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ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie oaaea?aoeee

ia?ineee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao

oaeoeueoao iocuee

eaoaae?a iocueiaaaeaiey e iocueaeueiie iaaeaaiaeee

AIAAeAIIAA TH.A.

nooaeaioea 1041 a?oiiu

AICIIAEIINOE ENIIEUeCIAAIEss AeAONEEO OI?OAIEAIIUO NI*EIAIEE E.AeAATHNNE
E

I. ?AAAEss IA O?IEAO IOCUEE A IAUAIA?ACIAAOAEUeIIE OEIEA.

aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue –

no. i?ai., eaiae. ene-y

IUEAAAA E.Ae.

IA?IUe 1998

NIAeA?AEAIEA:

Aaaaeaiea.

Aeaaa I. Eii?anneiieci a eneonnoaa e aai iniaaiiinoe a iocuea.

1. Eii?anneiieci e oai?ey iocueaeueiiai noeey.

2. Eii?anneiieci. Nooue iiiyoey.

3. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea noeeae E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey.

Aeaaa II. Aeaoneay oi?oaieaiiay iocuea eii?anneiienoia a i?aeoeea io-

cueaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey.

1. Iaci? o/aaiuo i?ia?aii.

2. Aiaeec aeaoneeo oi?oaieaiiuo oeeeeia E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey.

Aeaaa III. Iaeioi?ua ?acoeueoaou naiinoiyoaeueiie iiuoiie ?aaiou.

1. Caiyoea, iinayuaiiia ciaeiinoao n aeaoneeie oi?oaieaiiuie ni/eia-

ieyie E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey.

2. O?iee, oi?ie?othuea iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i ooaeiaeanoaaiiii iai?aaea-

iee eii?anneiieci.

Caeeth/aiea.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Iioiua i?eia?u.

AAAAeAIEA

 _Aeooaeueiinoue oaiu . a nia?aiaiiie i?aeoeea i?aiiaeaaaiey
iocuee a iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeieao, ciaeiinoai aeaoae n
eii?anneiieciii ii/oe

ia inouanoaeyaony. Iaaeaeo oai, ni/eiaiey eiiiiceoi?ia
eii?anneiienoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey n eo y?eie, e?ani/iie caoeiaie
iaeeo?ie e aeeaiienii-c?eiuie, caiiieiathueieny ia?acaie iiaee au
auoue aieaa aeoeaii caaeaenoaiaaiu a oeieueiii iao/aiee. Iie niiniaiu
ia oieueei i?eaea/ue aieiaiea o/aueony e iaeiiio ec eioa?aniaeoeo
enoi?eei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo oa/aiee a eneonnoaa, ii e any/anee
noeioee?iaaoue aeaoneoth oai?/aneoth oaioaceth.

Aaconeiaii, eii?anneiieci – iiiyoea aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiia, e
aeaoaeueiia iieiia ?ane?uoea aai oeieueieeaie ia yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiui.
Ii ianaethoii i?ioiaeeoue ieii iaai a i?ioeanna iao/aiey auei au
iaaa?ii, iineieueeo inoaiaony iainaauaiiui cia/eoaeueiue yoai
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey a iocuea, aaaeouee e iinoeaeaiey nia?aiaiiiai
eneonnoaa. Iiyoiio nii?eeiniiaaiea n iocueaeueiui eii?anneiieciii,
oioyau a ieaia oi?ie?iaaiey iauaai i?aaenoaaeaiey i iai, iai aeaeeony
iaiaoiaeeiui.

Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi ni/eiaiey eii?anneiienoia niaa?oaiii ia
i?aaenoaaeaiu a ecaanoiuo ia naaiaeiy i?ia?aiiao aeey
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeie. Oae, a i?ia?aiia TH.A.Aeeaaa ciaeiinoai n
ieie inouanoaeyaony a eiioaenoa eco/aiey noeeae e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
iai?aaeaiee. Ii, ai-ia?auo, ia eco/aiea eii?anneiiecia ioaiaeeony
n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoia eiee/anoai a?aiaie: ai-aoi?uo, e?oa
i?aaeeiaeaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, ia iao acaeyae, neiaeai aeey aeaoneiai
aini?eyoey. Ni/eiaiey eiiiiceoi?ia eii?anneiienoia aeeth/aiu e a
I?ia?aiio Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneiai. Ii i?eaeaeaao eo a ea/anoaa iaoa?eaea
aeey neooaiey a n?aaeieo eeannao. Oaiu, a aniaeoa eioi?uo
?anniao?eaathony i?iecaaaeaiey E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey ia auno?aeaathony
a aaeeioth nenoaio. Aaconeiaii anaai o?e ia?aca ia niiaoo
noi?ie?iaaoue o oeieueieeia /oanoaa noeey, /oi yaeyaony iaeiie ec
caaea/ aaoi?neie I?ia?aiiu. Ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea e I?ia?aiia
iocueaeueii-ynoaoe/aneiai ainieoaiey I.A.Oa?aioueaaie. Aaoi? oaea ai
aoi?ii eeanna ciaeiieo o/aieeia n iocueie eii?anneiienoia, i?eaeaeay ia
iiiiuue ae?oaea aeaeu eneonnoaa.

Ie a iaeiie ec iacaaiiuo i?ia?aii iao ia?auaiey e i?iecaaaeaieyi,
aae?aniaaiiuo aeaoneie aoaeeoi?ee, a aaaeue eiaiii iie a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iiaee au auoue eniieueciaaiu – i?e/ai ia oieueei aeey
oa?aeoa?enoeee eii-

?anneiienoe/aneiai noeey a ?aieao oeeeea caiyoee, iinayuaiiuo
iaeiie iaiiuathuae oaia, aiieia aiciiaeii eo i?aaie/iia aeeth/aiea a
naiua ?aciiia?aciua oaiu oeieueiie i?ia?aiiu.

