.

К вопросу о причинах поражений Красной Армии в первый период Великой Отечественной войны

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 4195
Скачать документ

Iineianeee Ainoaea?noaaiiue Oieaa?neoao

ei. I. A. Eiiiiiniaa

Oeie/aneee Oaeoeueoao

E AII?INO I I?E*EIAO II?AAEAIEE E?ANIIE A?IEE A IA?AII IA?EIAeA AAEEEIE
IOA*ANOAAIIIE AIEIU

Iao/iay ?aaioa

nooaeaioa 113 a?oiiu

Eyoiaa Aioiia Ai?eniae/a.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?aaiou

aeioeaio Neaei?ia A.A.

Aoi?ia ecaeaiea, ia?a?aaioaii aaoi?ii a 1996-1998 aa.

Iineaa, 1998 a.

Niaea?aeaiea

Niaea?aeaiea
………………………………………………………………
…………………………. 1

1. Aaaaeaiea
………………………………………………………………
………………………….. 3

2. Iiaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aiththueo noi?ii i i?e/eiao ii?aaeaiee E?aniie
A?iee a ia/aea aieiu
………………………………………………………………
..

3

3. Iieiaeaiea a ie?a a 1939 – ia?aie iieiaeia 1941 a.
…………………………… 4

4. ?aniieiaeaiea aiene noi?ii ii ninoiyieth ia 21 ethiy 1941 a.
…………….. 7

5. Oiae aiaauo aeaenoaee ia niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa a 1941 – 1942 aa.
.. 13

5.1 Ia/aei aieiu
………………………………………………………………
……………… 13

5.2 I?iaae «aeeoee?eaa»
………………………………………………………………
……. 13

5.3 Eeaaneay eaoano?ioa
………………………………………………………………
…… 15

5.4 Aeoaa ca Iineao
………………………………………………………………
………….. 17

5.5 Aiaaua aeaenoaey ceiie 1941/1942 aa.
……………………………………………. 21

5.6 Aania e eaoi 1942 a.
………………………………………………………………
…….. 22

5.7 Ei?ioei i ii?aaeaieyo e iaoaea/ao E?aniie A?iee iinea 1942 a.
……. 28

5.8 Iauea auaiaeu
………………………………………………………………
……………. 29

6. E aii?ino i «i?aaaioeaiii oaea?a» (ii iioeaai i?iecaaaeaiee A.
Noai?iaa)
………………………………………………………………
………………………………..

31

6.1 I /eneaiiii niioiioaiee oaieia e aaeaoeee NNN? e Aa?iaiee ……..
32

6.2 I iaeioi?uo iiiaioao, eanathueony iaoa?eaeueiie /anoe e oaeoeee
oaieiauo, aaeaoeeiiiuo e a?oeeea?eeneeo nee NNN? e Aa?iaiee …….

35

Ia eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee
…………………………………………………………… 35

I o?iioiaie aiiaa?aee?iai/iie e ooo?iiaie aaeaoeee
…………………… 38

I no?aoaae/aneie aaeaoeee
……………………………………………………………..
42

I oaieiauo aieneao
………………………………………………………………
………. 46

Ia a?oeeea?ee
………………………………………………………………
……………… 52

6.3 I «aeaaiie iunee» A. Noai?iaa
…………………………………………………… 53

6.4 I iiae/eiaiiie ?iee iai?iiu ii ioiioaieth e ianooieaieth
…………. 62

6.5 I iiaeeecaoeeiiiie aioiaiinoe niaaoneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ………….
64

6.6 Iniaaiiinoe ?aniieiaeaiey aiene E?aniie A?iee e eaoo 1941 a. ……
66

I?i 9-th a?ieth
………………………………………………………………
…………….. 66

Ia «oaea?iuo» a?ieyo
………………………………………………………………
……. 68

E aii?ino i «eeiee Noaeeia»
………………………………………………………… 72

I?i Ieineoth aiaiioth oeioeeeth
………………………………………………….. 74

6.7 Aoi?inoaiaiiua aeaoaee
………………………………………………………………
.. 75

I «?ac?ooaiee aa?uea?a iaeo?aeueiuo ainoaea?noa»
…………………………… 75

I?i 1 naioya?y 1939 a.
………………………………………………………………
….. 79

«Aeanoyuea oaaeaa?u» iiaeoaniaee
…………………………………………………. 80

E aii?ino i «oaeiie iiaeeecaoeee»
………………………………………………… 83

I «caiaea/iuo» iiia?ao niaaoneeo niaaeeiaiee
……………………………… 84

E aii?ino i aiaiiuo ai?iaeeao
……………………………………………………….. 85

Yeneo?n a eaeaieiaeth
………………………………………………………………
…….. 87

Aua ?ac ia eiaeono?eaeecaoeee
……………………………………………………….. 89

I «naeaeaoaeuenoaao nia?aiaiieeia»
……………………………………………….. 90

«Noaeei iaiaioe Aeoea?a»
…………………………………………………………….
91

I ia?eiiaoao aii?oaeaiey e aiai?eiania
……………………………………….. 92

6.8 Iauea auaiaeu
………………………………………………………………
……………. 94

6.9 Aeaeueiaeoay noaeueaa eiioeaioeee A. Noai?iaa
………………………………….. 94

7. Ianoaeaeaiea ?iee iaeioi?uo oaeoi?ia, iaoneiaeaoeo ii?aaeaiey E?aniie
A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu ………………..

96

8. Auaiaeu
………………………………………………………………
……………………………. 98

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u
……………………………………………………… 99

1. Aaaaeaiea

Eco/ay enoi?eth Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, enneaaeiaaoaeue i?aaeaea
anaai noaeeeaaaony n iaeeeai eioi?iaoeee. Caeanue ian ano?a/aao
«ecauoie» oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea. Aai noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeii aeeth/eoue
a nenoaio enneaaeiaaiey oeaeeeii, oae eae oiaaea iieo/eony oi, /oi a
eeaa?iaoeea iacuaaaony «ooiu». I?aaenoaaei naaa neaaeothuaa: a eiiiaoa
neaeyo ianeieueei /aeiaae, e aae?oa ana iaeiia?aiaiii ia/eiatho
aiai?eoue i naieo naiaeiuo aeaeao. A eoiaa iu ie/aai ia oneuoei e ie/aai
ia ociaai. Iaeeea oaeoia o?aaoao ecae?aoaeueiinoe. E oi/ii oae aea, eae
aeonoeee auae?atho eioa?anothuee eo caoe, iu aeieaeiu ioia?aoue oa
oaeou, eioi?ua ioaeiu aeey inaauaiey eca?aiiie oaiu – i?e/ei ii?aaeaiey
E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu.

Aii?in i i?e/eiao ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie Aieiu (1941 – 1942 aa.) aucuaae, aucuaaao e, aa?iyoii,
aoaeao aucuaaoue iiiai nii?ia naiiai ?acee/iiai oa?aeoa?a. E?iia oiai,
yoio aii?in /anoi noaiiaeony i?aaeiaoii ?aciiai ?iaea iieeoe/aneeo
niaeoeyoeee, aiieia anoanoaaiii, ia niinianoaothueo, a iaoathueo
auyaeaieth enoeiu.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa i?iaiaeeony aiaeec i?e/ei ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee ia
niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa a 1941 – 1942 aa.. Iniaia aieiaiea ia?auaii
ia e?eoe/aneee aiaeec iaeioi?uo oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo oi/ae c?aiey ii
aeaiiiio aii?ino. Cao?iioou oaeaea iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aii?inu,
eanathueany Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu Niaaoneiai Nithca.

2. Iiaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae aiththueo noi?ii i i?e/eiao ii?aaeaiee E?aniie
A?iee a ia/aea aieiu

E. A. Noaeei [1] iauyniye ii?aaeaiey E?aniie A?iee a ia/aea aieiu
neaaeothuei ia?acii. Ii auaeaeye iaoeee aa?anneaiua, no?aiyueany e
aiaiiiio ia?aaeaeo ie?a, e iaoeee ie?iethaeaua, eioi?ua ia oioyo aieiu.
Aa?anneaiua iaoeee, ieaie?oy aieio, ca?aiaa ia?aaiaeyo ana naia
oicyenoai ia aiaiiua ?aeuenu, ai iiiai ?ac oaaee/eaatho /eneaiiinoue
a?iee, ianuuatho aa iiaaeoae oaoieeie e a ?acoeueoaoa e ia/aeo aieiu
eiatho aioiaoth «a?ieth aoi?aeaiey», e any eo yeiiiieea ?aaioaao ia
ioaeaeu aieiu. Iaoeee ie?iethaeaua, a neeo naiaai no?aieaiey e ie?o, ia
iiaoo i?iaiaeeoue oioaeueioth iiaeeecaoeeth, e iiyoiio eo ia?u ii
iiaeaioiaea e aieia iinyo /anoe/iue oa?aeoa?, a ana oicyenoai a oeaeii
?aaioaao a ?aaeeia, i?eaeeaeaiiii e ?aaeeio ie?iiai a?aiaie. E ia/aeo
aieiu ie?iethaeaay iaoeey a eiaao eeoue «a?ieth i?ee?uoey iiaeeecaoeee»,
caaea/a eioi?ie – naea?aeeaaoue ianooieaiea a?aaa aei oao ii?, iiea
i?iaiaeeony iiaeeecaoeey a no?aia, noaaoae aea?oaie aa?annee. A ia/aea
aieiu iaecaaaeii ionooieaiea e iioa?y /anoe oa??eoi?ee, aneaaenoaea
i?aainoiaenoaa «a?iee aoi?aeaiey» iaae «a?ieae i?ee?uoey iiaeeecaoeee».
Eiiaaea e ia/aeo aieiu ie?iethaeaua iaoeee ia eiatho aeaaea
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie «a?iee i?ee?uoey iiaeeecaoeee», /oi i?eaiaeeo e
ii?aaeaieth a aieia.

Ae?oaie i?e/eiie ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee a ia/aea aieiu, ii iiaieth E.
A. Noaeeia, auea aeinoeaiooay iaiaoeeeie aieneaie iia?aoeaiay
aiacaiiinoue.

Aeoea? ia?aae iaiaaeaieai ia NNN? aue oaaaeaeai a i?aaeii?aaeaeaiiinoe
eiia/iiai ii?aaeaiey E?aniie A?iee. Aai noaeaeaiey ii iiaiaeo
«iaecaaaeiie» iiaaaeu Aa?iaiee iaae Niaaoneei Nithcii ia i?aaenoaaeytho
aeey ian eaeiai-eeai eioa?ana.

3. Iieiaeaiea a ie?a a 1939 – ia?aie iieiaeia 1941 a.

E eaoo 1941 aiaea aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee iiae/eiyeanue any Aa?iia, e?iia
A?eoaineeo ino?iaia. A Aa?iia o Aa?iaiee auee nithcieee (Eoaeey,
Eniaiey, Oeieyiaeey, Aaia?ey, ?oiuiey, Aieaa?ey), a inoaeueiua
aa?iiaeneea no?aiu (e?iia «iaeo?aeueiuo» Oaaeoea?ee e Oaaoeee) auee
caaiaaaiu. A nithca n Aa?iaieae ninoiyea e ssiiiey.

Aeieo aa?anni?ia i?ioeainoiyee 3 e?oiiuo aea?aeaau: NNN?, Aaeeeia?eoaiey
e NOA. Iaeiaei iaaeaeo yoeie o?aiy aea?aeaaaie nouanoaiaaee e?oiiua
i?ioeai?a/ey.

Ana i?aayuea e?oae Aaeeeia?eoaiee iianaeenue aieiu n Aa?iaieae, iaeiaei
o ieo ia auei aaeeiiai iiaiey ii iiaiaeo oiai, eaeei ia?acii ioa?aoeoue
aiaiioth oa?ico.

Iaeia /anoue a?eoaineiai ?oeiaiaenoaa n/eoaea iaiaoiaeeiui ia
aeiionoeoue aieiu e aeey yoiai ainnicaeaoue Aioaioo a?aiai Ia?aie
ie?iaie aieiu n Niaaoneei nithcii aianoi oea?neie ?innee. Iie ia aac
iniiaaiey iieaaaee, /oi i?e iaee/ee aiaiiiai nithca iaaeaeo NNN?,
O?aioeeae, Aaeeeia?eoaieae e no?aiaie, a?aie/aueie n Aa?iaieae, Aeoea?
ia ia/iao aieio, iioiio /oi oaeie nithc eiae au iiaeaaeythuaa aiaiiia e
yeiiiie/aneia i?aainoiaenoai iaae Aa?iaieae. Ai aeaaa yoie a?oiie?iaee
noiye Oeinoii *a?/eeeue.

Ae?oaay /anoue a?eoaineiai ?oeiaiaenoaa i?eaea?aeeaaeinue oie oi/ee
c?aiey, /oi aeey Aaeeeia?eoaiee i?aaenoaaeytho iianiinoue e aeoea?ianeay
Aa?iaiey, e Niaaoneee Nithc. Iie n/eoaee iaiaoiaeeiui iai?aaeoue
aa?anneth Aa?iaiee ia Niaaoneee Nithc, aeiaeoueny acaeiiiai enoiuaiey
aiththueo noi?ii e iioii i?iaeeeoiaaoue auaiaeiua oneiaey ie?a. Ai aeaaa
yoie a?oiie?iaee noiye i?aiuea?-ieieno? Aaeeeia?eoaiee Iaaeee *aiaa?eai.
Aiaoiyy iieeoeea Aaeeeia?eoaiee a ia?eiae n 1935 ii 1940 a.
ii?aaeaeyeanue yoie a?oiie?iaeie, a «/a?/eeeaaoeu» iaoiaeeeenue a
iiiiceoeee [14].

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ii aeaiiiio aii?ino ?anoiaeaeaiey a a?eoaineeo
i?aayueo e?oaao iineee ia /enoi iaaeia?oeeiue, a aieaa neiaeiue
oa?aeoa?. Oae, *aiaa?eai e *a?/eeeue ninoiyee a iaeiie ia?oee – a
eiina?aaoeaiie, a oi aea a?aiy aeaeiue aeayoaeue eeaa?aeueiie ia?oee
Eeieae Aeaei?aeae aue a iiaiee ii aeaiiiio aii?ino nieeaea?ai n
*a?/eeeai.

Aa?iaiey e ssiiiey ia i?aaenoaaeyee iianiinoe aeey nouanoaiaaiey
Niaaeeiaiiuo ooaoia Aia?eee aaeaeo eo aaia?aoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey.
I?aaeoaeuenoai NOA eioa?aniaaea ia?niaeoeaa ineaaeoue acaeiiie aieiie
ana aac eneeth/aiey aa?iiaeneea ainoaea?noaa e iinea aieiu caiyoue
ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea a Aa?iia. E?iia oiai, i/aiue aieueoea
i?eauee noeeee Niaaeeiaiiui ooaoai aiaiiua caeacu aiththueo aea?aeaa
(NNN?, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, ii, anoanoaaiii, ia Aa?iaiee).

Niaaoneee Nithc iaoiaeeeny a i/aiue iianiii iieiaeaiee – eiae nooiiooiua
a?aieoeu e n Aa?iaieae, e n ssiiieae, e iiyoiio iineaaeiaaoaeueii
i?iaiaeee iieeoeeo, iai?aaeaiioth ia i?aaeioa?auaiea aieiu. Iaeiaei
iineieueeo a i?aayueo e?oaao NOA e Aaeeeia?eoaiee aiciaeaaeaea eeiey ia
«noaeeeaaiea eaaie» NNN? e Aa?iaiee, yoa iieeoeea iioa?iaea iaoaea/o.

Oaeei ia?acii, e eaoo 1941 a. aeie aa?anni?ia caieiae ioaaouaathuaa
iieiaeaiea ii ioiioaieth e NNN?. N naaa?i-caiaaeiie noi?iiu
?aniieaaaeanue caaiaaaiiay Aa?iaieae Ii?aaaey e nithciay ae Oeieyiaeey,
n caiaaea – naia Aa?iaiey, caaiaaaiiay Iieueoa, nithciua Aaia?ey e
?oiuiey. Ni noi?iiu Eaaeaca ?aniieaaaeanue Oo?oeey. Iia ia aoiaeeea a
aeie aa?anni?ia, ii auea a?aaeaeaaii iano?iaia ii ioiioaieth e NNN?,
?ann/eouaay caaeaaeaoue aiaaouie iaooueth niaaoneeie oa??eoi?eyie. A
oiaea aieiu ia niaaoneie a?aieoea auei 26 iieiie?iaiuo oo?aoeeeo
aeeaecee [9]. Yoi noaaeei iiae oa?ico niaaaeaiea iaooueth a?iee e
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, o. e. iiaeaaeythuay a? /anoue aeiauaaeanue a oi a?aiy a
?aeiia Aaeo e ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca.

A E?aia, eioi?ue oaeaea a?aie/ee n Niaaoneei Eaaeacii, aaee aeoeaioth
aeayoaeueiinoue aa?iaineea niaoeneoaeau, iiaeaioaaeeaay ainoaea?noaaiiue
ia?aai?io. Yoi auei oaeaea i/aiue iianii aaeaeo oa?icu niaaoneei
iaooai?iiuneai. A eiioea aaaonoa 1941 a. aeey i?ana/aiey i?iaa?iaineiai
ia?aai?ioa a E?ai auee aaaaeaiu niaaoneea aienea [9]. Aaaaeaiea
niaaoneeo aiene a E?ai a oi a?aiy, eiaaea aiene ino?i ia oaaoaei e
E?aniay A?iey oa?iaea oyaeaeua ii?aaeaiey, iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
naeaeaoaeuenoai aaaeiinoe iieiaeaiey a E?aia n oi/ee c?aiey eioa?ania
NNN?.

C ainoi/iie noi?iiu, a Iaiue/aeo?ee, ?aniieaaaeanue yiiineay Eaaiooineay
A?iey, /eneaiiinoue eioi?ie i?aauoaea 1 ieeeeii /aeiaae. Iia auea
?acaa?iooa i?ioea NNN?.

A neiaeeaoaeny ianoaiiaea aeey aa?anni?ia auei au auaiaeii iaaaeeoueny
ia Niaaoneee Nithc n?aco ni anao noi?ii, eeoay aiciiaeiinoe ethaiai
iaiaa?e?iaaiey neeaie. A i?aaeaea iiaeii auei au ?ann/eouaaoue ia
iaiaaeaiea ia NNN? n 5 noi?ii: n naaa?a – Oeieyiaeey e Aa?iaiey (/a?ac
Ii?aaaeth), n caiaaea – Aa?iaiey n naoaeeeoaie, ni noi?iiu Eaaeaca –
Oo?oeey e E?ai, ni noi?iiu N?aaeiae Acee – /a?ac E?ai, e n thai-ainoiea
– ssiiiey. Iaeiaei iaiaaeaiea auei niaa?oaii oieueei n aeaoo noi?ii – n
naaa?a e n caiaaea.

A 1939 a. ssiiieae auei i?aaei?eiyoi ianooieaiea n oeaeueth caoaaoa
/anoe oa??eoi?ee Iiiaieee. Yoi ianooieaiea eii/eeinue i/aiue oyaeaeui
ii?aaeaieai e auyaeei ea/anoaaiiia i?aainoiaenoai E?aniie A?iee iaae
yiiineie. Neaaenoaeai yoiai noaei oi, /oi ?oeiaiaenoai ssiiiee ia/aei
neeiiyoueny e oiio, /oi ia neaaeoao iaiaaeaoue ia NNN?, a ioaeii ia/aoue
aieio ia Oeoii ieaaia [15,16]. Iaeiaei Eaaiooineay a?iey inoaeanue ia
ianoa ?acaa?iooie i?ioea NNN? e aa /eneaiiinoue ia oiaiueoeeanue, oae
eae aieio ia Oeoii ieaaia aeieaeai aue aanoe, eiia/ii, oeio, a ia
nooiiooiay a?iey. *eneaiiinoue nooiiooiuo aiene, o/anoaiaaaoeo a
iia?aoeeyo ia Oeoii ieaaia, auea ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoie (iaiaa 400 000
nieaeao e ioeoea?ia) [16]. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?oeiaiaenoai Aa?iaiee
oaaaeeeinue a neaainoe yiiineeo nooiiooiuo nee e iioa?yei aeiaa?ea e
ssiiiee. ssiiiey ia auea ca?aiaa iiiaauaia i iaiaaeaiee Aa?iaiee ia
NNN?.

Oo?oeey, aa?iyoii, ieaie?iaaea iaianoue ia NNN? ia n?aco, a iinea oiai,
eiaaea noaiao i/aaeaeiui ii?aaeaiea Niaaoneiai Nithca. Oae eee eia/a,
oiae aiaauo aeaenoaee iinea iaiaaeaiey Aa?iaiee ia NNN? canoaaee
oo?aoeeia i?aaeoaeuenoai aanoe naay i/aiue inoi?iaeii.

Oaeei ia?acii, oiaeia i?eiaiaiea ia?aie/aiiuo nee E?aniie A?iee a
Iiiaieee, a oaeaea oniaoe niaaoneie aeeieiiaoee iicaieeee
i?aaeioa?aoeoue iaeiia?aiaiiia iaiaaeaiea ia NNN? Aa?iaiee e ssiiiee.

E eaoo 1941 aiaea ia noi?iia aa?anni?ia aue cia/eoaeueiue ia?aaan a
i?iiuoeaiiie iaeanoe, eae a iauai?iiuoeaiiii, oae e a aiaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeaiiua ca 1940 a.: NNN? aeiauaae oaey 165,9 iei. oiii, auieaaeye noaee
18,3 iei. oiii. Aa?iaiey aeiauaaea oaey 257,4 iei. oiii (n nithcieeaie
439 iei. oiii), auieaaeyea noaee 19 iei. oiii (n ieeoie?iaaiiuie
no?aiaie, ii aac nithcieeia – 31,8 iei. o.). Aiaiiia i?iecaiaenoai a
Aa?iaiee (aac nithcieeia e ieeoie?iaaiiuo no?ai, 1941): aieaa 11000
naiieaoia, 5200 oaieia e a?iiaiaoei, aieaa 7000 i?oaeee eaeea?a 75 ii e
auoa, ieiei 1,7 iei. ea?aaeiia, aeioiaie e aaoiiaoia [8,9]. Aiaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai a NNN? (1/1/1939 – 22/VI/1941): naiieaou 17745 (ec ieo
3719 naiieaoia iiauo ia?acoeia), oaiee i?eia?ii 7000 (ec ieo 1861 – O-34
e EA), a?oeeea?eeneeo noaieia 29837 (ethaiai eaeea?a, a o. /. ieaea 75
ii, aeeth/ay i?ioeaioaieiaua) [8].

4. ?aniieiaeaiea aiene noi?ii ii ninoiyieth ia 21 ethiy 1941 a.

E 22 ethiy 1941 a. a ?yaeao Niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo nee ian/eouaaeinue
ieiei 5 iei. /aeiaae, a aa?iaineeo (aac nithcieeia e naoaeeeoia) 8,5
iei. /aeiaae.

Aeey iaiaaeaiey ia Niaaoneee Nithc auee nin?aaeioi/aiu aienea a
eiee/anoaa 5,5 iei. /aeiaae, aieaa 50 ouny/ i?oaeee e ieiiiaoia, 4300
oaieia, ieiei 5000 aiaauo naiieaoia.

A i?ea?aie/iuo ie?oaao e oeioao NNN? eiaeinue 2,9 ieeeeiia nieaeao e
ioeoea?ia, 38 ouny/ i?oaeee e ieiiiaoia, ieiei 8 ouny/ oaieia, ec ieo
1475 oaieia O-34 e EA, aieaa 7 ouny/ naiieaoia, ec ieo ieiei 1500
naiieaoia iiauo oeiia e inoaeueiua – noa?uo [7,8,15].

Ii oaieai niioiioaiea nee iiaeao auoue ioeaiaii eae iacia/eoaeueiia
i?aainoiaenoai NNN?, oae eae oaiee O-34 e EA neeueii i?aainoiaeeee
iaiaoeeea ia?acoeu. Noa?ua niaaoneea iaoeiu auee ooaea iaiaoeeeo e eiaee
e?aeia ia?aie/aiiua iioi?ano?nu, o. a. auee ii/oe i?aaeaeueii eciioaiu.
(Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai yoeo iaoei auei iioa?yii a ia?aua aeie
aieiu, i?e/ai iiiaea ec ieo – ia a aiyo. Eo a?inaee aneaaenoaea
iaeni?aaiinoae eee ?acae?aee ia caianiua /anoe aeey ?aiiioa inoaaoeony
iaoei).

Ii aaeaoeee. Ec i?eia?ii 1,5 oun. iiauo naiieaoia: aieueoay /anoue
eno?aaeoaeae auea ?aaia ii ea/anoaai iaiaoeeei (EAAA-3, ssE-1),
iaeioi?ua ooaea (IeA-3), oaeoe/aneea aiiaa?aee?iaueee ianeieueei eo/oa,
a ooo?iiaeee – iaiiiai eo/oa iaiaoeeeo. Noa?ua naiieaou eaoano?ioe/anee
onooiaee iaiaoeeei e eiaee i/aiue ia?aie/aiiua iioi?ano?nu. A
eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee eoaea aieueoaa cia/aiea, /ai a ae?oaeo aeaeao
aaeaoeee e ?iaeao aiene, eiaao aiaaie iiuo eaoiiai ninoaaa. A yoii
ioiioaiee iaiaoeeay eno?aaeoaeueiay aaeaoeey cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeeea
niaaoneoth, a aa ninoaaa auei aieueoia eiee/anoai ania. O/eouaay yoi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, i?eoiaeei e auaiaeo, /oi iaiaoeeay aaeaoeey,
aaconeiaii, iiaea auno?i caoaaoeoue ainiiaenoai a aicaeooa e i?i/ii aai
oaea?aeaoue. Iiyoiio aa?iaineia i?aainoiaenoai a aaeaoeee neaaeoao
?anoeaieaaoue eae iiaeaaeythuaa.

Eiee/anoai a?oeeea?ee e ieiiiaoia a aa?iaineeo aieneao i?aainoiaeeei
niaaoneee iieacaoaeue i?eia?ii ia 30%. A ea/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee iie auee
i?eia?ii ?aaiu. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a a?oeeea?ee e ieiiiaoao niioiioaiea
nee iiaeao auoue ioeaiaii eae ia?aie/aiiia i?aainoiaenoai Aa?iaiee.

Ec /enea 2,9 ieeeeiia nieaeao e ioeoea?ia a caiaaeiuo ie?oaao 800 ouny/
auei i?ecaaii a iaa 1941 a. [8] e e 22 ethiy iaoiaeeeinue a no?ith iaiaa
ianyoea. I?aaaea, i?ecaaiu auee ?aca?aenou, o. a. ?aiaa neoaeeaoea a
a?iee. Iaeiaei aac i?eiaiaiey eo ciaiey e iaauee auno?i oa?yeenue, e eo
ioaeii auei o/eoue i?aeoe/anee caiiai. E oiio aea eo iiaeaioiaea eiaea
ianoi aeaaii, e ia niioaaonoaiaaea oaoie/aneiio ninoiyieth a?iee e eaoo
1941 a., /oi o?aaiaaei eo ia?ao/eaaiey. Ii e iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
inoaeueiuo nieaeao e ioeoea?ia ia eiaee ieeaeiai aiaaiai iiuoa. A
aa?iaineea iaoioiua /anoe eiaee naiue ?aciiia?aciue aiaaie iiuo – io
Iieueneie eaiiaiee aei iia?aoeee ia Aaeeaiao. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aa?iaineay iaoioa ii iiuoo e auo/ea i?aainoiaeeea niaaoneoth.

E a aa?iaineie, e a niaaoneie a?ieyo iniiaiay ianna iaoioeioeaa auea
aii?oaeaia aeioiaeaie. Iaeiaei, aaoiiaoia a iaiaoeeeo aieneao auei
iaiiiai aieueoa, /ai a niaaoneeo. I?e yoii aaoiiaoaie aii?oaeaeanue a
iniiaiii iioi?eciaaiiay iaoioa, aeanaioiua /anoe, a oaeaea eo/oea
iaoioiua iiae?acaeaeaiey. Eae iieacae iiuo aieiu, yoe /anoe iaaycuaaee
niaaoneie iaoioa aeeaeiee aie, aaea i?aainoiaenoai aaoiiaoe/aneiai
i?oaeey e eo/oay auo/ea aeaaaee iaiaoeeei aieneai ia?iiiia i?aeiouanoai.
*eneaiiinoue iaiaoeeie iaoiou a 2 ?aca i?aainoiaeeea /eneaiiinoue
niaaoneie. Oaeei ia?acii, i?aainoiaenoai aa?anni?a a iaoioa neaaeoao
i?eciaoue iiaeaaeythuei.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?e iacia/eoaeueiii ia?aaana niaaoneeo aiene ii oaieai e
ia?aie/aiiii ia?aaana iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo aiene – ii a?oeeea?ee,
aa?anni? eiae iiaeaaeythuaa i?aainoiaenoai a iaoioa e a aaeaoeee. Naiuie
neaauie o aa?anni?a auee oaieiaua aienea. A aaaeue eiaiii ia ieo
aeoea?iaoeu aeaeaee aeaaioth noaaeo! Eo /eneaiiay e ea/anoaaiiay (a
niunea ea/anoaa iaoa?eaeueiie /anoe) neaainoue auea iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
oaeoi?ia, iaoneiaeaoeo i?iaae ieaia «Aa?aa?inna».

Iaeiaei a oeaeii aienea aoi?aeaiey aa?anni?a i?aainoiaeeee niaaoneea
aienea i?ea?aie/iuo ie?oaia e a eiee/anoaaiiii, e a ea/anoaaiiii
ioiioaieyo.

Ieaea i?eaaaeaia ?annoaiiaea nee aeiea aa?anni?ia ai aeaaa n Aa?iaieae e
Niaaoneiai Nithca [8,15,20].

(*eoay ?annoaiiaeo nee, neaaeoao eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi aeeaecey aa?anni?a
ii /eneaiiinoe ee/iiai ninoaaa e aii?oaeaiey a n?aaeiai ?aaiyeanue 2
niaaoneei.)

E?AEIEE NAAA?.

Aa?anni?u. Ia naaa?a Ii?aaaee aeeneioee?iaaeanue aa?iaineay a?iey
“Ii?aaaey” – 5 aeeaecee. Yoa a?oiia auea iaoeaeaia ia Io?iaine. THaeiaa
yoie a?iee ia i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo nio eeeiiao?ia e?oiiuo a?oiie?iaie
aiene ia auei. Aeaeaa oee 2 oeineea a?iee: Ea?aeueneay a?iey (i?ioea
Iao?icaaiaenea) e THai-Ainoi/iay A?iey (i?ioea Eaieia?aaea). Anaai a
yoeo 2-x a?ieyo ian/eouaaeinue 16 aeeaecee. Eoiai ia o?iioa io
Eaaeiaeoiai Ieaaia aei Oeineiai Caeeaa ian/eouaaeanue 21 a?aaeaneay
aeeaecey. Eo aeaenoaey iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue n aicaeooa aa?iaineei 5-ui
aicaeooiui oeioii, ian/eouaathuei 900 naiieaoia.

Niaaoneea aienea. Anth iieino io Eaaeiaeoiai Ieaaia aei Oeineiai Caeeaa
caieiae Eaieia?aaeneee Aiaiiue ie?oa. A ninoaaa ie?oaa eiaeinue 3 a?iee:
7- y, 14-y, 23-y. A eo ninoaaa iaoiaeeeinue 21 aeeaecey e 1 ioaeaeueiay
a?eaaaea. *enei aeeaecee auei ?aaiui, ii niaaoneay aeeaecey auea
/eneaiii aaeaia neaaaa aa?iaineie e aieaa /ai aaeaia – oeineie.

NAAA?I-CAIAAeIIA IAI?AAEAIEA.

Aa?anni?u. Aeeneioee?iaaeanue a?oiia a?iee “Naaa?” iiae eiiaiaeiaaieai
aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oaea A. oii Eaaaa. A a? ninoaaa iaoiaeeeinue 2 a?iee –
16-y e 18-y, e oaea?iay a?oiie?iaea – 4-y oaieiaay a?oiia (eiiaiaeothuee
aaia?ae-iieeiaiee A. Aio) – anaai 29 aeeaecee (23 iaoioiuo, 3 oaieiauo,
3 iioi?eciaaiiuo). Aeaenoaey a?oiiu a?iee iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue n aicaeooa
1-i aicaeooiui oeioii (1070 naiieaoia). Iaoeaeaia auea ia Eaieia?aae.

Niaaoneea aienea. Iooue a?oiia a?iee “Naaa?” i?aa?aaeaeae I?eaaeoeeneee
iniaue aiaiiue ie?oa (eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae-iieeiaiee O. E. Eociaoeia) –
2 a?iee: 8-y e 11-y. A eo ninoaaa iaoiaeeeinue 25 aeeaecee, a oii /enea
19 no?aeeiauo, 4 oaieiaua, 2 iioino?aeeiauo, e 1 ioaeaeueiay no?aeeiaay
a?eaaaea.

CAIAAeIIA IAI?AAEAIEA.

Aa?anni?u. Caeanue auea nin?aaeioi/aia iaeaieaa iiuiay aa?iaineay a?oiia
a?iee “Oeaio?” (eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oae O. oii Aie),
iaoeaeaiiay i?yii ia Iineao. A a? ninoaaa eiaeinue 2 a?iee – 4-y e 9-y,
e 2 oaea?iua a?oiie?iaee: 3-y oaieiaay a?oiia (eiiaiaeothuee
aaia?ae-iieeiaiee Y. A?iiia?) e 2-y oaieiaay a?oiia (eiiaiaeothuee
aaia?ae-iieeiaiee A. Aoaea?eai) – anaai 50 aeeaecee (35 iaoioiuo, 9
oaieiauo, 6 iioi?eciaaiiuo) e 2 a?eaaaeu. Aeaenoaey a?oiiu a?iee
iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue n aicaeooa 2-i aicaeooiui oeioii (1670 naiieaoia).

Niaaoneea aienea. Caiaaeiue iniaue aiaiiue ie?oa (eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae
a?iee Ae. A. Iaaeia) – 3 a?iee – 3-y, 4-y, 10-y. Eiae a naiai ninoaaa
44 aeeaecee, a oii /enea 24 no?aeeiaua, 12 oaieiauo, 6 iioino?aeeiauo, 2
eaaaea?eeneea.

THAI-CAIAAeIIA IAI?AAEAIEA.

Aa?anni?u. A?oiia a?iee “THa” (eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oae A.
oii ?oiaeooaaeo). Ninoaaeaia auea ii i?eioeeio “n ai?o ii ninaiea”.
Aeaaiay e iaeaieaa iiuiay a?oiie?iaea auea ia eaaii (aeey iaioeaa)
oeaiaa – 2 a?iee: 6-y e 17-y, e 1-y oaieiaay a?oiia (eiiaiaeothuee
aaia?ae-iieeiaiee Y. oii Eeaeno), iaoeaeaia auea ia Eeaa. THaeiaa:
aaiaa?neea aienea, 3-y ?oiuineay a?iey, 11-y a?iey (aa?iaineay), 4-y
?oiuineay a?iey. Aienea naoaeeeoia Aa?iaiee, iiaeao auoue, iaeuecy
iacuaaoue neaauie, ii iie a ea/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee ia oee ie a eaeia
n?aaiaiea n aa?iaineeie. Ia?aae ieie noiyee aoi?inoaiaiiua
ianooiaoaeueiua caaea/e. Anaai a ninoaaa a?oiiu a?iee “THa”
ian/eouaaeinue 57 aeeaecee (48 iaoioiuo, 5 oaieiauo, 4 iioi?eciaaiiuo) e
13 a?eaaae. Iiaeaea?aeea n aicaeooa: 4-e aicaeooiue oeio (1300
naiieaoia).

Niaaoneea aienea. 2 aiaiiuo ie?oaa – Eeaaneee iniaue e Iaeanneee.

Eeaaneee iniaue aiaiiue ie?oa (eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae-iieeiaiee I. I.
Ee?iiiin) – 4 a?iee: 5-y, 6-y, 12-y, 26-y. A eo ninoaaa auei 58
aeeaecee, a oii /enea 32 no?aeeiaua, 16 oaieiauo, 8 iioino?aeeiauo, 2
eaaaea?eeneea.

Iaeanneee aiaiiue ie?oa (eiiaiaeothuee aaia?ae-eaeoaiaio ss. O.
*a?aae/aiei) – iaeia a?iey (9-y). A ninoaaa ie?oaa auei 22 aeeaecee: 13
no?aeeiauo, 4 oaieiauo, 2 iioino?aeeiauo, 3 eaaaea?eeneea.

Aa?iaineia eiiaiaeiaaiea eiaei ?aca?a: 24 aeeaecee (21 iaoioiay, 2
oaieiaua, 1 iioi?eciaaiiay).

Ec /enea 149 aeeaecee e 1 a?eaaaeu 4 caiaaeiuo i?ea?aie/iuo ie?oaia 48
aeeaecee aoiaeeee a ninoaa ia?aiai yoaeiia a?iee i?ee?uoey e auee
?aniieiaeaiu io a?aieoeu ia 10 – 50 eeeiiao?ia (no?aeeiaua aeeaea,
oaieiaua aeaeueoa). Aeaaiua neeu i?ea?aie/iuo ie?oaia ?aniieaaaeenue a
80-300 eeeiiao?ia io a?aieoeu.

I/aaeaeii, /oi neeueiaeoay, eae a eiee/anoaaiiii, oae e a ea/anoaaiiii
ioiioaiee a?oiie?iaea aiene auea nicaeaia Niaaoneei eiiaiaeiaaieai ia
THai-Caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee. Aa?iaineei eiiaiaeiaaieai, iai?ioea, aeaaiay
a?oiie?iaea auea nin?aaeioi/aia ia Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii e Caiaaeiii
iai?aaeaieyo.

Nouanoaoao oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oi/ea c?aiey, /oi nin?aaeioi/aiea
Niaaoneei eiiaiaeiaaieai aeaaiie a?oiie?iaee aiene ia THai-Caiaaeiii
iai?aaeaiee auei aieueoie ioeaeie. A nayce n yoei iaiaoiaeeii
?anniio?aoue yoio aii?in iiae?iaii.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, n oi/ee c?aiey oi?iaeueiiai iia?aoeaiiai eneonnoaa
oaeia ?aniieiaeaiea aiene auei iai?aaeeueiui, oae eae aeaaiay
a?oiie?iaea aa?iaineeo aiene ?aniieaaaeanue cia/eoaeueii naaa?iaa. A
ia?aua aeie aieiu, iniaaiii iinea ie?oaeaiey aieueoie /anoe nee
Caiaaeiiai o?iioa, yoi neeueii ineiaeieei iieiaeaiea e i?eaaei e iioa?a
aieueoie oa??eoi?ee – Aaei?onnee, Eeoau, Eaoaee, /anoe Ineianeie,
Eaeeieineie e Niieaineie iaeanoae.

Iaeiaei, neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue aiciiaeiia ?acaeoea niauoee a oii neo/aa,
anee au aeaaiay a?oiie?iaea niaaoneeo aiene auea ?aniieiaeaia ia
caiaaeiii no?aoaae/aneii iai?aaeaiee. Ecaanoii, /oi aeaaiay a?oiie?iaea
aeoea?iaoeaa auea nicaeaia ia caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee ia a iineaaeithth
i/a?aaeue e iioiio, /oi auei onoaiiaeaii nin?aaeioi/aiea iaeaieaa
neeueiie a?oiie?iaee E?aniie A?iee ia ae?oaii iai?aaeaiee
(THai-Caiaaeiii). Yoi naeaeaee aeey oiai, /oiau aeinoe/ue ia yoii
iai?aaeaiee ?aoathuaai oniaoa, a oi a?aiy eae a?oiia a?iee «THa» aoaeao
a?iieoue THai-Caiaaeiue e THaeiue o?iiou, ia aeaaay ia?aa?anuaaoue
aienea ia caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea. Aeoaeia ianooiaoaeueiie caaea/e a?oiiu
a?iee «THa» ia ia?aii yoaia ieaia «Aa?aa?inna» auea a 2 ?aca iaiueoa,
/ai o a?oii a?iee «Naaa?» e «Oeaio?», oae eae nii?ioeaeaiea ia?aae
a?oiiie iaeeaeaeinue aieaa neeueiia (ia ia?aii yoaia aeaaiie caaea/ae
a?oiiu a?iee «Naaa?» aue caoaao Eaieia?aaea, a?oiiu «Oeaio?» – caoaao
Iineau, a?oiiu «THa» – caoaao Eeaaa. ?annoiyiea io a?aieoeu aei Iineau
aaeaia aieueoa, /ai io a?aieoeu aei Eeaaa.)

Anee au aeaaiay a?oiie?iaea E?aniie A?iee auea nin?aaeioi/aia ia
caiaaeiii no?aoaae/aneii iai?aaeaiee, oi ii/oe iao niiiaiee a oii, /oi
oaeia nin?aaeioi/aiea auei au onoaiiaeaii aa?iaineie ?acaaaeeie. A
iieueco oaeiai i?aaeiieiaeaiey aiai?eo oi, /oi aa?iaineay ?acaaaeea a
iniiaiii aa?ii onoaiiaeea ?aniieiaeaiea aiene a caiaaeiuo ie?oaao.
Caeanue, aa?iyoii, iaiaeiaaaeioth ?ieue nua?ae oio oaeo, /oi a 1939 a. e
NNN? auea i?eniaaeeiaia aieueoay oa??eoi?ey, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoay aei yoiai
Iieueoa, a oaeaea Eeoaa, Eaoaey e Ynoiiey, aaea auei iiiai aa?iaineie
aaaioo?u, a n?aaee aeeoaeae auee neeueiu aioeniaaoneea iano?iaiey.

A oaeii neo/aa n aieueoie aeieae aa?iyoiinoe iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
aeaaiay aeoea?ianeay a?oiie?iaea auea au nin?aaeioi/aia ia
thai-caiaaeiii, a ia ia caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

Oe?aeia eiaea aeey NNN? eoaea aieueoaa cia/aiea, /ai Aaei?onney, Eaoaey,
Eeoaa e iieinea caiaaeiie /anoe ?NON?. Ainoi/iay /anoue Oe?aeiu auea
iaeiei ec aeaoo aeaaiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiia no?aiu. Caeanue iaoiaeeeny
E?eai?iaeneee aeaeaci?oaeiue aannaei, Aeiiaoeeee oaieueiue aannaei e
iiuiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ie/aai iiaeiaiiai ia auei a Aaei?onnee, Eeoaa e
Eaoaee. Oe?aeia eiaea aieueoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiia cia/aiea, /ai
Aaei?onney, Eeoaa e Eaoaey. Iaeuecy caauaaoue e oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
oa??eoi?ey Oe?aeiu (?iaiua noaie) auea aieaa oaeiaia aeey aeaenoaee
e?oiiuo oaieiauo niaaeeiaiee, /ai oa??eoi?ey Aaei?onnee (eana, aieioa).
Cia/eoaeueii aieueoaa cia/aiea aeey NNN? Oe?aeiu iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
noaoenoeea aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Caoaao aeoea?iaoeaie a ethea 1941 a.
Aaei?onnee, Eeoau, Eaoaee e /anoe oa??eoi?ee ?NON? ia iiiaoae niaaoneiio
aiaiiiio i?iecaiaenoao aeiaieueii auno?i ?anoe, a iioa?y Niaaoneei
Nithcii a ieoya?a-iiya?a 1941 a. E?eai?iaeuey, Oa?ueeiaa e aieueoae
/anoe Aeiiaanna i?eaae e eaoano?ioe/aneiio iaaeaieth aiaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. Oaeei ia?acii, caueoo Oe?aeiu neaaeiaaei iaania/eoue a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue.

Iiaeii niaei ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aac nin?aaeioi/aiey nee E?aniie A?iee
i?aeiouanoaaiii ia thai-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee iieiaeaiea Niaaoneiai
Nithca ieacaeinue au aua ooaeoei, /ai eiaei ianoi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aa?iaineie ?acaaaeeie aue niaa?oai i?in/ao a ioeaiea ?aca?aia,
iaoiaeyueony ai aioo?aiieo aiaiiuo ie?oaao NNN?. Iinea aaiaea a
n?aaeaiea a iniiaiii ia caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee yoeo «ia iaia?oaeaiiuo»
?aca?aia i?iaeaeaeaiea a?oiiu a?iee «Oeaio?» auei neeueii caaea?aeaii.
THai-Caiaaeiue o?iio oaeaea iiian iaiaeua iioa?e, ii ia aue, a ioee/ea
io Caiaaeiiai o?iioa, ie ie?oaeai, ie ?acaeo, e aue ioa?ioai io a?aieoeu
ia cia/eoaeueii iaiueoaa ?annoiyiea, /ai Caiaaeiue o?iio. Aa?iaineea
aienea eiaee aiciiaeiinoue nia?aoue ana neeu a oeaio?, nie?ooeoue
iai?iio niaaoneeo aiene o Niieainea e i?iaeieaeeoue ianooieaiea ia
Iineao. Noi?iiieeii oaeiai oaaa aue A. Aoaea?eai [8]. Iaeiaei aa?iaineia
eiiaiaeiaaiea ia yoi ia ?aoeeinue, oae eae ana aieaa aic?anoaea oa?ica
oaea?a THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa ai oeaia e oue a?oiiu a?iee “Oeaio?”. 30
ethey 1941 a. aeoea?ianeia eiiaiaeiaaiea auioaeaeaii auei inoaiiaeoue
ianooieaiea ia Iineao e ana naie oaea?iua, oaieiaua e iiaeaeaeiua /anoe
a?ineee i?ioea THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa. THai-Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea
oaia?ue noaei aeaaiui aeey iaioeaa, oi anoue niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea
oaea oiaaea, eaoii 1941 a., noiaei iaaycaoue naith aieth i?ioeaieeo!
Ae?oaia aeaei, /oi ec-ca ioeaie aa?oiaiiai eiiaiaeiaaiey THai-Caiaaeiue
o?iio aue ie?oaeai e ?acaeo. Ii yoi oaea ia eiaao ioiioaiey e aeiaiaiiie
?annoaiiaea nee.

Oae /oi ?aoaiea i nin?aaeioi/aiee eaoii 1941 a. naiie e?oiiie
a?oiie?iaee E?aniie A?iee auea ia thai-caiaaeiii no?aoaae/aneii
iai?aaeaiee, auei niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueiui.

5. Oiae aiaauo aeaenoaee ia niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa a 1941-1942 aa.
e aai

aiaeec

5.1 Ia/aei aieiu

Aa?iaineea aii?oae?iiua neeu i?e iaiaaeaiee ia NNN? 22 ethiy 1941 a.
noiaee aeinoeaiooue iia?aoeaiie aiacaiiinoe. A ia?aue aea aeaiue aieiu
auei oie/oiaeaii 1200 naiie?oia, 900 ec eioi?uo auei oie/oiaeaii i?yii
ia ay?iae?iiao, i?e/ai yoi auee a iniiaiii iiaua, eo/oea naiie?ou [11].
Ca ianeieueei /ania aei iaiaaeaiey aeeaa?neiiiua a?oiiu ia?a?acaee ai
iiiaeo i?iaiaeioth naycue n aieneaie. Yoi i?eaaei e iioa?a oi?aaeaiey
iiiaeie niaaeeiaieyie, eioi?ua, a oii /enea e ii yoie i?e/eia, /anoi
noaiiaeeenue e?aeie aeiau/ae i?ioeaieea.

Iia?aoeaiue oniao aa?iaooa iaicia/eeny n?aco e i/aiue ?aoeoaeueii. 26
ethiy aue acyo Aeaoaaaieen, 28 ethiy, ia oanoie aeaiue aieiu – Ieine
(ieiei 350 eeeiiao?ia io a?aieoeu), 9 ethey – AEeoiie?, 16 ethey –
Niieaine. THaeiaa Niieainea aue caoaa/ai ai?iae Aeueiy n ie?anoiinoyie
(«Aeueieineee aunooi»), ioeoaea aei Iineau inoaaaeinue ia aieaa 250 ei.
Iaeiaei n ia/aea ethey oaiiu i?iaeaeaeaiey aa?iaineeo aiene noaee ?acei
iaaeaoue, a iioa?e ?anoe. Anee aeey oiai, /oiau i?ieoe 350 eeeiiao?ia io
a?aieoeu aei Ieinea, ei iio?aaiaaeinue 6 aeiae, oi aeey oiai, /oiau
i?ieoe neaaeothuea 300 eeeiiao?ia io Ieinea aei Niieainea,
iio?aaiaaeinue 18 aeiae. A oeaeii ?yaea neo/aaa aa?iaineea aienea
ia/eiaee i?iaeaeaaoueny eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea niaaoneea aienea naie
ionooiaee. E eiioeo ethey 1941 a. ieii/aoaeueii auynieeinue, /oi ieai
«Aa?aa?inna» ieacaeny ia?aaeueiui, aeoea?iaoeu ia niiaee aeiaeoueny
?aoathuaai oniaoa ie ia iaeiii ec o??o iai?aaeaiee, an? aieaa e aieaa
aoyaeaaynue a caoyaeiua aie. A?iiaaeiue aic iaoanoaey ii eia?oeee au?
eaoeeny aia??ae, ii yoi auei oaea ia ieaiiia?iia no?aieoaeueiia
i?iaeaeaeaiea ii anaio o?iioo, a noaei?iaeiua ?uaee oi a iai?aaeaiee
Eaieia?aaea, oi a ieaeiai oa/aiee Aeiai?a. Oieueei ca ia?aua 3 iaaeaee
aieiu aa?iaineea aienea iioa?yee 100 ouny/ /aeiaae, ieiei 1000
naiieaoia, iieiaeio anaai eiee/anoaa oaieia (ii?yaeea 2000) [8].
Au?o/aei iaioeaa eeoue oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iiaeaeoua oaiee
inoaaaeenue a eo ?oeao, e eo iiaeii auei ?aiiioe?iaaoue.

5.2 I?iaae «aeeoee?eaa»

Ia eiiaoe ethey – ia/aei aaaonoa 1941 a. iieiaeaiea ia o?iioao
auaeyaeaei oaeei ia?acii [8]:

Eaieia?aaeneee o?iio. Caeanue aie eiaee ianoiia cia/aiea. Ia ioaeaeueiuo
o/anoeao oeineea e iaiaoeei-oaoenoneea aienea i?iaeaeioeenue aei 100
eeeiiao?ia.

Naaa?i-Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea. Ca ia?aue ianyoe aieiu aa?iaineea aienea
caoaaoeee Eeoao, Eaoaeth, /anoue oa??eoi?ee Ynoiiee e Ineianeie iaeanoe.
Iaeiaei ana iiiuoee i?i?uaa e Eaieia?aaeo auee ioaeou n aieueoeie aeey
ieo iioa?yie. Oieueei a aaaonoa, iieo/ea cia/eoaeueiia oneeaiea, a?oiia
a?iee «Naaa?» i?iaeieaeeea ianooieaiea ia Eaieia?aae. Ii oaia?ue
eaaeaeue oaa aeaaea iaaeeaiiiai i?iaeaeaeaiey aeaaaeny n o?oaeii. Oaii
ianooieaiey ninoaaeye ia aieaa 5 eeeiiao?ia a nooee. Aanue aaaono oea
oii?iay iai?iia Oaeeeia e aeaaiie aacu Aaeoeeneiai oeioa. Eeoue a
naioya?a 1941 a. ii i?eeaco Noaaee Aa?oiaiiai Aeaaiieiiaiaeiaaiey aue
inoaaeai Oaeeei.

Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea. Caeanue iaiaoeeea aienea e eiioeo ethey auee
i?i/ii inoaiiaeaiu ia ?oaaaea Aaeeeea Eoee – ss?oeaai – E?e/aa –
AEeiaei. Niaaoneea /anoe, ie?oaeaiiua caiaaeiaa Niieainea, auee
aeaaeiee?iaaiu e auaaaeaiu ec “eioea”. THaeiaa Niieainea aeoaiei
aaeaaaeny a ?aniieiaeaiea niaaoneie iai?iiu Aeueieineee aunooi
i?ioeaieea. A oueo /anoae Caiaaeiiai o?iioa aue ?acaa?ioo ?aca?aiue
o?iio.

Iieanneea aieioa. Caeanue iaaeaeo aeaoiy eeeiueyie, ia?aciaaiiuie
iaiaoeeeie aieneaie: aei Eeaaa e aei Niieainea, aea?aeaea iai?iio 5-y
a?iey aaia?ae-iaei?a Iioaiiaa. Aa?iaineea /anoe eeoue i/aiue iaaeeaiii
auaeaaeeaaee a? ia ainoie. Caeanue ia?aciaaeny ?ac?ua iaaeaeo oeaiaaie
a?oii a?iee “Oeaio?” e “THa”.

THai-Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea. Ia noiaa caoaaoeoue Eeaa, niaaeeiaiey 1-e
oaieiaie a?oiiu ia?aoee a ianooieaiea a iauai iai?aaeaiee ia tha e
thai-ainoie, a?iiy n oeaiaa e n ouea niaaoneee THaeiue o?iio,
iai?iiyaoeeny ia?aae ?oiuii-iaiaoeeeie aieneaie, e iaoeaeeaaynue ia
E?ui. Caeanue i?iaeaeaeaiea aa?iaineeo aiene iiea eeieoe?iaaeinue a
iniiaiii aeinoaaeie ai?th/aai. Caiaaeiaa aea Eeaaa o?iio
noaaeeece?iaaeny.

