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Региональная политика России

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I. ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea ?innee:

eiioeaioeee, i?iaeaiu, ?aoaiey.

Ethaay iieeoeea – yoi oeaee e caaea/e, i?aneaaeoaiua e ?aoaaiua

ethaeueie a nayce n eo eiie?aoiuie eioa?anaie, a oaeaea iaoiaeu,

n?aaenoaa e einoeooou, n iiiiuueth eioi?ue aeaiiua eioa?anu oi?ie?o-

thony, ionoaeaathony e caueuathony.

?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeeie iiaeii n/eoaoue eeoue oaeoth nenoaio ia-

ia?aiee e aeaenoaee, eioi?ay ?aaeecoao eioa?anu ainoaea?noaa a io-

iioaiee ?aaeiiia e aioo?aiiea eioa?anu naieo ?aaeiiia iaoiaeaie e

niiniaaie, o/eouaathueie i?e?iaeo nia?aiaiiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?ioean-

nia, e eioi?ay inouanoaeyao ana yoi i?aeiouanoaaiii a no?oeoo?a

iaae- e aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiuo naycae.

?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea – yoi oeaeinoiia e naiiaeinoaoi/iia caa-

ii iieeoe/aneie iniiau iauanoaa, aac eioi?iai iineaaeiaa, a oaeaea

eaaeaeue /aeiaae a ioaeaeueiinoe e i?e?iaeiay n?aaea iiaoo eeoue neo/ae-

ii e aac aa?aioe?iaaiiiai oniaoa nouanoaiaaoue ia eaaeaeie eiie?ao-

iie oa??eoi?ee, inoaaaynue “iaaaeeia” n ainoaea?noaii, aai yeiiiie-

/aneie, aiaoiae, aioo?aiiae e eiie iieeoeeie.

Anyeay iieeoeea oi?ioa ianoieueei, ianeieueei ae oaeaaony iiae-

aea?aeeaaoue aaeain ?acee/iuo eioa?ania. ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea – ia

eneeth/aiea. Iia a oie ia?a iieeoeea e a oie ia?a yooaeoeaia, a

eaeie aeinoeaioo e noaaeeece?iaai eiii?iienn iaaeaeo ?aaeiiaeueiuie

eioa?anaie ainoaea?noaa e ianoiuie eioa?anaie naieo ?aaeiiia.

Iauaaeeieoaeueiie eaeaae e ainoaea?noaaiiie, e ianoiie ?aaei-

iaeueiie iieeoeee iiaeao e aeieaeia noaoue onoie/eainoue,
noaaeeueiinoue

iaae- e aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee.

Aaaeouei, aeeciaiii aaaeiui eioa?anii ?innee iuia noaei iaaeiio-

uaiea iaia?aoeiie oa??eoi?eaeueiie aeaceioaa?aoeee ainoaea?noaa.

Aeaaiui aea eioa?anii eaaeaeiai ?aaeiia – aeiee?iaaiea iaia?aoeiiai

?aniaaea noa?u, naaeaine?iaaiiinoue nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo, i?e-

?iaei?ano?niuo e eiuo ioiioaiee; iaania/aiea ia yoie iniiaa noa-

aeeueiiai e niaeaniaaiiiai ?acaeoey anao yeaiaioia eieaeeciaaiiie

noa?u, niioaaonoaothuaai iio?aaiinoyi /aeiaaea, iauanoaa e i?e?i-

aeu. I?e yoii iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi e?iia iauayeiiiie/aneiai, iaua-

nioeeaeueiiai e eiiai iauaai iioaioeeaea anoue iiuiue aioo?e?aaei-

iaeueiue iioaioeeae, eioi?ue iiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue eneeth/eoaeueii ia

ianoiii o?iaia – e yoi iaeia ec ia?aaeoeo caaea/ ?aaeiiaeueiie iiee-

oeee e naieo ?aaeiiia, e ainoaea?noaa.

?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea, iaia/aaiay e i?iaiaeeiay naieie ?aaei-

iaie, – yoi oi, /oi aeieaeii aeaeaoueny aeey niaeaniaaiiiai e acaeiii

ia?ac?ooathuaai ?acaeoey anao yeaiaioia i?ino?ainoaaiii eieaeeci-

aaiiie noa?u ia eiie?aoiie oa??eoi?ee e n o/aoii ianoiuo oneiaee.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea i?ecaaia iaania/eoue aeaanii-

niaiinoue ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee ia ianoao.

Iauaeo ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee – acaeiinayce e ioiioaiey iaaeaeo

?aaeiiaie.

Aeaaiue ?aaeiiaeueiue eioa?an ?innee a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeieaeai

auoue iniciai eae ieieiecaoeey iaaaoeaiuo i?iyaeaiee oa??eoi?eaeue-

iie aeaceioaa?aoeee ia o?iaia noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, eae iiaeaea?aeea

ianoiuo i?aia?aciaaiee, eae nicaeaiea iaua?inneeneeo oneiaee aeey

oiai, /oiau eaaeaeue noauaeo Oaaea?aoeee iaeneiaeueii eniieueciaae naie

aioo?aiiee iioaioeeae e ai ana iaiueoae ia?a i?aoaiaeiaae ia neoaeiua

aiciiaeiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiue.

Ianoiua eioa?anu ii?aaeaeythony iaania/aieai iieiie?iaiiai e

naaeaine?iaaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee /aeiaaea,

iauanoaa e i?e?iaeu, aa?aioe?iaaiea eo niaeaniaaiiiai aini?iec-

aiaenoaa ia aaca caaeaenoaiaaiey ?ano?nia e iieiiii/ee, ainoaea?n-

oaaiii i?eciaaaaiuo ianoiuie.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie iaoiaeaie ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee iiaeii n/e-

oaoue ?acuyniaiea aa niaea?aeaiey, niunea e i?aeoe/aneie iieuecu aeey

anao aac eneeth/aiey noi?ii, niaeaneoaeueii-aeiaiai?iua i?ioeaaeo?u n

?acaa?iooui cae?aieaieai oneiaee, iaania/eaathueo eioa?anu ?aaei-

iaeueiiai ?acaeoey, oi?ie?iaaiea niioaaonoaothuae i?aaiaie aacu.

Oieueei n niciaieai iauanoaaiiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aaeiiaeueiie

iieeoeee, n aa ?ac?aaioeie e ?aaeecaoeeae iiyaeony aiciiaeiinoue e

?aoaieth iaua?inneeneeo i?iaeai: ia/aaoaany oicyenoaaiiia iainia-

eaiea ?aaeiiia; ?aaeiiaeueiay noaa?aiecaoeey e eiio?iioaoeey a ioii-

oaieyo ?aaeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo? aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey n iauaainoaea?n-

oaaiiuie; iaoeeiiaeueii-yoie/aneia ?acaeoea e aeiiieieoaeueiia iai-

niaeaiea ii yoiio iiaiaeo, aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiua eiioeeeou nioeeaeueii-

ai e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a; oi?ie?iaaiea nianoaai-

iie ?aaeiiaeueiie ?ano?niie aacu nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acae-

oey; yeieiae/aneay noaaeeueiinoue e ae?oaea oneiaey onoie/eaiai ?ac-

aeoey ?aaeiiia (iniaaiii naaa?iuo oa??eoi?ee); auaeaeaiea e ooie-

oeeiie?iaaiea ?aaeiiia ni niaoeeoe/aneeie noaoonaie (naiaiaeiua yei-

iiie/aneea ciiu, oaaea?aeueiua io?aiyaiua oa??eoi?ee, ciiu yeieiae-

/aneiai aaaenoaey e o.i.) e ae?.

II. ?aaeii e oeaio?: i?iaeaiu acaeiiioiioaiee.

Acaeiiaeaenoaey ?aaeiiaeueiuo e oeaio?aeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe a

1992 – 1993 aiaeao ii?aaeaeyeenue a iniiaiii no?aieaieai oeaio?a e

nenoaiiiio ?aoi?ie?iaaieth yeiiiieee, a ?aaeiiia – e caueoa io

“iaaaoeaiuo” iineaaenoaee ?aoi?i. I?e yoii /anoue ?aaeiiia no?aie-

eanue iaeneiaeueii eniieueciaaoue aicieeathuea a i?ioeanna ?aoi?i aic-

iiaeiinoe aeey yeiiiie/aneiai i?iaeaeaeaiey, ae?oaay /anoue iuoaeanue

nei??aeoe?iaaoue naii iai?aaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey.

Yoe acaeiiaeaenoaey i?ioiaeyo a aanueia neiaeiie iieeoe/aneie

ianoaiiaea ioe?uoie eiio?iioaoeee i?eia?ii ?aaiuo ii iioaioeeaeueiui

aiciiaeiinoyi aaoaae aeanoe, a oneiaeyo ineaaeaiiinoe einoeoooia

iaoeeiiaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, aunieiai o?iaiy nioeeaeueiie iai-

?aaeaiiinoe, ia?aie/aiiie eiyeueiinoe neeiauo ainoaea?noaaiiuo

no?oeoo?. Eae ?acai?a/eaaeinue yoi i?ioeainoiyiea, eaeiaa aeeiaieea

acaeiiaeaenoaey oeaio?a e ?aaeiiia? Iniaay ino?ioa i?iaeaiu a oii,

/oi ai-ia?auo, ea/anoaaiii aeaeieciaiythony yeiiiie/aneea ioiioa-

iey, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony a ia/aea aeeeoaeueiiai yoaia noaiiaeaiey

?uiea; ai-aoi?uo, ea/anoaaiii iaiiaeythony e oaeaea iaoiaeyony ia

ia/aeueiii yoaia ia iaiaa aeeeoaeueiiai noaiiaeaiey oaaea?aeeci e

ianoiia naiioi?aaeaiea.