O/aaii-iaoiaee/aneeo ?ac?aaioie, eioi?ua au iaiin?aaenoaaiii
eanaeenue inaauaiey iocuee eii?anneiienoia a i?aeoeea i?aiiaeaaaiey a
oeiea i?aeoe/anee iao. Iai oaeaeinue iiciaeiieoueny oieueei n iaeiie
?aaioie iiaeiaiiai ?iaea – iaoiaee/aneei iiniaeai A.A.Aa?aaeiie “Iocuea
E.Aeaathnne a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii iinoeaeaiee ie?a oeieueieeaie”(1).

Iienaiiie neooaoeeae iauyniyaony auai? oaiu iaoae aeeieiiiie ?aaiou:
“Aeaoneay oi?oaieaiiay iocuea E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey a i?aeoeea
iocueaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey”.

 _Oeaeue . ianoiyuae aeeieiiiie ?aaiou ninoieo a oii, /oiau
eniieuecoy iocueo E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey a iiuoiie ?aaioa ii
iocueaeueiiio ainieoa-

ieth aeaoae, iieacaoue oeaeaniia?aciinoue aa aaaaeaiey a oeieueioth
i?ia?aiio

a aieueoii iaueaia.

 _Iauaeo . enneaaeiaaiey – o/aieee 6-7 eeannia oeieu N 7 a.Ia?ie (n
oaeoaeaiiui eco/aieai eiino?aiiuo ycueia).

 _I?aaeiao . enneaaeiaaiey – iocuea E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey (a
iniaaiiinoe eo aeaoneea oi?oaieaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey).

 _Caaea/e . enneaaeiaaiey:

1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ianoiiieiaeaiey eii?anneiiecia a nenoaia iocueaeueiuo
enoi?eei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo noeeae.

2. Auyaeaiea nouiinoe oa/aiey “eii?anneiieci” e iniaaiiinoae aiieiua-

iey aai ynoaoeee a iocuea (ia i?eia?a oai?/anoaa E.Aeaathnne e
I.?aaaey).

3. ?anniio?aiea aeaoneeo oi?oaieaiiuo oeeeeia E.Aeaathnne (“Aeaoneee
oaieie”) e I.?aaaey (“Iiy iaoooea aonuiy”).

4. Aiaeec e iaiauaiea ecaanoiuo ia naaiaeiy i?ia?aii ii iocuea aeey
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu e iaoiaee/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, iinayuaiiie
ciaeiinoao oeieueieeia n ni/eiaieyie eii?anneiienoia.

5. I?iaa?ea iooai iiuoiie ?aaiou naieo oai?eoe/aneeo i?aaeiieiaeaiee i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?anoe?aiey e?oaa i?iecaaaeaiee E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey,
eco/aaiuo a oneiaeyo i?ia?aii ii iocuea aeey iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo
oeie.

 _Iaoiaeu . enneaaeiaaiey: iiene, aiaeec e iaiiuaiea eeoa?aoo?u ii
aeaiiiio aii?ino: iocueaeueii-oai?eoe/aneee aiaeec i?iecaaaeaiee
eiiiiceoi?ia-eii?anneiienoia,: iiuoiay ?aaioa, aeeth/athuay a naay
aieaoe?iaaiea, iocueaeueioth aeeoi?eio.

Oai?/anoai E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey, a /anoiinoe aeaoneea oi?oaieaiiua
i?iecaaaeaiey, iaaeaeaiu aieiaieai a oeieueiuo i?ia?aiiao ii iocuea.
Aa?eaiou ciaeiinoaa n ni/eiaieyie eii?anneiienoia a eaaeaeie ec 3-o
i?ia?aii, ii eioi?ui ?aaioatho oeieueiua o/eoaey iocuee
(I.A.Oa?aioueaaie, TH.A.Aeeaaa, Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneiai), ia iao acaeyae,
iiaee au auoue aieaa oaeoaeaiiuie e ?acoeueoaoeaiuie. Iiyoiio
 _iiaecia . iaoae ?aaiou caeeth/aaony: 1) a iiiuoea iiiieieoue
iaaieueoie ia naaiaeiy iiuo i?aiiaeaaaiey eii?anneiiecia a iocuea,

2) a iieaca aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia aeeth/aiey yoiai iaoa?eaea a
oeieueioth i?ia?aiio.

 _I?aeoe/aneay cia/eiinoue . iaoae ?aaiou ninoieo a oii, /oi auaiaeu
e ?acoeueoaou, eioi?ua iu iaaeaainy iieo/eoue, aoaeoo niinianoaiaaoue
aieaa aeoeaiiio ia?auaieth e iocuea E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey a oneiaeyo
?aaiou a iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeiea.

Oa iaoa?eaeu e auaiaeu, e eioi?ui iu i?eoiaeei iiaoo ieacaoueny ii-

eaciuie aeey oeieueiie i?aeoeea i?aiiaeaaaiey.

 _Aeiioaca .. I?aaenoaaeaiea i noeea iocueaeueiiai eii?anneiiecia
o oeieueieeia n?aaeieo eeannia oi?ie?oaony eeoue a i?ioeanna
iinoaiaiiiai i?eiauaiey o/aieeia e yoiio eneonnoao. Ia?aay nooiaiue a
aai iinoeaeaiee

- ciaeiinoai n oi?oaieaiiuie ni/eiaieyie E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey aeey
aeaoae. Iii ninoaaeyao iaeoth iniiao aeey iiaeeeth/aiey a aeaeueiaeoae
?aaioa aieaa neiaeiuo i?eano?iauo i?iecaaaeaiee yoeo eiiiiceoi?ia.

