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Партии в системе властных отношений

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IA?OEE A NENOAIA AEANOIUO IOIIOAIEE

Oaeoi?u e oneiaey oi?ie?iaaiey einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeee iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee

Iaeiei ec ia?auo i?aaeeiaeee ii?aaeaeaiea iieeoe/aneie ia?oee ecaanoiue
aiaeeeneee iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue e oeeinio XVIII a. Y. Aa?e. “Ia?oey, –
ienae ii, – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaiecaoeeth ethaeae, iauaaeeiaiiuo n
oeaeueth i?iaeaeaeaiey niaianoiuie oneeeyie iaoeeiiaeueiiai eioa?ana,
?oeiaiaenoaoynue iaeioi?ui niaoeeoe/aneei i?eioeeiii, ioiineoaeueii
eioi?iai ana iie i?eoee e niaeaneth”. Nia?aiaiiia iiieiaiea ia?oee n
niioaaonoaothueie oeiieiae/aneeie i?eciaeaie ia/aei oi?ie?iaaoueny a XIX
– ia/aea XX a. Eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao iiceoeey iaiaoeeiai enneaaeiaaoaey
A. Oanaaoa, eioi?ue ?anniao?eaae ia?oeth eae “nithc ethaeae n
iaeeiaeiauie iieeoe/aneeie acaeyaeaie e oeaeyie, no?aiyueony e
caaiaaaieth iieeoe/aneie aeanoe n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey aa aeey
?aaeecaoeee nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania”. Iaeaieaa eioa?aniia ii?aaeaeaiea
aeae I. Aaaa?, eioi?ue n/eoae ia?oee “iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie,
iie?athueieny ia aeia?iaieueiue i?eai /eaiia, noaayueo naaa oeaeueth
caaiaaaiea aeanoe aeey naiaai ?oeiaiaenoaa e iaania/aiea aeoeaiui /eaiai
niioaaonoaothueo oneiaee (aeooiaiuo e iaoa?eaeueiuo) aeey iieo/aiey
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo auaiae eee ee/iuo i?eaeeaaee eeai oiai e
ae?oaiai iaeiia?aiaiii”.

I/aaeaeii, /oi ia?oey ?anniao?eaaaony eae a?oiia ethaeae,
iauaaeeieaoeony aeey o/anoey a iieeoe/aneie aeecie e i?aneaaeothueo
oeaeue caaiaaaiey iieeoe/aneie aeanoe. Iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue, /oi ia?oee
ia anaaaea ea?aee oo ?ieue, eioi?oth iie ea?atho a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
iieeoe/aneie nenoaia eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?ai. Neiioiiaoe/ii oi,
/oi iniiaaoaee NOA, aaea ia?oee a nia?aiaiiii niunea ia?yaeo n ia?oeyie
Aaeeeia?eoaiee aicieeee aia?aua, n/eoaee ia?oee a eo/oai neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiui ceii, ?anniao?eaay eo eae enoi/iee eiioeeeoia, ?acaei?ia e
nioou. Ii oai ia iaiaa ia?oee noaee aaaeiui yeaiaioii iieeoe/aneie
nenoaiu nia/aea no?ai Caiaaea, a caoai e anao ae?oaeo no?ai, eioi?ua
iioee ii iooe eaieoaeenoe/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Eae iieacuaaao enoi?e/aneee iiuo, ?aciiia?acea eioa?ania, i?eaioaoeee,
onoaiiaie, oeaiiinoae, yaeythuaany iniiaiiieaaathuae oa?aeoa?enoeeie
ethaiai neiaeiiai e aeecianiiniaiiai iauanoaa, iaecaaaeii iaoneiaeeaaao
?aciia iiieiaiea ?iee ainoaea?noaa, acaeiiioiioaiee ainoaea?noaa e
ioaeaeueiiai eiaeeaeaea e, niioaaonoaaiii, ?aciua
nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneea e eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneea onoaiiaee. Ethaee n
iaeeiaeiauie eioa?anaie e aicc?aieyie a eiia/iii eoiaa iauaaeeiythony
iaaeaeo niaie aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaueo oeaeae niaieoiiuie neeaie. I?e/ai
i?eciaiea caeiiiinoe nouanoaiaaiey niia?ie/athueo iaaeaeo niaie
eioa?ania e o?aeoeee iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeei e i?eciaieth caeiiiinoe
iieeoe/aneeo eino?oiaioia, i?ecaaiiuo i?aaenoaaeyoue yoe eioa?anu e
o?aeoeee a ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneie nenoaia, nenoaia aeanoe. Oaeeie
eino?oiaioaie a eiia/iii n/aoa e ieacaeenue ia?oee, oi?ie?iaaaoeany
iooai i?eaaaeaiey e iauaio ciaiaiaoaeth ?acii?iaeiuo eioa?ania e
iiceoeee iniiaiuo nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo nee oi?ie?iaaaoaainy
ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa.

Ia?oey e ia?oeeiua nenoaiu i?ioee aeeeoaeueiue iooue oi?ie?iaaiey e
yaiethoeee. Iie yaeythony i?iaeoeoii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie no?aiu.
Na?ueaciue ioia/aoie ia eo oa?aeoa? iaeeaaeuaatho iniaaiiinoe
nioeeieoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey, enoi?e/aneea o?aaeeoeee, aeaiia?aoe/aneea e
yoiieoeueoo?iua i?ioeannu, iniaaiiinoe ?aeeaee e o.ae. Aiai?eoue i
ia?oeeiie nenoaia e ia?oeyo a oie eee eiie no?aia – cia/eo ii?aaeaeeoue
ianoi e ?ieue ia?oee a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie nenoaia, eo ooieoeee,
nioeeaeueiue ninoaa e yeaeoi?ao, eo i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o e o.ae.

Iniaaiii eioaineaii i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee,
ia/aaoeeny a XVIII a. a Aaeeeia?eoaiee e NOA, i?ioaeae, ioaaoea e
ae?oaea no?aiu Aa?iiaeneiai eiioeiaioa, ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX – ia?aua
aeanyoeeaoey XX a. Iuia naii ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yoie nenoaiu iaaiciiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue aac niia?ie/athueo iaaeaeo niaie ia?oee e ia?oeeiuo
a?oiie?iaie. Iniiaiua ia?oee yoeo no?ai a eo acaeiiaeaenoaee,
acaeiiioiioaiee, acaeiiuo eiioeeeoao e acaeiiie ?ioaoeee o aeanoe
?anniao?eaathony eae aaeeiay ia?oeeiay nenoaia, ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeythuay
aeecianiiniaiinoue e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea anae iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu a
oeaeii.

A Aaeeeia?eoaiee ia/aei iaaeia?oeeiie ai?ueau a nia?aiaiiuo aa oi?iao
ainoiaeeo e ia?eiaeo oae iacuaaaiie Neaaiie ?aaiethoeee 1688 a. A
oeaio?a yoie ai?ueau noiye aii?in i ?anoe?aiee i?a?iaaoea ia?eaiaioa ca
n/ao nie?auaiey i?a?iaaoea ei?ieaaneie aeanoe. Iinoaiaiii
i?ioeaiai?noaothuea iieeoe/aneea neeu ioi?ieeenue a aieaa eee iaiaa
niayiiua ia?oeeiua a?oiie?iaee, iieo/eaoea iacaaiea aeaia e oi?e (a a XX
a. – eeaa?aeia e eiina?aaoi?ia). Neiioiiaoe/ii, /oi, aeaaay ioeaieo yoie
oaiaeaioeee, ecaanoiue aiaeeeneee iieeoe/aneee aeayoaeue e iuneeoaeue
XVIII a. Y. Aa?e iaeei ec naieo iaioeaoia 1769 a. ia/ae oae: “Ia?oeeiia
?acaeaeaiea, iacaaeneii io oiai, aeaenoaotho ee ia?oee a oeaeii a
eioa?anao aeia?a eee cea, – aauue iaioaeaeeiay io naiaiaeiie nenoaiu
i?aaeaiey”.

Aeey aicieeiiaaiey ia?oee eaiaoiaeei einoeooo iieeoe/aneiai
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, a eioi?ii a i?aaie/aneii neioaca ia?aieaeenue aeaa
aaaeiaeoea eaeae i?aaenoaaeoaeueiie aeaiie?aoee: n iaeiie noi?iiu,
eaeay, niaeanii eioi?ie ie iaeei /aeiaae ia ai?aaa i?aaeoue ae?oaei
/aeiaaeii aac niaeaney iineaaeiaai, e n ae?oaie – iuneue i oii, /oi,
iineieueeo eaaeaeue eiaeeaeae ia a ninoiyiee iaiin?aaenoaaiii
o/anoaiaaoue a oi?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaii, eioa?anu ?acee/iuo eaoaai?ee
ianaeaiey iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a nenoaia aeanoe iniauie
oiieiiii/aiiuie, eioi?ui aeaeaae?iaaiu niioaaonoaothuea i?a?iaaoeau e
i?aaa. A eaaeaeie no?aia aeaiiue i?eioeei oi?ie?iaaeny e ooaa?aeaeaeny
ii-?aciiio. Eaeay i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa eae aa?aioee ee/iie naiaiaeu
ianoie/eai auaeaeaaeanue eaeaieiaaie aiaeeeneie ?aaiethoeee na?aaeeiu
XVII a. Aa ?ac?aaaouaaee e ionoaeaaee auaeathueany iuneeoaee, oeeiniou,
iieeoe/aneea oaeeiniou OO11-O1O aa., oaeea eae Aeae. Eiee, O.-E.
Iiioaneuea, E. Eaio, A. aea Oieaeeue, Aeae. N. Ieeeue e ae?. Iia iaoea
naia iieeoe/aneia au?aaeaiea a eaeaa i?e?iaeaeaiiuo e iaio/oaeaeaaiuo
i?aa /aeiaaea, aeeth/aiiuo oa Aeaeea?aoeeth iacaaeneiinoe NOA,
Aeaeea?aoeeth i?aa /aeiaaea e a?aaeaeaieia e ae?oaea iniiaiiieaaathuea
aeieoiaiou iieeoe/aneie enoi?ee nia?aiaiiiai ie?a.

I?eioeeiu i?aaenoaaeoaeueiinoe e auai?iinoe i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo
nioeeaeueiuo a?oii a caeiiiaeaoaeueiua eee eiua i?aaiu aeanoe, ii naiie
eiaeea aauae, iinoaaeee aii?in ia eino?oiaioao e n?aaenoaao iieeoe/aneie
?aaeecaoeee yoeo i?eioeeiia. A ea/anoaa oaeeo eino?oiaioia iinoaiaiii ai
anao iuia eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?aiao aicieeee e ooaa?aeeeenue
iieeoe/aneea ia?oee. Aaaeii o/anoue oi?ie?iaaiea ia oieueei eaeae ia?oee
eae eino?oiaioa ?aaeecaoeee iieeoe/aneiai i?ioeanna, ii e eaeae ia?oee
eae caeiiiie iiiiceoeee.

Ae?oaeie neiaaie, i?eciaiea caeiiiinoe ?aciiia?aciuo eioa?ania a
iauanoaa iaoneiaeei i?eciaiea caeiiiinoe iieeoe/aneeo eino?oiaioia a
eeoea ia?oee, i?ecaaiiuo I?aaenoaaeyoue yoe eioa?anu a nenoaia aeanoe. A
nouiinoe, aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, niinianoaiaaaoei aicieeiiaaieth ia?oee, auee
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua iio?aaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aieueoeo iieeoe/aneeo
nenoai, oi?ie?iaaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo
no?oeoo?, i?ecaaiiuo eae-oi io?aceoue ?aciiia?acea eioa?ania. Ia?auaao
ia naay aieiaiea oio oaeo, /oi i?ineaaeeaaaony oaniay acaeiinaycue
iaaeaeo aicieeiiaaieai iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e oi?ie?iaaieai ao?aeoaciie
oai?ee iieeoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. I?inaaoeoaeueneay eaeay
?aaainoaa anao ethaeae ii naiae i?e?iaea i?aaeiieaaaea, /oi ie iaeei
/aeiaae ia ai?aaa i?aaeoue ae?oaei /aeiaaeii aac niaeaney iineaaeiaai.
Iineieueeo aea eaaeaeue eiaeeaeae ia a ninoiyiee iaiin?aaenoaaiii
o/anoaiaaoue a oi?aaeaiee ainoaea?noaii, oi ?anioaeeeaineay oi?ia
i?aaeaiey i?aaeiieaaaea i?eioeei i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ?acee/iuo
nioeeaeueiuo neiaa a nenoaia aeanoe. I oii, ianeieueei aieueoia cia/aiea
a oio ia?eiae i?eaeaaaeinue i?eioeeio i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa,
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, iai?eia?, oio oaeo, /oi Aeae. Iyaeenii ioiaeaeanoaeye
?anioaeeeaieci n i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaii. Ii aai iunee, eca?aiiua
i?aaenoaaeoaee niiaoo eo/oa caueuaoue e ionoaeaaoue i?aaa e naiaiaeu
ia?iaea, /ai nai ia?iae.

N naiiai ia/aea ?acaa?ioeenue iienee iioeiaeueiuo iooae e iaoaieciia
?aaeecaoeee i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. Eae n/eoae Iiioaneuea, ethaee, eae
i?aaeei, ciatho eioa?anu e i?iaeaiu naiaai ianaeaiiiai ioieoa, ai?iaea,
?aaeiia eo/oa, /ai eioa?anu e i?iaeaiu ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia no?aiu. Iiyoiio
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ai aeanoiua i?aaiu oeaeaniia?aciaa ecae?aoue ia io anae
no?aeu a oeaeii, a io ioaeaeueiuo ai?iaeia eee ianoiinoae,
i?aaieciaaiiuo a ecae?aoaeueiua ie?oaa. A Aiaeee ooaa?aeeeanue oae
iacuaaaiay oai?ey “oaeoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa”, nooue eioi?ie
ninoiyea a oii, /oi /eaiu ia?eaiaioa i?aaenoaaeytho ia i?inoi
ioaeaeueiua neie e a?oiiu ianaeaiey, a anth niaieoiiinoue iaoeee a
oeaeii. Iiyoiio ia eiaao cia/aiey, eae, ec /enea eiai e aaea iie
ecae?athony. I?e/ai aeey aeaia, eioi?ua noi?ioee?iaaee yoo oai?eth, auei
oa?aeoa?ii oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi /eaiu ia?eaiaioa, aoaeo/e eca?aiu, ia
aeieaeiu caaenaoue io naieo ecae?aoaeae. Iainiiauaay oaeie oacen, Y.
Aa?e a naiae ecaanoiie ?a/e ia?aae ecae?aoaeyie a A?enoiea a 1774 a.
ianoaeaae ia oii, /oi ia?eaiaio aeieaeai auoue ia iaeei “eiia?annii
iineia io ?acee/iuo e a?aaeaeaaiuo eioa?ania”, a oi?oiii i?aaenoaaeoaeae
anaai aiaeeeneiai ia?iaea, ?oeiaiaenoaothueony no?aieaieai ?aaeeciaaoue
“iauaa aeaai”.

I?ioea oai?ee “oaeoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa” iieeoe/aneea aeayoaee
Aia?eee auaeaeioee eiioeaioeeth aaia?aoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie /eaiu caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai nia?aiey ecae?aeenue au
a ea/anoaa i?aaenoaaeoaeae ii?aaeaeaiiuo oa??eoi?ee e a?oii ianaeaiey, a
ia i?aaenoaaeoaeae anaai ianaeaiey ainoaea?noaa. Eanaynue, iai?eia?,
iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae, Aeae. Iyaeenii i?eaeaaae iniaia cia/aiea oiio,
/oiau eca?aiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee “iaiin?aaenoaaiii caaenaee io ia?iaea”.
I?e/ai ii n/eoae, /oi aeaaiay ooieoeey yoeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeieaeia
ninoiyoue a iaania/aiee naeoeeiiiuo eioa?ania. Oae, ii aue oaaaeaeai,
/oi eiioeeeou ?acee/iuo eioa?ania a iauanoaa iaecaaaeiu e iie aaaeoo e
aicieeiiaaieth o?aeoeeiiiuo nii?ia ii nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneei
i?iaeaiai. Ii aai iiaieth, eca?aiiua i?aaenoaaeoaee aoaeoo aeaenoaiaaoue
eae aeaeaaaou iniauo eioa?ania oao, eoi eo eca?ae.

Enoiaey ec yoie eiioeaioeee, o/aiua eneaee ?ac?aoaiea i?iaeaiu
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ?acii?iaeiuo eiioeeeoothueo a?oii e i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
onoaiiaeaieth ainiiaenoaa oie eee eiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu eee o?aeoeee
a iauanoaa ia iooyo i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ?anoe?aiey a?aieoe ?anioaeeee.
“*ai iaiueoa iauanoai, – ienae Aeae. Iyaeenii, -oai iaiueoa
aiciiaeiinoae aeey iiyaeaiey /aoei i/a?/aiiuo ia?oee e eioa?ania e oai
/aua aieueoeinoai ieaaeaony a iaeiie e oie aea ia?oee. I?e ?anoe?aiee
oa??eoi?ee e oaaee/aiee ianaeaiey oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai ia?oee,
io?aaeathueo ?aciiia?acea iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania”.

A ea/anoaa iaoaiecia naaeaine?iaaiey eioa?ania ?acee/iuo o?aeoeee eee
a?oiie?iaie e i?aaeioa?auaiey ainiiaenoaa eaeie-eeai iaeiie o?aeoeee
o/aiua noi?ioee?iaaee i?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey aeanoae e nenoaio “naea?aeae
e i?ioeaiaania”. Iaeiaei nai i?eioeei auai?iinoe ia iniiaa aeiaieueii
oe?ieiai aeey oiai a?aiaie i?aaa aieina aeaoo iaeaieaa aaaeiuo ec o?ao
aaoaae ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe -caeiiiaeaoaeueiie e eniieieoaeueiie –
i?aaeiieaaae aiciiaeiinoue auai?a iaaeaeo aeueoa?iaoeaiuie iieeoe/aneeie
eo?naie e eeaea?aie, i?ecaaiiuie i?aaenoaaeyoue ecae?aoaeae,
aunooiathueo a iiaeaea?aeeo oie eee eiie aeueoa?iaoeau. Eiaiii caeanue
ia?oee e ia?oeeiay eiieo?aioeey noaee ea?aoue eeth/aaoth ?ieue.
Iinoaiaiii iieo/eea i?eciaiea iuneue i oii, /oi a iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaa
ia?oey i?eia?aoaao aeiiieieoaeueioth neeo, anooiay a aeeneonneth n
iiiiiaioaie ae?oaie ia?oee, e /oi ia?oey iiiai oa?yao i?e neaaie
iiiiceoeee.

Iiiyoea “iieeoe/aneay ia?oey” aicieeei a XIX a. aianoa n oi?ie?iaaieai
i?aaenoaaeoaeueiuo einoeoooia e ?ani?ino?aiaieai ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa.
Iiae iei eiaeanue a aeaeo i?aaiecaoeey, i?aneaaeothuay oeaeue caaiaaaiey
iinoia a ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiao a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa ca aieina
ecae?aoaeae. A iineaaeothuai iii ?anoe?eeinue eaoaai?eae “iieeoe/aneay
i?aaiecaoeey”. E iieeoe/aneei i?aaiecaoeeyi ioiineeenue oa, eioi?ua ia
auee aiaea/aiu a eiieo?aioioth ecae?aoaeueioth ai?ueao, iaeeea ia?oee,
eioi?ua ia iaeaaeaee ?aaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie aeiaeaaoueny aeanoiuo
aeieaeiinoae e aiaeeyoeee e yeaeoi?aoo, ?aaiethoeeiiiua i?aaiecaoeee,
no?aiyueany e eeeaeaeaoeee naiiai i?eioeeia ecae?aoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea
i?aayuea a?oiiu a oioaeeoa?iuo ainoaea?noaao. Oioy a XIX a. aeeneonnee i
i?aaiia?iinoe, cia/aiee e ooieoeeyo ia?oee ia i?ae?auaeenue, e eiioeo
noieaoey iie noaee aaaeiaeoeie ninoaaeythueie nia?aiaiiuo iieeoe/aneeo
nenoai. E i?eia?o, anee a 1861 a. a Aaeeeia?eoaiee a ia?eaiaioneeo
auai?ao ia?oee aiiaua ia o/anoaiaaee, oi a 1951 a. a aunoea aeanoiua
no?oeoo?u ia aue eca?ai ie iaeei ia caaeneiue io ia?oee i?aoaiaeaio.

Anoue ii?aaeaeaiiay o?iiieiae/aneay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a
aicieeiiaaiee ia?oee a caaeneiinoe io eaeaeiie i?eaioaoeee. Eeaa?aeeci e
eeaa?aeueiua ia?oee aicieeee a ai?ueaa i?ioea oaiaeaeueiuo ?aaeeiia. A
Aa?iia a na?aaeeia XIX a. eeaa?aeu ia?auie nicaeaee naie i?aaiecaoeee n
nianoaaiiie eaeaieiaeae e o?aeoeeyie a ia?eaiaioa. Ia?auie oaeeie
i?aaiecaoeeyie noaee I?ia?anneaiay ia?oey a Aa?iaiee, Aaeueaeeneay
eeaa?aeueiay ia?oey e ae?. Ii eo i?eia?o iiaeiaiua i?aaiecaoeee nicaeaee
e eiina?aaoi?u, iai?eia? “Eeoa eiina?aaoi?ia” a Aiaeee. E oa e ae?oaea
aeiaieueii aeieai n/eoaee naay ia ia?oeyie, a iauaaeeiaieyie
aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?anoe?aiea ecae?aoaeueiiai i?aaa
iiaeoieeioei eo i?aaiecaoeeiiii oe?aieoue naie ia?oee. O?aioeocneay
?aaiethoeey, eioi?ay noaea ia?aeiiiui yoaiii a ia?aoiaea io oaiaeaeecia
e eaieoaeecio, aeaea neeueiaeoee oie/ie ia?aciaaieth ia Aa?iiaeneii
eiioeiaioa ?acii?iaeiuo eiina?aaoeaiuo a?oiie?iaie, eiaiiaaaoeo naay
“a?enoie?aoaie”, “?iyeenoaie”, “i?eaeai?iuie ia?oeyie”, a ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XIX-ia/aea XX a. noi?ie?iaaeenue e eiina?aaoeaiu? ia?oee. Iie,
ii nooe aeaea, aicieeee a ea/anoaa ?aaeoeee e i?ioeaiaana eeaa?aeueiui
ia?oeyi. ?aai/ea ia?oee aicieeee a ai?ueaa n eaieoaeenoe/aneie nenoaiie,
aa?a?iua ia?oee – eae ?aaeoeey i?ioea eiaeono?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey,
o?enoeaineea ia?oee – a ai?ueaa i?ioea naeoey?iuo, aioeeea?eeaeueiuo
aeaeaeaiee, eiiioienoe/aneea – i?ioea nioeeae-aeaiie?aoee, a oaoenoneea
– i?ioea aeaiie?aoee ai anao aa oi?iao e o.ae.

