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Партия в политической жизни общества

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N I Ae A ? AE A I E A.

Aaaaeaiea. 2 no?.

1. Oi?ie?iaaiea iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e eo ooieoeee.

1.1. Nouiinoue, iniiaiua i?eciaee iieeoe/aneeo

ia?oee. 3 – 4 no?.

1 .2. I?ienoiaeaeaiea ia?oee. 5 – 7 no?.

2. No?oeoo?a e ianoi ia?oee a iieeoe/aneii i?ioeanna.

2.1 Einoeoooeeaeecaoeey ia?oee. 8 – 9 no?.

2.2 Oeiieiaey ia?oee e ia?oeeiuo nenoai. 10 – 13 no?.

Caeeth/aiea. 14 no?.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. 15 no?.

Aaaaeaiea.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy niauoey, i?ienoiaeyuea ia ?inneeneie iieeoe/aneie
a?aia aucuaatho iniaue eioa?an. Iinea aeaci?aaiecaoeee Niaaoneiai
Nithca e eeeaeaeaoeee oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu aai auaoea ?anioaeeee oae
aea iiiaee a iieino oyaeaeiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, a a iaeioi?uo
ianoao niauoey aeioiaeeee aei ioe?uouo noieeiiaaiee. A yoeo oneiaeyo
iaaei ynii i?aaenoaaeyoue ?ieue ia?oee a iieeoe/aneie nenoaia.

E iiyoiio eco/aiea i?iaeaiu nouanoaiaaiey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a
iauanoaa, a oaeaea aeeyiea eo ia iauanoai ia oo?a/eaaao naiae
aeooaeueiinoe.

A oeaio?a aieiaiey aeaiiie ?aaiou aoaeao enoi?ey ca?iaeaeaiey,
noaiiaeaiey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e eo ?iee a iauanoaa.

Aeooaeueiinoue aua?aiiie iiith oaiu enneaaeiaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony aua
e oai, /oi iinea i?ae?auaiey ainiiaenoaa EINN ia ?inneeneie
iieeoe/aneie noeaia noaee iiyaeyoueny iiiaeanoai ia?oee e
iauaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua i?aoaiaeotho ia o/anoea a nouanoaeaiee aeanoe.

Aaeaeo iiiaiieaiiainoe oaiu, a ?aaioa nin?aaeioi/aii aieiaiea ia
enneaaeiaaiee oceiauo i?iaeai, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ?aciinoi?iiithth
aeayoaeueiinoue ia?oee e iinoaaeaiu neaaeothuea caaea/e:

– I?ineaaeeoue enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann io aicieeiiaaiey iauanoaaiiuo

iauaaeeiaiee a ae?aaiai iauanoaa aei aicieeiiaaiey nia?aiaiiuo
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee ni naiae onoiyaoaeny no?oeoo?ie.

– I?iaiaeece?iaaoue nouiinoue, iniiaiua eo i?eciaee e ooieoeee.

– Enneaaeiaaoue einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeeth ia?oee. Iniiaiay oeaeue
aeaiiie ?aaiou caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai:

– Aeaoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo ia?oee, iieacaoue ?acee/iua oa/aiey,
i?eaioaoeeth.

– ?anniio?aoue , eae ooieoeeiie?otho ia?oee a nia?aiaiiie
iieeoe/aneie nenoaia. A ioa/anoaaiiie iieeoieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a,
enneaaeiaaieai iinayuaiiui iieeoe/aneei ia?oeyi ioaaaeaii cia/eoaeueiia
ianoi. A ?aaioa A.A. Ethouo, A.A. Oiieeo “Iieeoieiaey……”y?ei
io?aaeai i?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey ia?oee, ia/eiay io ae?aaiaai iauanoaa e
aei iaoeo aeiae. A yoie ?aaioa ioaaaeaii aieueoia ianoi nia?aiaiiui
?inneeneei ia?oeyi, eo ?iee a nia?aiaiiie ?innee.

A noaoueaE.A. Nie?iiaa “Iniiaiua i?eciaee e ooieoeee iieeoe/aneeo
ia?oee” (E.A. Nie?iia ” Iieeoieiaey”, I.1993.) ia i?eia?ao e?oiiaeoeo
iieeoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee ie?a iieacaia no?oeoo?a e oeiieiaey ia?oee.

1.1. Nouiinoue , iniiaiua i?eciaee iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee.

Iaiouaieaiie /anoueth iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu nia?aiaiiiai
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iauanoaa yaeythony iieeoe/aneea ia?oee. Ia?oey- yoi
iieeoe/aneay iauanoaaiiay i?aaiecaoeey, eioi?ay ai?aony ca aeanoue eee
ca o/anoea a inouanoaeaiee aa. I?e nioeeieiae/aneii aiaeeca
ia?ainoaiaiiie caaea/ae aoaeao niiniaiinoue ia?oee oaeiaeaoai?youe
iio?aaiinoue ethaeae a annioeeeaoeee ae?oa n ae?oaii.