Aeaaa 1. Eii?anneiieci a eneonnoaa e aai iniaaiiinoe a iocuea.

1. EII?ANNEIIECI E OAI?Ess IOCUEAEUeIIAI NOEEss.

 _Noeeue . – iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo eaoaai?ee eneonnoaiciaiey. A
niaieoiiinoe n iiiyoeai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai iaoiaea iia au?aaeaao
aaeeinoai niaea?aeaiey

e oi?iu a eneonnoaa, aaeeinoai eo niceaeaiey.

 _Niune iiiyoey noeeue  . iiiaicia/ai e iiaeaeaeai. Aua E.A.A?oa
ienae, /oi naii neiai “noeeue” ioiineony e oai, eioi?uie oioy oaea
aeaaii iieuecothony e iie e iie eae aoaeoi ii?aaeaeaiu oai?eoe/aneeie
ni/eiaieyie, anyeee oiio?aaeyao eo a iniaii niunea, niio?y ii oiio,
ianeieueei ii iinoea niune, au?aaeaiiue a neiaa. Oaeei ia?acii A?oa
iiaeiaoee, /oi iiiyoeth noeey naienoaaiiu ?aciiia?aciua, iiiai/eneaiiua
iooaiee cia/aiey. Iie oa?aeoa?ecotho aai e a iaoe aeie, /oi naycaii ni
iiiaeie i?e/eiaie: io/anoe n iaaeinoaoi/ii /aoeei ioa?aie/aieai noeey io
niaaeiuo n

iei eaoaai?ee (oaeeo, eae ooaeiaeanoaaiiue iaoiae e aeai?), io/anoe –
ni niaoeeoe/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie eaaeaeiai ec aeaeia eneonnoaa.
Iai?eia?, a eeoa?aoo?iaaaeaiee oa?iei “noeeue” ioiineony iau/ii e
oai?/anoao ioaeaeueiuo ienaoaeae. A a?oeoaeoo?a iiiyoea noeey
eniieuecotho oieueei i?eiaieoaeueii e ii?aaeaeaiiie yiioa oiai eee
eiiai enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea. A ynoaoeea iiiyoea noeey ioee/aaony
aieaa iaiiuaiiui oa?aeoa?ii. Iii oeacuaaao ia aaeeinoai,
i?aaie/ioth acaeiinaycue au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa i?iecaaaeaiey
eneonnoaa, aeeaeaeoe/aneia niioiioaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiiai e iaaaoi?neiai a
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiii ycuea aaoi?a.

Enoi?ey  _iiiyoey noeey a iocuea . ia/eiaaony i?eaeeceoaeueii n XVIII
aaea. Aai oieeiaaiey niaea?aeaony a ia?auo
iocueaeueii-oa?ieiieiae/aneeo neiaa?yo. Oae ii ii?aaeaeaieth
AE.-AE.?onni (“Iocueaeueiue neiaa?ue”,1768a.), noeeue anoue
“ioee/eoaeueiue oa?aeoa? eiiiiceoeee eee eniieiaiey”, i?e/ai “yoio
oa?aeoa? cia/eoaeueii eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe

io no?aiu, iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeona, iaea?aiiinoe aaoi?ia a niioaaonoaee
n niaea?aeaieai, ianoii, a?aiaiai, oaiie e o.ae.” (oeeo. ii 23, 25). Yoi
iaeii ec ?aiieo ii?aaeaeaiee noeey ioia/aii iaiaeiicia/iinoueth, eioi?ay
nio?aiyaony e a ai?acaei aieaa iicaeieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao iocueaeueiiai
noeey. Oae, A.A.Anaoueaa a “Iooaaiaeeoaea ii eiioea?oai” ?anoeo?iauaaao
cia/aiea oa?ieia noeeue eae “naienoaa eee iniiaiua /a?ou, ii eioi?ui
iiaeii ioee-

/eoue ni/eiaiey iaeiiai enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea io ae?oaiai” (oeeo.
ii 23, n.29). Aieaa ?anoe?aiiay oi?ioee?iaea niaea?aeeony a ae?oaie
?aaioa A.A.Anaoueaaa – “Ia?iaeiua iniiau noeey ?onneie iia?u” : “noeeue
y iuneth ia oieueei eae iaeioi?ia iinoiyinoai n?aaenoa au?aaeaiey e
oaoie/aneie iaia?u, ii e eae iinoiyinoai “iocueaeueii-eioiiaoeeiiiiai
ii/a?ea” yiioe, ia?iaea e ee/ii aaoi?neiai, /oi e iaoneaaeeaaao
oa?aeoa?iua, iiaoi?ythueany /a?ou iocuee, eae aeeaiai ycuea, ia
iniiaaiee eioi?iai iu e aineeeoeaai i?e aini?eyoee: “Aio Aeeiea, aio
*aeeianeee e o.ae.(oeeo. ii 23, 29)