Neaaeoao ?acee/aoue ia?oee, aicieeoea a ea/anoaa ia?eaiaioneeo ia?oee a
?aieao naiiai ia?eaiaioa, e aiaia?eaiaioneea ia?oee. Ia?aua aicieeee
n?aaieoaeueii ?aii e ?anniao?eaaeenue eae /anoue eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
iaoaiecia. Caoai oi?ie?iaaaoeany a iauanoaa a?oiiu noaee i?eieiaoue yoe
ia?oee eae au?aceoaeae naieo eioa?ania. Naie ia?oee, a naith i/a?aaeue,
i?aaei?eieiaee oneeey ii i?eaea/aieth a naie ?yaeu /eaiia, a oaeaea ii
i?aaiecaoeee iiaeaea?aeee n?aaee yoeo a?oii. Oaeie eiaiii iooue
i?iaeaeaea, iai?eia?, eiina?aaoeaiay ia?oey Aaeeeia?eoaiee, eioi?ay
noi?ie?iaaeanue a no?oeoo?ao ia?eaiaioa. Iaiai?io, eaeai?enoneay ia?oey
Aaeeeia?eoaiee ia?aiia/aeueii neiaeeeanue eae aiaia?eaiaioneay
i?aaiecaoeey a iaae?ao aiaeeeneiai ?aai/aai aeaeaeaiey e eeoue iicaea
noaea ia?eaiaioneie ia?oeae. A eiioeiaioaeueiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao, aaea
o?aaeeoeey eiinoeoooeeiiiie iiiiceoeee i?eaeeanue n?aaieoaeueii iicaea,
aieueoeinoai ia?oee aicieeee aia ia?eaiaioa – ia?aiia/aeueii ec ?aciiai
?iaea eeoaia, nooaeai/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee, i?ionithcia, e?anoueyineeo
eiiia?aoeaia e o.ae.

Iaeioi?uie niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie ioee/aeny i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a ?innee. Caeanue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue neaaeoao
iacaaoue nio?aiaiea aieueoiai aana e aeeyiey nineiaii-oaiaeaeueiuo
einoeoooia, ainiiaenoai naiiaea?aeaaey, caiicaeaeia ?acaeoea
eaieoaeecia, ionoaaaiea i?ioeannia noaiiaeaiey a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa e
einoeoooia ia?eaiaioa?ecia e i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa e iiiaia ae?oaia. A
eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX a. nia?aiaiieee ioia/aee “iaooaa?aeaeaiiinoue
iauanoaaiiiai ninoaaa”, eiay a aeaeo iaaeeooa-?aioee?iaaiiinoue e
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue eioa?ania ?acee/iuo a?oii ianaeaiey. Ia neo/aeii A.I.
Eeth/aaneee eae-oi cayaee, /oi ia ni/oanoaoao “ia?oeeii-iieeoe/aneiio
aeaeaieth iauanoaa i?e i?aaiecaoeee ia?iaeiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa”.
Oaeie iiaeoiae ai iiiaii iauyniyeny ia?acaeoinoueth eio?ano?oeoo?u
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueii iiaei niinianoaiaaoue
eneaaeaieth ?aaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania
ia?oeyie a iieeoe/aneie noa?a.

Ii oai ia iaiaa a eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX a. ia?oee noaee oaeoi?ii
iieeoe/aneie aeecie ?innee – iniaaiii neeueiaeoee oie/ie e eo
oi?ie?iaaieth e eiinieeaeaoeee aeaea ao?aeoaciay ?aaiethoeey 1905 a.
Eeaa?aeueiua i?aaiecaoeee e ia?oee oi?ie?iaaeenue ia iniiaa nee,
a?oiie?iaaaoeony aie?oa Aieueiiai yeiiiie/aneiai iauanoaa,
TH?eaee/aneiai iauanoaa i?e Iineianeii oieaa?neoaoa. Nithca acaeiiiiiiue
?onneeo ienaoaeae, eiieoaoia a?aiioiinoe a Iineaa, caineeo i?aaiecaoeee
e o.ae. E eiioeo 1905 a. ioi?ieeenue “Nithc 17 ieoya?y” (ieoya?enou),
eiinoeoooeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey (eaaeaou). Ia?oey ie?iiai
iaiiaeaiey. Oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay ia?oey, Ia?oey i?aaiaiai ii?yaeea e
o.ae. N?aco iinea iaieoanoa 17 ieoya?y 1905 a. iiiiceoeeiiiua
i?aaiecaoeee e ia?oee caiyee caiaoiia ianoi ia iieeoe/aneie a?aia, /oi,
a /anoiinoe, i?iyaeeinue a eo aeoeaiinoe ia ia?auo naiaiaeiuo auai?ao a
Ia?aoth Ainoaea?noaaiioth aeoio. Iieacaoaeueii, /oi a 1906 a. I.A.
Noieuiei i?aaeeiaeee eeaea?ai eaaeaoia e ieoya?enoia aieoe a
i?aaeoaeuenoai, ia /oi iineaaeiea ioaaoeee ioeacii.

A oio aea ia?eiae ia aaainoeaio auoea e oa iieeoe/aneay ia?oey, eioi?ay,
niaa?oea a 1917 a. ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io e ?aciaiaa a ia/aea 1918
a. O/?aaeeoaeueiia nia?aiea, noaea iiaeeueueoeae anao inoaeueiuo ia?oee
e i?aaiecaoeee, naiiai ia?iaeaeaaoaainy ia?eaiaioa?ecia e
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo einoeoooia. ?a/ue, ?acoiaaony, eaeao i ?inneeneie
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?aai/ae ia?oee.

§ 2. Iieeoe/aneay ia?oey e aa ooieoeee

A aieueoeinoaa no?ai noaoon e aeayoaeueiinoue ia?oee ?aaoee?othony
niaoeeaeueiuie caeiiaie eee eiinoeoooeeiiiuie ii?iaie. E iei ioiineony,
iai?eia?, caeii i ia?oeyo, i?eiyoue a O?A a 1967 a.

141

Ii i?ecaai ?aaoee?iaaoue eiinoeoooeeiiii-i?aaiaie noaoon ia?oee, eo
oeaee e caaea/e, i?eioeeiu aioo?aiiae i?aaiecaoeee, iaoaieciu e
i?ioeaaeo?u o/anoey a auai?ao e o.ae. A Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Oaaeoea?ee,
Aano?aeee, Eaiaaea e ae?oaeo no?aiao iao niaoeeaeueiuo caeiiia i
ia?oeyo, ia ieo ?ani?ino?aiythony iauea iieiaeaiey eiinoeoooeee eee
caeiiia i nithcao, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie ethaay a?oiia a?aaeaeai
ai?aaa nicaeaaaoue naie ia?oee, anee eo oeaee e caaea/e ia i?ioeai?a/ao
eiinoeoooeeiiiui iniiaai ainoaea?noaa. Ca/anooth yoe caeiiu
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeiaieueii iauaienoua eiaeaenu, aeaoaeueii
i?aaeienuaathuea ooieoeee ia?oeyi ia iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii e ianoiii
o?iaiyo. Yoe i?aaeienaiey, a /anoiinoe, aeeth/atho i?ioeaaeo?u e i?aaeea
eca?aiey aeaeaaaoia ia ia?oeeiua nuacaeu eee eiioa?aioeee; n?iee e
ii?yaeie eo i?iaaaeaiey; i?ioeaaeo?u eca?aiey aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe
ia?oeeiie i?aaiecaoeee; ii?yaeie aianaiey eaiaeeaeaoia ia?oee a
ecae?aoaeueiua atheeaoaie; ii?yaeie eca?aiey aeaeaaaoia ia
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiue nuacae; i?aaeea ?anoiaeiaaiey aeaiaa ia?oeeiuie
eaiaeeaeaoaie ia iieeoe/aneea eaiiaiee; ii?yaeie e n?iee i?iaaaeaiey
ecae?aoaeueiuo eaiiaiee e auai?ia e o.ae.

A no?oeoo?iii ioiioaiee a ia?oee iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e o?iaiy. Naiue
iaii?aaeaeaiiue e ?aciuoue o?iaaiue – yoi oio aeie ecae?aoaeae, eioi?ua
eaeaioeoeoee?otho naay n aeaiiie ia?oeae e nenoaiaoe/anee aieinotho ca
iaa ia auai?ao. Iie ninoaaeytho ianniaoth aaco, eioi?ay iaania/eaaao
eaiaeeaeaoia ia?oee iiaeaea?aeeie o ecae?aoaeueiuo o?i.
I?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e oaeie a?oiia aanueia o?oaeii ii?aaeaeeoue,
iineieueeo iia iniiauaaaony aieueoa ia aeaeea?e?oaiie i?eaa?aeaiiinoe,
iaaeaee ia ioeoeeaeueiie aiaea/aiiinoe a ia?oeeioth i?aaiecaoeeth.

Aoi?ie – yoi ioeoeeaeueiay ia?oeeiay i?aaiecaoeey. Anoanoaaiii,
i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a ia?oee aa?ao ia/aei oai, aaea iaoiaeyony
ecae?aoaee. Iiyoiio, eae i?aaeei, iia ia/eiaaony ia o?iaia naiie iecoae
ia?ae/iie y/aeee – ecae?aoaeueiiai ie?oaa. A NOA, iai?eia?,
aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey eiaao 2,5 oun., a ?anioaeeeaineay -2 oun.
ie?oaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Aeaaiay eo caaea/a ninoieo a iiaeeecaoeee ia
ianoiii o?iaia ecae?aoaeae a iiaeaea?aeeo eaiaeeaeaoia naiae ia?oee. Eo
niaieoiiinoue ninoaaeytho i?aaiecaoeee ia ?aeiiiii, iaeanoiii,
caiaeueiii, ooaoiii e o.ae. (a caaeneiinoe io no?aiu) o?iaia, a
niaieoiiinoue ia?oeeiuo i?aaiecaoeee yoeo iineaaeieo –
iauaiaoeeiiaeueioth ia?oeth.

Ii/oe ana nia?aiaiiua iieeoe/aneea ia?oee eiatho ia?oeeiue aiia?ao,
i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie iniaoth a?oiio ethaeae, i?ioanneiiaeueii
caieiathueony i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie aii?inaie iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
ia?oee. Oae, iai?eia?, a NOA eae aeaiie?aoe/aneay, oae e ?anioaeeeaineay
ia?oee aicaeaaeythony iaoeeiiaeueiuie eiieoaoaie, noi?ie?iaaaoeieny aua
a na?aaeeia XIX a. Iie caieiathony

aaeieieno?aoeaiuie aii?inaie, i?aaiecotho i?aaeauai?iua eaiiaiee
eaiaeeaeaoia ia?oee, onoaiaaeeaatho n?iee, ianoi e ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey
ia?oeeiuo nuacaeia, iaania/eaatho niaethaeaiea i?aaee eca?aiey
aeaeaaaoia ia nuacaeu e o.ae.

E o?aoee – aaea ?a/ue eaeao i ia?oee a nenoaia i?aaeaiey, ninoiyuae ec
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe a ainoaea?noaaiiii aiia?aoa, eioi?ua iieo/eee naie
iinou a neeo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e niioaaonoaothuae ia?oee. Yoi
i?aceaeaiou, aoaa?iaoi?u, /eaiu ia?eaiaioa, caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo nia?aiee
iaeanoae, ooaoia, caiaeue, ianoiuo i?aaiia e o.ae. Anoanoaaiii, oaeay
ea?a?oey ai iiiaii iineo oneiaiue oa?aeoa? e a ?aciuo no?aiao eiaao
naith iaoeeiiaeueioth niaoeeoeeo. Iai?eia?, a eiina?aaoeaiie ia?oee
Aaeeeia?eoaiee ia?eaiaioneay o?aeoeey a i?aaiecaoeeiiiii ioiioaiee
ninoaaeyao naiinoiyoaeueiue no?oeoo?iue yeaiaio – ia?eaiaioneoth
eiina?aaoeaioth ia?oeth. Eeaea? ia?eaiaioneie o?aeoeee yaeyaony
iaeiia?aiaiii eeaea?ii ia?oee a iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii ianooaaa. Ii yaeyaony
naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo anaie no?oeoo?iuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie ia?oee. A
aai ?oeao nin?aaeioi/aiu cia/eoaeueiua aeanoiua iieiiii/ey ai
aioo?eia?oeeiuo aeaeao. Ii nooe aeaea, oeaio?aeueiua i?aaiu ia?oee –
Eniieieoaeueiue niaao, Eniieieoaeueiue eiieoao e Oeaio?aeueiia ath?i –
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie niaauaoaeueiua i?aaiu i?e eeaea?a.

Aeaaiay caaea/a iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee ninoieo a oii, /oiau i?aa?aoeoue
iiiaeanoai /anoiuo eioa?ania ioaeaeueiuo a?aaeaeai, nioeeaeueiuo neiaa,
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oiia eo niaieoiiue iieeoe/aneee eioa?an iooai
naaaeaiey yoeo eioa?ania e aaeeiiio ciaiaiaoaeth. A nia?aiaiiuo
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo nenoaiao ia?oee, eae i?aaeei, aunooiatho a
ea/anoaa iineoaeae eiieo?e?othueo ae?oa n ae?oaii iieeoe/aneeo eo?nia,
ia noaay iiae niiiaiea caeiiiinoue nouanoaothuaai eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
no?iy, iniiaiiieaaathueo i?aa e naiaiae a?aaeaeai, ooaa?aeeaoeony e
iauai?eiyouo a aeaiiie no?aia i?aaee iieeoe/aneie ea?u e o.ae.
Niaethaeaiea e ?aaeecaoeey yoeo i?eioeeiia nicaeaaaee i?aaeiinueee aeey
i?eciaiey eaaeaeie ec i?ioeaiai?noaothueo noi?ii “caeiiiinoe”
nouanoaiaaiey i?ioeaiie noi?iiu.

Iiyoiio anoanoaaiii, /oi a niciaiee oe?ieeo neiaa ianaeaiey
ooaa?aeeeinue ioiioaiea e ia?oeyi eae aaaeiaeoei no?oeoo?iui e
ooieoeeiiaeueiui yeaiaioai iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaa. Yoi
ioiineony eae e i?aayuei ia?oeyi, oae e aieueoeinoao ia?oee, inoathueony
a iiiiceoeee. Ia?oee aea, i?eioeeieaeueii ia i?eaieth-uea nouanoaothuoth
nenoaio, eeai iinoaiaiii .ioiaeaeaathony ia ia?eoa?eth iieeoe/aneie
aeecie, eeai aiana en/acatho n iieeoe/aneie a?aiu. AEeao/anoue e oniao
iiiaeo eaauo ia?oee a eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?aiao, eioi?ua
ia?aiia/aeueii ia i?eieiaee nouanoaothuoth nenoaio, ia a iineaaeithth
i/a?aaeue ii?aaeaeythony oai, /oi iie a

eiia/iii eoiaa a oie eee eiie oi?ia eioaa?e?iaaeenue a yoo nenoaio.
Eoaeueyineee iieeoieia X. Ii?oaeee auaeaeyao o?e oacu i?ioeanna
eioaa?aoeee: niei/aiea nee e ia?auaiea e eiie?aoiui i?iaeaiai; i?eciaiea
nouanoaothueo einoeoooia; o?ainoi?iaoeeth naieo ia?oee. Noaa /anoueth
nenoaiu, ia?oey auioaeaeaia oia?eoue naith ?aaeeeaeueiinoue e, onaiea
?aaeueiinoe ai?ueau ca aieina ecae?aoaeae e ca iieeoe/aneoth aeanoue,
auaeaeaaoue aieaa oia?aiiua ieaooi?iu.

A eaeaaea oeaeue ia?oee ninoieo a ?aaeecaoeee i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a
iieeoe/aneie nenoaia oao neiaa ianaeaiey, eioa?anu eioi?uo iia
au?aaeaao. Iooai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii,
neiaa, nineiaee, eioa?ania e o.ae. n iiiiuueth ia?oee iauanoai e
ainoaea?noai eae au eioaa?aeueii niaaeeiythony a ia?ac?uaiia aaeeiia
oeaeia. Caeanue aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao oi, /oi a nia?aiaiiii neiaeiii e
auniei?acaeoii eiaeono?eaeueiii iauanoaa ethaee ni naieie iniauie
eioa?anaie, ono?aieaieyie, i?eaioaoeeyie, onoaiiaeaie iiaoo o/anoaiaaoue
a iieeoe/aneie aeecie a ea/anoaa /eaiia ?acee/iuo nithcia, iauaaeeiaiee,
ia?oee. Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue e oi, /oi a oaeie aieueoie
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie nenoaia, eae ainoaea?noai, i?ecaaiiia ?aaeeciaaoue
iauaa aeaai, eioi?ia, a naith i/a?aaeue, neaaaaony ec iiiaeanoaa
?acii?iaeiuo, ca/anooth eiioeeeoothueo e i?ioeaiai?noaothueo eioa?ania,
e eiathuaa i?eioaeeoaeueioth th?enaeeeoeeth, eiio?ieue ni noi?iiu
ia?iaea eee iauanoaa i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeai aac yoeo nithcia,
iauaaeeiaiee, ia?oee.

Ia?oee ia oieueei au?aaeatho eioa?anu oao eee eiuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii,
ii e aeoeaii o/anoaotho a oi?ie?iaaiee yoeo eioa?ania. Iie auiieiytho
ooieoeee iauaaeeiaiey eioa?ania ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo a?oii e neiaa
iooai naaaeaiey yoeo eioa?ania e aaeeiiio ciaiaiaoaeth.

Ia?oee, niaaeeiyy a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai n ainoaea?noaii, niinianoaotho
i?aiaeieaieth eee niya/aieth eiioeeeoia, eiiaiaioii i?enoueo eo
ioiioaieyi. Eiaiii aeaaiaea?y ia?oeyi iaania/eaaaony ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo nia?aiee e eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe. Iiaeii
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi eiaiii neeueiua ia?oee ia ineaaeytho, a, iaiai?io,
oneeeaatho ainoaea?noai, oe?aieyy eaiaeu ia?aoiie nayce iineaaeiaai n
iauanoaii, aai eiio?ieue iaae iieeoe/aneei i?ioeannii. Niioaaonoaaiii
neaainoue ia?oee iaecaaaeii iai?a/eaaaony neaainoueth ainoaea?noaa.

Ia?oee i?eia?aoatho ooieoeee naiaai ?iaea eioaa?e?othueo ia?aia e
ninoaeia iaaeaeo iauanoaii e ie?ii iieeoe/aneiai, iauaaeeiyy eo a
aaeeiia ia?ac?uaiia oeaeia. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey a
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie nenoaia, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aaoi?eoa?iie e
oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiao – n ae?oaie, ia?oee auiieiytho naie ooieoeee
ii-?aciiio. Anee i?e oioaeeoa?ecia iaeia-aaeeinoaaiiay ia?oey ii/oe
iieiinoueth neeoa n ainoaea?noaaiiuie no?oeoo?aie, oi ainiiaenoaothuea

a eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie nenoaia eiieo?aioiua ia?oee aeaenoaotho
ia aeaoo o?iaiyo. Ai-ia?auo, eaaeaeay ia?oey nicaeaao naoue eaiaeia,
i?iiecuaathueo ana eee aieueoeinoai ?aaeiiaeueiuo iauiinoae e ianoiuo
iauei e oai naiui oneeeaathueo a ieo iauaiaoeeiiaeueiia ia/aei.
Ai-aoi?uo, naia iai?aaeaiiinoue ia?oee ia eiieo?aioeeth n ae?oaeie
ia?oeyie niinianoaoao oiio, /oi iauaiaoeeiiaeueiay iieeoe/aneay nenoaia
noaaeony iaae anaie eiie?aoiuie a?oiie?iaeaie aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe,
iacaaeneii io eo ?aiaa e iieiaeaiey. Oai naiui i?iaiaeeony /aoeia
?acee/ea iaaeaeo naiie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiie e eiie?aoiuie
aeieaeiinoiuie eeoeaie.

A iaeiiia?oeeiie nenoaia iao ?acee/ee iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy ia/aeaie.
A?aaeaeaia neeiiiu ioiaeaeanoaeyoue iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio n iieeoeeie
eiie?aoiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae, a iineaaeiea, a naith i/a?aaeue, eae i?aaeei,
iieuecothony ooaa?aeeaoeieny iaoeeiiaeueiuie eiyeueiinoyie, /oiau
iaania/eoue naaa eae iiaeii aieaa oe?ieoth iiaeaea?aeeo. A oaeeo
iauanoaao ethaua iaiaaeee ia oao eee eiuo iieeoe/aneeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
eee ainiiaenoaothuoth ia?oeth iiaoo ?anniao?eaaoueny eae iaiaaeee ia
naio iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio. Nii?u ioiineoaeueii eaeiai-eeai eiie?aoiiai
iieeoe/aneiai eo?na e oiai eee eiiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey iiaoo cao?iiooue
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua aii?inu i auaeeaaiee nenoaiu. A eiieo?aioiie ia?oeeiie
nenoaia iiiiiaiou i?aayuae a aeaiiue iiiaio ia?oee iiaoo iaaeieoue
iineaaeithth a ineaaeaiee ainoaea?noaa eee i?aaeaoaeuenoaa o?aaeeoeee
iaoeee, ii nouanoaiaaiea naiie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu ia iiaeaa?aaaony
iianiinoe. Eiieo?aioiay ia?oeeiay nenoaia caueuaao io iaaeiaieuenoaa aa
a?aaeaeai: aeaeiau e iaiaaeee ioaeaeathony io nenoaiu a oeaeii e
iai?aaeythony ia eeoe, iaoiaeyueony a aeaiiue iiiaio o aeanoe.

O/?aaeaeaiea iinoiyiiuo eaiaeia aeey au?aaeaiey eiioeeeoothueo eioa?ania
niinianoaiaaei noaaeeecaoeee no?oeoo?u iaoeeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noa.
O?aaiaiea noaoona ?acee/iuo aeaiiieiaoeee niaeaenoaiaaei niya/aieth
i?aaeieo eiioeeeoia ii ?aeeaeiciui aii?inai. ?anoe?aiea i?aaa aieina, a
oaeaea naiaiaeu iieeoe/aneiai naiiau?aaeaiey oaeaea iiiiaei
ooaa?aeaeaieth eaaeoeiiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa. N eaeaae
ia?oee eae caeiiiie iiiiceoeee oanii naycaia eaeay auai?iinoe,
i?ecaaiiie iaania/eoue ia?iaeiue noaa?aieoao e i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai anao
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oiie?iaie e neiaa ianaeaiey a nenoaia aeanoe /a?ac
ia?oee. ?ieue au?aceoaey ia?iaeiiai noaa?aieoaoa ioaiaeeony eeoue
ecae?aoaeueiiio ei?iono. Oa?aeoa?ii ia oieueei e ia noieueei aiciiaeii
aieaa iieiia o/anoea iann a i?eiyoee iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee, neieueei
ioe?uoay eiieo?aioeey n oeaeueth caaiaaaiey oao eee eiuo
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo iinoia e eiio?iey iaae aeayoaeueiinoueth oao, eoi
iaoiaeeony o aeanoe.

