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O?aeueneay Ainoaea?noaaiiay TH?eaee/aneay Aeaaeaiey

?AOA?AO

ECAeAOAEUeNEIA AeAEI a yiea?aoeee

Auiieiee: O?eiooei
Aeaenaiae?

Nooaeaio EIeI a?. 122

I?iaa?eea:
ssiiaa A. I.

Aeaoa?eiao?a 1998 a.

ECAeAOAEUeNEIA AeAEI A YIEA?AOeEE

Ethaia nia?aiaiiia o/?aaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u eee ia?aciaaiey ioaeaeaaony a
ia/aoiie i?iaeoeoeee (aeaaiui ia?acii, a eieaao), eioi?ay eo
iauaaeeiyao. A ?onneii Ca?oaaaeuea yoa iio?aaiinoue auea iniaaiii
aaeeea, iineieueeo yiea?aioneea oeieu aicieeaee i?aeoe/anee ia eiay
naiiai iaiaoiaeeiiai. E?iia oiai, iiieii oaeiaeaoai?aiey ioaeae oeieu,
?onneia Ca?oaaaeuea aeieaeii auei caaioeoueny ia iauaaeeiaiee naieo
?aca?inaiiuo ii naaoo a?aaeaeai, nio?aiaiee e ?acaeoee eo naiiniciaiey.
Ia/aoiia neiai — aacaou, aeo?iaeu, eieae — auee naiui aeaenoaaiiui e
oaeoe/anee aaeeinoaaiiui n?aaenoaii aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae. ?annayiiua
ii anaio caiiiio oa?o a?oiiu yiea?aioia auee neeoeii iaiiiai/eneaiiu e
neeoeii aaaeiu, /oiau iniiaaoue ?aaeeinoaioeeth: aeey aa i?aaiecaoeee
iaiaoiaeeia auea ainoaea?noaaiiay eeoeaicey, e ii oai a?aiaiai iia ia
iaeaaeaea aieueoei ?aaeeonii aeaenoaey. Ee/iua eiioaeou auee
cao?oaeiaiu: iu oaea aiai?eee i neiaeiinoyo n ioi?ieaieai aec e
caa?aie/iuo ianii?oia. Iiyoiio iniiaiay ?ieue a iiaeaea?aeaiee e
oe?aieaiee /oanoaa aaeeinoaa ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey i?eiaaeeaaeaea
ecaeaoaeueneiio aeaeo. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi ia/aoaiea e
?ani?ino?aiaiea ?onneiai neiaa iicaieyee yiea?aioai i?iaeieaeaoue
oai?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue e iiaeaea?aeeaaee ?acaeoea eo
eioaeeaeooaeueiie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie. E a naiai ?aoa?aoa y iinoaaee
caaea/o ?anniio?aoue ecaeaoaeueneia aeaei ca ?oaaaeii, nicaeaiiia
?inneeneeie yiea?aioaie a ia?eiae iinea?aaiethoeeiiiie aieiu aaaeaioeaa,
o.a. n 1919 a. ii 1939 aiae.

Nae/an iao iiiaeo aaaeiuo enoi/ieeia e iiae?iaii ainnicaeaoue enoi?eth
ecaeaoaeueneiai aeaea ?onneie aeeanii?u 20-o e 30-o aa. o?oaeii.
Aieueoay /anoue a?oeaia ?onneeo caa?aie/iuo ecaeaoaeuenoa ia
nio?aieeanue, /aua anaai ec-ca eo iaaeieaiai nouanoaiaaiey. A ?yaea
neo/aaa, ianeieueei iai ecaanoii, a?oeau auee eiioeneiaaiu
ieeoiaoeeiiiuie aeanoyie e nei?aa anaai iioa?yeenue a oaina aoi?ie
ie?iaie aieiu. E?iia oiai, iiiaea yiea?aioneea ecaeaoaeuenoaa
ia?aacaeaee ec iaeieo ai?iaeia eee no?ai a ae?oaea noaaeee eiaeiua
auoiaeiua aeaiiua, ia oeacuaaee ianoi ecaeaiey

N eiioea XVIII aaea iniiaiua oai?/aneea oneeey a ?innee
i?aaei?eieiaeenue a iaeanoe ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai neiaa. A neeo oeaeiai
?yaea i?e/ei eeoa?aoo?a yaeyeanue oeaio?ii eoeueoo?iie e
eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeecie aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee. Ae oaeaeyee iniaia
aieiaiea ?aaeeeaeu e ?aaiethoeeiia?u eae iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiiio
n?aaenoao a iiaeaioiaea ?aaiethoeee e naa?aeaiee noa?iai ?aaeeia. Ia
oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi e oai?/aneee “ac?ua” yiioe Na?aa?yiiai aaea (oioy ii
a aieueoie noaiaie cao?iioe e ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai, e iocueo)
i?iyaeeny i?aaeaea anaai a caiaoiii oaaee/aiee /enea ecaeaoaeuenoa e
ecaeaiee, eo oe?aaeae, ?anoe?aiee /eoaoaeueneie aoaeeoi?ee. A?oiiu,
aeaeaeaiey e ioaeaeueiua ee/iinoe, ii?aaeaeyaoea ooaeiaeanoaaiiua e
eaeaeiua iano?iaiey iauanoaa, eiaee naieo ecaeaoaeae eee naie auioneaee
ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey e eieae. Ianiio?y ia iaoa?eaeueiua o?oaeiinoe e
nioeeaeueioth ianoaaeeueiinoue, a ia/aeueiue ia?eiae ?aaiethoeee e ai
a?aiy a?aaeaeaineie aieiu iioie ia/aoiie i?iaeoeoeee ia nie?aoeeny.
Iai?ioea, iieeoe/aneea naeaeae iinoaaeee iiaua oeaee ia?aae
i?iiaaaiaeie, e yoe caaea/e ia?aainieoaiey, yenia?eiaioe?iaaiey a
iaeanoe ynoaoeee ia iiaee auoue aeinoeaioou aac ?acaeoey ia/aoe.

Ia oaeeaeoaeueii iiyoiio, /oi e ecaiaiieee, ieacaaoeany ca i?aaeaeaie
?innee, aeaeaee a ecaeaoaeueneii aeaea iniiaiia n?aaenoai ?aoaiey naieo
niaoeeoe/aneeo i?iaeai: nio?aieoue e i?eoiiiaeeoue eoeueoo?iia ianeaaeea
?iaeeiu a iaaeaaeaea eniieueciaaoue aai aiineaaenoaee ia aeaai
inaiaiaeaeaiiie io aieueoaaecia ?innee. Iaaeinoaoea a iioaioeeaeueiuo
aaoi?ao ia auei, ii, o/eouaay oneiaey, a eioi?uo iaoiaeeeenue yiea?aiou,
e ianoaiiaeo ie?iaiai yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, nicaeaoue iiaia
ecaeaoaeuenoai eee iaeoe ecaeaoaey auei aeaeii iaeaaeei. Aua neiaeiaa
auei i?aaieciaaoue ?ani?ino?aiaiea ecaeaiee n?aaee ?aciauaiiuo e
iaaiaaouo iioaioeeaeueiuo /eoaoaeae. Oeaiu ioaeii auei onoaiaaeeaaoue
eae iiaeii aieaa ieceea, /oi oiaea auei iai?inoi, iineieueeo oe?aaee
auee iaaieueoeie, a nauo — neiaeiui e aei?iainoiyuei. ?aeeaia ia auea
yooaeoeaiie e ea?aea aeaaea a aacaoao aoi?inoaiaiioth ?ieue. Eo/oei
n?aaenoaii iiiaauaiey i auoiaea a naao i?iecaaaeaiey auee iaci?u
eieaeiuo iiaeiie a aeo?iaeao e aacaoao, ii eo ninoaaeaiea auei
nii?yaeaii ni noieeiiaaieai a?oiiiauo eioa?ania, i?eno?anoee, aeaaaei
iiaiae aeey caaenoe e eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ethaeueie.
Eieaeiua iaaaceiu ioeacuaaeenue a?aoue aieueoia /enei yecaiiey?ia eiea
eee aeo?iaeia; eo aeaaeaeueoeu i?aaeii/eoaee i?eia?aoaoue oieueei oa
ecaeaiey, eioi?ua iie iiaee i?iaeaoue iaaa?iyea. Iai?iaeaiiua yecaiiey?u
aica?auaeenue a ecaeaoaeuenoai, eioi?ia aeieaeii auei i?e yoii
iiea/eaaoue ?anoiaeu ia ia?anueeo. Iiiuoee nicaeaiey neiaeeeaoa
ecaeaoaeuenoa iioa?iaee iaoaea/o. Noieue aea neiaeii auei
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ?aciiia?aciua aeonu, o/anoue ?acee/ey a eoeueoo?iii e
ia?aciaaoaeueiii o?iaia, eaeaieiae/aneea — iieeoe/aneea e ynoaoe/aneea —
i?eno?anoey, iineieueeo a eo/oeo o?aaeeoeeyo ?onneie eioaeeeaaioeee
eaaeaeay a?oiia ia?aciauaaea naie nianoaaiiue “e?oaeie”, ia neeoeii
ioioii aini?eieiaaoee ae?oaea eaeae e oeaiiinoe. Eaaeaeay a?oiia
/eoaoaeae, i?eaea?aeeaaaoeony ii?aaeaeaiiie i?eaioaoeee, i?aaenoaaeyea
niaie aanueia ia?aie/aiiue ?uiie nauoa, e aeaaea ecaeaiey,
i?aaenoaaeyaoea, eacaeinue au, iauee eioa?an, iai?eia? eeanneea,
ia/aoaeenue iaaieueoeie ecaeaoaeuenoaaie e ?ani?ino?aiyeenue n?aaee
oceiai e?oaa /eoaoaeae e eieaeiuo iaaaceiia. Ana yoi iauyniyao e?ao
iiiuoie ecaeaoue aieueoeie oe?aaeaie o/aaieee eee nia?aiey ni/eiaiee
eeanneeia.