Ianeieueei eiie iiaeoiae e iiieiaieth noeey a iocuea, naycaiiie n
i?iaeaiaie aiaeeca iaoiaeei o O.N.Eooia?aaa (1930-a aiaeu). Ii n/eoae,
/oi n iaeiie noi?iiu, noeeue – yoi “aaeeinoai caeiiiia?iinoae
niioiioaiey iaueaeoa e noaueaeoa, iauaai e /anoiiai, eiae/aneiai e
/oanoaaiiiai neiaii caeiiiia?iinoae anao noi?ii e iiiaioia oi?iu e
niaea?aeaiey”. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, O.N.Eooia?aa ii?aaeaeee aai eae
“enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoothny, ii?aaeaeaiioth aeey aeaiiiai eeanna, ia
aeaiiii yoaia aai ?acaeoey, caeiiiia?iinoue aini?iecaaaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a iocuea” (oeeo. ii 23, 39). A yoii auneacuaaiee
i/aiue nouanoaaiii iiieiaiea noeey, eae nenoaiu yeaiaioia,
iiaeaioaaeeaathuaa nia?aiaiioth o?aeoiaeo eaoaai?ee noeey. Eioa?anii
oieeiaaiea iiiyoey noeey a iocuea i?eiaaeeaaeauaa iieueneie
enneaaeiaaoaeueieoea N.Eiaa/aaneie. Iiae iocueaeueiui noeeai aaoi?
iiae?acoiaaaao “e?oiiua oa/aiey a enoi?ee iocueaeueiie eoeueoo?u,
ii?aaeaeyaiua yiioie (enoi?e/aneee noeeue), n?aaeie (noeeue
iaoeeiiaeueiue), oai?/aneie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoueth (eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue
noeeue)” (oeeo. ii 23, n.41). Caeanue i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea
auaeaeeoue noeeaaua nenoaiu e iiaenenoaiu, eioi?ay, iaeiaei, ia aeaao
en/a?iuaathuaai i?aaenoaaeaiey i iiiyoee.

Oieeiaaiea noeey a iocueaeueiie yioeeeeiiaaeee oaeaea aeinoaoi/ii
iauaai ieaia: “Noeeue iocueaeueiue – a eneonnoaiaaaeaiee,
oa?aeoa?ecothuee nenoaio n?aaenoa au?aceoaeueiinoe, eioi?ay neoaeeo
aiieiuaieai oiai eee eiiai ia?aciiai niaea?aeaiey” (26, n.282).

A ioa/anoaaiiie iocueaeueiie iaoea ia?aui ianooaaiui enneaaeiaaieai,
niaoeeaeueii inaauathuei i?iaeaio noeey, noaea eieaa N.N.Ne?aaeiaa
“Ooaeiaeanoaaiiua i?eioeeiu iocueaeueiuo noeeae”. A yoie ?aaioa aaoi?
aeaao neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea noeey: “Noeeue a iocuea, eae e a ae?oaeo
aeaeao eneonnoa,- yoi aunoee aeae ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aaeeinoaa. E yoi
aaeeinoai a aeaea oii/aeoeo aeaeia ?iaenoaa oae eee eia/a i?iiecuaaao
ana noi?iiu i?iecaaaeaiee. A iocuea iii neacuaaaony e a oaiaoecia, e a
iocueaeueiii ycuea, e a oi?iiia?aciaaiee. I?iyaeyaony iii a ia?aciii
no?ia i?iecaaaeaiee a oeaeii, a oai?/aneeo o?aaeeoeeyo eiiiiceoi?a, a
aai ioiioaiee e aeecie, e neooaoaeyi, e eniieieoaeyi” (29, n.10).

Ae?oaei e?oiiui niaoeeaeueiui o?oaeii i iocueaeueiii noeea yaeyaony
iiiia?aoey I.E.Ieoaeeiaa “noeeue a iocuea”. Iooaeeeaaynue io
o?aeoiaee eaoaai?ee noeey N.N.Ne?aaeiaui I.E.Ieoaeeia ii?aaeaeyao
noeeue eae “aaeeinoai i?aaie/anee acaeiinaycaiiuo acaeiiaeaenoaothueo
yeaiaioia, ia?acothuaa a naaieoiiinoe oeaeinoioth, ioiineoaeueii
onoie/eaoth nenoaio” (23, n.56). A yoie ?aaioa aaoi? ia?auaaony e
enoi?ee iiiyoey noeey a iocuea. Ii ?anniao?eaaao aai ia/eiay n aioe/iuo
a?aiai, aaea noeeue niioiineeny nia?aa n iaeanoueth neiaaniiai
eneonnoaa, caoai n a?oeoaeoo?ie e eeoue iioii n iocueie, a oi/iaa n
iocueaeueii-iiyoe/aneei eneonnoaii. Aeaeaa I.E.Ieoaeeia i?ineaaeeaaao
aeeeoaeueioth yaiethoeeth a oiaea eioi?ie acaeyae ia iiiyoea
iaiyeny: a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey iiae noeeai iiae?acoiaaaeanue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay iaia?a aaoi?a, a yiioo aa?ieei – aeai?, a XVII aaea –
yiioeeiiaeueiia niaea?aeaiea iocuee e o.ae. A eieaa “Noeeue a iocuea”
iiiyoea noeey ?anniio?aii ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n ?acee/iuie eaoaai?eyie
ynoaoeee e iocueiciaiey (oaeeie eae iocueaeueiia iuoeaiea,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiue iaoiae, aeeaeaeoeea acaeiiioiioaiey niaea?aeaiey e
oi?iu, iauaai e aaeeie/iiai, iauaeoeaiiai e noauaeoeaiiai).

I.E.Ieoaeeia auaeaeyao nenoaiu e iiaenenoaiu a iiiyoee noeey: noeeue
yiioe – aunoay nooiaiue iaiiuaiey a iocueaeueiie n?aaea, iecoay –
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue noeeue eee iaia?a. Iaaeaeo yoeie “iiethnaie”
?aniieaaaaony iiiyoea iai?aaeaiey (iniaia ianoi caieiaao eaoaai?ey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai noeey). Aieaa iiae?iaii ea?a?oey aioo?e iiiyoey noeey,
i?aaeeaaaaiay I.E.Ieoaeeiaui, auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii.