No?oeoo?ecaoeey aeanoe ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia o?aaeeoeeiiii

?anniao?eaaeinue eae i?iecaiaeiay i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeue-

iie e eniieieoaeueiie aa aaoayie.

Aaeieieno?aoeey I?aceaeaioa.

?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea oaaea?aeueiuo aeanoae a iiieiaiee i?ace-

aeaioneee no?oeoo? aeieaeia aeeth/aoue oaeea yeaiaiou, eae:

1) eiinoeoooeeiiiue i?ioeann (i?aaiaia ii?aaeaeaiea ioiioaiee

iaaeaeo noauaeoaie Oaaea?aoeee e oeaio?aeueiuie no?oeoo?aie, neiaieece-

?othueie Oaaea?aoeeth a oeaeii);

2) niaeaniaaiea eioa?ania oa??eoi?ee n ?acee/iui noaoonii

(iaoeeiiaeueiua ?anioaeeee – iaeanoe) e ?acee/iuo yoie/aneeo a?oii.

Yeiiiie/aneay ninoaaeythuay ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee ?anniao?eaaaony

i?aceaeaioneeie no?oeoo?aie nei?aa, eae n?aaenoai ?aoaiey, eae iie

n/eoatho, aeaenoaeoaeueiuo i?iaeai – nio?aiaiea oeaeinoiinoe aino-

aea?noaa e iiaeaea?aeaiea iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiie noaaeeueiinoe.

?aniaae Oaaea?aoeee ?anniao?eaaaony aaeieieno?aoeeae eae iinoiyi-

iay oa?ica. Aeey oaea?aeaiey iiae eiio?ieai oeaio?iaaaeiuo
oaiaeaioeee

aeaaiua oneeey iia iai?aaeyao ia niaethaeaiea aaciauo eiinoeoooeeii-

iuo i?eioeeiia (?aaiii?aaea noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee, aaeeinoai aino-

aea?noaaiiiai no?iy, ionoonoaea aioo?aiieo yeiiiie/aneeo a?aieoe).

Eneeth/eoaeueii neeiauie iaoiaeaie iaania/eoue niaethaeaiea yoeo i?ei-

oeeiia ia ?aaeueii, noaaea aeaeaaony ia ?ac?aaioeo e inouanoaeaiea

“iiaie ?aaeiiaeueiie no?aoaaee ?inneeneiai ainoaea?noaa”, iai?aa-

eaiiie ia i?aiaeieaiea aeeooa?aioeeaoeee ?aaeiiia ii o?iaith aeecie,

?acaeoea iaae?aaeiiaeueiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa, a oaeaea “ia?aoiae io oc-

eiyeiiiie/aneeo e aieaa oe?ieei – iauanoaaiiui e nioeeaeueiui oea-

eyi”.

?aaeenoe/iinoue iinoaiiaee oaeeo oeaeae aanueia niiieoaeueia.

Aaeeinoaaiiia, /oi iiaeii na?ueacii ianoaeaeaoue a eaeaieiae/aneeo iino-

?iaieyo i?aceaeaioneeo yenia?oia, – yoi iaiaoiaeeiinoue auno?iai ?a-

oi?ie?iaaiey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu n ?acaeaeaieai iaeiaiauo aac athaeaea-

oia ai?iaeia, ?aaeiiia e Oaaea?aoeee. Nio?oaeieee i?aceaeaioneie aaeie-

ieno?aoeee n/eoatho, /oi a yoii neo/aa “eaaeaeue o?iaaiue ainoaea?n-

oaaiiie aeanoe aoaeao ii-ianoiyuaio iacaaenei io ae?oaeo” (eiaiii

a yoii neo/aa aaeeinoai Oaaea?aoeee aoaeao niaethaeaoueny
iaoeinieoaeue-

ii). Aeey oe?aieaiey oaeiai aaeeinoaa iaia/aaony oaeaea iaania/eoue

i?ei?aoaoiia ?acaeoea aaeeiie eio?ano?oeoo?u e ieii/aoaeueii ?aca-

?aie/eoue oaaea?aeueioth e ?aaeiiaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue.

Iaeaieaa i?ioeai?a/eaa iiceoeey i?aceaeaioneie eiiaiaeu ioiine-

oaeueii ii?aaeaeaiey ?aaeueiiai noaoona ?aaeiiia. N iaeiie noi?iiu,

ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi ?aaeiiu ia yaeythony noauaeoaie yeiiiie/aneeo

ioiioaiee, n ae?oaie – /oi ?aaeiiu iaeaaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiuie iieiiii-

/eyie a ?aaoee?iaaiee yeiiiie/aneiai iiaaaeaiey ia eo aaeieieno?a-

oeaiie oa??eoi?ee. Aiciiaeiue auoiae ec oaeiai eiioeeeoiiai iieiaea-

iey aeaeeony a nicaeaiee Oaaea?aeueiiai oiiaea ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey,

i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia iiaeaea?aeeo yeiiiie/aneeo aeai?anneaiuo ?aaeiiia

e oi?ie?oaiiai ca n/ao oa??eoi?eaeueiie ?aiou, ecuiaaiie a aieaa

aeaaii?eyoiuo ?aaeiiao.

I?aaeoaeuenoai.

A ioee/ea io i?aceaeaioneie aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua

no?oeoo?u a ea/anoaa i?ei?aoaoiuo oeaeae ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee

auaeaeaatho a iniiaiii yeiiiie/aneea. Eeth/aaui yeaiaioii oaeie ii-

eeoeee yaeyaony i?aaeinoaaeaiea ?aaeiiai i?aa ia onei?aiiia ?aoi?-

ie?iaaiea yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee ?aaee nei?aeoaai i?aiaeieaiey

e?ecena ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea.

I?aaeoaeuenoai oaeaea caieiaao aieaa aeanoeoth iiceoeeth ioiine-

oaeueii i?aoaicee ?aaeiiaeueiuo aeanoae ia ?oeiaiaenoai aeayoaeue-

iinoueth yeiiiie/aneeo noauaeoia.

?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa, aeiee?iaaia iaaeaaaeiin-

oaaiiuie i?ioeai?a/eyie.

A eoiai ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeee naaeanue e ?ac?aoaieth iaaeiaoeei-

iaeueiuo i?iaeai

Ianiio?y ia i?aaeiieiaeaiea i oii, /oi iiaua no?oeoo?u i?aaen-

oaaeoaeueiie aeanoe ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia noaioo eiaaenoneeie ia-

oeiaie ?aaeiiaeueiie aaeieieno?aoeee, iiea /oi iao iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey oa-

eei iianaieyi.

Ainoaea?noaaiiay aeoia ioee/aaony eiaae?iaaieai eioa?ania io-

aeaeueiuo io?aneae ( a iniiaiii AIE, OYE e oeiainiaua no?oeoo?u).

Niaao Oaaea?aoeee ana aeoaaea oaycaao a ?acae?aoaeuenoaa iaaeiaoeei-

iaeueiuo i?iaeai. *anoe/ii yoi iauyniyaony niaeaneai eniieieoaeue-

iuo no?oeoo? ia naiaai ?iaea ?acaeaeaiea noa? aeeyiey e ioaaonoaai-

iinoe.

Ionoonoaea neii?aeeie?iaaiiie ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee iaoneia-

eaii ia oieueei aioo?aiieie i?ioeai?a/eyie oaaea?aeueiuo aeanoae, ii

e ionoonoaeai aeaaeaiey ni noi?iiu ?aaeiiia. N iaeiie noi?iiu, oa-

aea?aeueiui aeanoyi oaeaeinue oaa?eoue ?aaeiiaeueiua yeeou a naiae ai-

oiaiinoe e eiii?iiennai ii eiie?aoiui aii?inai (/oi nieceei o?i-

aaiue i?aoaicee ia iauaa eciaiaiea eo?na), n ae?oaie – i?iecioee

nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a ianoiuo yeeo. Iieiaeaiea io?an-

eaauo yeeo a ?aaeiiao ineaaei a nayce n i?iaeieaeathueiny yeiiiie-

/aneei niaaeii e i?eaaoecaoeeae, iaiythueie “noaooniua aana” o/ano-

ieeia. Io?aneaaua i?iaeaiu oaeoe/anee noaiiayony i?iaeaiaie ?aae-

iiia, iaeiaei i?e yoii ia i?aa?auathony a ?aaeiiaeueiua ii e?aeiae

ia?a a niciaiee i?aayueo yeeo. ?oeiaiaeeoaee ?aaeiiia iaaniieiaiu

iaaniieiaiu i?iaeaiaie eieaeueiuo ?uieia o?oaea, iaieaoaaeae e e?e-

cenii nauoa ia ianoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, iaeiaei n/eoatho, /oi eieaeueii

aeaiiua i?iaeaiu ?aoaiu auoue ia iiaoo.

89 aaeieieno?aoeaiuo oa??eoi?ee a ?aieao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

aeeth/atho 55 iaeanoae e e?aaa, aeaa ai?iaea oaaea?aeueiiai iiae/eiaiey

(Iineaa e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a), 21 ?anioaeeeo e 11 aaoiiiiiuo oa??e-

oi?ee.

Niaeanii iiaie eiinoeoooeee, ?anioaeeee iieuecothony ii?aaeaeai-

iuie i?eaeeaaeyie, /oi neoaeeo enoi/ieeii iaaeiaieuenoaa ni noi?iiu

ae?oaeo noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee. *anoi ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi ?anioaeeee

eiatho i?eaeeaae?iaaiiia iieiaeaiea i?e inouanoaeaiee athaeaeaoiie ii-

eeoeee e /oi eo i?aaa ii eiio?ieth ca eniieueciaaieai i?e?iaeiuo ?a-

no?nia i?aauoatho aiaeiae/iua iieiiii/ey inoaeueiuo ?aaeiiia.