N naiiai ia/aea iaeia ec aeaaiuo ooieoeee iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e
ecae?aoaeueii” nenoaiu ninoiyea a oi?iaeecaoeee e einoeoooeeiiaee-

‘ 145 10 Cai. ? 1

caoeee iieeoe/aneiai o/anoey a?aaeaeai, caiaia niiioaiiuo, noeoeeiuo,
iai?aaieciaaiiuo e ca/anooth “iacaeiiiuo” (aoio, ainnoaiea e o.ae.) oi?i
iieeoe/aneeo aeaenoaee “ocaeiiaiiuie”, einoeoooeeiiaee-ce?iaaiiuie
oi?iaie o/anoey /a?ac ia?oee e ecae?aoaeueioth nenoaio. N yoie oi/ee
c?aiey aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho ii?aaeaeaiiua iauai?eciaiiua i?aaeea
ea?u, iaycaoaeueiua aeey anao noi?ii, aiaea/aiiuo a iieeoe/aneee
i?ioeann. A eaeaaea ia?oey, iaoiaeyuayny a iiiiceoeee, ioaa?aaao
caaiai?, ainoaea?noaaiiue ia?aai?io, aoio, ainnoaiea, ?aaiethoeeth e
o.ae. a ea/anoaa n?aaenoaa caaiaaaiey iieeoe/aneie aeanoe e ioe?uoi
aiaeee?oao e ecae?aoaeyi. A oi aea a?aiy ia aeaenoaothuaa i?aaeoaeuenoai
iaeaaathony ii?aaeaeaiiua ia?aie/aiey a ioiioaiee iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa,
eioi?ua iii iiaeao eniieueciaaoue i?ioea iiiiceoeee. Aeiioneaaony
au?aaeaiea iiiiceoeeiiiuo acaeyaeia eae aioo?e, oae e aia ia?eaiaioa.
Aaiaey i?eioeei niaiu iieeoe/aneie aeanoe a i?ioeann eiieo?aioeee
iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee ianeieueeeie ia?oeyie, ecae?aoaeueiay nenoaia e
ia?oee eae au ioaeaeyee eiie?aoiuo ethaeae, niaiyaoeony o aeanoe, io
naiie nenoaiu.

A aieueoeinoaa no?ai ia?oeeiua i?aaiecaoeee a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
iieiinoueth .eiio?iee?otho e iaoaieci auaeaeaeaiey naieo eaiaeeaeaoia ia
auai?ao, e nai i?ioeann i?iaaaeaiey auai?ia. Iai?eia?, a Eoaeee
auaeaeaaoue eaiaeeaeaoia a iaeaoo aeaiooaoia ai?aaa oieueei iieeoe/aneea
ia?oee eee i?aaieciaaiiua iieeoe/aneea a?oiiu. I?e yoii iieacaoaeueii,
/oi nienie eaiaeeaeaoia, auaeaeaaaiuo oie eee eiie ia?oeae, ia eiaaoae
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa a i?aaeoanoaothuae eaaeneaoo?a, aeieaeai auoue
iiaeienai io 350 aei 700 ecae?aoaeae ecae?aoaeueiiai ie?oaa. Iiaeiaiiai
?iaea o?aaiaaiey, ca/anooth cia/eoaeueii aieaa aeanoeea, i?aaeuyaeythony
ai iiiaeo no?aiao. Iiyoiio ethaia eeoei, no?aiyuaany naeaeaoue
iieeoe/aneoth ea?uea?o, aeieaeii i?eiyoue nouanoaothuoth ia?oeeioth
nenoaio e iaeoe iauee ycue n ?oeiaiaenoaii ia?oee, ia?oeeiuie
ooieoeeiia?aie ia niioaaonoaothueo o?iaiyo. Eae i?aaeei, naith ea?uea?o
aoaeouee iieeoee ia/eiaao, niaiauay o/aao a eieeaaeaea eee oieaa?neoaoa,
?aaioo ii iaeio e o.ae. n ?aaioie a iieiaeaaeiie i?aaiecaoeee oie
ia?oee, acaeyaeu eioi?ie ii ?acaeaeyao. Iinoaiaiii niiniaiue iieiaeie
iieeoee iiaeieiaaony ii ea?uea?iie eanoieoea e a neo/aa iiaaaeu naiae
ia?oee ia auai?ao ai?aaa ?ann/eouaaoue ia oo eee eioth aeieaeiinoue a
ninoaaa aicaeaaeyaiiai ath i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Eiaiii o/anoaoy a
i?aaeauai?iie eaiiaiee, a iieeoe/aneeo aeeneonneyo e aaoaeeyo, ?aaioay a
oao eee eiuo ia?eaiaioneeo eiienneyo e eiieoaoao, iieeoee iaae?aaony
i?aeoe/aneiai iiuoa, au?aaaouaaao iiuo e ea/anoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
i?ioanneiiaeueiie iieeoe/aneie e ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oae,
iai?eia?, a NOA iieiaeie ia/eiathuee iieeoee nia/aea

146

anooiaao a ianoiue iieeoe/aneee eeoa e ?aaioaao a ea/anoaa iiiiuieea
“eaieoaia” ecae?aoaeueiiai ie?oaa. Iioii ii iiaeao aei?anoe aei
“eaieoaia” e, aiciiaeii, aei i?aaenaaeaoaey ecae?aoaeueiiai ie?oaa e
aeaeueoa aei “eaieoaia” a?aonoaa eee aeaaea aei i?aaenaaeaoaey ia?oeeiie
i?aaiecaoeee ooaoa, a caoai e /eaia iaoeeiiaeueiiai eiieoaoa ia?oee.
?aiueoa i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii auei aeaenoaiaaoue iiieii yoie
no?oeoo?u. Iiaeii auei i?inoi eoieoue ia?oeeioth iaoeio, ii yoi noieei
iiiai aeaiaa. Iiaeii auei “iiaeoue” iaoeio, nicaeaa naith nianoaaiioth,
ii /ai auoa iieeoe/aneee o?iaaiue, oai o?oaeiaa auei nicaeaoue oaeoth
iaoeio. Iaeioi?ua ei??aeoeau a yoo nenoaio auee aianaiu ?anoe?aieai a
70-o aa. oae iacuaaaiuo ia?ae/iuo auai?ia, ioe?uaoeo aiciiaeiinoe aeey
iacaaeneiuo i?aoaiaeaioia.

§ 3. Ia?oee e caeioa?aniaaiiua a?oiiu

Aiaeec aaaeiaeoeo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?oee aoaeao iaiieiui, anee ia cao?iiao
aii?ina i a?oiiao e iauaaeeiaieyo, oi anoue no?oeoo?ao, ia eioi?uo
iniiauaathony eae naie ia?oee, oae e iieeoe/aneea oaiiiaiu a oeaeii.
Eeanne/aneay aeaiie?aoe/aneay oai?ey ii/oe ie/aai ia aiai?eo i a?oiiao.
A oeaio?a aa aieiaiey – ioaeaeueiue eiaeeaeae e ainoaea?noai.
Ainoaea?noai eiaao aeaei a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a nei?aa n a?oiiaie, iaaeaee
n ioaeaeueii acyouie eiaeeaeaeaie. Iai?eia?, /eai ia?eaiaioa, ?aoay, eae
aio aieiniaaoue, aeoiaao ia noieueei i eiie?aoiii /aeiaaea, neieueei i
iio?aaiinoyo e eioa?anao i?ioanneiiaeueiuo a?oii oa?ia?ia, ?aai/eo,
o/eoaeae e o.ae. N oi/ee c?aiey iieeoe/aneie cia/eiinoe a?oiiu
auiieiytho oaeea ooieoeee, eae oi?ioee?iaaiea e ioeaiea iieeoe/aneeo
i?iaeai, iaaethaeaiea ca aeaenoaeyie i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ?aaeecaoeey
aeaenoaey ii “i?ioaeeeaaieth” oao eee eiuo eioa?ania e o.ae.

?acoiaaony, ia ana a?oiiu eiatho i?yiia ioiioaiea e iieeoeea. Ii aianoa
n oai ?/aaeaeii, /oi iieeoeea inouanoaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii ia
a?oiiiaie iniiaa. Caeanue i?aaeaea anaai ?a/ue eaeao i oae iacuaaaiuo
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oiiao: ?aciiai ?iaea i?aaiecaoeeyo, iauaaeeiaieyo,
nithcao i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, ?aai/eo, oa?ia?ia, o/eoaeae, aaeaieaoia,
i?iecaiaeeoaeae oie eee eiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Anee aeaaiay oeaeue ia?oee – caaiaaaiea aeanoe aeey ?aaeecaoeee
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iieeoe/aneiai eo?na, oi caeioa?aniaaiiua a?oiiu, eee
a?oiiu aeaaeaiey, eae oeacuaaao naii eo iacaaiea, i?aneaaeotho oeaeue
ieacaoue aeeyiea ia iieeoeeo. Ia?oey, eae i?aaeei, aeeth/aao ethaeae n
?aciiia?aciuie eioa?anaie e ?aciuie onoaiiaeaie e i?eaioaoeeyie, a oi
a?aiy eae caeioa?aniaaiiua a?oiiu ninoiyo ec oao, eioi?ua i?aneaaeotho
niaoeeoe/aneea aeey anao aa /eaiia eioa?anu e eiioeaio?e?otho naia
aieiaiea aeaaiui ia?acii ia iaeiie eee

ianeieueeeo i?iaeaiao. Ia?oey aea aeieaeia noi?ioee?iaaoue oaeea
iieeoe/aneea iiceoeee, eioi?ua iinyo iauee oa?aeoa?. Eiaaea iiaiey
ecae?aoaeae ?acei ?anoiaeyony, aieueoeinoai eaiaeeaeaoia iuoathony
caiyoue n?aaeithth iiceoeeth, n oai /oiau ecaaaeaoue ?enea iioa?youe oo
eee eioth cia/eoaeueioth a?oiio ecae?aoaeae.

A ioee/ea io ia?oee, eioi?ua, eae i?aaeei, auioaeaeaiu naeaaeeaaoue
?acee/ey ii aaaeiaeoei i?iaeaiai n oeaeueth nicaeaiey aacu aeey
iauaaeeiaiey ?acii?iaeiuo nioeeaeueiuo neiaa a oe?ieoth eaiiaieth,
niiniaioth iaania/eoue iiaaaeo ia auai?ao, caeioa?aniaaiiua a?oiiu
caieiatho /aoei au?aaeaiiua iiceoeee, iauaaeeiythuea anao /eaiia yoeo
a?oii. Iai?eia?, aia?eeaineay “Iyoie ?aeoe anioeyeoi” ninoieo oieueei ec
eeoe, caeioa?aniaaiiuo a iai?eiyoee caeiia i eiio?iea ca i?iaeaaeae e
iioaieai iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey.

Caeioa?aniaaiiua a?oiiu iaania/eaatho eaiaeu eae aeey yooaeoeaiie
eiieo?aioeee, oae e ianniaiai o/anoey a iieeoe/aneii i?ioeanna. Iie
iaeaaeatho cia/eoaeueiuie ?ano?naie aeey o?aaiiaaoeaaiey oao eee eiuo
aeaenoaee ainoaea?noaa, caaeaaathueo eo eioa?anu, i?aaeinoaaeytho
ioaeaeueiiio eiaeeaeaeo aiciiaeiinoue ieacuaaoue aeaaeaiea ia
iieeoe/aneeo eeaea?ia e oai naiui i?eieiaoue o/anoea a iieeoeea.

Eniuoaiiui n?aaenoaii aicaeaenoaey caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oii ia eo?n
ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo einoeoooia e iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee yaeyaony
oae iacuaaaiia eiaae?iaaiea. Yoi i?eaiu, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo
caeioa?aniaaiiua a?oiiu aeiaeaathony ?aaeecaoeee naieo oeaeae. Eiaaenou
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ooao ethaeae aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee. Ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo iie oi?ioi ciatho naia aeaei, niiniaiu aeioiae/eai iauynieoue
neiaeiua e o?oaeiua aii?inu, anoanoaaiii, a naith iieueco. A ei?eaei?ao
aeanoe iie aeiaeaathony oeiainiauo auaiae eee iaeiaiauo e eiuo eueaio
aeey naieo eeeaioia, onoaiaaeeaay nayce n ioaeiuie ethaeueie a ?aciiai
?iaea ia?eaiaioneeo eiieoaoao e o/?aaeaeaieyo eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe.
Ia?aaeei eiaaenou auiieiytho ?ieue iin?aaeieeia a ?aciiai ?iaea naeaeeao
iaaeaeo caeioa?aniaaiiuie a?oiiaie e iieeoe/aneeie aeayoaeyie, ?ieue
naycothuaai caaia iaaeaeo caeioa?aniaaiiuie a?oiiaie e caeiiiaeaoaeyie,
ieacuaay nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea iieeoe/aneiai eo?na
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iniaaiii aieueoei aeeyieai iie iieuecothony a NOA.
Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u aeaaea iacuaatho eiaaeci “o?aoueae iaeaoie”
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee e “eioaa?aeueiui yeaiaioii nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey Aia?eee”.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a NOA nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai annioeeaoeee, aunooiathueo
a ea/anoaa iauaaeeiaiee caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oii, i?aaenoaaeythueo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea e?oae. N?aaee ieo iaeaieaa e?oiiuie yaeythony
Oi?aiaay iaeaoa NOA (iauaaeeiyao 27 oun. ooaoiuo e ianoiuo iaeao, 200
oun. eiiiaiee-/eaiia e 13 oun. i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo annioeeaoeee),
Iaoeeiiaeueiay annioeeaoeey i?iiuoeaiie-

148

eia (a iaa aoiaeyo 75% anao i?iiuoeaiiuo eiiiaiee NOA), Iaoeeiiaeueiay
annioeeaoeey iaeiai aeciana (500 oun. eiiiaiee) e Iaoeeiiaeueiay
oaaea?aoeey iacaaeneiiai aeciana (400 oun. eiiiaiee). E iaeaieaa e?oiiui
eiaaenoneei i?aaiecaoeeyi, iieuecothueiny aieueoei aeeyieai a
Aaoeiaoiia, ioiinyony “Iyoie ?aeoe anioeyeoi”, “Iyoie yaeaieyeoi
anioeyeoi”. Aia?eeaineay oaaea?aoeey oa?ia?neeo ath?i, Aia?eeaineay
annioeeaoeey aaeaieaoia , Aia?eeaineee iaooyiie einoeooo, “Oinnaeiia
eiaae”, “Aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiia eiaae”, oae iacuaaaiia “Aa?aeneia eiaae” e
o.ae. Eae i?eciaaae aeo?iae “Oi?/oi”, oeiainiai-i?iiuoeaiiua e?oae
Aia?eee i?aa?aoeeenue a “naiia yooaeoeaiia eiaae no?aiu, ionoaeaathuaa
naiaei?unoiua eioa?anu”.

I oa?aeoa?a e ?aciiia?acee iiaeiaiuo iauaaeeiaiee a O?A aeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia?a/aiue eo iacaaiee: Iauaaeeiaiea iaiaoeeeo
i?ionithcia, Oaaea?aeueiia iauaaeeiaiea nithcia iaiaoeeeo
?aaioiaeaoaeae, Oaaea?aeueiia iauaaeeiaiea aa?iaineie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Nithc iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, Nithc aeaiie?aoe/aneeo o/aiuo. Iaiaoeeee
nii?oeaiue nithc e o.ae. Ia ?aaeiiaeueiii e oaaea?aeueiii o?iaiyo
nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iauaaeeiaiee e i?aaiecaoeee ?aianeaiieeia,
nooaeaioia, a?a/ae, aeayoaeae eoeueoo?u, iio?aaeoaeae oiaa?ia oe?ieiai
ni?ina e o.ae. Ii iaeioi?ui aeaiiui, a O?A ian/eouaaaony io 4 oun. aei 5
oun. oaeeo iauaaeeiaiee. Aiaeiae/iia iieiaeaiea iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue e
a ae?oaeo eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?aiao.

Iaeaieaa aeoeaii e oaeoeea eiaae?iaaiey i?eaaaaao e?oiiue, n?aaeiee e
iaeeee aecian, eo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea annioeeaoeee e i?aaiecaoeee.
Aaaeiay caaea/a, noiyuay ia?aae ieie, – aicaeaenoaea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
iieeoe/aneie no?aoaaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Iniaoth ianoie/eainoue a yoii
i?iyaeytho ?oeiaiaeeoaee ei?ii?aoeee, eioi?ua i?iieeatho a iieeoe/aneea
e?oae, eniieuecoy ee/iua e ia?oeeii-iieeoe/aneea nayce, o/anoea a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo annioeeaoeeyo e a ?acee/iuo
iiaeeiienneyo. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee naiaai aeeyiey a iieeoe/aneie aeecie
no?aiu aecian nicaeae oe?ieoth naoue ?acee/iuo i?aaiecaoeee. A NOA yoi
oae iacuaaaiua niaauaoaeueiua eiieoaou aeciana i?e i?aaeoaeuenoaa a?iaea
niaauaoaeueiiai eiieoaoa ii /anoiiio i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoao ai aiaoiae
oi?aiaea eee niaauaoaeueiiai eiieoaoa i?iiuoeaiieeia i?e ieienoa?noaa
iai?iiu NOA, eioi?uo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ian/eouaaaony ieiei 2 oun.:
iieeoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee aeciana, eae, iai?eia?, eiieoao aeciana ca
nie?auaiea iaeiaia, “e?oaeue noie” aeciana, /?acau/aeiue eiieoao ca
?acaeoea aia?eeaineie oi?aiaee e ae?. Yoe e iiaeiaiua ei i?aaiecaoeee
i?ecaaiu ionoaeaaoue eioa?anu aeciana a ?acee/iuo
ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo einoeoooao e o/?aaeaeaieyo, niaeaenoaiaaoue
oi?ie?iaaieth oaiaeiiai aeciano iieeoe/aneiai eo?na.

A ioee/ea io NOA, aieueoeinoai a?oii aeaaeaiey a aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao
oanii naycaiu n i?aaeoaeuenoaii. Ia?aaeei i?aaeoaeuenoai aeaeaae?oao ei
ioaeaeueiua ooieoeee: iai?eia?, onoaiiaeaiea oeai, ?ai?aaiecaoeeth oao
eee eiuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe a niioaaonoaee n ii?aaeaeaiiui ieaiii,
aaaaeaiea eaio e o.ae. *anoi anoue i?yiay i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay
iiaeaea?aeea, iai?eia? a oaeeo ia/eiaieyo, eae niaianoiia aeaaeaiea
aeoeeyie i?aaeoaeuenoaii e /anoiuie eeoeaie eee i?aaiecaoeeyie,
iiiu?aiea i?aaeoaeuenoaii ea?oaeae e o.ae. I?aaeoaeuenoai e iieeoe/aneea
ia?oee niaianoiuie oneeeyie niinianoaotho aeayoaeueiinoe
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oii.

Oaeay i?aeoeea annioeeaoeee caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oii n i?aaeoaeuenoaii eee
ia?oeyie niinianoaoao oe?aieaieth eae ia?oeeiie eiyeueiinoe, oae e
ia?oeeiie aeenoeeieeiu. *anoi eiaiii naycue n caeioa?aniaaiiuie a?oiiaie
iicaieyao oe?aieoue ia?oeeioth aeenoeeieeio, iineieueeo ?oeiaiaeeoaee
oao eee eiuo caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oii iaeiia?aiaiii caieiatho aeeyoaeueiua
iiceoeee a ia?oeeiie ea?a?oee. Oae, i?aaeoaeuenoai o?enoeaineeo
aeaiie?aoia a Eoaeee oniaoii aea?aeaei a ocaea eaoiee/aneea i?ionithcu,
a eiiia?oey – eiiioienoe/aneea i?ionithcu.

A iineaaeiea iieoi?a-aeaa aeanyoeeaoey naeaeae a
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeecie niinianoaiaaee ii?aaeaeaiiui eciaiaieyi
a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo caeioa?aniaaiiuie a?oiiaie e iieeoe/aneeie
ia?oeyie. Oae, ineaaeaiea ia?oeeiie i?eaa?aeaiiinoe nii?iaiaeaeaaony
oaiaeaioeeae e iiai?ioo ethaeae e caeioa?aniaaiiui a?oiiai. ?ino
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oii onei?eeny a oaeie noaiaie, /oi iaeioi?ua
iieeoe/aneea iaaethaeaoaee auneacuaatho na?ueaciua iianaiey, /oi yoe
a?oiiu iiaoo acyoue ia naay ioaeaeueiua aaaeiua ooieoeee ia?oee, /oi a
iaaeaeaeii aoaeouai iie i?eaeoo ia niaio ia?oeyi. Eae au iiaeoaa?aeaeay
yoio oacen, iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiua caeioa?aniaaiiua a?oiiu nicaeaee
nianoaaiiua eiieoaou iieeoe/aneiai aeaenoaey, eioi?ua ea?atho ana aieaa
aic?anoathuoth ?ieue a iieeoe/aneie aeecie. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oieueei a
NOA /enei oaeeo eiieoaoia ia?aaaeeei ca 4 oun.

§4. Oeiieiaecaoeey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee

Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa ii ianeieueeei
ia?aiao?ai. Aaaeiaeoeie ec ieo yaeythony i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u e
/eainoai. A niioaaonoaee n ieie ?acee/athony ia?oee ianniaua e
eaae?iaua. Ia?aua oi?ie?iaaeenue aia ia?eaiaioa. ?ae?ooe?oy naith
nioeeaeueioth aaco a iniiaiii ec iecoeo neiaa ianaeaiey, ianniaua ia?oee
i?eiyee oa?aeoa? nioeeaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia ?aai/eo,
e?anoueyi e ?acii?iaeiua ?aeeaeiciua a?oiiu.

Eo i?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a neiaeeeanue ?aiueoa
caaiaaaiey eie iiaaae ia auai?ao e i?iaaaeaiey eaiaeeaeaoia a
ia?eaiaiou. N/eoaaony, /oi ianniaay ia?oey, eae i?aaeei, ioee/aaony
i?ia?aiiiinoueth iieeoe/aneeo onoaiiaie. A aieueoeinoaa naiai, iniaaiii
ia ia?aiia/aeueiii yoaia, ia?oee yoiai oeia oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue eaaie
i?eaioaoeeae. A aeaeueiaeoai, neaaeoy eo i?eia?o, iiiaea e?anoueyineea e
?aeeaeiciua ia?oee no?aieeenue e oiio, /oiau i?eia?anoe eiioo?u ianniauo
ia?oee. Ianniaua ia?oee ioee/athony oaeaea aunieie noaiaiueth
eaeaieiaece?iaaiiinoe. Caeanue eaeaieiaey eniieuecoaony aeey ianniaie
iieeoe/aneie iiaeeecaoeee. *eaiu ia?oee ia oieueei ieaoyo aciinu, ii e
aeoeaii o/anoaotho a aeaeao ia?oee. Yoi, eae i?aaeei, eaaua ia?oee
eiiioienoe/aneie, nioeeaeenoe/aneie e nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
i?eaioaoeee.