Yiea?aiou neaaeiaaee o?aaeeoeeyi ia/aoiiai aeaea, neiaeeaoeiny a
aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee, n oaie eciaiaieyie, eioi?ua aianea yiioa
Na?aa?yiiai aaea. Aei 1917 a. a ?innee ioaeaaaee i?aaeii/oaiea ia
eieaai, a ia?eiaee/aneei ecaeaieyi, ia no?aieoeao eioi?uo e oaeaeaee
naao iiiaea eeoa?aoo?iua i?iecaaaeaiey. Yoa oaiaeaioeey nio?aiyeanue e a
yiea?aoeee. Ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey io?aceee i?enouoth iauanoao iano?ioo
e ?aca?in iiaiee: eaaeaeay a?oiia, caieiaaoay nianoaaiioth
eaeaieiae/aneoth eee ynoaoe/aneoth iiceoeeth, no?aieeanue eiaoue naie
ia/aoiue i?aai. Aieaa oiai, iineieueeo yiea?aoeey aeeeeanue ai?acaei
aeieueoa, /ai ia?aiia/aeueii i?aaeiieaaaee, iieiaeua ienaoaee ana /aua
ioaa?aaee i?aiaeaaeathuaa aeeyiea ia/aoiuo i?aaiia, nicaeaiiuo noa?oei
iieieaieai. Oaeei ia?acii, iaiaoiaeeiinoue oieeaea iieiaeuo ienaoaeae,
iuneeoaeae e e?eoeeia ia ecaeaiea nianoaaiiuo aeo?iaeia eee a?ioth?. Ii
oeiainiaay iiaeaea?aeea iiaeiaiuo i?aaei?eyoee auea aanueia
iacia/eoaeueiie, a aeioiaeu io ?ani?ino?aiaiey ecaeaiee aaeaa iie?uaaee
cao?aou ia eo ioaeeeaoeeth. A ?acoeueoaoa ana iiaeiaiua ia/eiaiey
ieacuaaeenue iaaeieaiaa/iuie e ioaaouaaee eeoue ia?aie/aiiue e?oa
“naieo”. Ana neacaiiia auoa iauyniyao, ii/aio yoe ioaeeeaoeee oae
o?oaeii iaeoe; iiiaea ec ieo aiiaua iaaeinooiiu e oiiieiathony eeoue a
naeaeaoaeuenoaao e iocuaao nia?aiaiieeia eee a iaci?ao, iiiauaiiuo a
nio?aieaoeony ecaeaieyo. Iaeiiaoe, ecaeaoaeueneia aeaei a yiea?aoeee
eniuouaaei o?oaeiinoe a nayce n ?inoii iioeeiu ia ioaeeeaoeee e
oeaico?iuie ia?aie/aieyie, eioi?ua aaiaeeeenue iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneeie e
aaoi?eoa?iuie ?aaeeiaie no?ai i?iaeeaaiey. Ana o?oaeiaa noaiiaeeinue
ia?anueaoue ecaeaiey ca a?aieoeo, iniaaiii anee a ieo niaea?aeaeenue
iaaaoeaiua auneacuaaiey i oie no?aia, a eioi?oth iie auee ioi?aaeaiu. E
eiioeo 30-o aa. eieae e aeo?iaeu yiea?aioia a aieueoeinoaa naiai eiaee
oiaeaeaiea oieueei a oao no?aiao, aaea iie auoee a naao. Eo aoaeeoi?ey,
?aaii eae e oainu ia auaeeaaiea, auee aanueia iaaaeeee.

Ioaaoeaoay Aa?iaieth eioeyoeey i?aa?aoeea Aa?eei a aeaaiue e iaeaieaa
aeoeaiue oeaio? ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe yiea?aoeee 1920—1923 aa.
I?aeiouanoai Aa?eeia caeeth/aeinue aua e a oii, /oi caeanue auei
nin?aaeioi/aii iiiai ?onneeo aaaeaioeaa — i?aaenoaaeoaeae ia?aciaaiiie
yeeou, n?aaee eioi?uo iiaeii auei iaeoe e aaoi?ia, e iio?aaeoaeae
ecaeaoaeueneie i?iaeoeoeee. Iaeiiaoe, aeaaiaea?y caea?uaaieyi
aa?iaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa n aieueoaaeeaie, Aa?eei nio?aiee iaeaieaa
oaniua eiioaeou n Niaaoneie ?inneae. N ia/aeii iyia oa niaaoneea
a?aaeaeaia, eiio oaeaaaeinue iieo/eoue ?ac?aoaiea aeey a?aiaiiiai
auacaea ca a?aieoeo, i?eacaeaee a Aa?eei. Anoanoaaiii, aiciaiiaeeenue e
aeaaiea eiioaeou iaaeaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iaiaoeeie e ?onneie
eioaeeeaaioeee. A Aa?iaiee ?aciaeae iaaeaeo ?onneei Ca?oaaaeueai e
niaaoneie ?iaeeiie aue ia/aoeei, e neiaeeaoaany caeanue iieiaeaiea
noeioee?iaaei iiaeaea?aeaiea eioaeeaeooaeueiuo naycae iaaeaeo ethaeueie.
Nouanoaiaaiea yoiai acaeiiiai iaiaia auei ioia/aii i?annie. Eioa?an,
i?iyaeyaoeeny ecaiaiieeaie ei anaio, /oi i?ienoiaeeei ia ?iaeeia, eaa/a
auei oaeiaeaoai?eoue a Aa?eeia, iaaeaee a , ethaii eiii oeaio?a ?onneie
aeeanii?u. Aa?eei neoaeee ianoii, aaea i?ienoiaeee iaiai eioi?iaoeeae
ia aaoi?ao e ioaeeeaoeeyo a Niaaoneie ?innee e a ?onneii Ca?oaaaeuea.
Eiaiii n yoie oeaeueth auaoee i?ioanni? i?aaa A. N. ssuaiei iniiaae
aeo?iae “?onneay eieaa”, iicaeiaa ia?aeiaiiaaiiue a “Iiaoth ?onneoth
eieao”. AEo?iae aeaaae iaeaieaa eiiiaoaioiua, oioy, ?acoiaaony, aeaeaei
ia iieiua, iaci?u ioaeeeaoeee e aaoi?ia aeeanii?u (a aeey ia?eiaea
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu io/anoe e ii Niaaoneie ?innee). Ecaeaiey ssuaiei
iiiiaee onoaiiaeoue eiioaeou e iaiai iaaeaeo yiea?aioneeie aaoi?a, ie e
ia?auie niiauaee i aeinoeaeaieyo ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey a iaeanoe
eeoa?aoo?iiai oai?/anoaa. Noiaeioth ?ieue nua?aea ecaeaaaaoayny yna?aie
a I?aaa “Naiaiaeiay ?inney”, eioi?ay eioi?ie?iaaea yiea?aioia i
i?ienoiaeyuai a aieueoaaenoneie ?innee; a a ?oa?eea “Iiainoe eeoa?aoo?u”
aeaaaeny iaci? iniiaiuo niauoee eeoa?aoo?iie aeecie ?onneiai
Ca?oaaaeuey.

A oa/aiea anaai a?aiaie, iiea Niaaoneay ?inney ia auea ieii/aoaeueii
eciee?iaaia io ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey, ?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee eiaei
iniaia cia/aiea. Aeaaiaea?y ?iee Aa?eeia, eae oeaio?a ?onneiai
ecaeaoaeueneiai aeaea, iinea ieii/aiey a?aaeaeaineie aieiu iiiaea
niaaoneea ienaoaee i?eacaeaee ca ?oaaae — iaeioi?ua ec ieo inoaeenue oai
iaanaaaea. Eia-eoi i?eacaeae ia a?aiy, iai?eia? A.Ianoa?iae,
I.Aa?oaicii, A.Oienoie e E.Y?aiao?a. Nienie oao, eoi ieeiaaea aieueoa ia
aa?ioeny a ?inneth, neeoeii aaeee, a iniaaiiinoe anee aeeth/eoue a iaai
oao, eoi aue auneai a 1922 a. A.?aiecia, A.Oiaeanaae/, I.Aa?aa?iaa,
I.Oeaaoaaaa auee a /enea ecaanoiuo eeoa?aoi?ia, iinauaaoeo Aa?eei. A
ia/aea 20-o aa. caeanue iiauaaee oaeaea A.Iayeianeee, N.Anaiei, A.Aaeue
e I.Ai?ueeee, eioi?ue inoaaaeny ca a?aieoeae aei eiioea 20-o aa. Oaeei
ia?acii, a eioaeeaeooaeueioth aeeciue yiea?aoeee aeeeanue iiaea?ienoneay
no?oy. Aeeyiea oneeeaaeinue aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe ooaeiaeieeia,
iocueaioia, ae?aiaoe/aneeo aeoa?ia, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoeo e
yenia?eiaioaoi?neei oa/aieyi nia?aiaiiiai ?onneiai eneonnoaa, eioi?ua
iinauaee Aa?eei.