Oaaea?aoeaiue aeiaiai? 1992 aiaea, ia eioi?ii iainiiauaaaony

?acaeaeaiea i?aa e iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiuie e aieaa ieceeie

aaeieieno?aoeaiuie o?iaiyie, yaeyaony ia/aoeei e i?ioeai?a/eaui a

/anoe, eanathuaeny eiio?iey ca i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie; e oiio aea oio

oaeo, /oi aieueoeinoai ?anioaeee aaaeiaa iiiaeo iaeanoae e e?aaa,

iia au a i?eioeeia iauynieoue ?acee/ioth no?oeoo?o aeaeaeaiey
athaeaeao-

iuo n?aaenoa iaaeaeo oeaio?ii e ?aaeiiaie. Aiciiaeii, iaeaieaa nouano-

aaiiia i?aeiouanoai ?anioaeee a ioiioaieyo n oeaio?ii ninoieo a

oii, /oi ia ieo ?ani?ino?aiyaony iieiaeaiea i oeaio?aeeciaaiiii

iacia/aiee i?aceaeaioii ?O aoaa?iaoi?ia (aeaa aaeieieno?aoeee).

A oi a?aiy eae a 1992-1993 aiaeao ?aoi?ienoneia e?uei ?in-

neeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ai?ieinue n o?aaeeoeeiiaeenoaie a ia?eaiaioa

e a naiii i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iii oaeaea iaoiaeeeinue a eiioeeeoa n ?aae-

iiaeueiuie yeeoaie e auai?iuie ?aaeiiaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe. In-

iiaiie eiioeeeo ?acai?a/eaaeny ia noieueei ii iiaiaeo i?eaaoecaoeee

eee ioe?uoey yeiiiieee aiaoiaio ie?o, noieueei a ioiioaiee aeaoo

aaciauo yeaiaioia yeiiiie/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee: noaaeeecaoeee e ee-

aa?aeecaoeee oeai.

Iiceoeeth iiiaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae ianoiie yeeou – auaoea ?aaio-

ieea aiia?aoa, eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee, aee?aeoi?a e?oiiuo i?aaei-

?eyoee, ainiiaenoaothuea ia i?iaeioeeaeueiie iieeoe/aneie a?aia –

iiaeii au?aceoue oae: “Noaaeeecaoeey, ii ia ia iiae oa??eoi?ee”.

Ianoiua iieeoe/aneea ?oeiaiaeeoaee a ?innee ieacuaatho aeaaeaiea ia

oeaio? n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey aeioaoeee i?iecaiaeeoaeyi a naieo ?aaeiiao

e neeiiiu iooyaeaaoue ia/aei no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee a ieo.

Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ?aciua ?aaeiiu aeieaeiu auee au i?iai-

aeeoue ?acee/ioth yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo, io?aaeathuoth enoiaeiua
o?iaie

eo ?acaeoey e iaee/ea ?ano?nia, ia?niaeoeau aaeaioaoeee e ?uii/iie

yeiiiieea, a oaeaea iieeoe/aneea i?aaeii/oaiey ianoiuo ?oeiaiaeeoa-

eae. A ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie yoe ?acee/ey nouanoaotho, oioy aucuaa-

thuea eo eiie?aoiua oaeoi?u ia aiieia i/aaeaeiu.

A oiaea noaoenoe/aneiai aiaeeca oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia oaiiu

iaeie i?eaaoecaoeee a 77 ?aaeiiao ?innee a 1992 aiaeo, auei iaia?o-

aeaii, /oi noaoenoe/anee cia/eiuie ieacaeenue eeoue ?acee/iua iiee-

oe/aneeo i?eaioaoeee ianoiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e oaeaeueiue aan ia?onn-

eeo ai anai ianaeaiee. Aeeyiea ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia ieacaeinue iacia/e-

oaeueiui. Yoi aea ni?aaaaeeeai a ioiioaiee eiaeaena ?aaeiiaeueiie ca-

aeneiinoe io oaeeo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eae iaoaeeo?aey e ia-

oeiino?iaiea, eioi?ua, eae n/eoaaony, na?ueacii “no?aaeatho” io ?a-

oi?i. A ethaii neo/aa ?acee/ey a ioiioaiee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia ianoao

e i?iaiaeeiui i?aia?aciaaieyi eiatho ia?aie/aiiia aeeyiea, iineieue-

eo eeoue i/aiue iaaieueoia eiee/anoai aaeieieno?aoeaiuo oa??eoi?ee

aicaeaaeytho ianoiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee n onoiyaoaeny ?aiooaoeeae noi?ii-

ieeia ?aoi?i. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi ai?iaea Iineaa, naieo-iaoa?-

ao?a, Ieaeaai?iaeneay, a oaeaea Aieaia?aaeneay iaeanoe.

Anoanoaaiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi athaeaeaoiua ia?a/eneaiey
iaaeaeo

?aciuie o?iaiyie oi?aaeaiey ?innee oa?aeoa?ecothony nouanoaaiiuie

?acee/eyie. Oi?iaeueii eiaao ianoi i?ioeann “aeaeaaea nieco aaa?o”, a

oiaea eioi?iai i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii noaiaea?oiua (iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua)
aei-

ee aeioiaeia io ioaeaeueiuo iaeiaia, nia?aiiuo ia ianoiii o?iaia, ia-

?aaeathony oeaio?o, a caoai ia?a?ani?aaeaeythony ec oeaio?a a ?aaeiiu.

Oeiainiaua iaoaieciu ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee naaiaeiy yaeythony

iiuiaeoei ?u/aaii aa aeaenoaeoaeueiiai noaiiaeaiey.

III. ?aaeiiaeueiay athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaay nenoaia

?aaeiiaeueiay athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaay nenoaia – yoi iainiaeaiiay

/anoue niioaaonoaothuae ainoaea?noaaiiie nenoaiu, naycaiiay n iin-

eaaeiae aaiaoe/anee e no?oeoo?ii. Iia ninoaaeyao eiaiii /anoue oea-

eiai (iiea nouanoaoao oeaeinoiinoue ainoaea?noaa), ii-naiaio io?aaeay

niioiioaiea oeaio?aeecaoeee e aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee, aaeain oeaio?iaaaeiuo

e oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiuo oaiaeaioeee. ?aaeiiaeueiay
athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaay

nenoaia – neiaie e aa?aio ?aaeiiaeueiie ineaaeaiiinoe, iacaaene-

iinoe, naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. Ionthaea ooaa?aeaeaiey oeia “neeueiue (eee

iacaaeneiue) athaeaeao – neeueiua (eee iacaaeneiua) ?aaeiiu”.

?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua nenoaiu – ii?iaeaeaiea e ?a-

coeueoao oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa.

Athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua nenoaiu ?aaeiiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ae-

eoioee?otho ieiei iieiaeiu anao athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiauo iioieia aino-

aea?noaa, n aanueia caiaoiuie eieaaaieyie a /anoe ?anoiaeia e aeioi-

aeia. Oae, ii aeaiiui Aineiinoaoa ?innee a ia?aii iieoaiaeee 1993

aiaea a iaueo aeioiaeao ia aeieth oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa
i?eoiaeeeinue

48%, athaeaeaoa oa??eoi?ee – 52% (a 1992 a.- niioaaonoaaiii 44 e

56%). A ?anoiaeao oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao caieiae 53%, athaeaeao
oa??eoi-

?ee 47% (61 e 39% a 1992 a.).

A iniiaa ?aaeiiaeueiie athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaie nenoaiu eaaeeo ?aae-

iiaeueiua athaeaeaou, ?aaeiiaeueiua iaeiae, nai?u, eueaiou, aeioaoeee
e

noaaaioeee, a oaeaea ?aaeiiaeueiua oeiainiaua e iaeiaiaua ioiioaiey

n “oeaio?ii” e ?aaea n ae?oaeie oa??eoi?eaeueiuie o?iaiyie. Ii yea-

iaioiiio ninoaao ?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua nenoaiu aiaei-

ae/iu iauaainoaea?noaaiiui, ioee/aynue oieueei ioiioaieyie. Iai?e-

ia?: iaeiae e nai?u, aeioaoeee e noaaaioeee i?enoonoaotho a iaieo

neo/ayo, ii ainoaea?noai eo iacia/aao, onoaiaaeeaaao, oiaaea eae

?aaeiiu n oie eee eiie noaiaiueth naiaiaeu i?eieiatho eo e eniieiaieth

e eniieueciaaieth. ?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua nenoaiu ninoiyo

ec ianeieueeeo ?aaeiiaeueiuo iiaenenoai ?aciiai o?iaiy, i?e ea?a?oe-

/aneii iino?iaiee oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaa (iai?e-

ia?:anee ianaeaiiue ioieo aoiaeeo a ninoaa ?aeiia, ?aeii – iaean-

oe, e o.ae.) iaaeaeo yoeie iiaenenoaiaie aicieeatho
athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua

ioiioaiey, ai iiiaii aiaeiae/iua ioiioaieyi oeia “ainoaea?noai-?a-

aeii”.

?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua nenoaiu nicaeathony e ?aoi?ie-

?othony aeey auiieiaiey ianeieueeeo acaeiinaycaiiuo ooieoeee, n?aaee

eioi?ue neaaeothuea:

1) Cae?aieaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ii?yaeea aeaeaeaiey athaeaeaoii-iaei-

aiauo iioieia, ii o?iaiyi oa??eoi?eaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaa

(iai?aaeaiea yoeo iioieia, i?iii?oeee eo ?acaeaeaiey, oeaeaaia iac-

ia/aiea e o.ae.) e aaeaeaaoiuo i?ioeaaeo? ?aaoee?iaaiey aicieeathueo

ii yoiio iiaiaeo ioiioaiee.