Iaicia/ay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe eiiiiceoi?neiai ienueia, ii-

iyoea noeey i?eaeeaeaaony e iiiyoeth  _oai?/aneiai ii/a?ea, iaia?u ..
Iai?eia?, aiai?yo i noeea Ne?yaeia, Noeea Iioea?oa, noeea Oiiaia).

Eiiaaea a ?aieao eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai noeey ?acee/atho  _noeeue oiai
eee  _eiiai ia?eiaea eiiiiceoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoe . (iai?eia?, a
oai?/anoaa Aaooiaaia auaeaeytho ?aiiee, c?aeue e iicaeiee noeee). A
enoi?ee iocuee /anoi ioia/atho iauea iniaaiiinoe ienueia o ?aciuo
eiiiiceoi?ia, iauaaeeiaiiuo ii?aaeaeaiiie ynoaoeei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
ieaooi?iie. A oaeeo neo/a-

yo ?a/ue eaeao i  _noeeyo eiiiiceoi?neeo oeie . (iai?eia?, i oeiea
o?aioeocneeo eeaaaneienoia, Aaineie eeanne/aneie oeiea, oeiea A.ae,Yiaee
e o.ae.).

Iiiyoea noeey oa?aeoa?ecoao oaeaea iniaaiiinoe oai?/anoaa eiiiice-

oi?ia iaeiie no?aiu. A yoii neo/aa iii eeanneoeoee?oaony eae _
iaoeeiiaeue _iue noeeue . (iai?eia?, ?onneee noeeue, aano?i-iaiaoeeee
noeeue e o.ae.).

A iocueiciaiee nouanoaoao oaeaea iiiyoea  _noeeue aeai?a ., eioi?ia
caeeth/aao a naaa oa?aeoa?iua ea/anoaa i?iecaaaeaiee, aoiaeyueo a eaeoth
eeai aeai?iaoth a?oiio (iai?eia?, a aeaeaciaii noeea, a
ia?iaeii-auoiaii noeea,

a noeea ?iiaina).

Iaeaieaa neiaeiie i?iaeaiie yaeyaony oieeiaaiea oa?ieia “noeeue”

eae enoi?e/aneie eaoaai?ee ( _noeeue yiioe .). “Yiioaeueiue noeeue”
iaiiuaao cia/eoaeueiue e?oa iocueaeueii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo yaeaiee a
i?aaeaeao aieaa

eee iaiaa aeeeoaeueiiai enoi?e/aneiai io?acea a?aiaie.
Iineaaeiaaoaeueiay niaia enoi?eei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo noeeae a ?acaeoee
aieueoeinoaa aeaeia eneonoa i?ienoiaeeea neaaeothuei ia?acii:

– noeeue aa?ieei (eiiaoe XVI – na?aaeeia XVIII aa.)

– noeeue eeanneoeecia (XVII – XVIII aa.)

– noeeue ?iiaioecia (XIX a.)

A oai?ee iocueaeueiiai noeey auaeaeytho oaeaea  _noeeue iai?aaeaiey ..
Iiiyoea noeeue iai?aaeaiey ioia/aao nouanoaiaaiea noeeaaie iauiinoe o
?y-

aea eiiiiceoi?ia, iaia?oaeeaathueo aaeeinoai iocueaeueii-ynoaoe/aneeo
i?eioeeiia e a iniiaiii niioaaonoaoao iiiyoeth iai?aaeaiey a eeoa?aoo?a
e a ae?oaeo eneonnoaao. Noeeue iai?aaeaiey iiae/eiai noeeaaie nenoaia
aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy yiioeaeueii-enoi?e/aneie. Ii iiaeao iauaaeeiyoue
?acee/iua ii oe?ioa ioaaoa yaeaiey, /oi caaeneo io aai
enoi?e/anee-ooaeiaeanoaaiiie cia/eiinoe. Ath ii?aaeaeyaony
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaea nouanoaiaaiey e noaiaiue ?ani?ino?aiaiey
noeey iai?aaeaiey ca i?aaeaeu iaeanoe aai aicieeiiaaiey.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a ni/aoaiey ia?a/eneaiiuo oaeoi?ia iiaeii oeacaoue ia
I-i. I?aaenoaaeyy niaie a oe?ieie enoi?e/aneie ia?niaeoeaa ii
nouanoao iicaeiee yoai yaiethoeee ?iiaioecia, ii aianoa n oai aunooiaao
eae naiaai ?iaea yiioeaeueiay noeeaaay nenoaia naycaiiay n eiaiai
E.Aeaathnne, oaeoe/anee nicaeaaoei aa a iocuea, iacaaiiay noeeaaay
nenoaia auoea ca i?aaeaeu O?aioeee. Aaciaiai?i/iiio i?eciaieth
aeaiiiai noeey yiioeaeueiui i?aiyonoaoao a?aiaiiay ia?aie/aiiinoue aai
nouanoaiaaiey – anaai i?eia?ii o?e n iieiaeiie aeanyoeeaoey. Iaeiaei
nei?inoue e oe?ioa ?ani?ino?aiaiey yoiai noeeaaiai iai?aaeaiey ia
i?ioyaeaiee e?aoeiai ia?eiaea eae au iiaeieiaao aai aei o?iaiy
yiioaeueiiai noeey. Aeinoaoi/ii iaiiiieoue ?acee/iua iaoeeiiaeueiua
aa?eaiou iocueaeueiiai eii?anneiiecia a ?innee (A.Ne?yaei,
N.I?ieioueaa, E.No?aaeineee), Eoaeee (I.?anieae), Eniaiee (I.Oaeuey),
Iieueoa (E.Oeiaiianeee), Aiaeee (N.Neioo, A.Oieno), Aaia?ee (A.Aa?oie).
AEecianiiniaiinoue eii?anneiienoneeo oaiaeaioeee e naycaiiie n iei
noeeenoeee nio?aiyaony aua e a aieaa iicaeiaa a?aiy ia ?iaeeia
eii?anneiiecia (I.Ianneai) e ca aa i?aaeaeaie (A.Oa/aoo?yi). Noeeue
yoiai iai?aaeaiey nouanoaaiii iaiaaoee n?aaenoaa aa?iiaeneiai
iocueaeueiiai

