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IEAI

Aaaaeaiea

I?e/eiu e iaoaieciu ?acaeoey caeeaiey

Eeeie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea caeeaiey

?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue caeeaiey

Caeeth/aiea

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aaaaeaiea.

Caeeaiea – ia?ooaiea oaiii-?eoie/aneie i?aaiecaoeee ?a/e, iaoneiaeaiiia
noaei?iaeiui ninoiyieai iuooe ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa.

I?iaeaio caeeaiey iiaeii n/eoaoue iaeiie ec naiuo ae?aaieo a enoi?ee
?acaeoey o/aiey i ?anno?ienoaao ?a/e. ?acee/iia iiieiaiea aai nouiinoe
iaoneiaeaii o?iaiai ?acaeoey iaoee e iiceoeee, n eioi?uo aaoi?u
iiaeoiaeeee e iiaeoiaeyo e eco/aieth yoiai ?a/aaiai ?anno?ienoaa.

A ae?aaiea a?aiaia a caeeaiee i?aeiouanoaaiii oniao?eaaee aieaciue,
naycaiioth n iaeiieaieai aeaaeiinoe a aieiaiii iicaa (Aeiiie?ao) eee
iai?aaeeueiui niioianaieai /anoae a?oeeoeyoeeiiiiai aiia?aoa
(A?enoioaeue). Aiciiaeiinoue ia?ooaiee a oeaio?aeueiii eee
ia?eoa?e/aneii ioaeaeao ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa i?e caeeaiee i?eciaaaee Aaeai,
Oeaeuen, Aaeoeaiia.

Ia ?oaaaea 19- 20 aa. caeeaiea iuoaeenue iauynieoue eae neaaenoaea
ianiaa?oainoaa ia?eoa?e/aneiai aiia?aoa ?a/e. Oae, iai?eia?, Naioi?eie
n/eoae , /oi caeeaiea aicieeaao i?e ioaa?noee a oaa?aeii iaaa, /a?ac
eioi?ia yeiau neecue i?ina/eaaaony ia ycue e cao?oaeiyao ?a/ue. Aoooea?
iauyniye yoi iaii?iaeueiui oaeoaeaieai a ieaeiae /aethnoe, a eioi?ie
i?y/aony eii/ee ycuea i?e naiai aeaeaeaiee; Y?aa-aea-Oaaoai –
iai?aaeeueiui niioiioaieai iaaeaeo aeeeiie ycuea e iieinoueth ?oa eee
neeoeii ieioiui i?ee?aieaieai aai ei?ioeie ocaea/eie.

Ae?oaea enneaaeiaaoaee naycuaaee caeeaiea n ia?ooaieyie a
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee ?a/aauo i?aaiia: noaei?iaeiia cae?uoea aieiniaie uaee
(A?iio, Ooeueoann); /?acia?ii auno?ue auaeio (Aaeea?aeue);
niaciaoe/aneia nie?auaiea iuooe, oaea?aeeaathueo ycue a iieinoe ?oa
(Eoa?, Ee, Aeeooaiaao); ianiaeaniaaiiinoue i?ioeannia iuoeaiey e ?a/e
(Aethia); ianiaa?oainoai aiee /aeiaaea, aicaeaenoaothuae ia neeo iuooe
?a/aaeaeaaoaeueiiai iaoaiecia (Ia?eaeue) e o. ae.

E ia/aeo OO a. ana iiiaiia?acea iiieiaiey iaoaieciia caeeaiey iiaeii
naanoe e o?ai oai?aoe/aneei iai?aaeaieyi:

Caeeaiea eae nianoe/aneee iaa?ic eii?aeeiaoeee, i?ienoiaeyuee io
?acae?aaeeoaeueiie neaainoe ?a/aauo oeaio?ia(aiia?aoa neiaiauo
eii?aeeiaoeee). Yoi auei /aoei noi?ioee?iaaii a o?oaeao A. Aoooeiaia, E.
A. Eonniaoey, a caoai a ?aaioao E. A. Neei?neiai, eioi?ue ienae:
«Caeeaiea anoue aiacaiiia ia?ooaiea iai?a?uaiinoe a?oeeoeyoeee,
aucaaiiia noaei?iaie, ianooieaoae a iaeiii ec ioaeaeia ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa
eae oeceieiae/aneiai oeaeiai». Noi?iiieee yoie oai?ee aia/aea
iiae/a?eeaaee a?iaeaeaiioth ?acae?aaeeoaeueioth neaainoue aiia?aoa,
oi?aaeythuaai neiaiaie eii?aeeiaoeeae. A aeaeueiaeoai iie iauyniyee
caeeaiea a naaoa iaa?ioecia: caeeaiea – yoi noaei?iaiiiaeiaiua niaciu.

Caeeaiea eae annioeeaoeaiia ia?ooaiea ineoieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Yoi
iai?aaeaiea auaeaeiooi O. Aaioia?ii e Y. O?aoaeuenii. Noi?iiieeaie auee
A. Eeaiaii, A. Ae. Iaoea/aa, TH. A. Oei?aineay. Ineoieiae/aneee iiaeoiae
e iiieiaieth iaoaieciia caeeaiey iieo/ee naia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea.

Caeeaiea eae iiaeniciaoaeueiia i?iyaeaiea, ?acaeaathuaany ia ii/aa
ineoe/aneeo o?aai, ?acee/iuo eiioeeeoia n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie.
Noi?iiieeaie yoie oai?ee auee A. Aaeea?, Oiaeaea?, eioi?ua n/eoaee, /oi
a caeeaiee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?iyaeyaony aeaeaiea eiaeeaeaea ecaaaeaoue
anyeie aiciiaeiinoe nii?eeiniiaaiey n ie?oaeathueie, a n ae?oaie –
aicaoaeeoue ni/oanoaea ie?oaeathueo iin?aaenoaii oaeiai
aeaiiino?aoeaiiai no?aaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, a eiioea 19 ia/aea 20 a. ana ii?aaeaeaiiaa noaiiaeony
iiaiea, /oi caeeaiea – yoi neiaeiia ineoioece/aneia ?anno?ienoai.

?anniio?aa ?aciua oi/ee c?aiey ia i?iaeaio caeeaiey, iiaeii naeaeaoue
iniiaiie auaiae, /oi iaoaieciu aicieeiiaaiey caeeaiey iaiaeii?iaeiu. A
iaeieo neo/ayo caeeaiea o?aeooaony eae neiaeiia iaa?ioe/aneia
?anno?ienoai, eioi?ia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii ioeaee ia?aiuo i?ioeannia a
ei?ia aieiaiiai iicaa, ia?ooaiey ei?eiai-iiaeei?eiaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey,
?anno?ienoaa aaeeiiai aaoi?aaoee?oaiiai oaiia ?a/aauo aeaeaeaiee
(aieina, aeuoaiey, a?oeeoeyoeee).