2) Aeeoioee?iaaiea e eniieueciaaiea a iaua?aaeiiaeueiuo oeaeyo:

n?aaenoa, ia?aciaaiiuo ia naiie oa??eoi?ee e iinooiathueo a ?aaei-

iaeueiua athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua nenoaiu iieiinoueth e iaeiieaiaeueii
(oa-

eiai aieueoeinoai ianoiuo iaeiaia, oo?aoia e eiuo oeiainiauo naie-

oeee), aiaeiae/ii ia?aciaaiiuo n?aaenoa, iinooiathueo a yoe nenoaiu

/anoe/ii, a niioaaonoaee n i?eiyoui ii?yaeeii eo ?ani?aaeaeaiey

iaaeaeo athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiauie nenoaiaie ?aciiai o?iaiy (iai?eia?

“iaooyiua aeaiueae”). *anoue n?aaenoa, aeeoioee?oaiuo a auoanoiyuae

athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaie nenoaia, ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaony ii oai eee eiui

niia?aaeaieyi a iieueco iaaeanoiyueo ?aaeiiaeueiuo nenoai (aeioaoeee e

noaaaioeee, a oaeaea /anoue “ianoiuo n?aaenoa”, ii ?ac?aoaieth auoan-

oiyueo nenoai ei ia ia?a/eneaiiay).

3) Auiieiaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey

naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo e eniieieoaeueiuo iieiiii/ee n niaethaeaieai

o?aaiaaiee oi?iaeueiie oeiainiaie iacaaeneiinoe eo iieeoeee io au-

oanoiyueo o?iaiae.

4) Niiiiaania/aiea aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiuo nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii,

o.a. athaeaeaoiia oaeiaeaoai?aiea /anoe iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey a ii-

?aaeaeaiiuo aeeciaiiuo aeaaao e ?aaeecaoeee aai iaoeeiiaeueii-yoie/an-

eeo eioa?ania. Ianiio?y ia ana aieueooth naiiaeinoaoi/iinoue ianaea-

iey e eiiia?oeeaeecaoeeth nioeeaeueiie noa?u, aeiey noieiinoe niioaaon-

oaothueo oneoa, oeiaine?oaiuo /a?ac eaiaeu ?aaeiiaeueiuo athaeaeao-

ii-iaeiaiauo nenoai, aeinoeaaao /aoaa?oe e noiia aeioiaeia ianaeaiey

?innee (ca au/aoii iaeiaia).

5. Oi?ie?iaaiea eio?ano?oeoo?iiai ea?eana oa??eoi?ee (io?an-

ee “ianoiiai oicyenoaa”, ianoiua aei?iae e o?ainii?o e o.i.) eae

aaaeiaeoaai enoiaeiiai oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey e iiaeaea?aeaiey aioo?e?a-

aeiiaeueiuo naycae.

6. ?aaoee?iaaiea ninoiyiey e eniieueciaaiey i?e?iaeii-?ano?n-

iiai e yeieiae/aneiai iioaioeeaea (caiey, iaae?a, eana, aiaeu, oei?a

e oaoia, aicaeooiue aannaei) eae anoanoaaiiiai aacena nouanoaiaa-

iey e ?acaeoey oa??eoi?ee.

7. Noeioee?iaaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaiiinoiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?e-

aioe?ia ianaeaiey, nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey aai aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe,

aeey no?oeoo?iuo i?aia?aciaaiee, aeey eiaanoeoeeiiiie i?eaeaeaoaeue-

iinoe e o.ae. Yoi aii?in ia oieueei iioaioeee oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?ac-

aeoey, ii e aoaeouaai athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaiai aeaaiiieo/ey.

?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua nenoaiu ai anao no?aiao –

o?aaeeoeeiiiue iauaeo anaiauaai iaaeiaieuenoaa e e?eoeee. Iniiaiia

o?aaiaaiea e athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaie nenoaia – o?aaiaaiea oeaeaaie ?a-

aeiiaeueiie i?eaioaoeee ?anniao?eaaaiuo nenoai, aac eioi?ie iie

i?aa?auathony a ieaeiee o?iaaiue oioaeeoa?ii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai athae-

aeaoii-iaeiaiaiai oicyenoaa.

Iaeii ec nouanoaaiiuo iai?aaeaiee ?acaa?ouaaiey ?inneeneeo

?aoi?i, caiouaiiuo n 1993 aiaea, aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey a noa?a aioo?eai-

noaea?noaaiiuo oeiainiauo ioiioaiee. ia/aeinue oi?ie?iaaiea iaeiaai

iniiaaiiiai ia ea/anoaaiii iiauo i?eioeeiao athaeaeaoiiai nithca Oaaea-

?aoeee (aa noauaeoia e aaeieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aaeeieoe).

?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea anaai i oii, /oi athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua ioiioaiey

“oeaio?a” e ?aaeiiia ana a aieueoae ia?a noaee ii?aaeaeyoueny caeiiii

e aeiiieieoaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaoueny a ?aaeeia aeeaeiaa. Iuooeii oneee-

aaaony ioaaonoaaiiinoue ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?aaiia aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey

ca iai?aaeaiey ?anoiaeiaaiey oeiainiauo n?aaenoa (iniaaiii a nioee-

aeueiie noa?a), aa?aioe?othony iiaua athaeaeaoiua i?aaa yoeo i?aaiia e

iiyaeythony iiaua enoi/ieee iinooieaiee a ?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaou.

A ianoa n oai i?ia?aiia i?aia?aciaaiey iaeiaiai-oeiainiauo

ioiioaiee ii ?yaeo eeth/aauo iiceoeee yaii ia aei?aaioaia; iaeioi?ua

aa iieiaeaiey i?ioeai?a/ao ae?oa ae?oao, iiiaea inoathony ino?iaeen-

eonneiiiuie. Iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii neaaeeoue ca oai, /oiau ecae?aa-

iua niiniau ?aoaiey naaiaeiyoieo caaea/ (a o./. aioeeioeyoeeiiiuo e

naycaiiuo n nie?auaieai athaeaeaoiiai aeia?aeaoeoeeoa) oae eee eia/a

oi?ie?othuea eiioo?u noaiiayueony athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiauo nenoai, ia

aeiee?iaaee au ?aaeecaoeeth oeaeae aeieaia?aiaiiuo oeaeae ?aaeiiaeueiie

iieeoeee.

Aiaeiae/iua niia?aaeaiey iiaeii auneacaoue e ii iiaiaeo ii?ia-

oeaii-i?aaiaie aacu iiauo iaeiaiai-athaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee. Yoa aaca

oieueei neeaaeuaaaony e iiea i/aiue aeaeaea io niioaaonoaey i?eioeeie-

aeueiui o?aaiaaieyi oeaeinoiinoe, iieiiou e iai?ioeai?a/eainoe; iia

iai?a?uaii ia?aniao?eaaaony e ei??aeoe?oaony, oae /oi iaeaieaa

aeaeaoaeueiia aa ea/anoai – noaaeeueiinoue – iiea inoaaony iaaeinooi-

iui.

“Inoia” ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaie aacu ia?acotho Eiinoeoooeey ?in-

neeneie Oaaea?aoeee, a oaeaea caeiiu “Ia iniiaao athaeaeaoiiai ono?ien-

oaa e athaeaeaoiiai i?ioeanna a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”, “Ia iniiaao

iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”, “Ia iniiaao athaeaeaoiuo

i?aa e i?aa ii oi?ie?iaaieth e eniieueciaaieth aiaathaeaeaoiuo oiiaeia

i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo e eniieieoaeueiuo i?aaiia ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe

?anioaeee, a ninoaaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, aaoiiiiiie iaeanoe,

aaoiiiiiuo ie?oaia, e?aaa, iaeanoae, ai?iaeia Iineau e Naieo-Ia-

oa?ao?aa, i?aaiia ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey”. Iiiai/eneaiiua i?aai-

aua ii?iu, ?aaoee?othuea athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaua ioiioaiey a ?aaeiiaeue-

iii ?ac?aca niaea?aeaony e a ?inneeneeo caeiiao “I e?aaaii, iaeano-

iii Niaaoa ia?iaeiuo aeaiooaoia e e?aaaie, iaeanoiie aaeieieno?a-

oeee”, “I ianoiii naiioi?aaeaiee a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”.

Iniaia ianoi a iaoaiecia i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey acaeiiaeaen-

oaey athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiauo nenoai ia oaaea?aeueiii e noaoaaea?aeueiii

o?iaiyo caieiaao Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee “I noaaaioeeyo ?anioa-

eeeai a ninoaaa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, e?ayi, iaeanoyi, aaoiiiiiie

iaeanoe, aaoiiiiiui ie?oaai, ai?iaeai Iineaa e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?oa”,

a eioi?ii onoaiiaeaiu i?aaiaua iniiau ieacaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiie

oeiainiaie iiiiue ?aaeiiai – noauaeoai Oaaea?aoeee. Aaaeiaeoea eiee-

/anoaaiiua i?iii?oeee a athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiauo acaeiiioiioaieyo “oeaio-

?a” e ?aaeiiia ?innee ii?aaeaeytho aaeaaiaeii i?eieiaaiua caeiiu ?in-

neeneie Oaaea?aoeee i athaeaeaoa ia i/a?aaeiie oeiainiaue aiae.

I?iaeaia acaeiiioiioaiey ?aciio?iaiaauo athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiauo

nenoai eiaao a oneiaeyo ?inneeneie yeiiiieee aeaa aniaeoa. N iaeiie

noi?iiu ?anniao?eaathony acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiui
athaeaea-

oii e athaeaeaoaie noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, – oeiaini-

aua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo i?aaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey Oaaea?a-

oeee e no?oeoo?aie ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey.