A Aa?eeia, oaeei ia?acii, ecaeaoaeueneia aeaei auei i?aaenoaaeaii
iaeaieaa oe?iei eae a niunea ?aciiia?acey niaea?aeaiey ia/aoiie
i?iaeoeoeee, oae e n oi/ee c?aiey eniieiaiey — iieea?aoee, ioi?ieaiey
eieae, eeethno?aoeee, /oi iicaieeei caiaaeiiio /eoaoaeth iieo/eoue
iieiia aia/aoeaiea i iiaaoeeyo Na?aa?yiiai aaea. Yoi iiiaiia?acea,
iaeiaei, caiaoii iioei ia oaueue iinea oiai, eae eciaiaiey a yeiiiieea,
noaaeeecaoeey ia?ee e iaoneiaeaiiia yoei iiauoaiea oeai auioaeeee iiiaeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae eioaeeeaaioeee, a aianoa n ieie e eo ia/aoiua i?aaiu
iieeiooue Aa?eei. O/aiua iainiiaaeenue a I?aaa, oiaaea eae iaeaieaa
aeoeaiua a oai?/aneii ioiioaiee ienaoaee, ooaeiaeieee, oeeiniou
iai?aaeeenue a Ia?eae; iaeioi?ua inoaiiaeee naie auai? ia Aaea?aaea eee
?eaa. I?eia?ii iinea 1925 a. oeaio?ii ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe noae
Ia?eae e inoaaaeny ei aei eiioea ?anniao?eaaaiiai ia?eiaea. A oi aea
a?aiy ia?aecaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiee iiioey?iuo aaoi?ia e eeanneeia
inouanoaeyeenue /aua anaai a ?eaa, a iao/iua ioaeeeaoeee — a I?aaa ia
n?aaenoaa iaoiaeeaoeony oai ?onneeo iao/iuo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Eeanneoeoee?iaaoue yiea?aioneea ecaeaoaeuenoaa ii ioaeeeiaaaoaeny eie
eeoa?aoo?a iai?inoi. A oneiaeyo yiea?aoeee iniaue iiaeoiae eee
niaoeeaeecaoeeth auei o?oaeii nio?aiyoue a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai
a?aiaie. Ia?aiia/aeueii aieueoay /anoue ecaeaoaeuenoa auioneaea aeaa
aeaea eieaeiie i?iaeoeoeee: ia?aecaeaiey ?onneeo ienaoaeae-eeanneeia e
ioaeeeaoeee iiauo i?iecaaaeaiee oi?ioi ecaanoiuo ienaoaeae-yiea?aioia.
Oaeea iiioey?iua aaoi?u, eae Aan. Ea. Iaie?iae/-Aeai/aiei, A.
Aioeoaao?ia e I. Aeaeaiia, aaoi? enoi?e/aneeo ?iiaiia, eaaei iaoiaeeee
ecaeaoaeae, eo ni/eiaiey auoiaeeee aeinoaoi/ii aieueoeie oe?aaeaie.
Ianoiyoaeuenoaa oeiainiaiai oa?aeoa?a, i eioi?uo auei neacaii auoa,
neacuaaeenue a oii, /oi ie iaeei ienaoaeue ?onneiai

Ca?oaaaeuey ia eiae naiaai iinoiyiiiai ecaeaoaey e ie o iaeiiai
ecaeaoaeuenoaa ia auei noaaeeueiiai e?oaa aaoi?ia. Ienaoaee auee aioiau
ioaeeeiaaoueny o ethaiai ecaeaoaey, /anoi iaeii e oi aea i?iecaaaeaiea
iie ioaeaaaee a ?aciia a?aiy a ianeieueei ecaeaoaeuenoa, ianeoaeeaaaoeo
?acee/iua (a aaia?aoe/aneii niunea) eieaeiua ?uiee. Iiiuoee aianoe
aieueoa ii?yaeea e /anoiinoe a aeaea, i?aaei?eiyoua niaianoiuie oneeeyie
ecaeaoaeae e aaoi?ia, iioa?iaee iaoaea/o: ie?aonoai ii-i?aaeiaio
i?ioeaaoaei — i?iecaaaeaiey, iioaeeeiaaiiua a iaeiii aeo?iaea eee
aacaoa, ia?aia/aouaaeenue ae?oaeie aac iieaou aaoi?neeo i?aa, iaeie e oa
aea aaue iiaee auoiaeeoue o ?aciuo ecaeaoaeae. Naeaeaiiay iaeiei
aia?eeaioeai iiiuoea iaania/eoue niaethaeaiea i?aa ienaoaeae iooai
iaycaoaeueiiai caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?ia ii aaoi?neei i?aaai iaaeaeo anaie
caeioa?aniaaiiuie noi?iiaie caeii/eeanue aac?acoeueoaoii. Annioeeaoeee
ecaeaoaeae oaeaea ia auee auoiaeii ec iieiaeaiey, iineieueeo
eiieo?aioeey ec-ca ia?aie/aiiiai nauoa i?iaeoeoeee ia aeaaaea oainia
i?eeoe e eaeiio au oi ie auei yooaeoeaiiio niaeaoaieth.

Iaeii ecaeaoaeuenoai, iaeiaei, yaeyei niaie eneeth/aiea. EIEA iniiaaea e
noaneaee?iaaea ecaeaoaeuenoai EIEA-I?ann, aei neo ii? i?ioeaaoathuaa a
Ia?eaea. Iaeioi?ia a?aiy iii ?aaioaei iiae auaaneie Editeurs reunis.
Ia?aiia/aeueii iii auei nicaeaii aa?iiaeneeie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie EIEA aeey
ecaeaiey o/aaieeia e eeoa?aoo?u aeey /oaiey (i?aeiouanoaaiii
?aeeaeiciiai oa?aeoa?a) aeey aiaiiiieaiiuo. Iinea aicieeiiaaiey ?onneiai
Ca?oaaaeuey i?eoei iniciaiea iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaeiaeaoai?eoue aicieeooth o
yiea?aioia iio?aaiinoue a eeoa?aoo?a. Aia/aea EIEA nin?aaeioi/eea
aieiaiea ia oaoie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a e noaea i?iaiaeeoue a aeeciue
iaoe?ioth i?ia?aiio auionea o/aaieeia; iia, iaeiaei, ia oaeaeanue, oae
eae caaeoiaia auea neeoeii oe?iei, a inouanoaeyeanue aanii?yaei/ii.
Ia?aecaeaiea o/aaieeia eee oeiaine?iaaiea ia?aaiaeia ca?oaaaeiuo o/aaiuo
iiniaee auei aeaeii ioithaeue ia auaiaeiui, iineieueeo yiea?aiou ia
iieoiaee oaeiai ?iaea eeoa?aoo?o. A 1925 a. EIEA ia?aianea naith
aeayoaeueiinoue a Ia?eae e noaea iniiaiui ecaeaoaeai eiea ii oeeinioee e
?aeeaee, aeo?iaea Nayoi-Na?aeaaneiai Aiaineianeiai einoeoooa
“I?aaineaaiay iuneue” e aeo?iaea “Iooue”, i?aaia aa?aeyaaneie
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneie aeaaeaiee. E?iia oiai, EIEA ecaeaaaea iaeioi?ua
i?iecaaaeaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u, a oaeaea eieae, a oii /enea e
ia?aaiaeiua, eioi?ua iiaee aucaaoue eioa?an o oe?ieiai /eoaoaey”.
I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue nouanoaiaaiey yoiai ecaeaoaeuenoaa, aeaaiaea?y
oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu EIEA, iicaieeea aio noaoue iniiaiui
enoi/ieeii aeooiaiie, auniei eioaeeaeooaeueiie ieue aeey ?onneiai
Ca?oaaaeuey e inoaaaoueny oaeiaui a oa/aiea anaai ?anniao?eaaaiiai iaie
ia?eiaea (yoo aea ?ieue EIEA-I?ann auiieiyao e naaiaeiy, oioy ia eiie
oeiainiaie iniiaa e aieaa ioe?uoi i?eaioe?oynue ia ?aeeaeicioth
i?iaeaiaoeeo). Ecaeaoaeuenoai eiaei aiciiaeiinoue iaoa?eaeueii
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue naieo aaoi?ia, a iniaaiiinoe ienaaoeo noaouee aeey
aeo?iaeia, e oaeei ia?acii einaaiii ieacuaaei iiaeaea?aeeo ioaeaeueiui
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi yiea?aioneie eioaeeeaaioeee.

Eae oaea oiiieiaeinue, ecaeaiea o/aaieeia e o/aaiuo iiniaee, eioi?ua
iiaee auoue iieaciu aiaiiiieaiiui aeey naiiia?aciaaiey eee aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai iao/aiey, auei ia?aui ia/eiaieai, iiaoaeeaoei EIEA e
ecaeaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oae auei e n ae?oaeie yiea?aioneeie
ecaeaoaeuenoaaie. Ana ?onneea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey ca a?aieoeae, iniaaiii
oeieu, ioaeaeaeenue a o/aaieeao, iineieueeo eo iaeuecy auei aieueoa
iieo/aoue ec ?innee. Nia/aea eacaeinue, /oi ecaeaiea o/aaieeia e o/aaiuo
iiniaee noeeo ecaeaoaeyi auaiaeu. EIEA, iai?eia?, ia?aecaeaei iiiai
iiaeiaiuo eiea, eioi?ua, iaeiaei, ia auee ?ani?iaeaiu, /oi ia ianeieueei
eao ineiaeieei aa oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea. Iaoaea/a, iinoeaoay yoi
ia/eiaiea, ioithaeue ia auea neo/aeiie: noa?ua o/aaieee ia iiaee
oaeiaeaoai?eoue iineaaiaiiia iieieaiea o/aieeia; iie aaciaaeaaeii
onoa?aee, iineieueeo ia o/eouaaee oao ioe?uoee, iiaaoeee e eciaiaiee,
eioi?ua i?iecioee a iaoea e a oaoieea a ia?eiae ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu e
iinea iaa. Ia?aaiaeu iiauo o/aaieeia, ecaeaaaaoeony ia Caiaaea, auee
aei?iae e o?aaiaaee a?aiaie, ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoea ?acia?u ?uiea
nauoa yoie eeoa?aoo?u ia iicaieyee iaaeayoueny, /oi yoe oneeey e cao?aou
ieoiyony. ?uiie aue aeaenoaeoaeueii iaaaeee, iineieueeo e /enei aeaoae
yiea?aioia, iinauaaoeo ?onneea oeieu (e?iia ia/aeueiuo eeannia), auei
iacia/eoaeueiui. Aieaa oiai, oeieueiua i?ia?aiiu noaee aieaa
?aciiia?aciuie, /ai a oea?neie ?innee, neaaeiaaei o/eouaaoue o?aaiaaiey,
i?eiyoua a eaaeaeie ec no?ai i?iaeeaaiey, oae /oi nicaeaoue o/aaiee,
eioi?ue iiaeoiaeee au aeey anao yiea?aioneeo oeie, auei o?oaeii.
Iineieueeo yiea?aiou auee aaaeiu, o/aaieee i?eoiaeeeinue ?ani?ino?aiyoue
aanieaoii, /oi ii/oe ia inoaaeyei ecaeaoaeth iaaeaaeae ia iieo/aiea
i?eauee.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iaaeaaeaea ia oi, /oi ecaeaiea o/aaieeia e iiniaee,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey eniieueciaaiey a i?aiiaeaaaiee niioaaonoaothueo
i?aaeiaoia, iiaeao auoue ia oieueei iieaciui, ii e auaiaeiui, ana-oaee
nouanoaiaaea. Yiea?aioneee ioaeeoeeno N. Oeeii i?aaeeiaeee noaio aeey
ioaeeeaoeee na?ee iiaeiaiuo ecaeaiee ia ?anniio?aiea EIEA e ae?oaeo
ecaeaoaeuenoa, ii ec yoiai ie/aai ia auoei, aiciiaeii, iioiio, /oi yoio
ieai aue neeoeii oe?ieei e iaeiie?aoiui. Ia naiii aeaea iiaeiaiue
iiaeoiae aue iaaa?ai, iineieueeo oa ?onneea aaaeaioeu, eoi oioae
iaeaaeaoue oaoie/aneeie e i?ioanneiiaeueiuie iaaueaie e iiauie ciaieyie,
/oiau iiauneoue naith eaaeeoeeaoeeth, a iniiaiii eniieueciaaee iiniaey,
iaienaiiua ia ycuea oie no?aiu, aaea iie ?ann/eouaaee iieo/eoue ?aaioo.
Iai?eia?, aa/a?iea e cai/iua oeieu aeey eiaeaia?ia e oaoieeia, i eioi?uo
iu oiiieiaee a i?aaeuaeouae aeaaa, iainiiaaeenue a Ia?eaea iiae
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii EIEA e i?eaioe?iaaeenue a naiae ?aaioa ia ca?oaaaeioth
eeoa?aoo?o, eioi?ay auea aieaa nia?aiaiiie, iaaeaee oi, /oi iiaei
i?aaeeiaeeoue ?onneia Ca?oaaaeuea.

