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Государственная политика в рыночной экономике

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AINOAeA?NOAAIIAss IIEEOEEA A ?UII*IIE YEIIIIEEA

IEAI:

Aaaaeaiea

1. Enoi?ey yaiethoeee i?aaenoaaeaiee i ?iee ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea

Ia?eaioaeenou

Eeanne/aneay oai?ey

Eaeineaineay oai?ey

Iaieeanne/aneay oai?ey

2. Ooieoeee ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea

aioeo?anoianeia ?aaoee?iaaiea

3. Iaoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia ?uiie

ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu

iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea

ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea

ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai

4. I?iaeaiu e ia?aie/aiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa

aea?aaoee?iaaiea e i?eaaoecaoeey

ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea a naeueneii oicyenoaa

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaaaeaiea.

I?iaeaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa a yeiiiieeo yaeyaony, ii iiaio
iiaieth, yaeyaony iniiaiie aeey ethaiai ainoaea?noaa, iacaaeneii io
oiai, ?uii/iay ee yoi yeiiiieea eee aea ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiay. A
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie yeiiiieea ana i?iua: ainoaea?noai aa?ao ia naay ana
i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe ii i?iecaiaenoao e ?ani?aaeaeaieth oiaa?ia e oneoa.
Oi anoue i ?aaoee?iaaiee aiai?eoue ia i?eoiaeeony: ainoaea?noao i?inoi
iaeiai ?aaoee?iaaoue. A oaeii neo/aa ?a/ue eaeao i caiauaieai anaai
iiiaiia?acey oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e niiniaia ioaaoa ia aii?in “*oi, eae e
aeey eiai i?iecaiaeeoue? ” iaeiie aaeeinoaaiiie oi?iie nianoaaiiinoe

– ainoaea?noaaiiie, a ioaao ia iniiaiie yeiiiie/aneee aii?in – no?iaie
oeaio?aeecaoeeae e ?ani?aaeaeaieai. Iaeiaei oaeay nenoaia ia aeaea
iieacaea naith iayooaeoeaiinoue. Inoaaony ?uii/iue iooue ?acaeoey. Ii a
?uii/iii oicyenoaa ainoaea?noao i?eoiaeeony iinoiyiii ei??aeoe?iaaoue
aeoaeio aeeyiey. Ia?aae ainoaea?noaii ia noiyo oaeea caaea/e, eae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia, oiaa?ia e
oneoa. Ii iii ia eiaao e i?aaa naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaoueny ?ano?naie,
eaieoaeii e i?iecaaaeaiiuie oiaa?aie, eae yoi aeaeaaony a
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiie yeiiiieea. Ii iiaio iiaieth, ainoaea?noai aeieaeii
iinoiyiii aaeaine?iaaoue, oi oaaee/eaay, oi oiaiueoay noaiaiue
aiaoaoaeuenoaa. ?uii/iay nenoaia – yoi i?aaeaea anaai aeaeinoue e
aeeiaieci a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee eae ni noi?iiu eae iio?aaeoaeae, oae e ni
noi?iiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea i?inoi ia eiaao i?aaa
ionoaaaoue io eciaiaiee a ?uii/iie nenoaia, eia/a iii i?aa?aoeony ec
yooaeoeaiiai noaaeeecaoi?a e ?aaoeyoi?a a ath?ie?aoe/aneoth iaaeno?ieeo,
oi?iicyuoth ?acaeoea yeiiiieee.

1. ENOI?Ess YAIETHOeEE I?AAeNOAAEAIEE I ?IEE AINOAeA?NOAA A YEIIIIEEA.

a) Ia?eaioaeenou.

Enoi?ey ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ainoiaeeo e eiioeo
n?aaeiaaaeiauey. A oi a?aiy iniiaiie yeiiiie/aneie oeieie auea oeiea
ia?eaioaeenoia. Iia i?iaicaeaoaea aeoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a
yeiiiieeo. Ia?eaioaeenou ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi aeaaiue iieacaoaeue aiaaonoaa
no?aiu-eiee/anoai cieioa. A nayce n yoei iie i?ecuaaee iiiu?youe yenii?o
e naea?aeeaaoue eiii?o.

a) Eeanne/aneay oai?ey.

Neaaeothuae nooiaiueth ?acaeoey i?aaenoaaeaiee i ?iee ainoaea?noaa noaea
?aaioa A. Nieoa “Enneaaeiaaiea i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa
ia?iaeia”, a eioi?ie ii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi “naiaiaeiay ea?a ?uii/iuo
nee”(i?eioeei”laissez faire”) nicaeaao aa?iiie/iia ono?ienoai” (Aa?aa A.
?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ?uii/iii oicyenoaa. IYeII N11, 1992a., no?.131).

A niioaaonoaee n eeanne/aneei iiaeoiaeii ainoaea?noai aeieaeii
iaania/eaaoue aaciianiinoue aeecie /aeiaaea e aai nianoaaiiinoue,
?ac?aoaoue nii?u, eiuie neiaaie, aeaeaoue oi, /oi eiaeeaeaeooi eeai ia a
ninoiyiee auiieieoue naiinoiyoaeueii, eeai aeaeaao yoi iayooaeoeaii. A
naiai iienaiee nenoaiu ?uii/iie yeiiiieee Aaeai Nieo aeieacuaae, /oi
eiaiii no?aieaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaey e aeinoeaeaieth naieo /anoiuo
eioa?ania yaeyaony aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey,
oaaee/eaay a eiia/iii eoiaa aeaaininoiyiea eae aai naiiai, oae e
iauanoaa a oeaeii.

Aeaaiia caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi aeey anao noauaeoia oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeiu auoue aa?aioe?iaaiu iniiaiua yeiiiie/aneea
naiaiaeu, a eiaiii naiaiaea auai?a noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe, naiaiaea
eiieo?aioeee e naiaiaea oi?aiaee.

a) Eaeineaineay oai?ey.

A 30-a aiaea iaoaai aaea, iinea aeoai/aeoaai niaaea yeiiiieee NOA, Aeae.
Eaein auaeaeioe naith oai?eth, a eioi?ie ii ii?iaa?a acaeyaeu eeanneeia
ia ?ieue ainoaea?noaa. Oai?eth Eaeina iiaeii iacaaoue “e?eceniie” oae
eae ii ?anniao?eaaao yeiiiieeo a ninoiyiee aeai?annee. Ii aai oai?ee,
ainoaea?noai aeieaeii aeoeaii aiaoeaaoueny a yeiiiieeo ii i?e/eia
ionoonoaey o naiaiaeiiai ?uiea iaoaieciia, eioi?ua ii-ianoiyuaio
iaania/eaaee au auoiae yeiiiieee ec e?ecena. Eaein n/eoae, /oi
ainoaea?noai aeieaeii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ?uiie a oeaeyo oaaee/aiey
ni?ina, oae eae i?e/eia eaieoaeenoe/aneeo e?ecenia – ia?ai?iecaiaenoai
oiaa?ia. Ii i?aaeeaaae ianeieueei eino?oiaioia. Yoi aeaeay
e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea, iiaay athaeaeaoii-oeiainiaay iieeoeea e
ae?. Aeaeay e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeiay iieeoeea iicaieyao ia?aoaaiooue /a?ac
iaeei ec na?ueaciaeoeo aa?uea?ia – iayeanoe/iinoue ca?aaioiie ieaou. Yoi
aeinoeaaaony, n/eoae Eaein, iooai eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa aeaiaa a
ia?auaiee. I?e oaaee/aiee aeaiaaeiie iannu ?aaeueiay ca?ieaoa
oiaiueoeony, /oi aoaeao noeioee?iaaoue eiaanoeoeeiiiue ni?in e ?ino
caiyoinoe. N iiiiuueth athaeaeaoii-oeiainiaie iieeoeee Eaein
?aeiiaiaeiaae ainoaea?noao oaaee/eoue iaeiaiaua noaaee e ca n/ao yoeo
n?aaenoa oeiaine?iaaoue ia?aioaaaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey. Yoi ia oieueei
oiaiueoeo aac?aaioeoeo, ii e nieiao nioeeaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue.