A iauai neo/aa i?aaiecaoeey a ?innee oeiainiauo acaeiiioiioa-

iee iaaeaeo athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiauie nenoaiaie ?acee/iuo o?iaiae o?aaoao

?aoaiey o?ao acaeiinaycaiiuo aii?inia.

1 – ii eaeei i?eioeeiai aeieaeia auoue ?ani?aaeaeaia iaaeaeo ?acii-

o?iaiaauie i?aaiaie aeanoe e oi?aaeaiey ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ino-

uanoaeaieai niioaaonoaothueo ?anoiaeia.

2 – eae iaiaoiaeeii ?ani?aaeaeeoue enoi/ieee aeioiaeia aeey iie?u-

oey oeacaiiuo ?anoiaeia?

3 – naycai n oai, /oi ?anoiaeiua noaouee athaeaeaoia e oeiainiaua

iinooieaiey iau/ii ia niaiaaeatho ii iauaio.

Iaeia ec aeaaiuo i?e/ei iiaeaea?aeaiey e onoaoaeaiey ino?iou ne-

ooaoeee ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeieo 2-o eao – ionoonoaea aaeeinoaa aca-

eiiioiioaiee athaeaeaoia ?aciuo o?iaiae, ia?anoaiea i?ioeanna eiaeeae-

aeoaeecaoeee athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiauo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo Oaaea?aoeeae e
noau-

aeoaie. I?iaeaia a ionoonoaee yniuo, iainiiaaiiuo e iauai?eciai-

iuo e?eoa?eaa e i?ioeaaeo?, i?eiaiyaiuo a ?aieao iauae iieeoeee

aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiie ia?aaea/e n?aaenoa. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ii?iae-

aeaei o ?aaeiiia iinoiyiiia iuouaiea iani?aaaaeeeainoe, canoaaeyei

iiaeic?aaaoue oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu a i?iaaaeaiee i?ioaeoeeiienoneie ii-

eeoeee a ioiioaiee oao eee eiuo ?aaeiiia, aucuaaei iaino?aiea

iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee e naia?aoenoneeo iano?iaiee. Iaiain-

iiaaiiue aeenaaeain a ioiioaieyo ?inneeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa n ?aae-

iiaie, eanathueony iaeiaiauo io/eneaiee a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao e

i?aaeinoaaeaiey ec iaai aeioaoeee oa??eoi?eyi, ni?iaioee?iaae oacen

“i ia?aaiii?aaiinoe noauaeoia Oaaea?aoeee”. Iiyaeeenue aeaaea ?acee/-

iua eo eeanneoeeaoeee, aace?oaiua ia n?aaiaiee ?aaeiiia ii o?iaith

athaeaeaoiie iaania/aiiinoe, iauaiai ieaoaaeae a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao
e

aeioaoeeyi ec iaai. Iaeei ec aeinoaoi/ii e?anii?a/eauo aa?eaioia

a?oiie?iaee ?aaeiiia ii yoei ia?aiao?ai i?eaaaeai a oaaeeoea.

Iaania/aiiinoue oa??eoi?eaeueiuo athaeaeaoia a 1992 aiaeo

——————————————-T———T———T——–
¬

¦ ¦ “Iiaua” ¦ “Noa?ua”¦ E?ay,
¦

¦ ¦aaoiiiiee¦aaoiiiiee¦
iaeanoe¦

+——————————————+———+———+——–
+

¦1. Athaeaeaoiay iaania/aiiinoue ii aeioiaeai,% ¦ 186-203 ¦ 132-138 ¦
90-91 ¦

+——————————————+———+———+——–
+

¦2. Athaeaeaoiay iaania/aiiinoue ii ?anoiaeai,% ¦ 207 ¦ 133 ¦
90 ¦

+——————————————+———+———+——–
+

¦3. Iauai oaaea?aeueiuo aeioaoeee, noaaaioeee e ¦ 330 ¦ 183 ¦
77 ¦

¦athaeaeaoiuo nnoae ia iaeiiai aeeoaey,% io n?aae-¦ ¦ ¦
¦

¦iaai o?iaiy ¦ ¦ ¦
¦

+——————————————+———+———+——–
+

¦4. Ia?a/eneaii a athaeaeao ?O,% io eoiaiauo ¦ 11 ¦ 19 ¦ 91
¦

¦aeioiaeia oa??eoi?eaeueiuo athaeaeaoia ¦ ¦ ¦
¦

L——————————————+———+———+——–

Ec aeaiiuo oaaeeoeu oi?ioi aeaeia noaiaiue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiinoe

athaeaeaoiie iaania/aiiinoe ii aeioiaeiie e ?anoiaeiie /anoyi oa??eoi-

?eaeueiuo athaeaeaoia ?aciuo ?aaeiiia ?innee. E yoiio neaaeoao aeiaa-

aeoue, /oi ia aaoiiiiiua ia?aciaaiey, aaea i?iaeeaaao eeoue 14% iana-

eaiey ?innee, ieaie?iaaeinue auaeaeeoue 50% io noiiu anao oaaea?aeue-

iuo aeioaoeee ?aaeiiai.

Aaconeiaii, oeneaeueiia au?aaieaaiea ii ?aaeiiai ?innee aua

aeieaia a?aiy inoaiaony iauaeoeaiie e aeooaeueiie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth.

IV. Acaeiiaeaenoaea athaeaeaoia

O?aaeeoeeiiii nouanoaoao o?e iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth i?ia-

eaiu ?acaeaeaiey athaeaeaoia. Ia?aue ec ieo i?aaeiieaaaao aaaaeaiea

?acee/ee ii eaoaai?eyi iaeiaia. Ia eaaeaeii ec o?ao o?iaiae (Oaaea-

?aoeey, ?aaeiiu, ianoiua i?aaiu) i?e yoii niae?athony naie aaciaua

iaeiae. Oaeay noaia ?aca?aie/aiey aeioiaeia ieieiece?oao ia?a?ani-

?aaeaeeoaeueiua i?ioeannu a athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaie nenoaia, oi?ie?oao

noaaeeueiua e aiieia iiiyoiua “i?aaeea ea?u” iaaeaeo noauaeoaie Oa-

aea?aoeee e oeaio?ii. Aianoa n oai aeaiiay noaia iiaeao auoue yooaeoea-

ii ?aaeeciaaia eeoue i?e n?aaieoaeueiie iaeii?iaeiinoe ?aaeiiia a

oeneaeueiie ioiioaiee. Iaaeaeo oai a ?innee ?aaeiiu a yoii ioiioaiee

?acii?iaeiu.

Aoi?ie iiaeoiae caeeth/aaony a ?acaeaeaiee aeioiaeia io iaeiaia. A

?aieao athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaie nenoaiu oeene?othony i?ioeaioiua noaaee,

a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ii ii?aaeaeaiiui auaeai iaeiaia iinooiea-

iey ?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie e oa??eoi?eyie.

I?e yoii aiciiaeai e aa?eaio niaaeeiaiey noaaie: ia oaaea?aeueiii

o?iaia aaiaeeony naiy noaaea, ia ?aaeiiaeueiii – naiy. Oaeie iiaeoiae

ioe?uaaao oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe oaaee/aiey ianooaaia ia?a?ani?aaea-

eaiey athaeaeaoiuo ?ano?nia. Yoi iiiu?yao ?aaeiiu e ieacaieth ia

oeaio? eae iiaeii aieueoaai aeaaeaiey n oai, /oiau iieo/eoue
athaeaeao-

ii-iaeiaiaua eueaiou, iooai aeeooa?aioeeaoeee niioaaonoaothueo noaaie

io/eneaiee. Iiiyoii, /oi oniao caeanue iaeiiai ?aaeiia neoaeeo noeio-

eii aua aieueoae aeoeaecaoeee ae?oaeo. ?acoeueoao – ?aceia oneeaiea

eiaeeaeaeoaeueii ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey athaeaeaoiuo ioiioaiee.

Iiae oaea?aie ?aaeiiaeueiuo yeeo nenoaia aaeeiuo oaaea?aeueiuo iaeiaia

iinoaiaiii ?ac?ooaaony e ia?anoaao auiieiyoue ooieoeee eioaa?e?oth-

uaai oaeoi?a a ?aieao Oaaea?aoeee. Athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaay nenoaia i?e-

ia?aoaao aeiaiai?ii-?aaeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. I?e anai oii iaeuecy ia

ioiaoeoue, /oi a i?eioeeia ?aaeecaoeey aoi?iai iiaeoiaea aeaao aiciiae-

iinoue iaeneiaeueii o/eouaaoue niaoeeoeeo ?inneeneeo ?aaeiiia.

O?aoee i?eioeeieaeueiue iiaeoiae e ?acaeaeaieth athaeaeaoia iaaeaeo
oa-

aea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie e oa??eoi?eyie i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiea i?i-

oeaioa auieao a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao io iauae noiiu oaeoe/anee ace-

iaaiuo a ?aaeiia iaeiaia. I?e yoii, iaeiaei, /anoi ia ooi/iyaony,

aoaeao ee eaaeaeay oa??eoi?ey aaiaeeoue naith nianoaaiioth nenoaio iaei-

aia eee aea eniieueciaaoue a ea/anoaa iniiau aaeeioth nenoaio, niaea-

niaaiioth iaaeaeo ?aaeiiaie ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia. Iiyoiio i?e ?aa-

eecaoeee aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea eae ?ac e iiyaeyaony iianiinoue iaeneiaeue-

iie aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii
oneea-

iee ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia e oeaio?aeecaoeee
athaeaeaoiuo

n?aaenoa ia ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaia.