eneonnoaa, ninoaaeaoee aeaeiue yoai aai yaiethoeee. Iniaaiii yoi
neacaeinue a aa?iiiee, oaeoo?a, eniieueciaaiee aiaaonoaa
eino?oiaioaeueiuo oaia?ia,a ?anoe?aiee iiiyoey oaiaoecia, a iaiaauaiee
i?eioeeiia e oi?iiia?aciaaiey.

Iiiyoea noeey i/aiue neiaeiia e iiiaicia/iia. Aei neo ii?
eneonnoaiaaaeu ia i?eoee e aaeeiie o?aeoiaea yoiai iiiyoey.

Oai?ey iocueaeueiiai noeey iaeaieaa iieii inaauaia a iiiia?aoee
I.I.Ieoaeeiaa “Noeeue a iocuea”. Ii auno?aeaaao aioo?e iiiyoey noeey
oaeoth ea?a?oeth: io oai?/aneiai ii/a?ea, iaia?u, /a?ac noeeue
iai?aaeaiey e yiioeaeueiiio noeeth – naiie oe?ieie ii ianooaao
eaoaai?ee.

Iocueaeueiue eii?anneiieci a nenoaia enoi?e/anei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo

noeeae caieiaao i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea ii ioiioaieth e noeeth yiioe
e

ooaeiaeanoaaiiiio iai?aaeaieth.

2. EII?ANNEIIECI. NOOUe IIIssOEss.

 _Oa/aiea eii?anneiiecia . aicieeei a 70-o aiaeao XIX a. aai ii?iaeeea
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneay ianoaiiaea, neiaeeaoayny ai O?aioeee aneaae
ca ii?aaeaieai Eiioiiu e onoaiiaeaieai ao?aeoaciie ?anioaeeee.

Ia?aiia/aeueii eii?anneiieci i?aaenoaaeyea a?oiia ooaeiaeieeia:
E.Iiia, E.Ienna?i, Y.Aeaai, A.Neneae, I.?aioa? e ae?. Yoe ianoa?a
?aaioaee iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa, ii ano?a/aynue a?aiy io a?aiaie
iie i?eoee e iauiinoe oai?/aneeo eaeae, e e noiaenoao n?aaenoa neoaeaueo
eo aiieiuaieth. A ?acoeueoaoa iaaeaeo 1874 e 1886 aiaeaie auei
i?aaieciaaii 8 niaianoiuo aunoaaie, iiciaeiieaoeo ethaeoaeae e
ciaoieia aeeaiiene n iiaui eneonnoaii – eneonnoaii eii?anneiienoia.

Ynoaoeea e oaoieea ienueia iacaaiiuo ooaeiaeieeia aicieeea ia
yiie?e/aneie iniiaa. Auoiae ec ianoa?neie ia ioe?uoue aicaeoo e
iaaethaeaiea ca aeaenoaeai nieia/iiai naaoa a i?e?iaea iaaaee eo ia
iuneue, /oi aa?iia aini?iecaaaeaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ooaeiaeieeii
iiaeao iniiauaaoueny oieueei

ia i?aaenoaaeaiee oiai, /oi ii a iae _ aeaeeo ., a ia oi, /oi i iae
ciaao. Eia/a aiai?y, aeeaiienaoe aeieaeai oeiaeoue e ia?aaeaoue a
i?iecaaaeaiee iaeee i?e?iaeu, aicieeathuee oieueei ia iniiaa
aia/aoeaiey, a aai /oanoaaiiuo iaaethaeaieyo. Iineieueeo ie?oaeathuay
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue i?aaenoaao ia?aae iei

a iiaii iuouaiee (acaaeneiinoe io iiaiaeu e a?aiaie nooie),
iineieueeo “noaa/aiiay” ooaeiaeieeii – eeoue aeieoiaio ieioou. Nooue
yoie ynoaoeee i/aiue iaoei au?acee Y.Iaia: “Ia nicaeaaony iaecaae,
ii?eia, eeoei: nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea io a?aiaie aeiy, iaecaaea, ii?eiu,
eeoea”.

