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Реформы 50-60х годов нашего столетия /Н.С.Хрущев/

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?aoi?iu 50-60aiaeia

I.N.O?ouaa

AeAIUeAEI AEAENAIAe?

1998 Aiae

1. Aaaaeaiea

2. Niaia iieeoe/aneiai eo?na

3. OOn. EINN – ?aciaei/aiea eoeueoa ee/iinoe Noaeeia

4. Eciaiaiey a noa?a naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

a) aa?a?iia i?iecaiaenoai

a) inaiaiea oeaeeiiuo caiaeue

a) i?iaeaaea n/o oaoieee niaoicai

a) “eoeueo eoeo?ocu”

ae) iooie naeueneiai ianaeaiey a ai?iaea

5. Eciaiaiey a noa?a i?iiuoeaiiinoe

a) Eo?n ia iaoaiecaoeeth e aaoiiaoecaoeeth
i?iecaiaenoaa

a) onei?aiiia ?acaeoea oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe

a) inaiaiea einiina e yaea?iie yia?aee

a) ?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii (i?a.
niaia?oicia)

ae) XXI nuacae eii. ia?oee – aeiaiaoue e ia?aaiaoue
?acaeoua eaieoaeenoe-

/aneea no?aiu ii i?iecaiaenoao i?iaeoeoeee ia aeooo
ianaeaiey.

a) XXII nuacae EINN – iiaay i?ia?aiia ia?oee.

6. Eciaiaiey ai aiaoiae iieeoeea.

7. Cia/aiea iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe O?ouaaa
(Caeeth/aiea).

–(1)–

Ieeeoa Na?aaaae/ O?ouaa ?iaeeeny a 1894 a. a naea Eaeeiiaea Eo?neie
aoaa?iee ,?aii ia/ae o?oaeiaoth aeeciue. N 12 eao oaea ?aaioae ia
caaiaeao e oaooao Aeiiaanna. I naiae ?aai/ae iieiaeinoe e neana?iii
?aianea ii /anoi, e eaaeaony, ia aac oaeiaieuenoaey aniiieiae. A

1918 a. O?ouaaa i?eieiatho a ia?oeth aieueoaaeeia. Ii o/anoaoao a
a?aaeaeaineie aieia,a iinea aa ieii/aiey iaoiaeeony ia oicyenoaaiiie e
ia?oeeiie ?aaioa. A 1929 a. iinooiee o/eony a I?iiuoeaiioth aeaaeaieth
a Iineaa, aaea aue eca?ai nae?aoa?ai ia?oeiia. N yiaa?y

1931 a.-nae?aoa?ue Aaoiaineiai,a caoai E?aniii?aniaineiai ?aeeiiia
ia?oee, a 1932-1934 aa. ?aaioae nia/aea aoi?ui,iioii ia?aui nae?aoa?ai
IAE e aoi?ui nae?aoa?ai IE AEI(a). A 1938 a. noaiiaeony ia?aui
nae?aoa?ai OeE EI(a) Oe?aeiu e eaiaeeaeaoii a /eaiu Iieeoath?i, a aua
/a?ac aiae /eaiii Iieeoath?i OeE AEI(a).

A aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu O?ouaa aue /eaiii aiaiiuo
niaaoia THai-Caiaaeiiai iai?aaeaiey,THai Caiaaeiiai,
Noaeeia?aaeneiai,THaeiiai, Ai?iiaaeneiai e 1-ai Oe?aeineiai o?iioia.
Caeii/ee aieio a caaiee aaia?ae-eaeoeiaioa. N 1944 ii 1947 a. ?aaioae
I?aaenaaeaoaeai Niaaoa Ieieno?ia Oe?aeineie NN?,caoai aiiaue eca?ai
ia?auinae?aoa?ai OeE EI(a) O.

N aeaeaa?y 1949 a. ii-niiaa ia?aue nae?aoa?ue Iineianeiai iaeaniiai e
nae?aoa?ue Oeaio?aeueiiai eiieoaoia ia?oee. A ia?oa 1953a.,iinea
nia?oe Noaeeia,oeaeeeii nin?aaeioi/eeny ia ?aaioa a OeE, a a naioya?a
1953a. ecae?aaony ia?aui nae?aoa?ai OeE. N N1958a. I?aaenaaeaoaeue
Niaaoa Ieieno?ia NNN?. Ia yoeo iinoao iaoiaeeeny aei 14 ie-

oya?y 1964 a. Ieoyai?ueneee ieaioi OeE inaiaiaeee O?ouaaa io ia?oeeiuo e
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeieaeiinoae “ii ninoiyieth caei?iauey”. Oia? 11
naioya?y 1971 a. Oaeiaa e?aoeay aeia?aoey I.N.O?ouaaa.

Eiaaea Noaeei oia?,iu,/eaiu ?oeiaiaenoaa OeE,i?eaoaee ia aeeaeithth
aea/o a Eoioeaai. Ii eaaeae ia aeeaaia, e a?a/ae aicea iaai ia auei. A
iineaaeiea ianyoeu naiae aeecie Noaeei ?aaeei i?eaaaae e iiiiue
a?a/ae, ii eo aiyeny. Aa?ey aai,/oi ee, iaioaae,eee nai ii iiaa?ee,/oi
a?a/e ieaooo eaeea-oi caaiai?u i?ioea iaai e ae?oaeo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae.Iieueciaae aai oiaaea iaei? ec io?aiu,eioi?ue aue
eiaaea-oi aaoe?eia?iui oaeueaeoa?ii. Ii aea iicaiiee i eii/eia
Noaeeia…

Noiei iu aicea ia?oaiai oaea,ii/oe ia ?acaiaa?eaaai,eaaeaeue i
naiai aeoiaao. Iioii noaee ?acuacaeaoueny. A iaoeio naaeeeenue ii
aeaia. Ia?aui oaoaee Iaeaieia n Aa?eae,iioii Iieioia n Eaaaiiae/ai.
Ooo Ieeiyi aiai?eo iia:”Aa?ey a Iineao iiaoae aeanoue a?aoue”.

A y aio:”Iiea yoa naiei/ue neaeeo,ieeoi ec ian ia iiaeao /oanoaiaaoue
naay niieieii”. E e?aiei oiaaea caiaei a niciaiea,/oi iaaei ia?aui
aeaeii Aa?eth oa?aoue. A eae ia/aoue ?acaiai? n ae?oaeie
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie? E aio i?ioei a?aiy,e y noae iauacaeaoue ii iaeiiio
/eaiia I?aceaeeoia.

Iianiaa anaai auei n Iaeaieiaui,ae?ocuey aaaeue auee n Eaa?aioeai.
I?eaoae e iaio,oae e oae, iiea ii aoeyao ia naiaiaea e aea?aeeo a
naieo ?oeao i?aaiu aaciianiinoe,o ian anao ?oee naycaiiu. Aea e
iaecaanii,/oi ii a ethaie iiiaio aueeiao,eaeie iiia?. Aio
aiai?th,niaoeeaeueiua aeeaecee e Iineaa iiaeoyaeaathony. E iaaei
ioaeaoue aeieaeiia Aai?aeth ,a yoii aii?ina ii iiaeaea?aeae
iaiy,ia?anooiee /a?ac ee/iua ioiioaiey,aeaeeii nai aiyeny naiaai
ae?oaeea. Iioii y iiaoae e Ai?ioeeiao. N iei i?eoeinue aiai?eoue
aeieai,i/aiue aaniieieeny,/oiau ia ni?aaeinue ana. Caoai iiaoae y e
Eaaaiiae/o,aueiaeee aio ana,a ii iia oae:”A ia /ueae noi?iia
aieueoeinoai? Eoi ca eiai? Ia aoaeao ee aai eoi iiaeaea?aeeaaoue?”

Ii eiaaea y aio ?anneacae iai anao inoaeueiuo,ii oiaea niaeaneeny. E aio
i?eoae ia canaaeaiea. Naee ana, a Aa?ee iao. Io aeoiath,aeiciaeny.
Aaaeue ia niineoue iai oiaaea aieiau. Aaea ieaaeainy caao?a ieeoi ia
ciaao. Ii ooo ii i?eoae,e ii?ooaeue o iaai a ?oeao. ss n?aco
niia?acee, /oi o iaai oai! O iaiy ia yoio neo/ae oiaea auei
eia-/oi i?eianaii. Nae Aa?ey,?acaaeeeny e ni?aoeaaao:”Io,eaeie aii?in
naaiaeiy ia iiaanoea aeiy? Ii/aio nia?aeenue oae iaiaeeaeaiii?” A y
oieeath Iaeaieiaa iiaie e oai/o:”Ioe?uaae canaaeaiea,aeaaae iia neiai”.
Oio ii aaeae,niio?th, ?oa ?ane?uoue ia iiaeao. Ooo y anei/ee
nai e aiai?th:”Ia iiaanoea aeiy iaeei aii?in. Ia
aioeia?oeeiie,?aneieueie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aaaioa eiia?eaeecia Aa?ee.
Anoue i?aaeeiaeaiea auaanoe aai ec ninoaaa I?aceaeeoia, ec ninoaaa
OeE,eneeth/eoue ec ia?oee e i?aaeaoue aiaiiiio noaeo. Eoi “ca”? E
ia?aue ?oeo iiaeieiath. Ca iiie inoaeueiua. Aa?ey aanue iicaeaiae-e e
ii?ooaeth. A y ii?ooaeue ?oeie oeai! E e naaa! Oooeoue aiai?th! Ou
yoi a?inue! A nai iaaeeiath eiiieo. Ooo aaaaatho aeaa ioeoea?a ec
aiaiiiai aa?ieciia Iineaeaiei (y n ieie aeiaiai?eeny ca?aiaa). ss ei
i?eeacuaath:”Acyoue yoiai aaaea,eciaiieea ?iaeeiu, e ioaanoe eoaea
neaaeoao”. E ooo Aa?ey noae /oi-oi ai?iioaoue,ai?iioaoue… A aaaeue
oaeie aa?ie aue ae?oaeo ca oieeo a?aoue e e noaiea noaaeoue. Io
inoaeueiia au ciaaoa.-Oae aio,y oi/o auieoue,-ooo ii acye ?thieo,-ca
oi,/oiau oaeia ieeiaaea e ieaaea aieueoa ia iiaoi?eeinue. Iu naie
niuee yoi a?yciia iyoii e naeaeaai ana,/oiau nicaeaoue aa?aioee i?ioea
iiaeiaiuo yaeaiee a aoaeouai.

Eoaea iiaea iieoe no?aia iinea nia?oe Noaeeia? Ioaao ia aeaiiue aii?in
iaaei eneaoue a niioiioaiee nee a aunoai neia
ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa. Aiciiaeiui auei eeai
a?aiaiiia i?iaeieaeaiea noaeeiueiu, /oi nicaeaaaei na?ueacioth oa?ico
aeecie e aeaaiiieo/eth ieeeeiiia ethaeae e oeaeuo ia?iaeia, eeai
iaeioi?ia

niya/aiea aa i?e nio?aiaiee iauaiieeoe/aneiai eo?na, eeai iiai?io e
aeanoaeeiecaoeee. Aeanoaeeiecaoeey ia icia/aea eeeaeaeaoeee
oioaeeoa?iiai ?aaeeia. Iauanoai a oeaeii ia auei aua e yoiio aioiai.