Aeaaea aa?iaineia eiiaiaeiaaiea noaei iiieiaoue: iioa?e aaeeee, ii
?acoeueoaoai ieeae ia niioaaonoaiaaee. Oioy aienea ia ioaeaeueiuo
iai?aaeaieyo au? i?iaeaeaaeenue, ieai aieiu aue ni?aai. A neiaeeaoaeny
ianoaiiaea aeoea?ianeia ?oeiaiaenoai auioaeaeaii auei ia?aniao?eaaoue
ana naie ieaiu ia aoaeouaa, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aiaiiua ieaiu. Aaaono
1941 a. aioae a enoi?eth eae a?aiy e?ecena a aunoai ?oeiaiaenoaa
aa?iaooa. Iiiany i/aiue aieueoea (ii?yaeea 250 oun. /aeiaae) iioa?e a
Niieaineii n?aaeaiee, 30 ethey i?ioeaiee auioaeaeai aue ia?aeoe caeanue
e iai?iia. Auei ?aoaii i?iaeieaeeoue ianooieaiea a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo –
aeey caoaaoa Eaieia?aaea e niaaeeiaiey n oeiiaie e aeey caoaaoa Oe?aeiu,
Aeiiaanna e ioe?uoey aei?iae ia Eaaeac. Ii caaa?oaiee yoiai
i?aaeiieaaaeinue ia/aoue ianooieaiea ia Iineao ii o??i noiaeyueiny
iai?aaeaieyi: n naaa?i-caiaaea, caiaaea e thai-caiaaea.

Caaea/a niaaoneiai eiiaiaeiaaiey a yoi a?aiy caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oiau
aia?aiy onoaiiaeoue iai?aaeaiea aeaeueiaeoeo oaea?ia i?ioeaieea e
iai?a?o aeoea?iaoeaa i?ioeaiiinoaaeoue naie iai?a?. I?e yoii ethaia
i?iiaaeeaiea e oai aieaa i?in/?o iia au? aieaa oooaeoeoue iieiaeaiea
Niaaoneiai Nithca, o. e. a ?oeao i?ioeaieea iaoiaeeeanue oiaaea
eieoeeaoeaa. Yoa caaea/a a Noaaea e Aaia?aeueiii ooaaa auea ?aoaia a
iniiaiii i?aaeeueii, ieaiu i?ioeaieea auee ?acaaaeaiu [8,15]. Iaeiaei
yoi ia iiiaoaei E?aniie A?iee iioa?iaoue i/aiue oyae?eia ii?aaeaiea,
aeaaea aieaa oyae?eia, /ai a i?ea?aie/iuo aiyo, i?aaeii?aaeaeeaoaa oiae
iiiaeo aeaeueiaeoeo niauoee e iinoaaeaoeo a? ia a?aiue eaoano?iou.

5.3 Eeaaneay eaoano?ioa

21 aaaonoa 1941 a. 2-y oaieiaay a?oiia A. Aoaea?eaia ia/aea ianooieaiea
io Aiiaey ia tha, iaoiaey n ainoiea iieanneea aieioa e auoiaey ai oeaia
e a oue THai-Caiaaeiiio o?iioo. Oioy aeey i?ioeaiaeaenoaey yoiio au? 16
aaaonoa aue nicaeai A?yineee o?iio, aai nicaeaiea, eae auynieeinue, auei
iieoia?ie. Iaeiia?aiaiii, aeiaeaoenue oniaoa ia thaa, ia/aea ianooieaiea
1-y oaieiaay a?oiia Y. oii Eeaenoa. Aeey n?uaa caiunea ie?oaeaiey
THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa, eae auynieeinue aiineaaenoaee, iaiaoiaeeii auei
inoaaeoue Eeaa e iieiinoueth ioaanoe THai-Caiaaeiue o?iio ca Aeiai?,
eniieueciaaa inaiaiaeeaoeany /anoe aeey i?ioeaiaeaenoaey a?oiiai
Aoaea?eaia e Eeaenoa. Iaiaeiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey aaia?aeia A. I.
Oaiioieeiaa, A. I. Aaneeaaneiai, A. E. AEoeiaa ia yoii, eioi?ua
aeaeaeenue ia/eiay n 29 ethey, Noaaeie ioeeiiyeenue. 15 naioya?y aie?oa
THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa caieioeinue eieueoei ie?oaeaiey. Oieueei a ieai
iiiaei ieiei 700 ouny/ /aeiaae [8]. Ia THai-Caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee
ia?aciaaeanue i/aiue aieueoay, ia caiieiaiiay ieeaeeie aieneaie «aeu?a».
Oaieiaua /anoe Eeaenoa i?iaeaeaaeenue ia Aeiiaann, ii/oe ia ano?a/ay
nii?ioeaeaiey. Inaiaiaeeaoeany a?oiia Aoaea?eaia e ae?oaea aienea auee
eniieueciaaiu aeey ianooieaiey ia Iineao.

Caeanue neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iai?aaeaiea aeaaiiai
oaea?a i?ioeaieea auei ii?aaeaeaii i?aaeeueii, a nooue ioeaee ninoiyea a
oii, /oi aeey i?ioeaiaeaenoaey caiuneai i?ioeaieea auee auaeaeaiu
iaaeinoaoi/iua neeu.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy aeio ca ii?aaeaiea iiae Eeaaii aiceaaatho
eneeth/eoaeueii ia E. A. Noaeeia, eioi?ue-aea «iiee naay aaieaeueiui
iieeiaiaeoeai e ia n/eoaeny n iiaieai i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aiaiiuo». A
ea/anoaa i?eia?a i?eaiaeyo iaiaeiie?aoiia ioeeiiaiea ei i?aaeeiaeaiee
AEoeiaa e Aaneeaaneiai ia ioaiaea /anoae THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa ca
Aeiai?. I?e yoii «ne?iiii» oiae/eaaaony, /oi ia yoii ianoaeaaea
iaaieueoay e aeaeaei ia naiay aaoi?eoaoiay a oio ia?eiae /anoue aiaiiuo.
A. E. AEoeia a oio ia?eiae aua aue ioe?iaaiiui aunei/eie, ca iea/aie
eioi?iai auea iaeia-aaeeinoaaiiay oaea/iay iia?aoeey – Oaeoei-Aie, a A.
I. Aaneeaaneee e oiio a?aiaie aua aiiaua ia eiae aiaauo caneoa ia aunoeo
eiiaiaeiuo iinoao. A i?ioea ioaiaea /anoae THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa ca
Aeiai? aue eiiaiaeothuee THai-Caiaaeiui o?iioii I. I. Ee?iiiin e
eiiaiaeothuee anai THai-Caiaaeiui iai?aaeaieai N. I. Aoaeaiiue [8],
aaoi?eoao eioi?iai aue a oo ii?o iai?a?aeaai. Neaaeoao o/anoue e oi
ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ioaiaea enoiaeeee io
aunieiiinoaaeaiiuo iineianeeo ooaaiuo ?aaioieeia, a oi a?aiy eae i?ioea
ioaiaea auee eiiaiaee?u ia ianoao. Neiaeeeenue, a iaeioi?ii ?iaea, aeaa
«ia?oee» aiaiiuo, e Noaeeio iaaeeaaeaei naeaeaoue auai? iaaeaeo
i?aaeeiaeaieyie yoeo ia?oee. N iaeiie noi?iiu – «iineianeea ooaaiua
aunei/ee» (A. E. AEoeia a oio ia?eiae – ia/aeueiee Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa,
A. I. Aaneeaaneee – aai caianoeoaeue), n ae?oaie noi?iiu – aaoi?eoao
aa?iy a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e i?aeiouanoai oiai, /oi-aea «ia ianoa
aeaeiaa». E oiio aea ioaiae aiene THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa ca Aeiai?
icia/ae naea/o a?aao Eeaaa aac aiy, /oi iieeoe/anee auei e?aeia
iaaeaeaoaeueii. Oaeei ia?acii, ?aoaiea, i?eiyoia Noaeeiui, aiieia
anoanoaaiii. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi ethaie ia aai ianoa iinooiee au
oi/ii oae aea.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaenoaeoaeueiay aeia ca ii?aaeaiea eaaeeo ia
eiiaiaeothuai THai-Caiaaeiui o?iioii I. I. Ee?iiiina e eiiaiaeothuai
THai-Caiaaeiui iai?aaeaieai N. I. Aoaeaiiii.

Iaaeiaiey, /oi-aea Aoaeaiiue aiiaua aue i/aiue ieioei eiiaiaee?ii e /oi
yoi auei ecaanoii Noaeeio, neaaeoao ioianoe eae iaiainiiaaiiua, oae eae
ia ia?aoiii aiai?eo any enoi?ey a?aaeaeaineie aieiu, a eioi?ie ii i/aiue
oniaoii eiiaiaeiaae neeueiaeoei e eo/oei iauaaeeiaieai E?aniie A?iee –
Ia?aie Eiiiie a?ieae. Oi, /oi aai iiaeaioiaea ii aii?inai oaeoeee e
no?aoaaee aieiu a iiauo oneiaeyo – a oneiaeyo «aieiu iioi?ia» auea
iaaeinoaoi/iie, e oiio a?aiaie a?yae ee iiaei auoue ynii, eae au ie
oioaeinue eiio-oi aeieacaoue ia?aoiia.

Aeaenoaey E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue ianyoe aieiu auee e?aeia iaoaea/iuie.
Ii iaoaea/e e ii?aaeaiey ia?aiai ianyoea aieiu ia auee noieue oyae?euie,
eae yoi eiiaaea i?aaenoaaeyaony. Ia/aei auei iaoaea/iui, aeaaea i/aiue
iaoaea/iui, ii yoi aue aeaeaei ia ?aca?ii. Aaaeue oaea e aaaonoo 1941 a.
i?iaeaeaeaiea aa?iaooa auei a iniiaiii inoaiiaeaii. Aeoea?iaoeu
caoaaoeee aeiaieueii aieueooth oa??eoi?eth, ii oeaiie eieinnaeueiuo
iioa?ue. Aeeoee?eaa ia iieo/eeinue, a aieia i?aaenoiyea oyae?eay e
aeeeoaeueiay, a ia?niaeoeaa aeey ieo i?iea?uoiay. I?aeiouanoaa, eioi?ua
iieo/eea Aa?iaiey a ?acoeueoaoa aiacaiiinoe iaiaaeaiey, auee en/a?iaiu.
A?aiy ?aaioaei i?ioea aeoea?iaoeaa. Aeaaiua neeu E?aniie A?iee ia auee
?acaeou, a aiaiiia i?iecaiaenoai auno?i ?inei.

Nianai eiia aeaei – ii?aaeaiea a naioya?a 1941 a. iiae Eeaaii. Ie
aiacaiiinoueth, ie iiaeaaeythuei /eneaiiui ia?aaanii i?ioeaieea aai
iauynieoue iaaiciiaeii. E?iia oiai, ii iineaaenoaeyi iii auei
cia/eoaeueii oyaeaeaa ii?aaeaiee ia?aiai ianyoea aieiu. Auea ie?oaeaia
aieaa /ai ieeeeiiiay a?oiie?iaea aiene, ea/anoaaiii eo/oeo ai anae
E?aniie A?iee. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai ia?aae aa?iaineeie aieneaie ioe?ueny
i?inoi? aeaenoaee ia thaa. Aieaa oiai aunaiaiaeeeenue i/aiue aieueoea
neeu, /oi iicaieeei iaiaaeeaiii ia/aoue ianooieaiea e ia Iineao. I?yiui
?acoeueoaoii yoiai ii?aaeaiey noaea iioa?y iaeiie ec aeaoo iniiaiuo
i?iiuoeaiiuo aac no?aiu (e?eai?iaeneiai aeaeaci?oaeiiai ?aeiia,
oa?ueeianeeo caaiaeia e cia/eoaeueiie /anoe Aeiiaanna), aneaaenoaea /aai
?acei oiaei aiaiiia i?iecaiaenoai. Oaeei ia?acii, e ieoya?th 1941 a. ia
o?iioa nicaeaeinue eaoano?ioe/aneia iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia auei aui?aaeaii
niaaoneei eiiaiaeiaaieai n ia?iiiui iai?yaeaieai.

5.4 Aeoaa ca Iineao

Iieiaeaiea ia o?iioao e eiioeo naioya?y 1941 a..

Naaa?. Aeaeueiaeoaa i?iaeaeaeaiea oeineeo aiene, caoaao Iao?icaaiaenea.
Aie ianoiiai cia/aiey.

Naaa?i-Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea. Aeiee?iaai Eaieia?aae, ii iiiuoea aai
caoaaoa ni?aaia. 22 naioya?y 1941 a. ec ninoaaa a?oiiu a?iee “Naaa?”
ecuyoa 4-y oaieiaay a?oiia. I?ioeaiee ia?ao?e e iai?iia. Eiiaiaeothuee
a?oiiie a?iee “Naaa?” aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oae A. oii Eaaa niyo n
aeieaeiinoe.

Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea. Caeanue aeey ianooieaiey ia Iineao auee nia?aiu
iniiaiua oaea?iua neeu aa?iaooa – 3 (ec 4) oaieiaua a?oiiu. Niioiioaiea
nee e eiioeo naioya?y i?eaaaeaii a oaae. 1 [15]:

Oaaeeoea 1.

Niioiioaiea nee noi?ii ia Iineianeii iai?aaeaiee e 30 naioya?y 1941 a.

Niaaoneea aienea Aa?iaineea aienea
Niioiioaiea nee

Ethaee 1250000 1800000 1.4
: 1

A?oieinoaieu 7600 14000 1.8 : 1

Oaiee, NAO 990 1700 1.7 : 1

Naiieaou 677 1390 2.0 : 1

(A a?aoa «Aa?iaineea aienea» o/oaiu aienea naoaeeeoia Aa?iaiee.)

A ?acoeueoaoa oniaoiie ianooiaoaeueiie iia?aoeee aiene Caiaaeiiai e
?aca?aiiai o?iioia a aaaonoa – naioya?a 1941 a. aue eeeaeaee?iaai
aeueieineee aunooi i?ioeaieea.

THai-Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea. Aeiaeaoenue aieueoiai oniaoa iiae Eeaaii,
aa?iaineea aienea ?ani?ino?aiyeenue ia ainoie aac iniaiai nii?ioeaeaiey.
?ann/eouaaeinue caaea?aeaoue eo ia eeiee Oa?ueeia-Oaaai?ia.

27 naioya?y 1941 a. aue ecaeai i?eeac Noaaee Aa?oiaiiai
Aeaaiieiiaiaeiaaiey, a eioi?ii aiai?eeinue i aiciiaeiinoe ianooieaiey a
aeeaeaeoea aeie e?oiiuo nee i?ioeaieea ia iineianeii iai?aaeaiee [15].
Oaeiaia ia/aeinue ia ?aciuo iai?aaeaieyo /a?ac 3-5 aeiae.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiacaiiinoue a oii niunea, a eaeii iia auea a ia/aea
aieiu, ionoonoaiaaea. Iaeiaei iiyoue iiaoi?eeinue oi aea, /oi eiaei
ianoi a ia?aua aeie aieiu: aeoaieee i?i?ua a?iiaoaieiauo nee i?ioeaieea,
iioa?y oi?aaeaiey aieneaie e eo ie?oaeaiea. Iiyoue nicaeaeinue
eaoano?ioe/aneia iieiaeaiea, aui?aaeaiiia niaaoneei eiiaiaeiaaieai n
ia?iiiui iai?yaeaieai.

Iia?aoeey “Oaeooi” (eiaeiaia iaeiaiiaaiea ianooieaiey ia Iineao)
ia/aeanue 30 naioya?y oaea?ii 2-e oaieiaie a?iee A. Aoaea?eaia aaeieue
oinna Aeooia – I??e. E 3 ieoya?y, i?ieaey aei 200 eeeiiao?ia, aai a?ieae
aue caoaa/ai iaiiaeaioiaeaiiue e iai?iia I??e. Eiiaiaeiaaiea I?eianeei
aiaiiui ie?oaii ionoonoaiaaei ia ianoa, ia auee inoaaeaiu aeaaea aeici?u
ia aei?iaao e o?iioo, oioy i ianooieaiee Aoaea?eaia oaea auei ecaanoii.
Eiaaoayny a I?ea a?oeeea?ey iiiaea a ?oee iaioeaa aac aaeeiiai auno?aea.
Iaiaoeeea oaiee ai?aaeenue ia aai oeeoeu, eiaaea ie/aai ia
iiaeic?aaathuea niaaoneea a?aaeaeaia niaoeee ia ?aaioo (aei ia?aaeiaie
auei 200 ei). Iinea /aai a?iey ?acaeaeeeanue ia 2 /anoe: iaeia aunooieea
ia naaa?i-ainoie, a noi?iio Ooeu, aoi?ay ia caiaae, a noi?iio A?yinea. 6
ieoya?y A?yine aue caiyo aa?iaineeie aieneaie, a A?yineee o?iio ieacaeny
a ie?oaeaiee. A?oiia, aunooieaoay ia Ooeo, auea caaea?aeaia e iio??iaia
oaieiauie eiio?aoaeaie. E 2 ieoya?y, eiaaea ia/aee ianooieaiea aeaaiua
neeu a?oiiu a?iee “Oeaio?”, i?i?ua a?iee Aoaea?eaia ?acaaeee niaaoneee
o?iio ia i?ioyaeaiee nioai eeeiiao?ia, oi?aaeaiea auei iioa?yii.

5 ieoya?y aaea?acaaaeeie a 150 eeeiiao?ao io ia?aaeiaie eeiee auee
iaia?oaeaiu aieueoea iaiaoeeea eieiiiu, aeaeaaaoeany ii oinna e THoiiao.
Auei ?aoaii iaianoe ii eieiiia ianne?iaaiiue aiiaiaue oaea?, ii
noa?aieyie Iniaiai ioaeaea E?aniie A?iee e?o/eeia iaaeieee a iaiee??noaa
e a oii, /oi iie i?eiyee ca iaioeaa naieo, aueao aiiaa?aee?iaueeia
ioiaieee [15]. 6 ieoya?y THoiia aue caiyo i?ioeaieeii. 14 ieoya?y aue
caiyo Eaeeiei, Iineaa oa?iaeaei ie?oaeaiea. Caiaaeiue o?iio ii nooe
aeaea iaaei auei nicaeaaaoue caiiai. E 16 ieoya?y, ia?aa?oiie?iaaa neeu,
iaiaoeeea aienea i?iaeieaeeee ianooieaiea ia Iineao. Ii ia yoio ?ac
o?iio ieaaea ia aue i?i?aai. Ca eaaeaeue oaa i?iaeaeaeaiey aa?iaineea
aienea ieaoeee aieueoie e?iaueth. E 30 ieoya?y aa?iaineia ianooieaiea
auaeioeinue. I?ioeaiee aue inoaiiaeai a 70 – 100 eeeiiao?ao io Iineau.

Oaeei ia?acii, eaoano?ioe/aneia ii?aaeaiea Caiaaeiiai o?iioa a ia/aea
ieoya?y 1941 aiaea yaeyaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, neaaenoaeai yeaiaioa?iiai
aieiaioyinoaa aiieia eiie?aoiuo eeoe (ia?a/eneyoue eioi?uo ia eiaao
niunea), a n ae?oaie noi?iiu, oai, /oi o/anoee oaeoe/aneeo i?i?uaia
iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo aiene ia auee ii?aaeaeaiu e yoe iai?aaeaiey ia auee
naiaa?aiaiii oneeaiu.

15 iiya?y 1941 a. ia/aeny iiaue yoai ianooieaiey aa?iaineeo aiene ia
Iineao. Ia yoio ?ac aeaaiue oaea? i?eo?eny naaa?iaa Iineau, ae?oaie
iaiineeny a?ieae Aoaea?eaia thaeiaa Ooeu. Ieaie?iaaeinue ie?oaeeoue
Iineao, niieioa eeaue a ?aeiia Iiaeinea. Ii ia yoio ?ac nin?aaeioi/aiea
oeaiaiauo a?oiie?iaie a?aaa auei naiaa?aiaiii onoaiiaeaii niaaoneie
?acaaaeeie. E?iia oiai, aa?iaineia eiiaiaeiaaiea aeiionoeei a?oaaeoee
i?iiao: ia i?aaieciaaei ianooieaiea a oeaio?a o?iioa, oioy nee caeanue
eiaei aeinoaoi/ii [8,15]. Yoi aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue niaaoneiio
eiiaiaeiaaieth nieiaoue neeu ec oeaio?a e ia?aa?anuaaoue eo i?ioea
oeaiaiauo oaea?iuo a?oiie?iaie. Oeaiaiaua oaea?iua a?oiie?iaee
i?ioeaieea eiaee a nai?i ninoaaa iaaeinoaoi/ii iauaaieneiauo
niaaeeiaiee, a noaaea ia a?iiaoaieiaua aienea a oao oneiaeyo naay ia
ii?aaaeaea. Aa?iaineei aieneai oaeaeinue eeoue iooanieoue /anoe E?aniie
A?iee ia 70 – 100 eeeiiao?ia. Aieueoaai a?aa naeaeaoue ia iia,
ianooieaiea caoeaaioeinue. 5 aeaeaa?y 1941 a. n iiaeoiaeii
no?aoaae/aneeo ?aca?aia Noaaee ia/aeinue eiio?ianooieaiea niaaoneeo
aiene iiae Iineaie. 8 aeaeaa?y Aeoea? ioaeaao i?eeac i ia?aoiaea e
iai?iia ia an?i Ainoi/iii o?iioa. Ia/aeanue iiceoeeiiiay aieia.

Iaeiia?aiaiii ai aoi?ie iieiaeia iiya?y i?iaeieaeaeinue ianooieaiea
i?ioeaieea e ia ae?oaeo iai?aaeaieyo. 21 iiya?y iaioeaie aue acyo
?inoia-ia-Aeiio. Ia naaa?a iie au?aaeenue e Oeoaeio, iuoaynue
niaaeeieoueny n oeineeie aieneaie. Ii e ia naaa?a, e ia thaa aienea
i?ioeaieea auee neiaaiu eiio?oaea?aie niaaoneeo aiene, e ie/ai ia iiaee
iiii/ue ianooiathuei ia iineianeii iai?aaeaiee. Ia thaa a ia/aea
aeaeaa?y ?inoia-ia-Aeiio o iaioeaa ioaeee, a ia naaa?a oeoaeineee eeei
aue eeeaeaee?iaai.

Oaaeeoea 2.

Niioiioaiea nee noi?ii e ia/aeo aeaeaa?y 1941 a. [15].

Niaaoneea aienea Aa?iaineea aienea
Niioiioaiea nee

Ethaee 4200000 5000000 0.85 : 1

A?oieinoaieu 22000 26800 0.8 : 1

Oaiee 1630 1500 1.1 : 1

Naiie?ou 2495 2500 1.0 : 1

Oaaeeoea 3.

Niioiioaiea nee ia iineianeii iai?aaeaiee e 6 aeaeaa?y 1941 a. [15].

Niaaoneea aienea Aa?iaineea aienea
Niioiioaiea nee

Ethaee 760000 800000 0.95 : 1

A?oieinoaieu 6200 10400 0.6 : 1

Oaiee 670 1000 0.7 : 1

Naiie?ou 860 600 1.4 : 1

Aeiaieueii /anoi, iniaaiii io aeouo aa?iaineeo aaia?aeia, enoiaeyo
cayaeaiey, /oi-aea a iiya?a-aeaeaa?a 1941 a. iie iioa?iaee ii?aaeaiea io
«aaia?aea Ceiu». I?iaae ieaiia ie?oaeaiey Iineau a ieoya?a 1941 a. iie
oaeaea iauyniytho i?e?iaeiui oaeoi?ii – inaiiae ?aniooeoeae. Oae ee yoi?

Aannii?ii, e iiaiaea, e i?e?iaea neeueii aeeytho ia oiae aiaauo
aeaenoaee. Ii aeaei a oii, /oi iie aeeytho a ?aaiie noaiaie ia iaa
aiththuea noi?iiu. Eiaaea aiai?yo, iai?eia?, /oi aa?iaineea oaiee ia
caaiaeeeenue ec-ca ii?ica, iaaei eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi e niaaoneea oaiee
iaoiaeeeenue a oi/ii oaeii aea iieiaeaiee, oieueei eo auei cia/eoaeueii
iaiueoa. A a?yce oiioee eae aa?iaineea, oae e niaaoneea a?ociaeee. A
iaeaoiay iiaiaea auea ooaea aeey niaaoneeo aiene, /ai aeey iaiaoeeeo,
oae eae a aaeaoeee a aeaiiia a?aiy e ia yoii o/anoea o?iioa niaaoneea
aienea eiaee ia?aaan (ni. oaae. 3).

A ieoya?a 1941 a. ?aniooeoea auea i/aiue e?aoeia?aiaiiie [8]. Iaaeaaeaeu
Aeoea?a ia oniao ianooieaiey ia Iineao a iiya?a 1941 a. a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie iniiauaaeenue ia oii, /oi a ia?auo /eneao iiya?y ia/aeenue
iaaieueoea ii?icu, a iaaieueoie aua niaa ia iaoae iaiaa?e?iaaoue ie
oaieai, ie aeaaea iioiiaoioa. Ai aeie iiya?ueneiai «aaia?aeueiiai
ianooieaiey» aeoea?iaoeaa oaiia?aoo?a ia iai?aaeaieyo aeaaiuo oaea?ia
ninoaaeyea ieion 7(10iN. Ii ianoiyuaio neeueiua ii?icu (aei -50iN)
ia/aeenue a ia/aea aeaeaa?y 1941 a., eiaaea niaaoneea aienea ia?aoee a
eiio?ianooieaiea [15]. Oaeaea a yoio ia?eiae auiaei aieueoia eiee/anoai
niaaa, aeaenoaeoaeueii cao?oaeieaoaai iaiaa?e?iaaiea. A aio i?e oaeie
iiaiaea iai?iiyoueny aeaenoaeoaeueii cia/eoaeueii oaeiaiaa, /ai
ianooiaoue! Oaeei ia?acii, i?e aieiaoaeueiii ?anniio?aiee ?iee iiaiaeu a
oiaea iai?iiu Iineau ieacuaaaony, /oi iiaiaeiua oneiaey auee aieaa
aeaaii?eyoiu aeey aa?iaineeo aiene.

Aea, aeoea?ianeea aienea ia auee aioiau e ceia, /oi aannii?ii
iaaeaaii?eyoii io?aceeinue ia aeaeueiaeoai oiaea aiaauo aeaenoaee. Ii
ii/aio iie ia iiaeaioiaeeenue e ceia? Iioiio /oi aa?iaineia
?oeiaiaenoai ?ann/eouaaei, a?oai aiai?y, i?ieoenue iaeaaea ii Niaaoneiio
Nithco, en/eneyy n?ie eaiiaiee iaaeaeyie e ianyoeaie, e ia aioiaeeinue e
ceiiae aieia. Cia/eo, aeaei ooo iiyoue ia a eeeiaoa, a a iieeoe/aneeo e
aiaiiuo i?in/?oao aeoea?ianeie aa?oooee.

5.5 Aiaaua aeaenoaey ceiie 1941/1942 a.

Ianooieaiea E?aniie A?iee ia caiaaeiii no?aoaae/aneii iai?aaeaiee,
ia/aaoaany 5-6 aeaeaa?y 1941 a., i?iaeieaeaeinue aei ai?aey 1942 a..
Niaaoneea aienea i?iaeaeioeenue ia 100-300 eeeiiao?ia, ii aeaaiay
caaea/a – ie?oaeaiea a?oiiu a?iee «Oeaio?» ia auea auiieiaia. A?oiia
a?iee «Oeaio?» iaoiaeeeanue eeoue a iieoie?oaeaiee. Eeiey o?iioa eiae
e?aeia neiaeioth, ec?acaiioth oi?io. A oueo i?ioeaieea iaoiaeeeenue
e?oiiua a?oiie?iaee niaaoneeo aiene, niaaaeaaoeany ii aicaeooo.

Ia THai-Caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee auea i?aaei?eiyoa /anoiay ianooiaoaeueiay
iia?aoeey. Aa eoiaii noaei ia?aciaaiea «Aa?aaieianeiai aunooia»,
aiaiooiai a noi?iio i?ioeaieea.

Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie aiaauo aeaenoaee a yoio ia?eiae yaeyeinue
ionoonoaea /eneaiiiai ia?aaana niaaoneeo aiene iaae aa?iaineeie, a
oaeaea naiue ino?ue ca anth aieio aeaoeoeeo aii?oaeaiey e aiai?eiania
ec-ca ?aceiai iaaeaiey aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

*anoi iaaeiytho niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea a oii, /oi iii ceiie 1941/1942
aa. aeiaiaeeei aienea a ianooieaiee aei i?aaeaeueiie noaiaie enoiuaiey,
aneaaenoaea /aai iie-aea ianee /?acia?iua iioa?e. Eiia/ii, aac ?aciiai
?iaea ia?aeinia caeanue ia iaioeinue. Iaeiaei iie iauyniyeenue a
iniiaiii ionoonoaeai o niaaoneeo aiene iiuoa ianooieaiey. Ii acaeyieoa
ia niioiioaiea nee! I?e ionoonoaee neieue-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiiai
/eneaiiiai ia?aaana iaae i?ioeaieeii oniaoiia i?iaeaeaeaiea niaaoneeo
aiene iauyniyeinue oieueei oai, /oi o iaioeaa iieiinoueth ionoonoaiaaee
iai?iieoaeueiua nii?oaeaiey. Iaeiaei eiaeinue iiiai iai?iieoaeueiuo
nii?oaeaiee, nicaeaiiuo niaaoneeie aieneaie a iai?iieoaeueiue ia?eiae
aeoau ca Iineao, eioi?ua auee eeoue ianeieueei iia?aaeaeaiu a aiyo.
Iaeioi?ua ?oaaaee auee inoaaeaiu niaaoneeie aieneaie aiiaua aac aiy e
cia/eo, iaiia?aaeaeaiiuie. Aeey eo ?aiiioa e i?eniiniaeaiey aeey iai?iiu
«n ae?oaie noi?iiu» aeoea?iaoeai iio?aaiaaeinue au nianai iaiiiai
a?aiaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ethaay iaeaiueeay ia?aaeuoea, aeaiiay
aa?iaineei aieneai, i?eaaea au e nicaeaieth oe?aieaiee, eioi?ua i?e
oiaaeaoiai niioiioaiee nee, aeaaea o/eouaay ieiooth iiaeaioiaeo
aeoea?iaoeaa e ceia, i?i?aaoue auei iaaiciiaeii. Ii anee au aeoea?iaoeai
oaeaeinue cae?aieony ia aeeaeieo iiaenooiao e Iineaa, oi n aieueoie
aeieae aa?iyoiinoe iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi eaoii 1942 aiaea ai?iae aue
au caoaa/ai aeoea?iaoeaie.

Oaeei ia?acii, i/aaeaeii, /oi a oie ianoaiiaea niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea a
yoii ioiioaiee aeaenoaiaaei i?aaeeueii.

Aeaenoaeoaeueiue i?in/?o Noaaee a oio ia?eiae ninoiye a /?acia?iii
?aniueaiee nee ii ?aciui o?iioai. Ia ianeieueeeo o?iioao auee
i?aaieciaaiu /anoiua ianooiaoaeueiua iia?aoeee, ia aeaaoea a eoiaa
caiaoiuo iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Ia thaa a ?acoeueoaoa ianooieaiey
niaaoneeo aiene auea inaiaiaeaeaia aeiaieueii aieueoay oa??eoi?ey –
«Aa?aaieianeee aunooi», iaeiaei yoa iiaaaea ia eiaea niunea, oae eae
yoio aunooi, aiaiooue a noi?iio i?ioeaieea, eeoue nicaeaaae oa?ico
ie?oaeaiey caieiaaoeo aai aiene, a aa?aioe?iaaiii ia aeiionoeoue
ie?oaeaiey i?e oiaaeaoiai niioiioaiee nee ia o?iioa auei iaaiciiaeii. Ii
au?aaeaieth ia?oaea AEoeiaa, oai iieo/eeny «o?iio aaeaia aieueoa, /ai
aue, e aanue a aeu?ao». A ?acoeueoaoa oaeiai ?aniueaiey nee ia aue
aeinoeaioo ?aoathuee oniao ia Caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee – ie?oaeaiea a?oiiu
a?iee “Oeaio?” ia oaeaeinue, oioy iiaaaea auea aeecea [8,15].

5.6 Aania e eaoi 1942 a.

Iieiaeaiea ia o?iioao e iath 1942 a..

Naaa? e Naaa?i-Caiaae. Eeiey o?iioa aac nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee ii
n?aaiaieth n ieoya??i 1941 a.. Aie ianoiiai cia/aiey.

Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea. A?oiia a?iee “Oeaio?” ioa?ioaia io Iineau ia
150-300 eeeiiao?ia, iaoiaeeeanue a iieoie?oaeaiee.

THai-Caiaaeiia iai?aaeaiea. O?iio a iniiaiii ii ?aea Ieon, ia?acoy iaoie
(«Aa?aaieianeee aunooi»), aiaiooue a noi?iio i?ioeaieea. Aai aa?oeia
«aeinoaaaea» aei noaioeee Eiciaay. A E?uio i?iaeieaeaeanue inaaea
aa?iaineeie aieneaie Naaanoiiiey, aienea E?uineiai o?iioa caieiaee
ainoi/ioth /anoue E?uineiai iieoino?iaa.

Oaaeeoea 4.

Niioiioaiea nee noi?ii ia o?iioa e iath 1942 a. [15].

Aa?iaineea aienea Niaaoneea aienea
Niioiioaiea nee

Ethaee 6200000 5100000 1.2 : 1

A?oieinoaieu 57000 44900 1.3 : 1

Oaiee 3000 3900 1 : 1.3

Naiie?ou 3400 2200 1.5 : 1

Aa?iaineea aienea eiaee iaeioi?ue /eneaiiue ia?aaan iaae niaaoneeie, ii
a aiaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa iieiaeaiea auei eiui.

Oaaeeoea 5.

Aiaiiia i?iecaiaenoai NNN? e Aa?iaiee a 1942 a. [15].

(Aa?iaiey – n ieeoie?iaaiiuie e nithciuie no?aiaie).

CCC? Aa?iaiey Ia?aaan NNN?

A?oieinoaieu 33100 14000 2.4 : 1

Oaiee 24500 9300 2.6 : 1

Naiie?ou 25400 14700 1.7 : 1

Yoe aeaiiua – ca aanue 1942 aiae, a e iath 1942 a. aiaiiia i?iecaiaenoai
a NNN? i?aauneei aa?iaineia i?eia?ii a 1.5 ?aca.

Oai ia iaiaa ii iauayeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi (auieaaea noaee, aeiau/a
oaey) NNN? i/aiue neeueii (a ianeieueei ?ac) ionoaaae io Aa?iaiee. Aei
yiaa?y 1942 a. aeoea?ianeia i?aaeoaeuenoai ia nieaeaei o?iaaiue
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia oe?ieiai iio?aaeaiey. Eeoue a ia/aea 1942 a.
ieieno? aii?oaeaiee Aa?iaiee A. Oiaa? n aieueoei o?oaeii aeiaeeny
?ac?aoaiey Aeoea?a nie?aoeoue i?iecaiaenoai ie?iie i?iaeoeoeee ia 12%,
ia?aeeth/ea niioaaonoaothuea iiuiinoe i?iiuoeaiiinoe ia aieio [15].
Aieueoaai ii naeaeaoue ia iia, iioiio /oi aa?iaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai
aiyeinue nieaeaieai o?iaiy aeecie ?aceiaeeoue oue. Oaeei ia?acii,
ii?aeueiue oaeoi? – aaaeaiea Niaaoneei Nithcii ni?aaaaeeeaie,
inaiaiaeeoaeueiie aieiu – iicaieee ia?aeeth/eoue anth yeiiiieeo ia
ioaeaeu aieiu, a Aa?iaiey ia eiaea aiciiaeiinoe yoiai naeaeaoue, e eiay
cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue iauayeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, /ai
NNN?, ia/aea neeueii ionoaaaoue io iaai aiaiiiio i?iecaiaenoao.

I?e nouanoaiaaaoai niioiioaiee nee iauaeoeaii Aa?iaiey ia aeieaeia auea
aeiaeoueny caiaoiuo oniaoia a eaoia-inaiiae eaiiaiee 1942 a..
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i/aiue e?oiiua ii?aaeaiey E?aniie A?iee a yoio ia?eiae
iauyniythony oieueei i?in/aoaie niaaoneiai eiiaiaeiaaiey. Neaaeoao
iiae?iaii ?anniio?aoue, eaeiau auee yoe i?in/aou, /ai auee aucaaiu, a
oaeaea, anee yoi ieaaeaony aiciiaeiui, onoaiiaeoue eiie?aoiuo aeiiaiuo.

Iinea ananoi?iiiaai aiaeeca ianoaiiaea aaniie 1942 a. Aaia?aeueiue ooaa
i?eoae e neaaeothuei auaiaeai. Ii iiaieth Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa, i?ioeaiee
eaoii 1942 a. eiae aiciiaeiinoue aanoe e?oiiua ianooiaoaeueiua iia?aoeee
ia aeaoo no?aoaae/aneeo iai?aaeaieyo – thai-caiaaeiii e caiaaeiii,
i?e/ai n/eoaeinue, /oi aeaaiue oaea? iineaaeoao ia caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee
– ii Iineaa. Ia thai-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee i?aaeiieaaaeinue ianooieaiea
aoi?inoaiaiiie, ii e?oiiie a?oiie?iaee aiene i?ioeaieea n caaea/ae
caoaaoa ieaeiaai oa/aiey Aeiia e i?i?uaa ia Eaaeac, a oaeaea caoaaoa
Ai?iiaaea. Iaeaieaa iianiuie iia?aoeaiuie iai?aaeaieyie n/eoaeenue
ooeuenei-iineianeia e eo?nei-ai?iiaaeneia [9]. Ia naaa?i-caiaaeiii
iai?aaeaiee e?oiiua ianooiaoaeueiua iia?aoeee aeoea?iaoeaa
eneeth/aeenue.

Oaeay ioeaiea ianoaiiaee ie o eiai ec aunoaai aiaiiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa NNN?
ia aucaaea nouanoaaiiuo aic?aaeaiee, o. a. auea iauai?eiyoie [9].
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a no?aoaae/aneii i?iaiica aeaenoaee i?ioeaieea eaoii
1942 a. ana aac eneeth/aiey aunoaa aiaiiia ?oeiaiaenoai Niaaoneiai
Nithca ieacaeinue aeaeaei ia ia aunioa.

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia caiaaeiii no?aoaae/aneii iai?aaeaiee
aeoea?ianeia eiiaiaeiaaiea ieaie?iaaei eeoue nio?aieoue nouanoaothuaa
iieiaeaiea, a aeaaiue oaea? iaianoe ia thai-caiaaeiii no?aoaae/aneii
iai?aaeaiee n oeaeueth caoaaoa Noaeeia?aaea e Eaaeaca. Oaeaea ioeai/iui
ieacaeny e i?iaiic ian/ao naaa?i-caiaaeiiai iai?aaeaiey – caeanue
aeoea?iaoeaie ieaie?iaaeanue e?oiiay ianooiaoaeueiay iia?aoeey – ooo?i e
caoaao Eaieia?aaea. Ai eniieiaiea yoiai ieaia 11-y iaiaoeeay a?iey eaoii
1942 a. auea ia?aa?ioaia ec E?uia iiae Eaieia?aae [9], iaeiaei ooo?i
Eaieia?aaea ia aue i?aaieciaai ec-ca iaaeinoaoea nee e iaaeaaii?eyoiiai
?acaeoey aiaauo aeaenoaee ia ae?oaeo iai?aaeaieyo.

E. A. Noaeei e ana aac eneeth/aiey aunoea eiiaiaeothuea auee oaaaeaeaiu,
/oi eaoii 1942 a. Niaaoneea Aii?oaeaiiua neeu ia niiaoo aanoe
oe?ieiianooaaiuo ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee, e n/eoaee iaiaoiaeeiui aanoe
aeoeaioth no?aoaae/aneoth iai?iio.

Iaeiaei aianoa n oai ii/oe ana auee oaaaeaeaiu a iaiaoiaeeiinoe
i?iaaaeaiey /anoiuo ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee n oeaeueth ineaaeaiey
i?ioeaieea, a i?e aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo – n?uaa aai ianooiaoaeueiuo
ieaiia.

A. E. AEoeia n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui i?aaieciaaoue e?oiioth ianooiaoaeueioth
iia?aoeeth ia caiaaeiii no?aoaae/aneii iai?aaeaiee n oeaeueth
eeeaeaeaoeee ?aeaanei-aycaineiai aunooia i?ioeaieea. A oi a?aiy ii
n/eoae, /oi oaeay iia?aoeey na?ueacii ineaaeo aa?iaineea neeu e
i?eioaeeo eo ioeacaoueny io ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee a aeeaeaeoaa
a?aiy. Iaeiaei iinea aieiu, iieo/ea ec o?ioaeiuo enoi/ieeia oi/iua
aeaiiua i i?ioeaieea, A. E. AEoeia oeacae, /oi aai auaiaeu auee «aeaeaei
ia aannii?iuie», o. a. n aieueoie aeieae aa?iyoiinoe ioeai/iuie.

E. A. Noaeei e iaeioi?ua ae?oaea aiaiiua ?oeiaiaeeoaee n/eoae
iaiaoiaeeiui i?iaaaeaiea ia iaeiie, a ianeieueeeo /anoiuo
ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee ia ?aciuo o/anoeao o?iioa. Oeaeue eo ninoiyea,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, a ioaea/aiee e ?ann?aaeioi/aiee aa?iaineeo ?aca?aia e
aieiaiey aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa, iaoay oai naiui auiieiaieth eo
ianooiaoaeueiuo ieaiia, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu – inaiaiaeaeaieth iaeioi?uo
aaaeiuo a aiaiiii e yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee iauaeoia e ?aeiiia (i?i?uaa
aeieaaeu Eaieia?aaea, inaiaiaeaeaiee Oa?ueeiaa e E?uia).

Eiiaiaeiaaiea THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa (eiiaiaeothuee N. E. Oeiioaiei,
/eai Aiaiiiai niaaoa I. N. O?ouaa) e THai-Caiaaeiiai iai?aaeaiey oaa?aei
ianoaeaaei ia i?iaaaeaiee /anoiie ianooiaoaeueiie iia?aoeee ec
aa?aaieianeiai aunooia n oeaeueth inaiaiaeaeaiey Oa?ueeiaa. Iie
ianoie/eai oaaaeaeaee aa?oiaiia eiiaiaeiaaiea a iaania/aiiii oniaoa
iia?aoeee e ia i?ineee iiaee?aieaiee o Noaaee, n/eoay, /oi ni?aayony
naieie neeaie. Ianoie/eainoue eiiaiaeiaaiey o?iioii i?eaaea e oiio, /oi
E. A. Noaeei naieoeeiie?iaae iia?aoeeth, ia/aei eioi?ie auei iacia/aii
ia 12 iay. Oae eae aeaaiui no?aoaae/aneei iai?aaeaieai oiaaea n/eoaeinue
caiaaeiia, oi iia?aoeey THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa, ii aai i?aaeiieiaeaieyi,
aeieaeia auea eiaoue ioaeaeathuaa cia/aiea. E?iia oiai, Oa?ueeia aue
i/aiue aaaeai a yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee. Iaiaeoth ?ieue a
iieiaeeoaeueiii ?aoaiee Noaeeia ii aeaiiiio aii?ino, aa?iyoii, nua?aei
oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi eiiaiaeiaaiea o?iioa ia i?ineei ieeaeeo
iiaee?aieaiee, a oaeaea oi niia?aaeaiea, /oi-aea «ia ianoa aeaeiaa».
Aaia?aeueiue ooaa aic?aaeae i?ioea i?iaaaeaiey iia?aoeee, oeacuaay ia
iianiinoue a?aaeaneiai oaea?a a oue ianooiathuae a?oiie?iaea niaaoneeo
aiene e aa ie?oaeaiey. Iaeiaei Noaeei i?eeacae n/eoaoue iia?aoeeth
aioo?aiiei aeaeii o?iioa e aunoaio eiiaiaeiaaieth a Iineaa a iaa ia
aiaoeaaoueny [9]. Eoiae yoie ianooiaoaeueiie iia?aoeee oi?ioi ecaanoiu –
ianooiaaoay a?oiie?iaea niaaoneeo aiene iiiaea a ie?oaeaiea e auea
?acaeoa.

Caeanue E. A. Noaeei i?iyaee /?acia?iia aeiaa?ea e eiiaiaeiaaieth
THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa, ?ac?aoea aio i?iaiaeeoue iia?aoeeth, iianiinoue
eioi?ie iiiyoia aeaaea ianiaoeeaeenoo i?e ia?aii aea acaeyaea ia ea?oo.
Oaeei ia?acii, aeia ca ii?aaeaiea iiae Oa?ueeiaii eaaeeo, n iaeiie
noi?iiu ia N. E. Oeiioaiei e I. N. O?ouaaa, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu – ee/ii
ia E. A. Noaeeia.

Aaniie 1942 a. oaeaea e?aeia iaoaea/ii oee aiaaua aeaenoaey a E?uio. A
ia/aea 1942 a. aue noi?ie?iaai E?uineee o?iio (eiiaiaeothuee Ae. O.
Eiceia) n oeaeueth inaiaiaeaeaiey E?uia. A yiaa?a-ai?aea 1942 a. auei
i?aaei?eiyoi 3 iiiuoee i?i?uaa a?aaeaneie iai?iiu, iioa?iaaoea iaoaea/o.
E?uineee o?iio auioaeaeai aue ia?aeoe e iai?iia. Iaeiaei ieeaeeo ia? ii
oe?aieaieth iai?iiu ia i?eieiaeinue, oae eae eiiaiaeiaaiea i?aaeiieaaaei
/a?ac iaeioi?ia a?aiy niiaa ianooiaoue. Iaeiaei ianooieaiea aeieai
ioeeaaeuaaeinue. E iath E?uineee o?iio caieiae iai?iio ia naiie oceie
/anoe iieoino?iaa, eiay a naiai ninoaaa 3 a?iee: 44-th, 51-th, 47-th.
Eaaue oeaia, i?eiueaaoee e *a?iiio ii?th, ieacaeny neaaui, ii ia? ii aai
oe?aieaieth oaeaea ia i?eieiaeinue. A ?acoeueoaoa 8 iay 1942 a.
i?ioeaiee ia?aoae a ianooieaiea i?ioea eaaiai oeaiaa E?uineiai o?iioa,
i?i?aae iai?iio, e aanue E?uineee o?iio iioa?iae oyaeaeia ii?aaeaiea,
i?e/ai /eneaiiue ia?aaan aue ia noi?iia niaaoneee aiene [9]. Caeanue
iniiaiie i?e/eiie ii?aaeaiey noaei naiaia?aciia «aeaiaaeanoea» ia
E?uineii o?iioa. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aue eiiaiaeothuee o?iioii Ae. O.
Eiceia, n ae?oaie – i?aaenoaaeoaeue Noaaee ia E?uineii o?iioa E. C.
Iaoeen. Iineaaeiee, aianoi oiai, /oiau iiiiaaoue eiiaiaeiaaieth o?iioii,
oeacuaaoue ia ioeaee e iiiiaaoue eo eni?aaeyoue, iaoae eiiaiaeiaaieth,
aaneiia/ii ia?aoaniauaay ?oeiaiaeyuea eaae?u, ono?aeaay iiiai/aniaua
aanieiaeiua niaauaiey e ioaeaaay i?eeacu /a?ac aieiao eiiaiaeothuaai
o?iioii. ?acoeueoaoii yaeeinue oyaeaeia ii?aaeaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeia ca ii?aaeaiea E?uineiai o?iioa a iaa 1942 a. eaaeeo,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, ia eiiaiaeiaaiee o?iioii ai aeaaa n Ae. O. Eiceiaui, n
ae?oaie noi?iiu – ia i?aaenoaaeoaea Noaaee E. C. Iaoeena, a n o?aoueae
noi?iiu – ee/ii ia E. A. Noaeeia, eioi?ue aia?aiy ia i?anae
«aeaiaaeanoea» ia e ia caiaiee i?aaenoaaeoaey Noaaee ia E?uio?iioa.
E?iia oiai, ia auee oi/ii ii?aaeaeaiu iaycaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaey Noaaee.
Oaeiaua auee ii?aaeaeaiu oieueei caaeiei /eneii – iinea ii?aaeaiey.
Oe?iei ecaanoii niaea?aeaiea aai oaeaa?aiiu E. C. Iaoeeno io 9 iay: «Au
aea?aeeoanue no?aiiie iiceoeee iaaethaeaoaey, ia ioaa/athuaai ca aeaea
E?uio?iioa. Yoa iiceoeey i/aiue oaeiaia, ii iia ianeaicue aieeay. Ia
E?uineii o?iioa au – ia iinoi?iiiee iaaethaeaoaeue, a ioaaonoaaiiue
i?aaenoaaeoaeue Noaaee, ioaa/athuee ca ana oniaoe e iaoniaoe o?iioa e
iaycaiiue eni?aaeyoue ia ianoa ioeaee eiiaiaeiaaiey. Au aianoa n
eiiaiaeiaaieai ioaa/aaoa ca oi, /oi eaaue oeaia o?iioa ieacaeny ec ?oe
aii neaaui. Anee «any ianoaiiaea iieacuaaea, /oi i?ioeaiee n oo?a aoaeao
ianooiaoue», a au ia i?eiyee ia? e i?aaiecaoeee ioii?a, ia?aie/eaoenue
ianneaiie e?eoeeie, oi oai ooaea aeey aan. Cia/eo, au au? ia iiiyee, /oi
iineaiu ia E?uio?iio ia a ea/anoaa Aineiio?iey, a eae ioaaonoaaiiue
i?aaenoaaeoaeue Noaaee.» Yoa oaeaa?aiia auea ia?aui aeieoiaioii,
ii?aaeaeythuei iaycaiiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaey Noaaee e ia?o aai
ioaaonoaaiiinoe [9]. Neaaeoao oeacaoue, /oi ca yoi ii?aaeaiea E. C.
Iaoeen e Ae. O. Eiceia auee niyou n caieiaaiuo iinoia e nieaeaiu a
caaiee.

Ae?oaea 2 /anoiua ianooiaoaeueiua iia?aoeee – iiae Aeaiyineii e iiae
Eaieia?aaeii – oaeaea ia aeaee iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia. Niaaoneea
aienea ii/oe ia i?iaeaeioeenue aia?aae. I?aaaea i?ioeaieeo aue iaianai
aieueoie o?ii, ii e iioa?e niaaoneeo aiene auee ia iaiueoa [8].

Ii?aaeaiea iiae Oa?ueeiaui aannii?ii iaaeaaii?eyoii io?aceeanue
aeaeueiaeoai ia oiaea aiaauo aeaenoaee, oae eae THai-Caiaaeiue o?iio
yoie iaoaea/ae aue neeueii ineaaeai, e eiaaea aeoea?iaoeu 28 ethiy 1942
a. ia/aee aaia?aeueiia ianooieaiea, niaaoneay iai?iia auea i?i?aaia a
iaeei aeaiue [8,9]. *oi eanaaony ii?aaeaiey a E?uio, oi aai aeeyiea ia
ianoaiiaeo ia thai-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee auei cia/eoaeueii iaiueoei, oae
eae 11-y iaiaoeeay a?iey, eioi?ay aaea iia?aoeee a E?uio, ii eo
caaa?oaiee (iinea acyoey Naaanoiiiey 4 ethey) ia auea eniieueciaaia aeey
ianooieaiey ia thai-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee, a auea ia?aa?ioaia iiae
Eaieia?aae [9].

Ii ii?aaeaiea iiae Oa?ueeiaui, /oi niaa?oaiii ynii, ia auei ?aoathuei
aeey oiaea eaoia-inaiiae eaiiaiee. Yoi ii?aaeaiea iaeaa/eei iaiaoeeei
aieneai i?i?ua niaaoneie iai?iiu a naiii ia/aea ianooieaiey, ii ia aieaa
oiai. Ii/oe iao niiiaiee a oii, /oi e aac ii?aaeaiey iiae Oa?ueeiaui
iai?iia E?aniie A?iee a ethia 1942 a. auea au i?i?aaia, oae eae ia yoii
iai?aaeaiee iaoiaeeeenue aeaaiua neeu aeoea?ianeie a?iee. Aanueia
aa?iyoii, /oi a yoii neo/aa eoiaiaia i?iaeaeaeaiea aeoea?iaoeaa auei au
ianeieueei iaiueoa, /ai eiaei ianoi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ii e a yoii
neo/aa iii iaaa?iyea auei au aanueia cia/eoaeueiui.