Aeaaiuie /a?oaie eaeineaineie iiaeaee ?aaoee?iaaiey yaeythony:

– aunieay aeiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, ia?a?ani?aaeaeyaiay /a?ac
ainathaeaeao;

– nicaeaiea iaoe?iie ciiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ia
iniiaa ia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo e niaoaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee;

– oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea athaeaeaoii-oeiainiauo e e?aaeeoii-oeiainiauo
?aaoeyoi?ia aeey noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u, naeaaeeaaiey
oeeeee/aneeo eieaaaiee, iiaeaea?aeaiey aunieeo oaiiia ?inoa e aunieiai
o?iaiy caiyoinoe.

Iiaeaeue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, i?aaeeiaeaiiay Eaeinii,
iicaieeea ineaaeoue oeeeee/aneea eieaaaiey a oa/aiea aieaa /ai aeaoo
iineaaiaiiuo aeanyoeeaoee. Iaeiaei i?eia?ii n ia/aea 70-o aa. noaei
i?iyaeyoueny ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo aiciiaeiinoyie ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey e iauaeoeaiuie yeiiiie/aneeie oneiaeyie. Eaeineaineay
iiaeaeue iiaea auoue onoie/eaie oieueei a oneiaeyo aunieeo oaiiia ?inoa.
Aunieea oaiiu ?inoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea nicaeaaaee aiciiaeiinoue
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aac oua?aa iaeiieaieth eaieoaea. Iaeiaei a 70-a aiaea
oneiaey aini?iecaiaenoaa ?acei oooaeoeeenue. Aue ii?iaa?aioo caeii
Oeeeeina, niaeanii eioi?iio aac?aaioeoea e eioeyoeey ia iiaoo ?anoe
iaeiia?aiaiii. Eaeineaineea iooe auoiaea ec e?ecena oieueei ?ane?o/eaaee
eioeyoeeiiioth nie?aeue. Iiae aicaeaenoaeai yoiai e?ecena i?iecioea
ea?aeeiaeueiay ia?ano?ieea nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e
neiaeeeanue iiaay, iaieiina?aaoeaiay iiaeaeue ?aaoee?iaaiey.

a) Iaieeanne/aneay oai?ey.

Oai?aoe/aneie iniiaie iaieiina?aaoeaiie iiaeaee iineoaeeee eiioeaioeee
iaieeanne/aneiai iai?aaeaiey yeiiiie/aneie iunee. O?ainoi?iaoeey iiaeaee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey caeeth/aeanue a ioeaca io aicaeaenoaey
ia aini?iecaiaenoai /a?ac ni?in, a aianoi yoiai – eniieueciaaiea
einaaiiuo ia? aicaeaenoaey ia i?aaeeiaeaiea. Noi?iiieee yeiiiieee
i?aaeeiaeaiey n/eoatho iaiaoiaeeiui ainnicaeaoue eeanne/aneee iaoaieci
iaeiieaiey e aic?iaeeoue naiaiaeo /anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa.
Yeiiiie/aneee iino ?anniao?eaaaony eae ooieoeey io iaeiieaiey eaieoaea,
eioi?ia inouanoaeyaony ec aeaoo enoi/ieeia: ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo
n?aaenoa, o. a. eaieoaeecaoeee /anoe i?eauee e ca n/ao caaiiuo n?aaenoa
(e?aaeeoia). Iiyoiio a niioaaonoaee n yoie oai?eae ainoaea?noai aeieaeii
iaania/eoue oneiaey aeey i?ioeanna iaeiieaiey eaieoaea e iiauoaiey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aeaaiua i?aa?aaeu ia yoii iooe – aunieea iaeiae e eioeyoeey. Aunieea
iaeiae ia?aie/eaatho ?ino eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, a eioeyoeey oaei?iaeaao
e?aaeeo e oai naiui cao?oaeiyao eniieueciaaiea caaiiuo n?aaenoa aeey
iaeiieaiey. Iiyoiio iaieiina?aaoi?u i?aaeeiaeeee inouanoaeaiea
aioeeioeyoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ia aaca ?aeiiaiaeaoeee iiiaoa?enoia e
i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaeiaiauo eueaio i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi.

Nie?auaiea iaeiaiauo noaaie nie?aoeo e aeioiaeu ainathaeaeaoa e oaaee/eo
aai aeaoeoeeo, /oi ineiaeieo ai?ueao n eioeyoeeae. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
neaaeothuei oaaii noaiao nie?auaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, ioeac io
eniieueciaaiey athaeaeaoa aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ni?ina e inouanoaeaiey
oe?ieiianooaaiuo nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii. Nthaea iiaeii ioianoe e iieeoeeo
i?eaaoecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe.

Neaaeothuee eiiieaen ia? – ?aaeecaoeey iieeoeee aea?aaoee?iaaiey. Yoi
icia/aao eeeaeaeaoeeth ?aaeaiaioaoeee ii oeaiai e ca?aaioiie ieaoa,
eeaa?aeecaoeeth (niya/aiea) aioeo?anoianeiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
aea?aaoee?iaaiea ?uiea ?aai/ae neeu e ae?.

Oaeei ia?acii, a iaieiina?aaoeaiie iiaeaee ainoaea?noai iiaeao eeoue
einaaiii aeeyoue ia yeiiiieeo. Aeaaiay aea ?ieue a ?aaeecaoeee
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu ioaiaeeony ?uii/iui neeai.

2. OOIEOeEE AINOAeA?NOAA A YEIIIIEEA.

Aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo i?aneaaeoao ii?aaeaeaiiua
ooieoeee. Eae i?aaeei, iii ei??aeoe?oao oa “ianiaa?oainoaa”, eioi?ua
i?enoue ?uii/iiio iaoaiecio e n eioi?uie ii nai eeai ni?aaeoueny ia a
ninoiyiee, eeai yoi ?aoaiea iayooaeoeaii. Ainoaea?noai aa?ao ia naay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca nicaeaiea ?aaiuo oneiaee aeey niia?ie/anoaa
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, aeey yooaeoeaiie eiieo?aioeee, ca ia?aie/aiea aeanoe
iiiiiieee. Iii oaeaea caaioeony i i?iecaiaenoaa aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa
iauanoaaiiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa, oae eae ?uii/iue iaoaieci ia a ninoiyiee
aeieaeiui ia?acii oaeiaeaoai?youe eieeaeoeaiua iio?aaiinoe ethaeae.
O/anoea ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie aeeeooaony aua e oai, /oi
?uiie ia iaania/eaaao nioeeaeueii ni?aaaaeeeaia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaea.
Ainoaea?noao iaaeeaaeeo caaioeoueny ia eiaaeeaeao, iaeieioueo, noa?eeao.
Aio oaeaea i?eiaaeeaaeeo noa?a ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iao/iuo ?ac?aaioie. Yoi
iaiaoiaeeii iioiio /oi aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae yoi i/aiue ?eneiaaiii,
/?acau/aeii aei?iai e, eae i?aaeei, ia i?eiineo auno?uo aeioiaeia.
Iineieueeo ?uiie ia aa?aioe?oao i?aai ia o?oae, ainoaea?noao i?eoiaeeony
?aaoee?iaaoue ?uiie o?oaea, i?eieiaoue ia?u ii nie?auaieth aac?aaioeoeu.