A ae?oaeo neo/ayo – eae neiaeiia iaa?ioe/aneia ?anno?ienoai, yaeaoaany
?acoeueoaoii caoeene?iaaiiiai ?aoeaena iai?aaeeueiie ?a/e,
ia?aiia/aeueii aicieeoae aneaaenoaea ?a/aauo cao?oaeiaiee ?aciiai
aaiaca.

A o?aoueeo – eae neiaeiia, i?aeiouanoaaiii ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?anno?ienoai
?a/e, iiyaeaoaany aneaaenoaea iauaai e ?a/aaiai aeeciioiaaiaca e
aeenaa?iiie/iiai ?acaeoey ee/iinoe.

A /aoaa?ouo – iaoaieci caeeaiey iiaeii iauynieoue ia iniiaa i?aaie/aneeo
eciaiaiee oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu. Aiciiaeiu e ae?oaea iauyniaiey.
Ii a ethaii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ia?ooaiey oeceieiae/aneiai e
ineoieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, ninoaaeythuea aaeeinoai.

1. I?e/eiu e iaoaieciu ?acaeoey caeeaiey

Aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie i?e/eiu e iaoaieciu ?acaeoey caeeaiey inoathony
i?aaeiaoii aeeneonnee niaoeeaeenoia ?acee/iiai i?ioeey – eiaiiaaeia,
iaa?iiaoieiaia, ineoieiaia e ae?.

Aeaaea oi?iaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiea caeeaiey eae iaoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna,
ii iiaieth A.I. Oeeianeiai (1994), ia iiaeao auoue ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia
ie aeinoaoi/iui, ie ieii/aoaeueiui. Oai ia iaiaa, aaoi? n/eoaao, /oi
caeeaiea yaeyaony aeeneii?aeeiaoeeiiiui noaei?iaeiui ia?ooaieai ?a/e,
aicieeathuei a i?ioeanna iauaiey ii iaoaiecio nenoaiiiai
?a/aaeaeaaoaeueiiai iaa?ica, e eeeie/anee i?aaenoaaeaii ia?ae/iuie,
nianoaaiii ?a/aauie, e aoi?e/iuie ineoiaaaaoaoeaiuie ?anno?ienoaaie,
cia/aiea eioi?uo o aeaoae aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa iau/ii iaaaeeei, a o
ac?ineuo iie /anoi noaiiayony aeiieie?othueie.

Aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia ?acaeaeyao oi/eo c?aiey, /oi caeeaiea – yoi
iieeii?oiia aieaciaiiia ninoiyiea, i?e eioi?ii noaei?iaeiia ia?ooaiea
?a/e yaeyaony oieueei iaeiei ec neiioiiia. Iiyoiio /aeiaaea,
no?aaeathuaai caeeaieai, neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae aieueiiai, e a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ioaeaeathuaainy a eiiieaeniii ea/aaiii aicaeaenoaee
(Anaoeaie I.I., Aaeyeiaa E.E., Eaea/aaa E.I. e ae?., 1978).

Caeeaiea – neaaenoaea iiiaeo i?e/ei. Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee ioia/atho,
/oi aicieeiiaaiea caeeaiey o aeaoae niaiaaeaao n ia?eiaeii aeoeaiiai
?acaeoey o?aciaie ?a/e. Yoio ia?eiae oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaaeinoaoi/iie
onoie/eainoueth e cia/eoaeueiie ?aieiinoueth oeei- e iioiaaiaoe/anee
iaeaieaa iicaeii ?acaeaathuaeny ?a/aaie ooieoeee. Iiyoiio, enoiaey ec
oai?ee E.I. Iaaeiaa i aunoae ia?aiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaa?icao e o/aiee
ia oneiaiuo ?aoeaenao, oi?iiaeaiea, aicieeathuaa aneaaenoaea aeaenoaey
naa?oneeueiiai ?acae?aaeeoaey a ?a/aauo ciiao aieiaiiai iicaa ?aaaiea,
iiaeao aucuaaoue “n?ua” ?a/e – caeeaiea. Aicieeoee iaaeinoaoie ?a/e i?e
iaaeaaii?eyoiii oa/aiee oeene?oaony ii iaoaiecio oneiaii?aoeaeoi?iie
nayce. Oneeeaaynue n aiaeaie, ii iniaaiii ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoueny a
yiioeeiiaeueii cia/eiuo neooaoeeyo a ioaao ia io?eoeaoaeueiua, aioaaeoea
a iaoieiae/aneoth ?aoeaeoi?ioth oeaii/eo, oneiaiua neaiaeu (Ea?aana?neee
A.Ae., 1990; Oeeianeee A.I., 1994; Naeeaa?noia A.E., 2000).

E a?iaeaeaiiui i?aae?aniieaaathuei oaeoi?ai ioiinyo oyaeaeua
ia?aii-ineoe/aneea e eioaeoeeiiiua caaieaaaiey ?iaeeoaeae. Oaeea
caaieaaaiey, eae oecio?aiey, ooaa?eoeac, neoeeen e ae?., a?aaeiua
oeie/aneea oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, iiauoaiiay ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue ai iiiaeo
neo/ayo ii?aaeatho ?aiueoa anaai ia?aioth nenoaio aua ia?iaeeaoaainy
?aaaiea. A?aaeii iiaoo io?aceoueny ia ninoiyiee ia?aiie nenoaiu
iioiinoaa e ?acee/iiai ?iaea o?aaiu, ia?aaeeaaiey, iaaeaaii?eyoiua
oneiaey aeecie e ?aaiou iaoa?e a ia?eiae aa?aiaiiinoe, ?iaeiaua o?aaiu
(Oeeianeee A.I., 1994).

A oeaeii aeey caeeathueony oa?aeoa?ia iaaeinoaoi/iinoue aeaeaaoaeueiie
noa?u, au?aaeaiiay a ?aciie noaiaie. ?a/ue i?aaeuyaeyao aunieea
o?aaiaaiey e oiiei aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie iioi?iie aeayoaeueiinoe,
niaa?oainoai eioi?ie caaeneo io oeaeinoiinoe e noaiaie c?aeinoe
oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu. O /anoe caeeathueony enneaaeiaaiey ia
iaia?oaeeaatho i?aaie/aneiai ii?aaeaiey iicaa. A oi aea a?aiy iie
oa?aeoa?ecothony oaeeie /a?oaie iiaaaeaiey, eae iiauoaiiay
aia/aoeeoaeueiinoue, o?aaiaeiinoue, ieceee o?iaaiue aaeaioaoeee e iiaui
oneiaeyi, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia iniaii, aieaa ?aieiii ninoiyiee
oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu, /ai a ii?ia (Ianotheiaa A.I., 1997).