A iniiaaiee aeayoaeueiinoe ia?oee iiaoo eaaeaoue ?acee/iua
a?oiiiaua iio?aaiinoe, e i?aaeuyaeyaiua e aunoei ainoaea?noaaiiui
einoeoooai. Oai naiui /a?ac ia?oee ianaeaiea cayaeyao i naieo a?oiiiauo
o?aaiaaieyo. I?aayuea no?oeoo?u oiaea eniieuecotho ia?oee aeey
ia?auaiey e ia?iaeo ca iiaeaea?aeeie eee ?aoaiey oao eee eiuo
aii?inia. Aeayoaeueiinoue ia?oee yaeyaony aaaeiui iaoaieciii
?ani?aaeaeaiey e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeanoiuo ?ano?nia.

Io ae?oaeo iieeoe/aneeo einoeoooia ia?oeth ioee/aao naienoaaiiua ae
ooieoeee a ioiioaieyo aeanoe e iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua niiniau eo
inouanoaeaiey, ii?aaeaeaiiay aioo?aiiyy i?aaiecaoeey e no?oeoo?a,
iaee/ea iieeoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu aeaenoaey oie eee eiie eaeaieiae/aneie
nenoaiu i?eaioaoeee, a oaeaea ?yae ae?oaeo iaiaa cia/eiuo i?eciaeia.

Ooieoeee ia?oee , eioi?ua iaeaieaa y?ei aeaiiino?e?otho aa ianoi a
iieeoe/aneii i?ioeanna, au?aaeatho iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaoo a?oii caaea/:
aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo. E aioo?aiiei ooieoeeyi ioiineony iaai? /eaiia,
iieiaeaiea ia?oeeiie eannu, ?aaoee?iaaiea eiouanoaaiiuo eee ae?oaeo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo ia?ae/iuie no?oeoo?aie, ia?oeeiie yeeoie e ?yaeiauie
/eaiaie.

Inouanoaeaiea aea aiaoieo iniiaiiieaaathueo caaea/ i?aaeiieaaaao:

– ai?ueao ca caaiaaaiea e eniieueciaaiea iieeoe/aneie aeanoe a
eioa?anao oie eee eiie a?oiiu ianaeaiey, iniiauaaynue ia naieo
i?ia?aiiao ii ?aoaieth, eae aioo?aiieo, oae e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?iaeai.

– iaania/aiea nayce iann n ainoaea?noaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie e
einoooooeeaiaeecaoeeth iieeoe/aneiai o/anoey a?aaeaeai,

– ioai? e ?ae?ooe?iaaiea iieeoe/aneeo eeaea?ia e yeeo ia anao
yoaiao iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu , o/anoea n eo iiiiuueth oi?aaeaieai aeaeaie
iauanoaa.

– niaeaniaaiea nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania oeaeae, i?ia?aii n ae?oaeie
o/anoieeaie iieeoe/aneiai i?ioeanna.

– inouanoaeaiea iieeoe/aneie nioeeaeecaoeee a?aaeaeai. Iniiaiui nii
niaii inouanoaeaiey yoeo ooieoeee yaeyaony auaeaeaeaiea ia?oeae naieo
eaiaeeaeaoia ia auai?ao a caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i?aaiu ainoaea?noaa e
ai?ueaa ca eo eca?aiea. Ia?oee auaeaeaatho naieo eeaea?ia e iuoathony
neeiieoue e iiaeaea?aeea naiaai eaiaeeaeaoa, eae iiaeii aieueoaa /enei
ianaeaiey.

Ia?oee, eioi?ua iaea?aeaee iiaaaeo ia auai?ao, eee noiaaoea
i?iaanoe a caeiiiaeaoaeueiua i?aaiu naieo i?aaenoaaeoaeae, iieo/atho
aiciiaeiinoue o/anoaiaaoue a oi?ie?iaaiee i?aayuae yeeou, a iiaeai?a e
onoaiiaea oi?aaeai/aneeo eaae?ia. I?aaeaea anaai, /a?ac ieo ia?oee

iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue o/anoaiaaoue a i?eiyoee eaaaoeaiuo ?aoaiee.

1.2. I?ienoiaeaeaiea ia?oee.

Niia?ie/anoai iieeoe/aneeo a?oii, iauaaeeiaiiuo aie?oa aeeyoaeueiuo
naiae eee iiioey?iuo eeaea?ia, a oa/aiea iiiaeo aaeia ninoaaeyei
oa?aeoa?ioth, nouanoaaiioth /a?oo iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee. Ii oaeea
i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua iu iacuaaai iieeoe/aneeie ia?oeyie, aicieeee a
Aa?iia e a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao ia ?aiaa ia/aea 19 aaea.

Iai?eia?, a oaenoa aia?eeaineie Eiinoeoooeee, Aeaeea?aoeee i?aa e
naiaiae a?aaeaeaieia, a ae?oaeo iieeoe/aneeo aeieoiaioao eiioea 18 a.
iao aeaaea oiiieiaiey i iieeoe/aneeo ia?oeyo.