Iniiaiie i?e/eiie iaaeaaii?eyoiiai aeey E?aniie A?iee ?acaeoey aiaauo
aeaenoaee ia thai-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee eaoii e inaiueth 1942 a.
yaeeanue a?oaay ioeaea Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa e Noaaee Aa?oiaiiai
Aeaaiieiiaiaeiaaiey a ioiioaiee ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiey aeaaiiai oaea?a
aeoea?iaoeaa. Aneaaenoaea yoiai i?in/aoa ca THai-Caiaaeiui e THaeiui
o?iioii ia auee ?aniieiaeaiu ?aca?aiua a?iee Noaaee. Aeoea?ianeea ieaiu
ia auee ?acaaaeaiu ieeai ec niaaoneiai aiaiiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa, e
i?aaeeiaeaiee ii ?aaeeeaeueiiio oneeaieth thai-caiaaeiiai iai?aaeaiey
?aca?aaie Noaaee – aaeeinoaaiiie ia?u, niiniaiie ia aeiionoeoue
aeoaieiai i?iaeaeaeaiey aa?iaineeo aiene ia yoii iai?aaeaiee – ia
iinooiaei ie io eiai, a oii /enea e io A. E. AEoeiaa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca e?aeia iaaeaaii?eyoiue oiae aiaauo aeaenoaee ia
thai-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee eaaeeo ia anai aac eneeth/aiey aunoai
niaaoneii eiiaiaeiaaiee. Yoi neaaeoao iniaaiii iiae/a?eiooue, oae eae a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy eiaaony neeiiiinoue anth aeio ca yoi ii?aaeaiea
aiceaaaoue eneeth/eoaeueii ia E. A. Noaeeia, eioi?ue-aea «iiee naay
aaieaeueiui iieeiaiaeoeai e ia i?eneooeaaeny e iiaieth i?ioanneiiaeueiuo
aiaiiuo». Auoa iieacaii, /oi eiaei ianoi nianai ia?aoiia – neeoeii
aieiaoaeueii i?eneooeaaeny. Enoi/ieeii ioeaee a ii?aaeaeaiee
no?aoaae/aneeo ieaiia i?ioeaieea ia eaoi 1942 a. aue eiaiii Aaia?aeueiue
ooaa, a inoaeueiua, a oii /enea e Noaeei, «oee a ?onea» no?aoaae/aneeo
ioeaiie Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa. ?aciiaeaney a aunoai aiaiiii ?oeiaiaenoaa
eiaee ia i?eioeeieaeueiue, a /anoiue oa?aeoa? (eiee/anoai e ianoi
i?iaaaeaiey /anoiuo ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee). A ethaii neo/aa eiaei au
ianoi aeinoaoi/ii aeoaieia i?iaeaeaeaiea aeoea?iaoeaa ia thai-caiaaeiii
iai?aaeaiee, oae eae ia yoii iai?aaeaiee ia auei ?aca?aiuo a?iee Noaaee,
a ianooiaee caeanue aeaaiua neeu aa?iaineie a?iee.

Aeaeueiaeoee oiae niauoee eaoii e inaiueth 1942 a. yaeeny neaaenoaeai
auoaiienaiiiai i?in/aoa Noaaee e Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa.

5.7 Ei?ioei i ii?aaeaieyo e iaoaea/ao E?aniie A?iee iinea 1942 a.

A oaa?aea-ia?oa 1943 a. aeoea?ianeei aieneai oaeaeinue i?iaanoe i/aiue
e?oiiia eiio?ianooieaiea ia thai-caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee e a aai oiaea
caiyoue aieueooth oa??eoi?eth, a oii /enea oaeea ai?iaea, eae Aaeai?iae
e Oa?ueeia. I?iaeaeaeaiea ninoaaeei aei 200 eeeiiao?ia.

Caeanue i?e/eiie noaei naiaia?aciia «aieiaie?oaeaiea io oniaoia». A
naaoa iiaaae E?aniie A?iee iiae Noaeeia?aaeii, ia Eaaeaca e a
Ino?iaiaenei-?innioaineie e Ai?iiaaenei-Eanoi?iaineie iia?aoeeyo iauaa
iiaaaeaiea i?ioeaieea ?anoeaieaaeinue niaaoneei eiiaiaeiaaieai eae
ionooieaiea ca Aeiai? n iaia?aieai inoaiiaeoue niaaoneea aienea ia
?oaaaea yoie aiaeiie i?aa?aaeu. Enoiaey ec yoiai auei aeiiouaii
iaiaania/aiiia i?iaeaeaeaiea E?aniie A?iee, neeu auee ?aca?inaiu, iiuiua
oaea?iua a?oiie?iaee ia aeaaiuo iai?aaeaieyo ionoonoaiaaee, a oueu e
niaaaeaiea, eae e anaaaea, neeueii ionoaaaee. I?iecioei yoi iioiio, /oi
i?aaeiieaaaeinue aei Aeiai?a oieueei aanoe aie i?ioea neaauo
i?ee?uaathueo io?yaeia e i?aneaaeiaaoue iooiaeyuaai i?ioeaieea.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, eiae ianoi iooiae e?oiiuo niaaeeiaiee i?ioeaieea a
?aeiiu Aeiai?iiao?ianea, E?aniia?aaea e Iieoaau, eioi?ue aue ane?uo
niaaoneie ?acaaaeeie. Iaeiaei eiiaiaeiaaiea THai-Caiaaeiui o?iioii ana
yoe aeaiiua aoeneeaaei a ?aiee aa?nee ia iooiaea i?ioeaieea ca Aeiai?,
oioy oaea auyaeeenue oaeou, canoaaeaoea aai ianoi?iaeeoueny. Noiaeiia
«aieiaie?oaeaiea io oniaoia» eiaei ianoi e a Aaia?aeueiii ooaaa [9]. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aienea i?ioeaieea iooiaeeee a oeacaiiua ?aeiiu aeey
oiai, /oiau ioooaea i?e iiaeaea?aeea iiaeioaaeoeo iiaee?aieaiee ia/aoue
eiio?ianooieaiea.

Iaeiaei yoi ia auei eaoano?ioe/aneia ii?aaeaiea. Aienea iooiaeeee a
iniiaiii i?aaieciaaiii, a neo/aaa ie?oaeaiey niaaoneeo /anoae ia auei.
Eae oieueei a aie auee aaaaeaiu ?aca?au e ca aeaei acyeny A. E. AEoeia,
aeoea?iaoeu auee i?aeoe/anee n?aco inoaiiaeaiu. N oa??eoi?eaeueiie oi/ee
c?aiey iineaaenoaey yoiai eiio?ianooieaiey aeoea?iaoeaa oaeaea ia auee
noieue oyaeaeu, eae eaaeaony ia ia?aue acaeyae. Aaaeue aeey iaaeiiouaiey
oaeiai eiio?ianooieaiey neaaeiaaei oaea n eiioea yiaa?y iinoaiaiii
noaaeoue niaaoneea aienea a iai?iio. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?iaeaeaeaiea
E?aniie A?iee i?e oaeii i?aaeiieaaaaiii ?acaeoee niauoee auei au
ianeieueei iaiueoa, /ai ?aaeueiia iaeneiaeueiia i?iaeaeaeaiea a oaa?aea
1943 a..

Oaeei ia?acii, yoa ioeaea niaaoneiai eiiaiaeiaaiey ia yaeyeanue
no?aoaae/aneie e auea cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa ii ianooaaai e eaa/a ii
iineaaenoaeyi, /ai i?aaeuaeouea. Iaeiaei aeaaea oaeay ii ianooaaai
ioeaea auea aeiiouaia niaaoneei eiiaiaeiaaieai a iineaaeiee ?ac.

A caeeth/aiea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eiio?ianooieaiea a oaa?aea-ia?oa
1943 a. yaeeinue ia?aui e iineaaeiei e?oiiui oniaoiui ianooieaieai
iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo aiene a ceiieo oneiaeyo ia Ainoi/iii o?iioa.

Iinea yoiai a aeaenoaeyo niaaoneeo aiene ionoonoaiaaee iaoaea/e e
ii?aaeaiey iia?aoeaiiai e no?aoaae/aneiai ianooaaa. Iaeiaei oaeoe/aneea
iaoaea/e e ii?aaeaiey, a oii /enea e iaoneiaeaiiua a?oauie ioeaeaie
ioaeaeueiuo eiiaiaee?ia, eiaee ianoi aua ia ?ac. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a
iiaeii i?eaanoe iaiaeiie?aoiua n?uau n oyaeaeuie iioa?yie /anoiuo
ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee a?iee Caiaaeiiai o?iioa a 1943 – ia/aea 1944
a., i?ienoiaeeaoea aneaaenoaea a?oauo ia?ooaiee i?aaee i?aaiecaoeee e
aaaeaiey ianooieaiey iaeioi?uie eiiaiaee?aie [9].

5.8 Iauea auaiaeu

A aeaiiii ?acaeaea ?anniao?eaathony ioeaee, aeiiouaiiua niaaoneei
aa?oiaiui eiiaiaeiaaieai oaea a oiaea naiie aieiu e yaeaoeany i?e/eiie
iaoaea/ e ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee.

E?oiiua no?aoaae/aneea ioeaee a oiaea aieiu niaaoneei eiiaiaeiaaieai
auee aeiiouaiu o?e ?aca. Ia?aay ioeaea eiaea ianoi a aaaonoa 1941 a. e
ninoiyea a iaaeiioeaiea neeu oaea?ia 2-e e 1-e oaieiauo a?oii
i?ioeaieea, aneaaenoaea /aai E?aniay A?iey iioa?iaea eaoano?ioe/aneia
ii?aaeaiea iiae Eeaaii. Iaeaieaa oyaeaeui iineaaenoaeai yoiai ii?aaeaiey
auea iioa?y aaaeiaeoeo yeiiiie/aneeo ?aeiiia, iiaeaeoaa ca niaie ?aceia
iaaeaiea aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. O?iaaiue aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
naioya?y 1941 a. aue aeinoeaioo oieueei ii/oe aiae nionoy. Aoi?ie
i?in/ao eiae ianoi ceiie 1942 a. e ninoiye a ?aniueaiee ?aca?aia Noaaee
ii ?aciui o?iioai, a oaeaea a iinoaiiaea aieneai iaiineeueiuo caaea/.
O?aoee i?in/ao eiae ianoi aaniie 1942 a. e ninoiye a iai?aaeeueiii
ii?aaeaeaiee iai?aaeaiey aeaaiiai oaea?a i?ioeaieea. Neaaenoaeai noae
auoiae aa?iaineeo aiene e Aieaa e ia Eaaeac.

Oioy yoi e ia aoiaeeo a i?yiua caaea/e ianoiyuae ?aaiou, eiaao niune
n?aaieoue eiee/anoai e ianooaa no?aoaae/aneeo ioeaie, aeiiouaiiuo
niaaoneei e aa?iaineei aa?oiaiui eiiaiaeiaaieai.

Iniiaiua no?aoaae/aneea ioeaee aa?iaineiai eiiaiaeiaaiey aeiiouaiiua
oaea a oiaea naiie aieiu ia Ainoi/iii o?iioa (oi, /oi naii iaiaaeaiea ia
NNN? auei e?oiiaeoae e iaeni?aaeiie ioeaeie, ia a n/ao):

I?aaiecaoeey ianooieaiey ia Iineao a iiya?a 1941 a.. Eaoano?ioe/aneay
ioeaea, eioi?ay i?eaaea e iioa?a iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeie aieneaie
iia?aoeaii-no?aoaae/aneie eieoeeaoeau. Ei aaconeiaii neaaeiaaei aua a
iiya?a 1941 a. a?aiaiii ia?aeoe e iai?iia.

Aa?iaineia eiiaiaeiaaiea a ethea iai?aaeei naie aeaaiua oneeey ia
Eaaeac, a ia ia Noaeeia?aae, oae eae auea aeiiouaia a?oaay iaaeiioeaiea
neeu nii?ioeaeaiey niaaoneeo aiene iiae Noaeeia?aaeii. Aeaaiua neeu auee
iai?aaeaiu ia Eaaeac, a ia Noaeeia?aae ianooiaea e?oiiay, ii
aoi?inoaiaiiay a?oiie?iaea aa?iaineeo aiene, i?e/ai ii/oe aac oaieia
[15]. Eiaaea iaia?oaeeeny yoio i?in/ao, a?oiia a?iee, ianooiaaoay ia
Noaeeia?aae, noaea iai?a?uaii oneeeaaoueny ca n/ao a?oiiu a?iee,
ianooiaaoae ia Eaaeac. Yoi aeaeaeinue aaeaeo oiai, /oi noaeeia?aaeneay
a?oiie?iaea niaaoneeo aiene oa?iaeaea oueai aa?iaineeo aiene,
ianooiaaoeo ia Eaaeac, e aac ?aca?iia yoie a?oiie?iaee e acyoey
Noaeeia?aaea iaeuecy auei i?iaeieaeaoue ianooieaiea /a?ac Eaaeac.
Iaeiaei oneeaiea noaeeia?aaeneie a?oiie?iaee auei caiicaeaaoei e ai?iae
aeoea?iaoeai acyoue ia oaeaeinue. A ?acoeueoaoa iaa a?oiiu a?iee
iaia?oai caaycee: iaeia iiae Noaeeia?aaeii, ae?oaay, ineaaeaiiay – ia
Eaaeaca. Aa?iaineiio eiiaiaeiaaieth, eiia/ii, neaaeiaaei n naiiai ia/aea
iai?aaeoue aeaaiua neeu ia Noaeeia?aae. Ec aiaeeca oiaea aiaauo
aeaenoaee ynii, /oi a yoii neo/aa ai?iae aue au acyo. Iinea yoiai,
i?i/ii iaania/ea ca niaie eceo/eio Aeiia e ieciauey Aieae e io?acaa oai
naiui Eaaeac io «Aieueoie caiee», iaiaoeei-oaoenoneei aieneai neaaeiaaei
ianooiaoue /a?ac Eaaeac ia Aaeo. Yoi iinoaaeei au NNN? a
eaoano?ioe/aneia iieiaeaiea, e, aiciiaeii, ?aoeei au enoiae aieiu a
iieueco Aa?iaiee, oae eae a ?aeiia Aaeo e ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca
aeiauaaeanue ii/oe any iaooue a NNN?, a i?aaieciaaoue i?iecaiaenoai
neioaoe/aneiai ai?th/aai a oiaea aieiu auei ii/oe iaaiciiaeii. E oiio
aea a yoii neo/aa auei au aanueia aa?iyoii anooieaiea a aieio Oo?oeee
(anoanoaaiii, ia noi?iia Aa?iaiee). Iineaaenoaey auoaiienaiiiai a?oaiai
i?in/aoa aeoea?iaoeaa onoaoaeea iaeaiay ia?aa?inea a ethea 1942 a. 11-e
iaiaoeeie a?iee ec E?uia iiae Eaieia?aae, aaea a?oiia a?iee «Naaa?» e
aac iaa noiyea aeinoaoi/ii i?i/ii.

Oaeei ia?acii, yoi auea a?oaaeoay no?aoaae/aneay ioeaea aeoea?ianeiai
eiiaiaeiaaiey, ii nouanoao iioa?yaoay aaeeinoaaiiue oain Aa?iaiee
iiaaaeeoue e ieii/aoaeueii ?aoeaoay enoiae aieiu a iieueco NNN?. A
?acoeueoaoa yoie ioeaee niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea ieii/aoaeueii
ia?aoaaoeea eieoeeaoeao [9,15].

Ioeaea a ii?aaeaeaiee iai?aaeaiey aeaaiiai oaea?a Niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo
nee a ceiiae eaiiaiee 1942 a.. Inaiueth 1942 a. aaia?aeueiia ianooieaiea
E?aniie A?iee i?aaeiieaaaeinue ia oeaio?aeueiii iai?aaeaiee – o Aaeeeeo
Eoe e Niieainea, a oi a?aiy eae a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iii iineaaeiaaei
iiae Noaeeia?aaeii [15]. Iineaaenoaey ecaanoiu.

Aaniethoii a?aaeiaue ieai eaoiae eaiiaiee 1943 a., ni?aaiiue niaaoneeie
aieneaie a naiii ia/aea.

Ioeaea a ii?aaeaeaiee iai?aaeaiey aeaaiiai oaea?a Niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo
nee a eaoithth eaiiaieth 1944 a.. Aeoea?ianeia eiiaiaeiaaiea iaeeaeaei
aeaaiue oaea? E?aniie A?iee ia Oe?aeia, a niaaoneia aaia?aeueiia
ianooieaiea eaoii 1944 a. ia/aeinue nianai a ae?oaii ianoa – a
Aaei?onnee [9].

A aaaonoa-naioya?a 1944 a. aeoea?ianeia eiiaiaeiaaiea ia auaaei a?oiio
a?iee «Naaa?» ec I?eaaeoeee, e yoa a?oiia a?iee auea io?acaia E?aniie
A?ieae io aeaaiuo nee Aa?iaiee. Yoo a?oiio aaconeiaii neaaeiaaei
naiaa?aiaiii auaanoe aeey oneeaiey aa?iaineie iai?iiu ia aeaaiuo
iai?aaeaieyo [8].

Ioeaea a ii?aaeaeaiee iai?aaeaiey aeaaiiai oaea?a Niaaoneeo Aii?oaeaiiuo
nee a ceiithth eaiiaieth 1944/1945 a.. Ceiie 1945 a. aeoea?iaoeu
iaeeaeaee aoi?aeaiey E?aniie A?iee a Aa?iaieth /a?ac Aaia?eth e *aoeth,
oi anoue n thai-ainoiea, a ia naiii aeaea iii i?iecioei i?yii n ainoiea
– /a?ac Iieueoo [15].

Ec neacaiiiai ynii, /oi ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu
(1941-1942 a.) i?aaenoaaeye niaie «eiiaaeeth ioeaie», aeiioneaaiuo e
iaiaoeei-oaoenoneei, e niaaoneei aa?oiaiui eiiaiaeiaaieai. Iaa noi?iiu
aeaenoaiaaee iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueii, «iaiaiyaoenue» o?aiy a?oauie
i?in/aoaie, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo ea?aeeiaeueii iaiye neooaoeeth. Iaeiaei
iineieueeo a ia?aue ia?eiae aieiu aa?iaineea aienea i?aainoiaeeee
niaaoneea e a eiee/anoaaiiii, e a ea/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee, a oaeaea ec-ca
oiai, /oi a ia?aue ia?eiae aieiu a oeaeii eieoeeaoeaie aeaaeaei
aeoea?ianeia eiiaiaeiaaiea, iineaaenoaey ieacaeenue e?aeia oyaeaeuie
aeey Niaaoneiai Nithca.

*oi eanaaony iineaaeothuaai ia?eiaea aieiu (1943 – 1945 aa.), oi
niaaoneia aa?oiaiia eiiaiaeiaaiea naeaeaei niioaaonoaothuea auaiaeu ec
yoeo oaeoia e no?aoaae/aneeo ioeaie aieaa ia niaa?oaei. A aa?iaineia
aa?oiaiia eiiaiaeiaaiea iiiai/eneaiiua iaoaea/e e ii?aaeaiey ia
Ainoi/iii o?iioa oae ie/aio e ia iao/eee, e a?oaaeoea no?aoaae/aneea
i?in/aou i?iaeieaeaee eiaoue ianoi aei naiiai eiioea aieiu.

6. E aii?ino i «i?aaaioeaiii oaea?a»

(ii iioeaai i?iecaaaeaiee A. Noai?iaa)

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iieo/eea iaeioi?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea oi/ea c?aiey,
niaeanii eioi?ie Niaaoneee Nithc aoaeoi au nai aioiaeeny e iaiaaeaieth
ia Aa?iaieth, a Aa?iaiey aoaeoi au iaianea «oi?aaeaeathuee oaea?» ii
aioiaeaoaeny e ianooieaieth E?aniie A?iee. A yoie aa?nee i?e/eiie
ii?aaeaiee noaei aoaeoi au oi, /oi E?aniay A?iey auea iiaeaioiaeaia e
ianooiaoaeueiie, a ia e iai?iieoaeueiie aieia. Iniiaiui i?iaiaeieeii
oaeie oi/ee c?aiey yaeyaony A. A. ?acoi (inaaaeiiei Aeeoi? Noai?ia),
eceiaeeaoee aa a eieaao «Eaaeieie» e «Aeaiue I».

6.1 I /eneaiiii niioiioaiee oaieia e aaeaoeee NNN? e Aa?iaiee

Eae iaeei ec iniiaiuo a?aoiaioia a iieueco naiae aa?nee A. Noai?ia
auaeaeaaao /eneaiiia i?aainoiaenoai NNN? a oaieao e a aaeaoeee.
I?eaiaeeiua ei oeeo?u cia/eoaeueii i?aainoiaeyo oeeo?u, acyoua ec
ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia, e ia aiooatho iniaiai aeiaa?ey. Oae, /enei oaieia a
E?aniie A?iee e eaoo 1941 aiaea ei ioeaieaaaony a aieaa /ai 20 ouny/.

Ioeoaea acyeanue yoa oeeo?a? Ecaanoii, /oi ca aiaeu ia?aie iyoeeaoee
(1928 – 1932 aa.) auei auiouaii 4 ouny/e oaieia e oaieaoie, ca aiaeu
aoi?ie iyoeeaoee (1933-1937 aa.) – 10 ouny/, e n 1 yiaa?y 1939 a. ii 22
ethiy 1941 a. – 7 ouny/ [8]. Anaai – 21 ouny/a oaieia e oaieaoie.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeaiiua A. Noai?iaa iieacuaatho iauaa eiee/anoai
oaieia, i?iecaaaeaiiia a NNN? aei 22 ethiy 1941 a. (aei 1928 a.
i?iecaiaenoaa oaieia a NNN? ia auei). Aeey iieo/aiey /enea aianiiniaiuo
oaieia a E?aniie A?iee ec yoiai /enea iaiaoiaeeii au/anoue oaiee,
iioa?yiiua a ?yaea iaeuo aiei, a oaeaea nienaiiua ec a?iee ec-ca
au?aaioee iioi?ano?nia e ii ae?oaei i?e/eiai. Ii A. Noai?ia «caaue» yoi
naeaeaoue. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a no?ith a E?aniie A?iee e 22 ethiy 1941
a. iaoiaeeeinue ieiei 10 ouny/ oaieia, ec ieo 8 ouny/ – a caiaaeiuo
aiaiiuo ie?oaao [7].

I?aaaea, e 8 ouny/ oaieia a caiaaeiuo aiaiiuo ie?oaao NNN? – iaiiiai
aieueoa, /ai 4300 oaieia, nin?aaeioi/aiiuo Aa?iaieae aeey iaiaaeaiey ia
Niaaoneee Nithc, /oi ia ia?aue acaeyae aiai?eo aoaeoi au a iieueco
aa?nee A. Noai?iaa. Ii ia naiii aeaea aieueoeinoai yoeo oaieia ia iiaei
auoue eniieueciaaii a ianooiaoaeueiie aieia. I?e/eia – eo ii/oe
en/a?iaiiua iioi?ano?nu.

Iioi?ano?n – ia?aaioea iaoeiu n aeaeaaoaeai aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey (eee
naiiai aeaeaaoaey) aei ninoiyiey, eneeth/athuaai aeaeueiaeooth
yenieoaoaoeeth ii oaoie/aneei eee ae?oaei i?e/eiai [6]. Yoi icia/aao,
/oi aei au?aaioee iioi?ano?na aa?iyoiinoue ioeaca aeaeaaoaey iaaaeeea, a
iinea aai au?aaioee ?ene iieiiee auno?i e ?acei aic?anoaao, aneaaenoaea
/aai yenieoaoaoeey iaoeiu noaiiaeony iaaeiionoeiie. A aiaauo oneiaeyo
ioeac aeaeaaoaey oaiea e iniaaiii naiieaoa icia/aao aaconeiaioth aeaaeue
iaoeiu e yeeiaaea, iiyoiio aiaiiay oaoieea, au?aaioaaoay ?ano?n,
iiaeeaaeeo iaycaoaeueiiio nienaieth ec a?iee, eae i?aaeei, ia
iaoaeeieii.

Iioi?ano?nu aeaeaaoaeae eioa?anothuaai ian a?aiaie auee i/aiue iaeu.
Nia?aiaiiiio /aeiaaeo, aa?iyoii, o?oaeii naaa i?aaenoaaeoue, /oi ?ano?n
aieueoeinoaa na?eeiuo niaaoneeo aaeaoeeiiiuo aeaeaaoaeae eiioea
o?eaeoeaouo – ia/aea ni?ieiauo aiaeia ninoaaeye … 70 – 100 /ania [11].
Eeoue o iioi?ia aeey aeaeueiae aaeaoeee ?ano?n aue ianeieueei aieueoa.
*ooue eo/oa auei iieiaeaiea n aeaeaaoaeyie aeey oaieia – ?ano?n
ianeieueei nio /ania.

Eiaiii yoei e iauyniyaony oa ii?aaeathuea aiia?aaeaiea iaiinayuaiiiai
/aeiaaea oaeou, eiaaea, iai?eia?, n 1 yiaa?y 1939 a. ii 22 ethiy 1941 a.
niaaoneie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth auei auiouaii aieaa 17 ouny/ naiieaoia, a a
no?ith E?aniie A?iee e eaoo 1941 a. naiieaoia auei ieiei 11 ouny/.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eoaea-oi en/acee 6 ouny/ naiieaoia iethn ana naiieaou,
i?iecaaaeaiiua aei 1939 a.. Oaeia /enei naiieaoia ia iiaei auoue
iioa?yii a aiyo aaeaeo oiai, /oi aei 1941 a. Niaaoneee Nithc ia aae
aieueoeo aiei. Eoaea en/acee yoe naiieaou? Ioaao i?ino: nienaiu ii
au?aaioea iioi?ano?na.

Iieiaeaiea n oaieaie auei i?eia?ii oaeei aea. Ec 21 ouny/e oaieia,
i?iecaaaeaiiuo a NNN? n 1928 ii 22/VI 1941 a., a no?ith inoaeinue ieiei
10 ouny/ iaoei. Inoaeueiua (ca au/aoii iioa?yiiuo a iaeuo aieiao) auee
nienaiu ii i?e/eia au?aaioee iioi?ano?na.

Iioi?ano?n aiaauo iaoei iaecaaaeii au?aaaouaaaony e a ie?iia a?aiy, oae
eae iaiaoiaeeii aioiaeoue eaae?u oaieenoia e eao/eeia, e
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue eo iiaeaioiaeo ia aeieaeiii o?iaia. Aeey yoiai
nouanoaoao aaeeinoaaiiia n?aaenoai – iinoiyiiay o?aie?iaea, iaiaa?u e
o/aiey. Aac yoiai aieineea /anoe auno?i oa?ytho aianiiniaiinoue.

Ecaanoii, /oi n?aaee iaoiaeyueony a no?ith e eaoo 1941 a. niaaoneeo
oaieia e naiieaoia noa?uo ia?acoeia o aieueoeinoaa iioi?ano?n aue ii/oe
au?aaioai [8].

I?aaeiieiaeei, aioiaeony iaiaaeaiea NNN? ia Aa?iaieth. Iiaeii ee
eniieueciaaoue oaiee e naiieaou, o eioi?uo ?ano?n iioi?a ii/oe
au?aaioai? Ioaao i/aaeaeai – yoe iaoeiu eniieueciaaoue iaeuecy.

I?aaeiieiaeei, iai?eia?, /oi iaeioi?iio niaaoneiio oaieo aei iieiie
au?aaioee ?ano?na inoaeinue 50 /ania. Anee au i?iecioei iaiaaeaiea NNN?
ia Aa?iaieth, oi ?ano?n yoiai oaiea aue au en/a?iai ia /aoaa?oue-iyoue
aeaiue aieiu. Iiaeii, eiia/ii, eaii?e?iaaoue iioi?ano?nu e iiiuoaoueny
eniieueciaaoue yoe iaoeiu «aei ioeaca», ii i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii,
/oiau iioi? iinea au?aaioee ?ano?na i?i?aaioae neieue-ieaoaeue aeieai.
Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaea a i?aaeiieiaeaiee iieiiai ionoonoaey nii?ioeaeaiey
i?ioeaieea (/oi aaeaa ee aiciiaeii) aieueoeinoai niaaoneeo oaieia e
naiieaoia auoei au ec no?iy a oa/aiea ia?aie iaaeaee aieiu.

A aio a iai?iia iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ethaie oaie. ssnii, /oi i?e
iai?iieoaeueiuo aeaenoaeyo ethaie oaie eo/oa, /ai aai ionoonoaea. A
iai?iia iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeaaea iaeni?aaiue oaie. Aai iiaeii
ioaoene?iaaoue a ioaeiia ianoi e aeiiaoue a caieth, eniieuecoy eae
iaiaaoth oi/eo. Aeaiuaaiea a caieth oaieia e eniieueciaaiea eo eae
iaiiaeaeaeiuo iaiaauo oi/ae i?e iai?iieoaeueiuo aeaenoaeyo auei
?ani?ino?aiaii a oa/aiea anae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, iniaaiii
oe?iei yoi i?eiaiyeinue iaioeaie [10].

Aieueoeinoai noa?uo oaieia e naiieaoia auei iioa?yii a ia?aua aeie
aieiu, i?e/ai cia/eoaeueiay eo /anoue – ia a aith. Eo a?inaee
aneaaenoaea iaeni?aaiinoae, a oaeaea ?acae?aee ia cai/anoe aeey ?aiiioa
inoaaoeony iaoei.

I oii cia/aiee, eaeia niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea i?eaeaaaea noa?ui iaoeiai,
e?anii?a/eai aiai?eo oaeie oaeo: aua aei aieiu caianiua /anoe e iei auee
niyou n i?iecaiaenoaa (naie yoe iaoeiu auee niyou n i?iecaiaenoaa aua a
1939 – 1940 aa.). Iioea yoeo aeaenoaee ynai: iaiaoiaeeii auei n?i/ii
ia?aueaaoue i?iecaiaenoai iiauo oaieia (O-34, EA) e naiieaoia (ssE-1,
EAAA-3, IA-2, EE-2). Nio?aiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa cai/anoae e noa?ui oaieai
e naiieaoai, aeaaea a iaeuo ?acia?ao, ?acei caiaaeeeei au ia?aueaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo ia?acoeia oaoieee, iaoaei au aio, ?aniueyy
aiciiaeiinoe i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

A eae ianoiyei aeaei n iioi?ano?naie o aeoea?ianeie a?iee?

Aei 1933 a. a Aa?iaiee ii/oe ia auei aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oieueei n
i?eoiaeii Aeoea?a e aeanoe iaicia/eeny eo?n ia oi?ne?iaaiiia ?acaeoea
aiaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ii yoi – aeaei ia iaeiiai aiaea, oae eae nia/aea
iaiaoiaeeii ia?aiai?oaeiaaoue iiae aiaiiia i?iecaiaenoai nouanoaothuea
caaiaeu e iino?ieoue iiiai iiauo. Oieueei n 1937 a. aiaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai Aa?iaiee i?eia?aei aieueoea ?acia?u. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, any
eiaaoayny a iaiaoeeie a?iee oaieiaay e aaeaoeeiiiay oaoieea auiouaia ia
?aiaa 1937 a..

A 1939 – 1940 a. aeoea?ianeay a?iey aaea oe?ieiianooaaiua aieiu, a
eioi?uo iioa?yea iiiai oaieia e naiieaoia i?iecaiaenoaa 1937 – 1939 a..
E oiio aea aeaaea oa iaoeiu, eioi?ua ia auee oie/oiaeaiu i?ioeaieeii, a
oiaea eioaineaiuo aiaauo aeaenoaee au?aaioaee naie ?ano?n.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e eaoo 1941 a. a aa?iaooa iiaeaaeythuay /anoue oaieiaie
e aaeaoeeiiiie oaoieee auea 1940 – 1941 a. auionea. Oaeaea neaaeoao
o/anoue, /oi aeey iaiaaeaiey ia NNN? nin?aaeioa/eaaeanue iiaaeoay e
eo/oay oaoieea, a ioiineoaeueii noa?ua iaoeiu inoaaaeenue a oueo aeey
ianaiey ieeoiaoeeiiiie neoaeau.

Ec auoaneacaiiiai ynii, /oi i?iaeaia iioi?ano?nia e eciioaiiuo oaieia e
naiieaoia a aa?iaooa ia noiyea eee, ai anyeii neo/aa, noiyea aeaeaei ia
oae ino?i, eae a E?aniie A?iee. A iaoai ?anii?yaeaiee iao noaoenoeee,
?ani?aaeaeythuae oaoieeo, nin?aaeioi/aiioth aeey iaiaaeaiey ia NNN?, ii
aiaeai auionea, ii ynii, /oi iiaeaaeythuay /anoue oaieia e naiieaoia, n
eioi?uie aeoea?iaoeu iaiaee ia Niaaoneee Nithc, auea auiouaia a 1940 e
1941, a e?aeiai neo/aa – a 1939 a..

Oaeei ia?acii, «iiaeaaeythuaa i?aainoiaenoai E?aniie A?iee iaae
aa?iaooii a oaieao e aaeaoeee» yaeyaony auiuneii A. Noai?iaa e ia
niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aiieia anoanoaaiii, /oi ?yaeiaie /eoaoaeue i?iecaaaeaiee Noai?iaa –
o/eoaeue, a?a/, ?aai/ee, nooaeaio – iiiyoey ia eiaao i iioi?ano?nao
aiaauo iaoei oiai a?aiaie. Ii A. Noai?ia neoaeee ioeoea?ii a oaieiauo
aieneao, e oioy au ii yoie i?e/eia ia iia ia yoii ia ciaoue. Oaeaea
iieacaoaeai oaeo i?eaaaeaiey ei oaeueneoeoee?iaaiiuo aeaiiuo i
/eneaiiinoe oaieia a E?aniie A?iee (20 ouny/ aianoi 10).

Iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi caeanue eiaao ianoi ia ioeaea
aeia?iniaanoiiai, ii caaeoaeaeathuaainy enneaaeiaaoaey, a ceiiaia?aiiay
iiiuoea aaanoe a caaeoaeaeaiea iaeiiiaoaioiiai /eoaoaey.

6.2 I iaeioi?uo iiiaioao, eanathueony iaoa?eaeueiie

/anoe e oaeoeee oaieiauo, aaeaoeeiiiuo e a?oeeea?eeneeo

nee NNN? e Aa?iaiee

Ia eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee.

Iniiaiui, ii/oe aaeeinoaaiiui eno?aaeoaeai aa?iaineeo AAN e eaoo 1941 a.
aue «Ianna?oieoo-109A». Yoa iaoeia eiaea nei?inoue 570 ei//an, auea
aii?oaeaia aeaoiy ioeaiaoaie eaeea?a 7,62 ii e 20-ii iooeie [11].

Iniiao niaaoneiai ia?ea eno?aaeoaeae ninoaaeyee E-15, E-153, E-16.
Aaciaay iiaeaeue E-16 eiaea nei?inoue 462 ei//an, aii?oaeaiea – 2
ioeaiaoa eaeea?a 7,62 ii. Iooee ia auei, e iinoaaeoue aa auei iaeuecy.
Iiaea?iece?iaaiiua E-16 ?acaeaaee nei?inoue /ooue aieueoa 500 ei//an
[11]. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii aii?oaeaieth yoe iaoeiu neeueii onooiaee
«Ianna?oieooai». (E niio?eoa, eae «ioae?i» A. Noai?ia «aeieacuaaao»
ia?aoiia. Ii aa?ao niaa?oaiii iaaeinooiioth, ecaeaiioth ia aiaeeeneii
ycuea eieao ieeiio ia ecaanoiiai a?eoaineiai eao/eea (A. Price «World
War II Fighter Conflict») e eae ie a /ai ia auaaei ecaeaeaao ec iaa
noaeaeaiea, /oi ii aii?oaeaieth E-16 i?aainoiaeee IA-109A a 2 ?aca, ia
i?eaiaey, iaaeaeo i?i/ei, i?e yoii eaeie-eeai i?yiie oeeoaou. Ia eiay
aeinooia e yoie eieaa, o?oaeii neacaoue, /oi eiaiii auei a iae ia naiii
aeaea neacaii e auei ee neacaii aiiaua. Ii n?aaiaiea oiai, eaeia
eiie?aoii i?oaeea noiyei ia «Ianna?oieooa» e E-16, n?aco noaaeo ana ia
naie ianoa.) *oi eanaaony nei?inoe, oi aeaaea iineaaeiea iiaeeoeeaoeee
E-16 onooiaee IA-109A aieaa 60 ei//an. Oaeia i?aeiouanoai iaiaoeeeo
iaoei a nei?inoe, oa?aeoa?eciaaaoaany A. Noai?iaui eae
«iacia/eoaeueiia», a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a aicaeooiii aith eiaei
?aoathuaa cia/aiea. Eno?aaeoaeue, eiathuee nei?inoue aieueooth, /ai o
iaoeiu i?ioeaieea (iaaaaeii, ia neieueei), eiaao aiciiaeiinoue aeiaiaoue
naiieao i?ioeaieea e i?aeoe/anee aani?aiyonoaaiii ?anno?aeyoue aai
ncaaee. A i?eioeeia, i/aiue aieueoia i?aeiouanoai iaae i?ioeaieeii
aeaaaei i?aainoiaenoai a nei?inoe aeaaea ia 20 – 30 ei// [11].

A aaciaay iiaeaeue E-16 onooiaea a nei?inoe aeaaea iaiaoeeei
aiiaa?aee?iaueeai. Yooaeoeaii ai?ioueny n ieie i?e iiiiue yoie iaoeiu
auei iaaiciiaeii. Inoaaaeinue a no?ith E?aniie A?iee iaeioi?ia
eiee/anoai iaoei E-15 e E-153, oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?uo auee aua ooaea.

Iiaua niaaoneea eno?aaeoaee (ssE-1, EaAA-3) ii naiei ea/anoaai auee
i?eia?ii ?aaiu IA-109A. Iie eiaee iooee iaeeiaeiaiai eaeea?a (20 ii),
?aaiia /enei ioeaiaoia ?aaiiai eaeea?a (2 ii 7,62 ii) e ii/oe ?aaioth
nei?inoue. Iaeiaei, iaiaoeeee eno?aaeoaeue aue nicaeai a 1935 aiaeo e e
1941 aiaeo i?aeoe/anee en/a?iae aiciiaeiinoe aeey iiaea?iecaoeee.
Niaaoneea iaoeiu auee nicaeaiu a 1939 – 1940 aa. e eiaee cia/eoaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey oeo/oaiey iooai n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoeo oneeee
eiino?oeoi?ia e aac i?eioeeieaeueiie niaiu oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa
[11].

Ioaeaeueii neaaeoao neacaoue ia eno?aaeoaeyo IeA-3. I?e nicaeaiee yoie
iaoeiu n/eoaeinue, /oi aicaeooiay aieia aoaeao aanoenue ia aieueoeo
aunioao. IeA-3 eiae i?aeiouanoai ia?aae IA-109A ia oieueei ii aunioa e
nei?inoe, ii e ii aii?oaeaieth. Iaeiaei n ia/aeii aieiu ieacaeinue, /oi
IA-109A ecaaaaee eaoaoue ia oao aunioao, aaea iie auee neaaaa IeAia.
Ieacaeinue, /oi oieueei ia aieueoeo aunioao IeA-3 i?aainoiaeee a
nei?inoe «Ianna?oieoo», a ia iaeuo aunioao ii yoiai i?aeiouanoaa ia
eiae. E?iia oiai, IeA aue oyaeaeaa «Ianna?oieooa» e i?iea?uaae aio a
iaiaa?aiiinoe. A eoiaa, yoio naiieao ieacaeny iaiiiai ooaea iaiaoeeiai e
a ieoya?a 1941 a. aue niyo n i?iecaiaenoaa [11]. Oaeei ia?acii,
nicaeaiea e ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai eno?aaeoaey IeA-3 auei e?oiiie
ioeaeie niaaoneie eiino?oeoi?neie iieeoeee. O A. Noai?iaa neo/ae n
?ac?aaioeie IeA-3 ia oiiieiaaony, oae eae oaycaoue yoo ioeaeo n
iiaeaioiaeie NNN? e aa?anneaiie aieia, a oaeaea iauyaeoue yoio naiieao
«naiieaoii iaiaaeaiey», ii-aeaeeiiio, iaaiciiaeii.

A eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee aieueoaa cia/aiea, /ai a ae?oaeo ?iaeao
aiene, eiaao aiaaie iiuo eaoiiai ninoaaa. ssnii, /oi a ioiioaiee
iiuoiinoe eao/eeia aa?iaineay eno?aaeoaeueiay aaeaoeey i?aainoiaeeea
niaaoneoth.

A. Noai?ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi niaaoneia ?oeiaiaenoai ioaiaeeei
eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue, ?ann/eouaay aoaeoi au ia
oi, /oi i?e iaiaaeaiee ia Aa?iaieth any aa aaeaoeey aoaeao oie/oiaeaia
ia ay?iae?iiao. Ii aai aa?nee, eao/eeia eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee ia
aioiaeee e aaaeaieth aicaeooiuo aiaa n i?ioeaieeii, a eiaaoeany
eno?aaeoaee iaia/aeinue eniieueciaaoue eae ooo?iiaeee.

I?ioea yoie aa?nee eiathony nouanoaaiiua aic?aaeaiey, ii nouanoao
iieiinoueth aa ii?iaa?aathuea.

Ai-ia?auo, oie/oiaeaiea a?aaeaneie aaeaoeee ia ay?iae?iiao aiciiaeii
oieueei i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo e aeaeaei ia anaaaea oaeaaony.
Ai-aoi?uo, aeaaea a naiii aeaaii?eyoiii neo/aa aiacaiiui oaea?ii ii
ay?iae?iiai iiaeao auoue oie/oiaeaia aaeaoeey oieueei ia?aie eeiee, a
inoaeueiua naiieaou iiaeieioony a aicaeoo. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii
i?eaanoe oaea? iaiaoeeie aaeaoeee ii niaaoneei ay?iae?iiai ia ?annaaoa
22 ethiy 1941 a., eioi?ue, ii iauaio iiaieth, aue i/aiue oaea/ai. Yoa
oaea/a ninoiyea a oie/oiaeaiee oieueei 900 naiieaoia, a inoaeueiua
oniaee iiaeiyoueny a aicaeoo. N?aaiei yoi /enei n eiee/anoaii naiieaoia
a caiaaeiuo aiaiiuo ie?oaao NNN? – aieaa 7 ouny/, e noaiao iiiyoii, /oi
oaea? ii ay?iae?iiai eiae eeoue oaeoe/aneia cia/aiea, a aeaaiay
oyaeanoue caaiaaaiey ainiiaenoaa a aicaeooa eaaea ia iea/e
eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee.

Eoae, oie/oiaeaiea aaeaoeee i?ioeaieea ia ay?iae?iiao eiaao eeoue
aniiiiaaoaeueiia cia/aiea, a iieiia caaiaaaiea ainiiaenoaa a aicaeooa
iaiuneeii aac aieueoeo aicaeooiuo n?aaeaiee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey
aaaeaiey ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee iaiaoiaeeia neeueiay eiee/anoaaiii e
ea/anoaaiii eno?aaeoaeueiay aaeaoeey.

Oaeiai iiaiey i?eaea?aeeaaeanue e niaaoneay aiaiiay oai?ey [9].

Iauaecaanoii, /oi aa?iaineay a?iey auea «a?ieae iaiaaeaiey». Oae aio,
iaiaoeeea AAN eiaee eno?aaeoaeueioth aaeaoeeth ia i?inoi neeueioth, a ia
oio ia?eiae eo/ooth a ie?a.

*oi eanaaony ooaa?aeaeaiee A. Noai?iaa i oii, /oi eao/eeia
eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee ia aioiaeee e aaaeaieth aicaeooiuo aiaa n
i?ioeaieeii, oi yoi auneacuaaiea, iyaei aiai?y, iaiainiiaaiii e
aacaeieacaoaeueii. I?eaaaeai, iai?eia?, oeeo?u iioa?ue iaiaoeeie
aaeaoeee a ia?eiae n 22 ethiy ii 19 ethey 1941 a. (o. a. ca ia?aua 4
iaaeaee aieiu). Yoe iioa?e ninoaaeee 1284 naiieaoa, o. a. 26% io eo
ia?aiia/aeueiie /eneaiiinoe, e iiaeaaeythuay eo /anoue auea oie/oiaeaia
niaaoneeie eao/eeaie – eno?aaeoaeyie [11]. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeaioiaea
eaoiiai ninoaaa eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee e aiyi a aicaeooa auea aeaeaei
ia ioeaaie. E?iia oiai, ec /enea naiieaoia iiauo ia?acoeia, auiouaiiuo
niaaoneie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth aei aieiu, aieaa 55% ninoaaeyee eno?aaeoaee
(aieaa 2000 ec 3719) [12]. Iaoaeaee oaeie aeoeaio ia auionea eiaiii
iiaaeoeo eno?aaeoaeae aue naeaeai aeey oiai, /oiau … eniieueciaaoue eo
oieueei a ea/anoaa o?aoueani?oiuo ooo?iiaeeia? A?yae ee.

Iaeiaei, iaiiiyoii, ca/ai aiiaua A. Noai?iao iiiaaeiaeeinue oaeia
ooaa?aeaeaiea. Aaaeue, eae auei oeacaii auoa, ia naiii aeaea neeueiay
eno?aaeoaeueiay aaeaoeey iaiaoiaeeia ia oieueei aeey iai?iiu, ii e aeey
aaaeaiey aa?anneaiie aieiu. Aio, ii eiaeea aauae, neaaeiaaei iiiuoaoueny
oaycaoue aieiaiea niaaoneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa e auioneo iiauo eno?aaeoaeae
iiaeaioiaeie iaiaaeaiey ia Aa?iaieth, a ia iauyaeyoue «ioeaaie»
iiaeaioiaeo niaaoneeo eao/eeia e aiyi a aicaeooa e oeacuaaoue ia oi, /oi
niaaoneea eno?aaeoaee aeieaeiu auee auoue eniieueciaaiu oieueei aeey
ooo?iiaee iacaiiuo oeaeae. Iaeiaei ii ia iioae ia yoi, aeaeeii, a iiaiia
ca nainaoeeiiiinoueth iaoa?eaea, ?ann/eouaay ia oi, /oi e a oii aeaea, a
eaeii iii anoue, aai «aeieacaoaeuenoai» aoaeao aeinoaoi/ii oaaaeeoaeueii
aeey ethaeae, ciathueo enoi?eth a iauaia ia aieueoa eo?na n?aaeiae oeieu
(a oaeeo iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai).

I o?iioiaie aiiaa?aee?iai/iie e ooo?iiaie aaeaoeee.

Iniiaiui aiiaa?aee?iaueeii aa?iaineeo AAN aue naiieao «THiea?n-88». Ii
naiei oaeoeei-oaoie/aneei aeaiiui yoi aue aiieia nia?aiaiiue
aiiaa?aee?iauee. E?iia oiai, eiaeenue oaeaea aiiaa?aee?iaueee
«Aei?iuea-217» e «Oaeieaeue-111». Ec ieo ia?aue ii oaoie/aneei aeaiiui
aue aeaaea ianeieueei eo/oa, /ai «THiea?n-88», a aoi?ie aue neeueii
onoa?aaoei. Yoeo naiieaoia ia niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa auei
ioiineoaeueii iaiiiai, e iniiaiui aiiaa?aee?iaueeii aue «THiea?n-88».
Eiaeny oaeaea ieee?othuee aiiaa?aee?iauee «THiea?n-87». Yoa iaoeia auea
neeueii onoa?aaoae ii naiei oaoie/aneei oa?aeoa?enoeeai, iaeiaei aa
i?eiaiaiea a ea/anoaa ooo?iiaeea i?e ionoonoaee i?ioeaiaeaenoaey
eno?aaeoaeueiie aaeaoeee i?ioeaieea aeaaaei iaieioea ?acoeueoaou [11].

Iiaeaaeythuoth /anoue aiiaa?aee?iaueeia E?aniie A?iee ninoaaeyee noa?ua
naiieaou oeia OA-3 e NA, oaeoeei-oaoie/aneea aeaiiua yoeo iaoei auee
i/aiue ieceeie. A 1939 – 1940 aa. auee ?ac?aaioaiu aiiaa?aee?iauee IA-2
e ooo?iiaee EE-2. Yoe iaoeiu e eaoo 1941 a. oaea iinooieee ia
aii?oaeaiea niaaoneeo AAN, ii eo auei aua i/aiue iaei (aei aieiu auei
auiouaii 460 aiiaa?aee?iaueeia IA-2 e 249 ooo?iiaeeia EE-2) [12].

Ia?aiia/aeueii EE-2 aue nicaeai a aeaooianoiii aa?eaioa. Yeeiaae ninoiye
ec 2-o /aeiaae – ieeioa e no?aeea-?aaeenoa. Iineaaeiee oi?aaeye
oainoiaui ioeaiaoii, i?aaeiacia/aiiui aeey caueou iaoeiu ncaaee. Iaeiaei
ii ianoiyieth E. A. Noaeeia N. A. Eeuethoei ia?aaeaeae ooo?iiaee a
iaeiiianoiue, i?e yoii aue niyo ioeaiao aeey caueou caaeiae iieonoa?u.
Iinea ia/aea aieiu auynieeinue, /oi aoaea a?aaeaneeo eno?aaeoaeae ncaaee
aeiaieueii yooaeoeaia aeey ai?ueau n yoeie iaoeiaie, aneaaenoaea /aai
ooo?iiaua aaeaoeeiiiua /anoe noaee ianoe iioa?e. A eoiaa i?eoeinue a
oiaea aieiu niiaa caionoeoue a i?iecaiaenoai aeaooianoiue aa?eaio
naiieaoa EE-2.

A. Noai?ia ooaa?aeaeaao, e ia ia?aue acaeyae ni?aaaaeeeai, /oi
ia?aaeaeea yoiai ooo?iiaeea ec aeaooianoiiai a iaeiiianoiue e niyoea
ioeaiaoa aeey caueou caaeiae iieonoa?u auea naycaia n oai, /oi
?ann/eouaaeinue eniieueciaaoue yoio naiieao i?e ionoonoaee a aicaeooa
a?aaeaneeo eno?aaeoaeae, /oi aoaeoi au naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ?an/aoa ia
eniieueciaaiea yoie iaoeiu oieueei a ianooiaoaeueiie aieia e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, i iiaeaioiaea iaiaaeaiey NNN? ia Aa?iaieth. Oae ee yoi?

Aeaei a oii, /oi naiieao EE-2 aue iieiinoueth a?iie?iaaiiui. Iiiaaeaiea
ioeue ethaiai eaeea?a a ethaoth /anoue yoiai ooo?iiaeea auei
ioiineoaeueii aaciianii. Oieueei iiiaaeaiea nia?yaea aaeaoeeiiiie eee
caieoiie iooee iiaei aa iia?aaeeoue eee auaanoe ec no?iy.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, caaeiee ioeaiao aiieia iia auoue i?eciai eceeoiae
i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoueth.

Ia?aaeaeea naiieaoa ec aeaooianoiiai a iaeiiianoiue, a i?eioeeia,
aeaaaea neaaeothuea i?aeiouanoaa. Ai-ia?auo, ?aaeeeaeueii nieaeaeanue
iieaoiay ianna naiieaoa ca n/ao iannu ianoa no?aeea-?aaeenoa, i?oaeey e
aiaeiiieaeoa, a oaeaea aana naiiai no?aeea-?aaeenoa. Oaeia nieaeaiea
iannu naiieaoa i?e oii aea naiii aeaeaaoaea icia/aea nouanoaaiioth
i?eaaaeo a nei?inoe e aeaeueiinoe naiieaoa. E?iia oiai, ionoonoaea
aoi?iai «oiia?y» aeey no?aeea-?aaeenoa oeo/oaei ay?iaeeiaie/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoeiu, /oi oaeaea aeaaaei iaeioi?ia aic?anoaiea
nei?inoe, aeaeueiinoe e iaiaa?aiiinoe.

?anniio?aiea iieiaeeoaeueiuo e io?eoeaoaeueiuo noi?ii ia?aaeaeee
aeaooianoiiai ooo?iiaeea EE-2 a iaeiiianoiue i?iaaaeaii a oaae. 6.

Oaaeeoea 6.

Iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu ia?aaeaeee aeaooianoiiai
ooo?iiaeea EE-2 a iaeiiianoiue.

Iieiaeeoaeueiua noi?iiu

Io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu

1. Oaaee/aiea aeaeueiinoe iieaoa naiieaoa – iieacii a ethaii neo/aa. 1.
Niyoea ioeaiaoa aeey iai?iiu caaeiae iieonoa?u naiieaoa oiaiueoeei
nii?ioeaeyaiinoue iaoeiu a?aaeaneei eno?aaeoaeyi.

2. Oaaee/aiea nei?inoe e iaiaa?aiiinoe – nieaeaei aiciiaeiinoue
ii?aaeaiey iaoeiu ec iacaiiuo caieoiuo i?oaeee e oaeaea ianeieueei
oeo/oaei nii?ioeaeyaiinoue a?aaeaneei eno?aaeoaeyi.

3. Nieaeaeanue iio?aaiinoue a iao/aiiii eaoiii ninoaaa ca n/ao
iaioaeiinoe aoi?iai /aeiaaea ia naiieaoa.

Eae aeaeii, nouanoaotho nouanoaaiiua a?aoiaiou e ca, e i?ioea ia?aaeaeee
ooo?iiaeea EE-2 ec aeaooianoiiai a iaeiiianoiue.

Iiuo aieiu iieacae, /oi a?aoiaiou «ca» ia oi /oiau ia aa?iu, ii
iaaeinoaoi/iu. Ieacaeinue, /oi aeaenoaea oaeoi?a «i?ioea» ia?aaaoeaaao
aeaenoaea anao oaeoi?ia «ca», e iiyoiio a nayce n iioa?yie a ooo?iiaie
aaeaoeee auei ?aoaii aa?iooueny e aeaooianoiiio aa?eaioo naiieaoa.