?a/ue iiaea eaeoe eeoue i ia/aeueiii i/euaiee io ianeaaeey noaeeiueiu:
inaiaiaeaeaiea ?ai?anne?iaaiiuo, iiai?ioa e ?aoaieth iaeaieaa ino?uo
aa?a?iuo i?iaeai, ineaaeaiee aeiaiaoe/aneiai i?anna a eoeueoo?a.
Ia?aue aa?eaio aue naycai n ia?niaeoeaie i?eoiaea e aeanoe Aa?ee, a
inouanoaeaiee aoi?iai i?eiyee au o/anoea, aa?iyoii, Iieioia e Aoeaaiei,
ia i?aeoeea aea ia/ae ?aaeeciauaaoueny o?aoee aa?eaio. E n iei naycae
naay I.N.O?ouaa.

Iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiuie iieeoe/aneeie oeao?aie a ?oeiaiaenoaa noaee
Iaeaieia, Aa?ey e O?ouaa. ?aaiiaanea yaeyeinue e?aeia iaonoie/eaui.

Iieeoeea iiaiai ?oeiaiaenoaa a aanaiiea aeie 1953a. auea
i?ioeai?a/eaie, io?aaeay i?ioeai?a/ey a aai ninoaaa. Ii o?aaiaaieth
AEoeiaa ec caeeth/aiey aa?ioeanue aieueoay

a?oiia aiaiiuo. Ii i?iaeieaeae nouanoaiaaoue AOEAA, aacaea aenaee
i?aaeiea eicoiae e ii?o?aou Noaeeia.

Eaaeaeue ec i?aoaiaeaioia ia aeanoue no?aieeny iaeaaeaoue ath naiei
iooai. Aa?ey – /a?ac eiio?ieue iaae i?aaiaie e aieneaie
ainaaciianiinoe. Iaeaieia – cayaeyy i no?aieaiee i?iaiaeeoue iiioey?ioth
iieeoeeo iiauoaiey aeaaininoiyiey ia?iaea, “caaioeoueny i
iaeneiaeueiii oaeiaeaoai?aiee aai iaoa?eaeueiuo iio?aaiinoae”, i?ecuaay
a “2 – 3 aiaea aeiaeoueny niceaeaiey a iaoae no?aia iaeeey
i?iaeiaieuenoaey aeey ianaeaiey e nu?uey aeey eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe”.
Ii Aa?ey e Iaeaieia ia eiaee naycae a n?aaea aunoeo aiaiiuo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, eioi?ua ia aeiaa?yee ei. Aeaaiia aea auei a
iano?iaieyo

ia?oaiia?aoa, eioi?ue aeaeae nio?aiaiey ?aaeeia, ii aac ?ai?annee

ii ioiioaieth e aiia?aoo. Iauaeoeaii neooaoeey neiaeeeanue aeaaii?eyoii
aeey O?ouaaa. O?ouaa i?iyaee a yoe aeie iaiau/aeioth aeoeaiinoue. A
naioya?a 1953 a. I.N.O?ouaa aue eca?ai Ia?aui nae?aoa?ai OeE EINN. A
ia/aoe noaee iiyaeyoueny noaouee i a?aaea eoeueoa ee/iinoe.
Ia?aaeienaeueiui auei oi, /oi eo aaoi?u nnueaeenue ia ?aaiou Noaeeia,
cayaeyy, /oi ii aue i?i0oeaieeii eoeueoa. Ia/aeny ia?aniio?
“Eaieia?aaeneiai aeaea” e “aeaea a?a/ae”. Auee ?aaaeeeoe?iaaiu
inoaeaeaiiua ii yoei aeaeai ia?oeeiua e oicyenoaaiiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee,
iaaeeee. Ii a yoi aea a?aiy, a eiioea

1953 a. ia oaooao Ai?eoou, iaoiaeeaoeony a aaaeaiee aua nouanoaiaaaoaai
AOEAAA, auee aeanoiei iiaeaaeaiu caaanoiaee caeeth/aiiuo.

Iinea nia?oe Noaeeia n?aaee ocieeia AOEAAa i?iaoaeeeenue
ii?aaeaeaiiua iaaeaaeaeu, naycaiiua n aiienoeae e ?aaaeeeoaoeeae.
Yoe iano?iaiey nua?aee ?ieue aeaoiiaoi?a aanii?yaeeia. Aiaeii iicaea
ia/aeanue ?aaaeeeoaoeey ii iieeoe/aneei i?ioeannai 30-o aiaeia. Ec
nnueie e oth?ai noaee aica?auaoueny ethaee. Oaia?ue iiaeii ii-?aciiio

ioeaieaaoue oio ia?aue oaa: n auniou i?ioaaeoeo eao ana aeaeiaa e
i/aaeaeiaa. Ii iaeiiai ana-oaee io?eoeaoue iaeuecy: ianiio?y ia ana
ecaea?aeee e iaaeiaiai?aiiinoe, oi aue oaa io ia?iaiaioiie
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e a?aaeaeaineiio ie?o.

A ?aaeueiie iieeoeea iaiaoeeny iiai?io. E yoio iiai?io iaiaoiaeeii
auei iiaee?aieoue ?aoaieyie yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. A aaaonoa 1953a.
ia nannee Aa?oiaiiai Niaaoa NNN? Iaeaieia aia?aua iinoaaee aii?in i
iiai?ioa yeiiiieee eeoeii e /aeiaaeo, i ia?aiia?aaeiii aieiaiee
ainoaea?noaa e aeaaininoiyieth ia?iaea /a?ac onei?aiiia ?acaeoea
naeueneiai oicyenoaa e i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiaoia iio?aaeaiey. “Oaia?ue
ia aaca aeinoeaioouo oniaoia a ?acaeoee oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe o ian
anoue ana oneiaey aeey oiai, /oiau i?aaieciaaoue e?ooie iiaeuai
i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaeiaoia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey”. I?aaeiieaaaeinue
?acei eciaieoue eiaanoeoeeiiioth iieeoeeo, cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eoue
oeiainiaoth “iiaeieoeo” io?aneae iaiaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia auione oiaa?ia aeey

ia?iaea, ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea ia naeueneia oicyenoai, i?eaea/ue e
i?iecaiaenoao oiaa?ia ia?iaeiiai iio?aaeaiey iaoeiino?ieoaeueiua caaiaeu
e i?aaei?eyoey oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oae aue acyo eo?n ia
nioeeaeueioth ia?ai?eaioaoeeth yeiiiieee, eioi?ue aeinoaoi/ii auno?i
noae aiieiuaoueny a eiie?aoiua oiaa?u, aeaiueae, aeeeuea.

Auai? iiaiai iieeoe/aneiai iooe o?aaiaae eciaiaiey i?eaioe?ia a
yeiiiieea. Iaeiaei oiaaea ieeoi a iieeoe/aneii ?oeiaiaenoaa no?aiu ia
iiaeaa?aae niiiaieth i?eioeeiu eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaiu.
?a/ue oea i i?aiaeieaiee aa e?aeiinoae, oaeeo, eae ii/oe iieiia
ionoonoaea iaoa?eaeueiiai noeioee?iaaiey o?oaeyueony, ionoaaaiea a
ianniaii aiaae?aiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee a

i?iecaiaenoai. Ii-i?aaeiaio ainiiaenoaiaaei iai?eyoea ?uiea,
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee, a i?aeiouanoaa nioeeaeecia
?anniao?eaaeenue eae ia/oi ?ac e iaanaaaea aeaiiia, niiniaiia naii ii
naaa iaania/eoue ?acaeoea e i?ioeaaoaiea.

Eae iiaei neo/eoueny, /oi iinea nia?oe Noaeeia e ?oeiaiaenoao
no?aiie i?eoae eiaiii O?ouaa? A?iaea au Noaeei naeaeae ana,/oiau
i/enoeoue ia?oeth io ethauo naieo i?ioeaieeia. A 50-o aiaeao
ia?aaeaaaeanue ec ono a onoa yeiau iaeia ec aai aoi?enoe/aneeo
o?ac:”Anoue /aeiaae-anoue i?iaeaia,iao /aeiaaea-iao i?iaeaiu”. A
?acoeueoaoa a aeeauo inoaeenue,eacaeinue au,naiua aa?iua,naiua
iaaeaaeiua. Eae aea Noaeei ia ?acaeyaeae a O?ouaaa iiaeeueueea naiaai
eoeueoa?

O?ouaa i?eoae e aeanoe ia neo/aeii e iaeiia?aiaiii neo/aeii. Ia
neo/aeii iioiio,/oi ii aue au?aceoaeai oiai iai?aaeaiey a
ia?oee,eioi?ia a ae?oaeo oneiaeyoe,aa?iyoii,iiae?oaiio ieacaeinue
i?aaenoaaeaiii oaeeie ai iiiaii ianoiaeeie aeayoaeyie,eae
Aeca?aeeineee,Aooa?ei,?ueia,?oaecooae,Ee?ia. Yoi auee noi?iiieee
?acaeoey

iyia,aeaiie?aoecaoeee,i?ioeaieee ianeeuenoaaiiuo ia? a i?iiuoeaiiinoe
eee a naeueneii oicyenoaa,a oai aieaa a eoeueoo?a. Ianiio?y ia
aeanoieea noaeeineea?ai?annee,yoiiai?aaeaiea ieeiaaea ia oie?aei.

A yoii niunea i?eoiae O?ouaaa aue caeiiiia?iui. Ii, eiia/ii,caeanue aue
e aieueoie yeaiaio neo/aeiinoe. Anee au Iaeaieia noieeiaaeny n
Aa?eae,anee au “noaeeineay aaa?aeey” niei-

oeeanue a 1953 a.,a ia a ethia 1957a.,ia auoue au O?ouaao eeaea?ii.
Naia iaoa enoi?ey iiaea iieoe ii ianeieueei eiiio ?oneo. E ana aea
enoi?ey naeaeaea i?aaeeueiue auai?. Oi aue ioaao ia ?aaeueiua
i?iaeaiu iaoae aeecie. Ana aieaa ieuaaoay e,ii nooe,iieo?ac?ooaiiay
aea?aaiy,oaoie/anee ionoaeay i?iiuoeaiiinoue,ino?aeoee aeaoeoeeo
aeeeuey,ieceee aeeciaiiue o?iaaiue ianaeaiey,ieeeeiiu caeeth/aiiuo a
oth?ueiao e eaaa?yo,eciee?iaaiiinoue no?aiu io aiaoiaai ie?a-ana yoi
o?aaiaaei iiaie iieeoeee,?aaeeeaeueiuo ia?aiai. E O?ouaa i?eoae-eiaiii
oae!-eae iaaeaaeaea ia?iaea,i?eae/a Iiaiai A?aiaie

–(3)–

14 oaa?aey 1956 aiaea a Aieueoii E?aieaaneii aeai?oea ioe?ueny OO nuacae
EINN. Ii i?ioiaeee eae iau/ii: aeieeaae, iaeia?aiea “eaieineiai eo?na”,
aieiaeeniaiou, ooiiua anoaaaiey e oae aeaeaa. Nuacae eaoeeny e
aeaaiiieo/iiio oeiaeo , a yniinoe ia auei. Ecaanoii, /oi O?ouaa
aoeaaeueii aeee yoei aeieeaaeii e aue aioia ethaie oeaiie aeiaanoe aai
aei aeaeaaaoia nuacaea. Oaea a oiaea ?aaiou nuacaea ii ia ?ac aa/a?aie
i?eaeaoae e naaa Iiniaeiaa e aeeeoiaae aio naie caia/aiey e iunee a
aeieeaae, eioi?ua o iaai iiyaeyeenue i?e /oaiee iiaeaioiaeaiiuo
iaoa?eaeia. E a eiioea eiioeia ai a?aiy iaeiiai ec ia?a?uaia iaaeaeo
canaaeaieyie O?ouaa ?aoeeny ni?ineoue ae?oaeo /eaiia I?aceaeeoia OeE:

– Oiaa?eue, /oi iu aoaeai aeaeaoue n io/aoiuie aeaiiuie oiaa?eua
Iiniaeiaa?