Ia?aua aicieeee a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee e i?aaenoaaeyee niaie iaaieueoea
a?oiie?iaee , aieueoae /anoueth ia eiaee i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u.
Iie au?aaeaee eioa?anu cia/eoaeueiie /anoe ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna.

A ia?eiae ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee XVII – XVIII a.a ia?oee , eae

iieeoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee ia i?iaiaeeee naiinoiyoaeueiie iieeoeee, a
/aua anaai iiaeaa?aaeenue aeeyieth ?aeeaeiciuo, nineiaiuo, naiaeii
?iaeiauo iauaaeeiaiee.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ia?oee auei aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiui e neiaeiui
i?ioeannii. Ia?aiia/aeueii aeoeaii aeaenoaiaaee oieueei a ia?eiae
ecae?aoaeueiuo eiiiaiee. Iie ia eiaee iinoiyiii aeaenoaothueo ianoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee.

Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee n i?eau/iuie aeey ian i?eciaeaie
(ioi?ieaiiia /eainoai a ia?oee, ia?oeeiua aeeaou, aciinu,
aioo?eia?oeeiay aeenoeeieeia) iiyaeeenue a Aa?iia n aicieeiiaaieai
ianniaiai ?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey. Nouanoaothuea nae/an iieeoe/aneea
ia?oee ii i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a iiaeii ioianoe e aeaoi iniiaiui
oeiai: i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieaiiui e i?aaiecaoeeiiii iaioi?ieaiiui. A
ia?oeyo ia?aiai oeia /eaiu ia?oee iieo/atho ia?oeeiua aeeaou e ieaoyo
ia?oeeiua aciinu. A i?aaiecaoeeiiii iaioi?ieaiiuo ia?oyo iao
ioeoeeaeueiiai /eainoaa, a aeey oiai, /oiau n/eoaoueny /eaiii oaeie
ia?oee, aeinoaoi/ii i?iaieiniaaoue ia auai?ao ca auaeaeiooiai ath
eaiaeeaeaoa. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie i?eia?aie aoi?iai oeia ia?oee
yaeythony ?anioaeeeaineay e aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oee NOA. Oai a 30-a
aiaeu XX aaea oi?ie?oaony nia?aiaiiay aeaooia?oeeiay iiaeaeue, aeey
eioi?ie oa?aeoa?iu iniiaiua i?eciaee:

– ianniaia aiaea/aiea ecae?aoaeae a iieeoe/aneee i?ioeann,

– enneaaeiaaiea ?aoi?iaoi?neeo iaoiaeia aaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeae,

– aic?anoaiea ?iee ia?oeeiuo eeaea?ia a iauanoaaiiie aeecie,

– aeeiaieci iieeoe/aneeo ioiioaiee.

Iaeaieueoee ?ino /eneaiiinoe ia?oee a ?innee i?eoaeny ia iiaeuai
?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey a 1905 a. ia/aei yoiio i?ioeanno ioe?ue
oea?neee iaieoano io 17 ieoya?y.

A iieeoe/aneie aeecie ?innee a ia?aie /aoaa?oe XX aaea a ?aciua
ia?eiaeu ooieoeeiie?iaaei 87 ia?oee.

Nae/an a ie?a aeaenoaoao aieaa 500 ia?oee e iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

Iauaa, /oi i?enoua nia?aiaiiui iieeoe/aneei ia?oeyi e /oi
ioee/aao eo io ia?oee ia/aea e ia?aie iieiaeiu 19 a., – iaee/ea
ia?oeeiiai aiia?aoa, o.a. i?aaieciaaiiie a?oiiu ethaeae, aeey eioi ?ie
ia?oeeiay, iieeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue yaeyaony i?ioanneae.

No?oeoo?a ia?oeeiiai aiia?aoa ioaa/aao i?aaeaea anaai caaea/ai
aaaeaiey ecae?aoaeueiie ai?ueau.

Eaaeaeay ia?oey nicaeaaaeanue aeey caueou eioa?ania
ii?aaeaeaiiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu. Iinoaiaiii iia i?eaeaeaea e naaa ana
iiaua e iiaua neie ecae?aoaeae A ?acoeueoaoa ia?oee noaee a
aieueoeinoaa naiai iauaaeeiaieyie, a eioi?uo a oii eee ae?oaii
ni/aoaiee i?aaenoaaeaiu eioa?anu ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. Ii yoie
i?e/eia ia?oee, eae i?aaeei, iaiaeii?iaeiu e eiatho aioo?e naay
o?aeoeee- a?oi-

iu, auaeaeaathuea i?ia?aiiu, ioee/iua io iauae i?ia?aiiu ia?oee.

Nouanoaiaaiea a ia?oee ianeieueeeo o?aeoeee, iai?aaeaiee, ia
ineaaeytho ia?oeth, a iaiai?io, aeaeatho aa iieeoeeo aieaa aeaeie,
iineieueeo iiiiaatho ae nio?aieoue naia aeeyiea n?aaee ?aciiia?aciuo
a?oii ecae?aoaeae, o/eouaaoue iiiaiia?acea nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo
, iieeoe/aneeo eioa?ania a iauanoaa.