Ii?aaeaeaiiia cia/aiea a ?acaeoee caeeaiey i?eaeaaony ianeaaenoaaiiui
oaeoi?ai. A aaiaoe/aneii eiaea ?aaaiea iiaoo auoue caeiaeaiu
iaoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeaeaaoaeueiie noa?u e ii?aaeaeaiiua
iniaaiiinoe ee/iinoe (aeoeaiooaoeee), eioi?ua i?e iaaeaaii?eyoiuo
oneiaeyo iiaoo i?eaanoe e aicieeiiaaieth caeeaiey. *anoioa aicieeiiaaiey
caeeaiey o ?iaeiuo a?aoueaa e nanoa? ninoaaeyao 18%. I?e/ai o
aeeceaioiuo aeeciaoeia caeeaiea ano?a/aaony a 32%, a o iiiiceaioiuo – a
77%. O caeeathueony ioae/ei i?ioeaio iiyaeaiey caeeathueony nuiiaae
?aaai 22%, a aei/a?ae — 9%, a aeey aeaiueiu niioaaonoaaiii – 36% e 17%
(Aaeyeiaa E.I., Aeueyeiaa A.A., 1998).

A ?a/aaii ?acaeoee aeaoae ioia/athony ia?eiaeu, eiaaea eo ia?aiay
nenoaia eniuouaaao aieueoia iai?yaeaiea. Aeey ia/aea caeeaiey iniaia
cia/aiea eiaao ia?eiae eioaineaiiai oi?ie?iaaiey ?a/e. A yoi a?aiy aeey
iiiaeo aeaoae oa?aeoa?ii iiyaeaiea oeceieiae/aneeo eoa?aoeee.

Auyaeyaony cia/eoaeueiia ianiioaaonoaea iaaeaeo iiea aua iaaeinoaoi/ii
ioi?ieaiiui ?a/aaui aeuoaieai e ineoe/aneie aiciiaeiinoueth i?iecianaiey
neiaeiuo o?ac. Ineoe/aneay noi?iia ?a/e a yoio ia?eiae iia?aaeaao
aiciiaeiinoe aa iioi?iie ?aaeecaoeee.

Aeaiiua eeoa?aoo?u iicaieytho ioianoe yaeaiea eaai?oeinoe e iaeiie ec
a?iaeaeaiiuo i?aae?aniieaaathueo i?e/ei aicieeiiaaiey caeeaiey (Aaeyeiaa
E.I., Aeueyeiaa A.A., 1998). Ecaanoii iaiaei iaaethaeaiee,
naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i oaniie nayce caeeaiey n eaaoanoaii. Ia yoi
oeacuaaao aieueoie i?ioeaio eaaoae n?aaee caeeathueony, cia/eoaeueii
i?aauoathuee i?ioeaio eaaoanoaa a iiioeyoeee.

Anoue oeacaiey oaeaea ia oi, /oi caeeaiea ia?aaeei aicieeaao i?e
ia?aainieoaiee eaai?oeinoe ia i?aai?oeinoue. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
ia?ao/eaaiea i?ienoiaeeo a?oai, a oaeaea a iaaaeaeaaoii naeaoua n?iee, o
?aaaiea iiaeao iiyaeoueny caeeaiea. Neaaeoao o/anoue, /oi i?e eaaoanoaa
o aeaoae iaaethaeathony aunieay iauay yiioeeiiaeueiinoue, aiyceeainoue,
o?aaiaeiinoue e ae?oaea iieacaoaee, eioi?ua ia?aaeei aaaeoo e
iaa?ioe/aneiio ?aaae?iaaieth i?e aicaeaenoaee ?acee/iuo iaoiaaiiuo
?acae?aaeeoaeae. Ineaaeaiea aa?iiie/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo
neiiao?e/iuie no?oeoo?aie iicaa o caeeathueony aeaeaao oaeoth
oeaio?aeueioth ia?aioth nenoaio iniai ?aieiie, /oi, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue,
io?aaeaaony ia eo ?a/aaie ooieoeee.

Aiaoiea i?aae?aniieaaathuea i?e/eiu ii?iaeaeathony ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie,
oneiaeyie aeecie e ainieoaiey ?aaaiea. E iei iiaeii ioianoe ia?ooaiey
?aaeeia nia e ieoaiey, iaaeinoaoi/ioth inaaaeiieaiiinoue ?iaeeoaeae i
oii, /oi iaeuo aeieaeai aeeoue e ainieouaaoueny, ii aiciiaeiinoe, a
niieieiuo oneiaeyo. Neeueiua caoeiaua ?acae?aaeeoaee (oaeaaeci?,
i?eaiiee, iaaieoioii, a?iieea ie?eee ac?ineuo e o.i.), aieueoia
neiieaiea ethaeae, aeooioa e o.i- ana yoi io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia
ninoiyiee ia?aiie nenoaiu ?aaaiea. Aeeeoaeueii ineoio?aaie?othuea
?acae?aaeeoaee iiaoo yaeoueny i?e/eiie oyaeaeiai iaa?ioe/aneiai
ninoiyiey, ia oiia eioi?iai iiyaeyaony caeeaiea. Ii?aaeaeaiioth ?ieue
n?aaee aiaoieo i?e/ei caeeaiey ea?aao iiae?aaeaiea ?aaaiea caeeathueiny
ac?ineui eee naa?noieeai.

Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa /anouo aiaoieo i?iecaiaeyueo i?e/ei caeeaiey yaeyaony
ino?ay ineoe/aneay o?aaia, iaianaiiay aeiiaoieie eee aeeeeie aeeaioiuie,
noeoeeiuie aaaenoaeyie, eaoano?ioaie, c?aeeuiuie ia?ii?eyoeyie,
naiaeiuie nni?aie, oece/aneeie o?aaiaie e iaaeeoeeineeie iaieioeyoeeyie
(Iennoeiaei E.ss., 1997).

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, eae oeacuaaao A.Ae. Ea?aana?neee (1990), aieueoeinoai
aaoi?ia enoiaeyo ec i?eciaiey ii?aaeaeythuae ?iee ineoio?aaie?othueo
neooaoeee a aaiaca iaa?icia, iieaaay, /oi a iaeieo neo/ayo iie iiaoo
aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa aaaeoueo yoeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia, a ae?oaeo – eae
yoeieiae/aneea oneiaey. *aua anaai iaoiaaiioth ?ieue i?eia?aoatho eo
ni/aoaiey.