Iiaeii ee aeiionoeoue, /oi ia?aaeaeea EE-2 auea aucaaia ioeaeie, a ia
?an/aoii ia aaaeaiea aa?anneaiie aieiu i?e naiai i?aainoiaenoaa a
aicaeooa? Aea, iiaeii! Aaaeue caeanue eiaao ianoi neo/ae, eiaaea e ca, e
i?ioea ia?aaeaeee eiatho ianoi neeueiua a?aoiaiou. Iiiyoii, /oi a ie?iia
a?aiy, i?e ionoonoaee iiuoa aiaaiai i?eiaiaiey naiieaoia, iaaiciiaeii
oi/ii ioeaieoue «aan», aaaeiinoue eaaeaeiai a?aoiaioa «ca» eee «i?ioea»,
a iiaeii oieueei i?eaeeceoaeueii. Oae /oi a yoii neo/aa ioeaee a?iaea
oie, eioi?ay auea aeiiouaia, aiieia aiciiaeiu.

Auee e ae?oaea ioeaee a eiino?oeoeee EE-2, iaia?oaeeaoeany oieueei iinea
ia/aea aieiu. Iai?eia?, ea/anoai a?iianoaeea aeey oiia?y eao/eea aei
aieiu ia aucuaaei niiiaiee. Iaeiaei n ia/aeii aieiu yoe noaeea noaee
iieo/aoue ia aeaa-o?e, a iiiaea aeanyoee ioeaauo e aeaaea nia?yaeiuo
oaea?ia. Auynieeinue, /oi io yoiai noaeei oa?yei i?ic?a/iinoue, ec-ca
/aai naiieaou noaiiaeeenue iaaianiiniaiuie [11]. Iiaia a?iianoaeei
i?eoeinue ?ac?aaaouaaoue a iiaea?iii ii?yaeea. Eacaeinue au, ioaeii auei
i?e eniuoaieyo aei aieiu i?iaanoe ianne?iaaiiue iano?ae oioy au iaeiiai
ia?acoea noaeea, iaeiaei yoiai naeaeaii ia auei. ssnii, /oi oae oaeie
aeaoaeo ia aue aeiiouai niaaoneei ?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaeiaia?aiii a nayce n
iiaeaioiaeie ianooiaoaeueiie aieiu. Iiiyoii, /oi yoi eiaiii i?in/ao,
i?e/ai aeinoaoi/ii a?oaue.

E?iia oiai, ia iaaei caauaaoue e i oii, /oi ana-oaee yoio naiieao aue
ia?aiia/aeueii nicaeai a aeaooianoiii aa?eaioa. N. A. Eeuethoei
nii?ioeaeyeny oeacaieth Noaeeia ia?aaeaeaoue naiieao a iaeiiianoiue e
nii?ee n iei ii yoiio iiaiaeo [12]. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ionoonoaiaaea
ia?aiia/aeueiay onoaiiaea ia nicaeaiea «naiieaoa iaiaaeaiey», /oi
aiai?eo oaea i iiiaii. Aaaeue anee au aioiaeeanue aa?anneaiay aieia
i?ioea Aa?iaiee, nei?aa anaai ia?aae N. A. Eeuethoeiui n?aco auea au
iinoaaeaia caaea/a nicaeaiey iaeiiianoiiai naiieaoa. A oaeii neo/aa ia
auei au cao?a/aii a?aiy ia ia?aaeaeeo oaea aioiaiai naiieaoa e aai
iiaeii auei au ?aiueoa caionoeoue a i?iecaiaenoai. Ia aannii?iia
niia?aaeaiea, ii ana oaee…

Ii-aeaeeiiio, iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi i/a?aaeiia «aeieacaoaeuenoai»
aa?anneaiuo iaia?aiee Niaaoneiai Nithca, iniiaaiiia ia oaoie/aneeo
aeaiiuo ooo?iiaeea EE-2, yaeyaony ieiaeii aiia?aaeaiey A. Noai?iaa.

Ni?aaaaeeeainoe ?aaee neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi caeanue a ioee/ea io
i?aaeuaeoueo neo/aaa e aaoi?neay oi/ea c?aiey niiieoaeueia, eai
iie?aaony «anaai eeoue» ia eiae/aneea niia?aaeaiey. Iaeiaei e
iaeiicia/ii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ia?aaeaeea ooo?iiaeea EE-2 ec
aeaooianoiiai aa?eaioa a iaeiiianoiue naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iiaeaioiaea
iaiaaeaiey NNN? ia Aa?iaieth, iao aaniethoii ieeaeeo iniiaaiee.

Oaeaea ecaanoii, /oi a 1939 – 1940 aa. ?ac?aaaouaaeenue ia a?iie?iaaiiua
iaeiiianoiua ooo?iiaeee aieaa i?inouo eiino?oeoeee, /ai EE-2, iiae
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui eiaeiaui iacaaieai «Eaaiia». A. Noai?ia neeiiai
oniao?eaaoue a yoii aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi Niaaoneee Nithc aioiaeeny
aanoe aa?anneaioth aieio. Iiaeao auoue, ii i?aa?

A 1939 a., iinea ieii/aiey aieiu a Eniaiee, auyaeaoae i?aainoiaenoai
iiauo ia?acoeia aeoea?ianeie oaoieee iaae ioa/anoaaiiie, niaaoneia
i?aaeoaeuenoai ii?o/eei ?aciui eiino?oeoi?ai caaea/o nicaeaiey aieueoiai
eiee/anoaa ia?acoeia naiieaoia ?aciiai oeia. I?aaeiieaaaeinue
aiineaaenoaee ec aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iiauo ia?acoeia naiieaoia
(ianeieueeeo aeanyoeia) aua?aoue eo/oea. Eiieo?aioeey! Ooo?iiaeee, e?iia
Eeuethoeia, eiino?oe?iaaee, iai?eia?, Iaeiai e Nooie [12]. Oi, /oi o
anao, e?iia Eeuethoeia, naiieaou ieacaeenue ia a?iie?iaaiiuie, aiieia
anoanoaaiii – a ie?iaie i?aeoeea oiaaea aua ia auei neo/aaa a?iie?iaaiey
naiieaoia, ia auei e oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey eaaeie aaeaoeeiiiie a?iie.
Oaeiaay eiaeanue eeoue a EA Eeuethoeia. Ieaaea a ie?a ia nicaeaaaeenue e
iiiaiianoiua ooo?iiaeee.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oio oaeo, /oi naiieaou Iaeiaia e Nooiai auee
iaeiiianoiuie e ia a?iie?iaaiiuie, ia iiaeao neoaeeoue aeieacaoaeuenoaii
oiai, /oi yoe iaoeiu i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey aa?anneaiie aieiu. Iiaeii
ni?ineoue: a eae aea eniieueciaaoue oaeea ooo?iiaeee a iai?iieoaeueiie
aieia? Ioaao: aieueoeie a?oiiaie iiae io?aiie eno?aaeoaeae aeey
io?aaeaiey a?aaeaneeo aoae ia aaaeiaeoeo o/anoeao.

Oae eee eia/a, ec anao ia?acoeia ooo?iiaeeia, nicaeaiiuo a 1939 – 1940
aa., a ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai aue caiouai eiaiii naiieao EE-2, a ieeaeie
ia «Eaaiia». Inoaeueiua iiaeaee ooo?iiaeeia na?eeii ia i?iecaiaeeeenue,
e ia i?enoonoaiaaee a neieue-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoaao a
aiaiii-aicaeooiuo neeao NNN?.

Ooaa?aeaeaiea A. Noai?iaa i iiaeaioiaea auionea ooo?iiaeeia «Eaaiia» a
ia?iiiuo eiee/anoaao – yaiue i?eia? «eeoa?aoo?iiai oai?/anoaa». Anee
iniiaiay ?ieue a aoaeouae aa?anneaiie aieia ioaiaeeeanue ooo?iiaeeo
«Eaaiia», a ia EE-2, oi eae iauynieoue oio oaeo, /oi ii ninoiyieth ia 22
ethiy 1941 a. EE-2 iaoiaeeeny a ianniaii i?iecaiaenoaa, a «Eaaiia» –
iao? Iniaaiii anee aniiiieoue, /oi A. Noai?ia eaoaai?e/anee
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iaiaaeaiea NNN? ia Aa?iaieth auei iacia/aii ia 6 ethey
1941 a.. Iaoaeaee iiaeii auei caionoeoue «Eaaiia» a ianniaia
i?iecaiaenoai, auionoeoue aai a cia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoaao e
noi?ie?iaaoue ec ieo aaeaoeeiiiua /anoe ca … 2 iaaeaee!? Yoi aaaeue
/aiooa eaeay-oi. I?aaaea, A. Noai?ia ieoao, /oi eo iniiaiia
i?iecaiaenoai iaia/aeinue oaea a oiaea aieiu, ii ana ?aaii aeey
i?aaiecaoeee ianniaiai auionea yoiai naiieaoa ioaeai aue ia ianyoe e
aeaaea ia aeaa. E ca/ai aiiaua ioaeii i?iecaiaeeoue yoio «Eaaiia»,
eiaaea anoue eoaea aieaa niaa?oaiiue EE-2, oaea caiouaiiue a
i?iecaiaenoai, ca/ai ?acaeaaeaaoue oneeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe? I?aaaea, EE-2
aue iaiiiai neiaeiaa a i?iecaiaenoaa, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?e anao i?i/eo
?aaiua aai auione aue au iaiueoa, ii e a aith EE-2 aue au iaiiiai
oeaiiaa, /ai «Eaaiia».

A. Noai?ia i?eaiaeeo noaoenoeeo iiaeaioiaee a ia?iiiuo eiee/anoaao
ieeioia a eaoiuo oeieao NNN? (ii aai aeaiiui, aieaa 100 ouny/), eioi?uo
aoaeoi au aioiaeee aeey ieeioe?iaaiey ooo?iiaeea «Eaaiia». Iaeiaei a
oaenoa iao aaniethoii ieeaeeo oeacaiee ia oi, ec eaeeo enoi/ieeia acyoa
ei yoa noaoenoeea. *enei, i?eaaaeaiiia Noai?iaui, ia aiooaao aeiaa?ey,
iniaaiii anee aniiiieoue, /oi eiathony e aeieacaiu oaeou i?yiie e a?oaie
oaeueneoeeaoeee ei oeeo?iauo aeaiiuo (eae auei, iai?eia?, n /eneii
oaieia a E?aniie A?iee, ni. auoa). Iu i?aaeiieaaaai, /oi /enei
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo a NNN? ieeioia, i?eaiaeeiuo a eieaa «Aeaiue I», aiieia
aiciiaeii, auaeoiaii naiei A. Noai?iaui.

Oaeei ia?acii, nicaeaiea a NNN? i?iaeoia e iiuoiuo ia?acoeia ooo?iiaeeia
«Eaaiia» ia naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaee/ee aa?anneaiuo iaia?aiee o
niaaoneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa.

I no?aoaae/aneie aaeaoeee.

A. Noai?ia oeacuaaao, /oi no?aoaae/aneay aaeaoeey eiaea a
?anniao?eaaaiue ia?eiae i/aiue aieueoia cia/aiea. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
ainoaea?noai, iaeeaeathuaa aa?annee ni noi?iiu ae?oaiai ainoaea?noaa e
aioiayuaany e iai?iia, aeieaeii auei oaeaeyoue i?aeiouanoaaiiia aieiaiea
no?ieoaeuenoao oeioia no?aoaae/aneeo aiiaa?aee?iaueeia, /oiau n ia/aeii
aieiu ?acaiiaeoue eeth/aaua aiaiiua caaiaeu i?ioeaieea e oai naiui
inoaaeoue aa a?ieth aac i?oaeey, a ainoaea?noai, aioiayuaa aa?anneaioth
aieio, aeieaeii, iaiai?io i?iecaiaeeoue aieueoia eiee/anoai eaaeie
o?iioiaie aaeaoeee aeey oiai, /oiau ?acaeoue i?ioeaieea ia o?iioa e a
oiaea auno?iai i?iaeaeaeaiey caoaaoeoue caaiaeu i?ioeaieea
aeaenoaothueie. Ii aai iiaieth, aeey iai?iiu Niaaoneee Nithc aeieaeai
aue no?ieoue i?aeiouanoaaiii oyaeaeua aiiaa?aee?iaueee, /oiau n ia/aeii
aieiu ia/aoue nenoaiaoe/aneea aiiaa?aee?iaee a?aaeaneeo aiaiiuo caaiaeia
e inoaaeoue aa a?ieth aac i?oaeey. A oaeii neo/aa, «iiea iaiaoeeay a?iey
aeieaeao aei Iineau, yoi /oi aea n Aa?iaieae-oi aoaeao?» – aii?ioaao A.
Noai?ia. I?eciaaay, /oi no?aoaae/aneea aiiaa?aee?iaee aiciiaeiu oieueei
n i/aiue aieueoie auniou (ec-ca iaiy i?ioeaiaicaeooiie iai?iiu) e
neaaeiaaoaeueii, «ii ieiuaaeyi», n i/aiue iaeie oi/iinoueth
aiiaiiaoaiey, ii oai ia iaiaa ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi aa?iaineay aiaiiay
yeiiiieea oaeeie aiiaa?aee?iaeaie auea au auno?i ?ac?ooaia. Iaeiaei
ia?aae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiie niaaoneia ?oeiaiaenoai oaeaeyei
aieiaiea i?aeiouanoaaiii iino?ieea eaaeie o?iioiaie aaeaoeee, a
no?aoaae/aneie aaeaoeee ioaiaeeeinue aoi?inoaiaiiay ?ieue, e yoio oaeo
ii iauyaeyao aeieacaoaeuenoaii iaia?aiey NNN? aanoe aa?anneaioth aieio.

E n/anoueth, a oiaea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu auee neo/ae i?eiaiaiey
aieueoeo oeioia no?aoaae/aneeo aiiaa?aee?iaueeia eiaiii n oaie oeaeyie,
i eioi?uo ieoao A. Noai?ia, e iiaeii ia iniiaaiee oaa?aei onoaiiaeaiiuo
oaeoia ioeaieoue eo aeaenoaeoaeueioth yooaeoeaiinoue. N ia?oa 1942 a.
aiaeeeneea, a caoai e aia?eeaineea oyaeaeua aiiaa?aee?iaueee ia/aee
ianne?iaaiiia aiiaa?aee?iai/iia ianooieaiea ia Aa?iaieth, oeaeue
eioi?iai naiaeeeanue e ?ac?ooaieth aiaiiuo caaiaeia e iauaeoia, a oaeaea
e iiae?uao aeooa iaiaoeeiai ianaeaiey. A iaeaoao o/anoaiaaee, eae
i?aaeei, aieaa ouny/e oyaeaeuo aiiaa?aee?iaueeia, e na?anuaaeinue i?e
yoii 2 – 4 ouny/e oiii aiia. Iai?eia?, oeie/iue iaeao eiae ianoi 13
ieoya?y 1944 a., eiaaea ieiei 1000 aiaeeeneeo oyaeaeuo aiiaa?aee?iaueeia
na?ineee ia Aeoenao?a aieaa 4,5 ouny/ oiii aiia [2].

Ii aeaiiui, iioaeeeiaaiiui a o?oaea aiaeeeneeo enneaaeiaaoaeae *.
Aaanoa?a e I. O?yieeaiaea (eceaaaaony ii [11]), iioa?e aa?iaineiai
aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a ?acoeueoaoa aiiaa?aee?iaie nithciie aaeaoeee
ninoaaeee: a ia?aie iieiaeia 1943 a. – 3,2%, ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1943 a.
– 6,9%, a ia?aie iieiaeia 1944 a. – 2,4% (caeanue ca 100% i?eiyo
o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ue eiae au ianoi i?e ionoonoaee iaeaoia ca
enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae, a eiee/anoai ?aaeueii i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
?aaii (100 – O)%, aaea O – i?eaaaeaiiua auoa oeeo?u). Yoi yaii ia oi, i
/ai ieoao A. Noai?ia! Ii iiaeao auoue, i?aaeiieaaaaiue o?iaaiue
i?iecaiaenoaa «aac iaeaoia» aue ?ann/eoai iaaa?ii? ?anniio?ei
i?iecaiaenoai, iai?eia?, naiieaoia. A 1941 a. aa?iaineia i?iecaiaenoai
naiieaoia (n ieeoie?iaaiiuie no?aiaie e nithcieeaie) ninoaaeei ieiei 11
ouny/, a 1942 a. – 14,7 ouny/, a 1943 a. – ieiei 25 ouny/, a 1944 a. –
37,9 ouny/. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiiaa?aee?iaee nithcieeia ia iiiaoaee
iaiaoeeiio aiaiiiio i?iecaiaenoao auno?i e ieaiiia?ii ?anoe, a cia/eo, e
i?eaaaeaiiua oeeo?u iioa?ue aa?iu, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ii ii?yaeeo
aaee/eiu. ssnii, /oi iioa?e ninoaaeee ia 80%, ia 50 e aeaaea ia 20.

?ac?ooaiiua iinea iaeaoia caaiaeu auno?i ainnoaiaaeeaaeenue. A ea/anoaa
i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe ia?aue iaeao nithciie aaeaoeee ia Ethaae 29
ia?oa 1942 a.. Oioy ai?iae aue «oniaoii niaeaeai» (i?eiaiyeenue e
caaeeaaoaeueiua aiiau), nionoy iaaeaeth i?iecaiaenoai a ai?iaea
aeinoeaei 90% io o?iaiy «aei iaeaoa» [11].

I?aaaea, ie?iia ianaeaiea ia?aiineea iaeaou aeiaieueii aieaciaiii aaeaeo
ianniaiai ?ac?ooaiey aeeeeu (iie no?aaeaee a iniiaiii io e?aeia ieceie
oi/iinoe aiiaiiaoaiey ii caaiaeai), iaeiaei aianoi iaeeaeaaiiai
«iaaeaiey aeooa» eiaei ianoi i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiia – iceiaeaiea
iaiaoeeiai ia?iaea e ?ino aai ?aoeiinoe i?iaeieaeaoue aieio.
*eneaiiinoue iiaeaoeo io aiia ia ninoaaeyea neieue-ieaoaeue nouanoaaiiie
/anoe ianaeaiey Aa?iaiee.

A 1944 a. nithciay no?aoaae/aneay aaeaoeey na?ineea ia oa??eoi?eth
Aa?iaiee aieaa ieeeeiia oiii aiia, iaeiaei iaianoe nouanoaaiiue oua?a aa
aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneiio iioaioeeaeo ia niiaea [11].

Oaeei ia?acii, iiuo aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu iieacae, /oi no?ieoaeuenoai a
aieueoeo eiee/anoaao oyaeaeuo iiiaiiioi?iuo no?aoaae/aneeo
aiiaa?aee?iaueeia e ianne?iaaiiua iaeaou yoeo iaoei ia aiaiiua caaiaeu
i?ioeaieea – e?aeia iayooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai iiae?uaa a?aaeaneiai
aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea. Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo aeaiiuo ynii aeaeii,
/oi ?aaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe no?aoaae/aneie aaeaoeee i?aoaaee/aiu A.
Noai?iaui a iaaa?iyoiie noaiaie.

Ia aai ?eoi?e/aneee aii?in: «Iiea iaiaoeeay a?iey aeieaeao aei Iineau,
yoi /oi aea n Aa?iaieae-oi aoaeao?» nouanoaoao aaeeinoaaiiue ioaao:
i?aeoe/anee ie/aai ia aoaeao. A aeaiiii neo/aa eiaao ianoi neooaoeey,
eiaaea ianinoiyoaeueiinoue acaeyaeia A. Noai?iaa i?yii aeieacaia iiuoii.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, n oi/ee c?aiey iiaeaioiaee e iai?iieoaeueiie aieia,
?oeiaiaenoai NNN? iinooieei niaa?oaiii i?aaeeueii, ia oaeaeyy
i?aeiouanoaaiiiai aieiaiey oyaeaeui aiiaa?aee?iaueeai. Oaeo iaeiai
aieiaiey niaaoneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa e yoei iaoeiai ia iiaeao neoaeeoue
aeieacaoaeuenoaii iaia?aiey Niaaoneiai Nithca iaianoue ia Aa?iaieth.
I?aaaea, yoio oaeo ia aeieacuaaao e ia?aoiiai, iioiio /oi aeey aaaeaiey
aa?anneaiie aieiu aieueoia eiee/anoai no?aoaae/aneeo aiiaa?aee?iaueeia
oiaea ia ioaeii.

A. Noai?ia ieoao, /oi a 20-o – 30-o aa. Niaaoneee Nithc iai?aaeye
iniiaiua oneeey a eiino?oe?iaaiea e i?iecaiaenoai oeioia oyaeaeuo
aiiaa?aee?iaueeia n oeaeueth oa?iaeaoue aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiio iioaioeeaeo
iioaioeeaeueiuo aa?anni?ia, aeey oiai, /oiau «ieeoi ia iaoae Noaeeio
ia?aueaaoue aiaiioth iiuue». Iaeiaei ia?aoeiny e oeeo?ai. A 1934 a. a
ninoaaa niaaoneiai aiaiii-aicaeooiiai oeioa eaaeiaiiaa?aee?iai/iay,
ooo?iiaay e ?acaaaeuaaoaeueiay aaeaoeey ninoaaeea 50% io iauae
/eneaiiinoe naiieaoia, eno?aaeoaeueiay aaeaoeey – 12,3%, a
oyaeaeiaiiaa?aee?iai/iay aaeaoeey – 10,6% [11]! Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoi
ooaa?aeaeaiea Noai?iaa – i/a?aaeiay aaniy aeey iaaeaeaeeo ethaeae. E
oiio aea aeaeueiinoue iieaoa oyaeaeuo aiiaa?aee?iaueeia oiai a?aiaie
auea iaiaa 2 ouny/ eeeiiao?ia, neaaeiaaoaeueii – ?aaeeon aeaenoaey iaiaa
1 ouny/e eeeiiao?ia. A 1933 a. ia ia?aiai?oaeiaaiiuo iiae iannaaee?neea
naiieaou aiiaa?aee?iaueeao OA-3 (Oyaeaeue Aiiaa?aee?iauee – 3, i?eiyo ia
aii?oaeaiea a oii aiaeo) niaaoneay aeaeaaaoeey eaoaea a ?ei, i?e/ai
i?eoeinue niaa?oeoue 2 i?iiaaeooi/iua iinaaeee – a Eeaaa e a Aaia [11].
Eiai iiaeii auei iaioaaoue oaeie «no?aoaae/aneie» aaeaoeeae? Oieueei
a?aie/auea n NNN? aoi?i?ac?yaeiua ao?aeoaciua ainoaea?noaa, aea e oi
a?yae ee.

I?aaaea, a 20-o – 30-o aa. a NNN? aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaei ianoi oaea/aiea
eiino?oe?iaaieai oyaeaeuo iiiaiiioi?iuo iaoei. Ii iii eanaeinue aaeaoeee
a?aaeaeaineiai iacia/aiey.

A anee acyoue, iai?eia?, eno?aaeoaeueioth aaeaoeeth, oi aa aeiey n 1934
a. aei ia?oa 1939 a. aic?anea aieaa /ai a 2,4 ?aca (n 12,3% aei 30%
[11]) e e eaoo 1941 a. ninoaaeea aieaa 42% [8]. Aeiey eaaeeo
aiiaa?aee?iaueeia, ooo?iiaeeia e ?acaaae/eeia ianeieueei nieceeanue. A
oyaeaeuo aiiaa?aee?iaueeia e eaoo 1941 a. auei iaiaa 8% (ieiei 800 ec 11
ouny/) [7]. I?aaaea, ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 30-o aa. eo aeiey ianeieueei
aic?anoaea, a iioii ia/aea iaaeaoue. Ii ?ino yoio aue e?aoeia?aiaiiui e
ia i/aiue cia/eoaeueiui. A aio aeiey eno?aaeoaeae ?inea auno?i e
iinoiyiii.

Ii, iiaeao auoue, aei 1941 a. a ie?iaie aiaiiie oai?ee ainiiaenoaiaae
ioeai/iue acaeyae ia ?ieue no?aoaae/aneie aaeaoeee, iiaeao auoue, auei
iauai?eiyoia iiaiea, /oi iia yooaeoeaia aeey iiae?uaa a?aaeaneiai
aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea? Iao, ieeaeeo iniiaaiee e oaeiio
iiaieth iao.

Iai?eia?, O?aioeey a 30-o aa. e iniaaiii a 1939 – 1940 aa. aioiaeeanue e
iai?iieoaeueiie aieia. Oae aio, a aeaiiie neooaoeee no?ieoaeuenoai
oyaeaeuo aiiaa?aee?iaueeia a caiaoiuo eiee/anoaao ia ioia/aii. Ii/oe ana
i?iecaiaeeiua ai O?aioeee naiieaou i?aaenoaaeyee niaie eaaeoth
o?iioiaoth aaeaoeeth.

NOA e Aiaeey a iienuaaaiue ia?eiae oaeaea ia i?iecaiaeeee
i?aeiouanoaaiii oyaeaeua aiiaa?aee?iaueee. Yoe ainoaea?noaa oaeaeyee
aieueoia, ii ia iniiaiia aieiaiea yoiio aeaeo aaeaoeee.

Aeey NOA auei aiiaua iaaiciiaeii /uea-eeai iaiaaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ia naith oa??eoi?eth. NOA nicaeaaaee iiuioth e ?aciiia?acioth aaeaoeeth
(ia oieueei no?aoaae/aneoth), a oaeaea aieueoia eiee/anoai aaeaianoueo
ei?aaeae, aeey oiai, /oiau eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue aiaaaoue aia naiae
oa??eoi?ee.

Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea Aiaeee, a oaeaea aieueoie aa ia?aaan ia ii?a
naiaeee i?aeoe/anee ia iao ?ene aoi?aeaiey aa?iaineeo nooiiooiuo nee,
/oi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao oio oaeo, /oi aeoea?ianeia ?oeiaiaenoai,
ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie eioi?iai aue aaaioth?eci, ia ?eneioei aeaaea
i?aaei?eiyoue oaeoth iiiuoeo. Aeaaiie caaea/ae a?eoaineiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa auea ia aieia n Aa?iaieae, a oaea?aeaiea a iiaeiiaaiee
naieo iiiai/eneaiiuo eieiiee. No?aoaae/aneay aaeaoeey n aieueoei
?aaeeonii aeaenoaey e aieueoia eiee/anoai aaeaiinoeaa ioaa/aee oaeie
caaea/a.

A?eoaineea e aia?eeaineea iaeaou ia Aa?iaieth n 1942 a. auee aucaaiu
aeaaiui ia?acii oai, /oi i?e ionoonoaee «aoi?iai o?iioa» e iaaeaeaiee
aai ioe?uaaoue a nayce n i/aiue aieueoeie iaeeaeaaiuie iioa?yie
o?aaiaaeenue yooaeoiua, ii aeaeaoaeueii iaaei?iaea aeieacaoaeuenoaa, /oi
Aa?iaiey iiae iaiai ia oieueei ia niaaonei-aa?iaineii o?iioa. Oaeea
aiiaa?aee?iaee eo/oa niioaaonoaiaaee oaeie oeaee, /ai iia?aoeee iaeuo
nee nithcieeia a Naaa?iie Ao?eea.

Aeaoaeueii ?anniao?eaaoue a ianoiyuae ?aaioa oaeoeei-oaoie/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee no?aoaae/aneeo aiiaa?aee?iaueeia, iiaeaeoe, ia eiaao
niunea. Oiiiyiai eeoue, /oi eieaa A. Noai?iaa nicaeaao o /eoaoaey
i?aoaaee/aiiia iiaiea i oaoie/aneeo aeaiiuo niaaoneiai naiieaoa IA-8,
«aeeieiiaoe/ii» oaeiauo ia i?eaiaey. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe iie auee
aeaaea ianeieueei ieaea aeaiiuo aia?eeaineie iaoeiu B-17 («Flying
Fortress»). O A-17 iiaeeoeeaoeee a?aiaie ia/aea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu
aeaeueiinoue ?aaiyeanue 4800 ei e nei?inoue iieaoa 490 ei//an [11], a oi
a?aiy eae o IA-8 aeaeueiinoue iieaoa ?aaiyeanue 6000 eeeiiao?ia i?e
nei?inoe 450 ei//, i?e/ai oaeea aeaiiua eiaea iiaeeoeeaoeey IA-8,
ecaioiaeaiiay e eiioeo aieiu, a e aa ia/aeo aeaiiua yoie iaoeiu auee aua
ieaea [12]. Aiiaiaay iaa?ocea auea i?eia?ii ?aaiie o iaieo naiieaoia.

I oaieiauo aieneao.

A. Noai?iaui oaeaeaii i/aiue aieueoia aieiaiea iaoa?eaeueiie /anoe
oaieiauo aiene, iniaaiii oaieai na?ee AO: AO-5 e AO-7.

Iniiaiie iniaaiiinoueth oaieia AO auee nuaiiua aonaieoeu. Yoe iaoeiu
iiaee aeaeaaoueny eae n aonaieoeaie, oae e aac ieo – ia eaoeao. AO-7
?acaeaae nei?inoue 53 ei//an ia aonaieoeao e 73 ei//an ia eaoeao.
Aii?oaeaiu auee yoe iaoeiu 45-ii iooeie. A?iiy ninoaaeyea ieiei 15 ii
[20]. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaoeia auea iaaeaaeii caueuaia oieueei io ioeue
eaeea?a 7,62 ii. Aa a?iith i?iaeaaee oaea ioee eaeea?a 12,7 ii. Iioi?u
yoeo oaieia ?aaioaee ia aaiceia, e iioiio i?e iiiaaeaiee a?aaeaneiai
nia?yaea, eae i?aaeei, eaaei aniuoeaaee.

A. Noai?ia oeacuaaao ia «i/aiue ieceoth i?ioiaeeiinoue» iaoei yoie na?ee
e caeeth/aao, /oi eo «iaeuecy auei eniieueciaaoue ia niaaoneie
oa??eoi?ee». Ii aai ooaa?aeaeaieth, yoe iaoeiu auee nicaeaiu aeey
eniieueciaaiey ia oa??eoi?ee eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa, i?e/ai oieueei
oaeeo, aaea auee oi?ioea aei?iae. Yoe oaiee aoaeoi au i?aaeiacia/aeenue
aeey oiai, /oiau auno?i ianooiaoue aaeieue aaoino?aae, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey aaaeaiey aa?anneaiie aieiu, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue,
i?ioea Aa?iaiee.

Ioiaoei, /oi ii i?eaiaeeo oaeie auaiae aac eaeiai-eeai iainiiaaiey,
i?aaeaa?ea aai eeoue neiaaie «ouaoaeueii eco/ea oaoie/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee oaiea AO, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae…»

Aa?ai ee yoio auaiae?

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?ioiaeeiinoue o yoeo oaieia, oioy e ia auea
eaoano?ioe/anee ieceie, ana aea inoaaeyea aeaeaoue eo/oaai, iniaaiii i?e
aeaeaeaiee ia eaoeao (ia eaoeao a ia?eiae ?aniooeoeu ii a?oioiaui
aei?iaai i?ioiaeeiinoue auea ia auoa, /ai o iau/iuo a?ociauo
aaoiiiaeeae), e ianeieueei eo/oa auea i?ioiaeeiinoue ia aonaieoeao.
Iaeiaei yoi ia aiai?eo i oii, /oi yoe oaiee iaeuecy auei i?eiaiyoue ia
oa??eoi?ee NNN?. Anee i?eiyoue oaeia ooaa?aeaeaiea, oi iieo/aaony, /oi e
iau/iue a?ociaie aaoiiiaeeue, aneaaenoaea aua aieaa ieceie
i?ioiaeeiinoe, /ai o AO-5 e AO-7, oiaea iaeuecy auei i?eiaiyoue ia
oa??eoi?ee NNN?? Yoi aaaeue a?oiaea eaeay-oi. A?ociaua aaoiiiaeee aei
Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu oe?iei eniieueciaaeenue a NNN?, a oii /enea
e a ianoiinoyo n i/aiue ieioeie aei?iaaie. Iioii, i?iaiaeeeenue a
Niaaoneii Nithca iiiai/eneaiiua o/aiey e iaiaa?u naiiai ?aciiai
ianooaaa, a oii /enea e n eniieueciaaieai oaieia na?ee AO, a oii /enea e
ai a?aiy ?aniooeoeu.

E. E. ?ieinnianeee a eieaa «Nieaeaoneee aeiea» aniiieiaao, eae a ieoya?a
1941 a., a ?aniooeoeo, ii auaiaeee ec ie?oaeaiey iaoaiece?iaaiioth
a?oiio. A nayce n aacaei?iaeueai eiaaoeany a a?oiia a?ociaua iaoeiu
/anoi cano?aaaee, e auoaneeaaee eo ec a?yce n iiiiuueth … oaieia AO-7,
eioi?ua ia cano?aaaee.

A oie aea eieaa niaea?aeeony naeaeaoaeuenoai, /oi eaoii 1941 a. a
Niieaineii n?aaeaiee oaiee AO-7, iieuecoynue naiae auno?ioiaeiinoueth,
?annaeaaee e ia?auaee a aaanoai aoaeothuea ii?yaeee iai?eyoaeueneie
iaoiou. I?aaaea, ec-ca oiieie a?iie e eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa oiieeaa
eaaeiai aaiceia iioa?e yoeo iaoei auee aanueia aaeeee.

Oae /oi i?eiaiyee eo ia niaaoneie oa??eoi?ee! E oniaoii.

Iiaeii, i?aaaea, ia aa?eoue ?ieinnianeiio. Ii eoaea aieueoea iniiaaiey
eiathony aeey oiai, /oiau ia aa?eoue A. Noai?iao.

I?aeoeea iieacaea, /oi i?eiaiaiea iaoei na?ee AO ia oa??eoi?ee NNN? auei
aiieia aiciiaeii, i?e/ai ia oieueei a aeaaii?eyoiia a?aiy aiaea, ii
aeaaea a ia?eiae ?aniooeoeu. A yoi a?aiy eo eniieueciaaiea auei
aeaenoaeoaeueii ianeieueei noaniaii ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie naciiaie,
ii ia aieaa oiai.

Iaeiaei A. Noai?ia ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi yoe iaoeiu iaeuecy auei
i?eiaiyoue oieueei a ia?eiae ?aniooeoeu. Ii ieoao, /oi eo ia niaaoneie
oa??eoi?ee iaeuecy auei i?eiaiyoue aiiaua. Ii yoi, eae iu iieacaee,
niaa?oaiii iaaa?ii.

«Iaaiciiaeiinoue» i?eiaiaiey AO-5 e AO-7 ia oa??eoi?ee Niaaoneiai Nithca
– yaiia eciuoeaiea, ia niioaaonoaothuaa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

A eae ian/ao oaeoeee eniieueciaaiey yoeo oaieia? A. Noai?ia
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iie i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey oiai, /oiau i?e aiacaiiii
iaiaaeaiee NNN? niaa?oaoue i/aiue auno?ua i?i?uau ii aaoino?aaeai.
?anniio?ei yoio aii?in iiae?iaiaa.

Iienuaay oaeoeeo i?eiaiaiey iaoei yoiai oeia, A. Noai?ia aeiioneaao
niaoaiea aeaoo niaa?oaiii ?aciuo ooaa?aeaeaiee:

Ianooieaiea e?oiiuo oaieiauo niaaeeiaiee, eae i?aaeei, noa?athony aanoe
aaeieue aieueoeo aei?ia (a i?eioeeia, aa?iia ooaa?aeaeaiea).

I?e ianooieaiee e?oiiuo oaieiauo niaaeeiaiee oaiee acaeyo ii aei?iaa
(iaaa?iia ooaa?aeaeaiea, aieaa oiai, a?aae).

A naiii aeaea, eae ie oyaeaei iieiaeaiea iai?iiythuaeny noi?iiu,
ia?ae?uoea aieueoeo aei?ia noa?athony iaania/eoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, e
iaaei neacaoue, /oi, eae i?aaeei, yoi oaeaaony. *oi aeaeatho oaieiaua
/anoe, ano?aoea i?ioeaieea, caiyaoaai iai?iio ia aei?iaa?

A oaeii neo/aa iie aeieaeiu naeaeaoue neaaeothuaa:

Anaie aeaeaie ?acaaaeee onoaiiaeoue, aaea eiaaony ?ac?ua eee neaaia
ianoi a ?aniieiaeaiee aiene i?ioeaieea.

I?iecaanoe auno?ue iaiaa? a noi?iio io aei?iae a iai?aaeaiee neaaiai eee
aiiaua ia caiyoiai i?ioeaieeii o/anoea, i?i?aaoueny a yoii ianoa e aueoe
a oue iai?eyoaeueneie a?oiie?iaea.

Ii auoiaea a oue i?ioeaieea io?acaoue iooe aai ieoaiey e niiauaiey,
a?iieoue aai n oeaiaia e n ouea.

Auaeaeeoue io?yaeu aeey io?aiaiey e ?acaaaeee, aanoe ?acaaaeeo
i?ioeaieea aeaeueoa a aeoaeio aai oa??eoi?ee ia oe?ieii o?iioa.

Iaeiia?aiaiii e o?iioo e /anoe/ii e oeaiaai a?aaeaneie a?oiie?iaee
auno?i iiaeoyaeaaaony iioi?eciaaiiay iaoioa, aeaenoaeyie eioi?ie i?e
iiaeaea?aeea a?oeeea?ee ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n oaieaie e aaeaoeeae
ie?oaeaiiue i?ioeaiee auno?i oie/oiaeaaony. Aeaeaa, iinea iaia?oaeaiey
neaaeothuaai i/aaa nii?ioeaeaiey i?ioeaieea iiaoi?yaony oa aea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeaenoaee.

Iu aeaeei, /oi iniiaiie iaoiae aeaenoaee oaieiauo niaaeeiaiee a
ianooieaiee – iaiaa? a noi?iio io aei?ia n oeaeueth iouneaiey neaauo
iano e «aeu?» a iino?iaiee i?ioeaieea, i?i?uaa ia yoeo o/anoeao ai
a?aaeaneee oue, ?acaaaeee i?ioeaieea ia oe?ieii o?iioa e oie/oiaeaiee
aai a?oiie?iaie n oeaiaia e n ouea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeaaeythuoth
/anoue a?aiaie oaiee ia?aiauathony ia ii aei?iaa, a ii aacaei?iaeueth.
Aeey yoiai, nianoaaiii, o oaiea e nouanoaotho aonaieoeu. E oiio aea
neaaua o/anoee e «aeu?u» a iino?iaiee i?ioeaieea iau/ii ia?acothony a
iaeaieaa oaeaeaiiuo, aeooeo e o?oaeiii?ioiaeeiuo ianoao, e i?aeoe/anee
ieeiaaea – ia aieueoeo aei?iaao. Eae iieacuaaao iiuo aieiu, aeaaea a
oneiaeyo auno?iai ianooieaiey i?ioeaieeo iau/ii oaeaaony nicaeaoue
neeueiua caneiiu ia iniiaiuo eiiioieeaoeeyo.

Ii iauaa iai?aaeaiea oaea?a ianooiathuae e?oiiie oaieiaie a?oiie?iaee
aeaenoaeoaeueii noa?athony auae?aoue oae, /oiau iii i?ioiaeeei aaeieue
aieueoie aei?iae. Ii/aio? Ioaao i?ino – iaiaoiaeeii iaeaaeeoue
naiaa?aiaiiia niaaaeaiea ianooiathuae a?oiie?iaee. Oaiee i?e ianooieaiee
?anoiaeotho ai?th/aa e aiai?eianu a ia?iiiuo eiee/anoaao, a aieueoie
caian n niaie aacoe iaaiciiaeii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeey oiai, /oiau
i?iaeieaeaoue aeaeaaoueny aia?aae, eo aeinoaaea aeieaeia auoue
i?aaieciaaia aania?aaieii. Aac ioee/iie i?aaiecaoeee niaaaeaiey oaieiauo
aeeaecee, ei?ionia e a?iee aiiaua iaaiciiaeii eo oniaoiia ianooieaiea.
Aieueoay aei?iaa iaiaoiaeeii eiaiii aeey oiai, /oiau naiaa?aiaiii
iiaeaiceoue ai?th/aa, aiai?eianu, i?iaeiaieuenoaea, caianiua /anoe,
iiaee?aieaiey. Aaeaoeeiiiia niaaaeaiea oaieiauo /anoae i/aiue iaoaeiaii,
e?iia oiai, o?aaoaioth ianno a?ocia naiieaoaie ia?aa?ineoue ii/oe
iaaiciiaeii. Oaeaea aeey nii?iaiaeaeaiey o?ainii?oiuo naiieaoia ioaeii
auaeaeyoue iaiaeia /enei eno?aaeoaeae, ioaeaeay eo io auiieiaiey aiaauo
caaea/.

Ii anee iaoeiu na?ee AO ia i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey ia?aiauaiey ii
aaoino?aaeai, oi aeey /aai aea oiaaea iie aiiaua nicaeaaaeenue? Aeey
oiai, /oiau ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in, iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoueny e oiio
a?aiaie, eiaaea i?iaeoe?iaaee yoe oaiee, e eiioeo 20-o – ia/aeo 30-o
aa.. A yoi a?aiy aaeeinoaaiiui ianniaui iiaeaeaeiui ?iaeii aiene auea
eaaaea?ey. Eaeiau iniaaiiinoe eniieueciaaiey eaaaea?ee a aieia? A
oneiaeyo ianooieaiey iia aeaenoaoao aia?aaee aeaaiuo nee a?iee eee
o?iioa, a oueo i?ioeaieea, aoaeoy aai ncaaee, ia?a?acay aai
eiiioieeaoeee e ia?ooay naycue. I?e ianooieaiee i?ioeaieea eaaaea?ey
eniieuecoaony aeey ei?ioeeo eiio?oaea?ia ii aai i?iaeaeaathueiny /anoyi,
ii i?eioeeio «oaea?ee-ionei/ee». I?eia?aie oaeiai i?eiaiaiey eaaaea?ee
eciaeeoao a?aaeaeaineay aieia. A oi aea a?aiy a oneiaeyo iiceoeeiiiie
aieiu, i?e iaee/ee nieioiiai o?iioa, eae iieacae iiuo Ia?aie ie?iaie
aieiu, iia i?aeoe/anee aaniieacia e iioiio eniieuecoaony aeaaiui ia?acii
eae acaeyuay iaoioa.

Iaeiie ec aeaaiuo iniaaiiinoae eiiieoeu yaeyaony aa ianiiniaiinoue
iai?iiyoueny a o?aaeeoeeiiiii niunea yoiai neiaa. Aeaaiue oaeoe/aneee
i?eai eiiieoeu e a ianooieaiee, e a iai?iia – aiacaiiue e i/aiue auno?ue
«ianeie» n iineaaeothuei noieue aea auno?ui «ioneieii».

Eiaaea a eiioea 20-o – ia/aea 30-o aa. ana aieueoaa cia/aiea noaee
i?eia?aoaoue oaiee, a i?eioeeia, auei 2 aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey
oaieia a a?iee:

Nicaeaiea iiaiai ?iaea aiene – a?iiaoaieiauo.

Ianuuaiea oaieaie nouanoaothueo ?iaeia aiene – iaoiou e eiiieoeu.

A Niaaoneii Nithca iioee eae ii ia?aiio, oae e ii aoi?iio iooe. E ia/aeo
1936 aiaea a E?aniie A?iee eiaeinue 4 iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?iona, 6
ioaeaeueiuo oaieiauo a?eaaae e noieueei aea ioaeaeueiuo oaieiauo iieeia,
15 iaoaiece?iaaiiuo iieeia a eaaaea?eeneeo aeeaeceyo, aieaa 80 oaieiauo
aaoaeueiiia e ?io a no?aeeiauo aeeaeceyo [8]. Ea?oeia yoa ia aoaeao
iieiie, anee ia oeacaoue, /oi iaiaeay /anoue ioaeaeueiuo oaieiauo
a?eaaae e iieeia aoiaeeea a ninoaa eaaaea?eeneeo ei?ionia, a a ninoaaa
iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?ionia eiaeanue e eiiieoea.

I?aaeiieiaeei, iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aaioaoue oaie, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey
oneeaiey eaaaea?ee. Eaeiau aea o?aaiaaiey e oaeie iaoeia?

Nei?inoue. I?e aoaea a eiiiii no?ith eioaaeue e?aoeia?aiaiii ?acaeaaao
iaeneiaeueioth nei?inoue, ia eioi?oth niiniaia. A eaeoth iaeneiaeueioth
nei?inoue niiniaia ?acaeoue eioaaeue? Aei 55-60 ei//an [6].
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /oiau iiaeaea?aeaoue oaeoth eiiioth aoaeo,
«eaaaea?eeneee» oaie aeieaeai ?acaeaaoue nei?inoue ia iaiueoa (a eo/oa –
aieueoa).

Aii?oaeaiea. O?aaiaaiey a ii?yaeea oauaaiey aaaeiinoe:
nei?ino?aeueiinoue, ii?aaeathuay neea nia?yaea, iaoeinoue, aeaeueiinoue.
Oaeie ii?yaeie aaaeiinoe ea/anoa iaoneiaeai oai, /oi no?aeueaa aeieaeia
auea aanoenue, eae i?aaeei, i?yiie iaaiaeeie i?e aeaeaeaiee ia aieueoie
nei?inoe.

I?ioiaeeiinoue. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aeieaeia auoue aeiaieueii aunieie, n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, a?yae ee eiaao niune aeaeaoue oae, /oiau oaeie oaie iia
i?ioiaeeoue oai, aaea ia iiaeao i?ieoe eioaaeue.

Ianna. Iineieueeo oaie aeieaeai ?acaeaaoue i/aiue aieueooth nei?inoue,
ii iiaeao auoue oieueei eaaeei.

A?iiy. Iineieueeo oaie aeieaeai auoue eaaeei, a?iiy ia iiaeao auoue
oienoie. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, n oi/ee c?aiey eaaaea?eeneie oaeoeee oiai
a?aiaie, i?ioeaiioeueiie a?iie a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa auei aiieia
aeinoaoi/ii.

ssnii aeaeii, /oi iaoeiu na?ee AO i/aiue oi?ioi oaeiaeaoai?ytho
o?aaiaaieyi, eioi?ua i?aaeuyaeythony e oaieo, i?aaeiacia/aiiiio aeey
oneeaiey eaaaea?ee. Iiaeii ioiaoeoue oieueei iaeei nouanoaaiiue
iaaeinoaoie AO ii n?aaiaieth n «eaeaaeueiui» eaaaea?eeneei oaieii –
iaiaiianiinoue a nayce n i?eiaiaieai aaiceia a ea/anoaa oiieeaa. Iaeiaei
a?aiy aeecaeueiuo aeaeaaoaeae oiaaea aua ia i?eoei, e a ie?iaii
oaieino?iaiee iieiaeaiea auei oi/ii oaeei aea. Iai?eia?, aeaeaaoaee
iaiaoeeeo oaieia, ni?iaeoe?iaaiiuo a ia/aea 30-o aiaeia, oaeaea ?aaioaee
ia aaiceia. Iaiaiianiinoue oaieia oiaaea auea iauay aaaea.

Aiieia anoanoaaiii, /oi ia oneeaiea iaoiou oaiee AO ia iinooiaee – aeey
yoiai nouanoaiaaee ae?oaea ia?acoeu iaoei, ii ia oneeaiea eaaaea?ee
iinooiaee ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii AO-5 e AO-7 [8]. Iaiaeia eiee/anoai AO
iinooiaei a iaoaiece?iaaiiua ei?iona, ii e a yoeo ei?ionao oaeaea
eiaeanue eiiieoea.

Iiaeao auoue, iiauoaiiia aieiaiea niaaoneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa e eiiieoea –
i/aiue iiaeaeaeiiio ?iaeo aiene, auei aucaaii nouanoaiaaieai o iaai a oi
a?aiy aa?anneaiuo ieaiia? Iao. Aeaei a oii, /oi niaoeeoeea eaaaea?ee
oaeiaa, /oi a iaiaa?aiiie aieia yooaeoeaii n iae ai?ioueny oiaaea iiaea
oieueei eaaaea?ey. I?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii, /oiau eiiieoea auea au
?acaeoa iaoioie. Iiyoiio iia /?acau/aeii ioaeia e iieacia aeey iai?iiu,
aeey i?ioeaiaeaenoaey iaiaaeaieth, i?e eioi?ie ethaui aa?anni?ii oiaaea
iaaa?iyea auee au i?eiaiaiu aieueoea iannu eiiieoeu. Yoi auei aeieacaii
iiuoii a?aaeaeaineie aieiu, eioi?oth E?aniay A?iey aaea a ea/anoaa
iai?iiythuaeny noi?iiu (eae ecaanoii, aaeiaaa?aeaeoeu iiaeiyee iyoaae
i?ioea Niaaoneie aeanoe, iinea /aai ia/aeanue eiino?aiiay eioa?aaioeey).
I?aeoeea iieacaea, /oi yooaeoeaiia nii?ioeaeaiea aeaaiie oaea?iie neea
aaeuo – eaaaea?ee aiciiaeii oieueei i?e iiiiue e?oiiuo eaaaea?eeneeo
niaaeeiaiee E?aniie A?iee.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaiee na?ee AO, cayaeaiiua A. Noai?iaui eae
«aaoino?aaeiua», a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe auee «eaaaea?eeneeie». Eiaaea
?ieue eaaaea?ee a a?iee noaea eeiieoueny e caeaoo, ia?anoaee
i?iecaiaeeoue e AO. A 1939 a. iaoeiu yoie na?ee auee niyou n
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi AO-5 e AO-7 iaeuecy auei eniieueciaaoue ia
oa??eoi?ee NNN?, oaeaea ia niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Ii aeaaiia aeaaea ia a yoii. Ana ?annoaeaeaiey A. Noai?iaa i oe?ieii
eniieueciaaiee oaieia AO a i?aaenoiyuae aa?anneaiie aieia ia noiyo e
eiiaiiai a?ioa oioy au iioiio, /oi eo ia?anoaee i?iecaiaeeoue caaeieai
aei 1941 a..

Ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi nicaeaiea oaieia
na?ee AO a eiioea 20-o – ia/aea 30-o aa. e eo i?iecaiaenoai a aieueoeo
eiee/anoaao a 30-o aa. ieeiei ia?acii ia yaeyaony aeieacaoaeuenoaii
iiaeaioiaee Niaaoneei Nithcii aa?anneaiie aieiu.

A. Noai?ia i?eaiaeeo aeaiiua i ?ac?aaioea a 1938 a. a NNN? oaiea A-20,
yaeyaoaainy ii naiei ea/anoaai ianeieueei oeo/oaiiui aiaeiaii AO-7.
Oeo/oaiea einioeinue nei?inoe ia aonaieoeao (65 ei//an i?ioea 53). Ia
eaoeao yoa iaoeia oaeaea ?acaeaaea nei?inoue 65 ei//an. Auoa
onoaiiaeaii, /oi yoio oei oaieia i?aaeiacia/ai aeey eaaaea?ee. Iia ee a
1938 a. ?ac?aaaouaaoueny oniaa?oainoaiaaiiue oaie aeey eaaaea?ee? Aea,
iia! Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ?ieue eaaaea?ee a yoi a?aiy yaii eeiieeanue e
caeaoo, ?yae noauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia i?eaae e oiio, /oi a aunoai aiaiiii
?oeiaiaenoaa NNN? a oi a?aiy neeueii oaaee/eeinue aeeyiea eaaaea?eeneiai
«eiaae», a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue N. I. Aoaeaiiiai, E. A. Ai?ioeeiaa, A. E.
Eoeeea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?ac?aaioea iiaiai «eaaaea?eeneiai» oaiea a oi
a?aiy i?aaenoaaeyaony aanueia aa?iyoiie e yaeyeanue nei?aa naiaia?aciui
«yoii» ?ai?annee /anoe eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa E?aniie A?iee. I?aaaea, oaea
a ia/aea 1940 a. iaoaea/e niaaoneeo aiene a aieia n Oeieyiaeeae neeueii
oiaiueoeee aeeyiea «noa?uo eaaaea?enoia». A oi?ioai niaeanee n yoei
iaoiaeeony oi, /oi oaie A-20 oae e ia i?eiyee ia aii?oaeaiea e ia
caionoeee a i?iecaiaenoai, a auei ia?auaii i?aeiouanoaaiiia aieiaiea ia
caione a ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai oaieia O-34 e EA. A. Noai?ia oeacuaaao
ia oi, /oi auione O-34 e EA, eae i?oaeey, i?aaeiacia/aiiiai aeey
i?eiaiaiey ia oa??eoi?ee NNN?, o. a. «iai?iieoaeueiiai», oi?iiceeny
niaaoneei ?oeiaiaenoaii. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iaeioi?ua enoi/ieee oeacuaatho
ia oi, /oi io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea «noa?ie aaa?aeee» e yoei iaoeiai ia
naiii aeaea eiaei ianoi. Ii ?aoaiey i?eieiae E. A. Noaeei, a aai
ioiioaiea e iei, /oi niaa?oaiii ynii, auei i?eioeeieaeueii eiui. Anee au
ii ia oaeaeye ia?ainoaiaiiiai aieiaiey yoei iaoeiai, iaaiciiaeii auei
au, /oiau e 22 ethiy 1941 a. aue i?iecaaaeai 1861 oaie O-34 e EA, a oi
a?aiy eae ana noa?ua iaoeiu auee caaeieai aei yoiai niyou n
i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?aaaea, A. Noai?ia i?eaiaeeo aua iaeii niia?aaeaiea a iieueco naiae
aa?nee, a eiaiii – iacaaiea: A-20. Aaaeue aei yoiai iacaaiey oaieia
ia/eiaeenue ia O («oaie») eee AO («auno?ioiaeiue oaie»). Ii yoio
a?aoiaio, iyaei aiai?y, niiieoaeai.