Aanueia i?iaeaiaoe/ia e naia aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey niaeani-

aaiiie n ?aaeiiaie i?ioeaioiie noaaee io/eneaiee a oaaea?aeueiue

athaeaeao. ?aaeiiu-yenii?oa?u aoaeoo, iiiyoii, ianoaeaaoue ia aa nie-

aeaiee. Oae, Oaoa?noai i?aaeeaaaao onoaiiaeoue aa ia o?iaia 20%.

N?aaieoaeueii aea aaaeiua a ?ano?niii ioiioaiee ?aaeiiu, oa?aeoa?e-

cothueany ieceei o?iaiai oeneaeueiie iaania/aiiinoe, caeioa?aniaaiu

a aieaa aunieeo i?ioeaioiuo noaaeao io/eneaiee n oai, /oiau iiae-

aea?aeeaaoue e iiiieiyoue athaeaeaoiua ?ano?nu ?aaeiiaeueiiai
au?aaieaa-

iey, ec eioi?uo ioaeaeathueany noauaeou noauaeou Oaaea?aoeee iieo/atho

aanueia iuooeioth iiaeaea?aeeo.

Eniieiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee n

oeaeueth enneaaeiaaiey niioiioaiey iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiui e
?aaeiiaeueiuie

athaeaeaoaie i?aaenoaaeaii a oaaeeoea N1.

A oiaea yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i a aeioiaeao eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai

athaeaeaoa aeiey iinooieaoeo i?yiuo iaeiaia nouanoaaiii iiauneeanue, a

einaaiiuo – niioaaonoaaiii nieceeanue. A aeioiaeiie aaca athaeaeaoia

oa??eoi?ee iaaethaeaeinue iaeioi?ia oiaiueoaiea oaeaeueiiai aana i?yiuo

e einaaiiuo iaeiaia, aianoa acyouo, i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii oaaee/aiee

aeiee ae?oaeo iaeiaia e nai?ia.

A ?acoeueoaoa e eiioeo 1993 a. oaeaeueiue aan aeioiaeia, aeeoioee-

?oaiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuie athaeaeaoaie (aac noaaaioeee), caiaoii aic?in –

n 44,1 aei 58,8%. Yoi aea niioiioaiea nio?aiyeinue a 1 eaa?oaea 1994

aiaea. Ia 1 ai?aey 1994 a. aeiey ?aaeiiia a iauai iauaia iaeiaa ia

aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ii n?aaiaieth n 1992 a. oaaee/eeanue n 2561

aei 33,5%, aeoeecia – n 33,5 aei 43%, i?yiuo iaeiaia – n 67,7 aei

71,3%, ae?oaeo iaeiaia e nai?ia – n 51,6 aei 65,9%.

Inouanoaeaiea oaeoe/aneiai ?acaeaeaiey aeioiaeia eiinieeaee?i-

aaiiiai athaeaeaoa ii iaeiaai i?e aai eniieiaiee iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiuie

i?aaiaie e oa??eoi?eyie a 1993 a. iieacaii a oaaeeoea N2.

Nieaeaiea aeiee iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae, iinooiathueo a oaaea?aeue-

iue athaeaeao, ii n?aaiaieth n i?iaiice?oaiie ii ioeaieai niaoeeaeenoia

iaoneiaeaii ia?ooaieai oeaeui ?aaeii ?inneeneeo ?aaeiiia aeaenoaoth-

uaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Oieueei Aaoee?ey e Oaoa?ey iaaeiiinoaaeee a

1993 a. a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia noiio aieaa
400

ie?ae.?oa. (/oi i?eia?ii ?aaii iieiaeia anao athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa,

eaeoueo ia ioaeaeu ?inneeneiai aunoaai ia?aciaaiey); 600 ie?ae.?oa.

auei iaaeiiieo/aii ii n?aaiaieth n i?iaiicii aneaaenoaea onoaiiaea-

iey a 1993 a. aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo ii?iaoeaia io/eneaiee iaeiaa ia

aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a athaeaeaou iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiuo e
aae-

ieieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee.

I?e aeinoaoi/ii nenoaiaoe/aneii nieaeaiee iaeiaiauo iinooiea-

iee a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao a 1993 a. o?iaaiue niioaaonoaothueo ieaoa-

aeae, ca/eneyaiuo a athaeaeaou iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiuo e
aaeie-

ieno?aoeaii-oa??eoi?eaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee, ii ioiioaieth a AAI nio-

?aiyaony ioiineoaeueii noaaeeueiui. A 1 eaa?oaea ii ?aaiyeny 16,3%,

ai II – 16,3%, III – 14,2%, a IV – 15,1%.

Iaaeaeo oai a 1992 a. ia ?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaou i?eoiaeeeinue
eeoue

38,6% iauae noiiu athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia, a 1993 a. – 44,1%, a 1

eaa?oaea 1994 a. – 52,0%. A 1993 a. ?aaeiiaeueiuie athaeaeaoaie a oea-

eii ii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee auei iieo/aii aeioaoeee e noaaaioeee ec

oaaea?aeueiiai (?anioaeeeaineiai) athaeaeaoa (aac oaaea?aeueiuo i?ia-

?aii) ia noiio 3,2 o?ei.?oa. Iauaiu oaaea?aeueiie iiaeaea?aeee ?aaei-

iia, oaeei ia?acii, i?eaeeceoaeueii niioaaonoaiaaee 28,8% anaai

nia?aiiiai ca oeacaiiue ia?eiae a eiinieeaee?iaaiiue athaeaeao iaeiaa

ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. Caiaoei i?e yoii, /oi oaea a 1992 a. ia

oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao i?eoiaeeeinue 53,2% cao?ao ia ia?iaeiia
oicyen-

oai, ieiei 40% – ia iaania/aiea ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie

aaeieieno?aoeee, ii/oe 30% – ia cae?aaiio?aiaiea e ia?aciaaiea, ana

cao?aou ia iai?iio e ii aiaoiaoi?aiaui iia?aoeeyi e ieiei 75% ae?o-

aeo ?anoiaeia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoe e?aeia iaaeaaii?eyoiua aeey

oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa niioiioaiey ianeieueei oeo/oeeenue. Oae, ii

eoiaai eniieiaiey ?inneeneiai athaeaeaoa a 1 eaa?oaea 1994 a. ia aei-

eth ?anoiaeia oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa i?eoiaeeeinue 27,7% cao?ao ia
ia-

?iaeiia oicyenoai, 50% – ia iaania/aiea ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ainoaea?n-

oaaiiie aaeieieno?aoeee, 15% – ia cae?aaiio?aiaiea e ia?aciaaiea ,

ana cao?aou ia iai?iio e ii aiaoiaoi?aiaui iia?aoeeyi e nauoa 53%

ae?oaeo ?anoiaeia.

I?eaaaeaiiua aeaiiua naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aanueia na?ueaciie (oioy

/anoe/ii e ei??aeoe?oaiie) anneiao?ee neiaeeaoaeny iaeiaiai-athae-

aeaoiie nenoaiu n iiceoeee acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo oa??eoi?eyie e oa-

aea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie. Oeacaiiay anneiao?ey i?iaeieaeaao oneeeaaoueny.

Aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai oa??eoi?ee (85%) iaoiaeeony ia aeioaoeee oa-

aea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ?innee, i?e/ai iauay noiia ia?aaeaaaaiuo ii

acaeiiui ?an/aoai athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa ninoaaeyao ieiei 20% anao oe-

iainiauo ?ano?nia ?aaeiiia. Anoue e oaeea ?aaeiiu (Ooaa, Naaa?iay

Inaoey e ae?.), eioi?ua aeeaoo i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth ia aeioaoeee oa-

aea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa.

Ieacuaay aeaaeaiea ia oaaea?aeueiua i?aaiu n oeaeueth iiiieiaiey

naieo aeioiaeia, ?aaeiiu aeaeatho i/aaeaeioth noaaeo ia IAeN, iaeia ia

i?eaueue e ?ano?niua ieaoaaee (aeiey aeoeecia a aeioiaeao ai iiiaeo ?a-

aeiiao iacia/eoaeueia). A I?ia?aiia oaeoaeaiey ?aoi?i a 1992 a.

aeiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, inoaaeyaiay oa??eoi?eyi,

ii?aaeaeaia a 20%; e ia/aeo 1994 a. ?aaeiiai oaeaeinue aa oaaee/eoue

aieaa /ai a 1,6 ?ac, i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth nio?aiea ca niaie

/anoue iieiaeaiiuo ei iinooieaiee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue. I?e yoii, oioy

iiiaea oa??eoi?ee e auee aioiau iiaea?oaiaaoue aeoeecaie, ?aaei-

iu-yenii?oa?u aeoeaii iuoaeenue ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoue a naith iieueco ae-

oeecu ia iaooue e aac e aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa oiiaea oeaiiaiai ?aaoee?i-

aaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, a oneiaeyo oneeeaathuaeny anneiao?ee athaeaeao-

ii-iaeiaiaie nenoaiu iniiaiay ai?ueaa ?acai?a/eaaaony ca eioeyoee-

iiiua iaeiae, iaania/eaathuea nouanoaaiioth aeieth iinooieaiee a oa?-

?eoi?eaeueiua athaeaeaou.