Inaauay i?iaeaio ineoiaaiee, niinianoaothueo aicieeiiaaieth o aeaoae
caeeaiey, I.A. Aeaniaa (1978) ia?yaeo n ino?ie ineoe/aneie
o?aaiaoecaoeeae i?eaeaao cia/aiea e o?iie/aneei eiioeeeoiui neooaoeeyi,
eioi?ua iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaiu n aunieie yiioeeiiaeueiie
aicaoaeeiinoueth aeaoae aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa.

A aicieeiiaaiee caeeaiey ia?ainoaiaiioth ?ieue ea?atho ia?ooaiiua
acaeiiioiioaiey ia?aiuo i?ioeannia (ia?aiai?yaeaiea eo neeu e
iiaeaeaeiinoe) a ei?a aieiaiiai iicaa. Ia?aiue n?ua a aeayoaeueiinoe
ei?u aieueoeo iieooa?ee iiaeao auoue iaoneiaeai n iaeiie noi?iiu,
ninoiyieai ia?aiie nenoaiu, aa “aioiaiinoueth” e ioeeiiaieyi io ii?iu. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu ia?aiue n?ua iiaeao auoue aucaai iaaeaaii?eyoiuie
yeciaaiiuie oaeoi?aie (Naeeaa?noia A.E., 2000).

N iiceoeee nia?aiaiiie iae?ioeceieiaee ninoiyiea ia?aiie nenoaiu
caeeathuaainy ?aaaiea oa?aeoa?ecoao i?aiaeaaeaiea i?ioeannia
aicaoaeaeaiey iaae oi?iiaeaieai. Neaainoue oi?iiciuo iaoaieciia,
iaoneiaeaiiay eiinoeoooeeiiaeueii eee ia?aianaiiie iaoieiaee
oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu, iaeaa/aao oi?ie?iaaiea i/aaia canoieiiai
aicaoaeaeaiey a ioaeaeao ?a/aaeaeaaoaeueiie iiaenenoaiu, eioi?ua
yaeythony naiaia?aciuie aaia?aoi?aie noaei?iaeiie aeoeaiinoe. Oaeiai
?iaea iauaeou ii A.I.E?uaeaiianeiio (1997) iacuaathony aaia?aoi?aie
iaoieiae/anee oneeaiiiai aicaoaeaeaiey e i?aaenoaaeytho oieaa?naeueiue
iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey iaoieiae/aneie nenoaiu i?e iiiaeo caaieaaaieyo
ia?aiie nenoaiu.

Eco/aiea e ooi/iaiea yoeiiaoiaaiaoe/aneeo iniia caeeaiey ai anai eo
iiiaiia?acee i?aaenoaaeyao ia oieueei cia/eoaeueiue iao/iue eioa?an, ii,
i?aaeaea anaai, yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui i?e aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiii iiaeoiaea
e eeeie/aneei i?iyaeaieyi yoiai ia?ooaiey ?a/e e ineoiiaa?ioe/aneeo
caaieaaaiee, ia oiia eioi?uo iii, eae i?aaeei, i?ioaeaao. Oieueei oaeie
iiaeoiae iiaeao iaania/eoue aeaeueiaeoaa ieiaeioai?iia enneaaeiaaiea
caeeaiey e aeano aiciiaeiinoue i?iaiaeeoue iaoiaaiaoe/anee iainiiaaiioth
eiiieaenioth oa?aieth aieueiuo, no?aaeathueo yoei aeaoaeoii ?a/e.

2. Eeeie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea caeeaiey

?a/ue caeeathuaainy nii?iaiaeaeaaony caieieaie, inoaiiaeaie (oiie/aneea
?a/aaua noaei?iae), iiaoi?aieyie ioaeaeueiuo caoeia, neiaia, neia
(eeiie/aneea ?a/aaua noaei?iae). Caeeathueiny naienoaaiii aaaaeaiea a
?a/ue aeiaaai/iuo neia (yiaieioacey), iiaeiaia “o?oaeiuo” neia “eaaeeie”
(oeiaee), niioonoaothueo ?a/e aeaeaeaiee (eeaee, iiaea?aeaaiea,
caaeio?eaaiea, iiea/eaaiea). O iiiaeo caeeathueony aieaa noa?oeo
aic?anoiuo a?oii iaaethaeaaony no?ao ?a/e (eiaioiaey) (Aeaniaa I.A.,
1974; Iennoeiaei E.ss., 1997; Aaeyeiaa E.I., Aeueyeiaa A.A., 1998;
Naeeaa?noia A.E., 2000).

Iniiaiui neiioiiii caeeaiey yaeythony noaei?iae iuooe ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa
a aeaea iai?iecaieueiiai nie?auaiey iuooe a i?ioeanna ?a/e eee i?e
iiiuoea ia/aoue ?a/ue. Auaeaeytho oiie/aneea e eeiie/aneea noaei?iae
iuooe ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa.

Oiie/aneea ?a/aaua noaei?iae oa?aeoa?ecothony ?aceei iiauoaieai oiiona
iuooe a ianeieueeeo a?oiiao, /oi aeonoe/anee i?iyaeyaony aeeeoaeueiie
iaocie a ?a/e eee i?ioyaeiie aieaeecaoeeae. I?e yoii iaaethaeaaony iauay
neiaaiiinoue caeeathuaainy, eeoei aai io?aaeaao iai?yaeaiea, ?io eeai
iieoioe?uo, eeai cae?uo n ieioii niieioouie aoaaie.

Eeiie/aneea ?a/aaua noaei?iae i?iyaeythony iiiaie?aoiuie ?eoie/iuie
nie?auaieyie iuooe ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa, /oi nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiaoi?aieai
ioaeaeueiuo caoeia, neiaia eee neia. Eeiie/aneea e oiie/aneea ?a/aaua
noaei?iae iiaoo iaaethaeaoueny o iaeiiai e oiai aea caeeathuaainy e
i?iyaeyoueny ai anao ioaeaeao ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa: aeuoaoaeueiii,
aieiniaii e a?oeeoeyoeeiiiii. A eeeie/aneie ea?oeia caeeaiey, iniaaiii
i?e o?iiecaoeee ?a/aaiai aeaoaeoa, /aua ano?a/athony niaoaiiua
noaei?iae: aeuoaoaeueii-a?oeeoeyoeeiiiua, aeuoaoaeueii-aieiniaua,
a?oeeoeyoeeiiii-aieiniaua e o.ae.