Ii ia eaeii iniiaaiee A. Noai?ia oae eaoaai?e/anee ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
aoeaa «A» a iacaaiee oaiea icia/aao «aaoino?aaeiue»? Ioeoaea yoi
acyeinue? Oeacaiey ia enoi/iee, anoanoaaiii, iao.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua ae?oaea iacaaiey. Iioi?u a NNN? a 30-a aa. eiaee a
ia/aea iacaaiee aiieia «ii?iaeueiua», ii e?eoa?eyi A. Noai?iaa, aoeau,
iai?eia? «I» – iioi?, «AI» – aaeaoeeiiiue iioi?. Iaeiaei aeaeaaoaeue
aeey O-34 ii/aio-oi iacuaaeny A-2. Ii/aio ia «I» («iioi?»), ia «Ae»
(«aeaeaaoaeue», «aeecaeue»), ia ooaeie eiiaoe, ia «A» (aue naeaeai
oeaeeeii ec aethieiey), a eiaiii «A»? A, io neiaa «aia?aae»! A eoaea
«aia?aae»? ssniia aeaei, ia Aa?iaieth! Yoi oooea, eiia/ii… Ii
eaoaai?e/aneia cayaeaiea A. Noai?iaa i oii, /oi aoeaa «A» a iacaaiee
oaiea A-20 icia/aao «aaoino?aaeiue», auaeyaeeo, iyaei aiai?y,
aacaeieacaoaeueiui e i?eieiaoue aai ia aa?o ie a eiai neo/aa iaeuecy.

Oae eee eia/a, ii oaie A-20 ia aue i?eiyo ia aii?oaeaiea.

Aua iaeiei «aeieacaoaeuenoaii» aa?anneaiuo iaia?aiee NNN? A. Noai?ia
iauyaeyao ?ac?aaioeo ieaaathueo oaieia e oaieaoie. Nia/aea i oaieaoeao.
Oaieaoea – eeann iaoei, i?aaeiacia/aiiue aeey ?acaaaeee e nayce [6]. E
oa, e ae?oaay ioaeiu eae a ianooieaiee, oae e a iai?iia. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, oaieaoea – iaoeia «ii ii?aaeaeaieth» i/aiue eaaeay, e aeey
oiai, /oiau naeaeaoue aa ieaaathuae, ioaeii eeoue eneeth/eoue
i?iieeiiaaiea a iaa caai?oiie aiaeu. Yoi ia oae o?oaeii. A ieaao/anoue
aeey iaoeiu ?acaaaeee e nayce – naienoai aanueia iieaciia.

Ieaaathuee oaie O-40 a NNN? aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaeny. Ii aue aii?oaeai
20-ii iooeie e ioeaiaoaie, aue i?eiyo ia aii?oaeaiea iinoaiiaeaieai
Eiieoaoa Iai?iiu io 19 aeaeaa?y 1939 a. [20]. Eae iieacae iiuo Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, yoe iaoeiu auee iacaiaieiu i?e oi?ne?iaaiee oe?ieeo
aiaeiuo i?aa?aae, a oi aea a?aiy a iai?iieoaeueiuo n?aaeaieyo oe?ieiai
i?eiaiaiey aeey ieo iaeoe ia oaeaeinue, a cia/eo, iiaeii niaeaneoueny n
oai, /oi yoio oaie aue «ianooiaoaeueiui». Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oaeo eo
?ac?aaioee, iinoaiiaee ia aii?oaeaiea e caionea a i?iecaiaenoai a
eaeie-oi ia?a iiaeao auoue ioianai e iiaeic?eoaeueiui. Iaeiaei,
?ac?aaioea e auione a ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo eiee/anoaao
«ianooiaoaeueiuo» iaoei aiieia iiaee eiaoue ianoi e i?e iiaeaioiaea e
iai?iieoaeueiie aieia – a i?aaeaeaeaiee aoaeouaai eiio?ianooieaiey,
eiaaea i?ioeaiee aoaeao inoaiiaeai. Ia yoii ?a/ue iieaeao ianeieueei
ieaea. Enoaoe, a neieueei oaieia O-40 auei auiouaii e 22/VI 1941 a.?
Yoeo oeeo? a ?anii?yaeaiee aaoi?a iao. Ia i?eaiaeeo eo e A. Noai?ia.

Ia a?oeeea?ee.

Eae ecaanoii, a ia/aea 1941 a. auee niyou n i?iecaiaenoaa 45-ii
i?ioeaioaieiaua i?oaeey e i?ioeaioaieiaua ?oaeuey, /oi ia ia?aue acaeyae
yaeyaony ii iaiueoae ia?a no?aiiui. A /ai aeaei?

Aeaei a oii, /oi a oi a?aiy iaiaoeeie ?acaaaeeie auee iiaea?ioaiu
eiaeiua naaaeaiey i ninoiyiee iaiaoeeeo oaieiauo aiene. Ii yoei aeaiiui,
iaiaoeeea oaiee n?i/ii ia?aaii?oaeaeenue i?oaeeyie eaeea?a aei 100 ii e
iiaie iiuiie a?iiae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?ioeaioaieiaua ?oaeuey e 45-ii
iooee ia iiaee au ai?ioueny n yoie oaoieeie. Iaeieiiiaoaioiia
?oeiaiaenoai Aeaaiiai A?oeeea?eeneiai Oi?aaeaiey ai aeaaa n A. E.
Eoeeeii ieacaeenue aaaaeaiiuie a caaeoaeaeaiea e niyee n i?iecaiaenoaa
auoai?eaaaeaiiua aeaeu i?oaeey, oioy iiiaea niaoeeaeenou aic?aaeaee.
Iaeiia?aiaiii caionoeee a i?iecaiaenoai i?ioeaioaieiaua iooee eaeea?a 57
ii e ia/aee ?ac?aaioeo 107-ii oaieiaiai e i?ioeaioaieiaiai i?oaeey [13].

A ca/ai iaioeai auea ioaeia oaeay aeaceioi?iaoeey? Aeaei a oii, /oi, ii
iunee iaiaoeeeo ?acaaae/eeia, anee au ae iiaa?eee, oi noa?ua i?oaeey
auee au niyou n i?iecaiaenoaa, a iiaua iinoaaeoue ia iioie e eaoo 1941
a. ia oniaee au, /oi iaeaa/eei au iaiaoeeei oaieiaui aieneai aeiaeoueny
?aca?iia NNN?. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iauai i?iecaiaenoaa 57-ii iooae e ethith
1941 a. auei aua i/aiue iae, a noa?ua 45-ii i?iecaiaeeoue oaea
i?ae?aoeee. E oiio aea nia?yaeu 57-ii i?ioeaioaieiauo iooae, nicaeaiiuie
e i?iecaiaeeiuie aeey caiaiu 45-ii i?oaeee, iau/ii i?iaeaaee oaiee
i?ioeaieea ianeaicue, /oi /anoi ia i?e/eiyei iniaiai a?aaea yeeiaaeo,
oaie nio?aiye iiaeaeaeiinoue (iaaei, /oiau nia?yae i?iaeaae a?iith
oieueei iaeei ?ac e ?ac?uaaeny aioo?e). A eoiaa 57-ii i?oaeey anei?a
iinea ia/aea aieiu auee niyou n i?iecaiaenoaa «ec-ca ecauoea iiuiinoe
auno?aea», e oieueei n iiyaeaieai o iaioeaa oaieia «oea?» auei ia/aoi
aiiaue. A 45-ii i?ioeaioaieiaua i?oaeey e i?ioeaioaieiaua ?oaeuey auee n
ia/aeii aieiu iiyoue caiouaiu a i?iecaiaenoai [13].

Ii-aeaeeiiio, aeaiiia iauyniaiea iiaeii ?anoeaieaaoue eae aiieia
oaaaeeoaeueiia.

Ii caeeth/aieth A. E. Eoeeea, oaeaea ia auea i?eiyoa ia aii?oaeaiea
ioee/iay 152-ii aaoaeoea [8]. Ii oaeea aaoaeoeu – i?oaeea nei?aa
ianooiaoaeueiia, /ai iai?iieoaeueiia, ioaeiia aeey «a?oeeea?eeneiai
i?i?uaa», a oi aea a?aiy eae a iai?iia eniieueciaaoue aa iaeaaei aaeaeo
ieceie iaiaa?aiiinoe.

A eiioea 30-o aa. iaaeiioeaieaaeinue e oaeia i?oaeea, eae ieiiiaou.
Eiino?oeoi?neia ath?i, caieiaaoaany eie, aeaaea auei cae?uoi iiae
i?aaeeiaii «iaiaaeiaiinoe yoiai aeaea i?oaeey». Yoio iaaeinoaoie aue
eni?aaeai oieueei iinea oeineie aieiu, iiuo eioi?ie iieacae eo
iacaiaieiinoue [8,13]. Ieiiiao – i?oaeea oieaa?naeueiia, ioaeiia eae a
ianooieaiee, oae e a iai?iia.

Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, eioa?anii, ii/aio aeey 82-ii ieiiiaoa aue aua?ai eiaiii
yoio eaeea?. Aeaei a oii, /oi a aa?iaineie e ae?oaeo eiino?aiiuo a?ieyo
ieiiiaou eiaee eaeea? 81 ii. E aeey niaaoneiai ieiiiaoa aue aua?ai
eaeea? ia 1 ii aieueoa, /oiau ec eiino?aiiuo ieiiiaoia niaaoneeie ieiaie
iaeuecy auei no?aeyoue. Eaaei iiiyoue, /oi oaeia ?aoaiea ieeae ia
ayaeaony n iiaeaioiaeie Niaaoneei Nithcii aa?anneaiie aieiu.

?anniio?aii aieueoia eiee/anoai oaeoia, eiathueo ioiioaiea e
iaoa?eaeueiie /anoe e oaeoeea i?eiaiaiey oaieia e aaeaoeee NNN? e
Aa?iaiee ia?aae ia/aeii Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie Aieiie e eniieuecoaiuo A.
Noai?iaui a ea/anoaa iainiiaaiey aa?anneaiuo iaia?aiee Niaaoneiai
Nithca. Iieacaii, /oi ia naiii aeaea ie iaeei ec ieo ia iiaeao neoaeeoue
neieue-ieaoaeue i?eaieaiui aeieacaoaeuenoaii eo iaee/ey (e oieueei
iaeei-aeaa ec ieo aiooaao iaeioi?ua iiaeic?aiey), a oi a?aiy eae iaiaeia
/enei oaeoia i?e aieiaoaeueiii aiaeeca naeaeaoaeuenoaoao eae ?ac ia
ia?aoiii.

6.3 I «aeaaiie iunee» A. Noai?iaa

Ianoaei, iaeiaei, a?aiy ia?aeoe io ?anniio?aiey i/aiue aaaeiuo, ii
/anoiuo aii?inia e «aeaaiie eaeaa» aa?nee A. Noai?iaa i i?e/eiao
ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu. A
/ai iia caeeth/aaony?

C iaeiie noi?iiu, eiathony iiiai/eneaiiua aeaiiua ia i/aiue iai?yaeaiiue
iiaeaioiaea Niaaoneiai Nithca e aieia a i?aaeaiaiiue ia?eiae. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, iinea iaiaaeaiey Aa?iaiee ia NNN? E?aniay A?iey iaiaeiie?aoii
oa?iaea eaoano?ioe/aneea ii?aaeaiey, neaaenoaeai eioi?uo noae auoiae
aeoea?ianeeo aiene e Eaieia?aaeo, e Iineaa, e Aieaa e ia Naaa?iue
Eaaeac. Ii iiaieth, auneacaiiiio A. Noai?iaui, caeanue eiaao ianoi
i?ioeai?a/ea. Aaaeue anee au Niaaoneee Nithc aioiaeeny e iai?iia,
oaeiai, ii aai iiaieth, auoue au ia iiaei. Yoi «i?ioeai?a/ea», ii aa?nee
Noai?iaa, ?ac?aoaaony oai, /oi NNN? aioiaeeny e aieia, ii ia e
iai?iieoaeueiie. A anee ia e iai?iieoaeueiie, oiaaea e eaeie? Eiia/ii, e
ianooiaoaeueiie.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaa?aiooue aeaiioth iuneue ananoi?iiiaio aiaeeco.

Ninoaaei i?eia?iue ieai oaeiai aiaeeca – iinoaaei aii?inu, ia eioi?ua
ioaeii ioaaoeoue. Aio yoe aii?inu:

Auee ee a oiaea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu neo/ae, eiaaea ainoaea?noai,
aioiaeaoaany e aaaeaieth oii?iie iai?iieoaeueiie aieiu ia eaeii-eeai
oaao?a, auei au aiacaiiui oaea?ii iaiaiiiai i?aainoiaeyueo nee
i?ioeaieea auno?i ?acaeoi?

Eiaeenue ee a oiaea Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu neo/ae, eiaaea oi?ioi
iiaeaioiaeaiiay iai?iia ia iaeeaeaaiii iai?aaeaiee ianooieaiey
i?ioeaieea auea au oai ia iaiaa i/aiue auno?i i?i?aaia e ?aca?iieaia?

Anee oaeea neo/ae auee, oi i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iie i?iecioee, /oi
niinianoaiaaei oaeiio ?acaeoeth niauoee?

Anee iiaeiaiuo neo/aaa auei aieueoa /ai iaeei, oi anoue ee iauea
aeoaeiiua i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey oaeeo neooaoeee?

Ii/aio ieai eiaiii oaeia? Anee ioaaou ia ia?aua aeaa aii?ina aoaeoo
iieiaeeoaeueiu, oi nouanoaiaaiea «i?ioeai?a/ey», i eioi?ii aiai?eo A.
Noai?ia, ii iaiueoae ia?a anoaiao iiae na?ueaciia niiiaiea, a anee
aiaeec, i eioi?ii aiai?eony a ioieoao 3 e 4, iieaaeao iaee/ea aeoaeiiuo
caeiiiia?iinoae a aicieeiiaaiee oaeeo neooaoeee, oi oiiiyiooay
«ianoueiaea» n iieiui iniiaaieai iiaeao auoue ioianaia e iaaeoiaiiui.

I?e ?anniio?aiee iiuoa Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu auyniyaony, /oi neo/ae,
eiaaea ainoaea?noai, aioiaeaoaany e oii?iie iai?iieoaeueiie aieia ia
eaeii-eeai oaao?a, auei au oai ia iaiaa auno?i ?aca?iieaii iaiaiiiai
i?aainoiaeyueie neeaie i?ioeaieea, eiaee ianoi. Oaeeo i?aoeaaeaioia,
anee ia o/eouaaoue iaiaaeaiea Aa?iaiee ia NNN?, auei ii iaiueoae ia?a
aeaa.

1. ?aca?ii O?aioeee aeoea?iaoeaie eaoii 1940 a..

Eae ecaanoii, 3 naioya?y 1939 a. O?aioeey e Aiaeey iauyaeee aieio
Aa?iaiee a ioaao ia iaiaaeaiea aeoea?iaoeaa ia Iieueoo. Iaeiaei
ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee i?ioea iaiaoeeeo aiene ia i?iaiaeeeinue, eo
aienea ia?aie/eaaeenue ianneaiie iai?iiie. Iauai?eiyoie o ian e,
aa?iyoii, aa?iie yaeyaony oi/ea c?aiey, /oi yoi auei naeaeaii aeey oiai,
/oiau «?acaycaoue ?oee» aeoea?iaoeai ia Ainoiea, iiaeoieeiooue e
iaiaaeaieth ia NNN?. Oae eee eia/a, 110 aiaeeeneeo e o?aioeocneeo
aeeaecee, noiyaoea i?ioea 23 aa?iaineeo aeeaecee, a naioya?a 1939 a.
inoaaaeenue a niaa?oaiiii aacaeaenoaee [15].

Iaeiaei, o?aioeocneia i?aaeoaeuenoai, ia aeaeay aanoe ianooiaoaeueiuo
iia?aoeee ia Caiaaeiii o?iioa, ana aea i?eieiaei ia?u, /oiau
iaaciianeoue naay ia neo/ae aoi?aeaiey aa?iaineie a?iee. N yoie oeaeueth
i?iaeieaeaee aanoenue eioaineaiua iai?iieoaeueiua ?aaiou ii anae eeiee
o?iioa (iie ia/aeenue aua a ia/aea 30-o aa. iino?ieeie «eeiee Iaaeeii»).
«A eia» yoo iai?iio i?i?aaoue auei i/aiue o?oaeii. Iaeiaei, eiaeanue
aiciiaeiinoue iaieoe o?aioeocneoth iai?iieoaeueioth eeieth /a?ac
o?oaeiii?ioiaeeiue ai?enoi-eanenoue ?aeii, eioi?ue aue neaai oe?aieai,
oae eae o?aioeocneia eiiaiaeiaaiea ia?aioeaieei aai
o?oaeiiaeinooiiinoue. Iinea oaeiai iaoiaea iieiaeaiea iai?iiythueony
iiaei au noaoue e?aeia oyaeaeui. E noaei.

Iiaeao auoue, o?aioeocneia eiiaiaeiaaiea aioiaeeinue e iai?iia «nionoy
?oeaaa»? Aeaenoaeoaeueii, anoue aeaiiua, oioy e ia aiieia aannii?iua, i
oii, /oi iii ?ann/eouaaei ia iaiaaeaiea Aa?iaiee n?aco ia NNN?, a ia ia
O?aioeeth. Aannii?ii, /oi iinea iauyaeaiey aieiu Aa?iaiee 3/IX 1939 a.
iii ia niae?aeinue aanoe ia oieueei oe?ieiianooaaiuo ianooiaoaeueiuo
iia?aoeee, ii e aiiaua eaeeo-eeai aeoeaiuo aeaenoaee. Ii, aeaeay
Aa?iaiee aaainu ca iaiaaeaiea ia NNN?, o?aioeocneia i?aaeoaeuenoai iaiaa
anaai oioaei ii?aaeaiey nianoaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa, e ia?niaeoeaa
ieacaoueny «o?aioeocneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii» ca a?aieoeae eee aea oeeeaeii
aa?iaineiai ieeoiaoeeiiiiai aaaeiinoaa aai ia i/aiue-oi ono?aeaaea.
Iai?iia aioiaeeanue ana?ueac.

Niioiioaiea nee ia Caiaaeiii o?iioa e 10 iay 1940 a. (ia/aei ianooieaiey
aa?iaineie a?iee) auaeyaeaei neaaeothuei ia?acii: iaiaoeeea aienea – 135
aeeaecee, 2800 oaieia, 2800 naiieaoia, aiaei-o?aioeocneea – 142
aeeaecee, 3130 oaieia, 2300 naiieaoia. *eneaiiinoue iaiaoeeie,
o?aioeocneie e aiaeeeneie aeeaecee auea i?eia?ii ?aaiie. A ea/anoaaiiii
ioiioaiee aiaeeeneea e o?aioeocneea naiieaou e oaiee ia onooiaee
iaiaoeeei. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, neeu auee ?aaiua. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, O?aioeey
e aieia aioiaeeanue, i?e/ai e aieia iai?iieoaeueiie. E oai ia iaiaa auea
iieieaiinii ?acaeoa.

Aa?iaineia eiiaiaeiaaiea noiaei aeinoe/ue iia?aoeaiie aiacaiiinoe iooai
ne?uoiiai nin?aaeioi/aiey aiene. Aua iaeiei oaeoi?ii, iaoneiaeaoei
ii?aaeaiea O?aioeee, iiieii aiacaiiinoe, aue a?oaue iia?aoeaiue i?in/ao
o?aioeocneiai eiiaiaeiaaiey.

?aca?ii yiiineie Eaaiooineie a?iee eaoii 1945 a..

No?aoaae/anee aieia n NNN? ia auea aeey ssiiiee iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth.
Iiaeaioiaea e iae aaeanue ia/eiay ii e?aeiae ia?a n 1931 a.. A oa/aiea
30-o aa. ia a?aieoea NNN? e Iiiaieee n Iai/aeo?eae iinoiyiii
nio?aiyeanue iai?yaeaiiinoue, iinoiyiii neo/aeenue iia?aie/iua
eiioeeeou, aeioiaeeaoea eiiaaea e aei aiaauo aeaenoaee, a /anoiinoe, ia
ica?a Oanai e ?aea Oaeoei-Aie. I?ioea NNN? auea ?acaa?iooa Eaaiooineay
a?iey, /eneaiiinoue eioi?ie e eiioeo 30-o aiaeia auea aeiaaaeaia aei 1
ieeeeiia /aeiaae. Iaeiia?aiaiii n «i?iuoiuaaieai» i?i/iinoe ainoi/iuo
?oaaaeae NNN? e ?aaioaie ii iiaeaioiaea oaao?a aiaiiuo aeaenoaee aaeenue
aeoeaiua ?aaiou ii nicaeaieth iiuiuo oe?aieaiee. Yoe ?aaiou aaeenue ana
a?aiy n 1931 ii 1945 a.. Iniaaiii aeoeaii aaeenue iai?iieoaeueiua ?aaiou
ia/eiay n 1943 a., eiaaea ianooiee ei?aiiie ia?aeii a oiaea Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu, e ia?aae Aa?iaieae anoaea oa?ica eiia/iiai
ii?aaeaiey a aieia. Ia/eiay n yoiai a?aiaie Eaaiooineay a?iey
i?eaioe?iaaeanue ia aaaeaiea oieueei iai?iieoaeueiuo aeaenoaee (ai?i/ai,
i?e aeaaii?eyoiii enoiaea iai?iieoaeueiuo aeaenoaee ia eneeth/aeny
iiaeoiae e?oiiuo ?aca?aia e eiio?ianooieaiea i?ioea E?aniie A?iee). E
eaoo 1945 a. aaeieue a?aieoe n NNN? eiaeinue 17 oe?aieaiiuo ?aeiiia.
Eaaeaeue ec ieo caieiae 50-100 eeeiiao?ia ii o?iioo e aei 50 eeeiiao?ia
a aeoaeio. Ana nii?oaeaiey – aeiou, oaaaeeua, neeaaeu e o. ae. auee
niaaeeiaiu ?acaeoie nenoaiie iiaecaiiuo oiaeia, iaaeaaeii i?ee?uou io
aicaeaenoaey a?oeeea?ee e aaeaoeee. Iie auee oi?ioi «ano?iaiu» a
anoanoaaiiua i?aiyonoaey, /oi i/aiue oneiaeiyei caaea/o ianooiathueo. A
Naaa?iie Ei?aa ia a?aieoea n NNN? auei iino?iaii 4 oe?aieaiiuo ?aeiia.
Aue i/aiue oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeai e iai?iia THaeiue Naoaeei e Eo?eeueneea
ino?iaa [16].

Eaaiooineay a?iey ian/eouaaea e eaoo 1945 a. 1 ieeeeii /aeiaae. N
ea/anoaaiiie oi/ee c?aiey yoe aienea auee eo/oeie a yiiineie nooiiooiie
a?iee. Eiiaiaeothuaio a?ieae iiae/eiyeenue aienea Iaiue/aeio-Ai
(ia?eiiaoi/iiai eeoaeneiai ainoaea?noaa). Yoe aienea auee iaiiiai ooaea
iao/aiu e aii?oaeaiu, /ai yiiineea, ii eo auei ieiei 300 ouny/. Anaai
Eaaiooineay a?iey ian/eouaaea a naiai ninoaaa 1,3 ieeeeiia /aeiaae, 6640
i?oaeee e ieiiiaoia, 1215 oaieia, 1900 naiieaoia. E?iia oiai, o yiiioeaa
eiaeenue aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe oe?aieoue yoo a?oiie?iaeo. A naiii aeaea,
ec 7-ieeeeiiiie yiiineie a?iee 3,6 ieeeeiia /aeiaae iaoiaeeeanue ia
ssiiineeo ino?iaao, eioi?ua NOA ia aoaeiaaee e ia niae?aeenue aoaeiaaoue
a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, yoe aienea auee naiaiaeiu, e
iiaee auoue ia?aa?ioaiu a Iaiue/aeo?eth aeey oneeaiey iai?iiu
Eaaiooineie a?iee. ?aca?au iiaee auoue acyou e ec Eeoay [16].

Niaaonei-yiiineee aeiaiai? i iaiaiaaeaiee aue aeaiiine?iaai niaaoneei
i?aaeoaeuenoaii aua 5 ai?aey 1945 a.. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, n yoiai iiiaioa,
e iniaaiii iinea eaieooeyoeee Aa?iaiee, aieia n Niaaoneei Nithcii noaea
aeey ssiiiee i/aiue aeeceie e ?aaeueiie. Auee oi?ne?iaaiu
iai?iieoaeueiua ?aaiou a Iai/aeo?ee e oneeaia Eaaiooineay a?iey. Oieueei
ca etheue 1945 a. ae auei ia?aaeaii 4 aeeaecee e 400 aiaauo naiieaoia
[9].

Auei iiaeaioiaeaii oaeaea eniieueciaaiea aaeoa?eieiae/aneiai i?oaeey –
aaoeeee /oiu. Oaeaea auee noi?ie?iaaiu io?yaeu nia?oieeia (eaieeaaeca)
[16].

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ssiiiey ia Aeaeueiaainoi/iii oaao?a auea i/aiue oi?ioi
iiaeaioiaeaia e iai?iia a iaeeaeaiee oaea?a niaaoneeo aiene. E oai ia
iaiaa E?aniay A?iey noiaea aeinoe/ue iieiie iia?aoeaiie aiacaiiinoe.
Ii/aio?

Ioaeiieythuee oniao ianooieaiey niaaoneeo aiene eeoue /anoe/ii iiaeao
auoue iauyniai eo i?aainoiaenoaii a neeao. A naiii aeaea, niaaoneea
aienea eiaee 1,5 ieeeeiia /aeiaae, 26 ouny/ i?oaeee e ieiiiaoia, 5500
oaieia e naiioiaeiuo i?oaeee, 3900 naiieaoia [9]. Niaaoneea oaiee e
naiieaou ii ea/anoao ianeieueei i?aainoiaeeee yiiineea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ii iaoioa neeu auee ii/oe ?aaiu, e oieueei ii aiaaie oaoieea E?aniay
A?iey eiaea nieeaeiia i?aainoiaenoai. Iioa?e niaaoneeo aiene ninoaaeee
32 ouny/e oaeouie, ?aiaiuie e i?iiaaoeie aac aanoe – 2,1% io eo
ia?aiia/aeueiie /eneaiiinoe.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iiiyoue, /oi oaeie oniao, eaeie eiae ianoi a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ia iia eiaoue ianoi oieueei ec-ca /eneaiiiai
i?aainoiaenoaa E?aniie A?iee, ?anniio?ei, iai?eia?, Aa?eeineoth
iia?aoeeth, aaea yeaiaio aiacaiiinoe a aeaenoaeyo niaaoneeo aiene ii/oe
ionoonoaiaae. E 16 ai?aey niaaoneea aienea eiaee 2,5 ieeeeiia /aeiaae,
41600 i?oaeee e ieiiiaoia, 6250 oaieia e naiioiaeiuo i?oaeee, 7500
naiieaoia. A ?aeiia Aa?eeia i?ioeaiee eiae aieaa 1 ieeeeiia nieaeao e
ioeoea?ia, 10400 i?oaeee e ieiiiaoia, 1500 oaieia e NAO, 3300 naiieaoia
[15]. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, E?aniay A?iey eiaea eoaea aieaa cia/eoaeueiia
i?aainoiaenoai, /ai e aaaonoo 1945 a. – iaae yiiioeaie. Oai ia iaiaa
iioa?e niaaoneeo aiene a Aa?eeineie iia?aoeee ninoaaeee aieaa 250 ouny/
oaeouie e ?aiaiuie – aieaa 10% ia?aiia/aeueiie /eneaiiinoe niaaoneie
a?oiie?iaee (ec ieo 102 ouny/e oaeouie). E nii?ioeaeyeanue Aa?eeineay
a?oiie?iaea i?ioeaieea nouanoaaiii aeieueoa, /ai Eaaiooineay a?iey.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaaiui oaeoi?ii, iaania/eaoei iiaaaeo E?aniie A?iee iaae
yiiioeaie, auea iia?aoeaiay aiacaiiinoue, eanaaoayny eae a?aiaie ia/aea
aiaauo aeaenoaee, oae e eo ieaia. Ii/aio aea iia oaeaeinue?

Ai-ia?auo, yiiineia eiiaiaeiaaiea a?oai i?in/eoaeinue n ii?aaeaeaieai
n?iea ia/aea aieiu. Iii neeueii caieceei i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue
O?ainneae?neie iaaeno?aee. Yoi, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
ia/aei aieiu i?aaeiieaaaeinue a eiioea naioya?y – ieoya?a. Oaeiio
caaeoaeaeaieth niinianoaiaaei aua oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi aaaono ia
Aeaeueiai Ainoiea – a?aiy aeiaeaeae, a a naioya?a-ieoya?a
onoaiaaeeaaaony ioee/iay nooay iiaiaea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, auee
cia/eoaeueii caieaeaiu ioeaiee nee, eioi?ua niaaoneia eiiaiaeiaaiea, ii
iiaieth yiiioeaa, eiaei aiciiaeiinoue nin?aaeioi/eoue ia Aeaeueiee
Ainoie. Ii eo iiaieth, yoi auei – ia aieaa 40 aeeaecee, a iniiaiii
no?aeeiauo [16]. Enoiaey ec yoiai, ooaa Eaaiooineie a?iee ?ac?aaioae
iaaa?iue ieai iai?iiu. I?eia?ii o?aoue nee a?iee caieiaea «iieino
i?ee?uoey», ?ann/eouaay caaea?aeaoue ianooieaiea, eciioaoue e
iaane?iaeoue ianooiaaoeo. Inoaeueiua neeu aeeneioee?iaaeenue a aeoaeia
eeoaeneie oa??eoi?ee. (Enoaoe, i?eia?ii oaeei aea aue oa?aeoa?
yoaeiie?iaaiey E?aniie A?iee e eaoo 1941 a.. Ec 149 aeeaecee a caiaaeiuo
ie?oaao «iieino i?ee?uoey» (10 – 50 ei io a?aieoeu) caieiaee 48
aeeaecee, a inoaeueiua iaoiaeeeenue a aeoaeia (aei 300 ei) [8].) Iie
iiaee au, ii caiuneai yiiineeo ooaaia, iaianoe eiio?oaea? ia ethaii
iai?aaeaiee, a caoai, iieo/ea iiaee?aieaiea, ia?aeoe e a
eiio?ianooieaiea. E?iia oiai, a neo/aa iaaeaaii?eyoiiai ?acaeoey aiaauo
aeaenoaee aienea ieaie?iaaeinue ioaiaeeoue aaeoaue, ia a?aieoeu n Ei?aae
[9].

N caiaaea, ni noi?iiu Iiiaieee, iiceoeee Eaaiooineie a?iee, caueuae
o?oaeiii?ioiaeeiue ai?iue o?aaao Aieueoie Oeiaai. ssiiineia
eiiaiaeiaaiea ia ?ann/eouaaei ia aiciiaeiinoue oaea?ia aiiaua, a
oaieiauo oai aieaa /a?ac yoe ai?u. Enoiaey ec yoiai, ianoiyuae iai?iiu
ii Aieueoiio Oeiaaio ia auei, a ioaeaeueiua iieaaua oe?aieaiey
caieiaeenue ioiineoaeueii neaauie aieneaie.

Iaeiaei niaaoneei eiiaiaeiaaieai ieaie?iaaeny i/aiue auno?ue i?i?ua
e?oiiie iannu oaieia /a?ac Aieueoie Oeiaai ia ?aaieio, e Ioeaeaio,
yaeyaoaiony oeaio?ii iai?iiu Eaaiooineie a?iee, n iaaeaieai eioi?iai aa
iai?iia ieacaeanue au ?ac?ooaiiie. A iaiau/iinoe i?eiaiaiey e?oiiie
iannu oaieia, ii iiaieth niaaoneiai Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa, aue eeth/ e
oniaoo anae iia?aoeee [9]. A yoii ii ia ioeany. Aeey iaianaiey oaeiai
oaea?a auea eniieueciaaia 6-y aaa?aeaeneay oaieiaay a?iey, eioi?ay a
Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia eiaea i/aiue aieueoie iiuo aiaauo aeaenoaee
a ai?iuo oneiaeyo.

Eae ecaanoii, oaea e enoiaeo 13 aaaonoa, /a?ac 5 aeiae iinea ia/aea
aieiu, 6-y oaieiaay a?iey ia?aaaeeea /a?ac Aieueoie Oeiaai, au?aaeanue
ia ?aaieio e ono?aieeanue e Ioeaeaio, i?ieaey ca yoi a?aiy aieaa 400
eeeiiao?ia [9]. 14 aaaonoa yiiineia i?aaeoaeuenoai i?eiyei
i?eioeeieaeueiia ?aoaiea i iieiie e aaciaiai?i/iie eaieooeyoeee.

Iienuaay i?in/aou yiiineeo ooaaia a iiaeaioiaea e iai?iia ia Aeaeueiai
Ainoiea, iaeuecy iaieoe e ineoieiae/aneea iiiaiou. A oa/aiea anae aieiu
ia Oeoii ieaaia yiiioeu eiaee aeaei n i?ioeaieeii, aaaeouei ianooieaiea
iaaeeaiii, i/aiue inoi?iaeii, iaoiaee/ii e aeaaea n iaeioi?ie
?iainoueth. Iiieiaee ee yiiineea eiiaiaeothuea, /oi ia?iiiue iiuo
niaaoneeo aiene a no?aieoaeueiuo, iaiaa?aiiuo iia?aoeeyo, iieo/aiiue eie
a aieia n Aa?iaieae, aiai?eo i oii, /oi e ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea iie
nei?aa anaai aoaeoo aeaenoaiaaoue oaeei aea ia?acii? Eae aoaeoi
iiieiaee, ii a oii-oi e aeaei, /oi «eae aoaeoi». Nouanoaoao ?anoiaeaa
iiaiea, /oi /oaeie iiuo a i?eioeeia ie/aio iao/eoue ia iiaeao, e a
aeaiiii neo/aa eiaei ianoi ia/oi iiaeiaiia. Aaaeue e 1945 a. yiiineea
aienea ie ?aco ia eniuoaee ia naaa no?aieoaeueiuo oaea?ia i?ioeaieea.
Aia?eeaineea aienea ianooiaee ia ieo i/aiue iaaeeaiii e inoi?iaeii. Iiuo
Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu iie aini?eieiaee, ii aini?eieiaee iaiauaiii,
oai?aoe/anee, a iaaeeaiiia iaoiaee/iia ianooieaiea i?ioeaieea auei iiiai
?ac eniuoaii «ia nianoaaiiie oeo?a».

Yoi iieacuaaao, /oi a aeaenoaeyo eiiaiaeothueo e ooaaia aeaeaei ia ana
ii?aaeaeyaony niciaoaeueiuie ?aoaieyie oeia «iaaei aeaenoaiaaoue oae-oi
e oae-oi». Ia eiiaiaeothueo e ooaau aeaaeo ia?iiiue a?oc iiuoa,
o?aaeeoeee oie a?iee, a eioi?ie iie neoaeao, neiaeeaoeany noa?aioeiu
iuoeaiey (a iie anoue anaaaea). Ana yoi nicaeaao o ieo iiaeniciaoaeueiua
onoaiiaee, eioi?ua /anoi ieacuaatho ia eo aeaenoaey ia iaiueoaa aeeyiea,
/ai niciaoaeueiua ?aoaiey. Eiaee ianoi a oiaea aieiu Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu no?aieoaeueiua i?i?uau niaaoneeo oaieiauo a?iee
/a?ac ai?u? Aea, eiaee ianoi. Ciaee ee ia yoii a yiiineeo ooaaao? Aea,
ciaee. Iiaeii ee auei ec yoiai naeaeaoue niioaaonoaothuea auaiaeu,
oe?aieoue iai?iio ii Aieueoiio Oeiaaio e oneeeoue aa oioy au
aeaoiy-o?aiy aeeaeceyie? Eiia/ii, iiaeii. Aeaaea 2-3 iieiie?iaiua
aeeaecee, o/eouaay oneiaey ianoiinoe, iiaee au ninoaaeoue na?ueaciia
i?aiyonoaea ia iooe niaaoneeo aiene. Iaeiaei e 9 aaaonoa 1945 a.
yiiineeo aiene oai ii/oe ia auei, e niaaoneea oaiee ii/oe
aani?aiyonoaaiii i?ioee /a?ac ai?u.

A. Noai?ia ieoao: «Iaiy anaaaea oaeeaeyea yoa ianoueiaea: aieiu ana
aeaeaee, ana e iae aioiaeeenue, a aio iaiaaeaiey Aa?iaiee ieeoi ia
aeaeae. Iii aeey anao auei aiacaiiui. A iiaeao auoue, aeaeaee aieiu, ii
… aac iaiaaeaiey Aa?iaiee?»

A ia oaeeaeyao ee aai oaeay aio, iai?eia?, «ianoueiaea»? Eaoii 1945 a.
yiiioeu aeaeaee aieiu n Niaaoneei Nithcii, ouaoaeueii e iae aioiaeeenue,
ii iaiaaeaiea NNN? ia Eaaiooineoth a?ieth aeey anao a ssiiiee ieacaeinue
aiacaiiui. Ia niae?aaony ee A. Noai?ia iauynieoue yoi oai, /oi eaoii
1945 a. ssiiiey aioiaeeanue … e iaiaaeaieth ia NNN??

Neo/ae, eiaaea neeueiay iai?iia, nicaeaiiay ia iaeeaeaaiii iai?aaeaiee
oaea?a i?ioeaieea, auea au oai ia iaiaa /?acau/aeii auno?i ?aca?iieaia,
oaeaea eiaee ianoi. A ea/anoaa iaeaieaa y?eiai i?eia?a iiaeii i?eaanoe
?aca?ii niaaoneie iai?iiu ia Iineianeii iai?aaeaiee a ia/aea ieoya?y
1941 a., eioi?ue aue iienai auoa. Caeanue a?oiia a?iee «Oeaio?»
i?ae?aoeea ianooieaiea aua 30 ethey, e ca 2 ianyoea niaaoneeie aieneaie
auea nicaeaia iiuiay iai?iia. Eae ecaanoii, 27 naioya?y, ca 3 aeiy aei
ia/aea ianooieaiey aeoea?iaoeaa, aue ecaeai i?eeac Noaaee, a eioi?ii
niaea?aeaeinue i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiea i ianooieaiee a aeeaeaeoea aeie e?oiiuo
nee i?ioeaieea ia Iineianeii iai?aaeaiee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i aiacaiiinoe
ia iiaeao auoue e ?a/e. Oai ia iaiaa iai?iia niaaoneeo aiene auea auno?i
i?i?aaia aeaaiui ia?acii ec-ca oiai, /oi ia auee i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeaiu
o/anoee oaeoe/aneeo i?i?uaia i?ioeaieea, a oaeaea ec-ca i?anooiiie
oaeaoiinoe ioaeaeueiuo eiiaiaeothueo.

A oi aea a?aiy ca Aoi?oth ie?iaoth aieio ia auei neo/ay, /oiau oi?ioi
iiaeaioiaeaiiia iaiaaeaiea iaeiiai ainoaea?noaa ia ae?oaia ia i?eianei
au ia?aiia/aeueii aieueoeo oniaoia oaeoe/aneiai e iia?aoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?a. I?e yoii aunoea eiiaiaeothuea e ooaau ainoaea?noa,
noaiiaeaoeony iauaeoaie aa?annee, ii/oe anaaaea i?e iiaeaioiaea e
aaaeaieth iai?iieoaeueiie aieiu niaa?oaee a?oaua ioeaee. Oae a /ai aea
aeaei? (Iauyniaiea yoiai oaeoa, aace?othuaany ia i?aainoiaenoaa ee/iuo
ea/anoa ia?oaeia e aaia?aeia iaiaaeathuae noi?iiu, iiaeii ioa?ineoue
n?aco, eae niaoiia e iana?ueaciia.)

Noaeaeaiea E. A. Noaeeia ian/ao «a?iee iaiaaeaiey» e «a?iee i?ee?uoey
iiaeeecaoeee» (ni. ?acaeae 1) aanueia cae?aaia e iauyniyao
eiee/anoaaiiia e ea/anoaaiiia i?aainoiaenoai aiene aa?anni?a iaae a?ieae
iauaeoa aa?annee, anee oaeiaia anoue. Iaeiaei iii aeaeaei ia iieiia.
Ieeae ia iauyniyaony n aai iiiiuueth, iai?eia?, eaoano?ioe/aneia
ii?aaeaiea aiaei-o?aioeocneeo aiene eaoii 1940 aiaea, aaea aa?iaineea
aienea ia eiaee ie eiee/anoaaiiiai, ie ea/anoaaiiiai ia?aaana, a
i?ioeaiee neaeae ca iiuiuie oe?aieaieyie.

Aeaei a oii, /oi aa?anneaiia ainoaea?noai aua aei ia/aea aieiu i?i/ii
aeaaeaao iia?aoeaii-no?aoaae/aneie eieoeeaoeaie. Aio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
naiaiaea auai?a aeaou iaiaaeaiey, iai?aaeaiee oaea?ia, e ii iiaeao
aeaaea i?e ?aaiii niioiioaiee nee a ianooaaao o?iioa nicaeaaaoue
iiaeaaeythuaa i?aainoiaenoai a neeao e n?aaenoaao ia iai?aaeaieyo
aeaaiuo oaea?ia. Yoi i/aiue aaaeii, ii aua ia ana.

Eiioeao?aoeeth iai?iiu i?ioeaieea ?acaaaeea iiaeao onoaiiaeoue
aeinoaoi/ii oi/ii, e aa?anni? i?enooiaao e ieaie?iaaieth iaiaaeaiey,
oaea eiay aeiaieueii aeinoiaa?iua naaaeaiey i ?aniieiaeaiee i?ioeaieea.
Ii aiineo a ieai iaiaoiaeeiua ei??aeoeau ii ia?a iinooieaiey iiauo
naaaeaiee. A oi aea a?aiy eiiaiaeiaaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noi?iiu ia
eiaao aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeeoue aeaoo iaiaaeaiey e a?oiie?iaeo
ianooiathueo aiene, oae eae oaea?iua a?oiie?iaee nin?aaeioa/eaathony a
iineaaeiee iiiaio, a ca nio?aiiinoueth nae?aoiinoe oi/iuo ieaiia a
aaia?aeueiii ooaaa aa?anni?a iau/ii i/aiue oi?ioi neaaeyo. Anee aeaaea
nin?aaeioi/aiea oaea?iuo a?oiie?iaie a?aaa «cana/aii» ?acaaaeeie aei
aieiu, naeaeaoue iau/ii ie/aai ia oaeaaony – i/aiue iaei a?aiaie. E oiio
aea a ?acaaaeeo iinooiaao, eae i?aaeei, aieueoie iauai ?aciiia?aciie e
/anoi i?ioeai?a/eaie eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea aeaceioi?iaoeey io
i?ioeaieea. Oi/ii onoaiiaeoue, /oi anoue /oi, n?aco iau/ii iaaiciiaeii.

Oaeei ia?acii, iieo/aiea niiauaiey i iiaeaioiaea a?aaeaneiai oaea?a ia
eaeii-eeai iai?aaeaiee ia i?eaiaeeo e aai iaiaaeeaiiiio oneeaieth.
Ia/eiathony ooi/iaiey, i?iaa?ee, iaaeoiuaaiea, oaeaea o?aaothuea
a?aiaie. A aai-oi e iao! A eae aea ?acaaaeea aa?anni?a? Aeaaiia aeey iaa
– onoaiiaeoue ?aniieiaeaiea a?aaeaneeo oe?aieaiiuo ?aeiiia. Yoe
nii?oaeaiey no?iyony aeieai e iioii noiyo ia iaeiii ianoa (a ioee/ea io
oaea?iuo niaaeeiaiee, eioi?ua «naaiaeiy caeanue, a caao?a – oai»), e
aeaaea i?e aaaeaiee i?ioeaieeii nenoaiaoe/aneie aeaceioi?iaoeee anoue
aeinoaoi/ii a?aiaie, /oiau i?iaa?eoue, /oi enoeiiia, a /oi eiaeiia.

Iaiaaeathuay noi?iia no?ieo ieai aeaenoaee, enoiaey ec eiathuaeny oi/iie
ea?oeiu ?aniieiaeaiey a?aaeaneeo oe?aieaiiuo ?aeiiia e aiene, eiay
naaaeaiey i neaauo ianoao iai?iiu i?ioeaieea (a oaeea anoue anaaaea,
aaniethoii «?iaiie» iai?iiu ia auaaao). Ia eca?aiiuo o/anoeao nicaeaaony
iiaeaaeythuee ia?aaan a neeao e n?aaenoaao ca n/ao ineaaeaiey
aoi?inoaiaiiuo iai?aaeaiee. ?ac?aaioea ieaia iaiaaeaiey i?e iaee/ee
oi/iie ea?oeiu ?aniieiaeaiey iai?iiu i?ioeaieea – aeaei aeaaiui ia?acii
oaoie/aneia e aeinooiii iau/iiio aaia?aeo n?aaeiae ?oee. A
iai?iiythuaeny noi?iia i?eoiaeeony no?ieoue ieai aeaenoaee, enoiaey ec
/enoi oiic?eoaeueiuo i?aaeiieiaeaiee i aeaenoaeyo i?ioeaieea, i?e/ai
?anniao?eaaoue i?eoiaeeony ia iaeei aa?eaio aeaenoaey aa?anni?a, a
iiiaeanoai. Oaeie iaoiae, anoanoaaiii, i?eaiaeeo e /anoui ioeaeai. Oi/ii
oaaaeaoue ieai i?ioeaieea i/aiue o?oaeii e, eae i?aaeei, yoi ia
oaeaaony. A oi aea a?aiy, anee ieai ana-oaee ?acaaaeai e iai?iiythuayny
noi?iia aioiaeony aai ni?aaoue, ia?aiauaiey aiene, niioaaonoaothuea
oaeiio iieiaeaieth aeae, aiieia iiaoo auoue ane?uou a?aaeaneie
?acaaaeeie. Ieai iaiaaeaiey a yoii neo/aa, eae i?aaeei, aua iiaeao auoue
auno?i eciaiai, oae eae nin?aaeioi/aiea oaea?iuo a?oiie?iaie i?iaiaeeony
a naiue iineaaeiee iiiaio.

Iu aeaeei, /oi /anoua e a?oaua ioeaee ooaaia i?e iiaeaioiaea e
iai?iieoaeueiie aieia aucaaiu ia noauaeoeaiuie, a iauaeoeaiuie i?e/eiaie
– iaee/eai a ?oeao aa?anni?a iia?aoeaii-no?aoaae/aneie eieoeeaoeau.
Iaeiaei, iaeuecy na?anuaaoue ni n/aoia e oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi
iiaeaioiaea e aa?anneaiie aieia, nicaeaiea «a?iee iaiaaeaiey»
i?aaeiieaaaao iiauoaiea o?aaiaaiee e ee/iui ea/anoaai e o?iaith
iiaeaioiaee aunoaai eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa ii n?aaiaieth n ie?iui a?aiaiai.
Aaia?ae «n?aaeiae ia?oeainoe», eioi?ue aiieia oa?iei a niieieiia a?aiy,
aoaeao iai?eaieai a «a?iee iaiaaeaiey». Ia eeth/aaua eiiaiaeiua iinou a
oaeie a?iee (eiiaiaeothuea a?oiiaie a?iee, oaieiauie a?ieyie,
aicaeooiuie oeioaie, eiiaiaee?u oaieiauo e iioi?eciaaiiuo ei?ionia e
aeeaecee, ia/aeueieee eo ooaaia) aoaeoo iacia/aiu, anoanoaaiii, eo/oea
ec eo/oeo.

Iaeuecy caauaaoue e i ineoieiaee. Aa?anni? i?e iaiaaeaiee aioia ei anaio
e any, a oi a?aiy eae n ae?oaie noi?iiu anooiatho a aie aienea, aua
a/a?a aeeaoea ie?iie aeeciueth, /oi aeey ieo anaaaea yaeyaony aei
iaeioi?ie noaiaie oieii. Eiia/ii, aaaeaiea ianne?iaaiiie i?iiaaaiaeu a
aeooa «anee caao?a aieia», iiiai/eneaiiua o/aiey e o/aaiua o?aaiae
iiiiaatho oiaiueoeoue ineoieiae/aneia i?aeiouanoai aa?anni?a, ii nianai
ono?aieoue aai iaeuecy.

Iieacaii, /oi a aiaaoii iiuoa Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu eiaeenue
i?aoeaaeaiou, eiaaea ainoaea?noai, aioiaeaoaany e aaaeaieth oii?iie
iai?iieoaeueiie aieiu ia eaeii-eeai oaao?a, iiaeaa?aeinue oai ia iaiaa
iieieaiiniiio ?aca?iio. Eiaeenue e neo/ae i/aiue auno?uo i?i?uaia /a?ac
neeueioth iai?iio, nicaeaiioth ia iaeeaeaaiii iai?aaeaiee ianooieaiey
i?ioeaieea. A oi aea a?aiy a enoi?ee Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu ia auei
neo/ay, /oiau iaiaaeaiea a?iee iaeiiai ainoaea?noaa ia ae?oaia ia
i?eianei au ia?aiia/aeueii aieueoeo oniaoia oaeoe/aneiai e iia?aoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?a.

Iieacaii, ii/aio eiaei ianoi oaeia iieiaeaiea aeae.

Naeaeai auaiae, /oi iaaeaeo iai?yaeaiiie iiaeaioiaeie Niaaoneiai Nithca
e iai?iieoaeueiie aieia, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e aieueoeie oniaoaie Aa?iaiee
a ia/aea aieiu – n ae?oaie noi?iiu, iao ieeaeiai i?ioeai?a/ey.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, auaiae i oii, /oi Niaaoneee Nithc aioiaeeny e
iaiaaeaieth ia Aa?iaieth, i?ienoaeathuee ec yoiai iaaeoiaiiiai
«ianiioaaonoaey», a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe eeoai iniiaaiey.

6.4 I iiae/eiaiiie ?iee iai?iiu ii ioiioaieth e

ianooieaieth

Oeaeueth ethaie aieiu yaeyaony iiaaaea iaae a?aaii. N?aaenoai –
oie/oiaeaiea aai a?iee.

Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi a?iey i?ioeaieea ia iiaeao auoue ?acaeoa
iai?iiie. Ianooieaiea – aaeeinoaaiiue aeae aiaauo aeaenoaee, eioi?ue
iiaeao i?eianoe iiaaaeo iaae a?aaii.

A eae aea iai?iia? Iai?iia ioaeia aeey oiai, /oiau eciaieoue a?aiaiii
neiaeeaoaany iaaeaaii?eyoiia aeey aiththuae noi?iiu niioiioaiea nee,
oaea?aeaoue oa??eoi?eth, iaianoe i?ioeaieeo iaeneiaeueiua iioa?e e
auea?aoue a?aiy aeey ia?aueaaiey aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai iioaioeeaea,
oaaee/aiey /eneaiiinoe a?iee. Eiia/iie oeaeueth iai?iiu yaeyaony
nicaeaiea i?aaeiinueie aeey ia?aoiaea a ianooieaiea n oeaeueth ?aca?iia
a?iee i?ioeaieea e aeinoeaeaiey iiaaaeu iaae iei.

Oaeei ia?acii, iai?iia ea?aao iiae/eiaiioth ?ieue ii ioiioaieth e
ianooieaieth. Yoi ooiaeaiaioaeueiia iieiaeaiea no?aoaaee, eioi?ia
ni?aaaaeeeai anaaaea. Iii aeaenoaoao e nae/an [9].

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ainoaea?noai, aioiaynue e iai?iieoaeueiie aieia e
aoaeo/e oaa?aiiui a aa oniaoa, aeieaeii aua aei aieiu ia/aoue
iiaeaioiaeo e ia?eiaeo, eiaaea a?aa aoaeao i?i/ii inoaiiaeai e iiaeii
aoaeao ia?aoaaoeoue eieoeeaoeao. A /ai aeieaeia caeeth/aoueny oaeay
iiaeaioiaea?

Iia ia aeieaeia caeeth/aoueny a i?aeiouanoaaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa
ianooiaoaeueiuo aeaeia aii?oaeaiey, nai?a/eaaiee no?ieoaeuenoaa
oe?aieaiee – iniiaiua iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu auoue
iai?aaeaiu «a iai?iio». Oaeay iiaeaioiaea aeieaeia au?aaeaoueny a
neaaeothuai. Ai-ia?auo, aeieaeiu auoue nicaeaiu a ia?acoeao e
iiaeaioiaeaiu e ianniaiio i?iecaiaenoao «ianooiaoaeueiua» aeaeu
aii?oaeaiee – oaea a oiaea aieiu caieiaoueny yoei aoaeao iaeiaaea.
Ai-aoi?uo, aiaiiay iaoea aeieaeia aeoaiei ?ac?aaioaoue i?iaeaio
ianooieaiey, aeoaiei i?iaeoiaoue oaeoeeo i?eiaiaiey nouanoaothueo aeaeia
aii?oaeaiee a ianooieaiee e aianoe niioaaonoaothuea eciaiaiey a onoaau
a?iee – iaiyoue onoaau e ia?ao/eaaoue ii iei ee/iue ninoaa a oneiaeyo
aieiu – oiaea i/aiue o?oaeii. Ai anyeii neo/aa, eo/oa yoi naeaeaoue
caaeaaia?aiaiii. Iiaeii aeiaaaeoue nthaea e o?aoee ioieo – ia/aoue
oi?ie?iaaiea «ianooiaoaeueiuo» /anoae e niaaeeiaiee (oeia
aicaeooii-aeanaioiuo aeeaecee), eioi?ua, eiaaea iicaieeo ianoaiiaea,
aoaeoo auno?i ?acaa?ioou aei iieiiai ninoaaa.