Ieioei ?O i?aaei?eieiaao iiiuoee oaea?aeeaaoue aeieth
oaaea?aeueiiai

athaeaeaoa ia aeinoaoi/ii aunieii o?iaia. E niaeaeaieth, ?acaeoea
athae-

aeaoiie neooaoeee ai iiiaii ia aeaaii?eyonoaoao yoiio. Oaeaeueiue aan

iaeiiai ec iniiaiuo oeiainiauo enoi/ieeia iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee a

oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao – iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue – a
eiiniee-

aee?iaaiiii athaeaeaoa iaoeeiiii nie?auaaony. Aeioiaeu io aiaoiayeiii-

ie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia a ninoiyiee eiiiaine?iaaoue oeacaiiia ia-

aeaiea. Iaeiia?aiaiii a eiinieeaee?iaaiiii athaeaeaoa i?ienoiaeeo oaaee-

/aiea aeiey i?yiuo iaeiaia, iniiaiuie ?aoeeieaioaie eioi?uo yaeytho-

ny oa??eoi?ee.

A yoeo oneiaeyo Ieioei ?O aianoi aeeoioee?iaaiey a oaaea?aeue-

iii athaeaeaoa anae aaee/eiu iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue e iae-

iia?aiaiii iaeioi?iai nieaeaiey oaaea?aeueiie noaaee iaeiaa ia i?e-

aueue eaeao ii iooe caauoaiey aeioiaeia anaai eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai athae-

aeaoa e iiauoaiey oaaea?aeueiie noaaee iaeiaa ia i?eaueue n 10 aei

13%. A ?acoeueoaoa iiae caauoaiioth aeioiaeioth aaco ?inneeneiai
athaeaea-

oa oi?ie?othony aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu, i?e/ai eae oaaea?aeueiiai,

oae e ?aaeiiaeueiuo athaeaeaoia. Ia iie?uaay yoe ?anoiaeu nia?aiiuie

aeioiaeaie, iiiaea ?aaeiiu i?eaaaatho e i?yiui ia?ooaieyi iaeiai-

ai-athaeaeaoiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, /oi i?ienoiaeeo ia iauai oiia ?in-

oa acaeiiuo iaieaoaaeae. Eae neaaenoaea – iaaeiai? oeiainiauo n?aaen-

oa a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao e e?aoiia oaaee/aiea ia iaai
athaeaeaoiie

iaa?ocee. ?acoeueoaoii oaeie oeiainiaie iieeoeee yaeyaony oneeaiea

anneiao?ee ?inneeneie athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu oaea ia noaaeee i?iaiiciuo

?an/aoia, ninoaaeaiey e caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey athaeaeaoa. A

i?ioeanna ei??aeoe?iaee e ooaa?aeaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ?O

ia 1994 a. ?aaeiiaeueiua no?oeoo?u aeanoe i?eia?aee aeiiieieoaeueii

nauoa 9 o?ei.?oa. aeioiaeia, iieo/ea iaeiia?aiaiii anaai eeoue 1,3

o?ei.?oa. aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia. Iaeiaei, anee ?aaeiiaeueiua

no?oeoo?u aeanoe a iniiaiii aeaeaee aeoeaio ia oaaee/aiea aeioiaeia

?aaeiiaeueiuo athaeaeaoia, oi io?aneaaua eiaae, iai?ioea, aeoeaioe?i-

aaee naia aieiaiea ia oaaee/aiee ?anoiaeiie /anoe oaaea?aeueiiai

athaeaeaoa. ?acoeueoaoii yoeo aeaenoaee yaeeny naiaia?aciue “aeaieiie

yooaeo” oneeaiey anneiao?ee ?inneeneie athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu.

Anneiao?eth a niioiioaieyo iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiui e ?aaeiiaeueiuie

athaeaeaoaie aanueia iuooeii aeiiieiyao oaea ioia/aaoayny cia/eoaeueiay

aeeooa?aioeeaoeey ?aaeiiia n oi/ee c?aiey eo oeneaeueiie iaania/ai-

iinoe ia aeooo ianaeaiey. Naaiaeiy a ?innee anoue ?aaeiiu, eioi?ua

ia?a/eneytho a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao aei 60-65% aeioiaeia. N ae?oaie
noi-

?iiu, eiathony ?aaeiiu, iie?uaathuea 85-95% naieo ?anoiaeia ca n/ao

n?aaenoa oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa. Ec 89 ?aaeiiia 41 iieo/aao ec oaaea-

?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa 40% ?anoiaeoaiuo n?aaenoa, i?e/ai ia 22 ?aaeiia

i?eoiaeeony aieaa 60% auaeaeyaiuo aeioaoeee.

Aanue naaa? e tha ?innee iieiinoueth “neaeyo” ia aeioaoeeyo. Iniia-

iua “iinoaaueee” aeioiaeia a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao – iaeanoe, e?ay e

?anioaeeee, ia?acothuea “oceee iiyn”, eioi?ue ioaaouaaao Neae?ue,

O?ae e oeaio? ?innee, a oaeaea aeaa aaoiiiiiuo ie?oaa, aaea a aieueoeo

ianooaaao aeiauaaaony iaooue. I?e yoii ia Othiaineoth iaeanoue e

a.Iineao i?eoiaeeony nauoa 19% anao iinooieaiee a oaaea?aeueiue athae-

aeao.

Aiaeec aeaceioaa?aoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia iieacuaaao, /oi nouanoaoao

aeinoaoi/ii oaniay naycue iaaeaeo ieceeie oaiiaie i?eaaoecaoeee a ?a-

aeiiao e aunieei o?iaiai iieo/aaiuo eie aeioaoeee ec oaaea?aeueiiai

athaeaeaoa. Iiuiui oaeoi?ii “auaeaaiey” ?ano?nia ec oeaio?a neoaeeo

oa?ica ?acaeoey naia?aoenoneeo aeaeaeaiee.

Eae i?aaeei, cia/eoaeueiua oaaea?aeueiua athaeaeaoiua auieaou aei

ianoiyuaai a?aiaie iieo/aee oa ?aaeiiu, aaea aunie o?iaaiue o?aaie-

caoeee e eiathony aeinoaoi/ii aieueoea caianu i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia.

I?ineaaeeaaaony e oaeay caeiiiia?iinoue – /ai aieaa eiina?aaoeaai

?aaeii a i?iaaaeaiee yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, oai auoa o?iaaiue iieo-

/aaiuo ec oeaio?a athaeaeaoiuo noaaaioeee e aeioaoeee.

I?e ?aoaiee aii?ina i auaeaeaiee ?aaeiiai oeiainiauo ?ano?nia

eo oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa a aeaea noaaaioeee e aeioaoeee, ia
neaaeoao

caauaaoue, /oi iaee/ea aeanoeiai oeiainiai-athaeaeaoiiai ia?aie/aiey

ni noi?iiu oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia a ioiioaiee ?aaeiiia ia oieueei

ii?iaeecoao nenoaio oeiainiai-athaeaeaoiuo o?ainoa?oia e niinianoao-

ao onei?aieth ?aoi?i, ii e yaeyaony na?ueaciui no?aoaae/aneei oae-

oi?ii iaania/aiey oeaeinoiinoe ?inneeneiai yeiiiie/aneiai i?ino-

?ainoaa.

V. ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey ?acaeaeaiey athaeaeaoia

Iiuiui oaeoi?ii naea?aeeaaiey eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia e iauaaee-

iaiey ?aaeiiia a aaeeiii aeaeaeaiee ca oyaeaeue ?oaeue iiaei au noaoue

nouanoaaiiia nie?auaiea aeiee a aeioiaeao athaeaeaoia oa??eoi?ee eiaiii

eioeyoeeiiiuo iaeiaia. I?e yoii ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia a iieueco

oa??eoi?ee aeieaeii oanii oaycuaaoueny n ia?aaea/ae ia eo o?iaaiue ii-

?aaeaeaiiuo noaoae ?anoiaeia n niioaaonoaothuae ei /anoueth aeaoeoeeoa

athaeaeaoa. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa aeioiaeu noaioo ia?a?ani?aaeaeyoueny a

iieueco oa??eoi?ee, oiaaea eae athaeaeaoiua ?anoiaeu a iiaeaaeythuae
eo

/anoe aoaeoo i?iecaiaeeony oaaea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie.

Aiaeec aeioiaeia iieacuaaao, /oi iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noie-

iinoue iaeaaeaao aunieie athaeaeaoiie onoie/eainoueth. Eiaiii aai
oeaea-

niia?acii eniieueciaaoue eae inue iino?iaiey oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa
ii

aeioiaeai, aeiaaaey aeieth aeioiaeia io IAeN a oaaea?aeueiii
athaeaeaoa aei

40-45%. A yoi aiciiaeii eeoue i?e ?acaeaeaiee aeioiaeia io IAeN
iaaeaeo

oaaea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie e oa??eoi?eyie eae ieieioi a i?iii?oeee 9:1.

A oeaeii aea neaaeoao no?aieoueny e aai iieiiio, noii?ioeaioiiio ca-

/eneaieth a oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao.

Aeaiiay ia?a iio?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiuo onooiie oa??eoi?eyi a io-

iioaiee inoaeueiuo iaeiaia. Oae, auei au ii?aaaeaii a iieiii iauaia

ia?aaeaoue ?aaeiiai (i?e oneiaee oi?ie?iaaiey aaeeiuo oaaea?aeueiuo

noaaie) iaeiae ia aeioiaeu aaieia, aeioiaeu io no?aoiaie aeayoaeueiin-

oe, ia iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, 50% io/eneaiee ia io?aio e

aini?iecaiaenoai eania. Ca oa??eoi?eyie oaeaea neaaeiaaei au nio?a-

ieoue iaeia ia eiouanoai (nianoaaiiinoue), ieaoo ca caieth, eaniie

aeioiae, iiaeioiaeiue iaeia n oece/aneeo eeoe.

