao?enoeee”, enoi?ee,
eiinoeoooeeiiiiai i?aaa, iieeoieiaee e nioeeieiaee.

?iiaiu Eanoea?a(“Neaiyuay oueia”) e I?oyeea, i?aaeaea anaai, eiia/ii,
“1984”, eioi?ue neeueiaa anao inoaeueiuo iiaeeye ia iauanoaaiiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i oioaeeoa?iuo aeeeoaoo?ao, a oaeaea ?iiai A. Caiyoeia
“Iu”(1920), iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae eiie?aoecaoeeth iaeiaai
eaeaaeueiiai oeia: iniaaiiinoe oioaeeoa?iuo aeeeoaoo? noaee iniiaie
iienaiey aeeciaiiuo naycae, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai nicaeaaony naouaiiue, ai
iiiaii oo?e?iaaiiue ia?ac-aioeooiiey, eioi?ay niioiineony n yiie?e/aneei
aiaeecii e iauyniaieai ?aaeueiie nenoaiu, eae ea?eeaoo?a n ii?o?aoii.

Ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua enneaaeiaaoaee eeai aeeee ia Caiaaea, eeai ooaea
yiea?e?iaaee.

O I. Aeaeeeana, aaoi?a ianeieueeeo enneaaeiaaiee i eiiioiecia, ec
eioi?uo iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiie yaeyaony “Iiaue eeann”, iaiau/iay
noaeueaa.

A ia/aea 1953 I. Aeaeeean noae iaeiei ec /aou?ao i?aceaeaioia iiaie
THaineaaee, a eiioea 1953 aiaea-i?aaenaaeaoaeai Nithciie ia?iaeiie
neoiueiu. Eiioeeeo n eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oeae e i?aaeoaeuenoaii o iaai
aiciee iinea oiai, eae ii ?acei aunooiee i?ioea i?aa?auaiey eiiia?oee
NO?TH a i?aayuee eeann e aa ii?aeueiiai ?aceiaeaiey.

A noaoueyo ii oi?aeae ?aaeei a ia?aoiaea ia noaeeineea iaoiaeu
oi?aaeaiey, noiye ca nicaeaiea aoi?ie nioeeaeenoe/aneie ia?oee,
auneacuaaeny i?ioea aiaoaoaeuenoaa ia?oee a ?aaioo i?aaiia i?aainoaeey.

A ia?oa 1954 aiaea I. Aeaeeean aue eneeth/ai ec ia?oee. Ca naie ,
cai?auaiiua a THaineaaee, eieae Aeaeeean inoaeaeaeny ia 3 e 9 eao
eeoaiey naiaiaeu.

“Iiaue eeann” – ?aciuoeaiey i eiiioienoe/aneii ?aaeeia a NNN? e
THaineaaee. A yoie eieaa Aeaeeean auaeaeaaao e ionoaeaaao oi/eo c?aiey,
/oi a 1917 aiaeo e aeanoe a NNN? i?eoae “iiaue eeann” – ia?oeeiay
ath?ie?aoey.

Eiy A. E. Nieaeaieoeuia auei oi?ioi ciaeiii iai e ?aiueoa, ii oaia?ue ii
i?eia?ae e oaaaeaiea n?aaee iieeoe/aneeo eeaea?ia iaoae no?aiu. A. E.
Nieaeaieoeui aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeye a naieo enneaaeiaaieyo
?ai?anneaiui i?aaiai, eiioeaio?aoeeiiiui eaaa?yi e oth?ueiai. A auaoai
Niaaoneii Nithca ia/aoaeenue oieueei aai ?anneacu – “Iaeei aeaiue Eaaia
Aeaieniae/a”, “Iao?aiei aeai?”, “Neo/ae ia noaioeee Oaiaoiaea”. Ca eieao
“A?oeiaeaa AOEAA” ii aue auneai ec no?aiu e ia oae aeaaii aa?ioeny.