Anee eiaaony oaa?aeay oaa?aiiinoue a oniaoa iai?iieoaeueiiai ia?eiaea
aieiu, oi aua aei aa ia/aea iaycaoaeueii iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue
i?aaeiinueee aeey oniaoiiai aaaeaiey ianooiaoaeueiuo iia?aoeee, eioi?ua
aoaeoo eiaoue ianoi iinea oiai, eiaaea i?ioeaiee aoaeao i?i/ii
inoaiiaeai iai?iiie.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?ia caaeaaia?aiaiiiai nicaeaiey oaeeo i?aaeiinueie
iiaeii oeacaoue, iai?eia?, nicaeaiea aei aieiu a NNN? ieaaathuaai oaiea
O-40 e ia/aei oi?ie?iaaiey a ai?aea 1941 aiaea 5 aicaeooii-aeanaioiuo
ei?ionia. N ia/aeii aieiu a oeaeii aicaeooiua aeanaiou ia
eniieueciaaeenue, eeoue ia Ea?/aineii iieoino?iaa, iiae Iaeannie e
Eeaaii auee neo/ae aunaaeee iaaieueoeo oaeoe/aneeo aeanaioia. Ia
eniieueciaaeenue iie e a ea/anoaa no?aeeiauo iiae?acaeaeaiee ec-ca
iaeaa/aiiiai aii?oaeaiey [20].

Neieueei aeanaioieeia auei a yoeo ei?ionao e 22 ethiy 1941 a., a eaeie
noaaeee iaoiaeeeinue eo oi?ie?iaaiea? A ?anii?yaeaiee aaoi?a oaeeo
aeaiiuo iao. Iaeiaei ecaanoii, iai?eia?, /oi ceiie 1941/1942 aa. a
?aeiia Aycueiu aue aunaaeai 4-e aicaeooii-aeanaioiue ei?ion. Ii
ian/eouaae … iaiaa 7,5 ouny/ nieaeao e ioeoea?ia [15]. Anee inoaeueiua
ei?iona auee ia aieueoa (a a?yae ee aeey aunaaeee iiae Aycueiie aue
eniieueciaai ei?ion, oeiiieaeoiaaiiue ooaea ae?oaeo) oi anaai a 5
ei?ionao auei ia aieaa 35-40 ouny/ /aeiaae. Oae eae iinea 22 ethiy 1941
a. aeanaiou ii/oe ia eniieueciaaeenue, yoe aienea ii/oe ia ianee
iioa?ue. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e 22 ethiy aeanaioieeia a yoeo ei?ionao a?yae
ee auei aieueoa, /ai 35-40 ouny/. Yoa ioeaiea a?oaay e iaaannii?iay, ii
aieaa oi/iuo aeaiiuo a ?anii?yaeaiee aaoi?a iao. Yoeo aeaiiuo ia
i?eaiaeeo e A. Noai?ia. Oioaeinue au ciaoue, ii/aio.

I?aaaea, A. Noai?ia ieoao, /oi anaai a Niaaoneii Nithca eiaeny ieeeeii
ioee/ii iiaeaioiaeaiiuo aeanaioieeia. Ii iu iicaieei naaa ia aeiaa?youe
yoiio ooaa?aeaeaieth a nayce n aai i/aaeaeiie aano?aeiinoueth.

Iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi oa iaiiiai/eneaiiua oaeou, eioi?ua
aeaenoaeoaeueii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i «ianooiaoaeueiie» iiaeaioiaea
Niaaoneiai Nithca ia?aae aieiie, oeacuaatho ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueioth
iiaeaioiaeo e eiio?ianooieaieth, eioi?ia aeieaeii auei ia/aoueny, eiaaea
i?ioeaiee aoaeao i?i/ii inoaiiaeai niaaoneie iai?iiie.

6.5 I iiaeeecaoeeiiiie aioiaiinoe niaaoneie

i?iiuoeaiiinoe

Ec aieueoeinoaa enoi/ieeia, caneoaeeaathueo aeiaa?ey, enoiaeyo
naaaeaiey, /oi ia?aae aieiie aunoaa ?oeiaiaenoai Niaaoneiai Nithca
?ann/eouaaei, /oi ia?eiae iai?iiu iinea iaiaaeaiey Aa?iaiee aoaeao
ioiineoaeueii iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiui, e nei?i iinea ia/aea aieiu E?aniay
A?iey aoaeao eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeoe a ianooieaiea. Auee ee yoe
iaaeaaeaeu iainiiaaiiuie?

Iiaeeecaoeeiiiay aioiaiinoue niaaoneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe auei i/aiue
aunieie. Ca ia?aua 3 ianyoea aieiu i?iecaiaenoai ienoieaoia e
?aaieueaa?ia au?inei a 1,5 ?aca, aeioiaie – a 2 ?aca, e?oiiieaeeaa?iuo
ioeaiaoia – a 5 ?ac, ioeaiaoia Iaeneia – a 7,5 ?ac, ienoieaoia-ioeaiaoia
Oiaaeia – a 9,2 ?aca, iaeioi?uo aeaeia i?oaeee – a 1,5 – 2 ?aca [13]. A
naioya?a 1941 a. a NNN? auei i?iecaaaeaii 2329 naiieaoia [12], a oi
a?aiy eae ca aanue 1941 a. i?iecaiaenoai naiieaoia a Aa?iaiee auei /ooue
aieueoa 11 ouny/.

Yoio auno?ue iiaeuai aiaiiie yeiiiieee aue i?a?aai a ieoya?a 1941 a.
caoaaoii aeoea?iaoeaie iaeiie ec 2-o aaaeiaeoeo i?iiuoeaiiuo aac a
no?aia, /oi i?eaaei e eaoano?ioe/aneiio niaaeo aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a
o?iaaiue naioya?y 1941 a. aue aeinoeaioo oieueei aiae nionoy. Ii, eae
auei onoaiiaeaii auoa, yoi auei iaoneiaeaii a?oaaeoei i?in/aoii,
aeiiouaiiui niaaoneei aa?oiaiui eiiaiaeiaaieai oaea a oiaea naiie aieiu.
A anee au iii aeaenoaiaaei i?aaeeueii, anee au a niioaaonoaee n
?aeiiaiaeaoeeae A. E. AEoeiaa THai-Caiaaeiue o?iio aue aia?aiy ioaaaeai
ca Aeiai?, oi iiaeii niaei ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi caoaao
iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeie aieneaie aaaeiaeoaai i?iiuoeaiiiai ?aeiia ia eiae
au ianoi, e aeaeueiaeoaio ?inoo aiaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ie/aai au ia
iiiaoaei. A yoii neo/aa oaea a ia/aea ceiu 1941/1942 aa. iiaeii auei
i?aaieciaaoue a?aiaeeiciia ianooieaiea E?aniie A?iee n ?oaaaea Aeiai?a,
eioi?ia cia/eoaeueii i?aacioei au ii ?aciaoo oi ceiiaa ianooieaiea,
eioi?ia eiaei ianoi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Yoi, nei?aa anaai, naeaeaei au
aiciiaeiui iiaaaeo Niaaoneiai Nithca a aieia oaea e enoiaeo 1942 a., a,
iiaeao auoue, aeaaea e ?aiueoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?an/aou niaaoneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa ia oi, /oi
iai?iieoaeueiue ia?eiae aieiu iinea iaiaaeaiey Aa?iaiee aoaeao
iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiui, e iiaeii aoaeao aeiaieueii nei?i ia/aoue
eiio?ianooieaiea, auee iainiiaaiiuie.

A. Noai?ia iuoaaony oaycaoue aunieoth iiaeeecaoeeiiioth aioiaiinoue
niaaoneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe n iiaeaioiaeie iaiaaeaiey NNN? ia Aa?iaieth. Ii
aunieay iiaeeecaoeeiiiay aioiaiinoue i?iiuoeaiiinoe ioaeia e i?e
iiaeaioiaea iai?iieoaeueiie aieiu, iiyoiio oaeo oiai, /oi iia auea ia
i/aiue oi?ioai o?iaia, niaa?oaiii ie/aai ia aeieacuaaao.

Ia yaaeoaoeee i?iiuoeaiiinoe ec Oe?aeiu ia O?ae e a Neae?ue A. Noai?ia
iocuaaaony oae: «Eia-/oi auei auaacaii, ii iii?iaoeoa auaacoe oioy au
iaeio aeiiaiioth ia/ue». Oae aio, aeiiaiioth ia/ue auaacoe
aeaenoaeoaeueii i/aiue o?oaeii, ii ia iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathueo caaiaeao (e
eioi?ui ioiinyony ana aiaiiua i?iecaiaenoaa), eae ecaanoii, aeiiaiiuo
ia/ae ia auaaao. I?e yaaeoaoeee oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee aeaaiue iauaeo auaica
– noaiee e ?aai/ea. E oi, e ae?oaia auaacoe auei iaiiiai eaa/a. E
iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathueo caaiaeia aianoa n
?aai/eie auei oniaoii auaacaii. A 1941 a. auei yaaeoe?iaaii aieaa 1360
e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee [5]. Ia iiauo ianoao i?iaeoeoeeth ia/aee aeaaaoue
oaea ceiie 1941/1942 a., a e eaoo-inaie 1942 a. noaee oaea ?aaioaoue a
iniiaiii ia iieioth iiuiinoue.

A eae aea, ana-oaee, n iaoaeeo?aeae, eioi?oth ii/oe iaaiciiaeii auei
yaaeoe?iaaoue? Iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iaoaeea ca n/ao iioa?e yoeo
caaiaeia iiaei auoue a eaeie-oi ia?a eiiiaine?iaaii ca n/ao
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey inoaaoaainy iaoaeea a iieueco aiaiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Iaaeaiea auieaaee iaoaeeia ia auei eaoano?ioe/aneei aua e iioiio, /oi
iiea iaoaeeiia?aaaouaathuea caaiaeu auee «ia eieanao», a nu?uea iie,
anoanoaaiii, ia ioaeaeaeenue. Iiea ia iiauo ianoao ainnoaiaaeeaaeenue
yoe caaiaeu, i?eieiaeenue ia?u ii ia?aueaaieth iiuiinoe nouanoaothueo
ainoi/iuo iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo caaiaeia (no?ieoaeuenoai, iai?eia?,
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ia/ae), a oaeaea iino?ieeie iiauo. Caeanue
nouanoaaiioth ?ieue nua?aee ?aai/ea ia iiaeeaaeaueo auaico caiaaeiuo
caaiaeia, eioi?ua auee yaaeoe?iaaiu. Noiaeiui ia?acii auea ?aoaia e
i?iaeaia iaoaaoee oaey – yaaeoaoeeae oaooa?neeo eaae?ia e oneeaiea eie
ainoi/iuo oaieueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, aeaeii, /oi
aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiue iioaioeeae iaeanoae, caiyouo iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeie
aieneaie, aue yaaeoe?iaai i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth, a nu?ueai (oaeai,
iaoaeeii) eo ?aaioa iinea ainnoaiiaeaiey auea iaania/aia, oioy e ia aac
o?oaeiinoae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiue iioaioeeae caiaaeiuo
iaeanoae NNN? aue auaaaeai ec no?iy a?aiaiii.

Aeiey caiyouo i?ioeaieeii iaeanoae a iauai?iiuoeaiiii e aiaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa NNN? auea ?aaia ia 85%, eae oeacuaaao A. Noai?ia, a
nouanoaaiii iaiueoa. ?anniio?ei eiie?aoiua oeeo?u. A ?aeiiao,
ieeoie?iaaiiuo aeoea?iaoeaie e enoiaeo iiya?y 1941 a., aei aieiu
i?iecaiaeeeinue: 63% anae aeiaiaiiie aeiau/e oaey, 68% anae auieaaee
/oaoia, 58% anae auieaaee noaee, 60% anaai i?iecaiaenoaa aethieiey [5].
Ii i?iecaiaenoao aii?oaeaiey e aiai?eiania neooaoeey auea oaeie aea.
Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa oyaeaeuo auei iieiaeaiea a i?iecaiaenoaa naiieaoia,
eioi?ia nie?aoeeinue n 2239 a naioya?a aei /ooue aieueoa 600 a aeaeaa?a
1941 a. [11,12]. Ii e caeanue iioa?e ninoaaeee, eae iao?oaeii
iiaen/eoaoue, 73%, a ieeae ia 85. (A a yiaa?a 1942 a. auei auiouaii oaea
900 naiieaoia, oae eae /anoue yaaeoe?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia/aea
aeaaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth.)

Anaai ca aiaeu aieiu ?ac?ooaieth eee inoaiiaea iiaeaa?aeinue 66%
iiuiinoae i?iiuoeaiiinoe NNN?, a ia 85. A yoo oeeo?o aoiaeyo ia oieueei
caaiaeu ia ieeoie?iaaiiie oa??eoi?ee, ii e iaoiaeeaoeany a i?eo?iioiaie
iieina e i?ae?aoeaoea ec-ca yoiai ?aaioo [5].

A iauay aaeiaay i?iaeoeoeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe NNN? n ethiy ii iiya?ue 1941
a. nie?aoeeanue ia a 6 – 7, a a 2,1 ?aca [5].

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiiua A. Noai?iaa i aacaica?aoiie iioa?a 85%
i?iiuoeaiiiai iioaioeeaea NNN? a 1941 a. – i?yiay e a?oaay eiaeue.

A. Noai?ia i?eaiaeeo aeeeiiue aacaoe oeeo?, oa?aeoa?ecothueo iioa?e
auionea aiai?eiania n aaaonoa ii iiya?ue 1941 a.. Oeeo?u,
aeaenoaeoaeueii, aaeeee. Ii i?ioeaio, eioi?ue ninoaaeyei i?iecaiaenoai
auauaoeo ec no?iy i?aaei?eyoee ii ioiioaieth ei anaio i?iecaiaenoao a
NNN?, «aeaeeeaoii» ia i?eaaaeai ie ii iaeiie iiceoeee.

Ai-aoi?uo, iioa?e a aiaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa auee a?aiaiiuie, e oaea e
eaoo-inaie 1942 a. yaaeoe?iaaiiua caaiaeu ia iiauo ianoao noaee aeaaaoue
i?iaeoeoeeth ii/oe a iieiii iauaia.

Ii ia?a ecaiaiey aa?iaineeo aiene n ieeoie?iaaiiuo eie oa??eoi?ee
aeiaieueii auno?i ainnoaiaaeeaaeinue i?iecaiaenoai e a inaiaiaeaeaiiuo
E?aniie A?ieae ?aeiiao.

6.6 Iniaaiiinoe ?aniieiaeaiey aiene E?aniie A?iee

e eaoo 1941 a.

I?i 9-th a?ieth.

Yoa a?iey auea naiie e?oiiie ii ?acia?o ia caiaaeiie a?aieoea NNN?. Iia
eiaea a naiai ninoaaa 3 no?aeeiauo ei?iona, 2 iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?iona,
1 eaaaea?eeneee ei?ion e oe?aieaiiua ?aeiiu. Eiiaiaeiaae ae
aaia?ae-iieeiaiee ss. O. *a?aae/aiei. 9-y a?iey auea aaeeinoaaiiie a
E?aniie A?iee, eiiaiaeothuee eioi?ie aue aaia?ae-iieeiaiee. Yoa a?iey
auea ?aniieiaeaia ia a?aieoea n ?oiuieae.

A. Noai?ia oeacuaaao ia oi, /oi ?aniieiaeaiea «naiie iiuiie» a?iee ia
?oiuineie a?aieoea ia niioaaonoaoao ioaeaeai iai?iieoaeueiie aieiu e
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iiaeaioiaea Niaaoneei Nithcii aa?annee. Ii aai
aa?nee, yoa a?iey auea nicaeaia aeey aoi?aeaiey a ?oiuieth, /oiau
caoaaoeoue ?oiuineea iaooyiua i?iiuneu e eeoeoue Aa?iaieth iaooe. Yoi,
iie, i?eaaei au e oiio, /oi iaiaoeeea oaiee e naiieaou inoaeenue au aac
ai?th/aai e oaeei ia?acii auea au iiaei?aaia aiciiaeiinoue Aa?iaiee
aanoe aii?oaeaiiia nii?ioeaeaiea.

Iaeiaei caeanue aeaei a oii, /oi ss. O. *a?aae/aiei aue a oi aea a?aiy e
eiiaiaeothuei Iaeanneei aiaiiui ie?oaii [8]. A ioee/ea io inoaeueiuo
caiaaeiuo aiaiiuo ie?oaia, a eioi?uo auei ianeieueei a?iee, a 9-th
a?ieth auee naaaeaiu ana neeu yoiai ie?oaa – 22 aeeaecee.

Ii iiaeao auoue, Iaeanneee ie?oa caieiae i/aiue iaeaiueeee o/anoie
a?aieoeu? Aeey onoaiiaeaiey yoiai aeinoaoi/ii eiaoue ea?oo e eo?aeiao?.
Oae aio, ec i?ea?aie/iuo iaeanoae a ninoaa Iaeanneiai aiaiiiai ie?oaa
aoiaeeee Iaeanneay iaeanoue e Iieaeaaey, a oi a?aiy eae niaaoneay
a?aieoea naaa?iaa Iieaeaaee aei a?aieoeu n Aaei?onneae ioiineeanue e
Eeaaneiio iniaiio aiaiiiio ie?oao. Oae aio, iieina Iaeanneiai ie?oaa
ninoaaeyea ii?yaeea 550 ei, a ninaaeiaai Eeaaneiai – anaai ieiei 750 ei,
o. a. iie auee ii/oe ?aaiu, a oi a?aiy eae Eeaaneee iniaue aiaiiue ie?oa
eiae 58 aeeaecee, a Iaeanneee – anaai 22. Iia?aoeaiay ieioiinoue aiene
Iaeanneiai aiaiiiai ie?oaa auea a 2 n eeoiei ?aca ieaea, /ai Eeaaneiai
iniaiai, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, ie i eaeie oaea?iie a?oiie?iaea E?aniie
A?iee ia ?oiuineie a?aieoea ia iiaeao auoue e ?a/e.

Ana aeaei a oii, /oi oi eiee/anoai aiene, eioi?ia eiaeinue a Iaeanneii
aiaiiii ie?oaa, auei yaii iaoeaeaniia?acii ae?iaeoue ia ianeieueei
a?iee. Iiyoiio ana aienea ie?oaa auee naaaeaiu a iaeio a?ieth.

Iiaoo ni?ineoue, a auei aea ianeieueei a?iee a Eaieia?aaeneii aiaiiii
ie?oaa (21 aeeaecey e 1 a?eaaaea), I?eaaeoeeneii iniaii aiaiiii ie?oaa
(25 aeeaecee e 1 a?eaaaea)? Ii Eaieia?aaeneee ie?oa caieiae iieino aieaa
1200 eeeiiao?ia a i/aiue naiaia?aciuo oneiaeyo, e caeanue auei
oeaeaniia?acii eiaoue ia iaeio aieueooth a?ieth, a ianeieueei a?iee
iiiaiueoa aaeaeo ?aca?inaiiinoe aiene e ioiineoaeueiie ecieyoeee ae?oa
io ae?oaa eo a?oiie?iaie. A I?eaaeoeeneee ie?oa eiae ia 22 aeeaecee, a
25 e aua 1 a?eaaaeo.

*oi eanaaony cayaeaiey A. Noai?iaa ian/ao oiai, /oi «anee au 9-y a?iey
auea au iieiinoueth oeiiieaeoiaaia, a iae auei au 3000 oaieia», oi ia
yoio n/ao anoue oi?ioay ?onneay iineiaeoea: «Anee au, aea eaau, aea ai
?oo ?inee a?eau». E oiio aea oeeo?a 3000 aiooaao aieueoea iiaeic?aiey.
Aaaeue nai aea A. Noai?ia ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iieiinoueth oeiiieaeoiaaiiay
oaieiaay aeeaecey – yoi 300 oaieia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a 4-o oaieiauo
aeeaeceyo ie?oaa iaaeeaaeaei eiaoue eeoue 1200 oaieia. A eae aea
inoaeueiua 1800? No?aeeiaie aeeaecee ii ooaoai, i?eiyoui a ai?aea 1941
a., iieaaaeinue eiaoue 16 oaieia [8], neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia ana 13 oaeeo
niaaeeiaiee – 208 iaoei. Inoaeueiua 1600 oaieia oiaaea i?eoiaeyony ia 3
eaaaea?eeneea e 2 iioino?aeeiaua aeeaecee, oi anoue ii 320 ia eaaeaeoth.
Yoi aeaaea aieueoa, /ai, ii A. Noai?iao, aeieaeii auei auoue a oaieiaie
aeeaecee. Oaeiai, eiia/ii, auoue ia iiaeao. Eaaaea?eeneay aeeaecey
aeieaeia auea eiaoue oieueei iaeei oaieiaue iiee, a iioino?aeeiaay – ii
nooe aeaea oa aea no?aeeiaay, oieueei ia aaoiiaoeiao. Iu ia eiaao oi/iuo
aeaiiuo i ooaoao oaeeo niaaeeiaiee, ii ana ?aaii, eae ie noa?aeny
«?acianoeoue» 1600 oaieia ii 3 eaaaea?eeneei e 2 iioi?eciaaiiui
aeeaeceyi – ieeae ia iieo/aaony.

Oaeei ia?acii, iienuaay 9-th a?ieth, A. Noai?ia «iiaeeiaee»
iaeiiiaoaioiiai /eoaoaey aanueia i?eieoeaiui ia?acii, neiioeaio?e?iaaa
aai aieiaiea oieueei ia eiee/anoaa /anoae e niaaeeiaiee a aeaiiie a?iee
e «ne?iiii» oiie/aa, /oi iia caieiaea iieino a?aieoeu ii/oe aaeaia
aieueoa, /ai I?eaaeoeeneee aiaiiue ie?oa, aeaaea aieueoa, /ai Caiaaeiue.

Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, a aeaiiii neo/aa a ?annoaeaeaieyo A. Noai?iaa eiaaony
aua iaeia a?oaay eiaeue. Ii ieoao, /oi iioa?y ?oiuineie iaooe auea au
nia?oaeueia aeey Aa?iaiee. Yoi aeaeaei ia oae.

Iio?aaiinoe Aa?iaiee a aeeaeeii oaeaaiaei?iaeiii oiieeaa aieaa /ai ia
aeaa o?aoe oaeiaeaoai?yeanue i?iecaiaenoaii neioaoe/aneiai ai?th/aai ec
oaey, a ?oiuineay iaooue eiaea aoi?inoaiaiiia cia/aiea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
iioa?y iaooai?iiuneia a ?oiuiee ia iiaeeyea au nouanoaaiiui ia?acii ia
niiniaiinoue Aa?iaiee aanoe aii?oaeaiioth ai?ueao. Iiuo Aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu iiaeoaa?aeaeaao yoi. Eae ecaanoii, ?oiuiey auea inaiaiaeaeaia
niaaoneeie aieneaie a aaaonoa 1944 a., iaeiaei Aa?iaiey i?iaeieaeaea
iaeanoi/aiii nii?ioeaeyoueny aua 9 ianyoeaa – aei iay 1945 a. I?inoia
n?aaiaiea oiaea aiaauo aeaenoaee aei aaaonoa 1944 a. e iinea iaai
iieacuaaao, /oi iioa?y ?oiuiee ia iiaeeyea nouanoaaiiui ia?acii ia
niiniaiinoue Aa?iaiee aanoe aii?oaeaiioth ai?ueao. Iinea aaaonoa 1944 a.
a?iee NNN? e nithcieeia a iauae neiaeiinoe iioa?yee aieaa 1 ieeeeiia
/aeiaae oieueei oaeouie. Aa?iaineay a?iey ca yoi a?aiy i?iaaea 2 e?oiiuo
eiio?ianooieaiey (aeaeaa?ue 1944 a. – A?aeaiiu, ia?o 1945 a. – ica?i
Aaeaoii), iiiai oaeoe/aneeo eiio?oaea?ia, a ni/aoaiee n aaaeaieai
oii?iie iai?iiu ia anao o?iioao, iniaaiii i?ioea NNN?. Auaaee iiiaiou,
eiaaea aa?iaineei AAN oaeaaaeinue aeaaea caoaaoeoue ainiiaenoai a
aicaeooa (iai?eia?, a oaa?aea-ia?a 1945 a. ia Aa?eeineii iai?aaeaiee).
Neeueiiai aeaoeoeeoa oaieiaiai e aaeaoeeiiiiai ai?th/aai a Aa?iaiee
iinea aaaonoa 1944 a. oaeaea ia auei ioia/aii.

Ia «oaea?iuo» a?ieyo.

Ii A. Noai?iao, oaea?iie yaeyaony a?iey, anee a aa ninoaaa eiaaony ii
e?aeiae ia?a 1 iaoaiece?iaaiiue ei?ion. Ii oeacuaaao, /oi ii yoiio
e?eoa?eth ana a?iee ia?aiai yoaeiia E?aniie A?iee, e?iia aeaoo a?iee ia
a?aieoea n Oeieyiaeeae, iiaoo auoue iacaaiu oaea?iuie.

*oi i?aaenoaaeyee ec naay yoe iaoaiece?iaaiiua ei?iona? ?anniio?ei,
iai?eia?, 9-e iaoaiece?iaaiiue ei?ion, aoiaeeaoee a ninoaa Eeaaneiai
iniaiai aiaiiiai ie?oaa, eioi?ui eiiaiaeiaae E. E. ?ieinnianeee [10].

A aai ninoaa aoiaeeee 35-y e 20-y oaieiaua e 131-y iioi?eciaaiiay
aeeaecee. Ee/iui ninoaaii ei?ion aue oeiiieaeoiaai ioiineoaeueii
iaieioi, oioy e ia iieiinoueth. Oaieiaue ia?e ninoiye ec oaieia AO-5,
AO-7, O-26. Yoeo iaoei auei iaiueoa o?aoe oiai, /oi iieiaeaii ii ooaoo.
Iieiaeaiea n iioi?ano?naie oaieia auei i?inoi eaoano?ioe/aneei. Aeioei
aei oiai, /oi E. E. ?ieinnianeiio i?eoeinue ii/oe iieiinoueth
i?ae?aoeoue eniieueciaaiea eo a o/aaiuo oeaeyo «ec iianaiee, /oi iu,
oaieenou, ieaaeainy ia aieia aiiaua aac eaeeo-eeai oaieia». *enei
aaoiiaoei a 131-e iioiaeeaecee auei ie/oiaeiui. Iaoioa oaieiauo aeeaecee
aaoiiiaeeae ia eiaea aiiaua. Iineieueeo any iaoioa ei?iona cia/eeanue
iioi?eciaaiiie, o iaa ia auei ie iiaicie, ie eiiae. Oaeei ia?acii,
iniiaioth ianno aiene ei?iona ninoaaeyea iaoioa, eeoaiiay aeaaea
eiineiai oyaea. E. E. ?ieinnianeee oeacuaaao, /oi a ninaaeieo n aai
niaaeeiaieai 19-i e 22-i iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?ionao iieiaeaiea auei ia
eo/oa.

Oae iiaeao ee a?iey, a ninoaaa eioi?ie eiaaony oaeie aio
«iaoaiece?iaaiiue» ei?ion, n/eoaoueny oaea?iie? ssnii, /oi ia iiaeao.

E eaoo 1941 a. iiuo aieiu iieacae, /oi iniiaiie eino?oiaio aa?annee –
oaieiaay a?iey, a ia iioi?eciaaiiue ei?ion. Aeey iaiaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii
auei ana oaiee nin?aaeioi/eoue a ia aieaa /ai o?ao-/aou?ao eiiiaeoiuo
a?oiiao. Eae ecaanoii, aeey iaiaaeaiey ia NNN? a Aa?iaiee auei nicaeaii
4 oaieiaua a?oiiu (a?iee). Ec ieo 2 a?oiiu (2-y e 3-y) ianooiaee
niaianoii a iaeiii iai?aaeaiee. Oi anoue aue nicaeai 1 aieueoie oaieiaue
«eoeae» e 2 «eoeaea» iiiaiueoa. Eiaaea E?aniay A?iey noaea aanoe
ianooiaoaeueiua iia?aoeee, ae i?eoeinue oaeaea oi?ie?iaaoue oaieiaua
a?iee e ia?aae ianooieaieai eiioeaio?e?iaaoue oaiee oaeei aea ia?acii –
2-3, ?aaeei 4 aieueoea a?oiie?iaee.

Oaeay ee a?oiie?iaea oaieia eiaeanue a E?aniie A?iee e eaoo 1941 a.?
Iao, ia oaeay. Oaiee iaoiaeeeenue a niaaeeiaieyo oeia «aeeaecey –
ei?ion» e auee ?aca?inaiu ?aaiiia?ii ii anai a?ieyi «ia?aiai yoaeiia».

?anniio?ei aeeneieaoeeth iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?ionia ii ie?oaai [8,20].

Eaieia?aaeneee aiaiiue ie?oa eiae 1 iaoaiece?iaaiiue ei?ion a ninoaaa
a?iee e 1 ioaeaeueioth oaieiaoth aeeaeceth a ae?oaie a?iee. Anaai a
ie?oaa auei 21 aeeaecey e 1 a?eaaaea. Ie?oa caieiae iieino
ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu 1275 ei. Iia?aoeaiay ieioiinoue aiene – 61
ei/aeeaecey.

I?eaaeoeeneee iniaue aiaiiue ie?oa eiae 2 iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?iona a
ninoaaa 2 ?aciuo a?iee. Anaai auei 25 aeeaecee e 1 a?eaaaea. Iieina
ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu – ii?yaeea 300 ei. Iia?aoeaiay ieioiinoue
aiene – 12 ei/aeeaecey, a o. /. iaoaiece?iaaiiuo – 150 ei/ei?ion.

Caiaaeiue iniaue aiaiiue ie?oa eiae 2 iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?iona a iaeiie
a?iee e aua 2 iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?iona a 2 ae?oaeo a?ieyo – anaai 4
iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?iona. Anaai auei 44 aeeaecee. Iieina
ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu – /ooue iaiaa 500 ei. Iia?aoeaiay ieioiinoue
aiene – 11 ei/aeeaecey, a o. /. iaoaiece?iaaiiuo – 120 ei/ei?ion.

Eeaaneee iniaue aiaiiue ie?oa eiae 2 a?iee n 2 iaoaiece?iaaiiuie
ei?ionaie a eaaeaeie e aua 2 a?iee eiaee ii 1 iaoaiece?iaaiiiio ei?iono
– anaai 6 iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?ionia. Anaai a ie?oaa eiaeinue 58
aeeaecee. Iieina ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu – ieiei 750 ei. Iia?aoeaiay
ieioiinoue aiene – 13 ei/aeeaecey, a o. /. iaoaiece?iaaiiuo – 125
ei/ei?ion.

Iaeanneee aiaiiue ie?oa eiae 2 iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?iona a ninoaaa 9-e
a?iee. Anaai a ie?oaa – 22 aeeaecee. Iieina ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu –
ieiei 550 ei. Iia?aoeaiay ieioiinoue aiene – 24 ei/aeeaecey, a o. /.
iaoaiece?iaaiiuo – 270 ei/ei?ion.

Eoiai, a caiaaeiuo ie?oaao + Eaieia?aaeneii ie?oaa eiaeinue 15
iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?ionia e 1 ioaeaeueiay oaieiaay aeeaecey.

Iu aeaeei, /oi a I?eaaeoeeneii, Caiaaeiii, Eeaaneii iniaii aiaiiuo
ie?oaao iia?aoeaiay ieioiinoue aiene auea i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaie. A
Iaeanneii aiaiiii ie?oaa iia a 2 n iaaieueoei ?aca ieaea, /ai a yoeo
o?ao ie?oaao, a a Eaieia?aaeneii – a 5-6 ?ac. Ianuuaiiinoue oaieaie
aiene anao iyoe ie?oaia auea i?eia?ii iaeeiaeiaie.

Oaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea oaieia – ii 15 ei?ionai e 1 ioaeaeueiie aeeaecee a
ninoaaa 12 ?aciuo a?iee – aiieia ioaa/aei iai?iieoaeueiie caaea/a –
ethaay a?iey a iaeeaeaiee iai?eyoaeueneiai oaieiaiai oaea?a aeieaeia
eiaoue oaiee aeey eiio?oaea?a, /oiau caaea?aeaoue i?ioeaieea e iaianoe
aio iioa?e, auea?uaay a?aiy aeey i?aaiecaoeee iai?iiu e iiaeoyaeaaiey
?aca?aia. Yoi auei ioaeii, /oiau io?aceoue oaieiaoth aoaeo n ethaiai
iai?aaeaiey. Iiea yoe ei?iona aoaeoo ae?aoueny, iiaeii onoaiiaeoue, aaea
i?ioeaiee iaiineo aeaaiue oaea?, e ia?aa?ineoue ia yoio o/anoie
iiaee?aieaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy aeey aa?annee ioaeii auei eiaoue ia 15 iaoei?ionia e 1
ioaeaeueioth oaieiaoth aeeaeceth a ninoaaa 12 ?aciuo a?iee, a 2-4
aieueoea oaieiaua a?iee, o.a. 2-3-4 aieueoeo oaieiauo «eoeaea», a ia
12-15 iaeaiueeeo. A ianooaaao aiaiiiai ie?oaa ana oaiee aeieaeiu auee
auoue naaaeaiu a iaeio a?ieth.

Anoue e aua iaeia aeaoaeue, e?anii?a/eai oeacuaathuay ia oi, /oi
a?oiie?iaea oaieia a E?aniie A?iee eaoii 1941 a. ia auea
ianooiaoaeueiie. ?a/ue eaeao i iaoaiece?iaaiiii ei?iona e ioaeaeueiie
oaieiaie aeeaecee a Eaieia?aaeneii aiaiiii ie?oaa – i?ioea Oeieyiaeee.
Aeey aa?annee yoi niaa?oaiii ia ioaeii. A neo/aa iaiaaeaiey ia Aa?iaieth
iaeeaeaoue eiio?aeaenoaee ni noi?iiu Oeieyiaeee ia i?eoiaeeeinue au,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, caeanue aeinoaoi/ii auei eiaoue ioiineoaeueii
iaaieueoia i?ee?uoea, e niaa?oaiii aaniieaciu auee oaiee. Aaniethoiie
aeoiinoueth auaeyaeeo i?aaeiieiaeaiea, /oi NNN? iaeiia?aiaiii n
Aa?iaieae niae?aeny iaianoue aua e ia Oeieyiaeeth. Yoi ineaaeei au
iniiaioth a?oiie?iaeo E?aniie A?iee i?ioea Aa?iaiee, caoyioei au oai
naiui aieio, oaaee/eei au iioa?e. Ii anee au Niaaoneee Nithc iaiae
oieueei ia Aa?iaieth e ?acaee aa, ia o?iaay Oeieyiaeeth, oi iinea yoiai
iineaaeiae ie/aai ia inoaaaeinue au, eae aani?aeineiaii iiae/eieoueny
Niaaoneiio Nithco. Oaeei ia?acii, oaeo iaee/ey a Eaieia?aaeneii aiaiiii
ie?oaa iaoaiece?iaaiiiai ei?iona e ioaeaeueiie oaieiaie aeeaecee i?yii
i?ioeai?a/eo aa?nee i iiaeaioiaea Niaaoneei Nithcii aa?annee i?ioea
Aa?iaiee.

A oi aea a?aiy yoio oaeo aiieia niaeanoaony n iiaeaioiaeie Niaaoneiai
Nithca e iai?iia. Oioy oeineay a?iey e iaiaoeeay a?iey «Ii?aaaey»
iaoiaeeeenue ia aoi?inoaiaiiii, naaa?iii iai?aaeaiee, iaaeiioeaieaaoue
eo auei i/aiue iianii. Iiuo niaaonei-oeineie aieiu ceiie 1939/1940 aa.
iieacae, /oi oeineay a?iey auea aanueia neeueia, e neaainoue
i?ioeainoiyuae ae niaaoneeo aiene a?iceea eaoano?ioe/aneeie
iineaaenoaeyie – oeiiu iiaee au a yoii neo/aa caoaaoeoue Eaieia?aae, a
iaioeu – Io?iaine. Neaaui ianoii oeineie a?iee e iaiaoeeie a?iee
«Ii?aaaey» auei ii/oe iieiia ionoonoaea oaieia, ii yoi aiciauaeinue
iiuiie iiaeaea?aeeie 5-ai aicaeooiiai oeioa, eioi?ue eiae ieiei 900
naiieaoia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaee/ea oaieiauo niaaeeiaiee aeey caueou
Eaieia?aaea n naaa?a auei i/aiue aeaeaoaeueii.

Ieeae ia niioaaonoaoao aa?anneaiie caaea/a e ?aniieiaeaiea 2-o
iaoaiece?iaaiiuo ei?ionia a I?eaaeoeeneii Aiaiiii ie?oaa. Aeinoaoi/ii
iaeiiai acaeyaea ia ea?oo, /oiau iiiyoue, /oi n niaaoneie noi?iiu
iaianaiea caeanue oaea?a e?oiiuie oaieiauie niaaeeiaieyie aanniuneaiii.
E?iia oiai, oa??eoi?ey Ainoi/iie I?onnee, iaoiaeyuayny ia?aae
I?eaaeoeeneei ie?oaii, auea e?aeia iaoaeiaia aeey aeaenoaey aieueoeo
iann oaieia, e, /oi aua aaaeiaa, i/aiue oi?ioi oe?aieaia. Iiiai/eneaiiua
iai?iieoaeueiua nii?oaeaiey caeanue nicaeaaaeenue aeanyoeeaoeyie. I?e
iaiaaeaiee ia Aa?iaieth i?eiaiaiea oaieia ia yoii o/anoea auei aiciiaeii
oieueei aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee iaoiou, a e?aeiai neo/aa –
ioaeaeueiuie oaieiauie a?eaaaeaie (yoi iiaeoaa?aeaeaao e iiuo Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu).

Aeey aa?annee i?ioea Aa?iaiee yoe 2 ei?iona aaconeiaii aeieaeiu auoue
ecuyou ec ninoaaa aiene ie?oaa e eniieueciaaiu aeey oneeaiey aeaaiuo
oaea?iuo a?oiie?iaie – a Aaeinoieneii e Eueaianeii aunooiao. Ii yoiai ia
i?iecioei.

A oi aea a?aiy ianooieaiea e?oiiuo iaiaoeeeo oaieiauo nee ec yoiai
?aeiia auei aanueia ii?aaaeaiiui e auaiaeiui, oae eae ii neeueii
aaeaaaeny aaeoaue niaaoneie oa??eoi?ee e ionthaea eaaeae iaeaieaa
oaeiaiue iooue ia Eaieia?aae. Oaeia ianooieaiea aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaei
ianoi – ionthaea ia/aea i?i?ua 4-y oaieiaay a?oiia a?oiiu a?iee «Naaa?».
N iai?iieoaeueiuie oeaeyie – aeey i?ioeaiaeaenoaey oaeei aeaenoaeyi
aa?iaineie a?iee – a I?eaaeoeeneii iniaii aiaiiii ie?oaa aeaenoaeoaeueii
ioaeii auei eiaoue e?oiiua oaieiaua niaaeeiaiey.

Ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai aeinoaoi/ii ynii aeaeii, /oi a?oiie?iaea oaieia
a ia?aii no?aoaae/aneii yoaeiia E?aniie A?iee eaoii 1941 a.
niioaaonoaiaaea iai?iieoaeueiie, a ia ianooiaoaeueiie caaea/a.

Auiieieee ee niaaoneea oaieiaua ei?iona naith iai?iieoaeueioth caaea/o?
Aea, auiieieee. Ca ia?aua o?e iaaeaee aieiu iaiaoeeea aienea iioa?yee
iieiaeio oaieia, o/anoaiaaaoeo a ianooieaiee [8], e iiaeaaeythuoth eo
/anoue – a n?aaeaieyo n niaaoneeie oaieiauie /anoyie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
oaea e 13 ethey 1941 a. oaea?iay neea iaiaoeei-oaoenoneeo aiene
nie?aoeeanue iaiieiaeio. A?oiia a?iee «Oeaio?», yaii ia iineaaeiai
aeuoaiee caoaaoea 16 ethey Niieaine, aeaeueoa i?iaeaeiooueny ia niiaea e
30 ethey auea iinoaaeaia a iai?iio, a a?oiie?iaeo niaaoneeo aiene,
ie?oaeaiioth ieiei Niieainea, oaeaeinue aeaaeiee?iaaoue. 1-y oaieiaay
a?oiia ec a?oiiu a?iee «THa» oaea a ethia 1941 a. eiio?oaea?aie
niaaoneeo oaieiauo ei?ionia auea caaea?aeaia i?eia?ii a 100 ei io
a?aieoeu e iinoaaeaia ia a?aiue iieiiai ?aca?iia. Oieueei iinea aa
iniiaaoaeueiiai oneeaiey oaieaie ec no?aoaae/aneiai ?aca?aa iia niiaea
i?iaeieaeeoue ianooieaiea. A?oiia a?iee «Naaa?» oaeaea iiianea aieueoea
iioa?e e aac aeiiieieoaeueiiai oneeaiey ia iiaea oaea ianooiaoue ia
Eaieia?aae.

Iiuo Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu iieacae, /oi oaieiaua niaaeeiaiey oeia
«aeeaecey-ei?ion» iacaiaieiu aeey eiio?oaea?ia ii ianooiathuei
a?oiie?iaeai i?ioeaieea, iaianaiey aio iioa?ue e caaea?aeeaaiey aai
i?iaeaeaeaiey a neo/aa, anee i?i?aai o?iio. A oi aea a?aiy aeey aaaeaiey
ianooieaiey iaiaoiaeeiu aieaa e?oiiua oaieiaua iauaaeeiaiey – oaieiaua
a?oiiu e a?iee.

Aua ?ac aniiiiei i?i 9-e iaoaiece?iaaiiue ei?ion – oeie/iue i?eia?
iaoaiece?iaaiiiai ei?iona a E?aniie A?iee e eaoo 1941 a. Yoio ei?ion a
oii aeaea, a eaeii ii aue e 22 ethiy 1941 a., auei i?aeoe/anee
iaaiciiaeii eniieueciaaoue a ianooiaoaeueiie aieia. A aio a iai?iia,
aeey eiio?oaea?ia ii i?i?aaaoeiny oaieiaui e iioi?eciaaiiui a?oiie?iaeai
i?ioeaieea, ii aiieia iia auoue (e aue!) aanueia iieacai.

A. Noai?ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi e 21 ethiy 1941 a. aeaaiua neeu
i?ea?aie/iuo ie?oaia auee nin?aaeioi/aiu iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia a?aieoea.
Yoi ia niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ec 149
aeeaecee e 1 a?eaaaeu caiaaeiuo iia?aie/iuo ie?oaia (aac
Eaieia?aaeneiai) oieueei 48 aeeaecee iaoiaeeeenue ia ?annoiyiee 10 – 50
ei io a?aieoeu (no?aeeiaua aeeaea, oaieiaua aeaeueoa). A aeaaiua neeu
ie?oaia iaoiaeeeenue ia ?annoiyiee 80-300 ei io a?aieoeu [8].

E aii?ino i «eeiee Noaeeia».

N?aco neaaeai, /oi iai?iieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe «eeiee Noaeeia» – eeiee
oe?aieaiiuo ?aeiiia ia noa?ie caiaaeiie a?aieoea NNN? – i?aoaaee/aiu A.
Noai?iaui a iaaa?iyoiie noaiaie. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe yoa eeiey auea
iino?iaia a 1929-1935 aa., e aa aeieaia?aiaiiua nii?oaeaiey ia auee
aii?oaeaiu a?oeeea?eae (ie caieoiie, ie i?ioeaioaieiaie) – oieueei
ioeaiaoaie. Oieueei a 1938-1939 a. /anoue aeioia auea oneeaia
a?oeeea?eeneeie nenoaiaie.

Ooaa?aeaeaiea i oii, /oi ia?aae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiie «eeiey
Noaeeia» auea oie/oiaeaia, oaeaea ia niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Oie/oiaeaiea oe?aieaiiiai ?aeiia – yoi cia/eo ?ac?ooaiea aai
nii?oaeaiee: aaoiiiuo iaiaauo oi/ae, oiaeia niiauaiey e i?i/.. Ie/aai
iiaeiaiiai ia auei, ana yoi inoaeinue a oeaeinoe e nio?aiiinoe. Ni
noa?uo oe?aieaiiuo ?aeiiia nieiaeanue /anoue aii?oaeaiey e nie?auaeenue
eo aa?ieciiu, iioiio /oi iaiaoiaeeii auei nicaeaaaoue iiaua oe?aieaiey
ia iiaie caiaaeiie a?aieoea. N iaeioi?uo o/anoeia auei niyou aiiaua ana
aienea e aii?oaeaiea, a naie oe?ai?aeiiu niaea?aeaeenue a ninoiyiee
eiina?aaoeee [8].

Yoi icia/aei, /oi a ethaia a?aiy eo iiaee caiyoue aieineea /anoe,
nicaeaa oaeei ia?acii i?i/ioth iai?iio.

A. Noai?ia noaaeo ciae ?aaainoaa iaaeaeo iieiui oie/oiaeaieai
oe?aieaiiie eeiee e aa ?aci?oaeaieai, /oi yaeyaony a?oaie iiaeoaniaeie.

Ii aeaaea n «aa?anneaiie» oi/ee c?aiey ?ac?ooaiea «eeiee Noaeeia» auei
niaa?oaiii aanniuneaiii. A. Noai?ia ieoao, /oi yoi aeaeaeinue aeey oiai,
/oiau oe?aieaiey ia iaoaee niaaoneei aieneai i?e iiaeaioiaea
ianooieaiey. Ii aaaeue yoa eeiey auea iino?iaia aaeieue noa?ie a?aieoeu.
A 1939 – 1940 aa. caiaaeiua ?oaaaee NNN? auee auaeaeioou ia 200 – 300 ei
aia?aae ca n/ao ?acaeaea Iieueoe e i?eniaaeeiaiey Eeoau, Eaoaee,
Ynoiiee, Aanna?aaee e naaa?iie Aoeiaeiu. Oaeei ia?acii, «eeiey Noaeeia»
iaoiaeeeanue ia ?annoiyiee 200 – 300 ei io iiaie caiaaeiie a?aieoeu e
iiiaoaoue nin?aaeioi/aieth oaea?iuo a?oiie?iaie E?aniie A?iee ia
a?aieoea n Aa?iaieae e ?oiuieae ieeae ia iiaea.

A iiaeii auei ia nie?auaoue /anoe, caieiathuea «eeieth Noaeeia» e ia
nieiaoue n iaa aii?oaeaiea, a aa?ieciiu iiaie eeiee oe?aieaiee
oi?ie?iaaoue ca n/ao ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia?

Ai-ia?auo, oaeie iaoiae o?aaoao aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aiene e i?oaeey.
Ai-aoi?uo, anee oae auei au naeaeaii, oi a eoiaa iieo/eeinue au, /oi
aa?ieciiu e aii?oaeaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiu i?eia?ii ii?iaio iaaeaeo aeaoiy
eeieyie, ionoiyueie ae?oa io ae?oaa ia 200 – 300 eeeiiao?ia. N
iia?aoeaiie oi/ee c?aiey yoi e?aeia iaauaiaeii. Aaaeue yoi icia/aao, /oi
eiaaony 2 neaaua (a niunea caieiathueo aa aiene) eeiee aianoi 1
neeueiie.

?ani?aaeaeeoue iaaeaeo 2-iy eeieyie aienea i?eia?ii ii?iaio – cia/eo
aaconeiaii ioaeaoue ia?aoth eeoue ni neaaui nii?ioeaeaieai (anee eeiey
neaaaa a 2 ?aca, oi a?aiy, ioaeiia ia aa i?i?ua, oiaiueoaaony eoaea
neeueiaa, /ai a 2 ?aca, a iioa?e ianooiathuae noi?iiu oiaiueoathony i?e
yoii ii/oe ia ii?yaeie, ia aiai?y oae i oii, /oi aaeaia neeueiaeoay
eeiey, aiieia aiciiaeii, iiaea e aiiaua onoiyoue), e oieueei ia aoi?ie
eeiee eiaeanue aiciiaeiinoue (i?e/ai aeaeaei ia noii?ioeaioiay)
inoaiiaeoue i?ioeaieea. I?eiaieoaeueii e neooaoeee eaoa 1941 aiaea yoi
icia/aei – aaconeiaii aeiionoeoue auno?ia i?iaeaeaeaiea iaiaoeeeo aiene
ieieioi ia 200 – 300 eeeiiao?ia (io iiaie aei noa?i e eeiee oe?aieaiee
auei eiaiii noieueei) aaeoaue niaaoneie oa??eoi?ee, a nei?aa anaai
aeaeueoa, oae eae ia «eeiee Noaeeia» a oaeii neo/aa iaoiaeeeinue au
eeoue ieiei iieiaeiu aa?ieciiia oe?ai?aeiiia, e eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue
aa oe?aieaiee eiaea au a?oeeea?eth, a inoaeueiua – oieueei ioeaiaou.
I/aiue aa?iyoii, /oi iiuiuie oaea?aie oaieiauo e iioi?eciaaiiuo
niaaeeiaiee ia oceeo o/anoeao i?e ianne?iaaiiie iiaeaea?aeea aaeaoeee e
«eeiey Noaeeia» auea au i?i?aaia, a aa oie/oiaeaiea caeii/eea au iaoioa.

I?e oaeii aa?eaioa ?acaeoey niauoee iieiaeaiea E?aniie A?iee ieacaeinue
au ia eo/oa, a aiieia aiciiaeii, aeaaea ooaea, /ai eiaei ianoi a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

A /oi auei ia naiii aeaea? Iniiaiua neeu aa?ieciiia oe?ai?aeiiia auee
nin?aaeioi/aiu a ia?aie eeiee. A noa?oth eeieth oe?aieaiee ii ieaiai
o?aaiaaeinue i?eaanoe a aiaaoth aioiaiinoue e caiyoue ?aca?aaie e 10-io
aeith aieiu [8]. Iaeiaei iieo/eeinue oae, /oi neeueiuie oaea?aie ia?aay
eeiey auea ia oceeo o/anoeao auno?i i?i?aaia, e aei aoi?ie eeiee
i?ioeaiee aeioae cia/eoaeueii ?aiueoa 10-ai aeiy aieiu, e caoaa/aia iia
auea ii/oe aac nii?ioeaeaiey.

Iaiicaieeoaeueii noaaeoue ciae ?aaainoaa iaaeaeo iaee/eai iniiaiie /anoe
aa?ieciiia oe?aieaiiuo ?aeiiia a ia?aie eeiee e oai, /oi ana neeu
E?aniie A?iee auee aoaeoi au nin?aaeioi/aiu i?yii ia a?aieoea, /oi, eae
auei iieacaii, ia niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. «Ana neeu E?aniie
A?iee a i?ea?aie/iuo ie?oaao» e «ana aa?ieciiu oe?ai?aeiiia yoeo
ie?oaia» – ?aciua aaue.

Iiuo aieiu iieacae, /oi i?e iiaeaioiaea iiiaiiieiniie iai?iiu aeaaiua
neeu iai?iiythueony /anoae iaoiaeeeenue a ia?aie eeiee (eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeyao eeoue Eo?neay aeoaa, ii oai niaaoneea aienea eiaee aieueoie
/eneaiiue ia?aaan iaae aa?iaineeie). Oueiaua eeiee niaea?aeaony a
aioiaiinoe e oiio, /oiau a ethaie iiiaio auoue caiyouie ?aca?aaie e
i?aaieciaaiii iooiaeyueie aieneaie. Eiiaaea yoi oaeaaony, eiiaaea – e
iao. I?eia?ii oaea/iiai iooiaea iai?iiythueony aiene io eeiee e eeiee
neoaeeo aoi?ie yoai iai?iiu Iineau (n 15 iiya?y 1941 a.), iaoaea/iiai –
iai?iia iaiaoeeeo aiene ia Aa?eeineii iai?aaeaiee ceiie 1944/1945 aa.,
aaea iie eiaee 7 iiuiuo iai?iieoaeueiuo eeiee [15]. Aeoaeia ?aeiia,
iiaeaioiaeaiiiai e iai?iia, ninoaaeyea ieiei 500 ei. Oai ia iaiaa
niaaoneea aienea auno?i ?acaeee aienea i?ioeaieea, iai?iiythuea ia?aoth
eeieth, ia aeaa ei ioieoe, a auno?ia i?iaeaeaeaiea oaieiauo a?iee ia
aeaei iai?eyoaeth aiciiaeiinoue caiyoue oueiaua eeiee ?aca?aaie. A eoiaa
ana oe?aieaiiua ?oaaaee auee caoaa/aiu E?aniie A?ieae i?e ieieiaeueiii
nii?ioeaeaiee, a /anoi aiiaua aac iaai.

Iaeuecy oioneaoue ec aeaeo e aua iaeii ianoiyoaeuenoai. Acaeyioa ia
ea?oo, iiaeii oaeaeaoue, /oi aeeeia a?aieoeu NNN? io Aaeoeeneiai aei
*a?iiai ii?y iinea i?eniaaeeiaiey a 1939 – 1940 aa. iiauo oa??eoi?ee,
oiaiueoeeanue aieaa /ai ia /aoaa?oue. Ii iaiueoay i?ioyaeaiiinoue
a?aieoeu icia/aea, /oi i?e oii aea eiee/anoaa aiene iiaeii iaania/eoue
aieaa ieioioth, a cia/eo aieaa i?i/ioth iai?iio, /ai ii noa?ie a?aieoea,
ia «eeiee Noaeeia».