Iieeoeea ia?oee au?aaaouaaaony a oiaea aioo?eia?oeeiie ai?ueau
iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie o?aeoeeyie e oa/aieyie.

Oa neie iauanoaa, n?aaee eioi?uo ia?oey iieuecoaony
iaeaieueoei aeeyieai e eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaatho aa ia i?ioyaeaiee
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, ninoaaeytho aa nioeeaeueioth aaco, a ecae?aoaee,
?aaoey?ii ioaeathuea ae aieina ia auai?ao,- aa yeaeoi?ao.
O?aaeeoeeiiiie nioeeaeueiie aacie nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ia?oee a
Aa?iia aue ?aai-

/ee eeann; eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo iiaeaea?aeeaaee n?aaeiea neie
(neoaeauea, eioaeeeaaioeey, iaeeea i?aaei?eieiaoaee e o.ae.); aa?a?iua
ia?oee iie?aeenue ia e?anoueyinoai; ia?oee, caieiaaoea eiina?aaoeaiua
iiceoeee, iieo/aee iiaeaea?aeeo e?oiiuo nianoaaiieeia, /anoe
e?anoueyinoaa e n?aaeieo neiaa.

I?eia?ii a na?aaeeia 20 a. neooaoeey eciaieeanue. E?oiiua ia?oee
iieo/atho ia auai?ao aieina ecae?aoaeae , i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e ?acee/iui
a?oiiai ianaeaiey. Oae, ca nioeeae-aeaiie?aoia aieinotho ia oieueei
?aai/ea, ii e neoaeauea, eioaeeeaaioeey, iaeeea e n?aaeiea
nianoaaiieee. Ia?oee eiina?aaoeaiie i?eaioaoeee iiaeaea?aeeaatho ?aai-

/ea e neoaeauea, /eaiu i?ionithcia e i?aaei?eieiaoaee.

2.1 Einoeoooeeaeecaoeey ia?oee.

A i?ia?aiiao ia?oee iau/ii iiae/a?eeaaaony eo iaia?aiea
neoaeeoue eioa?anai ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, aieueoeinoaa a?aaeaeai
anae no?aiu. A i?aeoe/aneie iieeoeea ia?oee no?aiyony o/eouaaoue
eioa?anu ?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee ecae?aoaeae, iineieueeo oieueei oae
iiaeii iaea?aeaoue iiaaaeo ia aeaiie?aoe/aneeo auai?ao. Aianoa n oai ia
auai?ao a aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao (a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a a NOA) ia?oee

i?iaeieaeatho nio?aiyoue naiaia?acea, nianoaaiiia iieeoe/aneia e
eaeaieiae/aneia eeoei. Iai?eia?, io nioeeae-aeaiie?aoia ecae?aoaee
iaeeaeatho i?iaaaeaiey neeueiie nioeeaeueiie iieeoeee, i?eiyoey iiauo
eee niaa?oainoaiaaiey nouanoaothueo i?ia?aii iiiiue nioeeaeueii
iacaueuaiiuo a?oii ianaeaiey.

Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee auioaeaeaiu ?aoaoue a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe
i/aiue ?aciiia?aciua caaea/e, iiyoiio e eiee/anoai i?eienuaaaiuo ei
iaeioi?uie iieeoieiaaie ooieoeee ia?aaaeeei ca aeanyoie.

Ai-ia?auo, yoi ooieoeee caaia iaaeaeo i?aayueie e oi?aaeyaiuie.
Ia?oey anaaaea aunooiaao eae eaiae ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee,
oee?eoee?othuae “naa?oo aiec” e “nieco aaa?o”. Eioaineaiinoue yoeo aeaoo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia iiaeao ia niaiaaeaoue. Neaaeai, a NNN? i?e
Noaeeia ia?aue aue eneeth/eoaeueii iiuiui, aoi?ie ii/oe ennye. Ii a
oneiaeyo eeaa?aeueiie aeaiie?aoee ia neaaeoao iaaeiioeaieaaoue cia/aiea

ia?oee a oi?ie?iaaiee iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey. Ae?oaia aeaei, /oi
caeanue ia?oey i?inoi ia iiaeao ioaea/ueny io iano?iaiey ?yaeiauo /eaiia
e ecae?aoaeae. Yoi iicaieyao ia?oeyi au?aaeaoue nioeeaeueiua eioa?anu.

Ai-aoi?uo, ia?oee auiieiytho ooieoeee aeeoioeyoeee nioeeaeueiuo
eioa?ania. A iauanoaa anaaaea nouanoaotho ?aciiia?aciua e ?acii?iaeiua
eioa?anu, i?aaeii/oaiey, o?aaiaaiey. Iiiyoii, /oi o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue
eaaeaeia ec ieo a iieeoe/aneia ?aoaiea iaaiciiaeii, aea e ia ioaeii:
yoi au naeaeaei iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue oaioe/aneie e iai?aaeneacoaiie.
I?aaeaea anaai, ec niaieoiiinoe eioa?ania iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue
iaeaieaa nioeeaeueii cia/eiua. Aeaeaa e yoe “ioai?iua” eioa?anu
iaiaoiaeeii oaycaoue iaaeaeo niaie, /oiau oaea a aeaea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiie i?ia?aiiu iinoaaeoue ia iieeoe/aneoth iiaanoeo aeiy.
Yoei e caieiathony ia?oee.