*oi eanaaony eaae?iauo ia?oee, oi eo caaea/a ninoieo a oii, /oiau
iiaeeeciaaoue a eiie?aoiii ecae?aoaeueiii ie?oaa aeeyoaeueiuo eeoe,
niiniaiuo i?eaea/ue iiaeaea?aeeo iaeneiaeueii aieueoaai /enea
ecae?aoaeae ec ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo neiaa iacaaeneii io eo
eaeaieiae/aneeo i?eaioaoeee. Oi, /oi ianniauie ia?oeyie aeinoeaaaony
eiee/anoaii, o yoeo ia?oee iaania/eaaaony iiaeai?ii niioaaonoaothueo
eaae?ia, niiniaiuo yooaeoeaii i?aaieciaaoue ecae?aoaeueioth eaiiaieth.
Yoiio i?eioeeio neaaeotho iiiaea aa?iiaeneea ia?oee eiina?aaoeaiie
i?eaioaoeee. ?anioaeeeaineay e aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oee NOA ai iiiaii
ni/aoatho a naaa ianniaia e eaae?iaia ia/aea, e n yoie oi/ee c?aiey eo
iiaeii iacaaoue aea?eaeiuie.

Ioaeaeueiua ia?oee nouanoaotho a oi?ia iaeiaai iauaaeeiaiey ianeieueeeo
ia?oee. Oeie/iui aeey iiaeiaiiai aeaea yaeyaony i?aai-oeaio?enoneee
nithc ca o?aioeocneoth aeaiie?aoeth (NOAe) ai aeaaa n auaoei
i?aceaeaioii O?aioeee A. AEenea? ae’Ynoaiii, i?aaenoaaeythuee niaie
eiaeeoeeth iyoe ia?oee e a?oiie?iaie. Ia neo/aeii ai O?aioeee iaeioi?ua
ia?oee i?aaeii/eoatho iacuaaoue naay ia ia?oeyie, a iauaaeeiaieyie,
nithcaie, aeaeaeaieyie, naeoeeyie e o.ae.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi /eainoai ia?oee a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai
a?aiaie inoaaaeinue iayniui e aii?oiui. Iiiaea ia?oee i?aeoe/anee ia
aeaeaee iniauo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo naieie /eaiaie e oaie, eoi eo i?inoi
iiaeaea?aeeaaao ia auai?ao. E nae/an iiiaea ia?oee eeaa?aeueiie e
eiina?aaoeaiie i?eaioaoeee ia iiaoo oi/ii iacaaoue eiee/anoai naieo
/eaiia. Ii?aaeaeaiii iiaeii neacaoue iaeii: /enei eeoe, n/eoathueo naay
/eaiaie ia?oee, ninoaaeyao eeoue iaeoth /anoue ianaeaiey oie eee eiie
no?aiu. A na?aaeeia 70-o aa., ia eioi?ua i?eoiaeeeny iee iiioey?iinoe
eaeai?enoneie ia?oee Aaeeeia?eoaiee, a iae ian/eouaaeinue 6,5 iei.
/eaiia. Iaeiaei 5,8 iei. ec ieo i?eiaaeeaaeaee e eaeai?enoai ia ia/aeao
eieeaeoeaiiai /eainoaa a i?ionithcao. A O?A ian/eouaaaony 2 iei. /eaiia
anao iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee no?aiu, aianoa acyouo, /oi ninoaaeyao anaai 5%
ecae?aoaeue-

iiai ei?iona. I?e/ai ec ieo oieueei ieiei 250 oun. yaeythony aeoeaiuie
/eaiaie.

Nouanoaotho ia?oee, i?aaiecaoeeiiii ioi?ieaiiua, /eaiu eioi?uo iieo/atho
ia?oeeiua aeeaou e ieaoyo /eaineea aciinu, e ia?oee, i?aaiecaoeeiiii
iaioi?ieaiiua, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony ionoonoaeai ioeoeeaeueiiai
/eainoaa. Ai aoi?ii neo/aa, /oiau i?eieiooue e oie eee eiie ia?oee,
aeinoaoi/ii ioaee/iiai cayaeaiey ecae?aoaey i naiae i?eaa?aeaiiinoe yoie
ia?oee. Iaeaieaa oeie/iuie i?eia?aie ia?auo yaeythony eiiioienoe/aneea
ia?oee, a aoi?uo – ?anioaeeeaineay e aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oee NOA,
eiina?aaoeaiay ia?oey Aaeeeia?eoaiee. ?acee/athony oaeaea ia?oee n
i?yiui e einaaiiui /eainoaii. A ia?aii neo/aa i?eieiaaony eaiaeeaeao a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ii?yaeea, a ai aoi?ii – oio eee eiie /aeiaae
noaiiaeony /eaiii ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?oee i?inoi a neeo oiai, /oi aoiaeeo a
eaeoth-eeai i?aaiecaoeeth, eioi?ay naycaia n yoie ia?oeae. Oae, a
eaeai?enoneoth ia?oeth Aaeeeia?eoaiee, a oaeaea nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneea
ia?oee Oaaoeee, Ii?aaaee e E?eaiaeee i?ionithcu aoiaeyo ia eieeaeoeaiuo
ia/aeao, e iiyoiio caeanue /eaiu i?ionithcia yaeythony eieeaeoeaiuie
/eaiaie yoeo ia?oee. Aeey eiiioienoe/aneeo ia?oee oa?aeoa?ii
eneeth/eoaeueii i?yiia /eainoai.

Oeiieiaecaoeey ia?oeeiuo nenoai i?iaiaeeony oaeaea ii /eneo
nouanoaothueo a oie eee eiie no?aia ia?oee. Ii yoiio i?eioeeio
?acee/athony iaeiiia?oeeiay, aeaooia?oeeiay e iiiaiia?oeeiay nenoaiu.

I?e iiiaiia?oeeiie nenoaia eaaeaeay ia?oey i?aaenoaaeyao aieaa eee iaiaa
/aoei i/a?/aiiua eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneea eee eaeaieiae/aneea iiceoeee.
Niaeo? yoeo iiceoeee i?inoe?aaony io e?aeia i?aauo aei e?aeia eaauo.
Inoaeueiua ia?oee caieiatho i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea iaaeaeo yoeie
aeaoiy e?aeieie iiethnaie. Eae i?aaeei, a iiiaiia?oeeiuo ia?eaiaioao
ianoa ?aniieaaathony a oi?ia iaeioi?iai iieoe?oaa, aaea, neaaeoy
o?aaeeoeee o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee, i?aaenoaaeoaee eiina?aaoeaiuo e
i?aauo ia?oee ?annaaeeaathony ia i?aaie noi?iia io
i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaothuaai, aeaeueoa aeaai – aeeceea ei ii aeooo ia?oee,
a oeaio?a – oia?aiiua e aeaeueoa a naiii eiioea -i?aaenoaaeoaee
eaai?aaeeeaeueiuo ia?oee.

Oaeay a?oiie?iaea ii eeiee i?aaua – eaaua, iniiaaiiay ia iiceoeeyo e
onoaiiaeao ii nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei e iieeoe/aneei i?iaeaiai,
nii?yaeaia ni cia/eoaeueiie aeieae oi?iuaiey ?aaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aauae
a iauanoaa. A /anoiinoe, a oaeoth noaio ia anaaaea iiaeii aoeniooue
?aeeaeiciua, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiua, ?aaeiiaeueiua, ianoie/aneea,
i?ioanneiiaeueiua e eiua eioa?anu. Yoi, a /anoiinoe, au?aaeaaony a oii,
/oi n na?aaeeiu 70-o aa. a iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?ai Aa?iiu ?acaeoea
iieo/eee iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneea e ?aeeaeiia-eenoneea aeaeaeaiey e ia?oee,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeaiu anaie iooaieaie eaeaieiae/aneiai niaeo?a: io
e?aeia i?aaiai oeaiaiaeneiai aeiea

e ?aaaioenoneie thaeiioe?ieueneie ia?oee aei oeueo?aeaaie aaneneie “Y??e
aaoanoia”. Ca/anooth aea eo iaaiciiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii eeiee
i?aaua – eaaua, eiina?aaoi?u – eeaa?aeu e o.ae. Iai?eia?, oeaio?enoneea
ia?oee O?aioeee, ?acaeaeyy iauea iiceoeee ii ?yaeo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?iaeai, a oi aea a?aiy ?anoiaeyony ae?oa n
ae?oaii ii aii?inai, eanathueiny ?aeeaee, ainoaea?noaa, ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
o?aaeeoeee, nioeeaeueii-eeanniauo ?acee/ee e o.ae.

Eae i?aaeei, a iiiaiia?oeeiuo nenoaiao ie iaeia ia?oey ia niiniaia
caaiaaaoue iiaeaea?aeeo aieueoeinoaa ecae?aoaeae. Iie oeie/iu aeey
ia?eaiaioneie oi?iu i?aaeaiey e a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa eiatho naiei
?acoeueoaoii eiaeeoeeiiiua i?aaeoaeuenoaa eee eaaeiaou ieieno?ia.
Caeanue ie iaeia ia?oey ia niiniaia aunooieoue a ea/anoaa i?aaenoaaeoaey
anae iaoeee eee aa aieueoeinoaa e iiyoiio ia iiaeao oi?ie?iaaoue
i?aaeoaeuenoai aac i?eaea/aiey iiaeaea?aeee eee i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo
ia?oee. Ia?aaeei oaeay o?aaiaioa?iinoue ia?aeaao ia?eaiaioneea eiaeeoeee
ia iaonoie/eainoue, a i?aaeoaeuenoaa, iniiaaiiua ia ieo, – ia
iinoiyiioth ianoaaeeueiinoue.

Iiae aeaooia?oeeiie nenoaiie iiae?acoiaaaaony nenoaia n aeaoiy e?oiiuie
ia?oeyie, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo eiaao oain caaiaaaoue ia auai?ao
aieueoeinoai iano a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii Nia?aiee eee aieueoeinoai aieinia
ecae?aoaeae ia auai?ao eniieieoaeueiie aaoae aeanoe. Aeaooia?oeeiay
nenoaia ioithaeue ia icia/aao ionoonoaey ae?oaeo ia?oee. Iai?eia?, a
oa/aiea XX a. a Aaeeeia?eoaiee a ea/anoaa iaeiie ec aeaoo aeaaiuo ia?oee
eaeai?enou i?eoee ia niaio eeaa?aeai. A oi aea a?aiy a iineaaiaiiua
aeanyoeeaoey eeaa?aeu nio?aiyee noaoon ia?eaiaioneie ia?oee, a
nioeeae-eeaa?aeueiue aeueyin, ia?aciaaaoeeny a ia/aea 80-o aa.,
eiiaaeacaaiaauaae aei 25% aieinia ecae?aoaeae.

Iniaaiii iieacaoaeueii n yoie oi/ee c?aiey iieiaeaiea aeae a NOA, aaea
ainiiaenoaoao eeanne/aneee i?eia? aeaooia?oeeiie nenoaiu a eeoea
aeaiie?aoe/aneie e ?anioaeeeaineie ia?oee. Ca anth enoi?eth
nouanoaiaaiey aeaooia?oeeiie nenoaiu NOA aieaa 200 eaiaeeaeaoia o?aoueeo
ia?oee iiiuoaeenue aeiaeoueny eca?aiey ia iano i?aceaeaioa no?aiu.
Iaeiaei eeoue ainaiue ec ieo noiaee caaiaaaoue aieaa 1 iei. aieinia
ecae?aoaeae. Iinea A?aaeaeaineie aieiu o?aouee ia?oee iyoue ?ac ia
i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ao caaiaauaaee aieina – oioy e iacia/eoaeueiia /enei
– auai?ueeia. A ?yaea neo/aaa, iniaaiii ia ooaoiii o?iaia, o?aouee
ia?oee noaiiaeeenue aeeyoaeueiie iieeoe/aneie neeie. Ii i?e anai oii
aaaeiie iniaaiiinoueth aeaooia?oeeiie nenoaiu NOA noaei iai?eyoea
aieueoeinoaii ecae?aoaeae ia iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia o?aoueeo ia?oee.
Aia?eea yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaiiiaeo no?ai, aaea iao nioeeaeenoe/aneie
eee ae?oaie ?aai/ae ia?oee n ia?eaiaioneei i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaii.

A oeiieiaecaoeeth ii oeaea aeaooia?oeeiinoe e iiiaiia?oeeiinoe neaaeoao
aianoe ii?aaeaeaiiua ei??aeoeau. Caeanue aneaae ca o?aioeoc-

neei enneaaeiaaoaeai AE. Oa?ei iiaeii auaeaeeoue “niaa?oaiioth”
aeaooia?oeeioth nenoaio (eae, iai?eia?, a NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee), i?e
eioi?ie aeaa iniiaiua ia?oee aianoa niae?atho aei 90% aieinia, e nenoaio
aeaoo n iieiaeiie ia?oee (eae, iai?eia?, a O?A), i?e eioi?ie eaeay-eeai
o?aouey ia?oey iaeaaeaao aeinoaoi/iie yeaeoi?aeueiie aacie, /oiau aianoe
ei??aeoeau, ii?ie nouanoaaiiua, a i?eau/ioth ea?o aeaoo iniiaiuo ia?oee,
niae?athueo aieina 75-80% ecae?aoaeae. *oi eanaaony iiiaiia?oeeiie
nenoaiu, oi-caeanue iiaeii oaeaea auaeaeeoue, oneiaii aiai?y,
“niaa?oaiioth” iiiaiia?oeeiinoue (eae a aieueoeinoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueii
?acaeouo no?ai) e iiiaiia?oeeiinoue n iaeiie aeiieie?othuae ia?oeae (eae
a ssiiiee), eioi?oth ia neaaeoao iooaoue n iaeiiia?oeeiie nenoaiie.

Eoaeueyineoth nenoaio eiiaaea iacuaatho ianiaa?oaiiie aeaooia?oeeiie
nenoaiie a neeo oiai, /oi a iae a oa/aiea ii/oe anaai iineaaiaiiiai
ia?eiaea ainiiaenoaothuea iiceoeee caieiaee aeaa e?oiiua ia?oee –
o?enoeaineea aeaiie?aou e eiiioienou. I?e/ai ia?aua anaaaea iaoiaeeeenue
o aeanoe, a aoi?ua – a iiiiceoeee. I?eia?ii oaeia aea iieiaeaiea
(?acoiaaony, n niioaaonoaothueie iaiai?eaie) iaaethaeaaony a ssiiiee,
aaea aeanoue iiiiiieece?iaaea eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey, a
nioeeaeenou e eiiioienou ie ?aco ia auee aeiiouaiu e aeanoe. Yoa
o?aaeeoeey ia?ooeeanue oieueei a na?aaeeia 1993 a., eiaaea
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneoth ia?oeth o aeanoe niaieea eiaeeoeey ec
ainueie ia?oee.

Iaiaeii?iaeiinoue nioeeaeueiie aacu ia?oee, iaee/ea a ieo a?oii e neiaa
n ?aciuie, ii?ie eiioeeeoothueie, eioa?anaie niinianoaotho
aicieeiiaaieth a ieo ?acee/iuo o?aeoeee e oa/aiee. Oae, iai?eia?, a
eaeai?enoneie ia?oee Aaeeeia?eoaiee anoue ianeieueei o?aeoeee, noiyueo
ia eaauo, oeaio?enoneeo e i?aauo iiceoeeyo. Ianeieueei o?aeoeee
nouanoaoao-a OAeN Eoaeee, a eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey ssiiiee
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eiiaeiia?ao o?aeoeee. Nicaeaaay i?iaeaiu aeey
?oeiaiaenoaa ia?oee, o?aeoeee e oa/aiey aianoa n oai iicaieytho
i?eaea/ue ia naith noi?iio ecae?aoaeae ec n?aaeu ?acee/iuo nioeeaeueiuo
neiaa, o/eouaaoue iiiaiia?acea nioeei-eoeueoo?iuo, yeiiiie/aneeo,
eiioanneiiaeueiuo, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiuo e eiuo i?eaioaoeee e onoaiiaie a
iauanoaa. Ai?ueaa yoeo o?aeoeee e oa/aiee iaeeaaeuaaao nouanoaaiiue
ioia/aoie ia iieeoeeo niioaaonoaothuae ia?oee. Aieaa oiai, aa iieeoeea
oi?ie?oaony a oiaea yoie ai?ueau.

Iieiaeaiea oeaio?enoneeo ia?oee aeaao ei i?aeiouanoai oia?aiiuo iiceoeee
ii iniiaiiio aeieo i?iaeai, noiyueo ia?aae no?aiie, e naieie aeaenoaeyie
e iiaaaeaieai iie niiniaiu neeiieoue /aoo aania a iieueco iaeiie
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eiaeeoeee a i?ioeaiaan ae?oaie. A. Aeaaeaea?
auaeaeyao ianeieueei aa?eaioia, a eioi?uo oeaio?enoneea ia?oee
auiieiytho ?aciua ooieoeee e eiatho ?aciue

154

noaoon. I?e eeanne/aneie aeaooia?oeeiie nenoaia, iai?eia? a
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, aeey ia?oee oeaio?a iao iaiaoiaeeiiai iiey
aeayoaeueiinoe. Caeanue a eo/oai neo/aa iiaeii aiai?eoue i oeaio?a eae i
oi/ea, e eioi?ie oyaioatho iaa niia?ie/athuea ia?oee. Aieaa
i?aaeii/oeoaeueii iieiaeaiea oeaio?enoneie ia?oee a oaeie nenoaia, eae
O?A, aaea naiaiaeiay aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey (NaAeI) i?i/ii caiyea ianoi
o?aoueae ia?oee e aeiaeaaaony aoiaeaeaiey ,a eiaeeoeeiiiia
i?aaeoaeuenoai iiia?aiaiii n aeaoiy aeaaiuie ia?oeyie – NAeIA e
OAeN/ONN. I?eia? nenoaiu, a eioi?ie aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea caieiaao
iaeia e?oiiay ia?oey, aeaao Eoaeey, aaea o?enoeaineea aeaiie?aou (OAeI)
aeey nicaeaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie eiaeeoeee ia?eiaee/anee iaiytho naieo
nithcieeia ec /enea aieaa iaeeeo ia?oee. I?e aeaooaeieiaie nenoaia, i?e
eioi?ie iniiaiay ai?ueaa ca aeanoue aaaeaony niia?ie/athueie
a?oiie?iaeaie, eae yoi eiaao ianoi ai O?aioeee e Aeaiee, ia?aaeaeaeaiea
eaeie-eeai iaeiie ia?oee ec iaeiiai aeiea a ae?oaie iiaeao i?eaanoe e
eciaiaieth niioiioaiey nee ia iieeoe/aneie a?aia. Caeanue ioe?uaathony
aiciiaeiinoe aeey iaiaa?e?iaaiey nee, eioi?ua oneiaii iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae eaaue e i?aaue oeaio?. Ano?a/athony e ae?oaea iaiaa
cia/eiua aa?eaoeee.

A ooaa?aeaeaiee oie eee eiie ia?oeeiie nenoaiu iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue
ea?atho enoi?e/aneea, iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iua e eiua oaeoi?u.
Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao e oei ooaa?aeeaoaeny a aeaiiie no?aia
iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Iai?eia?, a NOA e a ?yaea ae?oaeo no?ai,
iineaaeiaaaoeo eo iiaeaee, aeanoue e aeeyiea einoeoooa i?aceaeaionoaa
ianoieueei cia/eiu, /oi ie iaeia ia?oey ia niiniaia aeinoe/ue naieo
no?aoaae/aneeo oeaeae, ia aeiaeaoenue eiio?iey iaae i?aceaeaioneie
aeanoueth. Oaeie eiio?ieue, ?acoiaaony, o?aaoao i?eaea/aiey-
iiaeaea?aeee aieueoeinoaa ecae?aoaeae. Iao eiaeeoeeiiiiai i?aceaeaioa –
e ia?oey ia auai?ao iieo/aao eeai ana, eeai ie/aai. Aieueoae /anoueth
eiaiii niia?aaeaiey caaiaaaiey i?aceaeaioneiai iinoa neoaeao oaeoi?ii,
iauaaeeiythuei ?anioaeeeaioeaa e aeaiie?aoia a aaeeiua ia?oee. Yoi aa?ii
e aeey Aaeeeia?eoaiee. ?a/ue eaeao i?aaeaea anaai i neeueiie e
onoie/eaie o?aaeeoeee nieeaea?iinoe eaaeiaoa ieieno?ia, eioi?ay neoaeeo
aaaeiui noeioeii ia?oeeiie niayiiinoe.

Aeey aeaooia?oeeiie e iiiaiia?oeeiie nenoai oa?aeoa?ii i?aaeaea anaai
nouanoaiaaiea iieeoe/aneiai niia?ie/anoaa. Eiaiii aai ionoonoaea i?e
iaeiiia?oeeiii ?aaeeia aeaei 3. Iaeiaio iniiaaiea ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
iaeio-aaeeinoaaiioth ia?oeth, ainiiaenoaothuoth a iauanoaa, iaeuecy
n/eoaoue ia?oeae a enoeaiii niunea yoiai neiaa. E aeaenoaeoaeueii,
iineieueeo ia?oey anoue “/anoue” iieeoe/aneiai niiauanoaa, oi aa iiaeii
iiiyoue eeoue a niioianaiee n ae?oaeie /anoyie eee ia?oeyie, eioi?ua
anooiatho a eiieo?aioioth ai?ueao ca naith aeieth aeanoe e aeeyiey a
no?aia. ?acee/athony aeaa oeia iaaeia?oeeiiai niia?ie/anoaa, eioi?ua

O. Eaia? iacuaaao “aiiiaaiiie eiieo?aioeeae” e “aaoa?iaaiiie
eiieo?aioeeae”. I?e ia?aie – niia?ie/athuea ia?oee inia?eaatho ae?oa o
ae?oaa iiaeaea?aeeo iaeieo e oao aea a?oii ecae?aoaeae, a i?e aoi?ie –
eaaeaeay ia?oey iie?aaony ia “naie” yeaeoi?ao e aunooiaao ia auai?ao n
i?ia?aiiie, a eioi?ie a iaeneiaeueiie noaiaie io?aaeaia aa eioa?anu.
“Aiiiaaiiue” oei a aieueoae noaiaie oa?aeoa?ai aeey iiiaiia?oeeiuo
nenoai, ainiiaenoaothueo a aieueoeinoaa eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?ai.
A NOA aea ooaa?aeeeny “aaoa?iaaiiue” oei iaaeia?oeeiiai niia?ie/anoaa.
Aeaa aeaaiua ia?oee no?aiu – ?anioaeeeaineay e aeaiie?aoe/aneay –
ioee/athony iaiaeii?iaeiinoueth e ?aciioa?noiinoueth nioeeaeueiie aacu.
Iaa ia?oeeii naiaio nioeeaeueiiio ninoaao yaeythony eiiaeiia?aoaie
?acii?iaeiuo e ca/anooth i?ioeaiai?noaothueo a?oiie?iaie aecianiaiia,
oa?ia?ia, o/eoaeae, th?enoia, nooaeaioia, a?a/ae e o.ae. Ae?oaeie
neiaaie, a NOA ia?oee -yoi iieeoe/aneea i?aaiecaoeee, iino?iaiiua ia
ni/aoaiee eioa?ania ?acee/iuo, ca/anooth eiioeeeoothueo, nioeeaeueiuo
neiaa e a?oii iacaaeneii io eo eeanniaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Anee a
aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao ?aciiai ?iaea eiaeeoeee ia?acothony iaaeaeo aieaa
eee iaiaa aeeceeie ii naiei iiceoeeyi ia?oeyie, oi a NOA iie nicaeathony
a ?aieao aeaoo aeaaiuo ia?oee. A Aa?iia eiaeeoeee ?acee/iuo a?oii
ecae?aoaeae ia?acothony aieueoae /anoueth iinea auai?ia iaaeaeo aeaoiy
eee ianeieueeeie ia?oeyie aeey noi?ie?iaaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a Aia?eea
aea-aei e a ia?eiae ecae?aoaeueiuo eaiiaiee.