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aci?oaeaiea «eeiee Noaeeia» a 1939 – 1940 aa. ieeiei
ia?acii ia aeieacuaaao, /oi Niaaoneee Nithc aioiaeeny e aaaeaieth
aa?anneaiie aieiu i?ioea Aa?iaiee.

I?i Ieineoth aiaiioth oeioeeeth.

Oaeo oi?ie?iaaiey yoie oeioeeee ec ?anoi?ie?iaaiiie a 1939 a.
Aeiai?ianeie A. Noai?ia n/eoaao aua iaeiei «aeieacaoaeuenoaii»
iiaeaioiaee NNN? e iaiaaeaieth ia Aa?iaieth, oeacuaay ia nouanoaiaaiea
Aeiai?ianei-Aoaneiai eaiaea, eioi?ue aeaaae aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue
yoo oeioeeeth a aannaeia Aeneu. Yoio eaiae aue iino?iai a 1846-1848 aa.
[6].

*oi i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay ianoiinoue, aaea auea aeeneioee?iaaia Ieineay
oeioeeey? Yoi auei I?eiyoneia Iieanuea – ianoiinoue ii/oe nieioue
caaiei/aiiay. ?aee a yoie ianoiinoe auee i/aiue iieiiaiaeiu, e eo auei
iiiai. Iinoia auei iaei, iie auee aea?aayiiua e auaea?aeeaaee oieueei
i/aiue iaaieueooth iaa?oceo. A yoie ianoiinoe aeaenoaey nooiiooiuo aiene
auee i/aiue cao?oaeiaiu, e aiaiiay oeioeeey iiaea au auoue (e auea)
i/aiue iieacia aeey iai?iiu yoiai ?aeiia.

A oi aea a?aiy yoio ?aeii aue no?aoaae/anee aaaeai, oae eae ?acaeaeye
aaeeiue iioie ianooiathueo n caiaaea aiene i?ioeaieea ia 2 ioaeaeaiiuo
ae?oa io ae?oaa a?oiiu a?iee. Auno?i auoanieoue ionthaea niaaoneea
aienea iaioeu ia iiaee, e iioiio a?iey, iaoiaeyuayny a yoii ?aeiia,
iiaea oa?iaeaoue oeaiaai e oueai iaieo a?oii a?iee, iaoaoue eo
acaeiiaeaenoaeth.

5-y a?iey, caieiaaoay Iieanuea, oi?ioi iai?iiyeanue, ia ?ac iaiiny
i/aiue /oanoaeoaeueiua oaea?u iaiaoeeei aieneai. Oiaeua aeaenoaey 5-e
a?iee i?eaiaeeee aoeaaeueii a aaoainoai ana eiiaiaeii-ooaaiua einoaioeee
aa?iaooa, aieioue aei naiiai Aeoea?a. 21 aaaonoa 1941 a. ca aai
iiaeienueth iiyaeeny aeieoiaio, iaycuaathuee eiiaiaeothuaai a?oiiu a?iee
«Oeaio?» aaanoe a aie neeu, aa?aioe?othuea oie/oiaeaiey 5-e a?iee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aniieiaeaiea Ieineie oeioeeee a Iieanuea aiieia ioaa/aei
iai?iieoaeueiie caaea/a. Aaeaeo oa?aeoa?a ianoiinoe, iaee/ea neeueiie
?a/iie oeioeeee auei iaiaoiaeeii aeey iaania/aiey i?i/iie iai?iiu yoiai
?aeiia.

*oi eanaaony Aeiai?ianei-Aoaneiai eaiaea, oi aai iaee/ea ?iaii ie i /ai
ia aiai?eo. Ii nouanoaiaae. E oieueei!

6.7 Aoi?inoaiaiiua aeaoaee

A ioaeia ee aiiaua yoa aeaaa? Aaaeue ?anniio?aiu oaea ana iniiaiua
ioieou «aeieacaoaeuenoaa» A. Noai?iaui iaia?aiey Niaaoneiai Nithca
iaianoue ia Aa?iaieth eaoii 1941 a., iieacaia eo iieiay
ianinoiyoaeueiinoue, e eaeie-eeai iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe iiaiey ii iiaiaeo
aai eiioeaioeee auoue oaea ia iiaeao. Ii iaiaoiaeeia y?eay eeethno?aoeey
iaaeia?iniaanoiuo i?eaiia, i?eiaiyaiuo A. Noai?iaui. Yoie caaea/a e
iiae/eiai aeaiiue ?acaeae.

I «?ac?ooaiee aa?uea?a iaeo?aeueiuo ainoaea?noa».

A. Noai?ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi iaeii ainoaea?noai ia iiaeao iaianoue ia
ae?oaia, anee o ieo iao iaueo a?aieoe, e aa?anneaiia ainoaea?noai
aeieaeii no?aieoueny i?aaeaea anaai e onoaiiaeaieth a?aieoe n
i?aaeiieaaaaiui iauaeoii aa?annee. E Aeoea?, iaiaa ia Iieueoo, ia?aciaae
eo n i?aaeiieaaaaiui iauaeoii aa?annee – Niaaoneei Nithcii. Yoi
i?aaeeueii. A aio aeaeueoa ia/eiaaony «neacea i?i aaeiai au/ea».

Ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi E. A. Noaeei aieaa yia?ae/ii caieiaeny «?ac?ooaieai
aa?uea?a iaeo?aeueiuo ainoaea?noa», /ai Aeoea?. I?eaaaeai oeeoaoo.

«Aeoea? (n iiiiuueth Noaeeia) oie/oiaeee ainoaea?noaaiioth aeanoue
oieueei a iaeiii ec ainoaea?noa ?acaeaeeoaeueiiai aa?uea?a. Noaeei (aac
iinoi?iiiae iiiiue) naeaeae yoi a o?ao ainoaea?noaao (Ynoiiee, Eaoaee,
Eeoaa), iuoaeny yoi naeaeaoue a /aoaa?oie no?aia (Oeieyiaeee) e aeoeaii
aioiaeeny yoi naeaeaoue a iyoie no?aia (?oiuiee), i?aaeaa?eoaeueii
ioi?aaa io iaa ia?iiiue eonie oa??eoi?ee. Aeoea? no?aieeny naeaeaoue
oieueei iaeei i?ieii a noaia, Noaeei – nie?ooeoue anth noaio. Ia aii?in:
«Ca/ai Noaeei niaeaneeny iiiiaaoue Aeoea?o ?oaeoue ioiineoaeueii oceee
ei?eaei? /a?ac Iieueoo?» – nai aea Noaeei ioaa/aao /aoei e ynii:
«Enoi?ey aiai?eo, /oi eiaaea eaeia-eeai ainoaea?noai oi/ao aiaaaoue n
ae?oaei ainoaea?noaii, aeaaea ia ninaaeiei, oi iii ia/eiaao eneaoue
a?aieoeu, /a?ac eioi?ua iii iiaei au aeia?aoueny aei a?aieoe
ainoaea?noaa, ia eioi?ia iii oi/ao iaianoue» («I?aaaea», 5 ia?oa 1936
aiaea).»

Yoio aacaoe niaea?aeeo oaeie aaeeeieaiiue aoeao eaee, iaaeiiieaie,
oaa?oie e iiaeoaniaie, /oi i?eaeaony ?acae?aoue aai ii ioieoai.

A. Noai?ia aiai?eo, /oi Aeoea? «ia?aie/eeny iaeiei i?ieiiii a noaia
iaeo?aeueiuo ainoaea?noa» iaaeaeo Aa?iaieae e NNN?. Yoi ia niioaaonoaoao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aiaiioth neeo aio a naiii aeaea i?eoeinue i?eiaieoue
oieueei iaeei ?ac – i?ioea Iieueoe. Ii 2 ae?oaeo ainoaea?noaa,
a?aie/aueo n NNN? – Aaia?eth e ?oiuieth, ii i?aa?aoee a iieiinoueth
caaeneiua io naay ie?iui iooai, i /ai A. Noai?ia «aeaeeeaoii» oiie/ae.
Aa?iaiey naiaiaeii i?iaiaeeea naie aienea ii eo oa??eoi?ee, a eo
nianoaaiiua aienea oaeaea iaoiaeeeenue a ?anii?yaeaiee Aa?iaiee. Eo
a?iee i?eiyee o/anoea a iaiaaeaiee NNN?, e n eo oa??eoi?ee aoaeiaaee
Niaaoneee Nithc e iaiaoeeea aienea. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ieeaeei «iaeiei
i?ieiiii» Aeoea? ia ia?aie/eeny, a «neiiae noaio iaeo?aeueiuo
ainoaea?noa» ia anai i?ioyaeaiee io Aaeoeeneiai aei *a?iiai ii?y.

A. Noai?ia ieoao, /oi «Noaeei iuoaeny neiiaoue ?acaeaeeoaeueiue aa?uea?
iaeo?aeueiuo ainoaea?noa a /aoaa?oii ianoa – a Oeieyiaeee». Ii
Oeieyiaeey ia ioiineony e «aa?uea?o iaeo?aeueiuo ainoaea?noa» iaaeaeo
NNN? e Aa?iaieae, a /ai eaaei oaaaeeoueny, i?inoi acaeyioa ia ea?oo.
Eaoaey e Ynoiiey e yoiio aa?uea?o oiaea ia eiaee e iaio ieeaeiai
ioiioaiey – o ieo ia auei a?aieoe n Aa?iaieae.

A. Noai?ia ieoao: «Noaeei aeoeaii aioiaeeny naeaeaoue yoi (o.a.
?ac?ooeoue aa?uea? iaeo?aeueiuo ainoaea?noa) a iyoii ianoa – a ?oiuiee.»
Yoi auei au aa?ii, anee au … Niaaoneee Nithc e a naiii aeaea aioiaeeny
iaianoue ia ?oiuieth eaoii 1941 a., e iaaa?ii, anee au oaeay aa?anney ia
aioiaeeanue. Ii yoi aea ooaa?aeaeaiea eniieuecoaony eae a?aoiaio a
iieueco oiai, /oi Niaaoneee Nithc ieaie?iaae iaiaaeaiea ia Aa?iaieth e
?oiuieth. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?e iainiiaaiee ooaa?aeaeaiey ii eniieuecoao
eae iinueeo … i?yiia neaaenoaea ec iainiiauaaaiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey, oi
anoue oaeoe/anee – naii aea iainiiauaaaiia ooaa?aeaeaiea. Ia aeieacaa
aai, ii aai aea e eniieuecoao aeey «aeieacaoaeuenoaa» yoiai aea naiiai
ooaa?aeaeaiey. Yoi niaa?oaiii iaaeiionoeiue nioenoe/aneee i?eai. Ia
oaiaeii ee: oi, /oi Noaeei aioiaeeny e aa?annee, neaaeoao ec oiai, /oi
… Noaeei aioiaeeny e aa?annee. Aeanoyuay a?aoiaioaoeey, ia i?aaaea ee!

I?enooiaai e naiiio aeaaiiio ioieoo. Caaeaaeei aii?in: a iauynieiu ee
aeaenoaey Noaeeia n oie oi/ee c?aiey, /oi ieeaeie aa?annee ei aiiaua ia
aioiaeeinue? Ieacuaaaony, aiieia iauynieiu. I?aaenoaaei naaa, /oi
ieeaeie aeoeaiie aiaoiae iieeoeee ia caiaaeiuo a?aieoeao Niaaoneee Nithc
ia aaaeao. A oaeii neo/aa: Iieueoa iiiaaeaea a ?oee Aeoea?a oeaeeeii,
i?eaaeoeeneea ?anioaeeee, aia anyeiai niiiaiey, ii oai eee eiui niiniaii
i?eniaaeeiee au. Oiaaea aiineaaenoaee iaiaoeeea aienea ia/aee au
ianooieaiea ec ?aeiiia ia 200-300 ei ainoi/iaa, /ai oaeoe/anee eiaei
ianoi, e?iia oiai, oaea? oaeaea iineaaeiaae au aua e ec Eeoau, Eaoaee e
Ynoiiee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, Niaaoneee Nithc ieacaeny au a iaiiiai aieaa
ooaeoai iieiaeaiee, /ai eiaei ianoi a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iiyoiio
aeaenoaey Noaeeia ii ioianaieth ia caiaae niaaoneie a?aieoeu aiieia
ii?aaaeaiu n oi/ee c?aiey iiaeaioiaee e iai?iia i?ioea aeoea?ianeie
Aa?iaiee. Iaeuecy caauaaoue e i oii, /oi i?eniaaeeiaiiua e NNN? a 1939 –
1940 aa. oa??eoi?ee eneiiii aoiaeeee a ninoaa ?inneeneie Eiia?ee, auee
iooi?aioou io Niaaoneie ?innee ai a?aiy a?aaeaeaineie aieiu ao?aeoaciuie
ainoaea?noaaie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, eo i?eniaaeeiaiea e Niaaoneiio Nithco
yaeyeinue a eaeie-oi ia?a ainnoaiiaeaieai enoi?e/aneie ni?aaaaeeeainoe.
Oaeei ia?acii, iieeoeea Niaaoneiai Nithca ii i?eniaaeeiaieth caiaaeiuo
oa??eoi?ee auea aiieia ii?aaaeaia n iai?iieoaeueiie oi/ee c?aiey. ssnii
aeaeii, /oi eieoeeaoeaa ii «neiio ?acaeaeeoaeueiiai aa?uea?a
iaeo?aeueiuo ainoaea?noa» enoiaeeea io Aeoea?a, a Noaeei eeoue
eniieueciaae yoi a naieo eioa?anao, i?eniaaeeiyy e NNN? caiaaeiua, e,
iaaeaeo i?i/ei, eneiiii ?inneeneea caiee. Anee au ii yoiai ia aeaeae,
ooaea io yoiai auei au oieueei aio (e aianoa n iei anaio niaaoneiio
ia?iaeo). Ii iniaaiiinoue aeaiiie neooaoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi oaeay
iieeoeea a oeaeii ia iaoiaeeony a yaiii i?ioeai?a/ee e n aa?anneaiie
aeieo?eiie NNN? i?ioea Aa?iaiee (aaeeinoaaiiia caiaoiia ianiioaaonoaea –
oeineay aieia), e yoei ainiieueciaaeny A. Noai?ia. Ii i?eiye a priori,
/oi Niaaoneee Nithc eiae iaia?aiea iaianoue ia Aa?iaieth, e naeaeae
auaiae, /oi i?e yoii Niaaoneee Nithc aeieaeai aue au aanoe i?eia?ii oo
aea iieeoeeo, eaeoth e aae a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ii yoi ia aeieacuaaao
oiai, /oi Niaaoneee Nithc eiae aa?anneaiua iaia?aiey, oae eae i?e eo
ionoonoaee aeieaeia auea au eiaoue ianoi oaeay aea iieeoeea. Caeanue a
?annoaeaeaieyo A. Noai?iaa eiaao ianoi oiieee i?eai iiaeoaniaee –
iacaiaoiay iiaeiaia ianoaie iinueee e caeeth/aiey. Ii aeaeaao aeae, /oi
aeieacae, aoaeoi anee Niaaoneee Nithc aae oo iieeoeeo, eioi?oth ii aae,
oi ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi aioiaeeanue aa?anneaiay aieia i?ioea Aa?iaiee.
Ii ii aeieacuaae ia naiii aeaea ia?aoiia ooaa?aeaeaiea – anee Niaaoneee
Nithc aioiaee aa?anneaioth aieio, oi ii aae au eiaiii oaeoth iieeoeeo,
eaeoth ii aae. Iineaaeiaa ooaa?aeaeaiea, a i?eioeeia, aa?ii (oioy e n
iaiai?eaie). Ii ec enoeiiinoe aoi?iai ooaa?aeaeaiey ieeae ia neaaeoao
enoeiiinoue ia?aiai. Ia?aia ooaa?aeaeaiea – /oi ec i?iaiaeeiie Noaeeiui
iieeoeee iaeiicia/ii auoaeaao iaee/ea o iaai aa?anneaiuo iaia?aiee – A.
Noai?iaui ieeae ia aeieacaii e aeaaea ia a?aoiaioe?iaaii. Iiaoi?einy aua
?ac: oa iieeoeea, eioi?oth i?iaiaeee Noaeei – i?eniaaeeiaiea caiaaeiuo
caiaeue e NNN? – aiieia niioaaonoaoao e ionoonoaeth o iaai aa?anneaiuo
iaia?aiee a ioiioaiee Aa?iaiee.

I?eaaaeaiiay A. Noai?iaui noaeeineay oeeoaoa yaeyaony eeoue iauae
eiinoaoaoeeae i/aaeaeiie enoeiu, ia aeathuee ieeaeeo iniiaaiee
iieaaaoue, /oi Noaeei nai niae?aeny naeaeaoue oi, i /ai aiai?ee.
I?aaenoaaei naaa, /oi eoi-eeai neacae: «Aeey oiai, /oiau cano?aeeoue
/aeiaaea ec ienoieaoa, ioaeii aai ca?yaeeoue.» Yoi i?aaeeueii, ii iiaeii
ee ia iniiaaiee oieueei yoie o?acu iaaeieoue aai a oaeenoaa? Oae /oi
caeanue a ?annoaeaeaieyo A. Noai?iaa eiaao ianoi iiaeoaniaea niunea
oeeoaou iooai aa ecuyoey ec enoiaeiiai oaenoa e aoeneeaaiey a niaa?oaiii
eiie eiioaeno. Iai?eia?, anoaaeie a ii?aaeaeaiiue oaeno o?acu: «Aeey
oiai, /oiau cano?aeeoue /aeiaaea ec ienoieaoa, ioaeii aai ca?yaeeoue»,
yaeythuaeny eeoue eiinoaoaoeeae i/aaeaeiie enoeiu, iiaeii i?eienaoue ae
i?eioeeieaeueii eiie niune: «Aea, /oiau cano?aeeoue /aeiaaea, y ca?yaeee
ienoieao».

?anniio?ai anaai iaeei aacaoe, i?eiaaeeaaeauee ia?o A. Noai?iaa. Aacaoe
ia ia?aue acaeyae ei?ioeee e i?inoaiueeee, ii oai ia iaiaa a iai
i?eiaiyaony 5 ?acee/iuo, aeaeaei ia i?eieoeaiuo niiniaia aaaaeaiey a
caaeoaeaeaiea /eoaoaey. A iaaeaeo oai oaeeo aio aacaoeaa o iaai ia iaeei
e ia aeaa – nioie e ouny/e.

Ii o yoiai aacaoea anoue aua iaeia ioee/eoaeueiay /a?oa. Aeey oiai,
/oiau iiiyoue, /oi a iai niaea?aeeony eiaeue, niaa?oaiii ia ioaeii
?aniieaaaoue eaeeie-eeai niaoeeaeueiuie ciaieyie – aeinoaoi/ii aai
aieiaoaeueii i?i/eoaoue. Ii nooe aeaea, ii nai niaea?aeeo a naaa naia
ii?iaa?aeaiea.

A. Noai?ia ieoao, /oi iaiaoiaeeii en/eneyoue o/anoea NNN? ai Aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieia n naioya?y 1939 a., a ia n 22 ethiy 1941 a.. Iioeae?oaony
yoi oae: anee o/anoea Aa?iaiee a aieia en/eneyaony n naioya?y 1939 a.,
oae eae iia a yoi a?aiy iaiaea ia Iieueoo, oi o/anoea Niaaoneiai Nithca
a aieia oaeaea aeieaeii en/eneyoueny n oiai aea a?aiaie, oae eae ii
oiaea iaiae ia Iieueoo e a oii aea naiii ianyoea.

Caeanue n A. Noai?iaui iiaeii io/anoe niaeaneoueny – aeaenoaeoaeueii,
neiaa i «acyoee iiae caueoo 13 ieeeeiiia caiaaeiuo oe?aeioeaa e
aaei?onia, eioi?ui oa?iaeaei aeoea?ianeia ?aanoai» – neiaaniia
i?ee?uoea, i?e/ai ia i/aiue oaea/iia, i?ioeaii?aaiiai aeoa – aoi?aeaiey
niaaoneeo aiene a Iieueoo.

Ii yoi ie/aai ia iaiyao – iaee/ea o Noaeeia aa?anneaiuo iaia?aiee a
ioiioaiee Aa?iaiee ionthaea ieeae ia neaaeoao.

I?i 1 naioya?y 1939 a.

Eae ecaanoii, 1 naioya?y 1939 a. aeoea?ianeay Aa?iaiey niaa?oeea
iaiaaeaiea ia Iieueoo, e a yoio aea aeaiue ioe?ueanue nanney Aa?oiaiiai
Niaaoa NNN?, eioi?ay a yoio aeaiue i?eiyea Caeii i anaiauae aieineie
iaycaiiinoe.

A. Noai?ia ioia/aao, /oi, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aeey nicuaa nuacaea ioaeii
a?aiy, 7-12 aeiae, a, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aeey oiai, /oiau i?eiyoue
caeii, ioaeii aai iaienaoue, /oi oaeaea o?aaoao a?aiaie.

Ii aeaeaao aeaeaei eaeouea auaiaeu ec yoiai oaeoa. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
oiaaea a ie?a aua ieeoi ia ciae, /oi 1 naioya?y 1939 a. ia/aeanue
ie?iaay aieia. Ii aiai?eo, /oi i?eiyoea oaeiai caeiia iieacuaaao, /oi
Noaeei oaea ciae, /oi ia/aeanue ie?iaay aieia, e aeaeaao ec yoiai auaiae
i oii, /oi ii oaea a oi a?aiy oaeoe/anee ia/ae ie?iaoth aieio.

Oaeea ooaa?aeaeaiey o?oaeii i?eieiaoue ana?ueac, ii e ii?iaa?aaoue, eae
ie no?aiii, oiaea ia oae-oi eaaei.

A. Noai?ia iuoaaony ne?uoue, /oi ia/aeo Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu
i?aaeoanoaiaae aeiaieueii aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae ia?anoaiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iai?yaeaiiinoe, aucaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth Aeoea?a,
Ionnieeie e yiiineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. I?e yoii ii «ne?iiii» caauaaao i
oii, /oi aua aei iaiaaeaiey ia Iieueoo Aa?iaiey oaea aiiaene?iaaea 2
ainoaea?noaa – Aano?eth (a ia?oa 1938 a.) e *aoineiaaeeth (ioia?aa
/anoue oa??eoi?ee a naioya?a-ieoya?a 1938 a., iieiinoueth aiiaene?iaaea
aa a ia?oa 1939 a.). Aeaeaei ia ie?ii aae naay e Ionnieeie. Aua a 1935 –
1936 aa. ii i?aaei?eiye aa?anneth i?ioea Yoeiiee, a 7 ai?aey 1939 a.
iaiae ia Aeaaieth.

Oi a?aiy – 1938-1939 aa. oa?aeoa?eciaaeinue oai, /oi iai?yaeaiiinoue a
ie?a auno?i, onoie/eai e iai?a?uaii aic?anoaea.

*oi eanaaony Iieueoe, oi aa?iaii-iieueneee aeiaiai? i iaiaiaaeaiee aue
?aci?aai Aeoea?ii aua … 28 ai?aey 1939 a. [14]. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
i oii, /oi iai?yaeaiiinoue ioiioaiee iaaeaeo Aa?iaieae e Iieueoae oaea e
oiio a?aiaie aeinoeaea e?aeiae noaiaie, e iinea yoiai, anoanoaaiii,
i?iaeieaeaea oieueei ia?anoaoue.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?eiyoea a NNN? Caeiia i anaiauae aieineie iaycaiiinoe
eiaiii 1 naioya?y 1939 a. ia iiaeao naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i oii, /oi
eieoeeaoeaa a ?acaycuaaiee Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu i?eiaaeeaaeaea
Niaaoneiio Nithco.

Ii A. Noai?ia aeaeaao aua iaeii cayaeaiea ii aeaiiiio aii?ino.

Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi e iinea iaiaaeaiey Aa?iaiee ia Iieueoo ieeoi a ie?a
ia ciae (e?iia Noaeeia), /oi ia/aeanue ie?iaay aieia, /oi ciaee eeoue i
oii, /oi eaeao aa?iaii-iieueneay aieia. Ii aiai?eo, /oi i?anna a
«caiaaeiuo aeaiie?aoeyo» ienaea eneeth/eoaeueii i aa?iaii-iieueneie
aieia, i?eaiaey aeaaea oeeoaou ec iaeioi?uo noaoae aiaeeeneeo aacao.
Caiaoei, /oi, oioy neiai «eneeth/eoaeueii», eiaaea aai i?ieciineo A.
Noai?ia, neaaeoao aini?eieiaoue e?aeia inoi?iaeii, ii a aeaiiii neo/aa
iao ieeaeeo iniiaaiee aio ia aa?eoue, e iiaeii ?acaa /oi i?eienaoue e
«eneeth/eoaeueii» neiai «ii/oe».

Iauaecaanoii, /oi 3 naioya?y 1939 a., oi anoue ?aiueoa, /ai auoea
noaouey, eioi?oth ii oeeoe?oao, aieio Aa?iaiee iauyaeee Aaeeeia?eoaiey e
O?aioeey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, e iiiaioo iaienaiey oie noaouee a aieia
iaoiaeeeenue Aa?iaiey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, O?aioeey e Iieueoa. Yoi eaeay
aieia – aa?iaii-iieueneay eee ie?iaay? Ioaao i/aaeaeai.

A ii/aio aea aacaoa ienaea eiaiii i aa?iaii-iieueneie aieia?

Iiieiaaoa, iaeiei e oai aea neiaii «aieia» iiaeao auoue iacaaii e
aieueoia niauoea, e aieaa iaeeea niauoey – «iiaeniauoey» – eioi?ua
aeeth/aao a naay aieueoia niauoea. Auea iai?eia?, Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia –
aieueoia niauoea. Iii aeeth/aei a naay «iiaeniauoey» – Aaeeeoth
Ioa/anoaaiioth aieio, aia?eeaii-yiiineoth aieio, aa?iaii-iieueneoth
aieio e iiiaia ae?oaia. Caeanue e aieueoia niauoea, e «aeiaeaiiua a
iaai» iiaeniauoey iacuaathony iaeiei e oai aea neiaii – «aieia».

Ecaanoii, iai?eia?, /oi niaaoneay i?anna a 1941 – 1945 aa. ienaea ii/oe
eneeth/eoaeueii i Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia. Ia niae?aaony ee A.
Noai?ia naeaeaoue ionthaea auaiae i oii, /oi a 1941-1945 aa. a Niaaoneii
Nithca i oii, /oi eaeao Aoi?ay ie?iaay aieia … ia ciaee?

A noaouea, o?aaiaio ec eioi?ie i?eaiaeeo A. Noai?ia, aa?iaii-iieueneie
aieiie iacuaaeinue oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeei a oi a?aiy iaaeaeo Aa?iaieae e
Iieueoae. Ia oaeeaeoaeueii, a naioya?a 1939 a. /oi caiaaeiay i?anna
ienaea a iniiaiii i aa?iaii-iieueneie aieia, oae eae oieueei ia yoii
o?iioa Aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu oee a oi a?aiy aeoeaiua aiaaua aeaenoaey.

E a yoii neo/aa iu noaeeeaaainy n ooaa?aeaeaieai, aeey iiieiaiey
eiaeiinoe eioi?iai ia ioaeiu, e?iia iaai naiiai, aiiaua ieeaeea aeaiiua.
Eae e a i?aaeuaeouai ioieoa, caeanue iu eiaai aeaei n ooaa?aeaeaieai,
ii?iaa?aeaiea eioi?iai caeeth/aii a naiii yoii ooaa?aeaeaiee.

«Aeanoyuea oaaeaa?u» iiaeoaniaee.

I?eaaaeai aua iaeio oeeoaoo ec «Eaaeieiea».

«Aaia?ae a?iee N. I. Ooaiaiei: «Ia?aae naiui ia/aeii aieiu iiae
no?iaeaeoei nae?aoii e a?aieoea noaee noyaeaaoueny aeiiieieoaeueiua
neeu. Ec aeoaeiu no?aiu ia?aa?anuaaeenue iyoue a?iee» (Aaia?aeueiue ooaa
a aiaeu aieiu, N. 26).

Aaia?ae a?iee N. I. Eaaiia: «Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei e ia?aaeeneieaoeee
aioiaeeinue aua o?e a?iee» (Ia/aeueiue ia?eiae aieiu. N. 211).

Aicieeaao aii?in: ii/aio ana ainaiue a?iee…» e o. ae..

«Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei…» C /ai? Niaoii auei au i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi
Eaaiia i?e iaienaiee no?aieoeu 211 naiae eieae, oiio?aaeyy neiaa
«iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei», eiae aaeaeo naaaeaiey i ia?aa?inea e a?aieoea 5
a?iee, i?eaiaeeiua ia no?aieoea 26 eieae Ooaiaiei. Aia anyeiai niiiaiey,
yoi aano?ae.

Aeey iiieiaiey oiai, /oi, nianoaaiii, oioae neacaoue N. I. Eaaiia a
?anniao?eaaaiii neo/aa, iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, /oi niaea?aeaeinue a aeaiiii
ianoa aai ?aaiou ia?aae neiaii «iaeiia?aiaiii». Ii A. Noai?ia eiaiii yoi
e caiae/eaaao. Ii iuoaaony nicaeaoue aia/aoeaiea, /oi oeeoe?oaiay ei
o?aca Eaaiiaa aeiiieiyao niiauaaiia ae?oaei aaoi?ii a nianai ae?oaie
?aaioa.

A /ai nooue iiaeoaniaee, aeiiouaiiie a aeaiiii neo/aa A. Noai?iaui?

I?aaenoaaei naaa, /oi a eieaa A niaea?aeeony ooaa?aeaeaiea: «Iao?ia
auiee aooueeo aiaeee», a a eieaa A: «Iao?ia cai?aaee iaoeio aaiceiii. E
iioii Iao?ia nae ca ?oeue». A eioa?i?aoaoeee, aiaeiae/iie eiathuaeny o
A. Noai?iaa, yoi aeieaeii auaeyaeaoue oae:

««Iao?ia auiee aooueeo aiaeee» (A).

«E iioii Iao?ia nae ca ?oeue» (A).

Aicieeaao aii?in: a ii/aio Iao?ia, auiea aooueeo aiaeee e naa ca
?oeue…» e o. ae..

Ec i?eia?a ynii aeaeii, eaeei ia?acii i?e iiiiue i?eieoeaiie
iaieioeyoeee n oeeoaoaie ec i?aaaeu iieo/aaony a?oaay eiaeue, a aeaiiii
neo/aa – /oi Iao?ia nae ca ?oeue a iueyiii aeaea.

Ai?i/ai, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i aiia?aaeaaiii Iao?iaa ni noieue aea
aiia?aaeaaiie aiaeeie, nooue oaeueneoeeaoeee iiieiatho ana, ii i?e
ano?a/a n oaeiai aea ?iaea ooaa?aeaeaieai a eieaa A. Noai?iaa
iiaeoaniaeo ?aniiciatho, eae ie no?aiii, ioiineoaeueii iaiiiaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?inoia neiaeaiea 5 a?iee, i eioi?uo aiai?eo Ooaiaiei, e
3 a?iee, oiiiyioouo o Eaaiiaa, n iieo/aieai ?acoeueoaoa – 8 a?iee, – ia
/oi eiia, eae i/a?aaeiie aeoeueie/aneee o?the A. Noai?iaa. Iiiyoii, /oi,
«auaea?aeaay» ec ?aciuo enoi/ieeia aeaiiua i eiee/anoaa ia?aa?anuaaaiuo
ia?aae aieiie e a?aieoea niaaoneeo a?iee e neeaaeuaay iieo/aiiua oeeo?u,
iiaeii iieo/eoue ia oieueei 8, ii e 80, e aeaaea 800 a?iee.

*oi aea iiaei niaea?aeaoueny a eioa?anothuai ian ianoa eieae Eaaiiaa?

ssnii, /oi ii iia eiaoue aaeaeo ia?aa?ineo eee aa iiaeaioiaeo ia aeey
iyoe, a, iai?eia?, aeey aeaoo eee aiiaua iaeiie eiie?aoiie a?iee, a
caoai oeacaoue, /oi oi aea naiia eiaei ianoi e aeey o?ao ae?oaeo a?iee.
Oi, /oi ii eiae aaeaeo ia ia?aa?ineo 5 a?iee, i eioi?uo ienae Ooaiaiei,
a /oi-oi ae?oaia, iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony oai, /oi A. Noai?ia ia i?eaae iieiie
oeeoaou ec «Ia/aeueiiai ia?eiaea aieiu», a ia/ae aa n o?acu
«iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei» (i?aaaea, e niaeaeaieth, iu ia eiaee aiciiaeiinoe
i?yii i?iaa?eoue a eieaa N. I. Eaaiiaa, i /ai eiaiii aiai?eeinue a iae
ia no?aieoea 211. Ii caoi iu eiaee aiciiaeiinoue i?iaa?eoue iaeioi?ua
ae?oaea oeeoaou, i?eaiaeeiua A. Noai?iaui, iai?eia?, ec iaioa?ia E. E.
?ieinnianeiai – eae ieacaeinue, auaea?aeaaieai iaeiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey ec
oaenoa e anoaaeie aai a naie eiioaeno ii eciaiee aai niune ia i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiue. Ii ia yoii ?a/ue iieaeao ianeieueei ieaea.)

E caeanue – a eioi?ue oae ?ac! – iu ano?a/aainy n «naiiii?iaa?aaaiui»
ooaa?aeaeaieai. Caeanue a?oaaeoay iiaeoaniaea aeaeia aoeaaeueii
«iaaii?oaeaiiui aeacii». ?anniao?eaaaiia ooaa?aeaeaiea naiiaeinoaoi/ii
aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeii auei onoaiiaeoue iaee/ea a iai oaeueneoeeaoeee.

Aiiaua, oaeea ooaa?aeaeaiey i/aiue /anoi ano?a/athony o A. Noai?iaa.

Nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi oaeei ia?acii ii i?inoi ecaeaaaaony iaae
oaie, eoi aio aa?eo, iaae oaie, eoi ianiiniaai ?acaeyaeaoue aeaaea
oaeea, i?yii neaaeai, i?eieoeaiua ooea?neea i?eaiu.

A. Noai?ia i?eaiaeeo eae aeieacaoaeuenoai oaeiiai noyaeaaiey a?oeeea?ee
E?aniie A?iee e a?aieoea aeey aiacaiiiai iaiaaeaiey ia Aa?iaieth
naeaeaoaeuenoai, eiathuaany a ainiiieiaieyo E. E. ?ieinnianeiai – eieaa
«Nieaeaoneee aeiea» [10]: «Auei i?eeacaii auneaoue a?oeeea?eth ia
iieeaiiu, iaoiaeyueany a i?ea?aie/iie ciia.»

Ii ia naiii aeaea, ii naaaeaieyi ?ieinnianeiai, a?oeeea?ey ia yoe
iieeaiiu oae e ia auea auneaia. «Iaoaio ei?iono oaeaeinue ionoiyoue
naith a?oeeea?eth. Aeieacaee, /oi iiaeai io?aaioaoue ana oi?aaeiaiey o
naay ia ianoa. E yoi au?o/eei ian a aoaeouai.» – aio /oi ieoao ii iinea
niiauaiey i i?eeaca, eioi?ia oeeoe?oao A. Noai?ia.

Iiaeao auoue, caeanue ni noi?iiu ?ieinnianeiai eiaao ianoi eiaeue, e
a?oeeea?ey ia naiii aeaea auea auneaia e a?aieoea? Ii aeey /aai oiaaea
i?eaeoiuaaoue «neaceo» i oii, /oi ei?ion ionoiye naith a?oeeea?eth,
eiaaea iai anai yoii iiaeii auei i?inoi ia ienaoue? Eee, ia ooaeie
eiiaoe, iaienaoue i?aaaeo, nieiay oai naiui n naay cia/eoaeueioth aeieth
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia i/aiue oaea/iua aeaenoaey naiaai ei?iona a ia?aua
aeie aieiu? Iaa yoe aa?eaioa, iniaaiii ia?aue, aiieia i?eaieaiu, e eaeoe
ia i?yioth eiaeue iao niaa?oaiii ieeaeeo iniiaaiee. Oaeei ia?acii, anee
yoi naeaeaoaeuenoai ?ieinnianeiai eiaeii, oi oaeo aai ioaeeeaoeee
auaeyaeeo, ii iaiueoae ia?a, aanueia no?aiii.

A aio anee iii niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oi ii/aio au ia yoii ia
iaienaoue?

Oae /oi iu ia aeaeei iniiaaiee ia aeiaa?youe ?ieinnianeiio.

Ii aeaaea anee naeaeaoaeuenoai i oii, /oi aai ei?ion ionoiye naith
a?oeeea?eth, ei auaeoiaii, yoi iaei /oi iaiyao.

Aeaaea anee oae, A. Noai?ia ana ?aaii aeiionoee a?oaia eca?auaiea niunea
i?eaiaeeiie ei oeeoaou, nicaeaaay o /eoaoaey aia/aoeaiea, /oi
?ieinnianeee ieoao i oii, /oi a?oeeea?ey aai ei?iona ia naiii aeaea auea
auneaia e a?aieoea. Ii a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ?ieinnianeee niiauaao i?yii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia – a?oeeea?ey ia auea auneaia e a?aieoea.

Aea, iaaea?ii a ia?iaea aiai?yo, /oi nouanoaoao ianeieueei aeaeia eaee,
a oii /enea e – oeeoe?iaaiea.

E aii?ino i «oaeiie iiaeeecaoeee».

A?aoiaioe?oy naith «oai?eth» i «oaeiie iiaeeecaoeee» a Niaaoneii Nithca,
A. Noai?ia i?eaiaeeo oaaeeoeo, oa?aeoa?ecothuoth iinoaiaiiia aic?anoaiea
/eneaiiinoe E?aniie A?iee n oa/aieai a?aiaie. Ii ninoiyieth 21 ethiy
1941 a. ei i?eaiaeeony oeeo?a 5,5 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae. Iia caauoaia, oioy
e iacia/eoaeueii (ia 21 ethiy 1941 a. a a?iee e ia oeioa neoaeeee 4
ieeeeiia 826 ouny/ 900 /aeiaae. Aua 74900 /aeiaae neoaeeei a aieineeo
oi?ie?iaaieyo ae?oaeo aaaeiinoa [17].) Ii aeaei ia a yoii.

Aeaei a oii, /oi /eneaiiinoue aii?oaeaiiuo nee aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee ii
ninoiyieth ia oo aea aeaoo – 21 ethiy 1941 a. ninoaaeyea 8,5 ieeeeiia
/aeiaae [8,15].

Ii iiaeao auoue, yoa oeeo?a iaaa?ia, caauoaia, a ana niaaoneea enoi/ieee
acyee aa ia ec o?ioaeiuo aeieoiaioia, a «n iioieea», a oeaeyo ianee?iaee
iiaeaioaaeeaaaoaeny aa?annee? Eae iinooiee au a oaeii neo/aa A. Noai?ia?
I?aaeeueii. Ii iaienae au ia yoii AIEUeOEIE AOEAAIE, i?eaae au
i?aaeeueioth oeeo?o ec iaiaoeeeo enoi/ieeia e ioionoee au aeaa-o?e
oaanenouo iieaooe ii aae?ano «eaeeauo eiiioienoe/aneeo enoi?eeia». Ii ia
iia au yoiai ia naeaeaoue, iioiio /oi oeeo?a 8,5 ieeeeiia /aeiaae
eiaaony ii/oe ai anao niaaoneeo eieaao, aaea eaeao ?a/ue ia enoi?ee
Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu. Ii ieeae ia iia au i?ieoe ieii yoie oeeo?u.
Ii oai ia iaiaa ii yoo oeeo?o «aeaeeeaoii» caiie/ae. Yoi – eo/oaa
aeieacaoaeuenoai oiai, /oi iia aa?ia.

«Oi/eea coau» ia Niaaoneee Nithc ia iaeia Aa?iaiey. E 8,5 ieeeeiiai
a?aaeaneeo nieaeao e ioeoea?ia ioaeii i?eaaaeoue anth /eneaiiinoue a?iee
Oeieyiaeee, Aaia?ee, ?oiuiee, cia/eoaeueioth /anoue aii?oaeaiiuo nee
Eoaeee. Ia iaaei caauaaoue e i?i Aeaeueiee Ainoie – i?i yiiineoth
Eaaiooineoth a?ieth. Oai Niaaoneiio Nithco oiaea i?eoiaeeeinue
aea?aeaoue e?oiiua aieineea eiioeiaaiou.

Anoue e aua 2 oeeo?u, i?eaiaeeiua ai anao niaaoneeo enoi/ieeao –
Aa?iaiey nin?aaeioi/eea aeey iaiaaeaiey ia NNN? 5,5 ieeeeiia nieaeao e
ioeoea?ia, a oi a?aiy eae niaaoneea i?ea?aie/iua ie?oaa e oeiou
ian/eouaaee a naiai ninoaaa 2,9 ieeeeiia nieaeao e ioeoea?ia. A. Noai?ia
e yoeo aeaiiuo «i?inoiaeooii» ia caia/aao. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi e iie
oiaea aa?iu.

Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ethaeae aiiaua ia neeiiiu caiiieiaoue oeeo?u,
iniaaiii aieueoea, iniaaiii anee iie eo i?yii ia eanathony. Iiyoiio
oaeia caiae/eaaiea aeey ii e?aeiae ia?a 90% /eoaoaeae i?iecaaaeaiee A.
Noai?iaa i?ioei iacaia/aiiui.

Aiiaua aiai?y, oieueei oao niia?aaeaiee, eioi?ua eceiaeaiu a aeaiiii
ioieoa, aiieia aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau n?aco ioaa?aiooue aa?neth A. Noai?iaa,
aeaaea aieueoa ie/aai ia ?anniao?eaay.

I «caiaea/iuo» iiia?ao niaaoneeo niaaeeiaiee.

Eie i/aiue oe?iei iieuecoaony A. Noai?ia, iienuaay «aa?anneaiua
i?eaioiaeaiey» NNN?. Ii iieacuaaao, iai?eia?, /oi a ninoaaa E?aniie
A?iee eiaeenue 112-y oaieiaay, 200-y e 316-y no?aeeiaua aeeaecee, a oi
a?aiy eae Aa?iaiey i?e iaiaaeaiee ia NNN? a ia?aue aeaiue aaaea a aie
oieueei 17 oaieiauo aeeaecee.

Aeaenoaeoaeueii, 22 ethiy 1941 a. aeoea?ianeia eiiaiaeiaaiea aaaei a aie
17 iaiaoeeeo oaieiauo, 13 iioi?eciaaiiuo aeeaecee e 123 iaoioiuo, e 2
oaieiaua, 1 iioi?eciaaiioth e 21 iaoioioth aeeaeceth eiaei a ?aca?aa. Ii
ionoue A. Noai?ia iauynieo, eaeei ia?acii a ninoaaa aa?iaineie a?iee
ieacaeenue 24-e, 39-e, 41-e, 46-e, 48-e e 56-e iioi?eciaaiiua ei?iona!
Yoe ei?iona oiiieiathony A. E. AEoeiaui a aai iienaiee aiaauo aeaenoaee
ethiy-ethey 1941 a.. Enoaoe, 56-e iioi?eciaaiiue ei?ion ciaiaieo oai,
/oi oiaaea, eaoii 1941 a. ei eiiaiaeiaae aoaeouee aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oae
Y?eo oii Iaiooaei. Oae /oi «caiaea/iua», aeaaea aua aieueoea iiia?a
niaaeeiaiee eiaee ianoi e a aa?iaineie a?iee. A. Noai?ia iouneae a
ninoaaa E?aniie A?iee e eaoo 1941 a. 112-th oaieiaoth aeeaeceth. Ii ie
48-ai, ie oai aieaa 56-ai iaoaiece?iaaiiiai ei?iona a E?aniie A?iee ii
ia iaoae – oaeeo iiia?ia a E?aniie A?iee ia auei.

Auea a ninoaaa E?aniie A?iee e eaoo 1941 a. 316-y no?aeeiaay aeeaecey.
Oi?ioi. A a ninoaaa iaiaoeeie a?iee eaoii 1941 a. eiaeenue 268-y e 292-y
iaoioiua aeeaecee. Yoe aeeaecee a aaaonoa 1941 a. aaee aie n Niaaoneie
A?ieae a ?aeiia Aeueie [8], neaaeiaaoaeueii, iie auee noi?ie?iaaiu aei
aieiu.

A. Noai?ia aeiioneaao e?aeia oaiaeaioeeiciia inaauaiea niauoee, i?eaiaey
iiia?a niaaoneeo aeeaecee e /enei aeeaecee iaiaoeeeo. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao,
/oi i?eioeei iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ioia?aoeee aeeaecee a E?aniie A?iee
niaethaeaeny iaoeinieoaeueii, e anee auea, neaaeai, 112-y oaieiaay
aeeaecey, oi ana iiia?a io 1-e aei 111-e auee oaea caiieiaiu ae?oaeie
oaieiauie aeeaeceyie. Ii i?iaa?eoue yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea o ian iao ieeaeie
aiciiaeiinoe – aeey yoiai ioaeii aiaeaie neaeaoue a a?oeaao, /oi
auoiaeeo ca ?aiee caaea/ aeaiiie ?aaiou. Ii-aeaeeiiio, iiaeii iicaieeoue
naaa yoiio ooaa?aeaeaieth ia aeiaa?youe.

Oae eee eia/a, a aa?iaooa i?eioeei no?iai iineaaeiaaoaeueiie ioia?aoeee
niaaeeiaiee, /oi niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, ia niaethaeaeny. Eiia/ii, 56
iioi?eciaaiiuo ei?ionia a iaiaoeeie a?iee ia auei e auoue ia iiaei. Ii
anee yoio i?eioeei ia niaethaeaeny a aa?iaooa, iiaeii aiieia
aeiionoeoue, /oi ii ia niaethaeaeny e a E?aniie A?iee.

Iu aeaeei, /oi ia naiii aeaea a «ni?aaiiaaiee» aa?iaooa e E?aniie A?iee
ii iiaiaeo iiia?ia niaaeeiaiee eiaao ianoi i?eaeeceoaeueii «ie/uey».

Iauaecaanoii, /oi niaaoneea niaaeeiaiey a oeaeii auee oeiiieaeoiaaiu
iaiiiai ooaea, /ai aa?iaineea, /oi ia iniaeeaaaony io?eoeaoue aeaaea A.
Noai?ia. I?aaaea, ii ieoao, /oi «anee ana yoi (o. a. ana /anoe E?aniie
A?iee) iieiinoueth oeiiieaeoiaaoue, oi yeiiiieea ?ooiao iaiaaeeaiii». Ii
iu iicaieei naaa ia ?anniao?eaaoue aeaiiia ooaa?aeaeaiea – iauai aeaiiie
?aaiou ia?aie/ai, a aia?aaee o ian aieaa aaaeiua aaue.

Oaeei ia?acii, «aeieacaoaeuenoai» iiaeaioiaee Niaaoneiai Nithca e
iaiaaeaieth ia Aa?iaieth, iniiaaiiia ia aeaiiino?aoeee «caiaea/iuo»
iiia?ia niaaoneeo niaaeeiaiee, neaaeoao i?eciaoue ianinoiyoaeueiui.

E aii?ino i aiaiiuo ai?iaeeao.

A. Noai?ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi /anoe, ia?aa?ioaiiua iaeaioia aieiu a
caiaaeiua ie?oaa, iaeuecy auei aeieai inoaaeyoue a yoii ianoa. Yoi
iioeae?oaony ionoonoaeai a ianoao eo iiaie aeeneieaoeee eaeeo-eeai
oneiaee aeey aiaaie iiaeaioiaee aac eioi?ie iie aeiaieueii auno?i
iioa?yee au aianiiniaiinoue.

A. Noai?ia ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi yoe a?iee aei ceiu iaeuecy auei
ia?aa?ineoue iacaae. Yoi iioeae?oaony iaaeinoaoi/iie i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoueth aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa, a oaeaea oai, /oi iiiaei
a?ieyi «iaeoaea auei aica?auaoueny, e?iia aa?a/iuo ai?iaeeia aeey
eani?oaia», a oaeaea aanniuneaiiinoueth oaeie ia?aa?inee.

Aeaeaa ii aeaeaao auaiae, /oi ?ac aienea iaeuecy auei ia?aa?ineoue
iacaae, e iaeuecy auei inoaaeyoue ia ianoa, oi iie aeieaeiu auee eaeoe
aia?aae – ia Aa?iaieth.

Ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi a?iee, ia?aa?ioaiiua a caiaaeiua ie?oaa, iaeuecy auei
aeieai inoaaeyoue ia ianoa aaeaeo ionoonoaey oneiaee aeey aiaaie
iiaeaioiaee, ia auaea?aeeaaao ieeaeie e?eoeee. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aac
iai?yaeaiiuo caiyoee aianiiniaiinoue aiene iaaeaao, a oneiaee aeey iaa a
iiauo ianoao aeeneieaoeee aeey ia?aa?ioaiiuo /anoae ia auei. Ii
aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey oneiaee aeey aiaaie iiaeaioiaee ia iiaii ianoa
A. Noai?iaui ia ?anniao?eaaaony e aeaaea ia oiiieiaaony! Ii nai aea
i?eciaao, /oi aeeeuea aeey nieaeao no?ieoue auei ia ioaeii: «Nieaeao
iiaeao ia?aceiiaaoue aaea oaiaeii – ia a yoii i?iaeaia.»
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, no?ieoue ioaeii auei oieueei no?aeueaeua, iieeaiiu,
oaieiae?iiu, o/aaiua oeaio?u e o. ae.. ssnii, /oi iauai ?aaio ia i/aiue
aieueoie. Eo aiieia iiaee auno?i i?iecaanoe ianoiua aeeoaee a
«aeia?iaieueii-i?eioaeeoaeueiii» ii?yaeea i?e iiiiue naieo aea nieaeao.
Yoi iiaei auoue naeaeaii, iai?eia?, iinea oai?ee o?iaeay, eiaaea ec
naeueneiai oicyenoaa iiaeii auei au caa?aoue ?aai/oth neeo.

A. Noai?ia ieoao, /oi iiiaea a?iee ia iiaee auoue ia?aa?ioaiu iacaae
aaeaeo oiai, /oi eo iaeoaea auei aica?auaoue. I/aiue niiieoaeueii!
Aaaeue aiaaoth iiaeaioiaeo iie i?ioiaeeee ai aioo?aiieo ie?oaao, a
cia/eo, oneiaey aeey iaa oai auee – eo ia iiaei ia auoue. A ian/ao
«iieiiai ia?aee/a aeaeaciuo aei?ia» a neo/aa oaeie ia?aaicee – yaiia
i?aoaaee/aiea, i /ai aeinoaoi/ii e?anii?a/eai naeaeaoaeuenoaoao iiuo
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo ia?aa?inie aiene a Aaeeeoth Ioa/anoaaiioth aieio.

A oaia?ue ian/ao niunea ia?aoiie ia?aa?inee. Aeaei a oii, /oi iaiaaeaiea
Aa?iaiee iiaei i?iecieoe ia a ethaia a?aiy, a oieueei ai aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae – n na?aaeeiu iay ii na?aaeeio aaaonoa, i?e/ai /ai
?aiueoa, oai eo/oa, oae eae ioaeii auei eiaoue caian oi?ioae iiaiaeu
aeey oiai, /oiau caaa?oeoue aiaaua aeaenoaey aei inaiiae ?aniooeoeu –
aei ieoya?y. ssnii, /oi Aeoea?o ieeiaaea au ia i?eoei a aieiao iaianoue
ai a?aiy ?aniooeoeu e oai aieaa ceiie. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a ia?eiae n
na?aaeeiu iay ii na?aaeeio aaaonoa /eneaiiinoue aiene a caiaaeiuo
ie?oaao e eo aiaaay aioiaiinoue aeieaeia auea auoue auoa, /ai a ae?oaea
naciiu. A naioya?a, eiaaea «iianiue nacii» iicaaee, a iaiaaeaiey ii
eaeie-eeai i?e/eia ia neo/eeinue au, aiieia iiaeii auei au ec iaeioi?uo
niaaeeiaiee aeaiiaeeeciaaoue /anoue ee/iiai ninoaaa, a iaeioi?ua,
aiciiaeii, aiiaua aa?iooue iacaae.

Iu aeaeei, /oi i?aaeaiaiiay aanaiiyy ia?aa?inea niaaoneeo aiene a
caiaaeiua ie?oaa aiieia niaeanoaony n iai?iieoaeueiie caaea/ae –
ia/eiaeny «iianiue nacii». Ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi yoe aienea iaeuecy auei
aa?iooue iacaae e iaeuecy auei inoaaeyoue ia ianoa, oaeaea ia
auaea?aeeaaao ieeaeie e?eoeee.

Iu oaea ?anniao?eaaee niioiioaiea nee NNN? e Aa?iaiee e onoaiiaeee, /oi
ii /eneaiiinoe ee/iiai ninoaaa iaiaoeeea aienea aoi?aeaiey aaeaia
i?aainoiaeeee aienea niaaoneeo caiaaeiuo aiaiiuo ie?oaia, anoanoaaiii, n
o/aoii ia?aa?ioaiiuo ooaea niaaoneeo aiene.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?anniao?eaaaiia «aeieacaoaeuenoai» iaia?aiey Niaaoneiai
Nithca iaianoue ia Aa?iaieth oaeaea ianinoiyoaeueii.