Ianeieueei ecaeaoaeae ana-oaee auioneaee o/aaieee aeey ?onneeo oeie, ii
iie ninoaaeyee iaaieueooth /anoue ecaeaiee ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey.
O/aaieee, eioi?ua iiaee eniieueciaaoueny a oeieao aeey ?onneiai
iaiueoeinoaa a i?ea?aie/iuo ainoaea?noaao, eiaee aieaa aieee ?uiie.
Iaeioi?ua noa?ua ?onneea o/aaieee ii enoi?ee (iai?eia?, eo?n Ieaoiiiaa
aeey n?aaeiae oeieu) e ii eeoa?aoo?a eniieueciaaeenue a ea/anoaa iiniaee
e auoiaeeee a naao aeaaea a oaeie aeaee, eae Aoyiin-Ae?an. Ii/aaaneee
iiianou?ue niaoeeaeece?iaaeny ia ia?aecaeaieyo e auionea iaaieueoeo
a?ioth? (eee ieaeaoia) ia ?aeeaeiciua e ii?aeueiua oaiu, eioi?ua eiaee
oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a oea?eiaiuo oeieao e i?eoiaeao. Ii iiaeiaiua
ecaeaiey auee oa?aeoa?iu oieueei aeey ia?aiai aeanyoeeaoey yiea?aoeee; a
oeaeii n?aaee ioaeeeaoeee ?onneeo ecaiaiieeia i?aiaeaaeaee
ooaeiaeanoaaiiay eeoa?aoo?a e ia?aie/aiiia /enei oi?ioeo enneaaeiaaiee
ii enoi?ee, eeoa?aoo?a eee oeeinioee.

Iaeiie ec ia?aaeoeo caaio ecaeaoaeae-yiea?aioia auei ia?aecaeaiea
i?iecaaaeaiee ?onneeo ienaoaeae-eeanneeia — Iooeeia, Aiaiey, Oienoiai,
Aeinoiaaneiai, *aoiaa, — oao eiea, ii eioi?ui ecaiaiieee enoineiaaeenue
e eioi?ua oioaee au eiaoue aeiia. “Iao?iiieen” e “Neiai” auionoeee
iiiaioiiiua nia?aiey ni/eiaiee yoeo aaoi?ia. Yoi auee ia aeaaeaie/aneea
ecaeaiey, a i?inoi oi?ioi ecaeaiiua eieae, eae i?aaeei, iaia/aoaiiua a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie noa?ie i?oia?aoee. Ii neo/ath thaeeay
eaeiai-eeai ienaoaey auioneaeenue niaoeeaeueiua ecaeaiey, iai?eia?, e
noieaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey Oienoiai a 1928 a. eee e noieaoeth nia?oe
Iooeeia a 1937 a. Ianeieueei ecaeaoaeuenoa a ?aciuo no?aiao auionoeee
iiaua ecaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiee Iooeeia — iaeaieaa y?eei n?aaee ieo iiaeao
n/eoaoueny nia?aiea ni/eiaiee, ecaeaiiia a Ia?eaea ia iaeiaaiiie aoiaaa
e a eiaeaiii ia?aieaoa. A “Iao?iiieena” auoei iiae ?aaeaeoeeae A.
Oiaeanaae/a thaeeaeiia ecaeaiea “Aaaaiey Iiaaeia” n eeethno?aoeeyie I.
Aeiaoaeeineiai. Niaaoneea ecaeaiey eeanneeia noaee eiieo?e?iaaoue n
i?iaeoeoeeae ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey ii naiae aeinooiiinoe e
iieea?aoe/aneiio eniieiaieth oieueei a ia/aea 30-o aa. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y
ia oi, /oi niaaoneea eieae auee ai?acaei aeaoaaea, iiiaea yiea?aiou
ioeacuaaeenue eo iieoiaoue (e aeaaea /eoaoue), iioiio /oi iie auee
iaia/aoaiu a niioaaonoaee n iiaie i?oia?aoeae, a neiai “Aia” a ieo
ienaeinue n iaeaiueeie aoeau.

Aoi?ie ii ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoe a?oiiie ecaeaiee auee i?iecaaaeaiey
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u, iaienaiiua ienaoaeyie-yiea?aioaie. Naiie
aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth iieueciaaeenue ni/eiaiey Iaie?iae/a-Aeai/aiei,
Aioeoaao?iaa, Aeaeaiiaa e I. E?aniiaa. Aieueoay eo /anoue ioaeeeiaaeanue
/anoyie ia no?aieoeao aeo?iaeia. Iiaua i?iecaaaeaiey E. Aoieia, Ae.
Ia?aaeeianeiai, A. ?aieciaa, A. Caeoeaaa, A. Eoi?eia e E. Oiaeaaa
anaaaea iaoiaeeee naie, ionoue iaaieueoie, ?uiie nauoa. O ienaoaeae aea
iieiaeiai iieieaiey aicieeaee aieueoea neiaeiinoe n ioaeeeaoeeae naieo
eiea. Oae auei n A. Ne?eiui (Iaaieiaui), A. Aacaeaiiaui e I. Aa?aa?iaie,
anee aiai?eoue oieueei i naiuo ecaanoiuo e ianeieueei aieaa noa?oeo ii
aic?anoo. *aua anaai eo i?iecaaaeaiey ia/aoaeenue oieueei a aeo?iaeao.
Aua o?oaeiaa auei oai, eoi ia/ae ienaoue a na?aaeeia 30-o aa.: A.
ssiianeiio, TH. Oaeuecaio, A. Aa?oaaneiio, a /anoiinoe, ec-ca eo
iiaaoi?noaa, iiaea?ienoneiai noeey e oaiaoeee. N?aaeiee /eoaoaeue
?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey aue neeoeii enoiuai eaaeaeiaeiaaiie ai?ueaie ca
oeaa ianouiue, /oiau auoue ethaeoaeai aaaiaa?aeiie eeoa?aoo?u. Ii
ioaeaaae i?aaeii/oaiea eaaeiio /oaieth, ?iiaiai ciaeiiuo eeanneeia e
nia?aiaiiuo ienaoaeae. Eae ioiaoee iiyo e e?eoee A. Eaaiia, ienaoaeth
i?aaeaea anaai ioaeiu /eoaoaee, a iieiaeua aaoi?u iaoiaeyo eo n o?oaeii;
yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai nicaeaao aa?uea? ia iooe ?acaeoey oai?/aneie yia?aee
aeeueaeee eeoa?aoi?ia a ecaiaiee”. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiyou iiaee
iicaieeoue naaa iiaea?ienoneea iienee, iineieueeo “?aaiethoeey” yiioe
Na?aa?yiiai aaea noaea /anoueth eoeueoo?iiai aeinoiyiey yiea?aoeee, e,
e?iia oiai, ioaeaeueiua noeoe eaa/a auei iioaeeeiaaoue ia no?aieoeao
aacao e aeo?iaeia. Ecaeaiea noeoioai?iiai nai?ieea, iaeiaei, auei
i?aaieciaaoue neiaeiaa, aieueoay eo /anoue ecaeaaaeanue iaaieueoeie
oe?aaeaie ia n?aaenoaa aaoi?a, e eeoue naiua oaaeaaiua iocuau e?eoeee a
ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe i?eaeaeaee e iei aieiaiea iaaieueoiai /enea
iieoiaoaeae.

Aeey iaooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u neooaoeey auea aua aieaa neiaeiie.
Eieae ii ?aeeaee e oeeinioee, eae iu oaea oiiieiaee, auoiaeeee a
EIEA-I?ann, eioi?ay iiaea naaa iicaieeoue iiianoe iaeioi?ua oauoee.
Iaecaaaeiue eioa?an o /eoaoaeae ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey aucuaaee iaienaiiua
nia?aiaiieeaie aeia?aoee e iaioa?u, iineieueeo a ieo aiai?eeinue i
ciaeiiuo ethaeyo e ecaanoiuo niauoeyo. Iniaaiiui oniaoii iieueciaaeenue
iaioa?u i a?aaeaeaineie aieia, oioy e iie ia i?eiineee aaoi?ai aieueoeo
aeaiaa, anee oieueei eo ia ia?aaiaeeee ia eiino?aiiua ycuee, — ii yoi
auee eae i?aaeei, ainiiieiaiey iaeaieaa aeaeiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
i?eaeai?iuo e?oaia e ?oeiaiaeeoaeae Aaeie a?iee.