Aeuoaoaeueiua noaei?iae iiaoo auoue einie?aoi?iuie, o.a. aicieeathueie a
oaco aaeioa, e yenie?aoi?iuie, oa?aeoa?ecothueieny ?aceei aiacaiiui
auaeioii. Einie?aoi?iua noaei?iae aeonoe/anee eae – i?aaeei iaeicaiaoiu,
oiaaea eae yenie?aoi?iua noaei?iae nii?iaiaeaeathony neeueiui nie?auaiea
iuooe a?thoiiai i?anna, aicaeoo ?acei e ooiii i?ioiaeeo /a?ac ?ane?uooth
aieiniaoth uaeue, a?oeeoeyoeey e aieaeecaoeey i?einoaiaaeeaathony, i?e
yoii o caeeathueony aicieeaao iuouaiea neeueiiai naeaoey a?oaeiie eeaoee
e iaoaaoee aicaeooa.

Noaei?iae aieiniaiai aiia?aoa aicieeatho, eae i?aaeei, a iiiaio iiiuoee
i?iecianaiey aeaniiai caoea. ?acee/atho o?e iniiaiuo aeaea noaei?ia
aieiniaiai aiia?aoa: niueaoaeueioth aieiniaoth noaei?iao, aieaeueioth
noaei?iao e ae?iaeauee eee oie/eiia?aciue ai?oaiiue niaci.

Noaei?iae a?oeeoeyoeeiiiiai aiia?aoa iiae?acaeaeytho ia eeoeaaua,
ycu/iua e iyaeiai iaaa.

O caeeathueony auyaeythony cia/eoaeueiua ia?ooaiey ?a/aaiai aeuoaiey.
Iaaeinoaoi/iue aaeio ia iaania/eaaao oeaeinoiiai i?iecianaiey
eioiiaoeeiiii – niuneiaiai io?acea niiauaiey. Caeeathueany iiaoo
aiai?eoue ia aaeioa, eeai a oaca iieiiai auaeioa.

?a/ue caeeathuaainy iau/ii nii?iaiaeaeaaony niioonoaothueie
aeaeaeaieyie, eioi?ua iiaoo eiaoue ianeeuenoaaiiue eee oeiai/iue
oa?aeoa?. O ?yaea aieueiuo n aeoeaiooaoeeyie ee/iinoe ii
o?aaiaeii-iieoaeueiiio oeio oeiai/iua aeaeaeaiey ia?a?anoatho a
aeaeaaoaeueiua ?eooaeu.

?a/ue caeeathueony, iniaaiii ac?ineuo aieueiuo, /anoi nii?iaiaeaeaaony
aaaaoaoeaiuie ?aaeoeeyie, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony eciaiaieai oeaaoa eiaeiuo
iie?iaia, o/auaieai na?aeoeaaeaiey, aeia?aeae?icii. Oaeiai ?iaea
?aaeoeee ?anoeaieaathony niaoeeaeenoaie eae neiiaoi-aae?aiaeiaaua.

O aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ac?ineuo caeeathueony, a ioee/ea io aeaoae
aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa, iaaethaeaaony eiaioiaey. Eiaioiaey aeeth/aao a
naay iaayc/eaua ia?aaeeaaiey e no?ao aicieeiiaaiey ?a/aauo noaei?ia.

?acee/atho aeaa aeaea caeeaiey – yaiethoeeiiiia, ?acaeaathuaany o aeaoae
aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa a aic?anoa 2-6 eao, e neiioiiaoe/aneia,
aicieeathuaa a ?acee/iii aic?anoa i?e caaieaaaieyo oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie
nenoaiu – /a?aiii-iicaiauo o?aaiao, yieeainee, yioeaoaeeoao, ?aaeoeaiuo
ninoiyieyo o enoa?e/aneeo ee/iinoae e ae?.

A caaeneiinoe io oiai, aicieeaao ee yaiethoeeiiiia caeeaiea ia
iaa?ioe/aneie iniiaa eee ia oiia i?eciaeia i?aaie/aneiai ii?aaeaiey
aieiaiiai iicaa, auaeaeytho iaa?ioe/aneoth e iaa?iciiiaeaioth oi?iu
caaieaaaiey. Ni/aoaiiia aeaenoaea oeacaiiuo oaeoi?ia oa?aeoa?ii aeey
niaoaiiie oi?iu caeeaiey. Ii oa/aieth yaiethoeeiiiia caeeaiea auaaao
noaoeeiia?iui, i?ia?aaeeaioiui, ?aa?aaeeaioiui e ?aoeeaeeae?othuei.

Iaa?ioe/aneia caeeaiea aicieeaao a oneiaeyo ino?ie eee o?iie/aneie
ineoe/aneie o?aaiaoecaoeee a aic?anoa 2-6 eao e a aeaeueiaeoai
oa?aeoa?ecoaony aieiiia?aciinoueth oa/aiey. Eiiaaea aei iiyaeaiey
caeeaiey, aneaae ca ia?aianaiiie ?aaaieii ino?ie ineoe/aneie o?aaiie,
iaeioi?ia a?aiy iaaethaeaaony iooeci.

?aiaa ?a/aaia e aeaeaaoaeueiia ?acaeoea o oaeeo aeaoae niioaaonoaoao
aic?anoiui n?ieai, a a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iiaeao iia?aaeaoue eo.
Nianoaaiii ?a/aaua noaei?iaeiua i?iyaeaiey auaatho ?aciuie: /aua
ioia/athony eeiie/aneea a?oeeoeyoeeiiiua noaei?iae, oneeeaathueany i?e
yiioeeiiaeueiii iai?yaeaiee, a oaeaea oiieei-eeiie/aneea noaei?iae a
ia/aea ?a/e. *aoei au?aaeaii neooaoeeiiii – iaoneiaeaiiia oneeaiea
caeeaiey. Ee/iinoiay ?aaeoeey ia aeaoaeo i?iyaeyaony a aeaea aieiaiey
ia?aae ?a/ueth, ioeacia io ?a/aaiai iauaiey. Aeaoaeou i?ieciioaiey a
aeaea aeeneaeee eiatho ianoi, ii n?aaieoaeueii eaaei iiaeaeathony
ei??aeoeee.

Iiieii caeeaiey o aeaoae iaia?oaeeaathony oa eee eiua iaa?ioe/aneea
i?iyaeaiey: eai?eciinoue, no?aoe, eieaaaiey iano?iaiey,
aia/aoeeoaeueiinoue, o?aaiaeiinoue. Iaa?ioe/aneay neiioiiaoeea oaeaea
iineo aieiiia?aciue oa?aeoa?, ooyaeaeyynue ia oiia yiioeeiiaeueiiai
iai?yaeaiey e ia?aooiieaiey. Yoe aeaoe n o?oaeii i?eaueatho e iiaie
ianoaiiaea, a /anoiinoe, e oneiaeyi aeaoneiai naaea. Iaeiaei a
aeioeieueiii aic?anoa iaee/ea caeeaiey, eae i?aaeei, ia ieacuaaao
caiaoiiai aeeyiey ia nioeeaeueiia iiaaaeaiea aeaoae. Eo eiioaeou n
?iaanieeaie e ac?ineuie inoathony i?aeoe/anee aac eciaiaiee.