Ia iiaoth oaoieeo aeeaiiene iaaaea eii?anneiienoia ea?a naaoa ia
aiaea. Ec iaaethaeaaiiai eie ?aceiaeaiey e niaaeeiaiey e?anie ia
ae?iaeauae iiaa?oiinoe aiaeu ?iaeeeanue eaeay eeanoue ia iieioii e?anee
iaeio e ae?oaie, ia niaoaiiuie i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ia iaeeo?a e oieueei
oao oeaaoia, eaeea eiathony a nieia/iii niaeo?a. Ia iieioia iyoiuoee
yoeo e?anie, aeieaeiu aucaaoue o c?eoaey aia/aoeaiea aea?aoeee,
ne?aaeuaathuae anyeoth /aoeinoue eiioo?ia ecia?aaeaaiuo i?aaeiaoia,
i?aaenoaaeythuae eo a oi?ia iaa?inea. Anayce n yoei eeiee ?enoiea
iioa?yee aaaeouaa cia/aiea e ia ia?aue ieai aunooieea /oanoaaiiay
i?aeanoue e?anee. Iioiio ea?oeiu eii?anneiienoia noaee naiaai ?iaea
“iiyiaie naaoa” a aai iiiaiia?aciuo i?iyaeaieyo io y?ei, caeeaathuaai
ana iieioii neyiey, aei y?eeo ?aaeoaeiuo aeeeia, io oiieeo o?aiaoiuo
ia?oeaiee aei eaaeie aeai/oaeiie aeuiee, ieoouaathuae i?aaeiaou.

Iniiaiie oaiie eo oai?/anoaa noaea O?aioeey – aa i?e?iaea, auo e
ethaee: ?uaaoeeea iinaeee e ooiiua ia?eaeneea oeeoeu, iino a Ii?a e
niai? a ?oaia, e?anoueyia e aaea?eiu, i?a/ee e ?uaaee.

Ianoiyuei ioe?iaaieai a iieioiao ooaeiaeieeia – eii?anneiienoia
yaeeny iaecaae. Eo iaaaoi?neea ono?aieaiey ?ane?ueenue caeanue ai
anai naiai ?aciiia?acee iooaieia e iuethainia. Ia ea?oeiao
eii?anneiienoia iiyaeeenue iiaeeeiiua aeeaua e?anee i?e?iaeu, iuouaiea
i?ic?a/iinoe aicaeooa e oii/aeoay ea?a naaoioaiae.

Ano?a/aiiua aia/aea a?aaeaeaaii e neaioe/anee ioaeeeie, /anoueth
e?eoeee, ooaeiaeieee iinoaiaiii caaiaaaee i?eciaiea. Neiai
“eii?anneiienou” (io iacaaiey ea?oeiu E.Iiia “Aia/aoeaiea.Ainoiae
nieioea”, ii o?aioeocnee impression – aia/aoeaiea), aeaiiia a ianiaoeo
iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeyie, noaei iaua?ani?ino?aiaiiui oa?ieiii, oo?aoea
e?iie/aneee iooaiie.

?iaenoaaiiia aeeaiieniiio eii?anneiiecio iiiaiia?aceai oii/aeoeo

iuethainia ia?aaeaaaaiuo /oanoa e iano?iaiee ecuneaiiinoueth iaia?u eo
au

?aaeaiee ai o?aioeocneie iiycee eiioea 19 aaea ?iaeaeaaony  _oa/aiea
neiai _eecia .. Aai y?eeie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie noaiiayony: O.Aiaeea?,
I.Aa?eai, N.Iaeea?ia, A.?aiai. Niiao O.Aiaeea?a “Niioaaonoaea” yaeyaony
aaaiaaee-

ai iiaie iiyoeee:

I?e?iaea – iaeee o?ai,aaea io aeeauo eieiii Ia?uaee niooiuo o?ac
enoiaeyo a?aiaiaie.

Eae a /aua neiaieia, iu a?iaeei a yoii o?aia, E acaeyaeii ?iaenoaaiiui
aeyaeeo ia nia?oiuo ii.

Ia?anoi?aeeiua, n?iaeiynue eae oaiue e naao, Aeoaieee, oaiiue niune
ia?aaeoea a neeyiuee,

Iiaeiaii aieinai ia aeaeueiai ?annoiyiuee, Ia?aeeeeathony caoe, caiao,
oi?ia oeaaoa.

Anoue caiao /enoiou. Ii caeai oi/ii naae,

Eae ieioue ?aaaiea naaae, eae cia nae?aee iaaeai. Ae?oaea – oea?noaaiiu,
a ieo ?ineioue e ?aca?ao,

Aeey ieo a?aieoeu iao,eo cuaeee ie? aaca?aaeai, Oae ioneon e aaicie, oae
ia?ae e oeieai

Ainoi?a oia e /oanoa aeatho ecaaaeaoue iai.

Iiycey neiaieenoia a iniiaiii aua no?ieony ii caeiiai eeanne/aneie
iiyoeee: eiae/aneia ?acaeoea iunee eee ia?aca io ia/aea e eiioeo,
aeinoaoi/ii /aoeay ?eoia e aeoaieea oeaco?u. Ii a yoio eeanne/aneee
“ei?nao” iaeaou iaauaaeua aeioiea oaiu e ia?acu, ianeuoaiiua iaoaoi?u e
aaneiia/ii ?anoe?aiiay eaeneea.

Ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou, iaiouaieeiu io iiiyoey neiaieecia, iiyaeeenue
ai o?aioeocneie iiycee i/aiue aeaaii, ii eo neioac e eaeaioeoeeaoeey
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey n neiaieii i?iecioee eiaiii a eiioea 19,
ia/aea 20 aa. Neiaie o neiaieenoia – yoi “aaeoi? niunea”, oeacuaathuee
iai?aaeaiea, a eioi?ii aeieaeiu ono?aieyoueny iunee e /oanoaa:
“Iacaaoue i?aaeiao – cia/eo ia 3/4 oie/oiaeeoue ianeaaeaeaiea io
noaiaiiiai oaaaeuaaiey: aiooeoue ia?ac – aio ia/oa…” (N.Iaeea?ia).