A ?onneii Ca?oaaaeuea auei iioaeeeiaaii eeoue ia?aie/aiiia /enei
ia?aaiaeiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. I?e/eia caeeth/aeanue, ai-ia?auo, a
ioiineoaeueii aunieie oeaia ca ia?aaea/o aaoi?neeo i?aa. Ai-aoi?uo,
aieueoeinoai yiea?aioia a oie iee eiie noaiaie iaeaaeaaaee ycueii
i?eiyaoae eo no?aiu, oioy e ia noieue ioioii, eae yoi eiiaaea
ecia?aaeatho. Iaeaieaa /anoi ia?aaiaeeee n aiaeeeneiai, iineieueeo ia
yoii ycuea auei iaienaii iiiai oi?ioeo i?iecaaaeaiee nia?aiaiiie
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u, iniaaiii aeaoaeoeaiuo e i?eeeth/ai/aneeo.

Eae oaea oeacuaaeinue, i?iecaaaeaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiie e iao/iie
eeoa?aoo?u /aua anaai ioaeeeiaaeenue ia no?aieoeao ia?eiaee/aneeo
ecaeaiee. Iineaaeiea yaeyeenue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey eoeueoo?iiai aaeeinoaa ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey: aeo?iaeu
auee aeaoaaea, eo eaa/a auei ecaeaaaoue, iie ia o?aaiaaee oaeeo
aeaiaaeiuo anneaiiaaiee, eaeea auee iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ioaeeeaoeee eiea.
Eo oaeaea eaa/a auei ?ani?ino?aiyoue ca i?aaeaeaie oiai ainoaea?noaa,
aaea iie ecaeaaaeenue. AEo?iaeu auee ?ann/eoaiu ia ii?aaeaeaiiue e?oa
/eoaoaeae e iiyoiio aa?aioe?iaaee naaa ionoue ia?aie/aiiue, ii oaa?aeue
ni?in. Oyaiou e neiaeiinoe aeecie a yiea?aoeee /anoi ia aeaaaee
aiciiaeiinoe i?aaenoaaeoaeyi eioaeeeaaioeee eee ienaoaeyi a?aoueny ca
auiieiaiea caiuneia, ?ann/eoaiiuo ia aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, iie ioaeaaaee
i?aaeii/oaiea e?aoein?i/iui, ?acoeueoaou eioi?uo — iao/iua noaouee eee
iiaaeeu ioaeeeiaaeenue a aeo?iaeao eee aacaoao.

Aeaeeia?aoey yiea?aioneie ia?eiaeeee, auiouaiiay ia?eaeneei Einoeoooii
neaayineeo enneaaeiaaiee, iieacuaaao, /oi aacaou e aeo?iaeu ?inee eae
a?eau iinea aeiaeaey a eaaeaeii oeaio?a ?onneie aeeanii?u, ii, eae oa
aea a?eau, eiaee iaaeieaee aae. N?aaee ieo auee ecaeaiey ia ana
eeoa?aoo?iua e ynoaoe/aneea aeonu, aeey anao iieeoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee,
i?ioanneiiaeueiuo eioa?ania, i?inoi eioi?iaoeeiiiua e ?acaeaeaoaeueiua.
I?aaenoaaeyaony iaaiciiaeiui ?anniio?aoue caeanue aanue niaeo? yoeo
ecaeaiee, a /anoiinoe, iioiio, /oi iu iaeaaeaai aeaeaei ia iieiie
eioi?iaoeeae. A?oeau aieueoeinoaa ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee auee oo?a/aiu,
oae /oi iu ia iiaeai iieo/eoue aeaaea oaeea yeaiaioa?iua naaaeaiey, eae
?acia? oe?aaea, eiee/anoai i?iaeaiiuo yecaiiey?ia eee oa?aeoa?
oeiaine?iaaiey. “Aioo?aiiyy enoi?ey” ?aaeaeoeeiiiie iieeoeee, i?e/eiu
i?eiyoey oao eee eiuo ?aoaiee oaeaea ca/anooth iaecaanoiu. Ana
iineaaeothuea iauea niia?aaeaiey iniiaaiu ii aieueoae /anoe ia iaioa?ao,
ioooaea aea ii/a?iioou e i?eia?u.

Ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey ?aniaaeaeenue ia neaaeothuea a?oiiu:
eioi?iaoeeiiiua (eae i?aaeei, aacaou, ianoiua eee eiaaoea oiaeaeaiea ii
anae aeeanii?a), iieeoe/aneea (i?aaiu iieeoe/aneeo a?oii ?acee/iie
i?eaioaoeee io eaaaeia-aia?oenoia e nioeeaeenoia aei iao?iauo
?aaeoeeiia?ia-iiia?oenoia), ecaeaiey ?acee/iuo annioeeaoeee
(i?ioanneiiaeueiuo, iauanoaaiiuo, aaoa?aineeo, aeaaioai?eoaeueiuo e
o.ae.), iao/iua (oeiaine?iaaaoeany iao/iuie o/?aaeaeaieyie),
eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiua (i?aaenoaaeythuea ?acee/iua noeee e
oa/aiey), iiioey?iua e ?acaeaeaoaeueiua, “na?ueaciua”, oae iacuaaaiua
“oienoua”, aeo?iaeu (iiae?iaiaa i eioi?uo iu ?anneaaeai ieaea) e
?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneea, aieaa iieii iienaiiua a oanoie aeaaa. E?iia
oiai, auoiaeeee ?aaoey?iua eioi?iaoeeiiiua eenoee, /aua anaai eiaaoea
oiaeaeaiea oieueei a eaeie-eeai ioaeaeueiie ianoiinoe.

Ca eneeth/aieai /enoi oaoie/aneeo e niaoeeaeueiuo, a oaeaea eiaaoeo
eneeth/eoaeueii iieeoe/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue ecaeaiee naiuie
aeieaiaa/iuie e aaoi?eoaoiuie auee aeo?iaeu, ecaeaaaaoeany eeaa?aeaie
eee oia?aiiuie nioeeaeenoaie. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi i?aiaeaaeathuaa
aieueoeinoai “n?aaeieo” ?onneeo yiea?aioia auee eiina?aaoeaiu e
i?eaea?aeeaaeenue iiia?oe/aneeo oaaaeaeaiee, ie iaeia aacaoa eee aeo?iae
i?aaiai oieea ia iieueciaaeenue oaeei oniaoii, eae eeaa?aeueiua
ecaeaiey. Iauyniaiea e?iaony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a oii, /oi o eeaa?aeia
e i?ia?anneaiie eioaeeeaaioeee aue iaoe?iue iiuo ecaeaiey ia?eiaeeee,
iaeiieaiiue a aei?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?eiae. Yoio iiuo nineoaeee ei
oi?iooth neoaeao e i?e iaeaaeeaaiee ecaeaoaeueneiai aeaea a yiea?aoeee.
Ai-aoi?uo, i?aaenoaaeoaee eeaa?aeueiie eioaeeeaaioeee caieiaee aieaa
acaaoaiioth iiceoeeth e auee aieaa oa?ieiu a naieo noaeaeaieyo, aieaa
e?eoe/ii iiaeoiaeeee e eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth iie iieo/aee e niiauaee,
iaaeaee eo eiina?aaoeaii iano?iaiiua eiieo?aiou. Oaeei ia?acii, iie
iiaee ia?auaoueny e aieaa oe?ieie aoaeeoi?ee /eoaoaeae, aaaeue aeaaea
n?aaee iiia?oenoia auee aeoaiei oei?aieaoeany e yiioeeiiaeueii
ie?aoaiiua i?ioeai?a/ey, eioi?ua ii?iaeaeaee iaoa?ieiinoue e
i?aae?annoaeee.

Iniiaiuie aaeaaeiaaiuie aacaoaie yiea?aioia, auoiaeeaoeie a oa/aiea
aieaa /ai aeanyoe eao, auee “Iineaaeiea iiainoe” e “Aic?iaeaeaiea” a
Ia?eaea, “?oeue” a Aa?eeia, “Naaiaeiy” a ?eaa e “Iiaia a?aiy” a
Aaea?aaea. Yoe aacaou eiaee /eoaoaeae ai anae ?onneie aeeanii?a. A
ae?oaeo e?oiiuo oeaio?ao ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey — I?aaa, Oa?aeia, Aa?oaaa
— oaeaea auoiaeeee aaeaaeiaaiua aacaou, ii iie nouanoaiaaee
ioiineoaeueii iaaeieai e, ii-aeaeeiiio, ia eiaee /eoaoaeae a ae?oaeo
ianoao. “?oeue” e “Naaiaeiy”, i?aainoiaeiua ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo aacaou,
ni a?aiaiai i?eia?aee iaeao i?iaeioeeaeueiinoe, nin?aaeioa/eaay naia
aieiaiea ia niauoeyo ianoiiai cia/aiey, ia?aia/aouaay noaouee e ?anneacu
ec ae?oaeo ecaeaiee e eniieuecoy eioi?iaoeeth ianoiuo e eiino?aiiuo
aacao aeey niiauaiee i oaeoueo niauoeyo. “?oeue” cae?ueny a ia/aea 30-o
aa., aeaaiui ia?acii a ?acoeueoaoa nie?auaiey /eneaiiinoe ?onneie
eieiiee a iineaaeiea aiaeu nouanoaiaaiey Aaeia?neie ?anioaeeee.
“Naaiaeiy”, eniuouaay aeaaeaiea ni noi?iiu aaoi?eoa?iiai ?aaeeia E.
Oeueiaiena, ana aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeyei ianoiui, eaoaeeneei aeaeai e
oo?aoeei, oaeei ia?acii, naie aeinoieinoaa, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
a?aiaiaie ia?aia/aouaaei noaouee e ei??aniiiaeaioeee ec ia?eaeneeo
“Iineaaeieo iiainoae” e i?iecaaaeaiey ecaanoiuo yiea?aioneeo aaoi?ia.