A oeaeii ainoaea?noai ?aaeecoao iieeoe/aneea e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea
i?eioeeiu aeaiiiai niiauanoaa a?aaeaeai. Iii aeoeaii o/anoaoao a
oi?ie?iaaiee iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia.

?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea i?iyaeyaony /a?ac neaaeothuea
aaaeiaeoea ooieoeee:

a) nicaeaiea i?aaiaie iniiau aeey i?eiyoey yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoaiee.
Ainoaea?noai ?ac?aaaouaaao e i?eieiaao caeiiu, ?aaoee?othuea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, ii?aaeaeyao i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe
a?aaeaeai;

a) noaaeeecaoeey yeiiiieee. I?aaeoaeuenoai eniieuecoao
athaeaeaoii-iaeiaiaoth e e?aaeeoii-aeaiaaeioth iieeoeeo aeey
i?aiaeieaiey niaaea i?iecaiaenoaa, aeey naeaaeeaaiey eioeyoeee,
nieaeaiey aac?aaioeoeu, iiaeaea?aeaiey noaaeeueiiai o?iaiy oeai e
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou;

a) nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia. Ainoaea?noai
i?aaiecoao i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia e oneoa, eioi?ui ia caieiaaony /anoiue
naeoi?. Iii nicaeaao oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey naeueneiai oicyenoaa, nayce,
o?ainii?oa, ii?aaeaeyao ?anoiaeu ia iai?iio, ia iaoeo, oi?ie?oao
i?ia?aiiu ?acaeoey ia?aciaaiey, cae?aaiio?aiaiey e o. ae.;

a) iaania/aiea nioeeaeueiie caueou e nioeeaeueiie aa?aioee. Ainoaea?noai
aa?aioe?oao ieieioi ca?aaioiie ieaou, iainee ii noa?inoe, eiaaeeaeiinoe,
iiniaea ii aac?aaioeoea, ?acee/iua aeaeu iiiiue iaeieiouei e o. ae.

Aioeo?anoianeia ?aaoee?iaaiea.

Aioeiiiiiieueiay aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony iaeiie ec
aaaeiaeoeo iaeanoae i?eeiaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa.
?aaoee?iaaiea ?acaeaaaony a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo. Ia oao iaiiiaeo ?uieao,
aaea oneiaey i?aiyonoaotho yooaeoeaiiio ooieoeeiie?iaaieth io?anee i?e
eiieo?aioeee, oi anoue a oae iacuaaaiuo _anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieeyo.,
ainoaea?noaii nicaeathony iauanoaaiiua ?aaoee?othuea i?aaiu aeey
eiio?iey ca eo yeiiiie/aneei iiaaaeaieai. Ia aieueoeinoaa ae?oaeo
?uieia, aaea iiiiiieey ia noaea iaiaoiaeeiinoueth, iauanoaaiiue
eiio?ieue i?eiye oi?io aioeiiiiiieueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Aeaeaa
aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe ?aaoee?iaaiey aeayoaeueiinoe anoanoaaiiuo
iiiiiieee.

Anoanoaaiiay iiiiiieey nouanoaoao a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea iaeia oe?ia
iiaeao iaania/eaaoue aanue ?uiie, eiay aieaa ieceea ecaea?aeee ia
aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee, aeinoeaaaiua ca n/ao ianooaaa. Yoi oa?aeoa?ii
aeey i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai iieueciaaiey, aaea aeey aeinoeaeaiey
ieceie oeaiu iaiaoiaeeia e?oiiiianooaaiay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aeey iaania/aiey i?eaieaiiai iiaaaeaiey oaeeo iiiiiieee iiaoo
eniieueciaaoueny aeaa aa?eaioa: ainoaea?noaaiiay nianoaaiiinoue e
ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea.

Aeey anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee iau/ii onoaiaaeeaaaony “ni?aaaaeeeaue”
aeioiae, oi anoue oeaia, ?aaiay n?aaeiei aaeiaui ecaea?aeeai. Iaeiaei
yoi aea/ao ca niaie ionoonoaea noeioea i?aaei?eyoey e nieaeaieth
ecaea?aeae.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeaeue io?aneaaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ninoieo a oii, /oiau
caueoeoue iauanoai io ?uii/iie aeanoe anoanoaaiiuo iiiiiieee iooai
?aaoee?iaaiey oeai e ea/anoaa ianeoaeeaaiey. Ii iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue i?yiia ?aaoee?iaaiea oieueei oai, aaea yoi ia i?eaiaeeo e
nieaeaieth yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa. ?aaoee?iaaiea ia aeieaeii
i?eiaiyoueny a neo/ayo, eiaaea eiieo?aioeey iiaeao iaania/eoue eo/oaa
iaania/aiea iauanoaa i?iaeoeoeeae.

Ae?oaei aeaeii eiio?iey yaeythony aioeo?anoianeea caeiiu. Yoa oi?ia
eiio?iey eiaao aiaaooth enoi?eth. A 1890a. aue i?eiyo ciaiaieoue caeii
Oa?iaia, cai?auathuee ethaua aeaeu naiai?a e ethaua iiiuoee
iiiiiieecaoeee eaeie-eeai io?anee. Iaeiaei yoa oi?ioee?iaea auea
aeiaieueii ?aciuoa, /oi ia iicaieyei /aoei ii?aaeaeeoue i?anooieaiea.
Neaaeothuei oaaii aue caeii Eeaeoiia io 1914a. A i?eioeeia ii aue
i?iaeieaeaieai caeiia Oa?iaia e eeoue ooi/iye iaeioi?ua aai ioieou.

A oii aea aiaeo auea nicaeaia Oaaea?aeueiay oi?aiaay eiienney. A aa
eiiiaoaioeeth aoiaeee eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai auoaiacaaiiuo caeiiia, a
oaeaea ?anneaaeiaaoue ia/anoiua aeaenoaey ii naiae eieoeeaoeaa. Caeii i
Oaaea?aeueiie oi?aiaie eiiennee ?anoe?ee aeeaiacii iacaeiiiiai
iiaaaeaiey e i?aaeinoaaee iacaaeneiiio aioeo?anoianeiio i?aaio
iieiiii/ey aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?anneaaeiaaiee.