A-o?aoueeo aaaeiie ooieoeeae ia?oee yaeyaony iinoaiiaea
eieeaeoeaiuo oeaeae aeey anaai iauanoaa. Auei au aieueoei eneaaeaieai
enoeiu n/eoaoue, /oi ia?oey niiniaia i?aneaaeiaaoue eeoue oa oeaee,
eioi?ua “iinyony a aicaeooa” e auoaeatho ec ianoiyoaeuenoa
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie aa /eaiia e noi?iiieeia. Ie a Eeoaa, ie a ?innee
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iino?iaiey eiiioiecia ia neaaeiaaea ec oaeoueo eioa?ania
ianaeaiey. Ii, aoaeo/e noi?ioee?iaaia ia?oeae, yoa oeaeue aiiaeooaaeea
ieeeeiiu ethaeae ia ?aaeecaoeeth i?ia?aiiu ?aaeeeaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaiey
iauanoaa.

A-/aoaa?ouo, ia?oee caieiathony ?ae?ooe?iaaieai aeanoiie yeeou
e niinianoaotho aa iieeoe/aneie nioeeieecaoeee. iiae ?ae?ooe?iaaieai
neaaeoao iiieiaoue iiaeai? eaae?ia eae aeey naiie ia?oee, oae e ae?oaeo
i?aaiecaoeee, aoiaeyueo a iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio, a oii /enea e
auaeaeaeaiea eaiaeeaeaoia a i?aaenoaaeoaeueiua i?aaiu aeanoe,
eniieieoaeueiue aiia?ao e ath?ie?aoeth.

Iaeiiaoe, ia?oee eiatho aieueoia cia/aiea, aunooiay a
ea/anoaa ?aoa?aioiuo a?oii, ia eioi?ua eiaeeaeae i?eaioe?oao
iiaaaeaiea- naieo noi?iiieeia. Ai iiiaeo no?aiao ethaee, iiaeioynue
naiaeiui o?aaeeoeeyi e ainieoaieth, eniuouaatho neeueioth
yiioeeiiaeueioth i?eaa?aeaiiinoue oie eee eiie ia?oee.

2.2.Oeiieiaey ia?oee e ia?oeeiuo nenoai.

Eeanneoeeaoeeth iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee iau/ii ia/eiatho ii
i?eciaeo aioo?eia?oeeiuo no?oeoo?. A ?aieao iaeiie ec ieo auaeaeythony
eaae?iaua e ianniaua ia?oee, ?acee/athueany ii eiee/anoao /eaiia,
iniiaiui iai?aaeaieyi aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie noaaeeueiinoe e
i?eioeeiai ?oeiaiaenoaa. Ianniaua ia?oee
ioee/athony i?aaeaea anaai iiiai/eneaiiinoueth ninoaaa, oaniie e
iinoiyiiie acaeiinaycueth eo /eaiia. Iniiaiay aeayoaeueiinoue oaeeo
ia?oee eiaao eaeaieiae/aneoth e ainieoaoaeueioth iai?aaeaiiinoue. Iie
aeoeaii o/anoaotho a ecae?aoaeueiii i?ioeanna. ?oeiaiaenoaa a ianniauo
ia?oeyo i?eiaaeeaaeao i?ioanneiiaeueiui iieeoeeai, iinoiyiiie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie ath?ie?aoee, i?e/ai oeaio? aeanoe iaoiaeeony a naiie
ia?oeeiie i?aaiecaoeee. Eiia aeaei- eaae?iaua ia?oee. Yoi iauaaeeiaiea
oae iacuaaaiuo “iioaaeae” n oeaeueth iiaeaioiaee auai?ia e nio?aiaiea
eiioaeoia n oaea aua?aiiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie.

?acee/atho ianeieueei eaoaai?ee “iioaaeae”. Aiia?auo yoi
ethaee, eioi?ua naiei eiaiai eee i?anoeaeai iiauoatho aaoi?eoao
eaiaeeaeaoa a aeaiooaou, caaiaauaatho aio aieina; ai-aoi?uo, oiaeua
i?aaiecaoi?u ecae?aoaeueiuo eiiiaiee; a-o?aoueeo, oeiainenou.