Iaiaeii?iaeiinoue e aaoa?iaaiiinoue nioeeaeueiie aacu iaoneiaeeaatho
eaeaieiae/aneee yeeaeoeci ?anioaeeeaineie e aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee.
Iiyoiio iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi iie i?iyaeytho caaeaeioth niiniaiinoue
i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e eciaiythueiny oneiaeyi ?aaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oaiiiai eiaeeoeeiiiuo i?aaeoaeuenoa ai iiiaeo
aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao iauyniyaony ionoonoaeai eaeeo-eeai aeanoeeo eeiee,
?aca?aie/eaathueo i?ia?aiiu e yeaeoi?ao ?acee/iuo ia?oee ae?oa io
ae?oaa. Yoi iniaaiii aa?ii, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i “ia?iaeiuo” ia?oeyo,eee
ia?oeyo “aeey anao”. Iieacaoaeueii, /oi i?aaeauai?iua ieaooi?iu
aieueoeinoaa yoeo ia?oee, eae i?aaeei, ia niaea?aeao eaeeo-eeai
?acaa?ioouo oai?aoe/aneeo ?ac?aaioie e oa?aeoa?ecothony i?aaiaoeciii e
i?eaa?aeaiiinoueth anaaiciiaeiui eiii?iiennai, iai?aaeaiiinoueth ia
?aoaiea aieueoae /anoueth iianaaeiaaiuo, eiiuthieoo?iuo i?iaeai, noiyueo
ia?aae iauanoaii. Yoi ai iiiaii iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi a eiaeono?eaeueii
?acaeouo no?aiao, eae i?aaeei, auai?u auea?uaatho ia yeno?aienou i?aaiai
eee eaaiai oieea, a oia?aiiua aeayoaee, aueacuaathuea oyaioaiea e
oeaio?o eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneiai niaeo?a. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue,
niinianoaoao naeaaeeaaieth ?acee/ee a i?ia?aiiao e ieaooi?iao ia?oee, a
eo eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneeo i?eaioaoeeyo. Iiyoiio ca/anooth a eo i?aae-

156

auai?iuo i?ia?aiiao ano?a/aaony iaei ?acee/ee ii aaaeiaeoei i?iaeaiai
aioo?aiiae e iniaaiii aiaoiae iieeoeee. O?aeoeeiiiinoue yaeyaony iaeiie
ec aaaeiaeoeo oa?aeoa?enoee nia?aiaiiiai iieeoe/aneiai i?ioeanna.
Iineieueeo a iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua ia?oee aoiaeyo ?aciiia?aciua
nioeeaeueiua e ?aaeiiaeueiua a?oiiu, i?aneaaeothuea ca/anooth aanueia
i?ioeai?a/eaua eioa?anu, aaaeiaeoea iieeoe/aneea ?aoaiey eae ia ianoiii,
oae e ia iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaiyo aeinoeaathony iooai ?aciiai ?iaea
eiii?iiennia, niaeaoaiee e naeaeie.

Iiyoiio aeey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee aaaeia i?ia?aiia, i?aoaiaeothuay ia
aeecianiiniaiinoue, naaeaine?iaaiiay, oi anoue o/eouaathuay eioa?anu e
o?aaiaaiey iniiaiuo aeieia ecae?aoaeae, ia eioi?ua i?eaioe?othony
eaiaeeaeaou oie eee eiie ia?oee. Ia iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue eioa?ania ioaaouaaaony ?aaeiiaeueiuie,
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie, ?aeeaeiciuie, nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeie e
ae?oaeie noa?aie.

Cia/aiea eiaao e oi, /oi cia/eoaeueiua a?oiiu ecae?aoaeae iiaoo
aieiniaaoue ia ianoiii eee ?aaeiiaeueiii, iaeanoiii, caiaeueiii o?iaia
ca eiina?aaoeaiiai eaiaeeaeaoa, i?e yoii ia iaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia
aieinoe ca eeaa?aeueiiai eee nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai eaiaeeaeaoa.
Iauaiaoeeiiaeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai, eae i?aaeei, i?eie-

” iaao ?aoaiey ii oe?ieei e neiaeiaeoei i?iaeaiai aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae
iieeoeee. N?aaeiee ecae?aoaeue aanneeai ieacaoue eaeia-eeai aeeyiea ia
i?eiyoea yoeo ?aoaiee. Ii a i?eioeeia iiaeao aun-

. eacaoueny i?ioea ieo, ii oaea iinea eo i?eiyoey, iineieueeo
eiioeaioeey neeueiiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?aaeoniao?eaaao
nio?aiaiea i?ioeanna i?eiyoey aieueoeinoaa ?aoaiee a nae?aoa. A oaeie
neooaoeee ecae?aoaeue ec aieueoiai ai?iaea, eioi?ue aaaeao ai?ueao ca
oeo/oaiea naiaai yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey, neeiiai iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ia
?aaeiiaeueiii, ooaoiii, caiaeueiii e iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia
eaiaeeaeaoia, aunooiathueo ca oaaee/aiea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia n
oeaeueth ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aii nioeeaeueiiai ieaie?iaaiey. Ii o oiai aea
ecae?aoaey iiaeao neiaeeoueny eiay iiceoeey, eiaaea ii

ociaao i oie /anoe i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, eioi?ay eaeao aai
nianoaaiiiio ai?iaeo. Niioaaonoaaiii aoaeao ioee/aoueny e oi, eae e ca
eiai ii aoaeao aieiniaaoue i?e auai?ao a ai?iaeneia oi?aaeaiea, noaay
i?e yoii naiae oeaeueth eiio?iee?iaaoue ?anoiaeiaaiea n?aaenoa,
auaeaeyaiuo ai?iaeo.

Ainoaea?noaaiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiia ono?ienoai ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u, niaea?aeaiea e oi?iu ooieoeeiie?i-‘ aaiey
ia?oee e ia?oeeiuo nenoai. Anee a oieoa?iuo ainoaea?noaao aeey ieo, eae
i?aaeei, oa?aeoa?ia cia/eoaeueiay noaiaiue oeaio?aeecaoeee, oi a
oaaea?aeueiuo ainoaea?noaao i?aiaeaaeatho ia?oee n aieaa
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie no?oeoo?aie. Oae, NOA, eae

oaaea?aoeaiue nithc, ninoiyo ec 50 ooaoia e oaaea?aeueiiai ie?oaa
Eieoiaey, eiathueo naie ?aaeiiaeueiua, yoie/aneea, ?aniaua, ?aeeaeiciua
e nioeeaeueii-eeanniaua ?acee/ey. Niioaaonoaaiii aeaa aeaaiua
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua ia?oee NOA – ?anioaeeeaineay e aeaiie?aoe/aneay –
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oaaea?aoeee ia?oee ooaoia, niae?athueony aianoa
eaaeaeua /aou?a aiaea aeey auaeaeaeaiey eaiaeeaeaoia ia iinou
i?aceaeaioa e aeoea-i?aceaeaioa no?aiu. Iieacaoaeueii, /oi iaeioi?ua
aaoi?u aeaaea aiai?yo i iaee/ee a NOA 51 aeaiie?aoe/aneie e 51
?anioaeeeaineie ia?oee. Aeaei a oii, /oi ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo, iai?eia?,
aeaaaineay aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey ii oai eee eiui aii?inai iiaeao
eiaoue aieueoa iaueo /a?o n aeaaaineie ?anioaeeeaineie ia?oeae, /ai,
neaaeai, n aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oeae Ianna/onaona.

Ia?oeeiua no?oeoo?u a o?aaeeoeeiiiii aa?iiaeneii iiieiaiee neoaeao aieaa
eee iaiaa niayiiie i?aaiecaoeee noi?iiieeia ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiiieaena
nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneeo, eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneeo eiioeaioeee, eaeae,
oaaaeaeaiee e i?eioeeiia. Ii aeaiooaou ia anaaaea no?iai
i?eaea?aeeaathony i?aaeienaiee naieo ia?oee e eo ia?eaiaioneeo o?aeoeee.
Oae, a NOA /eaiu eiia?anna iiaoo aieiniaaoue a iiiiceoeee e nianoaaiiie
ia?oee, ioaa?aaoue iieeoeeo i?aceaeaioa – i?aaenoaaeoaey naiae ia?oee,
ii a oi aea a?aiy ia?aecae?aoueny ia auai?ao a naiai ecae?aoaeueiii
ie?oaa, a ioee/ea io /eaiia iaeaou iauei, eioi?ua eiaee au iaei
iaaeaaeae ia ia?aeca?aiea, iineieueeo aiaeeeneea ia?oee ?aniieaaatho
?acee/iuie naieoeeyie aeey aeenoeeieeie?i-aaiey naieo /eaiia a neo/aa
ioeaca iiaeaea?aeaoue eeieth ia?oee. Iooiae io yoie eeiee
?anniao?eaaaony eae eaii?e?iaaiea i?aaeinoaaeaiiiai ei iaiaeaoa. A
Aia?eea aea ana ianoieo eia/a. Iaoeeiiaeueiua eiieoaou ia?oee,
iaoiaeyueany a Aaoeiaoiia, eiatho iaei eiio?iey iaae aieaa eee iaiaa
aaoiiiiiuie ooaoiuie e ianoiuie ia?oeeiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie. Neea ai
iiiaii iaoiaeeony a ?oeao ianoiuo ia?oeeiuo i?aaiecaoeee eee ooaoa,
eioi?ua eiio?iee?otho aieueoeinoai auaeaeaeaiee eaiaeeaeaoia a eiia?ann
NOA.

§ 5. Iiaaeoea oaiaeaioeee a yaiethoeee ia?oee

A ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao Caiaaea nioeeaeueiua e iieeoe/aneea
eiioeeeou eiioeaio?e?othony aie?oa aieaa eee iaiaa /aoei i/a?/aiiuo
iniiaiuo iiethnia, eioi?ua a noa?a eaeaieiaee oneiaii iiaeii iaicia/eoue
eae eiina?aaoeci, eeaa?aeeci, nioeeae-aeaiie?aoeci. Oneiaii, iioiio /oi
eaaeaeue ec yoeo iiethnia, a oeaio?a i?eiueathueo ae?oa e. ae?oao, eiaao
naie eaaue, i?aaue e oia?aiiue naaiaiou. A oi aea a?aiy nouanoaotho
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea neeu, i?eaioe?othueany ia i?aaue e eaaue
aa?eaiou ?aaeeeaeecia eee,

eia/a aiai?y, aunooiathuea a iieueco auoiaea ca i?aaeaeu
ainiiaenoaothuae iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Ii ana aea auei au ioeai/ii
i?aaenoaaeoue aeaei oaeei ia?acii, aoaeoi caeanue nouanoaotho /aoei
?aca?aie/aiiua, o?iioaeueii i?ioeainoiyuea ae?oa i?ioea ae?oaa
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneea neeu e io?aaeathuea eo eioa?anu eaeaieiae/aneea
oa/aiey, iaaeaeo eioi?uie eae au i?ieaaaao iai?aiaeieeiay noaia.

Aeaei a oii, /oi ai anao aeaaiuo ia?oeyo eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?ai
anoue iaeia ni/aoaiea nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo, eeaa?aeueiuo e
eiina?aaoeaiuo yeaiaioia. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey i?aa oai?aoee iaiaoeeiai
eiina?aaoecia E. Aeaeaieiio, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
iieeoe/aneoth ?aaeueiinoue O?A (aeiaaaei io naay – e aieueoeinoaa
ae?oaeo no?ai Caiaaea) “ioee/aao naiaai ?iaea iai?iniao?e-aaaiinoue,
iao?ainia?aioiinoue – ionoonoaea /aoeie ea?oeiu, eiaaea aeey eaaeaeiai
yaeaiey iaoiaeeony naiy ieoa a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie no?oeoo?a”. A
/ai nooue yaeaiey?

A enoi?ee eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?ai nouanoaiaaea aieaa eee iaiaa
oaniay ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo oa?aeoa?ii aieiniaaiey ?acee/iuo a?oii
ecae?aoaeae e eo nioeeaeueii-eeanniaui iieiaeaieai. Eae i?aaeei,
iaeiouea neie ianaeaiey aieiniaaee ca ia?oee eaaie i?eaioaoeee, a aieaa
aunieiaeioiaeiua neie – ca eiina?aaoeaiua e i?aaua ia?oee. A NOA yoi
auee, niioaaonoaaiii, ?aoi?ienoneay aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey e
?anioaeeeaineay ia?oey eiina?aaoeaiie i?eaioaoeee. A Caiaaeiie Aa?iia
aeaei ianoiyei ianeieueei neiaeiaa, ii ana aea ?aai/ee eeann e iaeiouea
neie ianaeaiey neeiiyeenue e nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneei e ae?oaei eaaui
ia?oeyi, a i?aaenoaaeoaee ninoiyoaeueeuo neiaa – e eeaa?aeueiui e
eiina?aaoeaiui ia?oeyi. I?e/ai aieioue aei eiioea 60-o aa.
ieceiaeioiaeiua neie aieaa iieiaeeoaeueii, /ai aunieiaeioiaeiua neie,
ioeaieaaee ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai a yeiiiieeo e i?ia?aiiu
nioeeaeueiie iiiiue.

A iineaaeiea aeaa aeanyoeeaoey caiaoiua eciaiaiey iaaethaeathony e a
NOA, e a no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Ia?ooaaony ei??aeyoeey iaaeaeo
aieiniaaieai ecae?aoaeae ca oo ee eioth ia?oeth e eo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth
e ii?aaeaeaiiie nioeeaeueiie a?oiia. Nieaeaaony aeiey ?aai/eo a
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo ia?oeyo. ?anoouaa /enei ieceiaeioiaeiuo neiaa
ianaeaiey aieinoao ca ia?oee eeaa?aeueiie e eiina?aaoeaiie i?eaioaoeee,
a i?aaenoaaeoaee n?aaeieo neiaa – ca nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneea e ae?oaea
eaaua ia?oee. Yoi ni anae i/aaeaeiinoueth iieacaee ?acoeueoaou auai?ia
iineaaeieo eao a ?yaea no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e NOA, aaea cia/eoaeueioth
/anoue yeaeoi?aoa eiina?aaoeaiuo ia?oee ninoaaeee i?aaenoaaeoaee
i?ionithcia, aeeth/ay e “neiea ai?ioie/ee”. O aieueoeinoaa ia?oee
iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey i?eaioe?iaaiey ia i?inoi ia o?aaeeoeeiiii
“naie”, /aoei i/a?/aiiua a?oiiu ecae?a-

oaeae, a ia aaoa?iaaiiue ii naiaio ninoaao yeaeoi?ao, ia eioi?ue
i?aoaiaeotho e ae?oaea ia?oee. A ?acoeueoaoa aieueoeinoai e?oiiuo
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, a oii /enea e nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo, ii nooe
aeaea, ia?anoaee auoue noaoai eeanniauie e i?aa?aoeeenue, ii eo
nianoaaiiiio ii?aaeaeaieth, a oae iacuaaaiua “ia?iaeiua ia?oee” eee
“ia?oee aeey anao”, i?aoaiaeothuea ia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai anao neiaa
ianaeaiey.

A yoie nayce ?. Aea?aiaei?o ia aac iniiaaiee ioia/ae, /oi i?eiaieoaeueii
e oaeei ia?oeyi, eae NAeIA, NAeI, OAeN/ONN e ae?., iiiyoey “eaaay” e
“i?aaay” noaee ioiineoaeueiuie. Ia?auie n i?aoaiceae ia noaoon
“ia?iaeiie” aunooieee o?enoeainei-aeaiie?aoe/aneea ia?oee.
Ia?aiia/aeueii yoe ia?oee aicieeee eae ?aaeoeey i?ioea naeoey?ecaoeee
aaaeiaeoeo noi?ii iauanoaaiiie aeecie e ioaeaeaiey oea?eae io
ainoaea?noaa. Ii iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu a eo i?ia?aiiao ia
aeoeaioe?oaony aii?in i aa?ieniiaaaeaiee. Oae, iai?eia?, a i?ia?aiia
Aano?eeneie ia?iaeiie ia?oee, i?eiyoie a 1972 a., aiai?eony, /oi iia ia
naycuaaao naay n eaeei au oi ie auei aa?ieniiaaaeaieai eee oea?eiaiui
einoeoooii. Ia yoii aea aiai?yo ?oeiaiaeeoaee OAeN a Aa?iaiee. Eae
ioia/ae, iai?eia?, iuiaoiee eaioeea? io yoie ia?oee A. Eieue, ia?iaeiue
oa?aeoa? OAeN iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oai oaeoii, /oi a iae a i?aaie/aneii
aaeeinoaa iauaaeeieeenue o?enoeainei-nioeeaeueiua, eiina?aaoeaiua e
eeaa?aeueiua neeu no?aiu.

“Ia?iaeiuie” i?iaicaeaneee naay iiiaea nioeeaeenoe/aneea e
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneea ia?oee. Iaeiie ec ia?auo yoi naeaeaea
nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oey Aa?iaiee. Iinea i?eiyoey Aiaeanaa?a-neie
i?ia?aiiu a 1959 a., a eioi?ie aue caoeene?iaai ioeac io ia?enecia e
eaeae eeanniaie ai?ueau, NAeIA i?aa?aoeeanue ec i?aaiecaoeee
i?aeiouanoaaiii ?aai/aai eeanna a ia?oeth ?aai/eo e n?aaeieo neiaa. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniaaiii neeai a iae aan oaoie/aneie eioaeeeaaioeee,
i?aaenoaaeoaeae i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo e?oaia, iieiaeaaee. Ii-aeaeeiiio,
?anioaeeeaineay e aeaiie?aoe/aneay ia?oee NOA, a ioee/ea io iiiaeo
aa?iiaeneeo ia?oee, n naiiai ia/aea aeaenoaiaaee eae ia?oee “aeey anao”.
Ii naiaio nioeeaeueiiio ninoaao iaa iie yaeythony eiiaeiia?aoaie
?acii?iaeiuo, ca/anooth i?ioeaiai?noaothueo ae?oa n ae?oaii
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo a?oiie?iaie. I?e/ai ninoaa, niioiioaiea
?acee/iuo eiiiiiaioia a nioeeaeueiie aaca aeaoo ia?oee a eaaeaeue
eiie?aoiue enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae nouanoaaiii eciaiyeenue a caaeneiinoe io
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia.

Eiioeaioeey “ia?iaeiie ia?oee” auioaeaeaao ana ia?oee eae eaaie, oae e
i?aaie i?eaioaoeee noi?ioee?iaaoue naie iiceoeee ii iiiaeanoao
?aciiia?aciuo aii?inia, /oiau i?eaeaeaoue ia naith noi?iio iiaua a?oiiu
ecae?aoaeae iooai aeeth/aiey a i?ia?aiio niioaaonoaothueo o?aaiaaiee.
Yoi aiineo aeiiieieoaeueiue yeaiaio a iaiaoea-

160

oothny iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue e iaonoie/eainoue nioeeaeueiie aacu e eoiaia
auai?ia. Eiaao ianoi oaiaeaioeey e oaaee/aieth o?aaiaioaoeee ia?oeeiuo
nenoai, ?anoe?aieth niaeo?a ia?oeeii-iieeoe/aneeo aeueoa?iaoea,
aic?anoaieth aeeyiey iiauo nioeeaeueiuo aeaeaeaiee e yeieiae/aneeo
ia?oee, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe nicaeatho o?oaeiua i?iaeaiu aeey
“oei?aieaoeony” ia?oee. Iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e aic?anoaieth
eieaaaiee eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneeo iiceoeee e ia?oeeii-iieeoe/aneeo
i?aaeii/oaiee cia/eoaeueiuo eiioeiaaioia ecae?aoaeae. Aeey ieo noaee
oa?aeoa?iu aeiaieueii ?aceea ia?aoiaeu io iaeieo ia?oee e ae?oaei, n
eeaa?aeueiuo ia i?aaieiina?aaoeaiua iiceoeee, e iaiai?io. Yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oaaee/aiee “aaoiiiiee” ecae?aoaeae ii ioiioaieth e
ia?oeyi.

Iaeiei ec i?eciaeia oaeie aaoiiiiee noae iaoeeiiiue ?ino /enea
ecae?aoaeae, iacuaathueo naay iacaaeneiuie eeai aieinothueo ca
eaiaeeaeaoa ia naiae, a eiieo?e?othuae ia?oee. Yoi au?aaeaaony, a
/anoiinoe, a oaaee/aiee /enea ecae?aoaeae, aieinothueo ia ca “naith”, a
ca eiieo?e?othuoth ia?oeth. Ii aeaiiui iiiai/eneaiiuo ii?inia
iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, a NOA ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai iineaaiaiiiai ia?eiaea
a eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee aeaiie?aou cia/eoaeueii i?aiaeaaeaee iaae
?anioaeeeaioeaie. Ii oai ia iaiaa a oa/aiea o?ao iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee
eaiaeeaeaou ia iino i?aceaeaioa io aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee ieacaeenue
ianiiniaiu auea?aoue aieueoeinoai i?aceaeaioneeo ecae?aoaeueiuo
eaiiaiee. Yoi iniaaiii i?eia/aoaeueii, anee o/anoue oio oaeo, /oi ca
eneeth/aieai aeaoo ei?ioeeo -ia?eiaeia aeaiie?aoai oaeaeinue oaea?aeaoue
eiio?ieue iaae eiia?annii a naieo ?oeao n 1932 a. A ae?oaeo
eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?aiao iiaeiaiua oaiaeaioeee i?iyaeythony a
iooiea ecae?aoaeae, iai?eia?, io nioeeae-aeaiie?aoia e eiina?aaoeaiui
eee aeueoa?iaoeaiui ia?oeyi e aeaeaeaieyi, e iaiai?io. Ii aeaiiui ?yaea
enneaaeiaaiee, e caeanue ineaaaaaao i?eaa?aeaiiinoue ecae?aoaeae e?oiiui
o?aaeeoeeiiiui ia?oeyi.