A iaeioi?uo enoi/ieeao eiathony oeacaiey ia oi, /oi e niiauaieyi i oii,
/oi Aa?iaiey niae?aaony niaa?oeoue iaiaaeaiea NNN? 22 ethiy, E. A.
Noaeei ioiineeny n iaaeiaa?eai. A. Noai?ia ii yoiio iiaiaeo ieoao: «O
eiiioienoe/aneeo enoi?eeia iieo/aaony ianoueiaea: Noaeei iiaeoyaeaaao
aienea e a?aieoea aeey io?aaeaiey aa?annee, a aiciiaeiinoue eioi?ie ii
ia aa?eo!»

Caeanue A. Noai?ia iooaao (ii-aeaeeiiio, niciaoaeueii) aeaa niaa?oaiii
?aciua aaue.

Aa?o a i?eioeeieaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue aa?annee.

Aeiaa?ea e eiie?aoiui niiauaieyi eiie?aoiuo enoi/ieeia i eiie?aoiie
aeaoa iaiaaeaiey – 22 ethiy.

Yoe aaue niaa?oaiii iaaeiionoeii niaoeaaoue. ssnii, /oi iiaeii
iaeiia?aiaiii e aa?eoue a i?eioeeieaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue aa?annee, e ii
eaeei-eeai i?e/eiai ia aeiaa?youe eiie?aoiui enoi/ieeai, niiauathuei
eiie?aoioth aeaoo iaiaaeaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, oiiiyiooay «ianoueiaea» –
iaaeoiaia io ia/aea e aei eiioea. Anee iacuaaoue aaue naieie eiaiaie, oi
caeanue eiaao ianoi yeaiaioa?iia ooea?noai.

A. Noai?ia oeacuaaao, /oi oeacaiea i ia?aa?inea aiene e a?aieoea auei
ioaeaii Noaeeiui aei i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiee ?aciiai ?iaea enoi/ieeia i
iiaeaioiaea Aa?iaieae iaiaaeaiey, e oniao?eaaao a yoii aua iaeii
«aeieacaoaeuenoai» aai aa?anneaiuo iaia?aiee. Ii auoa onoaiiaeaii, /oi
iianiinoue iaiaaeaiey iineea y?ei au?aaeaiiue naciiiue oa?aeoa?, e auea
?aaeueiie oieueei ieiei 3 ianyoeaa a aiaeo. A yoie nayce eiae/ii
auaeyaeeo e oeacaiea i ia?aa?inea aiene a caiaaeiua ie?oaa, ioaeaiiia n
oaeei ?an/aoii, /oiau iie i?eauee a ianoa iiaie aeeneieaoeee e eaoo 1941
a.

Naaaeaiey oeia oao, eioi?ua niiauae, e i?eia?o, ?eoa?ae Ci?aa, aiieia
iiaee ieacaoueny e eiaeiuie. A aio iiaiaea e i?e?iaea, eae ecaanoii,
a?aoue ia oiatho…

Yeneo?n a eaeaieiaeth.

A 20-a aa. a Niaaoneii Nithca n?aaee aunoaai ia?oeeiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa
auee nouanoaaiiua ?aciiaeaney ii iiaiaeo ia?niaeoea iino?iaiey
nioeeaeecia e eiiioiecia a NNN? [4].

Iaeia /anoue aunoaai ia?oeeiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa, ai aeaaa n O?ioeeei,
io?eoeaea aiciiaeiinoue iino?iaiey nioeeaeecia a ioaeaeueii acyoie
no?aia. Ia?niaeoeau NNN? iie ioeaieaaee oae: anee a iaic?eiii aoaeouai
ia i?iecieaeao ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee – oi Niaaoneee Nithc auioaeaeai
aoaeao eaieooee?iaaoue ia?aae eeoeii ie?iaiai eaieoaeecia. *oiau yoiai
ia i?iecioei, iaiaoiaeeii ethauie iooyie aeiaeoueny ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee
a iaic?eiii aoaeouai. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoiai n/eoaeinue aeiionoeiui
eniieueciaaiea ethauo n?aaenoa, a oii /enea e ?acaycuaaiey ie?iaie
aieiu. «?inney – nie/ea aeey iiaea?a ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee» – aue
iaioeoeeaeueiue aeaaec o?ioeeenoia. Aeaaea iieiia oie/oiaeaiea ?innee ia
eacaeinue o?ioeeenoai e aai noi?iiieeai /?acia?iie oeaiie ca ie?iaoth
?aaiethoeeth.

Yoa eaeaieiaey ia inoaaaeanue iauae aeaeea?aoeeae, iia aiieiuaeanue a
eiie?aoiua aeaenoaey e i?aaeeiaeaiey. Iai?eia?, a ia/aea 20-o aa., iinea
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu, O?ioeeee i?aaeeaaae i?e iiiiue Ia?aie Eiiiie a?iee
«yenii?oe?iaaoue ?aaiethoeeth» a … Eiaeeth.

N O?ioeeei e aai noi?iiieeaie aae iai?eie?eioth ai?ueao E. A. Noaeei. Ii
ionoaeaae eaeath i aiciiaeiinoe iino?iaiey nioeeaeecia a ioaeaeueii
acyoie no?aia. Oae eae nioeeaeeci, ii aai iiaieth – aieaa i?ia?anneaiue
no?ie, /ai eaieoaeeci, ii iaania/eaaao eo/oea oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey
yeiiiieee, iaoee e eoeueoo?u, e Niaaoneee Nithc aeieaeai no?aieoueny e
oiio, /oiau noaoue ie?iaui eeaea?ii a yoeo iaeanoyo. A aoaeouai yoi
aeieaeii auei au i?eaanoe e oiio, /oi eaieoaeenoe/aneea no?aiu ii
n?aaiaieth n NNN? noaioo eaoano?ioe/anee ionoaaaoue a ?acaeoee, a
aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey eaieoaeecia aoaeoo ana neeueiaa e neeueiaa
iaino?youeny e i?eaaaeoo aai e aeaaee iooai i?ieaoa?neie ?aaiethoeee.

Ii aeey oi?ne?iaaiiiai ?acaeoey Niaaoneiai Nithca, eae aicaeoo, ioaeai
aue ie?. Iiyoiio Noaeei auaeaeioe eicoia ie?iiai ninouanoaiaaiey
ainoaea?noa ?aciuo iieeoe/aneeo nenoai.

Eaaei iiiyoue, /oi i?aaeiieaaaaiay iiaeaioiaea Noaeeia e aa?annee i?ioea
Aa?iaiee a 30-a aa. – 1941 a. ia oieueei ia niioaaonoaoao, ii e i?yii
i?ioeai?a/eo aai eaeaieiae/aneie onoaiiaea – naeaeaoue Niaaoneee Nithc
ie?iaui yeiiiie/aneei eeaea?ii. E 1941 a. NNN? ana aua neeueii ionoaaae
ii o?iaith ?acaeoey io ia?aaeiauo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai, e
i?aaeiieaaaaiay iiaeaioiaea ei aa?annee n oeaeueth «caaa?oaiey caaea/
ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee» auaeyaeeo ii iaiueoae ia?a i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiie.

Iiaeao auoue, eaeaieiaey Noaeeia – eeoue neiaa, a ia naiii aeaea ii
i?eaea?aeeaaeny o?ioeeenoneie oi/ee c?aiey? Ii anee oae, oi eae iiaeii
iauynieoue oio oaeo, /oi n O?ioeeei e aai noi?iiieeaie ii aae
aaneiii?iiennioth ai?ueao – ia ia aeeciue, a ia nia?oue? Aea e iieeoeea
Noaeeia a 20-a – 50-a aa. ieeiei ia?acii ia iiaeao auoue iienaia
aeaaecii «?inney – nie/ea aeey iiaea?a ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee». A oi aea
a?aiy i?ia?aiia i?aa?auaiey Niaaoneiai Nithca a ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai
eeaea?a inouanoaeyeanue ei n ?aaeeie ianoie/eainoueth. Oaeei ia?acii,
iienuaay naie aeoaieea ?anoiaeaeaiey n o?ioeeenoaie, Noaeei ia eaae, ii
e?aeiae ia?a a i?eioeeieaeueiuo aii?inao. Iaaeaeo i?i/ei, a ni/eiaieyo
Noaeeia i?aeoe/anee ieeiaaea ia ano?a/aaony neiaini/aoaiea «ie?iaay
?aaiethoeey».

Aannii?ii, /oi i?e ?aaeecaoeee naiae i?ia?aiiu oi?ne?iaaiiiai
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey NNN? Noaeei /anoi i?eiaiye e?aeia aeanoieea
ia?u, a ?yaea neo/aaa ia n/eoaynue n i/aiue aieueoeie /aeiaa/aneeie
aea?oaaie. Ii ec yoi ieeiei ia?acii ia aiai?eo i oii, /oi eiaea iano
iiaeaioiaea e ?acaycuaaieth aa?anneaiie aieiu.

A. Noai?ia a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai iioeaa iiaeaioiaee Noaeeia e aa?annee
i?ioea Aa?iaiee oeacuaaao «caaa?oaiea caaea/ ie?iaie ?aaiethoeee».
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, caeanue eiaao ianoi a?oaay iiaeoaniaea – i?eienuaaiea
Noaeeio o?ioeeenoneie iieeoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu.

Iieo/aaony, /oi Noaeei, eioi?ue, eae anai ecaanoii, aae iai?eie?eioth
ai?ueao n O?ioeeei e aai noi?iiieeaie, nai, ieacuaaaony, aue …
o?ioeeenoii. Aio aei eaeiai aano?aea aeiaiaeeo eiioeaioeey A. Noai?iaa!

Aua ?ac ia eiaeono?eaeecaoeee.

A. Noai?ia ieoao, /oi oi?ne?iaaiiay eiaeono?eaeecaoeey a NNN? eiaea
iniiaiie oeaeueth ia?aueaaiea aiaiiiai iioaioeeaea, a oae eae iia
ia/aeanue aei i?eoiaea Aeoea?a e aeanoe, oi iaeiicia/ii oeacuaaao ia oi,
/oi Noaeei oaea oiaaea eiae aa?anneaiua ieaiu.

I?e yoii «ne?iiii» caauaaaony iauaecaanoiay enoeia, /oi no?aoaae/aneay
oa?ica Niaaoneie ?innee nouanoaiaaea iinoiyiii, n ia?aiai aeiy aa
nouanoaiaaiey, e enoiaeeea iia io caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
ainoaea?noa. Iie oe?iei iiaeaea?aeeaaee aaeiaaa?aeaeoeaa. Iie
i?aaieciaaee aioeniaaoneoth eioa?aaioeeth, caeii/eaoothny, eae ecaanoii,
e?aoii. Ii e iinea aa i?iaaea iie ia ne?uaaee naiaai a?aaeaeaaiiai
ioiioaiey e Niaaoneiio Nithco. I?ioeann oieueei ioeoeeaeueiiai i?eciaiey
nouanoaiaaiey Niaaoneiai Nithca e onoaiiaeaiey n iei aeeieiiaoe/aneeo
ioiioaiee ?anoyioeny ia aeanyoeeaoey. Ia aiai?y oae i e?aeiae
iaaeaeaoaeueiinoe nouanoaiaaiey a ie?a e?oiiiai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai
ainoaea?noaa, i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu NNN? auee aanueia «eaeiiui eoni/eii»
aeey e?oiiuo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ainoaea?noa. Ieaiu aioeniaaoneiai
aiaiiiai nithca anao eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?ai nouanoaiaaee caaeieai aei
i?eoiaea e aeanoe Aeoea?a.

Oae eee eia/a, oa?ica Niaaoneiio Nithco ni noi?iiu eaieoaeenoe/aneiai
ie?a nouanoaiaaea iinoiyiii e auea aanueia neeueiie.

A oi a?aiy iniiaiui oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei iai?iiiniiniaiinoue
ainoaea?noaa, aue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Iiuiay
oyaeaeay eiaeono?ey auea ioaeia aeey oiai, /oiau a neo/aa aieiu
auioneaoue aii?oaeaiea e aiaiioth oaoieeo a aieueoii eiee/anoaa,
aunieiai ea/anoaa e eae iiaeii aeaoaaea. Ia eiathuaa auniei?acaeoie
oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ainoaea?noai ia iiaei nouanoaiaaoue eae
iacaaeneiia, iii iaecaaaeii noaei au aea?oaie aa?annee aieaa ?acaeoiai a
yoii ioiioaiee ninaaea.

Iiaeao auoue, o?iaaiue ?acaeoey oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a NNN? aue
aiieia aeinoaoi/ai aeey iai?iieoaeueiuo iaaeiaiinoae, a
eiaeono?eaeecaoeey auea i?aaei?eiyoa aeey oiai, /oiau aeiaeoueny
i?aainoiaenoaa iaae i?aaeiieaaaaiuie iauaeoaie aa?annee? ?anniio?ei
oeeo?u.

A 1929 a. a NNN? auei i?iecaaaeaii 5,5 iei. oiii /oaoia, 6465 iei. eao(/
yeaeo?iyia?aee. Aeey n?aaiaiey: a NOA – 42,3 iei. oiii /oaoia e 126
ie?ae. eao(/ yeaeo?iyia?aee, a Aa?iaiee – 13,4 iei. oiii /oaoia e 30
ie?ae. eao(/ yeaeo?iyia?aee [3]. Eae aeaeii, eiaao ianoi
eaoano?ioe/aneia ionoaaaiea NNN? io ?acaeouo no?ai ii aaciaui
iieacaoaeyi o?iaiy ?acaeoey oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Yoe aeaiiua ia
aoaeao iieiuie, anee ia oeacaoue, /oi ianaeaiea Niaaoneiai Nithca
nouanoaaiii i?aainoiaeeei ianaeaiea e NOA, e Aa?iaiee, neaaeiaaoaeueii,
yoe iieacaoaee a ia?an/aoa ia aeooo ianaeaiey iieacuaatho aua aieaa
iaooaoeoaeueioth aeey NNN? ea?oeio.

Iiaeii aeaeaoue, /oi i?iaaaeaiea oi?ne?iaaiiie eiaeono?eaeecaoeee a
Niaaoneii Nithca auei aoeaaeueii aii?inii aeecie e nia?oe no?aiu. Oe?iei
ecaanoiu neiaa E. A. Noaeeia: «?inney ionoaea io ia?aaeiauo i?iiuoeaiii
?acaeouo no?ai ia 50-100 eao. Iu aeieaeiu i?ieoe yoi ?annoiyiea a 10
eao. Eeai iu yoi naeaeaai, eeai ian niiioo.»

Iiaeii naeaeaoue niaa?oaiii iaeiicia/iue auaiae, /oi cayaeaiea A.
Noai?iaa i oii, /oi eiaeono?eaeecaoeey a NNN? yaeyaony i?eciaeii
iiaeaioiaee Noaeeiui aa?anneaiie aieiu, «oae eae ia/aeanue aei i?eoiaea
Aeoea?a e aeanoe», yaeyaony iiiuoeie iaiaiii aaanoe a caaeoaeaeaiea
iaaeinoaoi/ii eiiiaoaioiiai /eoaoaey.

I «naeaeaoaeuenoaao nia?aiaiieeia».

A. Noai?ia oe?iei eniieuecoao oeeoaou (ia oaeou e oeeo?u,
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiua enoi/ieeaie, a eiaiii oeeoaou) ec iaioa?iie
eeoa?aoo?u, aeaaiui ia?acii aoi?inoaiaiiuo eeoe – aaia?ae-iaei?ia,
aaia?ae-eaeoaiaioia e o. i.. Noieo ee ei aeiaa?youe?

Iaioa?u ieooony ia ai a?aiy niauoee, a nionoy aeanyoee eao iinea ieo.
Iaiyoue /aeiaa/aneay ianiaa?oaiia, e?iia oiai, ia aaoi?ia iiaee aeeyoue
?aciiai ?iaea ee/iua iioeau, eiiuthieoo?iua, iieeoe/aneea e eiua
niia?aaeaiey, e?iia oiai, iiaea «aeaaeoue» oeaico?a.

Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai ec ainiiieiaiee, oeeoe?oaiuo A. Noai?iaui,
ienaeinue ai a?aiaia o?ouaaneie eaiiaiee «ii ?aciaea/aieth eoeueoa
ee/iinoe Noaeeia», aaea aeaaiue oii? aeaeaeny ia ecia?aaeaiea Noaeeia
eaeeioii, naiiaeo?ii, e?iaaaui ia?aiieeii, a aeayoaeueiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa NNN? iiae aai «ioae?ui» ?oeiaiaenoaii –
i?aaeaeii ia?acia, eee aea ia?aciii aac i?aaeaea. I?e i?iaaaeaiee yoie
eaiiaiee anaie, ia/eiay n naiiai O?ouaaa, eniieueciaaeanue naiay a?oaay
eiaeue. Oe?iei ecaanoii, iai?eia?, aai ooaa?aeaeaiea ian/ao ?oeiaiaenoaa
Noaeeiui aieneaie ii aeiaono, a oaeaea niiauaiea, /oi Noaeei
nenoaiaoe/anee canoaaeye naia aeeaeaeoaa ie?oaeaiea iuyinoaiaaoue.

Iaeiei ec i?iyaeaiee «ia?acia» Noaeeia, oe?iei iiioey?eciaaaoeiny
o?ouaaneie i?iiaaaiaeie, auea aai «/oaeiaeuiay iaeiiiaoaioiinoue» eae
aiaiiiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey a ni/aoaiee n iaaeaeaieai «i?eneooeaaoueny e
iiaieth i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aiaiiuo». Ii iunee o?ouaaneeo «no?aoaaia»,
y?/aeoae eeethno?aoeeae «eaeeioecia» Noaeeia yaeeinue au ecia?aaeaiea
oiai, /oi ii n/eoae iaiaoeeoth a?ieth i/aiue ieioie e neaaie, /oi iinea
iaiaaeaiey Aa?iaiee ia NNN? aa a?iey aoaeao ?acaeoa a ia?aue aea aeaiue,
e aianoi oiai, /oiau iniiaaoaeueii aioiaeoueny e iai?iia, ii aioiaee
a?ieth e ianooieaieth, i?e/ai e aioiaee-oi ieioi, ia iniaaiii oi?iiynue
e iai?yaaynue. Aneaae ca yoie aa?neae, eae aiaeeony, e «iioea ienaoue
aoaa?iey». A?yae ee «aaeeeei oiai» O?ouaaa e aai eaeaieiaia i?eoei a
aieiao, /oi yoa i?iiaaaiaeenoneay eaiiaiey iiaeaioiaeo ii/ao aeey
a?aaeiauo oai?ee, oeia auaeoiaiiie A. Noai?iaui…

Iiaeao auoue, aeey oaeiai ?iaea i?iiaaaiaeenoneie no?yiie ioaeii auei
oioue eaeia-oi ?aaeueiia, oaeoe/aneia iniiaaiea? A eaeia «oaeoe/aneia
iniiaaiea» eaaeeo a iniiaa ooaa?aeaeaiey O?ouaaa i ?oeiaiaenoaa Noaeeiui
aieneaie ii aeiaono, i i?eioaeeoaeueiii iiaeaaiee ei aiaeeie naiaai
ie?oaeaiey? Eiia/ii, ieeaeiai, ana yoi a?oaue auiunae io ia/aea e aei
eiioea.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaea?aeaueiny a iaioa?ao iaeioi?uo aeayoaeae
ooaa?aeaeaiey i «i?anooiiuo ioeaeao Noaeeia» ia?aae aieiie, i aai
«eaeeioecia», naaaeaieyi ia iaieoaeie iiaeaioiaea ei ianooieaiey ia?aae
iaiaaeaieai Aa?iaiee ia Niaaoneee Nithc ia neaaeoao neeoeii aeiaa?youe.

?acoiaaony, anee au ia auei aiciiaeiinoe naeaeaoue iaeiicia/iue auaiae i
eiaeiinoe eiioeaioeee A. Noai?iaa, iie?aynue ia i?iaa?aiiua oeeo?u e
oaeou, yoeie naaaeaieyie ie a eiai neo/aa iaeuecy auei au i?aiaa?aaaoue.
Ii oaeiaia eiaaony e i?eaiaeeony auoa, iiyoiio a ?aieao aeaiiie ?aaiou
?anniao?eaaoue eo iao niunea.

Aniiiiei e i oii, /oi aiciiaeii e oaeia, eiaaea a eiioaenoa A. Noai?iaa
i?eaiaeeiay ei o?aca icia/aao nianai ae?oaia, /ai a enoiaeiii oaenoa. Ni
neo/ayie, iyaei aiai?y, neeoeii aieueiiai ia?auaiey A. Noai?iaa n
oeeoaoaie iu ?aiaa oaea iaiaeiie?aoii noaeeeaaeenue.

A. Noai?ia a «iainiiaaiee» naiae eiioeaioeee eniieuecoao oaeaea
naaaeaiey, eioi?ua aoaeoi au auee niiauaiu aio /anoiui ia?acii a
aieueoii eiee/anoaa ienai. I?eia?ii oaeeo naaaeaiee iiaeao neoaeeoue
naeaeaoaeuenoai, /oi: «Caaeieai aei 22 ethiy 1941 a. ai ana aiaieiiaou
iinooieei ii 4 ?aciuo iia/aoaiiuo iaeaoa n ieaeaoaie. 22 ethiy auei
ia?aaeaii ?anii?yaeaiea – ec /aou?ao iaeaoia 3 naea/ue, a /aoaa?oue
ane?uoue e ?acaaneoue. A iai aue ieaeao «?iaeeia-Iaoue ciaao!»» Aeaeaa
A. Noai?ia aeoaieiiuneaiii caia/aao, /oi «eoaea ?iaeeia-Iaoue ciaao, ia
neacaii», e aeaeaao auaiae, /oi a inoaeueiuo 3-o iaeaoao auee ieaeaou,
ec niaea?aeaiey eioi?uo i?yii neaaeiaaei, /oi Niaaoneee Nithc niaa?oee
iaiaaeaiea ia Aa?iaieth.

Oaeiai ?iaea naaaeaiey ioiinyony e ?ac?yaeo i?eioeeieaeueii
iai?iaa?yaiuo, iiyoiio eaaeaeue iiaeao ?anoeaieaaoue oaeea
«naeaeaoaeuenoaa» eae oaiaeii. Iu i?eaea?aeeaaainy oie oi/ee c?aiey, /oi
yoe «naaaeaiey» A. Noai?iaui noaa?eeiaaiu, iineieueeo oa oaeou e oeeo?u,
eioi?ua iiaeii i?iaa?eoue, i?e eo aieiaoaeueiii aiaeeca iaeiicia/ii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i ianinoiyoaeueiinoe aai aa?nee.

«Noaeei iaiaioe Aeoea?a».

A. Noai?ia nnueaaony ia O?ouaaa, eioi?ue aiai?ee, /oi iinea iiaeienaiey
aeiaiai?a i iaiaiaaeaiee n Aa?iaieae a 1939 a. Noaeei «?aaeinoii e?e/ae,
/oi ii iaiaioe Aeoea?a». Yoi cayaeaiea ii i?eieiaao ia aa?o aac oaie
niiiaiey, i?aaenoaaeyy aai aua iaeiei «aeieacaoaeuenoaii» naiae
eiioeaioeee. Ii O?ouaa a naiae «eaiiaieae ii ai?ueaa n eoeueoii
ee/iinoe» /anoi eniieueciaae a?oaoth eiaeue, /oi i?eciaao nai aea A.
Noai?ia, aacaiaeeyoeeiiii ioaa?aay aai ooaa?aeaeaiea ian/ao ?oeiaiaenoaa
Noaeeiui aieneaie ii aeiaono. Anoue ee eaeea-eeai iniiaaiey n/eoaoue,
/oi a aeaiiii neo/aa a ioee/ea io iiiaeo ae?oaeo O?ouaa neacae /enooth
i?aaaeo? Iao, ieeaeeo iniiaaiee e oiio ia eiaaony. Iii iaoiaeeony a
iieiii niioaaonoaee n inoaeueiuie cayaeaieyie O?ouaaa, naycaiiuie iaeiie
iauae eaeaae – i?aaenoaaeoue Noaeeia iieiui eaeeioii.

?anneaco i oii, /oi Noaeei iinea iiaeienaiey iaeoa Iieioia-?eaaaio?ii
«?aaeinoii e?e/ae, /oi ii iaiaioe Aeoea?a» i?enou i/aiue aieueoie
iaaeinoaoie – ii eeoai oiai, /oi iacuaaaony «ineoieiae/aneie i?aaaeie».
Noiie?oy ana oi, /oi ecaanoii i ee/iinoe Noaeeia, iiaeii caeeth/eoue,
/oi ii aue nianai ia neeiiai aanoe naay yenoeaio?e/ii, «?aaeinoii
e?e/aoue» /oi-eeai, oai aieaa a i?enoonoaee iiiaeo ethaeae. Aua iaiaa ii
aue neeiiai «e?e/aoue «aii» ?aiueoa, /ai ia?ai?uaiao», e neiaa i oii,
/oi ii «iaiaioe Aeoea?a», ii i?iecian au oieueei iinea oiai, eiaaea yoio
«iaiai» i?eian au ?aaeueiua ieiaeu.

Ii-aeaeeiiio, O?ouaao a aeaiiii neo/aa aa?eoue ia neaaeoao, a A.
Noai?iao – oai aieaa.

I ia?eiiaoao aii?oaeaiey e aiai?eiania.

Eae ecaanoii, ia?iaeiue eiienna?eao iai?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe a NNN? a
1939 a. ?acaeaeeeny ia 4 – ia?eiiao aii?oaeaiey, aiai?eiania,
noaeinoieoaeueiie e aaeaoeeiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy a
aeoea?ianeie Aa?iaiee yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeei, e anaie aeaeaie aiaiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe aaaeaei iaeii ieienoa?noai.

A. Noai?ia e ec yoiai oaeoa iuoaaony nino?yiaoue aua iaeii
«aeieacaoaeuenoai» aa?anneaiuo iaia?aiee Niaaoneiai Nithca. Iie,
«aa?anneaiue» Aeoea? eiaao iaeii aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiia ieienoa?noai, a oi
a?aiy eae o «ie?iiai» Noaeeia yoeie aea aeaeaie aaaeatho 4 o/?aaeaeaiey
a ?aiaa ieienoa?noaa. Yoi-aea aiai?eo i oii, /oi Noaeei iiaeaioaaeeaae
yeiiiieeo e aaaeaieth aa?anneaiie aieiu.

Ii aeaei a oii, /oi a NNN? e Aa?iaiee aue ?aciue iauanoaaiii
iieeoe/aneee no?ie. A Aa?iaiee aue no?ie eaieoaeenoe/aneee, iniiaaiiue
ia /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, a a NNN? –
nioeeaeenoe/aneee, iniiaaiiue ia iauanoaaiiie (eee ainoaea?noaaiiie –
eiio eae aieueoa i?aaeony) nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aiaiiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue Aa?iaiee ninoiyea ec i/aiue iaaieueoiai /enea
e?oiiaeoeo /anoiuo iiiiiieenoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee. Yoe iauaaeeiaiey
i?eiaaeeaaeaee /anoiui eeoeai – eaieoaeenoai e oi?aaeyeenue iaa?aiiui
eie ia?niiaeii, a ia eaeei-eeai ainoaea?noaaiiui o/?aaeaeaieai. A NNN?
ieeaeeo eaieoaeenoia, eiia/ii, ia auei, e oa oi?aaeai/aneay ?aaioa,
eioi?ie a Aa?iaiee caieiaeenue oicyaaa e?oiiaeoeo iiiiiieee e iaiyoua
eie neoaeauea, a Niaaoneii Nithca oaeaea iaaeaea ia iea/e ieienoa?noa
(ia?eiiaoia). ssnii, /oi iauai ?aaiou ia?eiiaoa iai?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe
a NNN? nouanoaaiii i?aainoiaeee iauai ?aaiou aiaeiae/iiai ieienoa?noaa a
Aa?iaiee. A nayce n yoei ?aoaiea i ?acoe?oiiaiee yoiai ia?eiiaoa a 1939
a. auaeyaeeo niaa?oaiii anoanoaaiiui.

Oaeay neooaoeey, eiaaea a Niaaoneii Nithca auei iaiiiai aieueoa
ieienoa?noa, /ai a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao, auea iaoneiaeaia
iauaeoeaiuie i?e/eiaie – ainoaea?noai aa?ao ia naay oo oi?aaeai/aneoth
?aaioo, eioi?ie i?e eaieoaeecia caieiaaony ao?aeoacey e iaiyoue ath
ia?niiae. Oaeia iieiaeaiea aeae eiaei ianoi ia oieueei a 1939 – 1941
aa., ii e a oa/aiea anae enoi?ee NNN?. Oae, a 70-a aa. a NOA auei iaiaa
10 ieienoa?noa, a a Niaaoneii Nithca – iaiiiai aieueoa 100, i?e oii, /oi
aaeiaue i?iaeoeo niaaoneie yeiiiieee aue nouanoaaiii iaiueoa, /ai
yeiiiieee Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia Aia?eee.

Iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi aeaiiia i/a?aaeiia «aeieacaoaeuenoai»
aa?anneaiuo iaia?aiee Noaeeia, eae e ana inoaeueiua, ia noieo aeaaea
auaaeaiiiai yeoea.

A. Noai?ia eae ie a /ai ia auaaei cayaeyao, /oi iaiaaeaiea NNN? ia
Aa?iaieth auei caieaie?iaaii ia 6 ethey 1941 a.. Ieeaeiai eiie?aoiiai
iainiiaaiey ia i?eaiaeeony, oieueei iauea neiaa. Ii ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi
aio ecaanoii aeaaea eiaeiaia iacaaiea ieaia iaiaaeaiey NNN? ia Aa?iaieth
– iia?aoeey «A?ica». E iiyoue ieeaeeo nnueie ia enoi/ieee. Ii eiaeiaia
iaeiaiiaaiea oaeie iia?aoeee, anee au aa ieai aeaenoaeoaeueii
nouanoaiaae, iiaeii auei au ociaoue oieueei ec aeaoo enoi/ieeia: eeai
iaiin?aaenoaaiii oaeaeaa yoio ieai, eeai ec /anoiiai niiauaiey iaeiiai
ec eeoe, ?oeiaiaeeaoeo ninoaaeaieai yoiai ieaia – /enei oaeeo ethaeae ie
i?e eaeeo ianoiyoaeuenoaao ia i?aauneei au 5-7 /aeiaae. Iaeiaa?iyoii,
/oiau AEoeia, Aaneeaaneee, Oaiioieeia eee ae?oaie aeayoaeue oaeiai aea
ianooaaa aiiaua eiaaea-eeai ano?a/aeny n A. Noai?iaui, e oae nianai
iaaa?iyoii, /oiau iie auaeaee aio oaeie «no?aoiue nae?ao». Oi, /oiau A.
Noai?ia naieie aeacaie aeaeae aeieoiaiou ii yoie iia?aoeee, anee au iie
auee, e aiana iaaiciiaeii. E?iia oiai, a eieaao A. Noai?iaa e iaiaea
iao, eaeei ia?acii iieo/aiu yoe naaaeaiey. Inoaaony iainiiaaiii
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iacaaiea «A?ica» i?eaeoiaii ei naiei – «io oiia?y».

Aeioei aei oiai, /oi A. Noai?ia cayaee: «Ana eiiioienoe/aneea enoi?eee
auioaeaeaiu i?eciaoue, /oi Noaeei aioiaee aa?anneth, ii, i?aaaea, ia
1942 aiae». Ii yoi, oae ecaeieoa, iieiue a?aae.

E iineaaeiee oo?eo. Ia iaeiaeeao eiea A. Noai?iaa oeacaii, /oi a NNN? ii
aue cai/ii i?eaiai?ai e ?anno?aeo. Ii, eae noaei aiineaaenoaee ecaanoii,
yoi ia niioaaonoaoao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe…

Ia yoii, iiaeaeoe, e i?ae?aoei ?acai? «aeieacaoaeuenoa» iaia?aiey
niaaoneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa iaianoue ia aeoea?ianeoth Aa?iaieth – a caaea/e
aeaiiie ?aaiou ia aoiaeeo iieiue aiaeec ni/eiaiee A. Noai?iaa, io ia?aie
aei iineaaeiae aoeau. E oiai, /oi oaea ?anniio?aii, aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau
naeaeaoue aiieia ii?aaeaeaiiua auaiaeu i aai eiioeaioeee.

6.8 Iauea auaiaeu

Iiae?iaii ?anniio?aia aa?ney A. Noai?iaa i i?e/eiao ii?aaeaiee E?aniie
A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu. Yoa aa?ney ninoieo a
oii, /oi ia?aae aieiie E?aniay A?iey e aanue Niaaoneee Nithc aioiaeeenue
aoaeoi au ia e iai?iia, a e iaiaaeaieth ia Aa?iaieth, a Aeoea?o aoaeoi
au oaeaeinue oi?aaeeoue ianooieaiea E?aniie A?iee «i?aaaioeaiui
oaea?ii».

Iieacaii, /oi yoa aa?ney aaniethoii ianinoiyoaeueia.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca i?eiaiyaiuo A. Noai?iaui iaoiaeia iainiiaaiey naiae
eiioeaioeee naeaeai auaiae, /oi iia yaeyaony ia ioeaeie
aeia?iniaanoiiai, ii caaeoaeaeathuaainy enneaaeiaaoaey, a ceiiaia?aiiie
iiiuoeie aaanoe a caaeoaeaeaiea iaaeinoaoi/ii eiiiaoaioiiai /eoaoaey.

6.9 I aeaeueiaeoae noaeueaa eiioeaioeee A. Noai?iaa

Niaaoneeie e ?inneeneeie enoi?eeaie i?aaei?eiyou iiiuoee ii?iaa?aeaiey
eiioeaioeee A. Noai?iaa. Yoei caieiaeny, iai?eia?, Ae. Aieeiaiiia. Ii iu
niciaoaeueii ia iieuecoainy eo ?aaioaie, i?aaei?eieiay iacaaeneiia
enneaaeiaaiea ii aeaiiiio aii?ino.

Eae e neaaeiaaei iaeeaeaoue, ecaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiee A. Noai?iaa a ?innee
aieueoeie oe?aaeaie i?eaaei e oiio, /oi iaiaeay /anoue eo /eoaoaeae
iiaa?eee aai eiioeaioeee. Iineieueeo ii/oe ai anao aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaieyo nouanoaoao eo?n «Enoi?ey Ioa/anoaa», aaea aeey iieo/aiey
ca/aoa /anoi o?aaoaony iaienaiea ?aoa?aoa, oi iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi
iaeioi?ua ec nooaeai/aneeo ?aaio ii yoie aeenoeeieeia iinayuaiu aiaeeco
i?e/ei ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieiu, e ?anniao?eaatho yoe i?e/eiu, enoiaey ec aa?nee i «i?aaaioeaiii
iaiaaeaiee» Aa?iaiee ia NNN?.

Auei ioia/aii iiyaeaiea ianeieueeeo ?aoa?aoia, eioi?ua aeineiaii nienaiu
n ni/eiaiee A. Noai?iaa, a a nienea eeoa?aoo?u i?eaaaeaiu aai ni/eiaiey,
a oaeaea oa enoi/ieee, eioi?ua ii oeeoe?iaae. A i?aaeeneiaeyo e oaeei
?aaioai iau/ii oeacuaaaony, /oi yoi «eeoue iaeia ec aa?nee, iauyniythueo
i?e/eiu ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieiu, ia acaeyae aaoi?a, aeiaieueii i?aaaeiiiaeiaiay e oaaaeeoaeueiay».

Iaeiaei iaeia ec ?aaio, a eioi?ie ii?aaeaiey E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue
ia?eiae aieiu iauyniythony «i?aaaioeaiii iaiaaeaieai» Aa?iaiee,
caneoaeeaaao oiai, /oiau i iae ?anneacaoue iiae?iaiaa. ?a/ue eaeao i
?aoa?aoa I. A. Ieoaaaa, nooaeaioa IAE (Iineianeiai aaeaoeeiiiiai
einoeoooa) «I?e/eiu ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu» [20].

*ai ii eioa?anai? Ii iaienai, ii-aeaeeiiio, a iniiaiii naiinoiyoaeueii.
Aieaa oiai, aaoi? ouaoaeueii ioiaaeaauaaaony io A. Noai?iaa e aai
ni/eiaiee (iie aeaaea ia i?eaaaeaiu a nienea eeoa?aoo?u, oioy eaeay
oaeie eiioeaioeee a?yae ee iiaea aicieeiooue aac eo aeeyiey,
?anniao?eaay eeoue niaaoneea enoi/ieee, aei oeaeie nenoaiu a?aoiaioia a
aa iieueco naiinoiyoaeueii aeieoe a?yae ee aiciiaeii. E?iia oiai, oeaeue
?yae a?aoiaioia aue, /oi niaa?oaiii ynii, i?inoi caeinoaiaai aaoi?ii
?aoa?aoa iaiin?aaenoaaiii o A. Noai?iaa.) Oai ia iaiaa iainiiaaiea
oaeiai acaeyaea ia i?e/eiu ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee ana aea ioee/aaony
io oiai, eioi?ia i?eaiaeee A. Noai?ia. *ai aea?

Ai-ia?auo, ioa?ioaia any iaeaieaa aiiethuay i?inoeoooeey,
i?enoonoaothuay a ?aaioao A. Noai?iaa. Ia eniieuecothony ?acee/iiai
?iaea nioenoe/aneea i?eaiu, iaoeiaoeee n oeeoaoaie, niiieoaeueiua
naaaeaiey e o. i.. Inoaaeaiu oieueei i?iaa?aiiua oaeou e oeeo?u e
iie?athueany ia ieo ?annoaeaeaiey. Ai-aoi?uo, I. A. Ieoaaa, eae i?aaeei,
ia caiae/eaaao oao naaaeaiee, eioi?ua ne?uaae io naieo /eoaoaeae A.
Noai?ia (iai?eia?, /oi e 21 ethiy 1941 a. Niaaoneee Nithc a caiaaeiuo
ie?oaao eiae 2,9 ieeeeiia nieaeao e ioeoea?ia, a aa?iaineay a?iey ia
niaaoneie a?aieoea – aieaa 5 ieeeeiiia).

Ianeieueei ioee/aaony e eiia/iue auaiae, e eioi?iio i?eoae aaoi?
?aoa?aoa. A. Noai?ia ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iaiaaeaiea Aa?iaiee auei aucaaii
oieueei oa?icie niaaoneiai aoi?aeaiey, a anee au oaeie oa?icu ia auei,
oi iaiaaeaiey au ia i?iecioei. I. A. Ieoaaa ioa?inee oaeia
ooaa?aeaeaiea.

Ii a?aoiaiou A. Noai?iaa, o?aaothuea i/aiue aaeoi/eaiai aiaeeca e
aeiaieueii aeoaieeo niaoeeaeueiuo ciaiee aeey iiieiaiey eo eiaeiinoe, I.
A. Ieoaaao ieacaeenue yaii «ia ii coaai». Ii aneaae ca A. Noai?iaui
iiaoi?yao aeoiinoe, oeia oiai, /oi oaiee AO auee «aaoino?aaeiuie», /oi
ana a?iee «ia?aiai yoaeiia» E?aniie A?iee auee oaea?iuie, /oi Ieineoth
aiaiioth oeioeeeth iaaiciiaeii auei eniieueciaaoue aeey iai?iiu
Iieanuey, /oi ia a?aieoea n ?oiuieae auea nicaeaia oaea?iay a?oiie?iaea
E?aniie A?iee e iiiaea ae?oaea. Ia iieioa?aniaaeny ii, iai?eia?, e
aii?inii i iioi?ano?nao.

Ana yoi i?eaaei e oiio, /oi ii naeaeae iaaa?iue auaiae, a oeaeii i?eciaa
i?aaeeueiie eiioeaioeeth A. Noai?iaa (ii ia nnueaynue ia iaai).

Iaeiaei ?aaioa I. A. Ieoaaaa i?iecaiaeeo oai ia iaiaa cia/eoaeueii
eo/oaa aia/aoeaiea, /ai inoaeueiua ?aoa?aou, iie?athueany ia ni/eiaiey
A. Noai?iaa.

7. Ianoaeaeaiea ?iee iaeioi?uo oaeoi?ia,

iaoneiaeaoeo ii?aaeaiey E?aniie A?iee a

ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu

Aei neo ii? caiae/eaaaony oaeie oaeoi?, iaoneiaeaoee ii?aaeaiey E?aniie
A?iee a ia/aea aieiu, eae iaonoie/eainoue niaaoneeo aiene.

A oiaea aieiu auei caoaa/aii eee naeaeinue a ieai 4 ieeeeiia 559 ouny/
niaaoneeo nieaeao e ioeoea?ia, ec ieo ieiei /aou?ao ieeeeiiia ieacaeinue
a ieaio a 1941 a.. Aeey n?aaiaiey: iioa?e E?aniie A?iee oaeouie,
oia?oeie io ?ai e aieaciae, iiaeaoeie a eaoano?ioao, a oaeaea
iieii/eaoeie aeeciue naiioaeenoaii ca anth Aaeeeoth Ioa/anoaaiioth aieio
ninoaaeee 6 ieeeeiiia 885 ouny/ /aeiaae [17]. Oae, ec 1 ieeeeiia nieaeao
e ioeoea?ia, ieacaaoeony a ie?oaeaiee a ?aeiia Eeaaa a naioya?a 1941 a.,
aieaa 700 ouny/, o. a. aieaa 70%, naeaeenue a ieai [8].

Inoaeaeaii a oiaea aieiu 994 ouny/e aiaiiineoaeaueo. Ec ieo a oo?aoiua
iiae?acaeaeaiey iai?aaeaii 422 ouny/e, a a ianoa caeeth/aiey 436 ouny/.
Ia ?acuneaii 212 ouny/ aeaca?oe?ia [17].

Ec yoeo aeaiiuo ynii, /oi cayaeaiey niaaoneie i?iiaaaiaeu i oii, /oi
«ana n?aaeaeenue aei iineaaeiaai /aeiaaea e aei iineaaeiaai iao?iia»,
yaeyaony a?oaui i?eoe?aoeaaieai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iaonoie/eainoue
/anoae e niaaeeiaiee auea iaeiei ec aeaaiuo oaeoi?ia, iaoneiaeaoeo
ii?aaeaiey E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue aiae aieiu. I?iaeaia aeia?iaieueiie
naea/e a ieai aieoeia e eiiaiaee?ia noiyea ino?aeoei ia?acii. Oaeei
ia?acii, aeanoeea ia?u ii ai?ueaa n iaie/aneeie iano?iaieyie e naea/ae a
ieai, oaeea eae caa?aaeeoaeueiua io?yaeu eee eeoaiea anao eueaio
?iaenoaaiieeia naeaaoeony a ieai, yaeyeenue niaa?oaiii ii?aaaeaiiuie.

Iiiaea n/eoatho, /oi aeaaiie i?e/eiie ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue
ia?eiae aieiu yaeyeenue ?ai?annee /anoe eiiaiaeiiai ninoaaa a 1936 –
1939 aa., aneaaenoaea /aai aoaeoi au ia eiiaiaeiua aeieaeiinoe auee
auaeaeioou iieiaeua e neaai iiaeaioiaeaiiua eaae?u.

?ai?annee yoeo eao, eae ecaanoii, cao?iioee a iniiaiii caaii io iieea e
auoa e ii/oe ia einioeenue ?yaeiaiai, na?aeaioneiai e ieaaeoaai
ioeoea?neiai ninoaaa.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, anee au ?ieue ?ai?annee auea aaeeea, oi aeaaiay i?e/eia
ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee eaaeeo a iaoaea/iuo aeaenoaeyo eiiaiaeiaaiey io
iieea e auoa.

Noaaea Aa?oiaiiai Aeaaiieiiaiaeiaaiey e Aaia?aeueiue ooaa
aeaenoaeoaeueii aeiioneaea a 1941 – 1942 aa. i/aiue a?oaua ioeaee. Ii
yoe ioeaee ieeae ia iiaee auoue iaeiicia/ii iauyniaiu ?ai?anneyie. Anee
?anniio?aoue ia?niiaeueiuo aeiiaieeia, n /ueae «iiaea/e» auee niaa?oaiu
yoe i?in/aou, oi n?aaee ieo ia iaeaeaony /aeiaaea, eioi?ue aue au
«nei?iniaeui» e iaeiiiuoiui. Oae, E. A. Ai?ioeeia, N. I. Aoaeaiiue aua a
a?aaeaeaineoth aieio eiiaiaeiaaee a?ieyie, a N. E. Oeiioaiei –
aeeaeceae.

Iiaoo neacaoue, /oi ?ai?anne?iaaiiua ia?oaeu e aaia?aeu, oaeea eae
Oooa/aaneee, Aethoa?, Aai?ia auee eo/oa, /ai Ai?ioeeia, Oeiioaiei,
Aoaeaiiue. Ii oaeea auneacuaaiey ii nooe iaei /ai ioee/athony io
aaaeaiey ia eioaeiie aoua. A a?aaeaeaineoth aieio ooeaeaaoea
aiaia/aeueieee aiaaaee ie/ooue ia ooaea ?anno?aeyiiuo. A aio, iai?eia?,
a iia?aoeee ia ica?a Oanai Aethoa? iieacae naay aeaeaei ia n eo/oae
noi?iiu.

Iu aeaeei, /oi a?oaua ioeaee niaaoneiai aa?oiaiiai eiiaiaeiaaiey a 1941
– 1942 aa. ia iiaoo auoue iaeiicia/ii iauyniaiu ?ai?anneyie. ?aaiui
ia?acii iaaeinoaoi/ii iainiiaaiii e iiaiea, /oi ooeaeaaoea
aiaia/aeueieee auee ooaea ?ai?anne?iaaiiuo.

A caaia io eiiaiaee?ia iieeia aei eiiaiaeiaaiey o?iioia oaeaea eiaee
ianoi ioeaee, ii?ie i/aiue a?oaua. Ii a oeaeii aeaenoaey yoiai caaia a
ia?aue ia?eiae aieiu, a ioee/ea io aeaenoaee Noaaee Aa?oiaiiai
Aeaaiieiiaiaeiaaiey, ana-oaee, ii-aeaeeiiio, iiaeii i?eciaoue
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiuie. E oiio aea ooaa?aeaeaiey i oii, /oi i?e
ionoonoaee ?ai?annee oaeeo i?in/aoia auei au ii iaiueoae ia?a ia
ii?yaeie iaiueoa, auaeyaeyo aanueia iaoyiooui.

Iniiaiua i?e/eiu ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae aieiu eaaeao
ia a n?aaeiai caaia (eiiaiaeiaaiea io iieeia aei o?iioia), a «aieco»
(iaonoie/eainoue aiene) e «ia naiii aa?oo» (i?in/aou Noaaee e
Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa).

?ai?anneyie iiaoo auoue iauyniaiu, i?e/ai n i/aiue aieueoie iaoyaeeie,
oieueei i?in/aou eiiaiaeiaaiey a caaia io iieea e auoa. Ii ieeae ia
iiaeao auoue eo neaaenoaeai eaoano?ioe/aneay iaonoie/eainoue /anoae
E?aniie A?iee – aoi?ay, ia iaiaa, a nei?aa anaai, aeaaea aieaa aaaeiay
i?e/eia iaoeo eaoano?ioe/aneeo ii?aaeaiee.

Oa 4 ieeeeiia /aeiaae, eioi?ua naeaeenue a ieai a 1941 a. – ?acaa yoi
?acoeueoao aeayoaeueiinoe eiiaiaeiaaiey a caaia io iieea e auoa? Iao,
aaaeaee, iaieeiaaee e naeaaaeenue a ieai nieaeaou, na?aeaiou e ieaaeoea
ioeoea?u, e ia ii aeia iieeiaieeia e aaia?aeia.

*oi eanaaony aeiaiaiiuo i?in/aoia aunoaai niaaoneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa, oi
caeanue ?ai?annee oiaea ia i?e /ai – ana aaaeiua ?aoaiey i?eieiae ee/ii
E. A. Noaeei.

Iaeuecy caauaaoue e i oii, /oi a 1939 – 1941 aa. cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
(ieiei o?aoe) a?anoiaaiiuo aiaia/aeueieeia auee inaiaiaeaeaiu e
aica?auaiu a a?ieth. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiu n?aaee ieo E. E. ?ieinnianeee, A.
A. Ai?aaoia, I. O. Eoeei.

Iu aeaeei, /oi ?ieue ?ai?annee a i?e/eiao ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee,
ii-aeaeeiiio, ia neeoeii aaeeea, e aa /anoi neeiiiu i?aoaaee/eaaoue.
Iaeiaei e io?eoeaoue aa iieiinoueth oiaea iaeuecy.

I?aaaea, nouanoaotho e iiaiey a oii aeooa, /oi ?ai?annee a E?aniie A?iee
iieiaeeoaeueii io?aceeenue ia aa ninoiyiee e aianiiniaiinoe. Oaeoth
oi/eo c?aiey auneacuaae ana oio aea A. Noai?ia. Ii e yoi, eiia/ii, oiaea
iaaa?ii.

8. Auaiaeu

Enoiaey ec anaai auoaneacaiiiai, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi ii?aaeaiey
E?aniie A?iee a ia?aii ia?eiaea Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu ia auee
iaoneiaeaiu eaeie-eeai iaeiie aeaaiie i?e/eiie. Yoe ii?aaeaiey noaee
neaaenoaeai aeaenoaey aieueoiai eiiieaena oaeoi?ia, eae iauaeoeaiuo, oae
e noauaeoeaiuo.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue 3 iniiaiua i?e/eiu ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee.

I?aainoiaenoai aa?iaineie «a?iee aoi?aeaiey» iaae niaaoneie «a?ieae
i?ee?uoey iiaeeecaoeee», a oaeaea aeaaeaiea iaiaoeei-oaoenoneei
eiiaiaeiaaieai iia?aoeaii-no?aoaae/aneie eieoeeaoeaie.

Iaonoie/eainoue niaaoneeo aiene.

A?oaua i?in/aou Noaaee Aa?oiaiiai Aeaaiieiiaiaeiaaiey e Aaia?aeueiiai
ooaaa, aeiiouaiiua oaea a oiaea naiie aieiu.

Auei oaeaeaii aieueoia aieiaiea aiaeeco aa?nee, niaeanii eioi?ie
ii?aaeaiey E?aniie A?iee auee iaoneiaeaiu oai, /oi Niaaoneee Nithc
aioiaeeny ia e iai?iia, a e iaiaaeaieth ia Aa?iaieth. Iieacaii, /oi yoa
aa?ney aaniethoii ianinoiyoaeueia.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca iaoiaeia iainiiaaiey naiae eiioeaioeee, i?eiaiyaiuo
aa aaoi?ii, naeaeai auaiae, /oi iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ceiiaia?aiioth
iiiuoeo aaanoe a caaeoaeaeaiea iaaeinoaoi/ii eiiiaoaioiiai /eoaoaey.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aeieeaae I?aaenaaeaoaey Ainoaea?noaaiiiai Eiieoaoa Iai?ii ia
oi?aeanoaaiiii canaaeaiee Iineianeiai Niaaoa aeaiooaoia o?oaeyueony n
ia?oeeiuie e iauanoaaiiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie ai?iaea Iineau 6 iiya?y 1944
a.. A na. «Aiaoiyy iieeoeea Niaaoneiai Nithca a ia?eiae Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieiu», o. 2. I., 1946.

Eaeaiaea?ue niauoee. A na. «Aiaoiyy iieeoeea Niaaoneiai Nithca a ia?eiae
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu», o. 2. I., 1946.

Iieeoe/aneee io/ao Oeaio?aeueiiai Eiieoaoa XVI nuacaeo AEI(a). A na. «E.
A. Noaeei. «Ni/eiaiey»», o. 12. I., 1949.

E. A. Noaeei. «Ni/eiaiey». oo. 5 e 6. I., 1949.

I. A. Aicianaineee. «Aiaiiay yeiiiieea NNN? a ia?eiae Ioa/anoaaiiie
aieiu». I., 1947.

Niaaoneee yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue. I., 1983.

Aaeeeay Ioa/anoaaiiay aieia 1941 – 1945. Yioeeeeiiaaeey. I., 1985.

A. E. AEoeia. «Ainiiieiaiey e ?aciuoeaiey», a 3 oiiao. I., 1990.

N. I. Ooaiaiei. «Aaia?aeueiue ooaa a aiaeu aieiu». I., 1975.

E. E. ?ieinnianeee. «Nieaeaoneee aeiea». I., 1980.

A. N. sseiaeaa. «Oeaeue aeecie». I., 1987.

A. E. Oaoo?ei. «E?ueuey iiaaaeu». I., 1985.

A. I. Iiaeeia. «Iaeaioia e a aeie eniuoaiee». I., 1988.

E. I. Iaeneee. «Eoi iiiiaae Aeoea?o (ec ainiiieiaiee niaaoneiai iinea)».
I., 1962.

I. I. sseiaeaa. «Ia?oae AEoeia», a na. «Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey». I.,
1990.

I. I. sseiaeaa. «3 naioya?y 1945 a.», a na. «Eca?aiiua i?iecaaaeaiey».
I., 1990.

«Ecaanoey», 25 ethiy 1998 a., ? 114 (25214). (Aeaiiua i?eaaaeaiu ni
nnueeie ia ?annae?a/aiiue nai?iee Aaia?aeueiiai ooaaa.)

A. A. Noai?ia. «Eaaeieie». I., 1994.

A. A. Noai?ia. «Aeaiue I», I., 1994.

I. A. Ieoaaa. «I?e/eiu ii?aaeaiee E?aniie A?iee a ia?aue ia?eiae Aaeeeie
Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu». I., 1995.

PAGE

PAGE 2

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019