Eaae?iaua ia?oee aeaenoaotho i?aeiouanoaaiii a ia?eiae
i?aaeauai?iuo ia?aoiiia, a a i?iiaaeooeao eo aeoeaiinoue caie?aao. Eae
i?aaeei, iie ioee/athony ionoonoaeai iaoaiecia ioeoeeaeueiiai i?eaia a
yoe ia?oee. ?oeiaiaenoai inouanoaeyaony “iioaaeyie”, i?e/ai iniaaiii
oe?ieea iieiiii/ey eiioeaio?e?othony a ?oeao oao, eoi io eiaie ia?oee
o/anoaoao a i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

?yae ia?oee ?anniao?eaatho, eae iieoiaiieoianniaue -i?iiaaeooi/iu
oei, ia eiathuee naiaai ianoa a eeanneoeeaoeee. Yoi ia?oee, ninoiyuea
oieueei ec eieeaeoeaiuo /eaiia, iai?eia? a?eoaineea eaeai?enou a ia?aua
aiaeu naiaai nouanoaiaaiey. N oeiainiaie oi/ee c?aiey, yoi auea
ianniaay ia?oey, oae eae auai?iua ?anoiaeu iie?uaaeenue ca n/ao aciinia
/eaiia o?aae-thieiiia (eioi?ua e aoiaeeee a ia?oeth ia i?aaao
eieeaeoeaiiai /eainoaa).

Ii oa?aeoa?o ia?ae/iuo i?aaiecaoeee auaeaeytho /aou?a
?aciiaeaeiinoe: ia?oee-eiieoaou; ia?oee-naeoeee; ia?oee-y/aeee; ia?oee
ieeeoeee.

1. Ia?oee-eiieoaou yaeythony eaae?iauie. Yoii?aaiecaoeeiiii
?uoeua annioeeaoeee “iioaaaeae”, e ia?ae/iua i?aaiecaoeee caeanue
i?inoi ionoonoaotho. I?eia?aie iiaeao neoaeeoue Eiina?aaoeaiay e
Eeaa?aeueiay ia?oey Aaeeeia?eoaiee a 19a.

2. Ia?oee-naeoeee eiatho ?acaaoaeaiioth naoue ianoiuo
i?aaiecaoeee. Yoi oeaio?aeeciaaiiua ia?oee n aeiaieueii aeanoeie
aioo?aiiae aeenoeeieeiie, ii a oi aea a?aiy aeiioneathuaa
“ai?eciioaeueiua nayce” iaaeaeo ieciauie iiae?acaeaeaieyie.

3. Ia?oee-y/aeee ioee/athony aua aieaa aeanoeie no?oeoo?ie.

“ss/aeee” nicaeathony, eae i?aaeei, ia ?aai/eo ianoao (ii
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio eee ii oa??eoi?eaeueii i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio i?eciaeo)
Aioo?eia?oeeiua nayce iinyo ii i?aeiouanoao “aa?oeeaeueiue” oa?aeoa?:
“naa?oo” eaeoo aee?aeoeau, “nieco”- io/aou ia eo eniieiaiee.
O?aeoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue cai?auaia, ?oeiaiaenoai iineo no?iai
oeaio?aeeciaaiiue e /anoi aaoi?eoa?iue oa?aeoa?. *eaiu ia?oee iaycaiu
aeoeaii o/anoaiaaoue a eo ?aaioa.

4. Ia?oee-ieeeoeee eiatho aiaiece?iaaiioth no?oeoo?o n a?
aeaaiie ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie i?eioeeiii aaeeiiia/aeey. Oaeea ia?oee
ano?a/athony aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeei. A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia iiaeii i?eaanoe
ooo?iiaua io?yaeu a Aa?iaiee (oioy naia INAeAI auea ia?oeae
naeoeeiiiiai oeia), oa??i?enoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea
iaeioi?uo

no?ai, a eioi?uo aeanyoeeaoeyie aeeeony aieia (Eeaai, Naaa?iay
E?eaiaeey).

Iiiyoea ia?oeeiie nenoaiu ioia?aaeaao niinia acaeiiaeaenoaey
?acee/iuo ia?oee a ai?ueaa ca aeanoue. Noa?aeoei (e iaeaieaa
iiioey?iuie iinae aeaiue) e?eoa?eai, eniieuecoaiui aeey
eeanneoeeaoeee ia?oeeiuo nenoai, yaeyaony eiee/anoaaiiue: auaeaeytho
aania?oeeiua, iaeiiia?oeeiua, aeaooia?oeeiua e iiiaiia?oeeiua nenoaiu.
Ia?aua aeaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe aiciiaeiu eeoue a ni/aoaiee n aaoi?eoa?iuie
?aaeeiaie e iiaoo auoue iacaaiu ia?oeeiuie nenoaiaie oneiaii, eai
cia/eiia iieeoe/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo ia?oeyie caeanue
ionoonoaoao. Aania?oeeiua nenoaiu a ie?a ano?a/athony ?aaeei. Yoi
iaiiiaea nio?aieaoeany ?aaeeiu e iaeioi?ua nio?aieaoeany aeeeoaoo?u,
iaeaaathuea cai?ao ia aeayoaeueiinoue ae?oaeo ia?oee. A ea/anoaa
i?eia?ia iiaeii iacaaoue naiaia?aciua iieeoe/aneea ono?ienoaa E?aia
(iinea naii?inionea Eneaineie ?anioaeeeaineie ia?oee) e Eeaee.
Iaeiiia?oeeiua nenoaiu naienoaaiiu a iniiaiii yaaeeoa?ii-aaoi?eoa?iui,
aaoi?eoa?ii-eiy-

aaeeoa?iui e iiioeenoneei ?aaeeiai. Enoiaey ec nouanoaiaaiey a oie eee
eiie no?aia iaeiiia?oeeiie nenoaiu, iiaeii aeinoaoi/ii oaa?aiii
i?eienuaaoue ae iaeei ec ia?a/eneaiiuo ?aaeeiia.