Niiiaiey a niiniaiinoe ia?oee ?aoaoue noiyuea ia?aae iauanoaii i?iaeaiu
ii?iaeaeaao oaiiiai oae iacuaaaiiai “iaaaoeaiiai aieiniaaiey”, oi anoue
aieiniaaiey ia ca oiai, eiio iaaei ieacaoue iiaeaea?aeeo, a i?ioea oiai,
eoi ioaa?aaaony. Oae, ii iiaieth iiiaeo iaaethaeaoaeae, aaaeioth ?ieue n
oi/ee c?aiey ?acoeueoaoia i?aceaeaioneeo auai?ia a NOA a 1980 a. nua?ae
“iaaaoeaiue oaeoi?”, oi anoue aeaeaiea ecaaaeoueny io Aeae. Ea?oa?a.
Niaeanii ii?ino iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, i?iaaaeaiiiio neoaeaie ssieaeiae/a
iacaaeieai aei auai?ia, 43% ecae?aoaeae cayaeee, /oi, ioaeaaay naie
aieina ca ?aeaaia, iie oaeoe/anee aieinotho ia ca ?aeaaia, a i?ioea
Ea?oa?a. A 80-o aa. yoio oaiiiai iniaaiii io/aoeeai i?iyaeeny a
aa?iiaeneeo no?aiao, aaea i?aayuea ia?oee auioaeaeaiu auee onooieoue
ianoi o aeanoe iiiiceoeeiiiui ia?oeyi ca/anooth ia a neeo eciaiaiey
ia?oeeii-iieeoe-

11 cai. ?

161

/aneeo i?aaeii/oaiee ecae?aoaeae, a a ?acoeueoaoa iaaaoeaiiai ioiioaiey
e ia?oeyi, noiyuei o ei?ieea aeanoe.

I?e anai oii cia/aiea yoeo oaiaeaioeee ia neaaeoao i?aoaaee/eaaoue.
Aiaeec ?aaeueiiai iieiaeaiey aauae iieacuaaao, /oi iieeoe/aneea ia?oee
iiea /oi nio?aiytho aaaeiia cia/aiea a ea/anoaa aeaaiuo eino?oiaioia
?aaeecaoeee iieeoe/aneeo ooieoeee, iniaaiii a ea/anoaa oeaio?aeueiiai
yeaiaioa ecae?aoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Oioy eo aeanoue e aeeyiea e
oiaiueoeeenue, auei au i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii aeaeaoue auaiae i ae?aiaoe/aneii
?acaaea ia?oee, iineieueeo iooie io ieo ecae?aoaeae aunooiaao iiea eae
iaiaoeaoayny oaiaeaioeey. Neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 70 –
ia/aea 80-o aa. a A?aoeee, Eniaiee e Ii?ooaaeee a i?ioeanna ia?aoiaea io
aaoi?eoa?iuo ?aaeeiia e ao?aeoacii-ia?eaiaioneei ?aaeeiai eiaiii ia?oee
noaee iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aeoeaiuo einoeoooia, niinianoaiaaaoeo
ooaa?aeaeaieth iiauo iieeoe/aneeo nenoai. A ?innee aea iiiaea o?oaeiinoe
iinooioaeeoa?iiai ia?eiaea ii?iaeaeaiu eae ?ac ionoonoaeai aieaa eee
iaiaa einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaaoeony aeaaniiniaiuo ia?oee.

§6. Ecae?aoaeueiue i?ioeann: iaoaieci e i?ioeaaeo?a

N i?eioeeiii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ia?oee eae caeiiiie iiiiceoeee oanii
naycaia eaeay auai?iinoe, i?ecaaiiie iaania/eoue ia?iaeiue noaa?aieoao e
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai anao caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oiie?iaie e neiaa ianaeaiey
a nenoaia aeanoe /a?ac ia?oee. ?ieue au?aceoaey ia?iaeiiai noaa?aieoaoa
ioaiaeeony eeoue ecae?aoaeueiiio ei?iono. Auai?u, ii nooe aeaea,
yaeythony iaeiei ec aaaeoueo einoeoooia eaaeoeiecaoeee nouanoaothuae
iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu e iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia. O/eouaay yoio oaeo, a
eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?aiao aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
iiaeaioiaea iiae?anoathuaai iieieaiey e o/anoeth a iieeoe/aneii e
iniaaiii a ecae?aoaeueiii i?ioeanna. Aieueoay ?ieue a yoii ieaia
ioaiaeeony nenoaia ia?aciaaiey, a oaeaea ?acee/iui iaoaieciai – io
ioeoeeaeueiuo i?acaeiiaaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?acaeieeia aei ia?ii?eyoee
iao?eioe/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee. Ecae?aoaeueiua eaiiaiee oaea
naie ii naaa iaania/eaatho aiciiaeiinoe aeey i?iiaaaiaeu aeinoieinoa
o/anoey a aieiniaaiee. Ia?ii?eyoey n oeaeueth noeioee?iaaiey o/anoey a
auai?ao ia oieueei oneeeaatho iieeoe/aneee eioa?an, ii e ieacuaatho
cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia onoaiiaee a?aaeaeai a ioiioaiee
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna. Aeo o/anoey a auai?ao oaea nai ii naaa
oaaee/eaaao aa?o a?aaeaeai a caeiiiinoue e ioaaonoaaiiinoue
i?aaeoaeuenoaa.

Ioeaieaay ?ieue einoeoooa anaiaueo auai?ia, iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue
?acee/ea iaaeaeo aeeyieai ia ninoaa eiie?aoiiai eca?aiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e eiio?ieai iaae i?aaeoaeuenoaii eae ainoaea?noaaiii-

iieeoe/aneei einoeoooii. Iai?eia?, i?aaeea eca?aiey /eaiia ia?eaiaioa
aeaeatho naiaoi?a oycaeiui ni noi?iiu yeaeoi?aoa, a oi aea a?aiy
eciee?oaony ia?eaiaio eae iieeoe/aneee einoeooo io aeeyiey eciaiaiee a
iiaaaeaiee ecae?aoaeae. Ioiineoaeueiay eaaeinoue, n eioi?ie iiaeao auoue
caiaiaii eiie?aoiia aeaenoaothuaa i?aaeoaeuenoai, nieaeaao ino?ioo
aiciiaeiuo o?aaiaaiee ia eciaiaiee naiiai ?aaeeia e aai einoeoooia. Yoei
iaoneiaeeaaaony, /oi einoeooo anaiaueo auai?ia yaeyaony iaeiei ec
aaaeiuo yeaiaioia nia?aiaiiie iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Eiaiii ?ieue
einoeoooa auai?ia eae eino?oiaioa eaaeoeiecaoeee e noaaeeecaoeee
nouanoaothuae nenoaiu e iaoneiaeea oi, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a
iiaeaaeythuai aieueoeinoaa no?ai aeaenoaoao anaiauaa ecae?aoaeueiia
I?aai. Ii aeey aai ooaa?aeaeaiey iiiaaeiaeeanue aeeeoaeueiay ai?ueaa
aeaiie?aoe/aneeo nee ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa /ai aeaoo aaeia. A
Ieaea?eaiaeao, iai?eia?, a 1800 a. yeaeoi?ao aeeth/ae anaai 12%
ac?ineiai ianaeaiey, e 1890 a. yoa oeeo?a iiaeiyeanue aei 27%, a 1900
a.-aei 63%. Caeanue anaiauaa i?aai aieina auei aaaaeaii aeey ioae/ei a
1917 a., a aeey aeaiuei -a 1919 a.

A NOA aieioue aei ieii/aiey A?aaeaeaineie aieiu oeaaoiua aia?eeaioeu, ca
eneeth/aieai iacia/eoaeueiuo a?oii iaa?ia a iiaiaiaeeeneeo ooaoao, ia
o/anoaiaaee a ecae?aoaeueiii i?ioeanna. A 1870 a., oi anoue /a?ac naiue
eao iinea iaia?iaeiaaiey i?aceaeaioneie i?ieeaiaoeee ia inaiaiaeaeaiee
?aaia a 1863 a., auea i?eiyoa XV iii?aaea e eiinoeoooeee,
i?aaeinoaaeythuay i?aai aieina iaa?ai. Iaeiaei iinea iocuaa
oaaea?aeueiuo aiene n THaa a 1877 a. iaa?u i?aeoe/anee auee eeoaiu
aiciiaeiinoe o/anoaiaaoue a aieiniaaiee. Eeoue ia/eiay n 20-o aa. iaa?u
noaee aeiaeaaoueny iaeioi?uo oniaoia a ?anoe?aiee eo o/anoey a auai?ao.
Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaee caeiiu 50- 70-o aa., niyaoea ia?aie/aiey ia
o/anoea iaa?ia a ecae?aoaeueiii i?ioeanna. A 1971 a. eiia?ann NOA
iaeia?ee XXVI iii?aaeo e eiinoeoooeee i nieaeaiee aic?anoiiai oeaica ia
o/anoea a aieiniaaiee n 21 aei 18 eao. Iiaeiaiua caeiiu a 60 – 70-o aa.
auee i?eiyou e a aieueoeinoaa ae?oaeo eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?ai.
AEaiueiu iieo/eee i?aai aieina a NOA a 1981 a. (ii aia?aua i?eiyee
o/anoea a aieiniaaiee ia auai?ao 1920 a.), a Ieaea?eaiaeao – a 1919 a.
ai O?aioeee – a 1944 a., a Eoaeee – a 1945 a., a A?aoeee – a 1956 a., a
Oaaeoea?ee – eeoue a 1971 a.

Oeaio?aeueiay i?iaeaia, eioi?ie caieiathony ia?oee, – yoi ecae?aoaeueiue
i?ioeann. Eeoue auea?uaay ia auai?ao e caaiaauaay auai?iua aeieaeiinoe,
ia?oey e aa ?oeiaiaenoai a Ninoiyiee ooaa?aeeoue naie iiceoeee e
aeiaeaaoueny aeanoe aeey aeinoeaeaiey naieo oeaeae. Oniao ia auai?ao
yaeyaony iai?aiaiiui oneiaeai auaeeaaiey ia?oee e ia?ie aa yooaeoeaiinoe
e aeecianiiniaiinoe. Iiyoiio anoanoaaiii, /oi eiieo?aioioth
iieeoe/aneoth ia?oeth ioee/aao io anao ae?oaeo oi?i iieeoe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee oi, /oi a oeaio?a aa aieiaiey

II* 163

anaaaea noieo aii?in i auai?ao. Iia ia anaaaea iiaeao i?eieiaoue ?aoaiey
oaeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, a a naiie oaeoeea ia?aaeei aiciiaeiu ioeaee. Ii
a aeieaia?aiaiiie ia?niaeoeaa, anee iia no?aieony inoaoueny
aeaaniiniaiui eiieo?aioii, caaiaaaiea auai?iuo iinoia aeieaeii auoue
eeth/aaui oaeoi?ii a ia?oeeiuo ?aoaieyo.

A aeacao ecae?aoaeae ia?eeii iieiaeeoaeueiie eee io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee
aeayoaeueiinoe ia?oee iiyoue aea yaeyaony oniao iineaaeieo ia auai?ao. A
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo aeey aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey iniiaiie, a ca/anooth e
aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie o/anoey a iieeoeea yaeyaony o/anoea a
ecae?aoaeueiii i?ioeanna. Anaiauea auai?u iicaieytho auyaeoue
?annoaiiaeo iieeoe/aneeo nee a no?aia a oeaeii, a ioaeaeueiie iaeanoe,
ooaoa, caiea, ia ioieoeeiaeueiii o?iaia, a ecae?aoaeueiii ie?oaa,
ii?aaeaeeoue noaiaiue aeiaa?ey ecae?aoaeae e oie eee eiie ia?oee,
eiie?aoiui aa eeaea?ai, eaiaeeaeaoai, i?ia?aiiiui onoaiiaeai e o.ae. Iie
iicaieytho ecae?aoaeyi aeaeaoue i?iaeoiaiiue, iniciaiiue auai? a iieueco
oie ia?oee e i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ua, ia eo acaeyae, a iaeaieueoae noaiaie
niioaaonoaotho eo iiceoeeyi e eioa?anai.

A naith i/a?aaeue, ia?oey, i?aoaiaeothuay ia oniao ai a?aiy
i?aaeauai?iie eaiiaiee, aeieaeia oaaaeeoue eae iiaeii aieaa oe?ieee e?oa
ecae?aoaeae a oii, /oi eiaiii iia eo/oa anao ae?oaeo ia?oee niiniaia
?aoeoue noiyuea ia?aae iauanoaii i?iaeaiu, caueuaoue eioa?anu
aieueoeinoaa ianaeaiey. Oniao ia auai?ao iaania/eaaao i?eoie oeiainiauo
n?aaenoa a ia?oeeioth eanno e oiiae ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee. Yoi, a
naith i/a?aaeue, yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai yooaeoeaiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e auaeeaaiey ia?oee.

Ia?a/aiue ?aciiai ?iaea aeieaeiinoae e iinoia, caiauaaiuo n iiiiuueth
auai?ia, aeiaieueii aaeee. Auai?u eae iaoaieci caiauaiey oe?ieiai e?oaa
aeieaeiinoae ioaaouaatho ana o?iaie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe – io
oeaio?aeueiiai aei ianoiiai, io i?aceaeaioa eee aeaau i?aaeoaeuenoaa
no?aiu aei ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ianoiiai oi?aaeaiey. A NOA, iai?eia?, ?ac a
/aou?a aiaea i?iaiaeyony iauaiaoeeiiaeueiua auai?u, ia eioi?uo
ecae?athony i?aceaeaio e aeoea-i?aceaeaio no?aiu, /eaiu iaeaou
i?aaenoaaeoaeae e naiaoa eiia?anna NOA; auai?u ia ooaoiii o?iaia aeey
eca?aiey aoaa?iaoi?ia, /eaiia caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo nia?aiee, aaia?aeueiuo
i?ieo?i?ia e ae?oaeo aeieaeiinoae; auai?u ia ianoiii o?iaia aeey
caiauaiey auai?iuo aeieaeiinoae ianoiuo aeanoae. *anoue aeieaeiinoae ia
anao o?iaiyo, e?iia i?aceaeaioneiai, caiauaaony ia oae iacuaaaiuo
i?iiaaeooi/iuo auai?ao, eioi?ua i?iaiaeyony /a?ac eaaeaeua aeaa aiaea.

A aieueoeinoaa no?ai i?ioeann e ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey ecae?aoaeueiuo
eaiiaiee ?aaeaiaioe?othony caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie ii?iaie. Iai?eia?,
ioee/athuaany aieueoie no?iainoueth ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai ssiiiee
cai?auaao aeaeaoue iiaea?ee ecae?aoaeyi, i?eaeaeaoue eo iaauaie-

164

ai i?iaeaeaeaiey ii neoaeaa, iaoiaeeoue aeiia ecae?aoaeae n oeaeueth
i?aaeauai?iie aaeoaoeee e o.ae. A O?A cai?auaii ioaeeeiaaoue ?acoeueoaou
ii?inia iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey ca aeaa iaaeaee aei auai?ia, a a Aiaeee – a
aeaiue auai?ia. Aeinoaoi/ii ?aaeaiaioe?iaaii eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, iniaaiii oaeaaeaeaiey e ?aaeei. Oae,
caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiaaeeaathony iauee ia?eiae a?aiaie, ioaiaeeiiai ia
NIE aeey aaaeaiey ecae?aoaeueiuo eaiiaiee, i?eioeeiu aai ?ani?aaeaeaiey
iaaeaeo ia?oeyie e eaiaeeaeaoaie, ninoaaeyaony ?anienaiea, a
niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui iauaa a?aiy ?acaeaaaony ii aeiyi ecae?aoaeueiie
eaiiaiee.

A iniiaa ?aaeaiaioaoeee ecae?aoaeueiuo eaiiaiee eaaeao o?e aaaeiaeoeo
i?eioeeia. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai iaania/aiea ?aaainoaa aiciiaeiinoae aeey
anao o/anoaothueo a auai?ao ia?oee e eaiaeeoaoia. Nooue aai ninoieo a
oii, /oi anai ei i?aaeinoaaeyaony ?aaiue iaeneiaeueiue eeieo ?anoiaeia
ia i?iaaaeaiea auai?ia. Ai-ia?auo, ia?aie/eaathony noiiu iiaea?oaiaaiee
/anoiuo eeoe e i?aaiecaoeee a oiiaeu ecae?aoaeueiuo eaiiaiee, n ae?oaie
– ai iiiaeo no?aiao ainoaea?noai aa?ao ia naay oeiaine?iaaiea
i?aaeauai?iie eaiiaiee. A oi aea a?aiy anai ia?oeyi e eaiaeeaeaoai
i?aaeinoaaeyaony ?aaiia a?aiy ia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiee e o.ae.
Ai-aoi?uo, oae iacuaaaiue i?eioeei eiyeueiinoe, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui
eaiaeeaeaou iaycaiu aanoe naay eiyeueii ii ioiioaieth e naiei
i?ioeaieeai, ia aeiioneaoue eaeeo au oi ie auei oaeueneoeeaoeee,
inei?aeaiee i?ioeaieea e o.ae. A-o?aoueeo, yoi iaeo?aeeoao
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa, aai iaaiaoaoaeuenoai a oiae i?aaeauai?iie
ai?ueau e o.ae.

A ecae?aoaeueiie nenoaia aaaeai einoeooo ?aaeno?aoeee, eioi?ue
?aaoee?oaony niioaaonoaothueie caeiiaie. Eae i?aaeei, a nienee
ecae?aoaeae caiinyony ana a?aaeaeaia, eiathuea i?aai aieina. A
aieueoeinoaa eiaeono?eaeueii ?acaeouo no?ai nienee ecae?aoaeae
ninoaaeythony ianoiuie i?aaiaie aeanoe. Iie aaoiiaoe/anee iaiiaeytho
?aaeno?aoeeth ecae?aoaeae, e eiaaea yoe iineaaeiea iaiytho ianoi
aeeoaeuenoaa, ?aaeno?aoeey oaeaea aaoiiaoe/anee neaaeoao ca ieie.
Ii-eiiio ianoieo aeaei a NOA, aaea aeaenoaoao i?ioeaaeo?a ee/iie
?aaeno?aoeee, i?e eioi?ie ?aaeno?aoeey aeey o/anoey a auai?ao yaeyaony
noaoai ee/iui aeaeii naiiai aieinothuaai. Iia inouanoaeyaony
niaoeeaeueiuie oiieiiii/aiiuie aeey yoie oeaee, /eiiaieeaie ai?iaeneeo
ie?oaia e a?aonoa, a oaeaea ianoiuie ecae?aoaeueiuie eiienneyie e ath?i.

Iaeia ec aeaaiuo oeaeae einoeoooa ee/iie ?aaeno?aoeee ecae?aoaeae
ninoieo a oii, /oiau aeaoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeyi ecae?aoaeueiuo o/anoeia
aiciiaeiinoue onoaiiaeoue ee/iinoue aieinothuaai, yaeyaony ee ii
aeeoaeai aeaiiiai ecae?aoaeueiiai ie?oaa e iaeaaeaao ee i?aaii
aieiniaaoue ia i?aaenoiyueo auai?ao. A ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie yoei
iauyniyaony aaaaeaiea oeaica inaaeeinoe a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec oneiaee

aeiionea a?aaeaeai e ecae?aoaeueiui o?iai. Io eeoe, aeaeathueo
o/anoaiaaoue a aieiniaaiee, o?aaoaony i?aaeinoaaeoue oaeinoiaa?aiea
ee/iinoe, ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa e a?aaeaeainoaa. Nenoaia ee/iie
?aaeno?aoeee i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?eiaee/aneia iaiiaeaiea ecae?aoaeueiuo
nieneia. I?e/ai naie ecae?aoaee aeieaeiu oaeaea ia?eiaee/anee
aiciaiiaeyoue naith ?aaeno?aoeeth.

*oiau aeiaeaaoueny i?aaa aianaiey a ecae?aoaeueiua atheeaoaie,
eaiaeeaeaou aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeuyaeyaiui
caeiiii e i?aoaiaeaioai ia oo eee eioth aeieaeiinoue. Oaeea o?aaiaaiey
iiaoo aeeth/aoue ieieiaeueiue aic?anoiie oeaic, oeaic inaaeeinoe,
i?ioanneiiaeueioth i?eaiaeiinoue aeey eneiiie aeieaeiinoe e o.ae.
Iai?eia?, niaeanii eiinoeoooeee NOA, i?aceaeaioii no?aiu iiaeao noaoue
aia?eeaineee a?aaeaeaiei ii ?iaeaeaieth a aic?anoa ia iaiaa 35 eao e
i?iaeeaathuee a i?aaeaeao NOA ia iaiaa 14 eao. I?aoaiaeaiou a /eaiu
iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeieaeiu auoue aeeoaeyie ooaoa, ii ia
iaycaoaeueii eiia?annenoneiai aeeno?eeoa, io eioi?iai iie ecae?athony. A
?yaea ooaoia eaiaeeaeaoaie ia oaeea aeieaeiinoe, eae noaeuee,
aaia?aeueiua i?ieo?i?u, i?ieo?i?u, iiaoo auoue oieueei i?aeoeeothuea
th?enou n ii?aaeaeaiiui noaaeai ii aeaiiie i?ioannee. Iiaeiaiua
o?aaiaaiey iiaoo i?aaeuyaeyoueny e i?aoaiaeaioai e ia ae?oaea auai?iua
aeieaeiinoe. Aeey o/anoey a auai?ao onoaiiaeai aic?anoiie oeaic. Aei
eiioea 60-o aa. iuiaoiaai aaea ai iiiaeo no?aiao ecae?aoaeueiia i?aai
i?aaeinoaaeyeinue n 21-23 eao. Ii a oiaea oe?ieeo iieiaeaaeiuo e
nooaeai/aneeo aeaeaeaiee eiioea 60 – ia/aea 70-o aa. yoio oeaic ai
iiiaeo no?aiao aue nieaeai aei 18 eao: a NOA – a 1971 a., O?A e O?aioeee
– a 1974 a., a Eoaeee – a 1975 a. e o.ae. Aeey eaiaeeaeaoia aea,
i?aoaiaeothueo ia auai?iua aeieaeiinoe, a caaeneiinoe io aeanoiiai
o?iaiy onoaiiaeai aieaa aunieee aic?anoiie oeaic – neaaeai, 23- 25 eao a
ieaeithth e 30-40 – a aa?oithth iaeaoo ia?eaiaioa.

§ 7. Ecae?aoaeueiay eaiiaiey

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey auai?ia any oa??eoi?ey no?aiu eee a caaeneiinoe io
oa?aeoa?a auai?ia (anaiauea, ?aaeiiaeueiua, ianoiua e o.ae.) – iaeanoe,
i?iaeioeee, ?aeiiu ?acaeaathony ia ecae?aoaeueiua ie?oaa, io eioi?uo
ecae?aaony niioaaonoaothuaa /enei aeaiooaoia. ?acia? ie?oaa caaeneo io
o?iaiy auai?ia. Anee aeey i?iaaaeaiey ianoiuo auai?ia nicaeathony
iaaieueoea ie?oaa ia aaca ai?iaeneiai ?aeiia, iinaeea, aea?aaie, oi aeey
i?iaaaeaiey auai?ia iaeanoiiai, ?aaeiiaeueiiai eee oaaea?aeueiiai o?iaiy
ianeieueei oaeeo ie?oaia iauaaeeiythony a iaeei aieueoie. Eae i?aaeei,
ecae?aoaeueiua ie?oaa nicaeathony oaeei ia?acii, /oiau eaaeaeue aeaiooao
(a caaeneiinoe io aeanoiiai o?iaiy) ecae?aeny io ?aaiiai /enea aeeoaeae
eee ecae?aoaeae.