Aieueoia eiee/anoai aioeiiiiiieueiuo caeiiia e ?acee/iuo ooi/iaiee e iei
aeieacuaatho /?acau/aeioth aaaeiinoue yoeo caeiiia aeey iauanoaa.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aaneiio?ieueiay iiiiiieueiay aeanoue iiaeao i?eianoe
nouanoaaiiua oauoee iauanoao i?eiaiaieai ia/anoiie eiieo?aioeee, /oi
auciaao aaie?ionoaa iaeeeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae, iaaeiaieuenoaa iio?aaeoaeae
aunieeie oeaiaie, a ia?aaeei e ieioei ea/anoaii oiaa?ia, ionoaaaiea a
iao/ii-oaoie/aneii i?ia?anna e iiiai ae?oaeo iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee.
Ii, n ae?oaie noi?iiu, aioeiiiiiieueiua caeiiu ia aeieaeiu ea?aoue
e?oiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae, ia eniieuecothueo iacaeiiiuo iaoiaeia
eiieo?aioiie ai?ueau. Anee yoi oneiaea ia aoaeao auiieiaii, oi o
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae cia/eoaeueii nie?aoyony noeioeu aeaeaoue naia
i?aaei?eyoea aieaa neeueiui e auioneaoue aieueoa i?iaeoeoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ainoaea?noai aunooiaao a ?iee a?aeo?a, eioi?ue ecae?aao
iioeiaeueiia (e iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiia) niioiioaiea iaaeaeo iiiiiieeyie e
eiieo?aioiuie io?aneyie. A ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu enoi?ee aeey ?acee/iuo
no?ai yoi niioiioaiea auei ?aciui, ei??aeoe?oaiui iiae iniaaiiinoe
?acaeoey yeiiiieee, e ainoaea?noai aeieaeii oiaei e yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue yoio iaoaieci.

3. IAOIAeU AINOAeA?NOAAIIIAI AICAeAENOAEss IA ?UIIE.

Ainoaea?noai ieacuaaao aicaeaenoaea ia ?uii/iue iaoaieci /a?ac 1naie
?anoiaeu, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea, ?aaoee?iaaiea e aino1aea?noaaiiia
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu. 0n/eoathony iaeiei ec aaaeiuo yeaiaioia
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee. Iie aeeytho ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea eae aeioiaea,
oae e ?ano?nia. Ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu ninoiyo ec ainoaea?noaaiiuo
caeoiie e o?ainoa?oiuo ieaoaaeae. Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie, eae i?aaeei, i?eia?aoaiea iauanoaaiiuo oiaa?ia
(cao?aou ia iai?iio, no?ieoaeuenoai e niaea?aeaiea oeie, aaoiaei?ia,
iao/iuo oeaio?ia e o. ae. ). O?ainoa?oiua ieaoaaee – yoi auieaou,
ia?a?ani?aaeaeythuea iaeiaiaua aeioiaeu, iieo/aiiua io anao
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, ii?aaeaeaiiui neiyi ianaeaiey a aeaea iiniaee ii
aac?aaioeoea, auieao a nayce n eiaaeeaeiinoueth e o. ae. Ioaeii
caiaoeoue, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee aiinyo aeeaae a iaoeeiiaeueiue
aeioiae e iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieuecotho ?ano?nu, a oi a?aiy eae
o?ainoa?ou ia eniieuecotho ?ano?nu e ia naycaiu n i?iecaiaenoaii.
Ainoaea?noaaiiua caeoiee i?eaiaeyo e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaieth ?ano?nia io
/anoiiai e iauanoaaiiiio iio?aaeaieth oiaa?ia. Iie aeatho aiciiaeiinoue
a?aaeaeaiai iieueciaaoueny iauanoaaiiuie oiaa?aie. O?ainoa?oiua ieaoaaee
eiatho ae?oaia cia/aiea: iie eciaiytho no?oeoo?o i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey. Noiiu, acyoua a aeaea iaeiaia o iaeieo
neiaa ianaeaiey, auiea/eaathony ae?oaei. Iaeiaei oa, eiio
i?aaeiacia/athony o?ainoa?ou, o?aoyo yoe aeaiueae ia eiua oiaa?u, /ai e
aeinoeaaaony eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u iio?aaeaiey.

Ae?oaei aaaeiui eino?oiaioii ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee yaeyaony
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea. Iaeiae – iniiaiie enoi/iee athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa. A
ainoaea?noaao n ?uii/iie yeiiiieeie aceiathony ?acee/iua aeaeu iaeiaia.
Iaeie ec ieo iinyo aeaeeiue oa?aeoa?, iai?eia? iiaeioiaeiue iaeia,
ae?oaea ia noieue i/aaeaeiu, iineieueeo iaeeaaeuaathony ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeae nu?ueaauo ?ano?nia e aicaeaenoaotho ia aeiiioicyenoaa
einaaiiui iooai a aeaea aieaa aunieeo oeai ia oiaa?u. Iaeiae ioaaouaatho
eae aeiiioicyenoaa, oae e oe?iu. A aeaea iaeiaia a athaeaeao iiiaaeatho
cia/eoaeueiua noiiu (iai?eia? a NOA ieiei 30 i?ioeaioia anae noieiinoe
i?iecaiaeeiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa).

Iaeia ec iniiaiuo i?iaeai – ni?aaaaeeeainoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaeiaiaiai
a?aiaie. Nouanoaoao o?e iniiaiua nenoaiu, iniiaaiiua ia iiiyoee
2i?ia?anneaiinoe 0iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey – ioiioaiey noiiu, aceiaaiie a aeaea
iaeiaa n aeioiaea eiie?aoiiai ?aaioieea e aaee/eia yoiai aeioiaea.

-i?iii?oeeiiaeueiue iaeia (noiia iaeiaa i?iii?oeeiiaeueia aeioiaeo
?aaioieea);

-?aa?anneaiue iaeia (a i?ioeaioiii ioiioaiee iaeia aceiaaony oai ieaea,
/ai auoa aeioiae ?aaioieea);

-i?ia?anneaiue iaeia (a i?ioeaioiii ioiioaiee /ai auoa aeioiae, oai auoa
iaeia).

Eae iia i?aaenoaaeyaony, iaeaieaa ni?aaaaeeeaui yaeyaony i?ia?anneaiue
iaeia, iaeiaei i?ioeaioiia iiauoaiea iaeiaa ia aeieaeii auoue
cia/eoaeueiui, /oiau ia ineaaeyoue noeioeu e o?oaeo, a neaaeiaaoaeueii –
e aieueoei ca?aaioeai. Eae i?aaeei, iiaeioiae

iue iaeia iino?iai eiaiii ii yoiio i?eioeeio. Iaeiaei iaeiae n i?iaeaae
e aeoeeciua iaeiae yaeythony oaeoe/anee ?aa?anneaiuie, oae eae iie a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ia?aeeaaeuaathony ia iio?aaeoaeae, a aeioiaea
eioi?uo iaeia e oa aea noiia caieiaao ?acee/ioth aeieth.