N?aco aea ?acai?aeny y?inoiue nii?. Oa aea Iieioia, Eaaaiiae/ aunoaaeee
aiieia eiae/iua iieeoe/aneea a?aoiaiou:

– *oi oaay, Ieeeoa, canoaaeyao aeaenoaiaaoue oaeei ia?acii?

– A eae nuacae iieiao, eae ia?oey iieiao?

E aeaenoaeoaeueii, /oi aea iiaoaeeei O?ouaaa aeaenoaiaaoue oaeei
ia?acii? Eae ?aoeeny ii aunooieoue n aeieeaaeii i Noaeeia, ciay, /oi
aieueoeinoai aeaeaaaoia aoaeao i?ioea ?aciaea/aiee? Ioeoaea ii ii/a?iioe
oaeia ioaeanoai e oaa?aiiinoue a eiia/iii oniaoa?

Oi aue iaeei ec ?aae/aeoeo neo/aaa a enoi?ee, eiaaea iieeoe/aneee
?oeiaiaeeoaeue iinoaaee ia ea?oo naith ee/ioth noaeueao e aeaaea aeeciue
ai eiy aunoeo iauanoaaiiuo oeaeae. A ninoaaa iineanoaeeineiai
?oeiaiaenoaa ia auei ie iaeiiai aeayoaey, eioi?ue ?aoeeny au aunooieoue
n iiaeiaiui aeieeaaeii i eoeueoa ee/iinoe. Iaaa?iia, oieueei O?ouaa iia
naeaeaoue yoi – oae niaei, oae yiioeeiiaeueii, a a iaeioi?uo ioiioaieyo
e oae iaiaaeoiaiii. Iaaei auei iaeaaeaoue iaoo?ie O?ouaaa, iaaei auei
i?ieoe /a?ac eniuoaiey no?aaeaieai, no?aoii, i?eniiniaeai/anoaii, /oiau
?aoeoueny ia oaeie oaa.

Aaaeue aiai?y i eoeueoa ee/iinoe Noaeeia ,O?ouaa ia neacae i naiae
i?e/aniinoe e ?ai?anneyi a ia?eiae eieeaeoeaecaoeee.

Oae a /ai aea neiaeiinoue e i?ioeai?a/eainoue /aeiaaea,n eiaiai
eioi?iai iu naycuaaai iaeei ec ia?aeiiiuo iiiaioia iaoaai iaaeaaiaai
i?ioeiai? Enoi?e/aneay caneoaa O?ouaaa caeeth/aeanue i?aaeaea anaai a
?aciaea/aiee eoeueoa ee/iinoe Noaeeia,a aeoeaiuo iiiuoeao
aeaiie?aoece?iaaoue iauanoai e ?aoi?ie?iaaoue ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiue
iaoaieci, a aieueoii aieiaiee e nioeeaeueiui i?iaeaiai, e /aeiaaeo. N
aai eiaiai iu naycuaaai iiai?io a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iieeoeee io
“oieiaeiie aieiu” e ie?iiio nouanoaiaaieth,e ?ac?yaeea. Ii i?e yoii ii
inoaaaeny ii?iaeaeaieai aaeieieno?ioeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu e aue
iaaeaeai anaie /a?oaie noi?ie?iaaaoae aai yiioe. Aai
ineoieiaey,aini?eyoea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe niaea?aeaee a naaa oa naiua
noa?aioeiu,eioi?ua ii iuoaeny ?ac?ooeoue.
Iaeiieiiaieoaaioaaaeaiie?aoeth,ae?oaie ii oayc a o?yneia aeiaiaoecia e
noauaeoeaecia. Aai iienee iooae ?ai?aaiecaoeee iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu ia
iie?aeenue ia eieeaeoea-

iia iiaiea ia?oee e iauanoaa. Eiiiie?othuay iai naaiaeiy ?aneiaaiiinoue
Ieeeou Na?aaaae/a,aai iieeoe/aneay niaeinoue,yia?aey e ii?ie
iaiaoiaeeiay iieeoeeo aioiaiinoue eaeoe ia ?ene oaeeaaeenue a iai n
iaaeinoaoeii iauae eoeueoo?u,neeiiiinoueth e iiniaoiui e
iaiainiiaaiiui ?aoaieyi,a?oainoueth. Ana yoi,aianoa acyoia,ii?aaeaeeei
o?aaaaeeth aai ee/iinoe. O?ouaa aue aaeeeei ooiienoii OO noieaoey. Ii
ene?aiia aa?ee,/oi oaea a iaoa a?aiy,a aeeaeaeoea aeanyoeeaoey,iiaeii
i?eaanoe iauanoai e eiiioiecio. Iacia/aiiue n?ie ianooiee,ii… E ana
aea iu naaiaeiy /anoi aniiieiaai a?a-

iaia “o?ouaaneie iooaiaee”,euai enoiee iiiaeo iuiaoieo ia?aiai a”oii”
aeanyoeeaoee,n?aaieaaai oi iaiiaeaiea n iuiaoiei i?ioeannii.Oi?ioi
neacae i

O?ouaaa ecaaniue niaaoneee eeii?aaeenna? I.?iii:”I?ieaeao nianai
iaiiiai a?aiaie,e caaoaeaony e Iaiaae,e eoeo?oca… A ethaee
aoaeoo aeieai aeeoue a aai aeiiao. Inaiaiaeaeaiiua ei

ethaee… E cea e iaio ieeoi ia aoaeao eiaoue-ie caao?a,ie iineacaao?a.
E enoeiiia cia/aiea aai aeey anao ian iu iniciaai oieueei nionoy
iiiai eao… A iaoae enoi?ee aeinoaoi/ii ceiaeaaa-y?eeo e neeueiuo.
O?ouaa-oa ?aaeeay,oioy e i?ioeai?a/eaay oeao?a,eioi?ay ieeoeaoai?yao
niaie ia oieueei aeia?i,ii e io/aeiiia ee/iia ioaeanoai,eioi?iio o
iaai ia a?ao iio/eoueny anai iai…”

-Iaiy /anoi ni?aoeaatho,eae yoi y ?aoeeny naeaeaoue oio aeieeaae ia OO
nuacaea. Noieueei eao iu aa?eee yoiio /aeiaaeo! Iiaeieiaee aai.
Nicaeaaaee eoeueo. E aae?oa oaeie ?ene… Oae iineieueeo iaiy
eca?aee Ia?aui,y aeieaeai,iaycai neacaoue i?aaaeo. Neacaoue i?aaaeo i
i?ioeii,/aai au yoi iia ie noieei e eae au y ie ?eneiaae. Aua Eaiei
ian o/ee,/oi ia?oey,eioi?ay ia aieony aiai?eoue i?aaaeo,ieeiaaea ia
iiaeaiao. Iu ecaeaeee o?iee ec i?ioeiai e oioaee au,/oiau oaeea o?iee
ecaeaeee e ae?oaea a?aoneea ia?oee,oiaaea iaoa iauay iiaaaea aoaeao
iaania/aia.

–(4)–

Ni aoi?ie iieiaeiu 1953 a. ii eiiaoe 50-o aiaeia a NNN? auee
i?iaaaeaiu ?aoi?iu, eioi?ua aeaaioai?ii io?aceeenue eae ia oaiiao
?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, oae e ia aeaaininoiyiee ia?iaea.

Aeaaiay i?e/eia oniaoa ?aoi?i ninoiyea a oii, /oi iie aic?iaeeee
yeiiiie/aneea iaoiaeu ?oeiaiaenoaa ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii e auee
ia/aou n naeueneiai oicyenoaa, a iioiio iieo/eee oe?ieoth

iiaeaea?aeeo a iannao. Aeaaiay i?e/eia ii?aaeaiey ?aoi?i – iie ia auee
iiaee?aieaiu

aeaiie?aoecaoeeae iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Neiiaa ?ai?anneaioth nenoaio, ia
o?iioee aa iniiao – eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeioth nenoaio. Iiyoiio oaea
/a?ac iyoue-oanoue eao iiiaea ?aoi?iu ia/aee nai?a/eaaoueny oneeeyie
eae naieo ?aoi?iaoi?ia, oae e iiuiui aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneei
aiia?aoii, iiiaieeaoo?ie.

a) Ia ia?aii ianoa n?aaee ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiuo i?iaeai noiyei
aa?a?iia i?iecaiaenoai. O?ouaa, iaaei ioaeaoue aio aeieaeiia, ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth, aea e ii eioa?anai, anaaaea aue aeeaea e ioaeaeai
e?anoueyi, /ai eoi-eeai ec ae?oaeo aunoeo iieeoe/aneeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae.
Ia Ieaioia OeE O?ouaa aunooiee n na?eae aaaeiuo aeey oiai a?aiaie
i?aaeeiaeaiee ii ?acaeoeth naeueneiai oicyenoaa. N iiceoeee naaiaeiyo-

iaai aeiy iie iiaoo iieacaoueny iaaeinoaoi/iuie, ii oiaaea iie eiaee
iaiaeia cia/aiea. Auee oaaee/aiu caeoii/iua oeaiu ia
naeueoici?iaeoeoeeth, aaaaeaii aaaine?iaaiea o?oaea eieoicieeia (aei
yoiai ?anieaoa n ieie i?iecaiaeeeanue eeoue iaeei ?ac a aiae) e o.ae.

O?ouaa inoaeee i?aeoeeo nouanoaiaaiey neaauo oicyenoa ca n/ao
ia?aaea/e ei n?aaenoa neeueiuo, e?eoeeiaae ?acaeooue oi?aaeai/aneee
aiia?ao, iaaeinoaoi/ioth iiiiuue ai?iaea naeueneiio oicyenoao. Ia/aei
ianeieueei iiiu?youeny ?acaaaeaiea

e?anoueyiaie ioeoeu, iaeeiai aeiiaoiaai neioa. Ai iiiaeo oicyenoaao
iiyaeeenue ei?iau, /oi auei iaiuneeii aeey eieoicieea aua aiae iacaae.

Auneacaiiua eaeae, i?eiyoua iinoaiiaeaiey iiaee aeaoue ioaea/o eeoue
ianeieueei eao nionoy. A iii?aaeyoue ca?iiaia oicyenoai o?aaiaaeinue
iaiaaeeaiii.

a) Auoiae iaoee a inaiaiee oeaeeiiuo e caeaaeiuo caiaeue. Yoi aue y?ei
au?aaeaiiue yenoaineaiue aa?eaio ?acaeoey. I?eaiaeiua caiee
iaoiaeeeenue ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia, THaeiie Neae?e, a Iiaieaeuea, ia
O?aea, ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca. N?aaee ieo iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiuie
auaeyaeaee Eacaonoai, O?ae e Neae?ue. Naia eaeay inaiaiey yoeo caiaeue
auea ia iiaie. Iunee i aiciiaeiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey auneacuaaeenue
aua a ia/aea aaea. Iniaaiiinoueth na?aaeeiu 50-o aiaeia -aic?iaeaeaiea
ianniaiai yiooceacia,iniaaiii n?aaee iieiaeaaee. Ia?aiaiu iaaeeaiii, ii
iaoeeiiii oee a no?aia, aucuaay o ieeeeiiia iieiaeuo ethaeae ene?aiiaa
aeaeaiea aianoe naie ee/iue aeeaae a oe?aieaieea iaoa?eaeueiuo iniia
niaaoneiai iauanoaa. Yiooceaci aeee a aeooao ethaeae, a ia oieueei a
eicoiaao, i?ecuaao e ia?oao. Nicaeaeny aeaaii?eyoiue , n
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, iiiaio, eiaaea ianniaue
yiooceaci, aoaeo/e iiaee?aieaiiui iaoa?eaeueiuie noeioeaie e aieiaieai
e nioeeaeueii-auoiaui

i?iaeaiai, iia au aeaoue aeieaia?aiaiiue yeiiiie/aneee e iieeoe/aneee
yooaeo. Iaeiaei aniuoea yiooceacia iieiaeaaee auea aini?eiyoa
?oeiaiaenoaii eae iinoiyiiay, iaeciaiiay e anaaaea a aoaeouai
oi?aaeyaiay neea.