Iiae ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaieae a oi?iaeueiii cia/aiee yoiai iiiyoey
iiieiaaony onoaiiaeaiiue caeiiii ia?eiae, a oa/aiea eioi?iai
iieeoe/aneea ia?oee e i?aaiecaoeee, a oaeaea ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaiu,
ioaaonoaaiiua ca i?iaaaeaiea auai?ia, inouanoaeytho eo
i?aaiecaoeeiiioth, i?iiaaaiaeenoneoth e eaeaieiai-eioi?iaoeeiiioth
iiaeaioiaeo a niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie i?aaeeaie. Iiae iae
iiieiaaony oaeaea eiiieaen i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo, i?iiaaaiaeenoneeo e eiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, i?iaiaeeiuo ioaeaeueiuie ia?oeyie e eaiaeeaeaoaie. A oaeeo
neo/ayo aiai?yo ia “ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee” oie eee eiie ia?oee, oiai
eee eiiai eaiaeeaeaoa e o.ae. Nouanoaoao oeaeue ?yae ?acee/ee a
i?aaiecaoeee e i?iaaaeaiee ecae?aoaeueiuo eaiiaiee a ?acee/iuo no?aiao.
A caaeneiinoe io neiaeeaoeony a eaaeaeie no?aia o?aaeeoeee aeaaie
ainoaea?noaa eee i?aaeoaeuenoaa eee aea ia?eaiaioii iacia/aaony
ioeoeeaeueiay aeaoa auai?ia. N yoiai aeiy ia/eiaaony ecae?aoaeueiay
eaiiaiey, a oiaea eioi?ie eaaeaeay ia?oey auaeaeaaao naieo eaiaeeaeaoia
eee nienie eaiaeeaeaoia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu i?ieoe niioaaonoaothuoth
?aaeno?aoeeth. Aeey i?iaaaeaiey ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee nicaeaaony
niaoeeaeueiue ooaa, a eioi?ue aoiaeyo i?ioanneiiaeu: ?anii?yaeeoaeue,
oeiainiaue aaaio, i?ann-nae?aoa?ue, iieeoe/aneee i?aaiecaoi?,
ninoaaeoaeue aaeaaeiaaiuo ieaiia, oaoie/aneee nae?aoa?ue, niaoeeaeueiue
iiiiuiee. Iiieii ieo iaieiathony eiinoeueoaiou ni noi?iiu: niaoeeaeenou
ii ii?inai iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey, aaia?aeueiue eiinoeueoaio,
eiinoeueoaiou ii n?aaenoaai ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, niaoeeaeenou ii nai?o
n?aaenoa ii ii/oa.

Iinea ioeoeeaeueiiai auaeaeaeaiey eaiaeeaeaoia eo eiaia aiinyony a
niaoeeaeueiua ecae?aoaeueiua atheeaoaie. A yoii ieaia aieueoia cia/aiea
aeey ?acaeoey ecae?aoaeueiie nenoaiu eiaei aaaaeaiea a eiioea XIX a. oae
iacuaaaiiai “aano?aeeeneiai” atheeaoaiy, i?ecaaiiiai iaania/eoue
nae?aoiinoue aieiniaaiey e oiaiueoeoue aiciiaeiinoue aeey
oaeueneoeeaoeee ?acoeueoaoia auai?ia. Aei yoiai eaaeaeay ia?oey
ioia/aouaaea naie nianoaaiiua atheeaoaie, aiineea a ieo eeoue
nianoaaiiuo eaiaeeaeaoia ia eaaeaeoth aeieaeiinoue e i?eaeaeaea
ia?oeeiuo ooieoeeiia?ia e ?ani?ino?aiaieth naieo atheeaoaiae a
ecae?aoaeueiuo o/anoeao. Yoi, ai-ia?auo, cao?oaeiyei nae?aoiinoue
aieiniaaiey, iineieueeo atheeaoaie ia?oee ?acee/aeenue ii oeaaoo e
ia?oeeiua ooieoeeiia?u iiaee eaaei ii?aaeaeeoue, eoi eae aieinoao. Yoi,
a naith i/a?aaeue, iaeaa/aei caioaeaaiea, iiaeeoi ecae?aoaeae.
Ai-aoi?uo, iineieueeo a atheeaoaiue auee aienaiu eiaia eaiaeeaeaoia
oieueei iaeiie ia?oee, aeey ecae?aoaey auei aanueia o?oaeii iiaeaaaoue
naie aiein ca eaiaeeaeaoia ?aciuo ia?oee ia ?aciua aeieaeiinoe.

Ioeoeeaeueiue “aano?aeeeneee” atheeaoaiue aian nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a
i?ioeaaeo?o aieiniaaiey. Caeanue ana atheeaoaie iaeeiaeiau e aeeth/aee
eiaia anao eaiaeeaeaoia ia auai?iua aeieaeiinoe. Yoa ?aoi?ia
niinianoaiaaea iaania/aieth nae?aoiinoe aieiniaaiey e

oiaiueoaea aiciiaeiinoe caioaeaaiey e iiaeeoia ecae?aoaeae. A oi aea
a?aiy “aano?aeeeneee” atheeaoaiue aeaaae ecae?aoaeyi aiciiaeiinoue
naeaeaoue auai? ia iniiaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo, a ia eieeaeoeaiuo
aeinoieinoa eaiaeeaeaoia, ioaeaoue naie aiein oiio eee eiiio
eaiaeeaeaoo, ia aieinoy ca inoaeueiuo eaiaeeaeaoia oie aea ia?oee.
Iineieueeo ana eaiaeeaeaou ia iaeio e oo aea aeieaeiinoue auee aienaiu a
iaeei atheeaoaiue, ecae?aoaee aieaa ia auee auioaeaeaiu auae?aoue noaoai
ia?oeeiue nienie. Eiaiii aaaaeaiea “aano?aeeeneiai” atheeaoaiy
niinianoaiaaei iiyaeaieth oaiiiaia ?acaeaeueiiai aieiniaaiey a Aia?eea,
i?e eioi?ii ecae?aoaeue iiaeao aieiniaaoue ca eaiaeeaeaoa
?anioaeeeaineie ia?oee ia iino i?aceaeaioa e ca eaiaeeaeaoa aeaiie?aoia
ia iino /eaia iaeaou i?aaenoaaeoaeae eee naiaoa,e iaiai?io.

E ianoiyuaio a?aiaie a NOA niaoeeaeueiua iaoeiu, eioi?ua ia/aee
aaiaeeoue a 90-§ aa. XIX a., ii/oe iieiinoueth auoanieee aoiaaeiua
atheeaoaie. Ecae?aoaeueiua iaoeiu, ia iaiaee eioi?uo nienie eaiaeeaeaoia
?aniieiaeai a oii aea ii?yaeea, /oi e a “aano?aeeeneii” atheeaoaia,
iaoiaeyony a niaoeeaeueiuo caooi?aiiuo iiiauaieyo, /oi i?ecaaii
iaania/eoue oaeio aieiniaaiey. Ecae?aoaeue, oaeinoiaa?ea naith
ee/iinoue, aoiaeeo a yoi iiiauaiea e iaaeeiaao ia niioaaonoaothuee
?u/aa, oeacuaathuee ia nienie eaiaeeaeaoia oie eee eiie ia?oee, eeai ia
?u/aaeee, oeacuaathuea ia i?aaeii/eoaaiuo ei eaiaeeaeaoia ec oie eee
ae?oaie ia?oee. Ecae?aoaeueiua iaoeiu cia/eoaeueii oi?iuatho oaoieeo
aieiniaaiey, iaeaa/atho e nie?auatho a?aiy ia iiaen/ao aieinia, oae /oi
a iiiaio cae?uoey ecae?aoaeueiuo o/anoeia iie auaeatho ?acoeueoaou
aieiniaaiey.

Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oi?iu e iooe auaeaeaeaiey eaiaeeaeaoia. Iai?eia?,
a Aaeeeia?eoaiee ethaie i?aoaiaeaio ia auai?ioth aeieaeiinoue oi?iaeueii
ai?aaa o/anoaiaaoue a auai?ao a ea/anoaa eaiaeeaeaoa, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
iiaeaa a niioaaonoaothuee i?aai io naiaai eiaie cayaeaiea, iiaeienaiiia
e?iia iaai naiiai aua ianeieueeeie ecae?aoaeyie. Ii ana aea ?aaeueii
eaiaeeaeaou ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii auaeaeaathony ia?oeyie.
I?aiuea?-ieieno? iacia/aao aeaoo auai?ia ca aeaa ianyoea aei naieo
auai?ia. Eae i?aaeei, ?oeiaiaeeoaee anao ia?oee ciatho i aeaoa auai?ia
caaeieai aei ioeoeeaeueiiai cayaeaiey i?aiuea?-ieieno?a e,
niioaaonoaaiii, ca?aiaa aioiayony e ?aoathuae i?iaa nee. I?eia?ii oaeay
aea i?ioeaaeo?a nouanoaoao a aieueoeinoaa no?ai n ia?eaiaioneei
?aaeeiii.

Ianeieueei eiay oaoiieiaey i?aaiecaoeee e i?iaaaeaiey i?aceaeaioneie
ecae?aoaeueiie eaiiaiee a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao. Ioeoeeaeueii iia
ia/eiaaony a oaa?aea aiaea auai?ia n i?aeia?ec a ooaoa Iueth-Ayiioe? e
caaa?oaaony a ia?aue aoi?iee iinea ia?aiai iiiaaeaeueieea a iiya?a
eca?aieai i?aceaeaioa e ae?oaeo auai?iuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe. I?e yoii
ecae?aoaeueiay eaiiaiey i?ioiaeeo aeaa yoaia. Ia ia?aii yoaia – yoaia
ia?ae/iuo auai?ia – ai?ueaa ?acai?a/eaaao-

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ny iaaeaeo i?aoaiaeaioaie ia iiieiaoeee aioo?e ia?oee. Ia?aue yoai
caaa?oaaony iauaiaoeeiiaeueiuie nuacaeaie ia?oee, eioi?ua, eae i?aaeei,
nicuaathony a ethea, aaaonoa aiaea anaiaueo auai?ia. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
nuacaeu auaeaeaatho e ooaa?aeaeatho ioeoeeaeueiuo eaiaeeaeaoia ia?oee ia
iinou i?aceaeaioa e aeoea-i?aceaeaioa no?aiu, a oaeaea oi?ioee?otho e
i?eieiatho eo i?aaeauai?iua ieaooi?iu. Iinea nuacaea i?aaeauai?iay
eaiiaiey anooiaao a iiaoth oaco e caaa?oaaony eca?aieai i?aceaeaioa,
aeoea-i?aceaeaioa e ae?oaeo auai?iuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oaeaea niaoeeoeeo i?ioeaaeo?u eca?aiey i?aceaeaioa
NOA, eioi?ay ioee/aaony io i?ioeaaeo?u eca?aiey aunoeo aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe a ae?oaeo no?aiao. Caeanue ecae?aoaee oi?iaeueii eae au i?yii ia
o/anoaotho a eca?aiee i?aoaiaeaioa ia iino i?aceaeaioa. Aeaei a oii, /oi
ia?oeeiua i?aaiecaoeee iyoeaeanyoe ooaoia e oaaea?aeueiiai ie?oaa
Eieoiaey oaeinoiaa?ytho eiy eaiaeeaeaoa niioaaonoaothuaio aeieaeiinoiiio
eeoeo aianoa ni nieneii oae iacuaaaiuo auai?ueeia i?aceaeaioa, eioi?ua a
neo/aa eo eca?aiey ioaeaaeoo naie aieina eaiaeeaeaoo ia?oee. Einoeooo
eieeaaee auai?ueeia e aeaooyoaiiia aieiniaaiea auee onoaiiaeaiu
iooeaie-iniiaaoaeyie. Iie yaeeenue ?acoeueoaoii eiii?iienna iaaeaeo
noi?iiieeaie aieueoae aaoiiiiee ooaoia, aunooiaaoeo ca oi, /oiau
i?aceaeaio ecae?aeny caeiiiaeaoaeyie ooaoia, e oaie, eoi aunooiae ca
aaeuioth oeaio?aeecaoeeth ainoaea?noaa e anaia?iaeiua i?yiua auai?u.
Ecae?aoaeueiay nenoaia iino?iaia ii i?eioeeio: iaeei aiein io iaeiiai
ecae?aoaey, ii ia o?iaia ooaoia. Iiaaaeo iaea?aeeaaao oio, eoi iieo/aao
iaeaieueoaa /enei aieinia, ii ia o?iaia ooaoia. Oai naiui o/eouaaaony
oaaea?aeueiue i?eioeei ainoaea?noaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai ono?ienoaa.
Eaaeaeiio auai?ueeo i?aaeienuaaeinue acaaneoue ana “ca” e “i?ioea” e
i?iaieiniaaoue ca oao eaiaeeaeaoia ia iino i?aceaeaioa e
aeoea-i?aceaeaioa, eioi?uo ii n/eoaao iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueie.
Eiinoeoooeey ia naycuaaea auai?ueeia aieiniaaieai ca eiie?aoiiai
eaiaeeaeaoa. Ii iinoaiaiii, ii ia?a ?acaeoey ia?oeeiie nenoaiu,
niia?aaeaiey eaaeeoeeaoeee auee iooaniaiu ia aoi?ie ieai ia?oeeiie
i?eaa?aeaiiinoueth auai?ueeia. Onoaiiaeeinue i?aaeei, ii eioi?iio
eca?aiiua auai?ueee naycuaaeenue iaycaoaeuenoaii aieiniaaoue ca
ii?aaeaeaiiiai eaiaeeaeaoa. A eiia/iii eoiaa iie i?aa?aoeeenue a
ia?oeeiuo aaaioia, iaycaiiuo ii?aeueii e iieeoe/anee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue
eaiaeeaeaoa naiae ia?oee.

Eae i?aaeei, a aieueoeinoaa no?ai i?aaeauai?iay aaeoaoeey i?ae?auaaony
ca nooee aei ioe?uoey ecae?aoaeueiuo o/anoeia. Yoi aeaeaaony aeey oiai,
/oiau i?aaeinoaaeoue naiei ecae?aoaeyi a?aiy e aiciiaeiinoue
naiinoiyoaeueii iaaeoiaoue e ananoi?iiia acaaneoue naie auai? e i?eiyoue
ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea, ca eiai e ca /oi eiaiii ioaeaoue naie aiein.

169

N?ie iieiiii/ee auai?iuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ia?aie/eaaaony
ii?aaeaeaiiui, no?iai oeene?iaaiiui a eiinoeoooeee ia?eiaeii, eae
i?aaeei, io aeaoo aei oanoe eao a caaeneiinoe io no?aiu e aeieaeiinoe.
N/eoaaony, /oi ii?aaeaeaiiua eiinoeoooeeae n?ie e ii?yaeie eca?aiey
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe aeinoaoi/iu, /oiau eca?aiiia eeoei iiaei ?aaeeciaaoue
naith i?ia?aiio, iicaieytho iaania/eoue noaaeeueiinoue e
i?aainoaaiiinoue iieeoe/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa. O/eouaaaony e oi, /oi yoio
n?ie ia ianoieueei aaeee, /oiau iieeoee iia caauoue i i?aaenoiyueo
auai?ao e ia iiiieoue i naiae ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae ecae?aoaeyie.

§8. Iniiaiua oeiu ecae?aoaeueiie nenoaiu

?acoeueoaou auai?ia, ii?aaeaeythuea iiaaaeeoaeae e iiaaaeaeaiiuo, ai
iiiaii caaenyo io oeia ecae?aoaeueiie nenoaiu. Nouanoaotho aeaa iniiaiuo
oeia: iaaei?eoa?iay e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay. I?e iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia io
eaaeaeiai ecae?aoaeueiiai ie?oaa ecae?aaony iaeei aeaiooao. Iiaaaeeoaeai
ia auai?ao n/eoaaony eaiaeeaeao, iaa?aaoee iaeaieueoaa /enei aieinia.
I?e oaeie nenoaia, anee ii iaeiiio e oiio aea ie?oao aaeeioe?othony ia
aeaa, a ianeieueei eaiaeeaeaoia, iiaaaeo iiaeao iaea?aeaoue e oio, eoi
iaa?ae iaiaa 50% aieinia. Iieacaoaeueii, /oi ia ?ac eiina?aaoeaiay
ia?oey Aaeeeia?eoaiee iaea?aeeaaea iiaaaeo, iieo/ea eeoue ieiei 40%
aieinia ecae?aoaeae, iineieueeo inoaeueiie yeaeoi?ao aeaeeeny iaaeaeo
eaeai?enoneie ia?oeae e eeaa?aeueii-nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneei aeueyinii.
Ii/oe ai anao aiaeiycu/iuo no?aiao a niioaaonoaee n ainiiaenoaiaaaoae
oai iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaiie aeaiooaou a caeiiiaeaoaeueiua nia?aiey
ecae?athony io ie?oaia, io eioi?uo ecae?aaony aaeeinoaaiiue eaiaeeaeao.
A aeaiiii ie?oaa ia?oey aeieaeia caaiaaaoue aieueoeinoai aieinia, /oiau
iaea?aeaoue iiaaaeo. Iaiueoeinoai caeanue ieacuaaaony iai?aaenoaaeaiiui
a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii nia?aiee.

I?e iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia aieueoeinoai, iieo/aiiia iiaaaeeaoae noi?iiie,
iiaeao auoue aeaoo aeaeia – aaniethoiia e ioiineoaeueiia. A ia?aii
neo/aa iiaaaeeoaeai n/eoaaony eaiaeeaeao, caaiaaaaoee 50% + 1 aiein anao
o/anoaiaaaoeo a aieiniaaiee ecae?aoaeae. A oii neo/aa, anee ie iaeei
eaiaeeaeao ia iieo/aao o?aaoaiia /enei aieinia, iacia/aaony aoi?ie oo?
auai?ia, a eioi?ii i?eieiatho o/anoea aeaa eaiaeeaeaoa, caaiaaaaoea
iaeaieueoaa /enei aieinia a ia?aii oo?a. Ai aoi?ii oo?a iiaaaeeoaeai
auoiaeeo oaea eaiaeeaeao, iaa?aaoee ioiineoaeueiia aieueoeinoai aieinia.
I?e iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia ioiineoaeueiiai aieueoeinoaa iiaaaeo
iaea?aeeaaao eaiaeeaeao, iieo/eaoee aieueoa aieinia, /ai ana inoaeueiua
eaiaeeaeaou, eaaeaeue a ioaeaeueiinoe. Iaaei?eoa?iay nenoaia
ooaa?aeeeanue a Aiaeee, NOA, O?aioeee, ssiiiee. Iiiaea
eiioeiaioaeueiiaa?iiaeneea no?aiu i?aeoeeotho i?iii?-

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oeeiiaeueioth nenoaio, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie io eaaeaeiai ie?oaa
ecae?athony ianeieueei eaiaeeaeaoia, /enei eioi?uo ?ani?aaeaeyaony
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao caaiaaaiiuo ia?oeyie aieinia. Caeanue
ecae?aoaeueiua ie?oaa nicaeathony aeinoaoi/ii e?oiiua, /oiau aeeth/eoue,
neaaeai, iyoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae e ?acaeaeeoue eo iaaeaeo ia?oeyie
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii caaiaaaiiui eie aieinai. Anee, iai?eia?, iaeia ia?oey
iieo/aao ieiei 40% anao aieinia, iia niioaaonoaaiii iieo/aao 40% ec 5
iano, oi anoue 2. Anee o?e ae?oaea ia?oee iieo/atho io 16 aei 24%
aieinia eaaeaeay, eaaeaeie ec ieo i?aaeinoaaeyaony ii iaeiiio ianoo.
Iaeiaei, anee au oaeie aieueoie aeeno?eeo aue ?an/eaiai ia iyoue
iaeaiueeeo aeeno?eeoia, eiathueo ii iaeiiio ianoo, ana iyoue iano
iieo/eea au ia?oey, caaiaaaaoay 40% aieinia anao ecae?aoaeae (o.a.
aieueoeinoai), anee au aa neea ?ani?aaeaeyeanue i?eia?ii ?aaiiia?ii ii
ia?aiia/aeueiiio aieueoiio aeeno?eeoo. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa neeiiia i?aaeinoaaeyoue
n?aaieoaeueii iaeeei ia?oeyi ianoi a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii nia?aiee.

Ia?niaeoeaa caaiaaaiey naiae aeiee o/anoey ai aeanoe, oioy e iaeie,
iiiu?yao ia?oee iaiueoeinoa e niinianoaoao nio?aiaieth iiiaiia?oeeiie
nenoaiu. A Aia?eea aea, anee eaiaeeaeao ia caaiaauaaao aieueoeinoai, oi
ii ia iieo/aao ie/aai. Aia?eeaineay nenoaia auai?ueeia iino?iaia oae,
/oi eaiaeeaeao iieo/aao eee ana, eee ie/aai. A eaaeaeii ooaoa, anee
iaeei eaiaeeaeao iieo/aao 50% + 1 aiein ecae?aoaeae, ii iieo/aao ana
100% aieinia auai?ueeia. Ainiiaenoai iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaiu
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi aeey iieo/aiey aieinia auai?ueeia o?aouee ia?oee
aeieaeiu caaiaaaoue ia i?inoi ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aieinia ii anae
no?aia, a aaia?aoe/anee eiioeaio?e?iaaiioth a eaeii-eeai ie?oaa
iiaeaea?aeeo aieueoeinoaa ecae?aoaeae. A yoi icia/aao, /oi anee o?aouey
ia?oey e iaea?aeeo iiaaaeo a oii eee eiii ie?oaa eee, aeaaea ooaoa, iia
ana aea inoaaony ianoiui yaeaieai.

A ?yaea no?ai nouanoaoao niaoaiiay, iaaei?eoa?ii-i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay
nenoaia. Oae, a O?A iieiaeia ninoaaa aoiaeanoaaa ecae?aaony e& iniiaa
iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaiu a iaeei oo?, a ae?oaay – ia iniiaa
I?iii?oeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu. A Aano?aeee iaeaoa i?aaenoaaeoaeae
‘oi?ie?oaony ii iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia aaniethoiiai aieueoeinoaa, a naiao
– ii nenoaia i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. I?e yoii ioia/aii,
/oi iaaei?eoa?iay nenoaia a iaeei oo? niinianoaoao onoaiiaeaieth
aeaooia?oeeiinoe, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay nenoaia, iaiai?io, –
iiiaiia?oeeiinoe, a iaaei?eoa?iay a aeaa oo?a – iauaaeeiaieth ia?oee a
eiaeeoeee.