Caaea/a ainoaea?noaa – nia?aoue iaeiae oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iaania/eoue
iio?aaiinoe athaeaeaoa e iaeiia?aiaiii ia aucaaoue iaaeiaieuenoaa
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. I?e neeoeii aunieeo iaeiaiauo noaaeao ia/eiaaony
ianniaia oeeiiaiea io oieaou iaeiaia. Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia a ?innee
i?ienoiaeeo eiaiii oaeay neooaoeey. Ainoaea?noao ia oaaoaao n?aaenoa,
iii iiauoaao iaeiae, i?aaei?eieiaoaee ana /aua oeeiiythony io eo oieaou,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, a athaeaeao eaeao ana iaiueoa n?aaenoa. Ainoaea?noai
iiyoue iiauoaao iaeiae. Iieo/aaony caieiooue e?oa. ss n/eoath, /oi a
aeaiiie neooaoeee ?aciiii iiieceoue iaeiae. Yoi oiaiueoeo noeioeu e
iaoieaoa, naeaeaao 3/anoiia 0i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai aieaa i?eaueueiui,
i?eaaaeao e aieueoei aeioiaeai ainoaea?noaa e nieceo o?iaaiue
e?eieiaeecaoeee aeciana.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea . 0i?ecaaii eii?aeeie?iaaoue
yeiiiie/aneea i?ioeannu e oaycuaaoue /anoiua e iauanoaaiiua eioa?anu.
Iii inouanoaeyaony a caeiiiaeaoaeueiie, iaeiaiaie, e?aaeeoiie e
noaaaioeeiiiie oi?iao. Caeiiiaeaoaeueiay oi?ia ?aaoee?iaaiey
?aaeaiaioe?oao aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. I?eia?ii iiaoo
neoaeeoue aioeiiiiiieueiua caeiiu. Iaeiaiaay e e?aaeeoiay oi?iu
?aaoee?iaaiey i?aaeoniao?eaatho eniieueciaaiea iaeiaia e e?aaeeoia aeey
aicaeaenoaey ia iaoeeiiaeueiue iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. Eciaiyy iaeiaiaua
noaaee e eueaiou, i?aaeoaeuenoai aicaeaenoaoao ia noaeaiea eee
?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa. I?e eciaiaiee oneiaee e?aaeeoiaaiey
ainoaea?noai aeeyao ia oiaiueoaiea eee oaaee/aiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Noaaaioeeiiiay oi?ia ?aaoee?iaaiey i?aaeiieaaaao i?aaeinoaaeaiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaneaeee eee iaeiaiauo eueaio ioaeaeueiui io?aneyi
eeai i?aaei?eyoeyi. E eo /eneo iau/ii ioiinyo io?anee, oi?ie?othuea
iauea oneiaey aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iauanoaaiiiai eaieoaea(eio?ano?oeoo?u).
Ia iniiaa noaneaeee iiaeao ieacuaaoueny iiaeaea?aeea e a noa?a iaoee,
ia?aciaaiey, iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia, e a ?aoaiee nioeeaeueiuo i?ia?aii.
Nouanoaotho oaeaea e niaoeeaeueiua, eee oeaeaaua noaneaeee, eioi?ua
i?aaeoniao?eaatho ?anoiaeiaaiea n?aaenoa athaeaeaoa ii no?iai
ii?aaeaeaiiui i?ia?aiiai. Aeiey noaaaioeee a AII ?acaeouo no?ai
ninoaaeyao 5-10 i?ioeaioia. Auaeaeyy noaneaeee, nieaeay iaeiaiaua
noaaee, ainoaea?noai oai naiui eciaiyao ?ani?aaeaeaiea ?ano?nia, e
noaneaee?oaiua io?anee iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue aiciauaoue ecaea?aeee,
eioi?ua iaaiciiaeii iie?uoue ii ?uii/iuo oeaiao.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai . 0inouanoaeyaony a oao iaeanoyo,
aaea oicyenoaaiiinoue i?ioeai?a/eo i?e?iaea /anoiuo oe?i eee aea
o?aaothony ia?iiiua aeiaeaiey n?aaenoa e ?ene. Iniiaiia ioee/ea io
/anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ninoieo a oii, /oi ia?aii/a?aaeiay oeaeue
ainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ninoieo ia a iieo/aiee aeioiaea,
a a ?aoaiee nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/, oaeeo eae iaania/aiea
iaiaoiaeeiuo oaiiia ?inoa, naeaaeeaaiea oeeeee/aneeo eieaaaiee,
iiaeaea?aeaiea caiyoinoe, noeioee?iaaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e
o. ae. Aeaiiay oi?ia ?aaoee?iaaiey iaania/eaaao iiaeaea?aeeo
iaei?aioaaaeueiuo i?aaei?e

yoee e io?aneae oicyenoaa, eioi?ua aeeciaiii aaaeiu aeey
aini?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai io?anee yeiiiie/aneie
eio?ano?oeoo?u(yia?aaoeea, o?ainii?o, naycue). E i?iaeaiai, ?aoaaiui
ainoaea?noaaiiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaii, ioiinyony oaeaea
i?aaeinoaaeaiea ianaeaieth eueaio a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo nioeeaeueiie
eio?ano?oeoo?u, iiiiuue aeeciaiii aaaeiui iaoei- e eaieoaeiaieei
io?aneyi yeiiiieee a oeaeyo onei?aiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e
oe?aieaiey ia yoie iniiaa iiceoeee no?aiu a ie?iaii oicyenoaa,
i?iaaaeaiea ?aaeiiaeueiie iieeoeee – no?ieoaeuenoai a yeiiiie/anee
ionoaeuo ?aeiiao i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, nicaeaiea ?aai/eo iano,
io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu iooai aiaae?aiey aaciooiaeiuo oaoiieiaee,
no?ieoaeuenoaa i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee, ?acaeoea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee, i?iecaiaenoai oiaa?ia, yaeythuaany ii caeiio
ainoaea?noaaiiie iiiiiieeae.

ss n/eoath, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai aeieaeii
?acaeaaoueny oieueei a oao noa?ao, aaea i?inoi iao eiiai auoiaea. Aeaei
a oii, /oi ii n?aaiaieth n /anoiuie ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey
yaeythony iaiaa yooaeoeaiuie. Ainoaea?noaaiiia i?aaei?eyoea, ionoue
aeaaea iaaeaeaiiia naiuie oe?ieeie i?aaaie e ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, anaaaea
ionoaao io /anoiiai a noaiaie oicyenoaaiiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe. A
aeayoaeueiinoe aini?aaei?eyoey iaaa?iyea i?enoonoaotho eae ?uii/iua, oae
e ia?uii/iua, eaeouea io ainoaea?noaa iioeau. Iieeoe/aneea iioeau
ia?aiai/eau, iie caaenyo io i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ?anii?yaeaiee ieienoa?noa e
o. ae. Iiyoiio aini?aaei?eyoey /anoi ieacuaathony a neiaeiie e iayniie
ianoaiiaea, i?aaeneacaoue eioi?oth iaiiiai neiaeiaa, /ai ?uii/ioth
eiiuthieoo?o. Ni?iaiice?iaaoue aa?iyoiua eieaaaiey ni?ina e oeai
ai?acaei eaa/a, /ai i?aaeoaaaeaoue iiaaaeaiea iiaiai ieieno?a eee aea
/eiiaieea, ?aoaiey eioi?iai ca/anooth ii?aaeaeytho noaeueao
i?aaei?eyoey. Ca ieie iiaoo noiyoue iieeoe/aneea oeaee, eioi?ua ia
eiatho ieeaeiai ioiioaiey e ?uii/iiio iiaaaeaieth (no?aieaiea oaaee/eoue
iinooieaiey a athaeaeao, aeaeaiea nio?aieoue ooaou e iiauneoue
ca?aaioioth ieaoo e o. ae. ).