Aeaeaeaiey aeaoae, no?aaeathueo iaa?ioe/aneei caeeaieai,
oa?aeoa?ecothony iaaeinoaoi/iie /aoeinoueth e i?aaieciaaiiinoueth,
iaoaa?aiiinoueth i?e i?aaeeueiii aini?iecaaaeaiee eo oi?ioeu.
Auyaeythony cao?oaeiaiey a oi/iii oaea?aeaiee iicu, oaiiiaua
?anno?ienoaa. Eiatho ianoi iaoi/iinoue, noaoeeainoue i?e auiieiaiee
iaeeeo aeaeaeaiee. I?iecaieueiua ?a/aaua e ieie/aneea aeaeaeaiey
ioee/athony io ii?iu iacia/eoaeueii. Ioia/aaony oi?ioay aeeiaie/aneay
eii?aeeiaoeey, ia?aeeth/aaiinoue e iaeiia?aiaiiinoue e iaeiia?aiaiiinoue
aeaeaeaiee, aeinoaoi/iia ?acaeoea /oanoaa ?eoia, i?eaioe?iaee a
i?ino?ainoaa, aunieay oi?aaeiyaiinoue a iioi?iuo iaaueao. Niioonoaothuea
?a/e aeaeaeaiey n?aaieoaeueii eaaei iiaeaeathony ei??aeoeee.

Iaa?iciiiaeiaiia caeeaiea aicieeaao ia oiia yaeaiee i?aaie/aneie
oea?aa?aeueiie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe aioa-, ia?e- eee iinoiaoaeueiiai aaiaca.
I?eciaee aa iaia?oaeeaathony a aeaea ?annayiiie iaa?ieiae/aneie
neiioiiaoeee e a ?acee/iie noaiaie au?aaeaiiinoe oea?aa?anoaie/aneei
neiae?iiii. Iineaaeiee i?iyaeyaony a aeaea ooiieyaiinoe, enoiuaaiinoe,
iiauoaiiie ?acae?aaeeoaeueiinoe, aeaeaaoaeueiie ?anoi?iiaeaiiinoe. A
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeeaaiinoe?oaony ineoiiaoiiiaeiaiue neiae?ii, eioi?ue
oa?aeoa?ecoaony o?oaeiinoyie iiaaaeaiey e yaeaieyie aeaeaaoaeueiie
?anoi?iiaeaiiinoe.

Caeeaiea aicieeaao a aic?anoa 3-4 aiaea aia nayce n ineoiaaiiuie
iiiaioaie ia oiia iaeaieaa eioaineaiiai ?acaeoey o?aciaie ?a/e e
ooyaeaeyaony iinoaiaiii, noaei?iaeiua i?iyaeaiey eiatho oaiaeaioeeth e
aaia?aeecaoeee. ?a/ue oooaeoaaony i?e ooiieaiee e iinea niiaoiaaiee.
Caeeaiea eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e noieeiio iiiioiiiiio eee i?ia?aaeeaioiiio
oa/aieth. ?aiiaa ?a/aaia e aeaeaaoaeueiia ?acaeoea iiaeao i?ioiaeeoue a
n?ie eee n iaeioi?ui iiicaeaieai. Aeaoe n iaa?iciiiaeiaiui caeeaieai
iaia?oaeeaatho iaee/ea noa?oie oi?iu aeeca?o?ee eee au?aaeaiiie
aeeneaeee. A ?yaea neo/aaa iaa?iciiiaeiaiia caeeaiea aicieeaao ia oiia
iaaei?acaeoey ?a/e. Ee/iinoiay ?aaeoeey ia aeaoaeo au?aaeaia neaai.
Oneiaey ?a/aaiai iauaiey ia aeeytho ia ea/anoai ?a/e.

Aeaeaeaiey aeaoae, no?aaeathueo iaa?iciiiaeiaiui caeeaieai,
iaia?oaeeaatho ?aciiia?aciua ia?ooaiey. Aieueiua cao?oaeiythony n
auiieiaieai i?ia ia noaoe/aneoth e aeeiaie/aneoth eii?aeeiaoeeth,
ioia/aaony neaaia ?acaeoea /oanoaa ?eoia, ia?ooaiea iaeiia?aiaiiinoe
aeaeaeaiee. Iaaethaeaaony ia?aeeth/aaiinoue aeaeaeaiee, ooiieyaiinoue,
enoiuaaiinoue, iaaeinoaoi/iay oi?aaeiyaiinoue a iioi?iuo iaaueia. A
?yaea neo/aaa no?aaeaao au?aceoaeueiinoue aeaeaeaiee, eiaeinoue,
auno?ioa aeaeaaoaeueiie ?aaeoeee. Iaaethaeathony iaoieiae/aneea
aeaeaeaiey, neieeiacee, iiiaiia?acea niioonoaothueo ?a/e aeaeaeaiee.
Oa?aeoa?ia iaaeinoaoi/iinoue ?a/aauo aeaeaeaiee ii neea, oi/iinoe,
iauaio, ia?aeeth/aaiinoe. Iaia?oaeeaathony o?oaeiinoe aeaenoaee n
iaeeeie i?aaeiaoaie, a oaeaea eciaiaiey a ninoiyiee ieie/aneie iioi?eee.

?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue caeeaiey.

Caeeaiea ii?aaeaeyaony eae ia?ooaiea oaiia, ?eoia e ieaaiinoe onoiie
?a/e, iaoneiaeaiiia noaei?iaeiui ninoiyieai iuooe ?a/aaiai aiia?aoa.
Ia/aei yoiai ?anno?ienoaa ?a/e iaaeaao iau/ii ia ia?eiae eioaineaiiai
oi?ie?iaaiey ?a/aaie ooieoeee. Caeeaiea, ia/aaoaany o aeaoae a
aeioeieueiii aic?anoa, ?anniao?eaaaony eae naiinoiyoaeueiay ?a/aaay
iaoieiaey, a ioee/ea io oae iacuaaaiiai neiioiiaoe/aneiai eee
“aoi?e/iiai” caeeaiey, eioi?ia iaaethaeaaony i?e iaoieiaee aieiaiiai
iicaa i?aaie/aneiai aaiaca eee ia?aii-ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoaao (Aeaniaa
I.A., 1974; Anaoeaie I.I., Aaeyeiaa E.E., Eaea/aaa E.I. e ae?., 1978).