E aania 1954a. ia eacaonoaineie oeaeeia auei i?aaieciaaii nauoa
120 niaoicia. Ia?aioeaeeiieeai i?eoiaeeeinue aeeoue a iaeaoeao, a
oneiaeyo aacaei?iaeuey, niaiu aeanoieeo oieiaeia e ecio?ythuae aea?u.
E?oaeinooi/iay ?aaioa a ia?eiae iinaaiie e oai?i/iie niaiyeanue a
ia?eiae ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeiai ioaeuoa no?ieoaeueiuie ?aaioaie.
Ia?aua ?acoeueoaou oeaeeiiie yiiiae ia iiaee ia aiooaoue iioeiecia.

A 1954a. oeaeeia aeaea nauoa 40 i?ioeaioia aaeiaiai nai?a ca?ia.
Oaaee/eeinue i?iecaiaenoai iyna, iieiea. Ana yoi iicaieeei ianeieueei
oeo/oeoue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiia niaaaeaiea ianaeaiey.

Iaeiaei oniaoe auee eeoue a ia?aua aiaeu. O?aaeaeiinoue ca?iiauo
eoeueoo? ia aiiaue inaiaiiuo caieyo inoaaaeanue ieceie, inaiaiea
caiaeue i?ienoiaeeei i?e ionoonoaee iao/ii-iainiiaaiiie nenoaiu
caieaaeaeey. Neacuaaeanue e o?aaeeoeeiiiay aanoicyenoaaiiinoue. Ia e
n?ieo auee iino?iaiu ca?iio?aieeeua, ia nicaeaiu ?aca?au oaoieee,
ai?th/aai. I?eoiaeeeinue ia?aa?anuaaoue oaoieeo ni anae no?aiu, /oi
oaei?iaeaei noieiinoue ca?ia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iyna, iieiea e o.ae.

Inaiaiea oeaeeiu ioiaeaeioei aic?iaeaeaiea noa?iiaoioiuo
caieaaeaeue/aneeo ?aeiiia ?innee. E ana aea ia/aeueiue yoai inaiaiey
oeaeeiu inoaiaony a enoi?ee eae iiaeeeiiay yiiiay o?oaea, eae ?aaeueiue
anieane yiooceacia, eae y?eay /a?oa a?aiaie, eiaaea no?aia oea e
enoi?e/aeiio iiai?ioo, niaa?oaiiiio OO nuacaeii ia?oee.

No?aia aeeea iaiiaeaieai. I?ioiaeeee iiiai/eneaiiua niaauaiey n
o/anoeai ?aaioieeia i?iiuoeaiiinoe, no?ieoaeuenoaa, o?ainii?oa. Naii
ii naaa yoi yaeaiea auei iiaui – aaaeue ?aiueoa ana aaaeiaeoea
?aoaiey i?eieiaeenue a oceii e?oao, ca cae?uouie aeaa?yie. Ia niaauaieyo
ioe?uoi aiai?eeinue i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aiai, ia

eniieueciaaiee ie?iaiai oaoie/aneiai iiuoa.

Ii i?e iiaecia ?yaea iiaeoiaeia iaaethaeaeenue e noieeea noa?aioeiu
noa?iai. I?e/eiu ionoaaaiee aeaeaeenue a oii, /oi “ni noi?iiu ieieno?ia
e ?oeiaiaeeoaeae” inouanoaeyaony “neaaia ?oeiaiaenoai”, aeey aiaae?aiey
iiaie oaoieee i?aaeeaaaeinue nicaeaaaoue iiaua aaaeiinoaa. Ii i?eioeei
ieaiiai-oeaio?aeeciaaiiie, eiiaiaeii-ath?ie?aoe/aneie nenoaiu niiiaieth
ia iiaeaa?aaeny.

1956 aiae – aiae OO nuacaea – ieacaeny aanueia aeaaii?eyoai aeey
naeueneiai oicyenoaa no?aiu. Eiaiii a yoii aiaeo iaicia/eeny aieueoie
oniao ia oeaeeia – o?iaeae aue ?aei?aeiui. O?iie/aneea a i?aaeuaeouea
aiaeu o?oaeiinoe n oeaaicaaioiaeaie, eacaeinue, noaee ooiaeeoue a
i?ioeia. Aea e a oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao no?aiu eieoicieee, ecaaa-

eaiiua io iaeaieaa oaiaoathueo ieia noaeeineie nenoaiu, iaiiieiaaoae
ca/anooth ainoaea?noaaiiia e?aiinoie/anoai, iieo/eee iiaua noeioeu e
o?oaeo, oaaee/eeanue aeiey aeaiaaeiie iieaou eo o?oaea.

a) A yoeo oneiaeyo a eiioea 1958a. Ii eieoeeaoeaa I.N.O?ouaaa
i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea i i?iaeaaea naeueneioicyenoaaiiie oaoieee
eieoicai. Aeaei a oii, /oi aei yoiai oaoieea iaoiaeeeanue a ?oeao
iaoeiii-o?aeoi?iuo noaioeee (ION). Eieoicu eiaee i?aai iieoiaoue oieueei
a?ociaua aaoiiiaeee. Oaeay nenoaia neicaeeeanue n eiioea 20-o aiaeia e
yaeyeanue neaaenoaeai aeoaieiai iaaeiaa?ey e e?anoueyinoao a oeaeii,
eio i?iio ia iicaieaii auei aeaaeaoue naeueoicoaoieeie. Ca
eniieueciaaiea oaoieee eieoicu aeieaeiu auee ?aniea/eaaoueny n ION
iaoo?iieaoie.

I?iaeaaea oaoieee eieoicai iieiaeeoaeueii neacaeanue ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa aeaeaei ia n?aco. Aieueoay /anoue
eo ieacaeanue ia a ninoiyiee n?aco eoieoue e auiea/eaaea aeaiueae a
?an?i/eo. Yoi iiia/aeo oooaeoeei oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea cia/eoaeueiie
/anoe eieoicia e ii?iaeeei ecaanoiia iaaeiaieuenoai. Ae?oaei
io?eoeaoaeueiui iineaaenoaeai auea oaeoe/aneay iioa?y eaae?ia
iaoaiecaoi?ia e ?aiiioieeia. aei yoiai nin?aaeioi/aiiue a ION Ii caeiio
iie aeieaeiu auee ia?aeoe a eieoicu, ii yoi icia/aei aeey iiiaoeo ec
ieo iiieaeaiea aeeciaiiiai o?iaiy, e iie iaoiaeeee naaa ?aaioo a
?aeiiiuo oeaio?ao, ai?iaeao. Ioiioaiea e oaoieee oooaeoeeinue, oae eae
eieoicu ia eiaee, ea i?aaeei, ia?eia e oe?uoee aeey aa o?aiaiey a ceiiaa
a?aiy, aea e iauee o?iaaiue oaoie/aneie eoeueoo?u eieoicieeia aue aua
iecie.

Neacuaaeenue e o?aaeeoeeiiiua iaaeinoaoee a oeaiao ia
naeueneioicyenoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, eioi?ua auee /?acau/aeii iecee e
ia ieoiaee cao?ao.

Ii ia ianoaeaeaeinue aeaaiia – iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aaeinoaaeaiey
e?anoueyinoao naiaiaeu auai?a oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey. Ainiiaenoaiaaea
iai?aeeiaiiay oaa?aiiinoue a aaniethoiii niaa?oainoaa
eieoicii-niaoiciie nenoaiu, iaoiaeyuaeny iiae i?enoaeueiie iiaeie
ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia.

Ii eaeia-oi ?aoaiea iaeoe auei ioaeii. Aoaeo/e n aeceoii a NOA a
1959a. O?ouaa iiauaae ia iieyo aina?eeaineiai oa?ia?a, eioi?ue au?aueaae
aea?eaeioth eoeo?oco. O?ouaa aue aoeaaeueii iieaiai ath. Ii i?eoae e
auaiaeo, /oi iiaeiyoue “iynioth oeaeeio” iiaeii, eeoue ?aoea i?iaeaio
ei?iii?iecaiaenoaa, a oa a naith i/a?aaeue iie?aaony a no?oeoo?o
iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae.

a) Aianoi o?aaiiieuey iaaei ia?aeoe e oe?ieei e iianaianoiui iinaaai
eoeo?ocu, eioi?ay e ca?ii aeaao, e caeaioth ianno ia neein. Oai aea,
aaea eoeo?oca ia ?anoao, ?aoeoaeueii caiaiyoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, eioi?ua
“naie canioee e eoeo?oco nooao”. O?ouaa n aieueoei ?aaieai noae
aiaae?youe eoeo?oco a niaaoneia naeueneia oicyenoai. Aa i?iaeaeaaee
aieioue aei A?oaiaaeueneie iaeanoe. Yoi auei iaae?oaaoaeuenoaii ia
oieueei iaae aaeiaui iiuoii e o?aaeeoeeyie aaaeaiey e?anoueyineiai
naeueneiai oicyenoaa,

ii e iaae cae?aaui niuneii.Aianoa n oai iieoiea aea?eaeiuo ni?oia
eoeo?ocu, iiiuoea aiaae?aiey aia?eeaineie oaoiieiaee aa aicaeaeu-

aaiey a oao ?aeiiao, aaea iia iiaea aeaoue iieiioeaiiue ?ino, nii-

nianoaiaaee i?e?auaieth ca?ia e ei?ia aeey neioa, aeaenoaeoaeueii
iiiiaaee ni?aaeoueny n i?iaeaiaie naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

Ia naeueneia oicyenoai, eae e i?aaeaea, aeaaeee noa?aioeiu
?aii?oiiaiee, no?aieaiey aiia?aoiuo ?aaioieeia aeiaeoueny cia/eiuo
iieacaoaeae ethaeui, aeaaea iacaeiiiui iooai, aac iniciaiey iaaaoeaiuo
iineaaenoaee.