Eae i?aaeei, ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ia aioiau e ?uii/iiio
niia?ie/anoao, iineieueeo ?ann/eouaatho ia oieueei ia naay, ii e ia
iniaia ioiioaiea ni noi?iiu aeanoae (aeioaoeee, iaeiaiaua eueaiou,
aa?aioee nauoa a ?aieao aincaeacia). O ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee iao
iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae aeoeeiia?aie, aaie?ionoai ei iau/ii ia a?iceo. Ana
yoi iaaaoeaii neacuaaaony ia aeeiaieea cao?ao e oeai, nei?inoe inaiaiey
iiauo oaoiieiaee, ea/anoaa i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e o. ae.

Eiieo?aioeey a noa?a eiiia?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe iaaeiionoeia aua e
iioiio, /oi /anoiue naeoi? aoyaeaaaony a ei??oioeeth: /a?ac acyoeo
/eiiaieeo iiaeii aeiaeoueny aieueoeo ?acoeueoaoia, /ai ca n/ao nieaeaiey
ecaea?aeae.

Anee yeiiiieea ia?aiaiaia ecauoi/iui eiee/anoaii ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, a neiaeiia iieiaeaiea iiiaaeatho eo ?aaioieee. Eiaiii iie
noaiiayony ia?aie aea?oaie i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeee, iai?aaeaiiie ia
i?aiaeieaiea /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee. Iau/ii ethaee, ?aaioathuea a
ainnaeoi?a, ia?auie iuouatho caii?aaeeaaiea ca?ieaou. Aeaeeii iiyoiio
aieia i?eaaoecaoeee, i?ieaoeaoayny a 80-a aiaeu ii yeiiiieeai caiaaeiuo
no?ai ia aucaaea oe?ieeo i?ioanoia ni noi?iiu iniiaiie iannu caiyouo a
ainoaea?noaaiiii naeoi?a. Ethaee ?ann/eouaaee, /oi, inaiaiaeeaoenue io
ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeaaeaiey, iie noiatho a iieiie ia?a eniieueciaaoue
i?aeiouanoaa ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa, noaoue niaeaaeaeueoeaie /anoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee.

4. I?IAEAIU E IA?AIE*AIEss AINOAeA?NOAAIIIAI AIAOAOAEUeNOAA.

I/aaeaeii, /oi nia?aiaiiay ?uii/iay nenoaia iaiuneeia aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa
ainoaea?noaa. Iaeiaei nouanoaoao a?aiue, ca eioi?ie i?ienoiaeyo
aeaoi?iaoeee ?uii/iuo i?ioeannia, iaaeaao yooaeoeaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa.
Oiaaea ?aii eee iicaeii anoaao aii?in i ?acainoaea?noaeaiee yeiiiieee,
ecaaaeaiea aa io /?acia?iie ainoaea?noaaiiie aeoeaiinoe. Nouanoaotho
aaaeiua ia?aie/aiey aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey. Iai?eia?, iaaeiionoeiu ethaua
aeaenoaey ainoaea?noaa, ?ac?ooathuea ?uii/iue iaoaieci (oioaeueiia
aee?aeoeaiia ieaie?iaaiea, anaioaaoiue aaeieieno?aoeaiue eiio?ieue ca
oeaiaie e ae?. ). Yoi ia icia/aao, /oi ainoaea?noai nieiaao n naay
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iaeiio?iee?oaiue ?ino oeai e aeieaeii ioeacaoueny io
ieaie?iaaiey. ?uii/iay nenoaia ia eneeth/aao ieaie?iaaiey ia o?iaia
i?aaei?eyoee, ?aaeiiia e aeaaea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa; i?aaaea, a
iineaaeiai neo/aa iii iau/ii yaeyaony “iyaeei”, ia?aie/aiiui ii n?ieai,
ianooaaai e ae?oaei ia?aiao?ai, e aunooiathuei a aeaea iaoeeiiaeueiuo
oeaeaauo i?ia?aii. Oaeaea neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ?uiie ai iiiaii
yaeyaony naiiiano?aeaathuaeny nenoaiie, e iiyoiio aeeyoue ia iaai
neaaeoao oieueei einaaiiuie, yeiiiie/aneeie iaoiaeaie. Iaeiaei a ?yaea
neo/aaa, i?eiaiaiea aaeieieno?aoeaiuo iaoiaeia ia oieueei aeiionoeii, ii
e iaiaoiaeeii. Iaeuecy oiiaaoue oieueei ia yeiiiie/aneea eeai oieueei ia
aaeieieno?aoeaiua ia?u. N iaeiie noi?iiu, yeaiaiou aaeieieno?e?iaaiey
ianao a naaa ethaie yeiiiie/aneee ?aaoeyoi?. Iai?eia?, aeaiaaeiia
ia?auaiea iuooeo aeeyiea oaeiai ecaanoiiai yeiiiie/aneiai iaoiaea, eae
noaaea ii e?aaeeoai oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea ia ?aiueoa, /ai aoaeao i?eiyoi
aaeieieno?aoeaiia ?aoaiea. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a eaaeaeii
aaeieieno?aoeaiii ?aaoeyoi?a anoue ia/oi yeiiiie/aneia a oii niunea, /oi
ii einaaiii neacuaaaony ia iiaaaeaiee o/anoieeia yeiiiie/aneiai
i?ioeanna. I?eaaaay, neaaeai, e i?yiiio eiio?ieth ca oeaiaie,
ainoaea?noai nicaeaao aeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae iniaue yeiiiie/aneee ?aaeei,
auioaeaeaao eo ia?aniao?eaaoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?ia?aiiu, eneaoue
iiaua enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey eiaanoeoeee e o. ae.

N?aaee iaoiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ia nouanoaoao niaa?oaiii
iai?eaiaeiuo e aaniethoii iayooaeoeaiuo. Ioaeiu ana, e aii?in eeoue a
oii, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue aeey eaaeaeiai oa neooaoeee, aaea aai i?eiaiaiea
iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?acii. Oicyenoaaiiua iioa?e ia/eiathony oiaaea, eiaaea
aeanoe auoiaeyo ca a?aieoeu ?acoiiiai, ioaeaaay /?acia?iia i?aaeii/oaiea
eeai yeiiiie/aneei, eeai aaeieieno?aoeaiui iaoiaeai.

Iaeuecy caauaaoue e i oii, /oi naieie yeiiiie/aneeie ?aaoeyoi?aie
neaaeoao iieueciaaoueny i?aaeaeueii inoi?iaeii, ia ineaaeyy e ia caiaiyy
?uii/iua noeioeu. Anee ainoaea?noai eaii?e?oao yoi o?aaiaaiea, caioneaao
?aaoeyoi?u, ia aeoiay, eae eo aeaenoaea io?aceony ia iaoaiecia ?uiea,
iineaaeiee ia/eiaao aeaaaoue naie. Aaaeue aeaiaaeiay eee iaeiaiaay
iieeoeea ii neea naiaai aicaeaenoaey ia yeiiiieeo n?aaieia n
oeaio?aeeciaaiiui ieaie?iaaieai.

Iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi n?aaee yeiiiie/aneeo ?aaoeyoi?ia iao ie
iaeiiai eaeaaeueiiai. Ethaie ec ieo, i?eiiny iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo a
iaeiie noa?a yeiiiieee, iai?aiaiii aeaao iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey a
ae?oaeo. Caeanue ie/aai iaeuecy eciaieoue. Ainoaea?noai, eniieuecothuaa
yeiiiie/aneea eino?oiaiou ?aaoee?iaaiey, iaycaii eo eiio?iee?iaaoue e
naiaa?aiaiii inoaiaaeeaaoue. Iai?eia?, ainoaea?noai no?aieony iaocaeaoue
eioeyoeeth, ia?aie/eaay i?e?ino aeaiaaeiie iannu. N oi/ee c?aiey ai?ueau
n eioeyoeeae yoa ia?a yooaeoeaia, iaeiaei iia i?eaiaeeo e oaei?iaeaieth
oeaio?aeueiiai e aaieianeiai e?aaeeoa. A anee i?ioeaioiua noaaee ?anooo,
noaiiaeony ana o?oaeiaa oeiaine?iaaoue eiaanoeoeee, ia/eiaaony
oi?iiaeaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Eiaiii oae neooaoeey ?acaeaaaony a
?innee.

Aea?aaoee?iaaiea e i?eaaoecaoeey.

Aiaoaoaeuenoai ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieeo o?aaoao aeiaieueii e?oiiuo
?anoiaeia. Iie aeeth/atho a naay eae i?yiua cao?aou (iiaeaioiaea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia e eiio?ieue ca eo eniieiaieai), oae e einaaiiua
(ni noi?iiu oe?i, eioi?ua aeieaeiu eniieiyoue ainoaea?noaaiiua
eino?oeoeee e io/aoiinoe). E?iia oiai, n/eoaaony, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiua
?aaeaiaioaoeee nieaeatho noeioe e iiaiaaaaeaieyi, e aoiaeaeaieth iiauo
eiieo?aioia a io?aneue, oae eae aeey yoiai o?aaoaony ?ac?aoaiea
niioaaonoaothuae eiiennee.

Ii ioeaieai aia?eeaineeo niaoeeaeenoia, ainoaea?noaaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
yeiiiie/aneoth aeeciue i?eaiaeeo e iaaeaieth oaiiia ?inoa
i?eaeeceoaeueii ia 0,4% a aiae (Lipsey R., Steiner P., Purvis D.
Economics, N. Y. 1987, P.422).

A neeo ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianiaa?oainoa ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai
eiiaaea aea/ao ca niaie iioa?e. A nayce n yoei a iineaaeiea aiaeu
iaino?eeny aii?in i aea?aaoee?iaaiee yeiiiieee e i i?eaaoecaoeee.
Aea?aaoee?iaaiea i?aaeiieaaaao niyoea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, eioi?ua
naea?aeeaatho aoiaeaeaiea iioaioeeaeueiuo eiieo?aioia ia ?uiie,
onoaiaaeeaatho oeaiu ia ii?aaeaeaiiua oiaa?u e oneoae. Iai?eia?, a NOA a
80-a aiaeu aea?aaoee?iaaiea cao?iioei a?ociaie aaoio?ainii?o,
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiue e aicaeooiue aeaeu o?ainii?oa. A ?acoeueoaoa
nieceeeny oeaiu e oeo/oeeinue ianeoaeeaaiea iannaaee?ia. Aia?eeaineiio
iauanoao aea?aaoee?iaaiea a?ociauo ia?aaicie, aicaeooiiai e
aeaeaciiaei?iaeiiai o?ainii?oa i?eianei auaiaeo, ioeaieaaaioth
niioaaonoaaiii a 39-63 ie?ae. aeie., 15 ie?ae. aeie. e 9-15 ie?ae. aeie.
a aiae (Economic Report of the President, Wash., 1989. P. 188).

I?eaaoecaoeey – i?iaeaaea ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee /anoiui eeoeai
eee i?aaiecaoeeyi – iai?aaeaia ia iiauoaiea oicyenoaaiiie
?aoeeiiaeueiinoe. Iia aucaaia oai, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey
ieacuaathony oauoi/iuie e iayooaeoeaiuie. Caiaaeiua yeiiiienou
iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiue naeoi? ia aeaao oaeiai iiuiiai
noeioea e nieaeaieth ecaea?aeae e iieo/aieth iiuiie i?eauee, eae yoi
aeaeaao /anoiia i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai. Aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey – iaeii ec
aeaoo: i?eaueue eee oauoee. Anee /anoiia i?aaei?eyoea oa?ieo oauoee
aeieaia a?aiy, oi iii cae?uaaaony. Ainoaea?noaaiiiio aea i?aaei?eyoeth
ieacuaaaony iiiiuue, iiyoiio iii iiaeao ia no?aieoueny e iiauoaieth
naiae ?aioaaaeueiinoe.

Yoi aua ?ac aeieacuaaao, /oi ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai ioaeii
oieueei oai, aaea iii aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeii. Ai anao inoaeueiuo neo/ayo
?uiie aieaa yooaeoeaii ?aoeo iinoaaeaiiua yeiiiie/aneea caaea/e.

Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea a naeueneii oicyenoaa.

A nia?aiaiiie caiaaeiie yeiiiieea naeueneia oicyenoai – iaeia ec
aaaeiaeoeo noa? aeoeaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa. A yoie iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa
aeaaiue i?eioeei naiaiaeiiai ?uiea, a eiaiii ea?a ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey, ieacuaaaony i?aeoe/anee iai?eiaiei. I?aaaea, e
ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai – aeaeaei ia iaiaoeay. Iai?eia?, a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia i?aaeoaeuenoaa o?aaeeoeeiiii oaeaeytho aieueoia
aieiaiea i?iaeaiai aa?a?iiai ?uiea, iaeiaei ie i?iecaiaeeoaee, ie
iio?aaeoaee ia oaeiaeaoai?aiu iieiaeaieai aeae a aa?a?iii naeoi?a.

Enoi/iee i?iaeai a oii, /oi a ?acaeouo no?aiao aeaaiaea?y aunieie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea i?iecaiaenoai aa?a?iie i?iaeoeoeee
cia/eoaeueii i?aauoaao iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey.

Oeaee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey a noa?a naeueneiai oicyenoaa
aeeth/atho:

a) iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iooai aiaae?aiey oaoie/aneiai
i?ia?anna e ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa, iaeneiaeueii yooaeoeaiiio
eniieueciaaieth anao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia, iniaaiii ?aai/ae neeu;

a) iaania/aiea caiyoinoe a aa?a?iii naeoi?a e niioaaonoaothuaai o?iaiy
aeecie naeueneiai ianaeaiey;

a) noaaeeecaoeey ?uieia naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;

a) aa?aioe?iaaiiia niaaaeaiea aioo?aiiaai ?uiea;

ae) caaioa i iinoaaeao aa?a?iie i?iaeoeoeee iio?aaeoaeyi ii “?acoiiui
oeaiai”. (A. Aa?aa “?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ?uii/iii
oicyenoaa”-IYeII,1992a., N 11, no?.139. )

Ainoaea?noaii onoaiaaeeaathony e aaeaaiaeii ia?aniao?eaathony
ieieiaeueiua oeaiu ia aaaeiaeoea naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou. Oai
naiui i?iecaiaeeoaee caueuathony io ?aceiai iaaeaiey oeai. A oi aea
a?aiy aioo?aiiee ?uiie ia?aaeaeaaony io aeaoaaiai eiii?oa e /?acia?iuo
eieaaaiee oeai n iiiiuueth nenoaiu aeiiieieoaeueiuo aaiciuo iioeei.
Iiyoiio a no?aiao AN oeaiu ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey caiaoii auoa oeai
ie?iaiai ?uiea. Cao?aou a nayce n i?iaaaeaieai aa?a?iie iieeoeee ianao
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao.

Ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yoiai iaoaiecia iiaeii i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue ia i?eia?a
?uiea ca?ia. Enoiaeiui ioieoii yaeyaony i?eaioe?iai/iiy oeaia,
?aeiiaiaeoaiay ainoaea?noaii. Iia ianeieueei i?aauoaao ?uii/ioth oeaio,
/ai aa?aioe?othony ia oieueei aeioiaeu naeueneeo oicyaa, ii e
nicaeathony noeioeu e ?anoe?aieth i?iecaiaenoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
i?aaeeiaeaiea i?aauoaao ni?in. Eiaaea ?uii/iay oeaia nieaeaaony aei
ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy, i?aaeeaaaaiia naeueneeie oicyaaaie ca?ii
neoiaaony ainoaea?noaii ii oae iacuaaaiie “eioa?aaioeeiiiie oeaia” a
iaia?aie/aiiuo eiee/anoaao.

Oaeei ia?acii, oioy eaaeaeue i?iecaiaeeoaeue aeieaeai nai ianoe ?ene
nauoa, ia aeaea yoi i?aaeei ia aeaenoaoao a ioiioaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeae
iiiaeo aa?a?iuo i?iaeoeoia.

Nouanoaotho e iaoaieciu caueou io aeaoaaiai eiii?oa e iiiu?aiey
yenii?oa. Yoi icia/aao, /oi i?e aaica onoaiaaeeaaaony aaiciay iioeeia,
i?e?aaieaathuay oeaio i?iaeoeoa e aioo?aiiae oeaia. I?e auaica aea
ainoaea?noai auiea/eaaao yenii?oa?ai ?acieoeo iaaeaeo aioo?aiiae oeaiie
e oeaiie ie?iaiai ?uiea.

Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi aeaiiay iieeoeea ni?iaioee?iaaea iiiai i?iaeai. N
iaeiie noi?iiu, iaeiieaiu ia?iiiua caianu i?iaeiaieuenoaey, n ae?oaie –
iaaeiaieuenoaa e?anoueyi, n/eoathueo, /oi ia iaania/ai eo i?iaeeoi/iue
ieieioi. A aeaiiie neooaoeee e?oiiua aa?ii?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey
iieo/atho i?eee/iua aeioiaeu, a oi a?aiy eae iaeeea i?iecaiaeeoaee aaeaa
naiaeyo eiioeu n eiioeaie.

Oaeei ia?acii, naeueneia oicyenoai inoaaony neaaui ianoii
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey. Iaeiaei, ii-aeaeeiiio, iieiaeaiea aeae
a naeueneii oicyenoaa inoaiaony iaeciaiiui.

CAEETH*AIEA.

Eco/aiea aeaiiie oaiu aeaao iaeeueioth ieuo aeey ?aciuoeaiee. I/aiue
/anoi ainoaea?noai yaeyaony ia?aii?e/eiie eciaiaiee yeiiiie/aneiai
iiaaaeaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Io ?aoaiee, i?eieiaaiuo i?aaeoaeuenoaii,
caaenyo ?aoaiey, i?eieiaaiua (eee ia i?eieiaaiua) ia iee?io?iaia.
I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay iieeoeea aeinoeaaao oeaee oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea iia
iiiu?yao, a ia oeacuaaao a aee?aeoeaiii ii?yaeea. I?e nicaeaiee
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi eo /anoiue eioa?an niaiaaeao n
eioa?anii ainoaea?noaa, oi anoue iauanoaa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ainoaea?noai
aeieaeii i?inoi naeaeaoue aieaa aeinooiiie aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae oo
noa?o yeiiiieee, eioi?ay yaeyaony aeey iaai iaeaieaa i?ei?eoaoiie.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ainoaea?noai ia aeieaeii aiaoeaaoueny a oa noa?u
yeiiiieee, aaea aai aiaoaoaeuenoai ia yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui. Yoi ia
oieueei iaioaeii, ii e a?aaeii aeey yeiiiieee.

A oeaeii o?oaeii ia?aioeaieoue ?ieue ainoaea?noaa a yeiiiieea. Iii
nicaeaao oneiaey aeey yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, caueuaao
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae io oa?icu ni noi?iiu iiiiiieee, iaania/eaaao
iio?aaiinoe iauanoaa a iauanoaaiiuo oiaa?ao, iaania/eaaao nioeeaeueioth
caueoo iaeiiaania/aiiuo neiaa ianaeaiey, ?aoaao aii?inu iaoeeiiaeueiie
iai?iiu. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ainoaea?noaaiiia aiaoaoaeuenoai iiaeao a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo caiaoii ineaaeoue ?uii/iue iaoaieci e i?eianoe
caiaoiue a?aae yeiiiieea no?aiu, eae yoi auei ai O?aioeee a eiioea 70-o
– ia/aea 80-o aiaeia. Ec-ca neeoeii aeoeaiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa ec no?aiu ia/aeny iooie eaieoaeia, oaiiu yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa caiaoii oiaee. A oaeii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeia i?eaaoecaoeey e
aea?aaoee?iaaiea, /oi e auei naeaeaii a 1986 aiaeo.

Eae iia eaaeaony, iniiaiay caaea/a ainoaea?noaa ninoieo a oii, /oiau
oaea?aeeaaoue “cieiooth na?aaeeio” a noa?a aeeyiey ia ?uii/ioth
yeiiiieeo.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U.

1. A. Iaiaaa “?ieue ainoaea?noaa a nia?aiaiiie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia”,
Aii?inu yeiiiieee, N 11, 1997.

2. Eeaoeoe “Ainoaea?noai a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea”, ?inneeneee yeiiiie/aneee
aeo?iae, N 11-12, 1992, N1, 1993.

3. N. Oieeaiae “Ieaie?iaaiea e niaoaiiay yeiiiieea”, Aii?inu yeiiiieee,
N 1, 1993.

4. A. Aa?aa “?ieue ainoaea?noaa a ?uii/iii oicyenoaa”, IYeII, N 10-11,
1992.

5. Canoaaaiei, ?aecaa?a “Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?ia?aiiu e ?uiie”, Yeiiiieno,
N 3, 1991.

6. E. I. Ia?ceyeia “I noaiiaeaiee ?uii/iie yeiiiieee”, Oeiainu, N 1,
1994.

7. A. *oaeeei, A. Aeieo?eaaa “Ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea e eiio?ieue
oeai a eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao”, Iineaa, “Oeiainu e noaoenoeea”, 1991.

8. E. Iaeeiiiaee, N. A?th “Yeiiiieen”, 1999.

9. A. Iaeneiiaa, A. Oeoia “?uii/iay yeiiiieea. O/aaiee”, Iineaa,
NIIEIOAE, 1998.

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