§9. I ia?niaeoeaao ?acaeoey ia?oeeiie nenoaiu a ?innee

1 ?inney ia?aaeeaaao ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae, aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea Eioi?iai
ninoieo a i?aia?aciaaiee oioaeeoa?iie iieeoe/aneie

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N?ie iieiiii/ee auai?iuo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe ia?aie/eaaaony
ii?aaeaeaiiui, no?iai oeene?iaaiiui a eiinoeoooeee ia?eiaeii, eae
i?aaeei, io aeaoo aei oanoe eao a caaeneiinoe io no?aiu e aeieaeiinoe.
N/eoaaony, /oi ii?aaeaeaiiua eiinoeoooeeae n?ie e ii?yaeie eca?aiey
aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe aeinoaoi/iu, /oiau eca?aiiia eeoei iiaei ?aaeeciaaoue
naith i?ia?aiio, iicaieytho iaania/eoue noaaeeueiinoue e
i?aainoaaiiinoue iieeoe/aneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa. O/eouaaaony e oi, /oi yoio
n?ie ia ianoieueei aaeee, /oiau iieeoee iia caauoue i i?aaenoiyueo
auai?ao e ia iiiieoue i naiae ioaaonoaaiiinoe ia?aae ecae?aoaeyie.

§8. Iniiaiua oeiu ecae?aoaeueiie nenoaiu

?acoeueoaou auai?ia, ii?aaeaeythuea iiaaaeeoaeae e iiaaaeaeaiiuo, ai
iiiaii caaenyo io oeia ecae?aoaeueiie nenoaiu. Nouanoaotho aeaa iniiaiuo
oeia: iaaei?eoa?iay e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay. I?e iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia io
eaaeaeiai ecae?aoaeueiiai ie?oaa ecae?aaony iaeei aeaiooao. Iiaaaeeoaeai
ia auai?ao n/eoaaony eaiaeeaeao, iaa?aaoee iaeaieueoaa /enei aieinia.
I?e oaeie nenoaia, anee ii iaeiiio e oiio aea ie?oao aaeeioe?othony ia
aeaa, a ianeieueei eaiaeeaeaoia, iiaaaeo iiaeao iaea?aeaoue e oio, eoi
iaa?ae iaiaa 50% aieinia. Iieacaoaeueii, /oi ia ?ac eiina?aaoeaiay
ia?oey Aaeeeia?eoaiee iaea?aeeaaea iiaaaeo, iieo/ea eeoue ieiei 40%
aieinia ecae?aoaeae, iineieueeo inoaeueiie yeaeoi?ao aeaeeeny iaaeaeo
eaeai?enoneie ia?oeae e eeaa?aeueii-nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneei aeueyinii.
Ii/oe ai anao aiaeiycu/iuo no?aiao a niioaaonoaee n ainiiaenoaiaaaoae
oai iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaiie aeaiooaou a caeiiiaeaoaeueiua nia?aiey
ecae?athony io ie?oaia, io eioi?uo ecae?aaony aaeeinoaaiiue eaiaeeaeao.
A aeaiiii ie?oaa ia?oey aeieaeia caaiaaaoue aieueoeinoai aieinia, /oiau
iaea?aeaoue iiaaaeo. Iaiueoeinoai caeanue ieacuaaaony iai?aaenoaaeaiiui
a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii nia?aiee.

I?e iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia aieueoeinoai, iieo/aiiia iiaaaeeaoae noi?iiie,
iiaeao auoue aeaoo aeaeia – aaniethoiia e ioiineoaeueiia. A ia?aii
neo/aa iiaaaeeoaeai n/eoaaony eaiaeeaeao, caaiaaaaoee 50% + 1 aiein anao
o/anoaiaaaoeo a aieiniaaiee ecae?aoaeae. A oii neo/aa, anee ie iaeei
eaiaeeaeao ia iieo/aao o?aaoaiia /enei aieinia, iacia/aaony aoi?ie oo?
auai?ia, a eioi?ii i?eieiatho o/anoea aeaa eaiaeeaeaoa, caaiaaaaoea
iaeaieueoaa /enei aieinia a ia?aii oo?a. Ai aoi?ii oo?a iiaaaeeoaeai
auoiaeeo oaea eaiaeeaeao, iaa?aaoee ioiineoaeueiia aieueoeinoai aieinia.
I?e iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia ioiineoaeueiiai aieueoeinoaa iiaaaeo
iaea?aeeaaao eaiaeeaeao, iieo/eaoee aieueoa aieinia, /ai ana inoaeueiua
eaiaeeaeaou, eaaeaeue a ioaeaeueiinoe. Iaaei?eoa?iay nenoaia
ooaa?aeeeanue a Aiaeee, NOA, O?aioeee, ssiiiee. Iiiaea
eiioeiaioaeueiiaa?iiaeneea no?aiu i?aeoeeotho i?iii?-

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oeeiiaeueioth nenoaio, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie io eaaeaeiai ie?oaa
ecae?athony ianeieueei eaiaeeaeaoia, /enei eioi?uo ?ani?aaeaeyaony
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eiee/anoao caaiaaaiiuo ia?oeyie aieinia. Caeanue
ecae?aoaeueiua ie?oaa nicaeathony aeinoaoi/ii e?oiiua, /oiau aeeth/eoue,
neaaeai, iyoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae e ?acaeaeeoue eo iaaeaeo ia?oeyie
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii caaiaaaiiui eie aieinai. Anee, iai?eia?, iaeia ia?oey
iieo/aao ieiei 40% anao aieinia, iia niioaaonoaaiii iieo/aao 40% ec 5
iano, oi anoue 2. Anee o?e ae?oaea ia?oee iieo/atho io 16 aei 24%
aieinia eaaeaeay, eaaeaeie ec ieo i?aaeinoaaeyaony ii iaeiiio ianoo.
Iaeiaei, anee au oaeie aieueoie aeeno?eeo aue ?an/eaiai ia iyoue
iaeaiueeeo aeeno?eeoia, eiathueo ii iaeiiio ianoo, ana iyoue iano
iieo/eea au ia?oey, caaiaaaaoay 40% aieinia anao ecae?aoaeae (o.a.
aieueoeinoai), anee au aa neea ?ani?aaeaeyeanue i?eia?ii ?aaiiia?ii ii
ia?aiia/aeueiiio aieueoiio aeeno?eeoo. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay nenoaia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa neeiiia i?aaeinoaaeyoue
n?aaieoaeueii iaeeei ia?oeyi ianoi a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii nia?aiee.

Ia?niaeoeaa caaiaaaiey naiae aeiee o/anoey ai aeanoe, oioy e iaeie,
iiiu?yao ia?oee iaiueoeinoa e niinianoaoao nio?aiaieth iiiaiia?oeeiie
nenoaiu. A Aia?eea aea, anee eaiaeeaeao ia caaiaauaaao aieueoeinoai, oi
ii ia iieo/aao ie/aai. Aia?eeaineay nenoaia auai?ueeia iino?iaia oae,
/oi eaiaeeaeao iieo/aao eee ana, eee ie/aai. A eaaeaeii ooaoa, anee
iaeei eaiaeeaeao iieo/aao 50% + 1 aiein ecae?aoaeae, ii iieo/aao ana
100% aieinia auai?ueeia. Ainiiaenoai iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaiu
i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi aeey iieo/aiey aieinia auai?ueeia o?aouee ia?oee
aeieaeiu caaiaaaoue ia i?inoi ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai aieinia ii anae
no?aia, a aaia?aoe/anee eiioeaio?e?iaaiioth a eaeii-eeai ie?oaa
iiaeaea?aeeo aieueoeinoaa ecae?aoaeae. A yoi icia/aao, /oi anee o?aouey
ia?oey e iaea?aeeo iiaaaeo a oii eee eiii ie?oaa eee, aeaaea ooaoa, iia
ana aea inoaaony ianoiui yaeaieai.

A ?yaea no?ai nouanoaoao niaoaiiay, iaaei?eoa?ii-i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay
nenoaia. Oae, a O?A iieiaeia ninoaaa aoiaeanoaaa ecae?aaony ea- iniiaa
iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaiu a iaeei oo?, a ae?oaay – ia iniiaa
I?iii?oeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu. A Aano?aeee iaeaoa i?aaenoaaeoaeae
.oi?ie?oaony ii iaaei?eoa?iie nenoaia aaniethoiiai aieueoeinoaa, a naiao
– ii nenoaia i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. I?e yoii ioia/aii,
/oi iaaei?eoa?iay nenoaia a iaeei oo? niinianoaoao onoaiiaeaieth
aeaooia?oeeiinoe, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay nenoaia, iaiai?io, –
iiiaiia?oeeiinoe, a iaaei?eoa?iay a aeaa oo?a – iauaaeeiaieth ia?oee a
eiaeeoeee.

„, §9. I ia?niaeoeaao ?acaeoey ia?oeeiie nenoaiu a ?innee

1 ?inney ia?aaeeaaao ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae, aeaaiia niaea?aeaiea eioi?iai
ninoieo a i?aia?aciaaiee oioaeeoa?iie iieeoe/aneie

171

nenoaiu ni anaie aa einoeoooaie, no?oeoo?aie e ioiioaieyie a niaa?oaiii
iiaoth iieeoe/aneoth nenoaio iacaaeneii io oiai, eae aa iacuaaoue –
aeaiie?aoe/aneie, eaaceaeaiie?aoe/aneie, aaoi?eoa?iie, i?aceaeaioneie e
o.ae. I/aaeaeii, /oi e ia?oeeiay nenoaia, eioi?ay ia iaoeo aeacao
oi?ie?oaony, ia iiaeao ia iineoue ia?aoiaeiue oa?aeoa?. A
?anniao?eaaaiii caeanue eiioaenoa i?iaeaia ineiaeiyaony oai, /oi ?a/ue
eaeao ia i?inoi i o?ainoi?iaoeee nouanoaiaaaoae iiiaea aeanyoeeaoey
iiiiia?oeeiie nenoaiu a iiiaiia?oeeioth. Aeaei a oii, /oi a oneiaeyo
oioaeeoa?iiai niaaoneiai no?iy eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey ie a eiai neo/aa
ia auea ii?iaeueiie iieeoe/aneie ia?oeae a iauai?eiyoii niunea yoiai
neiaa. Iia, a nouiinoe, ia i?inoi neeeanue n ainoaea?noaaiiuie
no?oeoo?aie, a iieiinoueth iiaeioeea e ainoaea?noai e iauanoai, e
ainoaea?noaaiiua no?oeoo?u ieacaeenue eeoue aeaaeiuie io?aaeaieyie
ia?oeeiuo no?oeoo?. A ?acoeueoaoa ia?aciaaeny naiaia?aciue aea?eae
ia?oey-ainoaea?noai. Anoanoaaiii, e?ao oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu eiae naiei
neaaenoaeai en/aciiaaiea yoiai aea?eaea, e ia?aae no?aiie anoaea
i?iaeaia nicaeaiey iiaie ainoaea?noaaiiinoe e niioaaonoaothuae ae
ia?oeeiie nenoaiu.

Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee a enoeiiii niunea yoiai neiaa aicieeatho eeoue
oiaaea, eiaaea iauanoai aeinoeaaao niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, eiaaea nioeeaeueiua neie e
a?oiiu aieaa eee iaiaa /aoei iniciatho naie eioa?anu. Aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeiu e?enoaeeecaoeey e einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeey eioa?ania
caeioa?aniaaiiuo a?oii, iauaaeeiaiee, aeieia, ae?oaeo ninoaaeythueo
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa, ieieioi aeaiie?aoe/aneie iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?u. Iaeiaei iaoa iauanoai, ia?aaeeaathuaa ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae,
eeoaii iaeiaai ne?aieythuaai aai aiaaeeii noa?aeiy eee i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai
ia/aea, iii iaoiaeeony a aii?oiii ninoiyiee. Nae/an i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii
aiai?eoue i neieueei-ieaoaeue iaicia/eaoainy no?oeoo?e?iaaiee eioa?ania
?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo nee. I ?aaeueiii i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa ?aaeueiuo
nioeeaeueiuo nee e eioa?ania a iieeoe/aneie nenoaia iiaeii aiai?eoue
eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea ii e?aeiae ia?a a/a?ia ioi?iyony e ooaa?aeyony
aieaa eee iaiaa i?i/iua iniiaaiey eo aeeciaono?ienoaa. Aa?aioii
noaaeeueiinoe iauanoaa e iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu yaeyaony nouanoaiaaiea
oe?iei einoeoooeeiiaeece?i-aaaoaeny i?ineieee n?aaeieo neiaa eee
n?aaeiaai eeanna, eioi?ue, a naith i/a?aaeue, neoaeeo a ea/anoaa
nioeeaeueiie iii?u oia?aiiiai, oeaio?enoneiai iieeoe/aneiai eo?na,
?aaiioaeaeaiiiai io e?aeieo iiethnia iieeoe/aneiai niaeo?a. Oeaio?eci a
iieeoeea iaania/eaaao aiciiaeiue a aeaiiuo eiie?aoiuo oneiaeyo
iioeiaeueiue aaeain iauanoaaiiuo eioa?ania, i?iaaaeaiea oaeiai eo?na,
eioi?ue a eaeaaea i?ecaai ?aaeeciaaoue iaeoth n?aaeithth eeieth iaaeaeo
yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoueth e nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoueth,
yeiiiie/aneie naiaiaeie e nioeeaeueiui ?aaainoaii.

172

*oi eanaaony neooaoeee a iaoae no?aia, oi auei au iai?aniui o?oaeii
caiyoueny ?aca?aie/aieai iieeoe/aneeo nee ia i?aauo, eaauo e oeaio?,
eeaa?aeia, eiina?aaoi?ia e oia?aiiuo. Oaeia aeaeaiea aiciiaeii eeoue i?e
noi?ie?iaaaoaeny aeaiie?aoee e aunieie eoeueoo?a a?aaeaeainoaaiiinoe a
a?aaeaeaineii iauanoaa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a no?aia, ii nooe aeaea,
ionoonoaoao aaeeiay nenoaia iieeoe/aneie eiiioieeaoeee, nai iieeoe/aneee
i?ioeann i?ioaeaao eae au i?e ionoonoaee eioaa?aoeee e acaeiiiiieiaiey
iaaeaeo aai o/anoieeaie. Iao iaiaoiaeeiiai eiinainona ioiineoaeueii
iaueo oeaeae e n?aaenoa eo aeinoeaeaiey, iauai?eiyouo i?aaee
iieeoe/aneie ea?u e o.ae. Iaeanoi/aiiua iieeoe/aneea aeeneonnee
niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii ia naycaiu n i?ioeannii i?eiyoey iieeoe/aneeo
?aoaiee.

A ?innee a eo/oai neo/aa oieueei ia/eiaaony oi?ie?iaaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa, eioi?ia iaeii e niiniaii iaania/eoue oneiaey
aeey oi?ie?iaaiey e einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeee ?aaeueii caeioa?aniaaiiuo
a?oii e, niioaaonoaaiii, i?aaiecaoeee, eeoaia, iauaaeeiaiee, ia?oee,
niiniaiuo i?aaenoaaeyoue eo eioa?anu a no?oeoo?ao aeanoe. Aaaeue ie?iaie
iiuo iieacuaaao, /oi o?iaaiue ?acaeoey aeaiie?aoee naiui
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui ia?acii caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei
einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaeny iieeoe/aneee ieth?aeeci, eioi?ue i?iyaeyaony e
au?aaeaaony i?aaeaea anaai a iieeoe/aneeo ia?oeyo. Ii c?aeinoue e
aeecianiiniaiinoue iieeoe/aneiai ieth?aeecia, aeeth/ay ia?oeeioth
nenoaio, ii?aaeaeythony oai, a eaeie noaiaie a iauanoaa noi?ie?iaaeenue,
einoeoooeeiiaeece?iaaeenue e cayaeee i naaa ?aciiia?aciua oeaio?u e
enoi/ieee aeanoe e aeeyiey. Eae ?ac n yoie oi/ee c?aiey ii?aaeaeythuaa
cia/aiea eiaao niioaaonoaothuay eio?ano?oeoo?a, i?ecaaiiay iaania/eoue
oneiaey aeey e?enoaeeecaoeee a?oiiiauo eioa?ania e ioi?ieaiey
niioaaonoaothueo iaainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, iauaaeeiaiee, nithcia.

Ia?aoiae io oioaeeoa?ecia ia ?aeuenu aeaiie?aoe/aneiai ?acaeoey,
?acaeoea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, o?ainoi?ie?oy nioeeaeueioth no?oeoo?o
iauanoaa, oneeeaay i?ioeannu nioeeaeueiie aeeooa?aioeeaoeee, nicaeatho
iniiao aeey aiieiuaiey a aeeciue oeaiiinoae e i?eioeeiia iieeoe/aneiai
ieth?aeecia. Yoi iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea a aicieeiiaaiee oe?ieiai niaeo?a
naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo iiauo iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo aeaeaeaiee,
i?aaiecaoeee e iauaaeeiaiee. Yoio i?ioeann, iniaaiii io/aoeeai
iaiaoeaoeeny a 1989 a., iinoaiaiii noae iaae?aoue ana aieaa
onei?ythueany oaiiu. A 1990 a. aue i?eiyo caeii NNN? “Ia iaua-•noaaiiuo
iauaaeeiaieyo”, a eioi?ii auee caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aieaiu ii?yaeie
ia?aciaaiey, i?aaa e i?eioeeiu aeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee
e iauaaeeiaiee. A ia?oa 1991 a. ia/aeanue ?aaeno?aoeey ia?oee, a e
eiioeo 1991 a. auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii oaea 26 ia?oee 1i 16
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeo aeaeaeaiee. 1 ?inneeneea iieeoe/aneea ia?oee
?acee/athony ii naiei i?ia?ai-

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iiui oeaeyi, eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneei i?eaioaoeeyi, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?a, oi?iai e iaoiaeai ?aaiou e o.ae.

I?e anai oii iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi yoei iieeoe/aneei ia?aciaaieyi
aua i?aaenoieo aeieacaoue naith eaaeoeiiinoue, iieo/ea iiaeaea?aeeo o
ecae?aoaeae, iiaeoaa?aeeoue, /oi iie aeaenoaeoaeueii yaeythony
?aaeueiuie iieeoe/aneeie ia?oeyie, ca eioi?uie noiyo nioeeaeueiua neeu.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ii nooe aeaea, iaaiciiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eiai eiaiii,
eaeea neie, a?oiiu, eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey iie i?aaenoaaeytho. Aeey ieo
oa?aeoa?iu iaei/eneaiiinoue, neaainoue i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u,
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue e aii?oiinoue nioeeaeueiie aacu, ionoonoaea
neieueei-ieaoaeue aiyoii noi?ioee?iaaiiuo iiceoeaiuo i?ia?aii e
eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneeo ieaooi?i. Ii yoei iieacaoaeyi ii/oe ana iie
yaeythony eeoue i?ioiia?oeyie, a ia ia?oeyie a nianoaaiiii niunea yoiai
iiiyoey.

Eae iieacuaaao iiuo ia?aoiaea oeaeie a?oiiu no?ai io oioaeeoa?ecia e
aaoi?eoa?eyia nia/aea a O?A e Eoaeee, a caoai ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 70 –
ia/aea 80-o aa. a A?aoeee, Eniaiee e Ii?ooaaeee, aeey oi?ie?iaaiey e
einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeee iieiioeaiiuo e aeaaniiniaiuo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee
o?aaoaony aeinoaoi/ii a?aiaie. Oae, a ia?aua iineaaiaiiua aiaeu a O?A ia
ianoiii, caiaeueiii e iauaiaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia aicieeee aeanyoee
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, oioy ieeoiaoeeiiiua aienea NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiee e
O?aioeee any/anee i?aiyonoaiaaee iiyaeaieth iaeeeo ia?oee, i?e yoii
ieacuaay niaeaenoaea eiioeaio?aoeee iieeoe/aneeo nee Caiaaeiie Aa?iaiee
a iaiiiaeo e?oiiuo ia?oeyo. I?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey onoie/eauo,
aeecianiiniaiuo e?oiiuo ia?oee caiye ianeieueei eao. Iaeeea ia?oee a
ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eiuo iieeoe/aneeo nee
ioioee ia caaeiee ieai e aeaaiuie ninoaaeythueie ia?oeeiie nenoaiu O?A
noaee aeie OAeN/ONN, NAeIA e NaAeI.

Aiaeiae/iay neooaoeey iaaethaeaeanue oaeaea a Eoaeee. *oi eanaaony
A?aoeee, iniaaiii Eniaiee e Ii?ooaaeee, oi ia?aiia/aeueii a yoeo no?aiao
ia iieeoe/aneie aaainoeaia eae ii iaiiaaieth aieoaaiie iaei/ee
iiyaeeinue iiiaeanoai aeanyoeia ia?oee (a iaeiie Ii?ooaaeee eo
ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 300), e nio?aieaoeiny a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?oeyi,
/oiau iieacaoue naith aeecianiiniaiinoue, i?eoeinue iiiaeanoai ?ac
auaea?aeeaaoue eniuoaiea auai?aie. Eiaiii oaeie iooue i?aaenoieo e
?innee. I au/eaiaiee e einoeoooeeiiaeecaoeee iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee,
i?aaenoaaeythueo ?aaeueiua iieeoe/aneea neeu no?aiu, iiaeii,
ii-aeaeeiiio, aiai?eoue iinea i?iaaaeaiey anaiaueo auai?ia eae ieieioi
aeaa-o?e ?aca.

AII?INU E AEAAA

1. Iaciaeoa iniiaiua enoi?e/aneaa yoaiu oi?ie?iaaiey iieeiianeao ooeiaa.

2. *oi iiieiaaony iiae iieei/aneia ia?oeae?

3. A /ai ioee/aa ia?eo io caooa?aniaaaauo a?oii?

4. Iaciaeoa iniiaiua ooaeoeei ia?iy.

5. A /ai ninoiyo ioee/ey i?aayueo e iiiiceoeeiiiuo ia?oee?

6. Ia?a/eneeoa e ioa?aeoa?ecoeoa iniiaiua oeiu ia?oeeiie nenoaiu.

7. A /ai ninoiyo ?ieue e ooieoeee ecae?aoaeueiie nenoaiu?

8. Eaeea nouanoaotho oeiu ecae?aoaeueiie nenoaiu?

9. Ia?a/eneeoa iniiaiua iaoaieciu e i?ioeaaeo?u ecae?aoaeueiiai i?ioean-

10. Eaeiau ia?niaeoeau oi?ie?iaaiey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee a ?innee?

EEOA?AOO?A

‘ Ao?eaoeeee O.I., Aaeeei A.A. Nia?aiaiiue eaaeaoai. – I., 1985;
Ecae?aoaeueiua nenoaiu e ia?oee a ao?aeoaciii ainoaea?noaa. — I„ 1979;
Ia?oee e auai?u a eaieoaeenoe/aneii ainoaea?noaa. — I., 1980; Ia?aaoaeia
N.I., Oieiaeeianeee E..A. Iieeoe/aneay ia?oey: ie?iaie iiuo e

oaiaeaioeee ?ayaeoey//Eiiioieno. -1991.-?2; Oia/eiaa O.A. Ie?
iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee//Iieeoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey. –

‘.992.-E” 1-2.

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