E oioy ?acaeathony aieina, iiaeaa?aathuea niiiaieth enoi?e/aneoth
aeinoiaa?iinoue “A?oeiaeaaa”, iia eaaeaony, /oi 227 naeaeaoaeae e aaoi?,
ii /ueei naeaeaoaeuenoaai auea ninoaaeaia eieaa, oaaaeeoaeueii
aeieacuaatho aa.

ss n/eoath, /oi A. E. Nieaeaieoeui – iaeei ec aaeeeeo ethaeae OO aaea.

Caeeth/aiea. Auaiaeu. ?ieue iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a
oioaeeoa?ecia.

Iniiaiui niaea?aeaieai eceiaeaiiie caeanue eiioeaioeee yaeyaony oi, /oi
oioaeeoa?eci – yoi ia i?inoi oioaeueiue oeaio?aeeciaaiiue eiio?ieue ca
anaie i?iyaeaieyie iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

Iniiaiui iieacaoaeai oioaeeoa?ecia yaeyaony iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia
aeaeaeaiea , yae?i eioi?iai i?aaenoaaeaii iieeoe/aneie ia?oeae
oioaeeoa?iiai oeia.

Aeie ia?oey – iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
oaeoth neooaoeeth, eiaaea ia?oey aiaae?yaony ai ana noa?u iauanoaaiiie
aeecie e aa iiaeaea?aeeaaao aieueoay /anoue iaia?oeeiiai ianaeaiey.
Iiaeaea?aeea yoa io/anoe iaania/eaaaony e oa??i?ii.

Iineieueeo ia?oey yaeyaony i?aayuae e aaeeinoaaiiie, aeinoeaaaony YOOAEO
OIOAEEOA?IIAI AeAEAEAIEss, eiaaea ana ?aoaiey ia?oee /a?ac aa
?acaaoaeaiioth no?oeoo?o e iiaeaea?aeeaathuoth /anoue ianaeaiey
aeiaiaeyony aei anaai iauanoaa – “ii i?inueaa o?oaeyueony” – e
i?eieiathony e eniieiaieth iauanoaii eae “aiey oe?ieeo ia?iaeiuo iann”.

Oae aeinoeaaaony YOOAEO OIOAEEOA?ECIA, eiaaea aeanoue inouanoaeyao
eiio?ieue e i?iaiaeeo ana naie ?aoaiey io eiaie e ?oeaie naieo ia?iaeiuo
iann.

Ieceee o?iaaiue iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey i?e aunieeo oaiiao ?acaeoey
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee iiaeao i?eaanoe e onoaiiaeaieth
oioaeeoa?ecia. Iaeiaei oioaeeoa?eci – ooieeiaue aa?eaio ?acaeoey,
eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo eeai e eaoano?ioa, iai?eia? ?aca?iia a aieia, eeai, ii
ia?a ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, e ia?aoiaeo a noi?iio aeaiie?aoee
/a?ac aaoi?eoa?eci.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aeaeeean I. Eeoei oioaeeoa?ecia. //I. :”Iiainoe”, 1992.

Iaco?ia E. Oaoeci eae oi?ia oioaeeoa?ecia. //Iauanoaaiiua iaoee e
nia?aiaiiinoue, 1993, N 5.

Naiueeia O. A. Iieeoe/aneea ?aaeeiu. //Iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee.
//I. , 1994.

Caaeaaeei I. A. Oioaeeoa?eci e aeaiie?aoey:eiioeeeo aaea. //Eaioaa?,
1992, N 5-6.

Aaeeano?ai E. A. Aii?ee oai?ee oioaeeoa?ecia. //Aii?inu oeeinioee, 1992,
N 5.

Nieaeaieoeui A. E. A?oeiaeaa AOEAA, o. 1. I. , :Oeaio? “Iiaue ie?”-1990.