Eiee/anoaaiiay eeanneoeeaoeey auaeaeyao eeoue aeaa ia?oeeiua
nenoaiu, eioi?ua n eeaa?aeueiie aeaiie?aoeae- aeaooia?oeeioth e
iiiaiia?oeeioth. Aeaaiay neiaeiinoue, naycaiiay n i?eiaiaieai yoeo
iiiyoee, auoaeaao ec iaeioi?ie oneiaiinoe oa?ieia “aeaooia?oeeiay

nenoaia” a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, eioi?ay n/eoaaony a? eeanne/aneei ia?acoeii,
“o?aouee” ia?oee iaae?atho ia auai?ao aei 10% aieinia, a eiee/anoai yoeo
ia?oee aeaaii ia?aaaeeei ca nioith. Iainiiauaay i?aaiia?iinoue
eniieueciaaiey oa?ieia, iau/ii oeacuaatho ia oi, /oi aeanoue an? aea
inouanoaeyaony iiia?aiaiii aeaoiy e?oiiuie ia?oeyie.

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec iaaeinoaoeia e aeinoieinoa aeaooia?oeeiie
e iiiaiia?oeeiie nenoai ecaeaaia caieiae iieeoieiaia. Aieueoeinoai
anaaaea neeiiyaony ia noi?iio ia?aie ec ieo, i?eaiaey neaaeothuea
a?aoiaiou:

1. Ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi aeaooia?oeeiay nenoaia niinianoaoao
iinoaiaiiiio niya/aieth eaeaieiae/aneeo eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo ia?oeyie e eo
iinoaiaiiiio ia?aoiaeo ia aieaa oia?aiiua iiceoeee. A yoi aeaeaao
iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio aieaa onoie/eaie.

2. Ae?oaia i?aeiouanoai aeaooia?oeeiie nenoaiu oniao?eaatho a
oii, /oi iia iicaieyao iaea?aeaaoae iiaaaeo ia auai?ao ia?oee
noi?ie?iaaoue ia iiaeaa?aeaiiia e?ecenai i?aaeoaeuenoai.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anee a ia?eaiaioa i?aaenoaaeaiu eeoue aeaa ia?oee, oi
iaeia ec ieo iai?aiaiii eiaao aaniethoiia aieueoeinoai iano, e auianoe
aiooi iaaeiaa?ey aa eeaea?o- i?aiuea?ieieno?o iaaiciiaeii.

3. N oi/ee c?aiey ecae?aoaey, ianiiiaiiia aeinoieinoai

aeaooia?oeeiie nenoaiu- a oii, /oi iia iaeaa/eo auai? i?e aieiniaaiee.
Ia ioaeii /eoaoue aeanyoee ia?oeeiuo i?ia?aii eee /anaie neaey o
oaeaaeci?a, aieeaoue a ?annoaeaeaiea “aiai?yueo aieia”; ia?oee anaai
aeaa, e niioianoe nianoaaiiua eioa?anu n eo i?ia?aiiaie ia oae oae
neiaeii.

4. Iaeiiaoe, ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi oieueei aeaooia?oeeiay nenoaia
iicaieyao i?eaeeceony e eaeaaeo ioaaonoaaiiiai i?aaeaiey, eioi?ue
ea?aao aaaeiaeooth ?ieue ai anao aac eneeth/aiey oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeyo
aeaiie?aoee. Iaeia ec ia?oee iaoiaeeony o aeanoe, ae?oaay a iiiiceoeee.
Anee ecae?aoaee iaaeiaieueiu ?aaioie i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iie eniieuecotho
auai?u aeey oiai /oiau ioi?aaeoue aai a ionoaaeo.

A oneiaeyo iiiaiia?oeeiinoe iieeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai iineo eae
i?aaeei eiaeeoeeiiiue oa?aeoa?. Yoi aeaeaao aiciiaeiie neooaoeeth
,eiaaea iioa?iaaoay ii?aaeaiea ia auai?ao ia?oey inoaaony a
i?aaeoaeuenoaa eeoue iioiio, /oi yaeyaony oaeiaiui ia?oia?ii ii
eiaeeoeee.

Aeaooia?oeeiua nenoaiu aeaenoaeoaeueii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaee
o?iaaiue noaaeeueiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe, i eioi?ii a oneiaeyo
iiiaiia?oeeiinoe i?eoiaeeony oieueei ia/oaoue.