Ii iauaio iiaieth, ia?eaeneea “Iineaaeiea iiainoe” auee iaeaieaa
ecaanoiie, oaaaeaaiie e oe?iei /eoaaiie aacaoie ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey.
Iie auoiaeeee iiae ?aaeaeoeeae I. Ieetheiaa aac ia?a?uaia n 27 ai?aey
1920 a. aei II ethiy 1940 a., o.a. auoee a iineaaeiee ?ac iaeaioia oiai
aeiy, eiaaea iaioeu aioee a Ia?eae. Aacaoa /anoii e iauaeoeaii io?aaeaea
niauoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aeecie; aioo?aiiea, o?aioeocneea, i?iaeaiu
ioithaeue ia caieiaee iniiaiiai ianoa ia aa no?aieoeao, oioy iinoiyiii
ianoaeaeaeenue a ia?eiae e?ecenia. Aacaoa iiaea ai?aeeoueny oai, /oi iia
neaaeeea e iieii inaauaea niauoey e iieiaeaiea a Niaaoneii Nithca. Yoa
eioi?iaoeey iineea a iniiaiii ?acei e?eoe/aneee e iaaaoeaiue oa?aeoa?,
oioy aacaoa aeieaeiui ia?acii caia/aea e iiae/a?eeaaea ana iiceoeaiua
iiiaiou, eiaaoea ianoi ia niaaoneie ?iaeeia: iai?eia?, iaaeaeoia?iaeioth
iiceoeeth e ioiioaiea e aieia, ?aoi?iu a nenoaia ia?aciaaiey, ?acee/iua
ia?ii?eyoey nioeeaeueiiai ieaia e o.ae. Aacaoa oe?iei inaauaea niauoey
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie, iocueaeueiie e eeoa?aoo?iie aeecie a ?onneii
Ca?oaaaeuea e a ie?a, /oi i?eaeaeaei e iae aunieiia?aciaaiiiai /eoaoaey.
Eaaeaeoth iaaeaeth “Iineaaeiea iiainoe” ioaeaaaee ianeieueei no?aieoe
eneeth/eoaeueii iiycee, ooaeiaeanoaaiiie i?ica, eeoa?aoo?iie e?eoeea e
enoi?ee eeoa?aoo?u. Aaeaaeiaaii a aa iiaeaaea iiiauaeenue
ioaeeoeenoe/aneea iaoa?eaeu, e?eoe/aneea ynna eee ooaeiaeanoaaiiay
i?ica, i?e/ai aacaoa aeaaaea aiciiaeiinoue auneacaoueny yiea?aioneei
aaoi?ai, i?eaea?aeeaaaoeiny ?acee/iuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo e iieeoe/aneeo
acaeyaeia. Aacaoo oi?aeaee a /a?an/o? eiina?aaoeaiie iiceoeee a aii?inao
eneonnoaa e eeoa?aoo?u, iaaeiyy aeaaiiai ?aaeaeoi?a I. Ieetheiaa a
ionoonoaee aiia?aaeaiey e niaeinoe a ynoaoe/aneeo noaeaeaieyo. Yoi auei
aanueia i?enei?aii, iineieueeo aacaoa, i?aeoe/anee aaeeinoaaiiay ec anao
yiea?aioneeo ecaeaiee, auiea/eaaea nieeaeiua, ii yiea?aioneei ia?eai,
aiii?a?u; ioaeeeaoeey ia no?aieoeao “Iineaaeieo iiainoae” auea aaaeia ia
oieueei aeey aaoi?neiai ego, ii e aeey aai eioaeueea. Ieetheia ia/aoae
oaeaea aeaoaeoeau, eae i?aaeei, a ia?aaiaeao n aiaeeeneiai.

A ia/aea naiaai nouanoaiaaiey “Iineaaeiea iiainoe”, i/aaeaeii, iieo/aee
noaneaeee ec ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia, a oii /enea, aiciiaeii, io iaeioi?uo
i?aaeoaeuenoa, ii anei?a, aeaaiaea?y naiae oe?ieie iiioey?iinoe, noaee a
oeiainiaii ioiioaiee iacaaeneiuie. ?aeeaia, aeaaiui ia?acii ianoiay, ia
ieacuaaea aieueoiai aeeyiey ia oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea aacaou e ia
caieiaea aieueoiai iauaia ia no?aieoeao ecaeaiey. “Iineaaeiea iiainoe”
iineaaeiaaoaeueii caieiaee eeaa?aeueioth iiceoeeth, auee aeaiie?aoe/iu a
naiae iieeoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe. O aacaou ia auei nianoaaiiie
iieeoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu, anee ia n/eoaoue aaneiii?iienniiai iai?eyoey
anao oi?i aeeeoaoo?u. ?aaeaeoi? i/aiue e?eoe/anee ioiineeny e eaeaa
?anoaa?aoeee iiia?oee a ?innee, oioy a ia?oa 1917 a. Ieetheia e aunooiae
ca nio?aiaiea iiia?oe/aneie oi?iu i?aaeaiey. Aacaoa iinoiyiii a naiuo
no?iauo au?aaeaieyo iaee/aea aeanoieee oa??i? e aacaeaeinoioth
aeeeoaoo?o aieueoaaeeia, ii noieue aea iai?eie?eii n naiiai ia/aea
aunooiaea i?ioea Ionnieeie, Aeoea?a e O?aiea; a 1938-1939 aa.
iaeiicia/ii ioaa?aaea eeieth ia oie?ioai?aiea aa?anni?a. “Iineaaeiea
iiainoe” n iaeia?aieai iocuaaeenue i eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneeo
i?ia?aiiao i?aiaeieaiey Aeai?annee, a /anoiinoe i iieeoeea Iiaiai eo?na
a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao, ieaia i?aiuea?-ieieno?a Aaeueaee Aai Caaeaiaea e
iniaaiii i aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoaa Eaiia Aethia, noi?ie?iaaiiiai
Ia?iaeiui o?iioii ai O?aioeee. Ianiio?y ia iiaeiaiua iieeoe/aneea
i?eno?anoey, aacaoo ?aaoey?ii /eoaee aeaaea iiia?oenou; naiiai aunieiai
oe?aaea — aieaa 23 000 yecaiiey?ia — iia aeinoeaea a ia/aea 30-o aa. e
iiaeaea?aeeaaea aai ia yoii o?iaia aieioue aei naiaai cae?uoey iinea
ieeoiaoeee O?aioeee a 1940 a. Naieie eiieo?aioaie, ecaeaieyie
iiia?oe/aneiai oieea, iai?eia? ia?eaeneei “Aic?iaeaeaieai”, aacaoa
iacuaaeanue aeeai-ianiineie e i?iniaaoneie.

?aciiia?acea aeo?iaeia, atheeaoaiae e i?i/ae ia?eiaeeee ianoieueei
aaeeei, /oi eeanneoeoee?iaaoue eo aeiaieueii neiaeii. Aeaeeia?aoe/aneee
oeacaoaeue, ninoaaeaiiue Einoeoooii neaayineeo enneaaeiaaiee, ianiio?y
ia naith iaiieiioo, niaea?aeeo aia/aoeythuee nienie ecaeaiee. Iiiaea
ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey caieiaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii eioi?ie?iaaieai
/eoaoaeae i aeayoaeueiinoe ?acee/iuo a?oii e iauaaeeiaiee e eiaee
oiaeaeaiea n?aaee aeinoaoi/ii oceiai e?oaa /eaiia yoeo i?aaiecaoeee.
*enoi eeoa?aoo?iua e ooaeiaeanoaaiiua aeo?iaeu, oaeea eae “Aa?nou”,
“Ano?a/e”, “Aa?aoaii”, “Caaii”, aunooiaee eae au?aceoaee no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ynoaoe/aneeo e oeeinioneeo acaeyaeia.

Ecaeaiey iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee, i?aaiecaoeee e eaeaeiuo oa/aiee iineee
noaoai aioo?aiiee oa?aeoa?, iineieueeo nin?aaeioi/eaaee naia aieiaiea
eneeth/eoaeueii ia nianoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e eaeaeiuo nii?ao e auee
aae?aniaaiu oai, eoi ?acaeaeye eo acaeyaeu. Iiiaea ec ieo
i?inouanoaiaaee iaaeieai, iineieueeo anyeia iieeoe/aneia eee
eaeaieiae/aneia aeaeaeaiea a yiea?aoeee ii i?e?iaea naiae
i?aae?aniieiaeaii e ae?iaeaieth, iinoiyiii ?aniaaeaaony ia o?aeoeee e
iiaua i?aaiecaoeee. Yoo noaeueao ?acaeaeeei, a /anoiinoe, aeaeaeaiea
aa?aceeoeaa — aaeeinoaaiiay, auoue iiaeao, iiaay eaeaieiaey a iaeanoe
enoi?einioee e iieeoeee, aicieeoay a ?onneii Ca?oaaaeuea. A ia/aea 30-o
aa. aeaeaeaiea ?aneieieinue ia “eiina?aaoeaioth” o?aeoeeth, eioi?ay
i?iaeieaeaea ianoaeaeaoue eaeaieiae/aneea e enoi?e/aneea i?iaeaiu,
aicaea?aeeaaynue io aeeneonnee i oaeoueo niauoeyo a Niaaoneii Nithca, e
“eaaia” e?uei, eioi?ia a iieeoe/aneii ioiioaiee naeeaeaeinue n iiceoeeae
“niaiiaaoiaoeaa”. “Eaaay” o?aeoeey n/eoaea, /oi ana i?ieoiaeyuaa a
Niaaoneie ?innee yaeyaony caeiiiia?iui ?acoeueoaoii aeaenoaey iniiaiuo
caeiiia ?acaeoey aa?aceeneie oeeaeeecaoeee. Aa aaoi?eoaoo aue iaianai
neeueiue oaea?, eiaaea noaei ecaanoii ia o/anoee iaeiiai ec aa /eaiia N.
Yo?iia (ioaea Ia?eiu Oeaaoaaaie) a einie?e?iaaiiii Niaaoaie oaeenoaa
Eaiaoey ?aenna a Oaaeoea?ee. Iiaeiaiui ia?acii e iieiaeaaeiua
iieeoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey — ieaaei?innu e Ia?iaeii-o?oaeiaie nithc (IOI, —
no?ieaoeany ia ei?ii?aoeaiii i?eioeeia e i?eaea?aeeaaaoeany
i?ioaoenoneeo aicc?aiee, ?aneieieenue ii aii?ino i oii, eaeoth iiceoeeth
— iai?iieoaeueioth eee ii?aaeai/aneoth — neaaeoao caiyoue a eiioeeeoa
iaaeaeo noaeeineie ?inneae e iaoeenoneie Aa?iaieae.