Oienoeeia A. N. ?aai/ee eeann e oioaeeoa?eci. //Nioeeieiae/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey, 1994, N 1.

Ea?eoeeee TH. E. Eiioeaioeee oioaeeoa?ecia: o?iee iiiaieaoieo aeeneonnee
ia Caiaaea. //Enoi?ey NNN?, 1990, N 6.

?aooie? I. TH. Iiaaeoea eiioeaioeee oaoecia a ao?aeoaciie enoi?eia?aoee
Caiaaea. I. 1979.

Aanniiia A. Oaoeci:eaeaieiaey e i?aeoeea. I. , 1985.

Oeaaea N. Niaanoue i?ioea ianeeey. Eanoaeeei i?ioea Eaeueaeia. I. ,
1985.

Aiciai E. , Yoeeiae A. Io eoeueoa aeanoe e eoeueoo ethaeae. Ineoieiaey
iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey. “Iaaa”, 1989, N7.

Ni. Ea?eoeeee TH. E. Eiioeaioeee oioaeeoa?ecia:o?iee iiiaieaoieo

aeeneonnee ia Caiaaea. //Enoi?ey NNN?, 1990, N 6.

Ni. Totalitarianism. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences. March 1953. Cambridge (Mass), 1954, p. 38.

Ni. Fridrich C. J. , Brzezinski Z. K. Totalitarian Dictatorship and
Autocracy. Cambridge(Mass), 1956, p. 58.

A. Eoi i?e aiaeeca oaoecia aaiaeeo iiiyoea “oioaeeoa?iiai iaeneioia”,
iiae eioi?ui iiae?acoiaaaaony aa?iaineee iaoeeiiae-nioeeaeeci. Ni.
?aooie? I. TH. Iiaaeoea eiioeaioeee oaoecia a ao?aeoaciie enoi?eia?aoee
Caiaaea. I. 1979, n. 22.

Ni. Nieaeaieoeui A. E. A?oeiaeaa AOEAA, o. 1. I. , :Oeaio? “Iiaue ie?”
– 1990, no?. 53.

Oai aea, no?. 220.

Ni. Aanniiia A. Oaoeci:eaeaieiaey e i?aeoeea. I. , 1985, n. 151.

Arendt H. The Origins of Totalitarianism, N. Y. , 1951, p. 19.

Arendt H. The Origins of Totalitarianism, N. Y. , 1951, p. 21.

Aiciai E. , Yoeeiae A. Io eoeueoa aeanoe e eoeueoo ethaeae. Ineoieiaey
iieeoe/aneiai niciaiey. “Iaaa”, 1989, N7, n. 172.

Oeaaea N. Niaanoue i?ioea ianeeey. Eanoaeeei i?ioea Eaeueae-

ia. I. , 1985, n. 360.

Ni. Nieaeaieoeui A. E. A?oeiaeaa AOEAA, o. 3. I. , :Oeaio? “Iiaue

ie?”-1990, no?. 385.

PAGE

PAGE 23

OEIAINIAAss AEAAeAIEss

I?E I?AAEOAEUeNOAA ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

EAOAAe?A IIEEOIEIAEE

?aoa?ao ia oaio :

“Oioaeeoa?eci: enoi?ey, i?e/eiu, enneaaeiaaiey ”

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

eaiaeeaeao oeeinioneeo iaoe aeioeaio Neana?aaa A.O.

Eniieieoaeue:

Nooaeaio O–1–2 Eueaia I.E.

Iineaa 1996

Iineaa 1996

Iiaeienue 1

Iiaeienue 2

Iiaeienue 3

Iiaeienue 4

Eniieieoaeue: Nooaeaio Eueaia

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue: eaiaeeaeao oeeinioneeo iaoe

aeioeaio Neana?aaa

?aoa?ao ia oaio :

“Oioaeeoa?eci: nouiinoue, oi?ia, eiie?aoiua i?eia?u ”

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