Naeueneia oicyenoai ieacaeinue ia a?aie e?ecena. Oaaee/aiea
aeaiaaeiuo aeioiaeia ianaeaiey a ai?iaeao noaei iia?aaeaoue ?ino
aa?a?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. E aiiaue auoiae aue, eacaeinue, iaeaeai, ii ia
a iooyo yeiiiie/aneeo, a a iiauo aaneiia/iuo ?ai?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
ia?anoaiiaeao. A 1961a. auei ?ai?aaieciaaii Ieienoa?noai naeueneiai
oicyenoaa NNN?, i?aa?auaiiia a eiinoeueoaoeaiue i?aai. O?ouaa nai

iauacaeae aeanyoee iaeanoae, aeaaay ee/iua oeacaiey, eae aanoe
naeueneia oicyenoai. Ii ana aai oneeey auee ouaoiu. AEaeaaiiai ?uaea
oae e ia i?iecioei. O iiiaeo eieoicieeia iiae?uaaeanue aa?a a
aiciiaeiinoue eciaiaiee.

ae) Oneeeaaeny iooie naeueneiai ianaeaiey a ai?iaea; ia aeaey
ia?niaeoea, aea?aaith noaea iieeaeaoue iieiaeaaeue. N 1959a.
aiciaiiaeeenue aiiaiey ia ee/iua iiaeniaiua oicyenoaa. Auei cai?auaii
eiaoue neio ai?iaeaiai, /oi au?o/aei niaaaeaiea aeeoaeae iaeaieeo
ai?iaeia. Caoai aiiaieth iiaeaa?aeenue oicyenoaa e naeueneeo aeeoaeae.
Ca /aou?a aiaea iiaieiauea neioa a ee/iii iiaeai?uea nie?aoeeinue a
aeaa ?aca. Yoi aue ianoiyuee ?aca?ii oieueei ia/aaoaai

ii?aaeyoueny io noaeeiueiu e?anoueyinoaa. Niiaa cacao/aee eicoiae, /oi
aeaaiia iauanoaaiiia, a ia ee/iia oicyenoai, /oi aeaaiui a?aaii
yaeythony “niaeoeyiou e ooiayaeoeu”, oi?aothuea ia ?uieao. Eieoicieee
auee ecaiaiu n ?uieia, a ianoiyuea niaeoeyiou ia/aee acaeoaaoue oeaiu.

Iaeiaei /oaei ia ianooieei, e a 1962a. i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eiyei
?aoaiea noeioee?iaaoue aeeaioiiaiaenoai iiauoaieai a iieoi?a ?aca oeai
ia iyni. Iiaua oeaiu ia oaaee/eee eiee/anoaa iyna, ii aucaaee aieiaiey a
ai?iaeao. Iaeaieaa e?oiiia ec ieo a a.Iiai/a?eannea iiaeaaeee neeie
i?oaeey. Auee aea?oau.

Auee a no?aia e neeueiua, caaeeoi/iua oicyenoaa, aicaeaaeyaoeany
oiaeuie ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie, oiaaoeie eaaeeoue eae n ia/aeuenoaii, oae e n
iiae/eiaiiuie. Ii iie nouanoaiaaee nei?aa aii?aee neiaeeaoaeny
neooaoeee. O?oaeiinoe a aa?a?iii naeoi?a ia?anoaee.

A neaaeothuai aiaeo aicieeee ia?aaie ia oieueei n iynii, iieieii e
ianeii, ii e n oeaaii. Aeeeiiua i/a?aaee n ii/e auno?aeaaeenue o
oeaaiuo iaaaceiia. Oe?eeenue aioei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua iano?iaiey. E
oiaaea auei ?aoaii aueoe ec e?ecena n iiiiuueth caeoiie aia?eeaineiai
ca?ia. Yoa a?aiaiiay ia?a noaea i?aaie/aneie

/anoueth ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee aieioue aei eii/eiu NNN?. Cieioua
caianu Niaaoneiai Nithca eniieueciaaeenue aeey iiaeaea?aeee, oe?aieaiey
e ?acaeoey aia?eeaineeo oa?ia?neeo oicyenoa, a oi a?aiy eae oicyenoaa
nianoaaiiuo e?anoueyi iiaeaa?aaeenue

aiiaieth. Caoi i?aaiecaoi?u yoiai “iaiaia” iieo/eee iiaue e,
eacaeinue, iaennyeaaiue enoi/iee ee/iiai iaiaauaiey.

Naieeaoiee ieai ?acaeoey ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ( 1959-1965 aa.
) a /anoe ?acaeoey naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aue i?iaaeai.
Aianoi ieaiiauo 70 i?ioeaioia ?ino ninoaaee eeoue 15 i?ioeaioia.

–(5)–

a) NNN? i?aa?aoeeny a iiao/oth i?iiuoeaiioth aea?aeaao. Oii?
ii-i?aaeiaio aeaeaeny ia i?iecaiaenoai, eioi?ia ninoaaeei e ia/aeo 60-o
aiaeia 3/4 iauaai iiaeuaia i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iniaaiii
auno?i ?acaeaaeenue i?iiuoeaiiinoue no?ieiaoa?eaeia, iaoeiino?iaiea,
iaoaeeiia?aaioea, oeiey, iaooaoeiey, yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea. Iauai eo
i?iecaiaenoaa au?in a 4-5 ?ac.

I?aaei?eyoey a?oiiu “A” (i?aaeaea anaai eaaeay, ieuaaay,
aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuay, oeaeetheicii-aoiaaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoe)
?acaeaaeenue cia/eoaeueii iaaeeaiiaa. Iaeiaei e eo ?ino aue
aeaooe?aoiui. A oeaeii n?aaeiaaiaeiaua oaiiu i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
a NNN? i?aauoaee 10 i?ioeaioia. Noieue aunieeo oaiiia iiaeii auei
aeinoe/ue, oieueei aeoeaii eniieuecoy aeanoeea iaoiaeu aaeieieno?aoeaiie
yeiiiieee. ?oeiaiaeeoaee NNN? auee oaa?aiu, /oi oaiiu i?iiuoeaiiiai
?inoa no?aiu aoaeoo ia oieueei aunieeie, ii e aic?anoathueie. Auaiaeu
caiaaeiuo yeiiiienoia i iaecaaaeiii “caoooaiee” oaiiia ii ia?a
aic?anoaiey yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea NNN? ioaa?aeenue eae iiiuoee
noaeeoue i nioeeaeecia ii aiaeiaee n eaieoaeeciii. Oacen ia on-
ei?ythuainy ?acaeoee ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa a NNN? (i?aaeaea anaai
i?iiuoeaiiinoe) i?i/ii aioae a iieeoe/aneoth i?iiaaaiaeo e iauanoaaiiua
iaoee.

a) Ianiio?y ia iiaeaaaeaiea iaoeiiie aacu iiae ia?iaeiia oicyenoai,
aa iao/ii-oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue ia/eiae ionoaaaoue io iio?aaiinoae
a?aiaie. Aunie aue oaeaeueiue aan ?aai/eo e e?anoueyi, caiyouo oyaeaeui
?o/iui e iaeieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui o?oaeii (a i?iiuoeaiiinoe – 40
i?ioeaioia, a naeueneii oicyenoaa – 75 i?ioeaioia). Yoe i?iaeaiu
ianoaeaeaeenue ia ieaioia OeE a 1955a., ia eioi?ii aue ii?aaeaeai eo?n
ia iaoaiecaoeeth e aaoiiaoecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa. *a?ac ianeieueei eao
auei iacaaii e aeaaiia caaii, ooaaoeaoenue ca eioi?ia, iaaeayeenue
auoyiooue anth oeaiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee -oeiey.
Oi?ne?iaaiiia ?acaeoea oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iainiiauaaeinue
oneeaieai aa ?iee a nicaeaiee iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu
eiiioiecia.

a) Iaeiaei neiaieii iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna NNN? noae ooo?i
einiina. A ieoya?a 1957a. aue caiouai ia?aue eneonnoaaiiue niooiee
Caiee. Caoai einie/aneea ?aeaou iiianee a einiin aeeaioiuo, iaeaoaee
Eoio. A a ai?aea 1961a. a einiin oaaioe /aeiaae, ia?aue /aeiaae
ieaiaou, niaaoneee /aeiaae – TH?ee Aaaa?ei.

Iiei?aiea einiina iio?aaiaaei eieinnaeueiuo n?aaenoa. Ca oeaiie ia
noiyee. A yoii aue ia oieueei iao/iue, ii e aiaiiue eioa?an. Aa?eee,
/oi iaaeaeaei oi a?aiy, eiaaea niaanoneea einiiiaaou eae ?aaeooiua
oicyaaa aoaeoo ano?a/aoue a aeaeaeii einiina

iineaioeaa ae?oaeo no?ai, a oii /enea e NOA. Eacaeinue, Niaaoneee Nithc
iaaeiai e i?i/ii noae eeaea?ii iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna
/aeiaa/anoaa.

Aia/aoeythueie aeey niaaoneeo ethaeae, aeey anaai ie?a noaee
aaaaeaiea a yenieoaoaoeeth ia?aiai aoiiiiai eaaeieiea “Eaiei”, ioe?uoea
Einoeoooa yaea?iuo enneaaeiaaiee. Aaconeiaii, yoi auee e?oiiua niauoey.
Ii ie/aai oiaaea ia aiai?eeinue ia iianiinoyo, eioi?ua ianao ianniaia
inaiaiea yaea?iie yia?aee, i iaiaoiaeeiinoe

no?iaeaeoaai niaethaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneie aeenoeeieeiu, iiauoaiey
o?iaiy aaciianiinoe ia yaea?iuo iauaeoao. Ia ociae niaaonoeee ia?iae e
ia aaa?ee a a.Euooui aeec *aeyaeinea, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie i?iecioei
ca?aaeaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie aauanoaaie oa??eoi?ee ?yaea iaeanoae.
Nioie ethaeae iaeo/eeenue, nauoa aeanyoe ouny/ naeueneeo aeeoaeae auee
ionaeaieu ec ?aaeeiaeoeaiie ciiu, oioy aeanyoee ouny/ naeueneeo aeeoaeae
i?iaeieaeaee oai aeeoue aua aeieaea aeanyoeeaoey.

a) A 1957 aiaeo ia/eiatho i?aaei?eieiaoueny iiiuoee ?aoi?i oi?aaeaiey
ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii. Nouanoaiaaaoea naa?oaio?aeeciaaiiua io?aneaaua
ieienoa?noaa, ii iiaieth O?ouaaa, auee ia a ninoiyiee iaania/eoue
auno?ue ?ino i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aianoi ieo o/?aaeaeaeenue
oa??eoi?eaeueiua oi?aaeaiey – niaaou ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Naia ii
naaa eaeay aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie

aeey oaeie ia?iiiie no?aiu iiia/aeo ano?aoeea iieiaeeoaeueiua ioeeeee.
Iaeiaei a oa?aeoa?iii aeey aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu aeooa
yoa ?aoi?ia i?aiiaeiineeanue aa aaoi?aie eae /oaeiaeaenoaaiiue
iaeiiiiiaioiue aeo, niiniaiue ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaieoue yeiiiie/aneoth
neooaoeeth a no?aia: ?ac?oueoue aaaeiinoaaiioth iiiiiieeth,
i?eaeeceoue oi?aaeaiea e ianoai, iiaeiyoue eo eieoeeaoeao,
naaeaine?iaaoue yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea ?anioaee, ?aaeiiia, oe?aieoue
aioo?e eo oicyenoaaiiua nayce, a eoiaa – onei?eoue yeiiiie/aneia
?acaeoea. Oi?aaeaiea aea iai?iiiie noa?ie yeiiiieee inoaaaeinue
oeaio?aeeciaaiiui. Eiaaoeany niiiaiey ioiineoaeueii ?aoi?iu ia
auneacuaaeenue, iineieueeo iia enoiaeeea io naiiai O?ouaaa.

Neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi i?aaiecaoeey niaia?oicia aeaea iaeioi?ue
yooaeo. Nie?aoeeenue aanniuneaiiua ano?a/iua ia?aaicee a?ocia,
cae?uaaeenue nioie aeoaee?iaaaoeo ae?oa ae?oaa iaeeeo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aciuo ieienoa?noa. Aunaiaiaeeaoeany ieiuaaee auee
eniieueciaaiu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Onei?eeny i?ioeann
oaoie/aneie ?aeiino?oeoeee iiiaeo i?aaei?eyoee: ca 1956-1960aa
auei aaaaeaii a no?ie a o?e ?aca aieueoa iiauo oeiia iaoei, aa?aaaoia,
i?eai?ia, /ai a i?aaeuaeouoth iyoeeaoeo. I?iecioei nouanoaaiiia
nie?auaiea aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaeiaei ea?aeeiaeueiuo eciaiaiee a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee ia i?iecioei.
I?aaei?eyoey aianoi iaei/iie iiaee ieienoa?noa iieo/eee iaei/ioth
iiaeo niaia?oicia. Aei i?aaei?eyoey, aei ?aai/aai ianoa ?aoi?ia ia
aeioea, aea e ia iiaea aeieoe, oae eae ia auea aeaaea ni?eaioe?iaaia ia
yoi. Iaaeiaieueiu auee e aunoea oicyenoaaiiua ?o- eiaiaeeoaee
ieienoa?noa a noieeoea, eioi?ua oa?yee iaiaeoth /anoue naiae, noaaoae
oaea i?eau/iie aeanoe. Ii i?iaeioeeaeueiay ath?ie?aoey yoe oaae O?ouaaa
iiaeaea?aeaea.

Aianoi iieneia iaoa?eaeueiie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai iaaioieea
a ?acoeueoaoao naiaai o?oaea auee i?iaaaeaiu eciaiaiey a ii?ie?iaaiee
e iieaoa. ?acoeueoaoii yoiai noaei cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea ?aai/eo,
o?oaeeaoeony ia iniiaa naeaeueiie iieaou, e ?ino /enea iia?aiaiueeia. E
aao oiai iaaunieea iaoa?eaeueiua noeioeu e o?oaeo noaee ?acei
nieaeaoueny. Iaauaiey aea, iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?yaiua n aunieeo o?eaoi, i
?inoa ca?aaioiie ieaou i?eaiaeeee e oiio, /oi ?aai/ea a ianniaii
ii?yaeea noaee iaeaaaoue cayaeaiey i oii, /oi “ca?aaioiay ieaoa aeieaeia
auoue iiauoaia anai aao eneeth/aiey,

eae yoi aiai?ee O?ouaa”.Noaea iieo/aoue ?ani?ino?aiaiea “auaiaeeeiaea”,
o.a. iiaeaiiea ca?aaioiie ieaou aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy.

Ana aieaa aeoeaioth ?ieue noaee ea?aoue ii?aeueiua noeioeu.
Aicieeei iiaia aeaeaeaiea-a?eaaaeu eiiioienoe/aneiai o?oaea. *eaiu
yoeo a?eaaae, ea e /eaiu a?eaaae AeEI (“aeiaiaoue e ia?aaiaoue”) a
ia/aea 30-o aiaeia, noa?aeenue aiaae?eoue eiiioienoe/aneea iaoiaeu a
naith iianaaeiaaioth aeeciue, i?iaiaeeoue aianoa naiaiiia a?aiy,
iiauoaoue niae iauaia?aciaaoaeueiue, oaoie/aneee e i?ioanneiiaeueiue

o?iaaiue. Iaeiaei eaeaaeeci ca/eiaoaeae, aeaeaeaiey ca eiio?oae
aeiaeueii auno?i oaan, noieeioaoenue eae n “a?oauie” iio?aaiinoyie auoa,
oae e n oai, /oi ii/ei aue auno?i naeaeai ath?ie?aoeae ia?oeeiie,
i?ionithciie, eiiniiieueneie, naeaeaaoae ec iaai i/a?aaeioth a?aoo a
“oaaeeoea nioeni?aaiiaaiey”.

Iaeaieueoee oniao a?aaeaeaineee naeoi? yeiiiieee eiae ia iai?aaeaiee
aeeeeuiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa. A NNN? ianniaiai aeeeeuiiaino?ieoaeuenoaa
ia aaee, a eiua iia?eiaeu i?inoi ia no?ieee aeeeuey. Aieia eeoeea e?iaa
ieeeeiiu naiae, ethaee aeeee a caieyieao, a aa?aeao, a eiiioiaeeao.
Iieo/eoue ioaeaeueioth aeaaiono?iaiioth eaa?oe-

?o aeey iiiaeo auee ii/oe ia nauoi/iie ia/oie.Oaiiia, eioi?uie
aaeinue aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai a ia?aie iieiaeia 60-o aiaeia, iaoa
no?aia ia ciaea ia aei, ie iinea yoiai ia?eiaea.

Oaea?aeaoueny ia aunieii o?iaia auei ii iea/o aeaeaei ia anai.
Aeaiiia aeaeaeaiea ia iiaei auoue ianniaui. Ii i?ionithciua i?aaiecaoeee
a iiaiia ca oeeo?aie iuoaeenue aiaea/ue a iaai eae iiaeii aieueoa
ethaeae. A eoiaa ana auei caoi?iaeeciaaii. Ethaiaue e caiieie o?aca,
eicoiao, nei?iniaeinoue auaiaeia e ?aoaiee auee oa?aeoa?iuie /a?-

oaie oiai a?aiaie, aaea iiaeeeiiua iiaaoeee, caaioa i i?inoii ia?iaea
i?e/oaeeeai ia?aieaoaeenue n i?iaeaeoi?noaii, ionoineiaeai, a ii?ie e
yeaiaioa?iui nioeeaeueiui iaaaaeanoaii.

ae) XXI nuacae – ua iaeia iiiuoea ?aaeeeaeueiiai onei?aiey. ?aoi?ia,
i?iecaaaeaiiua ia?aiaiu i?eaaee e caiaoaoaeuenoao a oi?aaeai/aneii
aiia?aoa, naiyi a auiieiaiee oanoiai iyoeeaoiaai ieaia. Iaeiaei
i?eciaoue yoi e aiineoue iaiaoiaeeiua ei??aeoeau ?oeiaiaenoai no?aiu ia
noaei. Auei iaeaeaii ae?oaia ?aoaiea: caiaieoue iyoeeaoiee ieai ia
1956-1960aa naieeaoiei ieaiii ia 1959-1965aa. Oiaaea “iaaeinoa/a”
ia?auo eao iyoeeaoee iie?iaony iiauie ieaiaie. A ea/anoaa iainiiaaiey
aeaiiie ia?u i?eaiaeeeenue ianooaau oicyenoaa,

iaiaooiaeeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey aeeeoaeueiie ia?niaeoeau yeiiiie/aneiai
ieaie?iaaiey.

Oioy a naieeaoiai ieaia aiai?eeinue i iaiaoiaeeiinoe naeaeaoue
?aoathuee ?uaie iaania/aiey ia?iaea aeeeueai, i?iaeoeoaie iio?aaeaiey,
aai iniiaiua eaeae, eae e i?aaeaea, naiaeeeenue e ieaciaiiiio
iia?aaeathuaio ?acaeoeth eaieoaeiaieeo io?aneae

a?oiiu “A”. Noaaeeenue yaiiue ia?aaeueiua caaea/e iieiie iaoaiecaoeee
no?ieoaeueiie eiaeono?ee.

Eiaiii yoio nuacae ciaiaiiaae niaie oi/eo ion/aoa iaoi/iiai,
i?aoaaee/aiii iioeienoe/aneiai i?iaiica ?acaeoey NNN? ia aeeaeaeoaa
aeanyoeeaoea. Ii oi?aeanoaaiii i?iaicaeanee, /oi no?aia anooieea a
“ia?eiae ?acaa?iooiai no?ieoaeuenoaa eiiioienoe/aneiai iauanoaa”.

Noaaeeanue caaea/a – a e?ao/aeoea n?iee aeiaaoue e ia?aaiaoue
iaeaieaa ?acaeoua eaieoaeenoe/aneea no?aiu ii i?iecaiaenoao i?iaeoeoeee
ia aeooo ianaeaiey. Caaeyaeuaay a aoaeouaa, O?ouaa i?eeeaeuaae, /oi
yoi i?iecieaeao i?eia?ii a 1970 aiaeo. Cao?iioe a naiai aeieeaaea
O?ouaa e iaeioi?ua aii?inu oai?ee. Ii naeaeae auaiae i

iieiie e ieii/aoaeueiie iiaaaea nioeeaeecia a iaoae no?aia. Oai naiui,
ii aai iiaieth, ?aoeeny aii?in i aiciiaeiinoe iino?iaiey nioeeaeecia a
iaeiie no?aia.

a) Aaaeiaeoei aioo?eiieeoe/aneei niauoeai eco/aaiiai ia?eiaea aue
XXII nuacae EINN. Ia iai auea i?eiyoa iiaay iia?aiia ia?oee. A oiaea
aai ?aaiou e ?aoaieyo io?aceeanue any i?ioeai?a/eainoue yiioe:
?aaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey i?ioeanna aeanoaeeiecaoeee, ii?aaeaeaiiua oniaoe
yei-

iiie/aneiai ?acaeoey e oaioanoe/aneea, ooiie/aneea ieaiu, oaae e
aeaiie?aoecaoeee aioo?eia?oeeiie aeecie, ?aceia oneaiea eoeueoa ee/iinoe
naiiai O?ouaaa. Auea iioa?yia aeaaiay eeiey ia aeaoeaio?aeecaoeeth
oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeiui oicyenoaii.

Aeey iino?iaiey eiiioiecia i?aaeiieaaaeinue ?aoeoue o?eaaeeioth
caaea/o: a iaeanoe yeiiiie/aneie – iino?ieoue
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoae/aneoth aaco eiiioiecia (o.a. aueoe ia ia?aia
ianoi a ie?a ii i?iecaiaenoao i?iaeoeoeee ia aeooo ianaeaiey;
aeinoeaiooue iaeaunoae a ie?a i?ieaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ; iaania/eoue
naiue aunieee a ie?a

aeeciaiiue o?iaaiue ia?iaea); a iaeanoe nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie
ia?aeoe e eiiioienoe/aneiio naiioi?aaeaieth; a iaeanoi
aeooiaii-eaeaieiae/aneie – ainieoaoue iiaiai, ananoi?iiiaai ?acaeoiai
/aeiaaea. Enoi?e/aneea ?aiee i?ia?aiiu EINN auee a iniiaiii ia?aie/aiu
aeaaaeoeaoueth aiaeaie.

A ia/aea 60-o aiaeia ia?ac eiiioiecia a ianniaii niciaiee
annioeee?iaaeny n eiie?aoiuie e?oiiuie nioeeaeueiuie i?ia?aiiaie.
Nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu-iaycaoaeuenoaa naiaeeeenue e neoaeothuaio:
ai-ia?auo, ?aoeoue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiue aii?in, iieiinoueth
iaani/ea ia?iae ea/anoaaiiuie i?iaeoeoaie ?aoeeiiaeueiiai e
aania?aaieiiai ieoaiey; ai-aoi?uo, iieiinoueth oaeiaeaoai?eoue ni?in ia
i?aaeiaou oe?ieiai iio?aaeaiey; a-o?aoueeo, ?aoeoue aeeeeuiue aii?in,
iaania/ea eaaeaeie naiuea

ioaeaeioth aeaaiono?iaiioth eaa?oe?o; iaeiiaoe, eeeaeaee?iaaoue
iaeieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue e oyaeaeue ?o/iie o?oae a ia?iaeiiii oicyenoaa.