Aeoeecu ia iaooue e aac a ?aieao i?aaeeaaaaiie noaiu auei au

oeaeaniia?acii, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ia 60-70% inoaaeoue ca oaaea-

?aeueiuie i?aaiaie, inoaeueioth /anoue ia?aaeaa niioaaonoaothuei ?aaei-

iai-yenii?oa?ai. Aiaeiae/ii neaaeiaaei au iinooieoue ii anai aeoee-

cai ia naa?o?aioaaaeueiua yenii?oe?oaiua oiaa?u (iai?eia? eaaeiaua

aaoiiiaeee, iaoa e o.ae.). Aeoeecu ia aiaeeo, ieoueaaie e oaoie/aneee

nie?o neaaeoao ?acaeaeeoue a i?iii?oeee 1:1, ae?oaea – iieiinoueth ia?a-

aeaoue ?aaeiiai (a oii /enea ia eiii?oe?oaiua oiaa?u). A naith i/a-

?aaeue, ?aaeiiu iiaee au aaiaeeoue naie aeoeeciua nai?u ii ooaa?aeaeaa-

iui eie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui ?aaeiiaeueiui noaaeai ia ethaua naa?oi?e-

aueueiua oiaa?u. ?ano?n iiiieiaiey aeioiaeia athaeaeaoia oa??eoi?ee ca

n/ao aeoeeciuo nai?ia naaiaeiy yaii iaaeiioeaieaaaony. A oi aea a?aiy

i?e aai oiaeii eniieueciaaiee aeieth aeoeecia a aeioiaeao athaeaeaoa
iiaeii

iiauneoue aieaa /ai a aeaia.

*ai aieueoa aeioiaeia aeeoioee?oaony ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee, oai

aieueoeie aiciiaeiinoyie iia aeieaeia ?aniieaaaoue aeey eo eniieueciaa-

iey ia nianoaaiiua ioaeaeu. Aaaeii iiiyoue, /oi a ?innee, eae e a

auaoai NNN?, ?aaeiiaeueiia eaeaeeaai/anoai iiaeao a eiia/iii n/aoa

i?eaanoe e ?aniaaeo aaeeiiai ainoaea?noaa. Iiaeii auaeaeeoue e noi?io-

ee?iaaoue neaaeothuea i?eioeeiu yooaeoeaiiai ?acaeaeaiey athaeaeaoa
ii

aeioiaeai e ?anoiaeai.

1. Aeioiaeu oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa oeaeaniia?acii
i?eaioe?iaaoue

i?aeiouanoaaiii ia einaaiiua (eioeyoeeiiiua) iaeiae, aeioiaeu athaeaea-

oia oa??eoi?ee – ia i?yiua iaeiae. A yoii neo/aa oaaea?aeueiua i?-

aaiu, i?iaiaeyuea ?aoi?iu, a eeoea ?aaeiiia iieo/atho aeinoaoi/ii

neeueiuo nithcieeia a inouanoaeaiee aioeeioeyoeeiiiie iieeoeee.

2. Ia?a/aiue iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee oa??eoi?eyi e oaaea?aeueiui

i?aaiai aeieaeai iaania/eaaoue aeinoaoi/ioth noaaeeueiinoue aeioiaeia
athae-

aeaoia ioiineoaeueii o?iaiae yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe e eioeyoeee.

3. I?e oi?ioee?iaaiee aeioiaeiie /anoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaea-

oa aeieaeai auoue iaeneiaeueii niaethaeai i?eioeei ?aaainoaa noauaeoia

Oaaea?aoeee a athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaii ioiioaiee. ?acee/iiai ?iaea i?ei?e-

oaou, eueaiou e aeene?eieiaoeey iaaeiionoeiu.

4. ?acaeaeaiea aeioiaeia iaaeaeo athaeaeaoaie neaaeoao
inouanoaeyoue a

no?iaii niioaaonoaee n ?aca?aie/aieai iauaeoia ?anoiaeia. I?e yoii

ii?aaaeaii iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeceoue ?anoiaeu e oie aaeieieno?aoea-

ii-oa??eoi?eaeueiie aaeeieoea, a eioa?anao eioi?ie iie inouanoaeytho-

ny, /oi iicaieeo eo/oa oaycaoue eioa?anu oao, eoi aiineo iaeiae,

oao, eoi iieuecoaony aeaaiaea?y ei n?aaenoaaie, e oao, eoi i?eieiaao

?aoaiey ii ?ani?aaeaeaieth oeiainiai-athaeaeaoiuo ?ano?nia.

5. Yooaeoeaiia ?acaeaeaiea athaeaeaoia aace?oaony ia i?eioeeia

niioaaonoaey iaaeaeo ?anoiaeaie ia ?acaeoea, ?anoiaeaie “?aioiiai oa-

?aeoa?a”, “aacaica?aoiuie” ?anoiaeaie (ia nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu) e

a?oiiaie iaeiaia, auiieiythueo noeioee?othuea ooieoeee (iaeia ia

i?eaueue), ?aioiua (ieaoaaee ca i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu) e nianoaaiii

oeneaeueiua ooieoeee (iiaeioiaeiue iaeia).

6. A oi aea a?aiy iaeiei ec iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia ?acaeaeaiey aei-

oiaeia e ?anoiaeia yaeyaony i?eioeei noaneaeea?iinoe, niaeanii eioi-

?iio i?eiyoea ?aoaiee e ?anoiaeu inouanoaeythony iaeaieaa eiiia-

oaioiie einoaioeeae. Anee i?iaeaia eo/oa ?aoaaony a ?aaeiiao, oi

niioaaonoaothuea ?anoiaeu ia?aaeathony ei. A i?ioeaiii neo/aao ?aoa-

iey i?eieiathony oaaea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie.

7. E?aeia aaaeii a i?ioeanna ?acaeaeaiey athaeaeaoia naanoe e ie-

ieioio ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea iaeiaiai-athaeaeaoiuo ?ano?nia eae ia oaaea-

?aeueiii, oae e ia ?anioaeeeaineii, iaeanoiii, e?aaaii o?iaiyo.

Yoi iicaieeo yooaeoeaiaa ?aca?aie/eoue aeanoiua iieiiii/ey iaaeaeo

oaaea?aeueiuie i?aaiaie, ?aaeiiaeueiuie yeeoaie e ioieoeeiaeeoaoaie.

8. I?e ?acaeaeaiee aeieaeii auoue niaethaeaii aaeeinoai iaei-

aia-athaeaeaoiie nenoaiu e ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aa eniieiaiea. ?aaei-

iai neaaeoao i?aaeinoaaeoue naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a ii?aaeaeaiee iaeiaia

e nai?ia a i?aaeaeao auaeaeaiiie eiiiaoaioeee e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/an-

eie ioaaonoaaiiinoe.

I?e ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai i?eioeeia aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho ?ac-

?aaioea e oi?ie?iaaiea yooaeoeaiuo iaoaieciia ?acaeaeaiey ioaaon-

oaaiiinoe ca ia?acothueeny aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa iaaeaeo oaaea?aeueiuie
i?-

aaiaie e ?aaeiiaie. ?aaeiiu iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeytho ia ?acia? aea-

oeoeeoa eiinieeaee?iaaiiiai athaeaeaoa ii iaiueoae ia?a aeaaaeaeu.
Ia?aue

?ac, eiaaea i?e oi?ie?iaaiee ?anoiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoa caauoatho naie

iio?aaiinoe, iainiiauaay aaee/eio o?aaoaiuo noaaaioeee. Aoi?ie

?ac, eiaaea, eniieiyy athaeaeao, aiiaee?otho e oeaio?aeueiui i?aaiai ia

oii iniiaaiee, /oi aneaaenoaea eioeyoeee oaeoe/aneea ?anoiaeu caiao-

ii i?aauneee caieaie?iaaiiue o?iaaiue. Iniaay neooaoeey nicaeaaony,

anee ?aaeiiu i?inoi ia?anoatho ia?a/eneyoue iaeiae a oaaea?aeueiue

athaeaeao.

A nayce n yoei e?aeia aaaeii oaa?aei i?eaea?aeeaaoueny neaaeothuaai

i?aaeea, eioi?ia ioaeii caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieoue. Anee a ?aaeiia a

i?ioeanna eniieiaiey athaeaeaoa ia?aciaaeny aai aeaoeoeeo e nia?aiiui

ii aaeeiie noaia ?acaeaeaiey athaeaeaoiui aeioiaeai oa??eoi?ee, i?aauoa-

thuee aaee/eio, eioi?ay niioaaonoaoao 8% aeaoeoeeoa eiinieeaee?iaai-

iiai athaeaeaoa e ?inneeneiio AAI,- ?aaeii iaycai ia?a/eneeoue a oa-

aea?aeueiue athaeaeao aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa a ?acia?a aaee/eiu
i?a-

auoaiey. A neo/aa ioeaca eee i?einoaiiaeaiey ia?a/eneaiee iaeiai-

auo ieaoaaeae a oeaio?, ia oeacaiioth aaee/eio “iaaeieiie” aaoiiaoe-

/anee nie?auathony ?aaeiiaeueiua athaeaeaoiua e?aaeeou e n?aaenoaa oe-

iainiaie iiaeaea?aeee ?aaeiia, a anee oeacaiiie ia?u iaaeinoaoi/ii,

ei??aeoe?othony e niioaaonoaothuea ?aaeiiaeueiua eaiou eeieoia e?a-

aeeoiaaiey Oeaio?aeueiui aaieii ?innee. I?e yoii a ethaii neo/aa ia-

?acothuayny aaee/eia iaieaoaaeae ioi?ieyaony Ieioeiii ?O eae e?aaeeo

ii aeaenoaothuae noaaea OeA?.

Iiaeiaiua iaoaieciu ?aaoee?iaaiey aeaoeoeeoa ?inneeneiai athaeaea-

oa aeieaeiu canoaaeoue ?aaeiiu aieaa ouaoaeueii iiaeoiaeeoue e naiei

?anoiaeai.

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