Oioy iieeoe/aneea ia?oee a nia?aiaiiii niunea neiaa aicieeee ia
oae aeaaii, iuia, ii iauaio iiaieth iieeoieiaia e iieeoeeia, iie
ia?aaeeaatho ia?eiae oiaaeea. Noiaeeo ia iao cia/aiea ieciauo ia?oeeiuo
i?aaiecaoeee, a ia?oeeiay ia/aoue, aeieai n/eoaaoayny iaeiei ec
i?eciaeia eeaa?aeueiie aeaiie?aoee, iuia noaea aiao?iieciii.

?ieue ia?oee a no?oeoo?e?iaaiee ?acoeueoaoia auai?ia oiaea caiaoii
oiaiueoeeanue. *anoi ethaee aieinotho ia ca ia?oeth, a ca “eieaeae”
oiai eee eiiai eaiaeeaeaoa, nicaeaiiue eiiia?/aneeie n?aaenoaaie
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.

Oai ia iaiaa, iao einoeoooa, eioi?ue oniaoiaa ni?aaeyeny au n
o?aiy aaaeiaeoeie ooieoeeyie – ia?aaea/e aeanoe, iieeoe/aneie
iiaeeecaoeee iann e eaaeoeiaoeee nouanoaothueo ?aaeeiia, /ai ia?oee.

Caeeth/aiea.

I?iaeaeaiiay ?aaioa iicaieeea i?ineaaeeoue enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann
ia?aciaaiey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, eo iinoaiaiiue ?ino, i?aa?auaiea eo ec
iaeeeo iauanoaaiiuo a?oii eiathueo aeeyiea aioo?e naiaai eeanna, a
aieaa e?oiiua iauaaeeiaiey, eioi?ua niiniaiu a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa
?acoeueoaoeaii ai?ioueny ca aeanoue e i?e, oaea/iii enoiaea yoie
ai?ueau, oniaoii inouanoaeyoue oi?aaeai/aneea ooieoeee. Aeey yoeo
ooieoeee ia?oey aioiaeo eee iiaeae?aao ec naiae n?aaeu aeinoieiuo
eiiaeeaeaoia.

Aeaaiaea?y naiae aeaeie nia?aiaiiie no?oeoo?a ia?oee iiaoo
oniaoii aeeyoue ia ecae?aoaeae,io?aaeay a naieo i?ia?aiiao ?acee/iua
o?aaiaaiey nioeeaeueiuo a?oii. Iinea eca?aiey a no?oeoo?u aeanoe ia?oee
iuoathony auieiuaoue a aeeciue naie iaauaiey.

Any yoa iieeoeea au?aaaouaaaony iooai ai?ueau iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie
o?aeoeeyie e oa/aieyie.

A naiae ?aaioa y iiiuoaeny i?iaiaeece?iaaoue,eaeea caaea/e
auioaeaeaiu ?aoaoue iieeoe/aneea ia?oee a naiae iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeue
iinoe.

Aeae oa?aeoa?enoeeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee – eaae?iauo e ianniauo, e
eo ?ieue a iieeoe/aneie aeecie.

A ?aaioa auea aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeinoieinoa e iaaeinoaoeia
aeaooia?oeeiie e iiiaiia?oeeiie nenoai.

A aeaeueiaeoai, /oiau ynii i?aaenoaaeyoue ?ieue ia?oee a
iieeoe/aneie aeecie, iaaei i?iaiaeeoue aeoaieee aiaeec eaaeaeiai
iieeoe/aneiai iauaaeeiaiey. ?anniao?eaay aai /a?ac i?ecio i?ioeannia
i?ienoiaeyueo a aeaiiue iiiaio a iauanoaa

NIENIE EEOA?AOO?U:

1. “N?aaieoaeueiay iieeoieiaey.” Aieinia A.A. ecae-ai IAO,

1995

2. “Aaaaeaiea a iieeoieiaeth” E.N. Aaaeaeeaaa I, I?inaauaiea,

1994

3. “Iniiau iieeoieiaee”, Aei?ioaaa A.E., ?iaeeiiia A.A., NAO,

1993a.

4. “Iauanoaaiiua naiiaeayoaeueiua aeaeaeaiey e ia?niaeoeau”

A.I. Noneiaa,.I,Oao.eieaa.,1990

5. “Ia?oee, aeaeaeaiey i iauanoaaiiua iauaaeeiaiey”, Aeaeei-

oaea ?inneeneie aacaou.I., 1996

6. “Iauanoaaiiua iieeoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey e ia?oee ?in-

nee”.,I.,1996

7. “Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee e aeaeaeaiey ?inee” ., TH.E. Aa?a-

iia,O.TH.Aeiaeia.,E.,1996

8. “Ia?oee e iieeoe/aneea aeiee” I., Iaaeea., 1993

9. Nii?aoiia E.A. Naiaiia A.I. “Iieeoeeiaey” I 1994

10. Ethouo A.A..,Oiieeo A.A. “Iieeoieiaey. Eo?n eaeoeee” Ai?iiaae
1993

11. “Iniiau iieeoieiae/aneie iaoee” Eacaineee ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?noao 1994.

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