N?aaee aeo?iaeia iieeoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe iniaia ianoi i?eiaaeeaaeaei
“Nioeeaeenoe/aneiio aanoieeo”. Yoi aue i?aai “caa?aie/iie aeaeaaaoeee
ia?oee iaiueoaaeeia. Aieioue aei ia/aea 30-o aa. aeiieie?othuoth
iiceoeeth a aeo?iaea caieiaee i?aaenoaaeoaee eaaiai e?uea ia?oee,
iineaaeiaaoaee TH. Ia?oiaa, eioi?ua iaaeiyee niaaoneee ?aaeei a
ia?ooaiee iieeoe/aneeo naiaiae e naiaiaeu ee/iinoe, ii i?eieiaee
?aaiethoeeth, a oii /enea e aieueoaaenoneee ia?aai?io, iineieueeo iie
auaaee ?inneth ia aa?iue iooue nioeeaeenoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee
yeiiiie/aneeo e iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee. Iie iaeia?yee
eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth e iniiaiua i?eioeeiu eieeaeoeaecaoeee, oioy e
ioaa?aaee aeanoeea iaoiaeu eo i?iaaaeaiey a aeeciue. O?aeoeey i?aauo, e
eioi?ie a na?aaeeia 30-o aa. ai iiiaii iiae aeeyieai niauoee, naycaiiuo
n onoaiiaeaieai aeanoieie noaeeineie aeeeoaoo?u, ia?aoei ?oeiaiaenoai
aeo?iaeii, eeaeieea niaaoneoth nenoaio eae eca?auaiea nioeeaeecia. Iie
ia?auie ioa?aeoa?eciaaee aa eae oioaeeoa?iue nioeeaeeci.

“Nioeeaeenoe/aneee aanoiee” eioa?anai aeey eco/aiey enoi?ee ?onneiai
Ca?oaaaeuey oai, /oi ii ieacaeny naiui aeieaiaa/iui ec anao aeo?iaeia,
ecaeaaaaoeony yiea?aoeeae. Ii aue iniiaai a Aa?eeia 1 oaa?aey 1921 a., a
iinea caoaaoa aeanoe Aeoea?ii noae auoiaeeoue a Ia?eaea. Caoai
?aaeaeoeey aeo?iaea ia?aaoaea a Iueth-Ei?e, aaea ecaeaiea i?ae?aoeeinue
a 1963 a., ni nia?oueth naieo iniiaiuo aaoi?ia. Iniiaiay aai oeaiiinoue
caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi aeaaea a 30-a aa. ii nio?aiye nayce n Niaaoneei
Nithcii. Yoi iicaieyei “Aanoieeo” iieo/aoue aaaeioth e, /oi aeieacaii,
iaaeaaeioth eioi?iaoeeth i iieiaeaiee a no?aia e i aeaenoaeyo
i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Ii ia?a oaeanoi/aiey noaeeineiai ?aaeeia aeo?iae noae
iinoaiaiii eeoaoueny aioo?aiieo enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee, oioy iaoe?iua
iiciaiey aai aaoi?ia e aeoaieia iiieiaiea eie i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo
a ?innee, iicaieeee nio?aieoue i?enouea “Aanoieeo” aeinoieinoaa. Iiiaea
noaouee, iioaeeeiaaiiua ia aai no?aieoeao, iiaoo i?aaenoaaeyoue eioa?an
e naaiaeiy.

Eae oieueei yiea?aiou inaee ia iiaii ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa, iie ia/aee
aic?iaeaeaoue ainoiaeyuoth e XIX a. o?aaeeoeeth ecaeaiey “oienouo”
aeo?iaeia. Aeaa yiea?aioneeo aeo?iaea iiaoo i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia oeooe
caeiiiuo ianeaaeieeia e aeinoieiuo i?iaeieaeaoaeae yoie o?aaeeoeee.
Ecaeaaaaoayny a I?aaa “Aiey ?innee” i?inouanoaiaaea ieiei aeanyoe eao, a
Ia?eaea auoiaeeee aieaa aeieaiaa/iua e aeeyoaeueiua “Nia?aiaiiua
caienee”. “Aiey ?innee” aicieeea eae i?eeiaeaiea e iaeiieiaiiie
aaeaaeiaaiie aacaoa. Eo ecaeaaaea a?oiia yna?ia, iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiie
oeao?ie eioi?ie aue eeoa?aoo?iue e?eoee Ia?e Neiiei. Aeaaiui
aeinoeaeaieai aeo?iaea a iaeanoe eeoa?aoo?u auei oi, /oi ii i?aaeinoaaee
naie no?aieoeu ienaoaeyi iiaea?ienoai e aaaiaa?aeenoai aieaa iieiaeiai
iieieaiey, oaeei, eae Ia?eia Oeaaoaaaa, Ne?ei (Iaaieia) e ae?. AEo?iae
i?eciaaae nouanoaiaaiea “aaeeiie ?onneie eeoa?aoo?u” aia caaeneiinoe io
oiai, aaea iia nicaeaaaeanue — a Niaaoneii Nithca eee ca aai i?aaeaeaie.
Ii ?aaoey?ii ciaeiiee yiea?aoeeth n eeoa?aoo?ie niaaoneie ?iaeeiu,
iaaeaynue e ai?aaeue iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oaniua eiioaeou iaaeaeo aeaoiy
?inneyie. Yoe nayce ineaaee iinea oiai, eae nioeeaeenoe/aneee ?aaeeci
aue ioeoeeaeueii i?iaicaeaoai aaeeinoaaiii aeiionoeiie a Niaaoneii
Nithca ynoaoe/aneie aeieo?eiie e eeoa?aoo?iui oa/aieai. AEo?iae aue
aae?aniaai a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iieiaeaaee, a oaeaea oai, eoi ii iaiueoae
ia?a aeiioneae iuneue, /oi niaaoneay nenoaia yaeyaony anoanoaaiiui
i?iaeoeoii enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey e aiieiuaieai, ionoue a aeanoiei
eneaaeaiiii aeaea, ianouiie iio?aaiinoe ?innee a iiaea?iecaoeee e
aeinoeaeaiee nioeeaeueiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe. I?iecioaaeoee ca a?aieoeae
?aneie ia?oee yna?ia, iieeoe/aneea ?aciiaeaney e ?aciiai ?iaea niauoey,
?aaii eae e ?aceia nie?auaiea oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee ni noi?iiu
/aoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a 1932 a., iieiaeeee eiiaoe nouanoaiaaieth
aeo?iaea.

Iiiaei yiea?aioneei aaoi?ai, io?acaiiui io ?iaeeiu, auee naienoaaiiu
io/eoaeueiua ?aciuoeaiey e aioo?aiiea niiiaiey. Eiioeeeou iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie yiea?aioaie ca/anooth i?eaiaeeee e aieueoei neiaeiinoyi.
I?ioeai?a/ey aicieeaee ec-ca iiaiee, /oi iiaeoiae e ioai?o eeoa?aoo?u a
aeo?iaea aue neeoeii o?aaiaaoaeai e noa?iiiaeai. Iieiaeua aaoi?u auee
oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi eo ia/aoatho neeoeii ?aaeei. ?aaeaeoi?u iieaaaee,
/oi ioaeeeiaaoue i?iecaaaeaiey ieeiio ia ecaanoiuo ienaoaeae, /ae noeeue
eee oaiaoeea iiaoo oiee?iaaoue /eoaoaeae noa?oaai iieieaiey, neeoeii
?eneiaaiii. Yoi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioiineeinue e i?ica. Iiyoe/aneee
?acaeae aue aio/eiie iiyoa I.I. Oeaeoeeia e O. Noaioia, eioi?ua aieaa
aieiaoaeueii ioiineeenue e iieiaeui aea?iaaieyi, a iniaaiiinoe e
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi iiaea?ienoneie e oae iacuaaaiie ia?eaeneie oeieu
yiea?aioneie iiycee. Iiiu?yaiua aaoi?eoaoiuie e?eoe/aneeie ynna A.
Aaeaiiae/a, “Nia?aiaiiua caienee” anaaaea i?aaeinoaaeyee naie no?aieoeu
noeoai Ia?eiu Oeaaoaaaie, A. Iiieaanei-ai, A. Eaaiiaa, A. Oiaeanaae/a e
iiiaeo aieaa iieiaeuo iiyoia. ?acaeae i?icu aue i?aeoe/anee
iiiiiieece?iaai oaeeie ianoeouie ienaoaeyie, eae Aoiei, Caeoeaa,
Aeaeaiia, A. ?aiecia, E. Oiaeaa, I. Ini?aei e aieaa iieiaeie Ne?ei (A.
Iaaieia). I?aaaea, a 30-a aa. aeo?iae iiiauae i?ico iieiaeuo, oaeeo, eae
A. ssiianeee e A. Aacaeaiia, iaeiaei iiiaea aaoi?u iieaaaee, /oi
yenia?eiaioaeueiua iai?aaeaiey a eeoa?aoo?a ia iieo/atho aeinoaoi/iiai
inaauaiey ia no?aieoeao aeo?iaea.