A yoeo caaea/ao ie/aai ooiie/aneiai ia auei. Iie noaee oaeiauie iinea
aaycuaaiey NNN? a iiaue oo? iaaeaeaiiie i?aaeaea aiiee aii?oaeaiey,
?aoeaoae eo iaoa?eaeueiie aacu.

–(6)—

Aieueoia aeeyiea ieacaea ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey “oieiaeiay
aieia”. Iinea ieii/aiey Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu aeiaa?ea ae?oa ae?oao
nithcieeia ii aieoeaeoea?ianeie eiaeeoeee noaei iaoiieeii oayoue.
?ino aeeyiey Niaanoaiai Nithca a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia e ia?aciaaiea oai
i?aaeoaeuenoa ai aeaaa n eiiioienoaie, iiaaaea eeoaeneie ?aaiethoeee,
ia?anoaiea aioeeieiieaeueiiai inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai

aeaaeaeaiey a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee i?eaaee e iiaie ?annoaiiaea nee ia
ie?iaie a?aia, e iinoaiaiiie eiio?iioaoeee iaaeaeo a/a?aoieie
nithcieeaie. Naiui ino?ui noieeiiaaieai aeaoo nee a ia/aea 50-o Iiaia
?oeiaiaenoai iaoae no?aiu i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaei no?aieaiea e aeeiaiecio
aiaoiae iieeoeee. Iii i?aaei?eiyei ?yae iiacaeie ca ?aaaae n oeaeueth
onoaiiaeaiey ee/iuo eiioaeoia n eeaea?aie ae?oaeano-

aaiiuo no?ai. Aaaeiie aaoie a oe?aieaiee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo
nioeeaeenoe/aneeie ainoaea?noaaie auei nicaeaiea I?aaiecaoeee
Aa?oaaneiai Aeiaiai?a – Nithca, i?iaicaeaneaoaai naiae oeaeueth
i?iaaaeaiea iai?iiiie iieeoeee. Cao?iioea iooaiaeue e ioiioaiey iaoae
no?aiu ni no?aiaie Caiaaea. Aue caeeth/ai aeiaiai? i eieeaeoeaiie
aaciianiinoe a Aa?iia n o/anoeai NOA. Ieeii iaaeaeo Ainoieii e Caiaaeii
yaeeny “ea?eaneee e?ecen”(1962 a), aucaaiiue ?aciauaieai Niaaoneei
Nithcii yaea?iuo ?aeao ia Eoaa. E?ecen, iinoaaeaoee ie? ia a?aiue
yaea?iie eaoano?iou aue oeaaeai n iiiiuueth ia?aiai?ia e aeinoeaioouo ia
ieo eiii?iiennia. Iinea yoie eoeueieiaoeee “oieiaeiie aieiu” ia/aeny
iaaeeaiiue i?ioeann oeo/oaiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo Ainoieii e Caia-

aeii.Iooaiaeue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaieyo auea ?aaeueiie e iicaieeea
ethaeyi iiiaeo no?ai ii-eiiio acaeyiooue ae?oa ia ae?oaa.

A ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u a eiioea 50-o – ia/aea 60-o aa i?iyaeyeenue
i?ioeai?a/eaua oaiaeaioeee. Iauee iiaeoiae e eoeueoo?iie n?aaea
ioee/aeny i?aaeiei no?aieaieai iinoaaeoue aa ia neoaeao
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie eaeaieiaee. Ii nai i?ioeann iaiiaeaiey ia
iia ia aucaaoue iaeeaeaiey eoeueoo?iie aeecie. A oi aea a?aiy O?ouaa
aeiaieueii /ooei ii/oanoaiaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?i a
iaeiii ec aeaaiii caaiueaa eoeueoo?u – a oeiea: n?ie iao/aiey a n?aaeiae
oeiea aue oaaee/ai aei 11 eao, a n aeaayoiai eeanna o/aueany aeieaeiu
auee inaaeaaoue i?iecaiaenoaaiua niaoeeaeueiinoe. Ie iaoa?eaeueiie
aacu, ie i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneeo eaae?ia aeey yoiai ia nouanoaiaaei.

Aaaeioth ?ieue a aeooiaiie aeecie nua?aei iaeioi?ia ?ane?aiiuaiea a
enoi?e/aneie iaoea. Ianiiiaiiui auei e iaeeaeaiea a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eoeueoo?a. Aicieeee iiaua eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiua aeo?iaeu:
“THiinoue”, “Iieiaeay aaa?aeey”. A Iineaa ioe?ueny iiaue oaao?
“Nia?aiaiiee”, eioi?ue i?eaeae aieiaiea ia oieueei aeooaeueiuie
iinoaiiaeaie, ii e ea?ie iiiaeo aeoa?ia. A auo ethaeae aoiaeeei oaeaae-

aeaiea. Iaeiaei i?ioeai?a/eainoue eoeueoo?iie iieeoeee aeaaaea naay
ciaoue a oii, /oi iaeioi?ua i?iecaaaeaiey i?eieiaeenue O?ouaaui e
?yaeii aeayoaeae eoeueoo?u a oouee. Iieeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai no?aiu a
ia/aea 60-o aa no?aieeinue oaea?aeaoue eoeueoo?o a aeanoeeo ?aieao. Ii
ana aea i?iaeaaeenue niaeua, aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiua, i?iieeiooua

i?aaaeie e a?aaeaeainoaaiiinoueth i?iecaaaeaiey. Auee iaia/aoaiu
aeieoiaioaeueiua iiaanoe e ainiiieiaiey ?ane?aaoeo oaeanu iacaeiiiuo
?ai?annee, aan/aeiaa/iiai auoa noaeeineeo eaaa?ae.

1962-1964 aa. inoaeenue a iaiyoe iiiaeo ethaeae eae aiaeu aioo?aiieo
iao?yaeeoe e ?inoa iai?yaeaiiinoe. Oooaeoeeinue i?iaeiaeuenoaaiiia
niaaaeaiea ?anoouaai ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey. Oeaiu ieacaeenue
caii?iaeaiiuie.I?e/eiie yoiai auei ?aceia iiauoaiea caeoii/iuo oeai,
eioi?ua noaee iaaiiyoue ?icie/iua.

Neiiaoee i?inouo ethaeae e O?ouaao noaee ineaaaaaoue. Inaiueth 1963 a.
?ac?aceeny iiae e?ecen. A iaaaceiao en/ac oeaa, o.e. oeaeeia ie/aai ia
aeaea. Iiyaeeenue oaeiiu ia oeaa.

Iiauoaiea oeai, iiyaeaiea iiauo aeaoeoeeoia auei io?aaeaieai
ia?anoaiey e?eceniuo yaeaiee a yeiiiieea no?aiu a oeaeii. Oaiiu ?inoa
i?iiuoeaiiinoe noaee caiaaeeyoueny. Caiaaeeeeny oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann.
Iaia?oaeeaoeany naie a ?aaioa i?iiuoeaiiinoe O?ouaa e aai ie?oaeaiea
iuoaeenue aui?aaeoue iooai ae?aeoa e ainnicaeaieth oeaio?aeeciaaiiie
ath?ie?aoe/aneie eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nen-

oaiu noaeeineiai oeia. O?ouaa, n iaeiie noi?iiu, no?aieeny
ia?anoaiiaeaie a ia?oaiia?aoa oeo/oeoue neooaoeeth a yeiiiieea, a n
ae?oaie – noieeiooue aeaa /anoe ia?oaiia?aoa, /oiau iieeoeeie
“?acaeaeye e aeaanoaoe” iaaciianeoue naiiai naay. Ia?oeeiue aiia?ao
?acei au?in. Noaee aeaeeoueny iaeiiu, eiiniiieueneea e i?ionithciua
i?aaiecaoeee. Any ?aoi?ia naaeanue e ?acaeoaaieth aiia?aoa ia?oeeiuo,

ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia. ?aniaae aeanoe aue iaeeoei.

Oo?aoa O?ouaaui ee/iie iiioey?iinoe, iiaeaea?aeee ni noi?iiu
ia?oeeii-oicyenoaaiiiai aiia?aoa, ?ac?ua n iaiaeie /anoueth
eioaeeeaaioeee, ionoonoaea c?eiuo ia?aiai a o?iaia aeecie aieueoeinoaa
o?oaeyueony nua?aee ?ieiaoth ?ieue a aeaea i?iaaaeaiey
aioeath?ie?aoe/aneeo ?aoi?i. Aea e iiiuoee ?aoi?i i?ioiaeeee
aa?oooa/iuie, aioeaeaiie?aoe/aneeie iooyie. Aieueoay /anoue ia?iaea a
ieo ia o/anoaiaaea. ?aaeueiua ?aoaiey i?eieiaeenue aanueia
ia?aie/aiiui e?oaii aunoeo iieeoe/aneeo ?oieaiaeeoaeae. Anoanoaaiii,
/oi i?e iaoaea/a any iieeoe/aneay ioaaonoaaiiinoue iaaeaea ia /aeiaaea,
caieiaaoaai ia?aue iino a ia?oee e i?aaeoaeuenoaa. O?ouaa aue ia?a/ai ia
ionoaaeo. A 1964a. ii iuoaeny aeoeaece?iaaoue ?aoi?iaoi?neoth
aeayoaeueiinoue, ?anii?yaeeaoenue ia/aoue iiaeaioiaeo i?iaeoa iiaie
Eiinoeoooeee NNN?.

Ao?iua iineaaenoaey i?aia?aciaaiey a NNN?, iaiineaaeiaaoaeueiua e
i?ioeai?a/eaua, ana aea noiaee au?aaoue no?aio ec ioeaiaiaiey
i?aaeoanoaothuae yiioe.

Ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiay iiiaieeaoo?a aeiaeeanue oe?aieaiey naieo
iiceoeee, iaeiaei iaaeiaieuenoai aaniieieiui eeaea?ii a aa ?yaeao
ia?anoaei. ?inei ?aci/a?iaaiea eioaeeeaaioeee no?iai aeice?iaaiiie
iiiaieeaoo?iie “iooaiaeueth”. ?aai/ea e e?anoueyia onoaee io ooiiie
ai?ueau ca “naaoeia aoaeouaa” i?e oooaeuaiee oaeouae aeecie.

Ana yoi iiiiaei ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiaieeaoo?a aac
eaeeo-eeai iauanoaaiiuo iio?ynaiee ecaaaeoueny io I.N.O?ouaaa. Ii aue
iaaeiai a “aaethioa?ecia”, niyo ni anao iinoia e ioi?aaeai ia iaineth.
Ia?aui nae?aoa?ai OeE noae E.E.A?aaeiaa.

Iaia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eieiaao ?aoaiea i ia/aea iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo
?aoi?i. Ia?aua oaae ?aoi?iu 1965a. anaeyee iaaeaaeaeu. Onei?eeny
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino. Ainueiay iyoeeaoea, niaiaaoay ii a?aiaie n
i?iaaaeaieai ?aoi?iu, ieacaeanue ii ?yaeo aaaeiaeoeo yeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae auiieiaiiie. Ii e ia/aeo 70-o aa. nouiinoue

?aoi?iu ieacuaeanue eneaaeaia ianoieueei, /oi iia oaeoe/anee ia?noaea
aeaenoaiaaoue. Aeaaiuie i?e/eiaie, i?eaaaeoeie e iaoniaoo ?aoi?iu,
yaeyeenue iaaeaeaiea aieueoeinoaa eeaea?ia
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieee ioeacaoueny io i?eau/iuo iaoiaeia
oi?aaeaiey, /aio niioonoaiaaei naa?ouaaiea ?iaeeo i?aia?aciaaiee a
iieeoe/aneie noa?a.