Ii aeaiiui eeoa?aoo?u caeeaieai no?aaeatho ieiei 2% aeaoae e aei 1,5%
ac?ineuo (Iaiueoeeiaa N.A., 1999; Naeeaa?noia A.E., 2000). N?aaee
aeaoae, no?aaeathueo caeeaieai, niioiioaiea aeaai/ae e iaeue/eeia
ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 1 e 3-4 (Aaeyeiaa E.I., Aeueyeiaa A.A., 1998). N
aic?anoii caeeaiea oiaiueoaaony eee en/acaao nianai., ii o ?yaea
aieueiuo iii inoaaony, i?e/ai o ioae/ei ano?a/aaony /aua, /ai o aeaiuei
a niioiioaiee 2,2-5,3 e 1 (Iennoeiaei E.ss., 1979; Ea?aana?neee A.Ae.,
1990).

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?aiao ioia/aaony ?ino /anoiou
caeeaiey o aeaoae, /oi naycuaatho n ao?iui aiaae?aieai a iianaaeiaaioth
aeeciue yeaeo?iiiuo n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, aeaeaiea?,
ia?ooeaathueo ia?iiiua ianneau aoaeeiaecoaeueiuo aeaiiuo ia iaie?aiooth
ia?aioth nenoaio ?aaaiea (Iaeeeiaa? A.E., Oniaineay E.I., 1995).

Caeeth/aiea.

Caeeaiea – neiaeiia ?a/aaia ?anno?ienoai, o?aaothuaa aeaeueiaeoaai
oaeoaeaiiiai eco/aiey. N?aaee iiiai/eneaiiuo ?a/aauo ia?ooaiee iii iaeii
ec iaiiiaeo, iaoaieciu eioi?iai aei eiioea ia ?ane?uou, ia iauyniaiu a
oaeie noaiaie, /oiau iiaeii auei, iie?aynue ia ieo, ?ac?aaioaoue
aunieiyooaeoeaioth iaoiaeeeo ono?aiaiey yoiai aeaoaeoa. Eiaiii
iaaeinoaoi/iay ?ac?aaioaiiinoue i?iaeaiu iaoaieciia caeeaiey
iaoneiaeeaaao a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiiaianiaeoiinoue aicaeaenoaey ia
caeeathuaainy.

Nia?aiaiiue iiaeoiae e i?aiaeieaieth caeeaiey ianoiyoaeueii o?aaoao
?ac?aaioee e i?eiaiaiey aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo iaoiaeia ei??aeoeee aeaiiie
?a/aaie iaoieiaee. Eiaiii n iiceoeee aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai iiaeoiaea
neaaeoao ia oieueei ono?aiyoue, ii e ianoiyoaeueii eco/aoue caeeaiea. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoaieciu caeeaiey ?anniao?eaathony iaiaeiicia/ii.

Ai-ia?auo, iii o?aeooaony eae neiaeiia iaa?ioe/aneia ?anno?ienoai,
eioi?ia yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii ioeaee ia?aiuo i?ioeannia a ei?a aieiaiiai
iicaa, ia?ooaiey ei?eiai-iiaeei?eiaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, ?anno?ienoaa
aaeeiiai aaoi?aaoee?oaiiai oaiia ?a/aauo aeaeaeaiee (aiein, aeuoaiea,
a?oeeoeyoeey).

Ai-aoi?uo, caeeaiea o?aeooaony oiaea eae neiaeiia iaa?ioe/aneia
?anno?ienoai, ii yaeaoaany ?acoeueoaoii caoeene?iaaiiiai ?aoeaena
iai?aaeeueiie ?a/e, ia?aiia/aeueii aicieeoae a ?acoeueoaoa ?a/aauo
cao?oaeiaiee ?aciiai aaiaca.

A-o?aoueeo, caeeaiea iiieiaaony eae neiaeiia, i?aeiouanoaaiii
ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?anno?ienoai ?a/e, iiyaeaoaany aneaaenoaea iauaai e
?a/aaiai aeeciioiaaiaca e aeenaa?iiie/iiai ?acaeoey ee/iinoe.

A-/aoaa?ouo, iaoaieci caeeaiey iiaeii iauynieoue ia iniiaa i?aaie/aneeo
eciaiaiee oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu. Yoio iaoaieci oaeaea aua
iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/ai.

Aiciiaeiu e ae?oaea aa?eaiou iauyniaiey iaoaieciia caeeaiey. Ii a ethaii
neo/aa iaaei o/eouaaoue ia?ooaiey oeceieiae/aneiai e ineoieiae/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a, ninoaaeythuea aaeeinoai. Iaeei iiaeoiae – oieueei
oeceieiae/aneee, iae?ioeceieiae/aneee, ineoieiae/aneee,
ineoieeiaaenoe/aneee – iaaeinoaoi/ai aeey iauyniaiey iaoaiecia caeeaiey.
Aiciiaeii, /oi aaeeiiai iaoaiecia caeeaiey iao, anoue ?aciia caeeaiea o
eaaeaeiai caeeathuaainy a ?aciuo neooaoeeyo iauaiey e aeayoaeueiinoe. A
yoii neo/aa oeaeaniia?acii ?ac?aaaouaaoue aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiua iaoiaeeee
ei??aeoeeiiiiai aicaeaenoaey ia caeeathueony.

Iaeei ec aaaeiuo aii?inia, o?aaothueo ?aoaiey, – i?aainoaaiiinoue a
?aaioa eiaiiaaeia aeioeieueiuo e oeieueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee. Caeeathueeny
?aaaiie, iinauaaoee ?a/aaie aeaoneee naae, iinooiay a oeieo, oa?yao
naycue n i?aaeiei eiaiiaaeii e ia anaaaea onoaiaaeeaaao eiioaeo ni
oeieueiui eiaiiaaeii. Aeieoiaioia, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo yoo naycue eae
iaycaoaeueioth, ia nouanoaoao. I?iaeieaeaiea ei??aeoeeiiiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia caeeathuaainy caaeneo io ianoie/eainoe ?iaeeoaeae
?aaaiea eee io aeaeaiey oeieueiiai eiaiiaaea noi?ie?iaaoue a?oiio
caeeathueony oeieueieeia. Oaeei ia?acii, ?acoeueoaou ono?aiaiey
caeeaiey, iieo/aiiua a aeioeieueiii aic?anoa, n i?eoiaeii ?aaaiea a
oeieo ia oieueei ia cae?aieythony, ii a iiaie n?aaea caeeathueeny
oeieueiee oa?yao i?eia?aoaiiia, ianooiaao ?aoeeaeea caeeaiey,
oooaeoathony oneiaey nioeeaeueiie aaeaioaoeee ?aaaiea.

Ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia ?acaeoey eiaiiaaee/aneie iiiiue a no?aia iiaeii
iaiaoeoue neaaeothuea iooe ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu i?aainoaaiiinoe. Iaeei ec
iooae — eaoaiianoe/aneia eco/aiea caeeathueony, i?iaaaeaiiia /a?ac 1 —
3 aiaea iinea iinauaiey ?a/aaiai aeioeieueiiai o/?aaeaeaiey, iii iiaeao
iineoaeeoue nicaeaieth nayce iaaeaeo aeaoneei naaeii e oeieie.

Aoi?ie iooue ?aoaiey aii?ina i i?aainoaaiiinoe — iiauoaiea
ineoieiae/aneie a?aiioiinoe eiaiiaaeia. *a?ac eco/aiea oao
ineoieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu io?aaeaoue a naiai
caeeth/aiee i ?aaaiea eiaiiaaeu aeioeieueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, oeieueiue
eiaiiaae iieo/eo iaiaoiaeeiue iaoa?eae. Eiay aeaiiua i ee/iinoe
caeeathuaainy ?aaaiea a ?aiiai aeaonoaa, oeieueiue eiaiiaae i?iaeieaeaao
eco/aiea ee/iinoe ?aaaiea, aai iiaaaeaiey, iee?in?aaeu a iiauo oneiaeyo
aeayoaeueiinoe e a niioaaonoaee n yoei ii?aaeaeyao eiaiiaaee/aneee e
iaycaoaeueii ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneee iooue aicaeaenoaey.

Ia eiaiiaaee/aneeo caiyoeyo n caeeathueieny ieaaeoeie oeieueieeaie
neaaeoao nicaeaaaoue uaaeyuee ia?aoiae e iiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, ieaie?oy
e i?iaiaey ea?u-caiyoey. *oiau ia iiauoaoue ineoieiae/aneoth iaa?oceo
caeeathuaiony ?aaaieo, a ea?iaia caiyoea neaaeoao iinoaiaiii aaiaeeoue
yeaiaiou o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

O?aaoao ?aoaiey i?iaeaia eiaiiaaee/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia caeeathueony
aeaoae i?aaeaeioeieueiiai aic?anoa e nayce a ?aaioa eiaiiaaeia,
ieacuaathueo eiaiiaaee/aneoth iiiiuue caeeathueiny aeaoyi ?aciiai
aic?anoa. Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii ono?aiaiea caeeaiey a aic?anoa io 2 aei 4
eao, iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue aii?in i?aainoaaiiinoe a ?aaioa
eiaiiaaeia a nenoaia ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey e cae?aaiio?aiaiey,
oaaee/eaay eiee/anoai ynaeueiuo a?oii aeey caeeathueony n
niioaaonoaothueie iaaeeoeeineeie, ainieoaoaeueiuie e eiaiiaaee/aneeie
eaae?aie. Ia?niaeoeaii a ieaia ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu caeeaiey nicaeaiea a
no?aia a?oii ?enea. Iaaethaeaiea ?aaaiea io ?iaeaeaiey aei aic?anoa, a
eioi?ii aicieeaao caeeaiea, niinianoaiaaei au e ieacaieth ?aiiae iiiiue
oieueei /oi ia/aaoaio caeeaoueny, e eco/aieth iniaaiiinoae caeeaiey a
noieue ?aiiai aic?anoa. N yoie i?iaeaiie oanii naycaia i?iaeaia
?ac?aaioee ineoieiae/anee iainiiaaiiuo iaoiaeee eiaiiaaee/aneie ?aaiou
eae n aeaoueie ?aiiaai aic?anoa, oae e ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai
aeioeieueiiai ia?eiaea.

O?aaotho aeaeueiaeoae ?ac?aaioee ia?niaeoeaiua ineoieiae/aneee e
ineoieeiaaenoe/aneee aniaeou caeeaiey.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Anaoeaie I.I., Aaeyeiaa E.E., Eaea/aaa E.I. e ae?. Aeaiiua
eeeieei-oeceieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey aeaoae aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa,
no?aaeathueo caeeaieai // Aeaoaeoieiaey. – 1978. – ?1. – N.25-30.

Aaeyeiaa E.I., Aeueyeiaa A.A. Caeeaiea. – I.: A. Naea/aa, 1998. – 304n.

Aiaiiieiaa A.E. Ono?aiaiea caeeaiey o aeaoae e iiae?inoeia. – I.:
I?inaauaiea, 1977. – 96n.

Aeaniaa I.A. I caeeaiee aeaoae aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa // Iaaeeao?ey. –
1974. – ?7. – N.82-85.

Ea?aana?neee A.Ae. Iaa?icu. – I.: Iaaeeoeeia, 1990. – 576n.

E?uaeaiianeee A.I. Iauay iaoioeceieiaey ia?aiie nenoaiu. ?oeiaiaenoai. –
I.: Iaaeeoeeia, 1997. – 352n.

Eiaiiaaeey / Iiae ?aae. E.N. Aieeiaie – – I.: I?inaauaiea, 1995. – 528n.

Ianotheiaa A.I. Ea/aaiay iaaeaaiaeea (?aiiee e aeioeieueiue aic?ano):
Niaaou iaaeaaiaai e ?iaeeoaeyi ii iiaeaioiaea e iao/aieth aeaoae n
iniauie i?iaeaiaie a ?acaeoee. – I : AEAAeIN, 1997. – 304n.

Iaiueoeeiaa N.A. Ei??aeoeey caeeaiey o aeaoae. I?aeoe/aneia iiniaea aeey
eiaiiaaeia e ?iaeeoaeae. – Eacaiue: “Eeaia”, 1999. – 112n.

Iennoeiaei E.ss. Caeeaiea e aai ono?aiaiea. – NIa.: III “NEI”, 1997. –
144n.

Iaeeeiaa? A.E., Oniaineay E.I. Eae iiii/ue caeeathueiny oeieueieeai. –
I.: I?inaauaiea, 1995. – 176n.

?u/eiaa I.A. Eiaiiaaee/aneay ?eoieea. – I.: AIII-I?ANN, 1998. – 36n.

Naeeaa?noia A.E. Caeeaiea o aeaoae: Ineoiei??aeoeeiiiua e
aeeaeaeoe/aneea iniiau eiaiiaaee/aneiai aicaeaenoaey. – I.: AEAAeIN,
2000. – 208n.

*aaaeaaa I.A. E aii?ino i caeeaiee o aeaoae // Aeaoaeoieiaey. – 1977. –
?1. – N.20-23.

Oeeianeee A.I. Caeeaiea. – I., 1994. – 248n.

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