Aoi?ia, aieaa aaaeiia i?ioeai?a/ea auei ii?iaeaeaii yaiethoeeae
oeeinioneeo e ?aeeaeiciuo acaeyaeia Oiiaeaieineiai, eioi?ue aue iaeaieaa
aeoeaiui /eaiii ?aaeaeoeeiiiie eieeaaee e iieueciaaeny iiaeaea?aeeie A.
?oaeiaaa. Ii yaiethoeeiie?iaae a noi?iio eaeaaeecia e aeooiaiinoe, /oi
noaiiaeeinue ana aieaa /anoui yaeaieai n?aaee yiea?aioia. Noaouee oaeeo
?aeeaeiciuo iuneeoaeae, eae E. Oanoia, N. O?aie, A. Oei?ianeee e ae?.,
aucuaaee iaaeiaieuenoai ae?oaeo /eaiia ?aaeaeoeee, i?aaeaea anaai I.
Aeoiyea. Iie iieaaaee, /oi aeo?iae ?aniaoioe aeaa?e ia?aae i?aeiaaneai,
?aaeoeeiiiuie oa/aieyie aei?aaiethoeeiiiie iauanoaaiiie iunee a oua?a
eeaa?aeueiui, aoiaienoe/aneei e naaoneei oeaiiinoyi, i?iaicaeaoaiiui a
ia?aiia/aeueiii ?aaeaeoeeiiiii cayaeaiee aeo?iaea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, y
oaaaeaeai, /oi yoi iiaia iai?aaeaiea i?eaaonoaiaaeinue aanueia iiiaeie,
iineieueeo, eae iu oaeaeei a oanoie aeaaa, ia/aaoeeny a yiioo
Na?aa?yiiai aaea ?aiannain ?aeeaee e eaeaaeecia i?iaeieaeeeny ca
?oaaaeii, oaeaeay ana aieueooth /anoue yiea?aioneie eioaeeeaaioeee. A
iauai, eiioeeeo aie?oa ioaeeeaoeee yoeo aaoi?ia i?eaae e ooiaeo Aeoiyea.
Ii noae ioaaonoaaiiui nae?aoa?ai iiaiai “oienoiai” aeo?iaea “?onneea
caienee”, eioi?ue aue iniiaai a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae /anoe aeeanii?u, nin?aaeioi/aiiie ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea,
iauaaeeiea iaeaieaa noieeeo ?aaeeeaeia-iiceoeaenoia e aioeeea?eeaeia ec
“Nia?aiaiiuo caienie”. “?onneea caienee” i?iaeieaeaee auoiaeeoue aieioue
aei ia/aea aieiu, a ieo auee i?aaenoaaeaiu iiiaea aaoi?u,
nio?oaeie/aaoea a “Nia?aiaiiuo caieneao”, naiaai ?iaea iiiiiaioii
eioi?uo noae iiaue aeo?iae. Iaeiaei ioaeeeaoeee auee iaei eioa?aniu, e
aeo?iae ieeiaaea ia iieueciaaeny aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth.

Aua iaeei aeae ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee aue ?ann/eoai ia naioth oe?ieoth
aoaeeoi?eth /eoaoaeae-yiea?aioia. Ii i?aaeeaaae ?acaeaeaoaeueiua
iaoa?eaeu aeey iaiaa eioaeeaeooaeueiie e ia?aciaaiiie /anoe /eoaoaeae.
?a/ue eaeao i aaeaiaaeaeueiii eeethno?e?iaaiiii aeo?iaea, ia?acoeii aeey
eioi?iai iineoaeeea aei?aaiethoeeiiiay “Ieaa”, — “Eeethno?e?iaaiiay
?inney”. Yoio aeo?iae ii i?aeiouanoao ninoiye ec eeethno?aoeee, ii
ia?yaeo n yoei ia/aoae ?iiaiu e aeaoaeoeau, niaoeeaeueiua iaoa?eaeu aeey
aeaiuei e aeaoae. Ii iieueciaaeny aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth e, aoaeo/e
ioe?iaaiii aiieeoe/iui, oai ia iaiaa aeaiiino?e?iaae a oaiaeo
aieueoeinoao /eoaoaeae iinoaeueaeth ii iiia?oe/aneiio i?ioeiio ?innee,
?anneacuaay i aeecie i?aaenoaaeoaeae oea?neie oaieeee a yiea?aoeee e i
ae?oaeo oea?noaothueo aeai?ao. Eae e aai i?aaeoanoaaiieoea “Ieaa”,
aeo?iae i?aaeeaaae ii ieceei oeaiai iiaeienee ia nia?aiey ?onneeo
eeanneeia, ni?aai/ieee e o.ae. Aieaa eioaeeaeooaeueiui /oaieai n?aaee
ia?eiaeeee iiaeiaiiai ?iaea aue eeethno?e?iaaiiue aeo?iae “Aeey Aan”,
auoiaeeaoee a ?eaa e eiaaoee oaeie aea oi?iao. Aaeaeo aeecinoe Aa?iaiee,
“Aeey Aan” i?iyaeye ana aieueoee eioa?an e niauoeyi a yoie no?aia a
ia/aea 30-o aa., iniaaiii iinea caoaaoa aeanoe Aeoea?ii.

Iiaeii niaei caeeth/eoue, /oi ?onneia Ca?oaaaeuea nio?aieei iniiaiua
/a?ou, oa?aeoa?iua aeey eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeecie aei?aaiethoeeiiiie
?innee. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oaeaea, /oi ie iaeii ec iiioey?iuo
yiea?aioneeo ecaeaiee ia i?iyaeyei aieueoiai eioa?ana e
eioaeeaeooaeueiie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie oie no?aiu, aaea iii
ecaeaaaeinue, e a naith i/a?aaeue ia eniuouaaei n aai noi?iiu caiaoiiai
aeeyiey.

Ia?eiaee/aneay ia/aoue auea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui, ii ia aaeeinoaaiiui
n?aaenoaii iiaeaea?aeaiey aaeeinoaa ?aca?inaiiuo ii naaoo ?onneeo,
iaiaia eaeayie, i?iaeieaeaiey oai?/aneie aeecie. Iniciaaay naay
iauanoaii a ecaiaiee, ?onneea yiea?aiou no?aieeenue ainnicaeaoue oa
einoeooou eoeueoo?u, eioi?ua nouanoaiaaee ia ?iaeeia. Iineieueeo
i?iieeiooue a neiaeeaoothny iauanoaaiioth no?oeoo?o no?ai ?annaeaiey
auei i/aiue neiaeii, einoeooou, noi?ie?iaaiiua yiea?aioaie, aeeee naiae
nianoaaiiie aeeciueth. Aieueoay /anoue yoeo yiea?aioneeo i?aaiecaoeee,
eae e a ?innee aei 1917 a., iineea a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a /anoiue
oa?aeoa?, e iiyoiio neiaeii ninoaaeoue iieiua eaoaeiae eo ecaeaiee,
i?ineaaeeoue eo aioo?aiithth enoi?eth e aaeaaeiaaioth aeeciue. Iiiaea
i?aaiecaoeee ia o?aieee naie iaoa?eaeu, a ee/iua a?oeau aieueoeinoaa eo
o/anoieeia iaia?oaeeoue ia oaeaaony. I?eaaaeaiiua ieaea naaaeaiey aeatho
iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i oa?aeoa?a yoeo i?aaiecaoeee e oeacuaatho ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aieaa aeoaieiai eo eco/aiey.

Oaeei ia?acii ecaeaoaeueneia aeaei yaeyaony /anoueth eoeueoo?u e
eoeueoo?a ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey nae/an i?eiaaeeaaeeo enoi?ee, iineieueeo
?innee ca ?oaaaeii aieueoa ia nouanoaoao. Noaiao ee yoa eoeueoo?a
ninoaaiie /anoueth eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeanna, i?ienoiaeyuaai ia ?iaeeia?
Oi/aony aa?eoue a yoi. I?eciaee, iaiaoeaoeany a iineaaeiea aiaeu,
iicaieytho iaaeayoueny ia iieiaeeoaeueiue ioaao. Iiaeiaiue iiuo O?aioeee
e Iieueoe oaeaea anaeyao iioeieci a yoii ioiioaiee. Eoeueoo?iay aeeciue
O?aioeee iinea ?aaiethoeeiiiuo iio?ynaiee, i?e Iaiieaiia e a yiioo
?anoaa?aoeee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ii?aaeaeyeanue aeeaaeii oaeeo
yiea?aioia, eae Oaoia?eai, iaaeai aea Noaeue, A.Eiinoai, AE. aea Iano?.
Eiaiii yiea?aiou niinianoaiaaee aicieeiiaaieth ?iiaioecia, oaeoaeaieth
eeoa?aoo?iaaae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, ?acaeoeth iauanoaaiiie iunee,
ciaeiinoao n eoeueoo?ie Aiaeee, Aa?iaiee e Eoaeee. Aaeeeay iieueneay
yiea?aoeey, aaconeiaii, auea aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie ?acaeoey iieueneie
eeoa?aoo?u e iiaeaea?aeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaeeinoaa o?ao /anoae
?acaeaeaiiie no?aiu.

Ecaiaiieee, nicaeaaoea ?inneth ca ?oaaaeii, noiaee auiieieoue aeaieioth
caaea/o — nio?aieoue e ?acaeoue aeaeueoa ianeaaeea iaoeeiiaeueiie
eoeueoo?u. A yoii niunea enoi?ey Ca?oaaaeiie ?innee e aa eoeueoo?iie
aeecie auea e anaaaea aoaeao iaiouaieaiie /anoueth enoi?ee anae ?innee.

– Nienie eeoa?aoo?u –

1. N. Iooea?aa “?onneea a yiea?aoeee”

“Iiaue aeo?iae” 1928

2. ?iiai Aoeue “ss oian ?inneth”

“Iiaue aeo?iae” 1983 a.

3. I. A. Aeoiye “Nia?aiaiiua caienee.

Ainiiieiaiey ?aaeaeoi?a. 1957 a.

4. ?aaa Ia?e “Enoi?ey eoeueoo?u ?onneie

yiea?aoeee” I.,I?ia?ann-Aeaaeaiey,1994

PAGE 19

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