C A
E E TH * A I E A

A 1964 aiaeo caaa?oeeanue iieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue

I.N.O?ou?aa, a oa/aiea aeanyoe eao aicaeaaeyaoaai Niaaoneee Nithc. Aai
aeanyoeeaoea ?aoi?i auei i/aiue o?oaeiui a?aiaiai. Eiaiii ia yoi a?aiy
i?eoiaeeony ia/aei ?aciaea/aiey i?anooieaiee noaeeineie nen-oaiu.
Oaeeaeoaeueiui e ia ia?aue acaeyae ia eiae/iui eaaeaony iinoo-iie
I.N.O?ou?aa, auaoaai «naiei /aeiaaeii» a ie?oaeaiee Noaeeia. Aai
aeieeaae ia OO nuacaea EINN i?iecaae yooaeo ?aci?aaaoaeny aiiau ia
oieueei a NNN?, ii e ai anai ie?a. ?ooioee noa?ua aeiaiu e noa-?ua
ieou. Ethaeu oaeaeaee ?aaeee oioaeeoa?ecia. No?aia caia?ea, a ca oai
iinoaiaiii ia/aeinue aic?iaeaeaiea Niaaoneiai Nithca. ?aoi?iu nu-iaeenue
iaeia ca ae?oaie. Eo aaia?aoi?aie auee ethaee ec aeeaeaeoaai
ie?oaeaiey I.N.O?ou?aa e, i?aaeaea anaai, ii nai. Ieeeoa Na?aaaae/
niaoee – oioae iiiai oaeaeaoue i?e naiae aeecie. Niaoee e ioeaaeny,
oa?iae ii?aaeaiey io iiiiceoeee e niiaa iiaeieiaeny.

I?e/eiie iiiaeo iaoaea/ I.N.O?ou?aa, aeaenoaeoaeueii, auea niaoea
e aai ac?uaiie oa?aeoa?. Iaeiaei ai anao aai aeaeao anaaaea /aoei
i?iniao?eaaeinue no?aieaiea e oiio, /oiau iaoa no?aia auea ia?aie. E
iia aeaenoaeoaeueii auea ia?aie. Aac Niaaoneiai Nithca io-iuia ia
?aoaeny ie iaeei aaaeiue iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aii?in. Aaaaiiiey NOA auea
eeeaeaee?iaaia, e iie auioaeaeaiu auee n/eoaoueny ni acaey-aeaie NNN?.

Oeaia iiaaae niaaoneeo ethaeae auea iaiaeie. Ie?iaia eeaea?noai
i?aaeuyaeei n/?o, e yoio n/?o aue iaiaeue. An? iaiueoa n?aaenoa
in-oaaaeinue a athaeaeaoa ia oeo/oaiea aeecie ?yaeiaiai niaaoneiai
/aeiaa-ea. Anoanoaaiii, yoi ia aucuaaei ainoi?aa ethaeae. Ii an? aea
caaioa i ioaeaeao i?iyaeyeanue ia ia neiaao, a ia aeaea. Niaaoneea
ethaee aii-/eth oaaaeeeenue, /oi oaeay ino?aeoy i?iaeaia eae aeeeeuiay
?aoaaony e ?aoaaony iuooeii. A iaaaceiao iiyaeyeinue an? aieueoa e
aieueoa i?iiuoeaiiuo oiaa?ia. No?aieeinue iaei?ieoue ethaeae naeueneia
oicyen-oai. Iaeiaei o?oaeiinoe i?iaeieaeaee eiaoue ianoi. Ia yoeo
o?oaeiinoyo e nua?aea iiiiceoeey I.N.O?ou?aa. Ii aue eeo?i anao
ainoaea?noaai-iuo e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo iinoia. Iineaaeiea aiaeu
ia?niiaeueiue iai-neiia? nithciiai cia/aiey I.N.O?ou?a i?iaeee a e?oao
naiae naiuee ia caai?iaeiie aea/a, i?aeoe/anee a iieeoe/aneie ecieyoeee.
Oyaeaei ia-?aaeeaae naie ioeaee e naith o/anoue. Noiae iaienaoue naie
iaioa?u, a eioi?uo iiiuoaeny i?iaiaeece?iaaoue e naith
aeayoaeueiinoue e aeeciue no?aiu.Ii ecaeaoue eo ia oaeaeinue. Yoi
ii/oanoaiaae ia naaa e nai O?ouaa. Ec ainiiieiaiee Aeieo?ey
Aieeiaiiiaa: «Eiaaea a ?acoeueoaoa aeai?oeiaiai caaiai?a aai eeoeee
aeanoe, ii, aiciiaeii, aua ia iniciaaay nai, eniuoae ieiaeu naiaai
ioaeanoaaiiiai iiaaaea-iey ia OO nuacaea EINN. Aai ia a?anoiaaee, ia
?anno?aeyee, ia ioi-?aaeee a nnueeo, eae auaaei ?aiueoa, a iicaieeee
aeiaeeaaoue naith aeeciue, eae /aeiaae aeiiaoeaaao naia noa?ia iaeueoi.
Ii O?ouaa, aua-oee Ia?aue nae?aoa?ue OeE ia?oee, aeioioaoee
aeeaeoaeueiue aicaeoo naiaiaeu, ia oioae i?inoi iinoaiaiii oaanaoue, eae
naa/a, oeoi e ia/aeueii. *aeiaae n ieceeie a?aiioiinoueth e
eoeueoo?ie, ii n naii-auoiui oiii e iaiaeie a?aaeaeaineie niaeinoueth,
i?iaeeaoee aieueooth, ao?ioth aeeciue, ia/ae aeeeoiaaoue naie
ainiiieiaiey. Ni a?aiaiai ia yoii, eiia/ii, ociaee a Iieeoath?i, aaaeue
O?ouaa inoaeny iiae eieia-eii Eiieoaoa ainaaciianiinoe, eai e oa
i?aaiecaoeey, eioi?oth ii aicaeaaeye aei niyoey n iinoa, eae iaoei
au?aceeny iaeei aeo?iaeeno, auea eiaiii «ia?oeae ainaaciianiinoe».

I?aaenaaeaoaeue Eiieoaoa Aiae?iiia TH.A. 25 ia?oa 1970 aiaea
nia-oeeaeueiie caieneie iiae a?eoii «Iniaie aaaeiinoe» aeieiaeee a OeE
nea-aeothuaa: «A iineaaeiaa a?aiy I.N.O?ouaa aeoeaece?iaae ?aaioo ii
iiaeaioiaea ainiiieiaiee i oii ia?eiaea naiae aeecie, eiaaea ii caie-iae
ioaaonoaaiiua ia?oeeiua e ainoaea?noaaiiua iinou. A i?iaeeeoi-aaiiuo
ainiiieiaieyo iiae?iaii eceaaathoy naaaeaiey, ninoaaeythuea
eneeth/eoaeueii ia?oeeioth e ainoaea?noaaiioth oaeio ii oaeei
ii?aaea-eythuei aii?inai, eae iai?iiiniiniaiinoue Niaaoneiai
ainoaea?noaa, ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe, naeueneiai oicyenoaa, yeiiiieee a
oeaeii, iao/ii-oaoie/aneea aeinoeaeaiey, ?aaioa i?aaiia
ainaaciianiinoe, aiaoiyy iieeoeea, acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo EINN e
a?aoneeie ia?oeyie nioeeaeenoe/aneeo e eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai e
ae?oaea. ?ane?uaaaony i?aeoeea ianoaeaeaiey aii?inia ia cae?uouo
canaaeaieyo Iieeoath?i OeE EINN…»

Aeaeaa Aiae?iiia i?aaeeaaaao: «I?e oaeii iieiaeaiee e?aeia iaia-oiaeeii
i?eiyoue n?i/iua ia?u iia?aoeaiiai ii?yaeea, eioi?ua iicai-eyee au
eiio?iee?iaaoue ?aaioo I.N.O?ouaaa iaae ainiiieiaieyie e
i?aaeoi?aaeeoue aiieia aa?iyoioth ooa/eo ia?oeeiuo e ainoaea?noaaiiuo
nae?aoia ca a?aieoeo.

I.N.O?ou?a oia? a 1971 aiaeo. Iioi?iiai ia Iiaiaeaae/ueai eeaaeaeua.
Ia iiaeea onoaiiaeai i?eaeiaeueiue athno, auiieiaiiue iu-ia ciaiaieoui
Y?inoii Iaecaanoiui, eioi?ue a nai? a?aiy oae e ia iao?e acaeiiiiieiaiea
I.N.O?ou?aa e aue auioaeaeai yiea?e?iaaoue ca a?aieoeo. Iaeia iieiaeia
athnoa o?iiay, a ae?oaay – naaeay, /oi aeaen-oaeoaeueii iauaeoeaii
io?aaeaao aeayoaeueiinoue I.N.O?ou?aa, inoaaea-oaai cia/eoaeueiue neaae
a enoi?ee Niaaoneiai Nithca.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Aaeaeoaae A.E. « Oa 10 eao. Ainiiieiaiey i O?ouaaa ». I., 1989.

2. Aenthoei TH.A. I.N.O?ouaa: « Iu aeieaeiu neacaoue i?aaaeo i eoeueoa
ee/iinoe » //

O?oae 1988. 13 iiya?y.

3. « Ieeeoa Na?aaaae/ O?ouaa iaoa?eaeu e aeia?aoee ». Nino. TH.A.
Aenthoei I., 1989.

4. Aiaei A. « Eiiai ia aeaii » . I., 1988.

5. Ao?eaoeeee O.I. « Aiaeaee e niaaoieee ». I.,1990.

6. Ao?eaoeeee O.I. O?ouaa. « Oo?eoe e iieeoe/aneiio ii?o?aoo » // Iiaue
ie? 1988.

?10.

7. Aieeiaiiia Ae.A. « Naiue aiaeaeae » . T.1., I., 1995.

8. Aieeiaiiia Ae.A. « Nae?aoiue aeieeaae i Noaeeia » // Iiaia a?aiy
1989. ?16.

C.26-29.

9. Eneaiaea?ia A.A. Iaioa?u I.N. « O?ouaaa eae enoi?e/aneee enoi/iee »
// Aii?inu

enoi?ee 1995. ?5-6. C.95-100.

10. Eicth?aiei TH. « Ia/aei eeaa?aeecaoeee » // Iacaaeneiay aacaoa 1996.
23 oaa?aey.

11. Nieaeaieoeui A.E. « A?oeiaeaa AOEAA » O.3., I., 1991.

12. O?ouaa I.N. « I eoeueoa ee/iinoe e aai iineaaenoaeyo » // Ecaanoey
OeE EINN 1989.

?3. N.128-17

13. Aieiaoaa I., Eoeaoia N. « Enoi?ey e ia?ano?ieea ». I., 1989, 284 n.

14. Aieeiaiiia Ae. « Aucaaoue e i?aaeoi?aaeeoue ».”Niaa?oaiii
nae?aoii”.N4 (59), 1994, no?.6-7

15. “Enoi?ey Ioa/anoaa”  0O/aaiee aeey 11-ai eeanna n?aae. oe.

A.I. Ino?ianeee, A.E. Noa?oeaa, A.A. Noa?eia, A.I. Nie?iia.

Iineaa, Ecae. I?inaauaiea, 1992a.

16.Aa?a?iay iieeoeea EINN a 50-a – 60 aiaeu. 0

AEo?iae N9 “Aii?inu enoi?ee EINN” E.A. ?oneiia, Iineaa, 1988a.

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