Eioa?aniaeoei iiiaioii yaeyaony a neiaieecia oaniia nii?eeiniiaaiea
iiycee n iocueie, eioi?ay niiniaia ia?aaeaoue oaeeaeoaeueiia aiaaonoai
iooaieia /oanoa, niunea, e?anie. Ia neo/aeii oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie
ynoaoeee neiaieenoia yaeyaony “iiocueaeeaaiea” a noeoao. “ss?eee”
i?eia? yoiai ioiaeei a noeoioai?aiee I.Aa?eaia “Eneonnoai iiycee”.
I?eaiaeei aai io?uaie:

“Nia/aea iocueo! Iaao/ee

I?eaeae ?acia? noeoai oaiei,

*oia iaaanii, iaoeiaei,

Aeuoae aicaeooiue no?ie nicao/ee.

No?ioo iai?anii ia /aeaiue,

Ieaiye iaa?aaeiinoueth n/anoeeaie,

Noe?ay a iania i?eoioeeaie

Iaae yniui e iayniui a?aiue.

Eue iooaiie ia oeaaoa,

Anoue iieooii e a oiia no?iaii

A iieooiiao, eae oeaeoa n ?iaii,

N ia/oie naeeaeaaony ia/oa.

Oae iocueo – anaaaea, aacaea!

Ionoue aoaeao noeo oaie ie?ueaiiui,

Eae au aiioeii aeooe aethaeaiiie

E ae?oaie ethaae, e ae?oaie caacaea.”

A ianoaiiaea iai?ae?auathuaeny ai?ueau iaaeaeo o?aaeeoeeiiiuie e iiauie
iai?aaeaieyie a aeeaiiene e iiycee neeaaeuaaaony  _iocueaeueiue
eii?annei _ieci .. Iniiaiiieiaeieeii yoiai iai?aaeaiey noae
E.Aeaathnne, eioi?ue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi eiaiii e?anioa i?e?iaeu niiniaia
aicaoaeeoue ooaeiaeanoaaiioth oaioaceth eiiiiceoi?a. Iio?aaiinoue
ia?aaeaoue a caoeao ninoiyiea i?e?iaeu,

aa ia?acu aucuaaao iienee Aeaathnne iiauo e?anie, iiauo, naaaeeo,
au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa.

E?iia ea?oei i?e?iaeu, eiiiiceoi?u-eii?anneiienou aaeioiiaeyeenue
nthaeaoaie aioe/iie ieoieiaee, neaci/iinoueth, oaioanoe/aneeie
ia?acaie, n?aaeiaaaeiauie eaaaiaeaie, yecioeeie Ainoiea. Eiaiii n yoie
noi?iiie eii?anneiiecia niueaeenue iienee y?ei iaoeeiiaeueiiai ycuea
ia oieueei o o?aioeocneeo aaoi?ia (I.?aaaeey, I.Ianneaia), ii e o
I.Oaeuee (Eniaiey), E.Oeiaiianeiai (Iieueoa), Aeae.Yianeo (?oiuiey),
I.?anieae (Eoaeey).

Oiieeie ieoyie iocueaeueiue eii?anneiieci naycai n o?aioeocneei ii-

yoe/aneei neiaieeciii e aeeaiieniui eii?anneiieciii. Anee aeeyiea
neiaieenoneie iiycee iaia?oaeeaaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii a ?aiieo
i?iecaaaeaieyo Aeaathnne e ?aaaey, oi aeeyiea aeeaiieniiai
eii?anneiiecia ia oai?-

/anoai Aeaathnne e a iaiueoae noaiaie ia ?aaaeey, ieacaeinue oe?a e
ieiaeioai?iaa. A oai?/anoaa ooaeiaeieeia e eiiiiceoi?ia-eii?anneiienoia
iaia?oaeeaaaony ?iaenoaaiiay oaiaoeea: eiei?eoiua aeai?iaua noeaiee,
ii?o?aoiua ca?eniaee, ii eneeth/eoaeueiia ianoi caieiaao iaecaae.

Anoue iauea /a?ou e a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii iaoiaea aeeaiieniiai e
iocueaeueiiai eii?anneiiecia – no?aieaiea e ia?aaea/a ia?aiai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aia/aoeaiey io yaeaiey. Ionthaea oyaioaiea
eii?anneiienoia ia e iiioiaioaeueiui, a e ieieaoth?iui oi?iai. Ia?acu
i?iecaaaeaiee cuaee e caaoaee?iaaiu, iieiu iaiaeia, neiaieeee,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo annioeeaoeee. Eo aeaaiay caaea/a – aicaoaeeoue
oaioaceth neooaoaey, iai?aaeoue aa a ?onei ii?aaeaeaiiuo aia/aoeaiee,
iano?iaiee. Eiaiii ia?aoiaeu yoeo ninoiyiee (iaeiiai – a ae?oaia,
ae?oaiai a o?aouea e o.ae.) ii?aaeaeytho iniiaioth eiaeeo ?acaeoey.

Aieueoa anaai aeeaiieniue eii?anneiieci iiaeeye ia iocueo a iaeanoe
n?aaenoa au?aceoaeueiinoe. Iienee Aeaathnne e ?aaaey, oae aea eae e
ooaeiaeieeia-eii?anneiienoia, auee iai?aaeaiu ia ?anoe?aiea e?oaa
au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aiieiuaiey iiauo ia?acia, e a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia iaeneiaeueiia iaiaauaiea e?ani/ii-eiei?enoe/aneie
noi?iiu iocuee. Yoe iienee einioeenue eaaea e aa?iiiee, iaeiaeee e
iao?i?eoia, oaeoo?u e eino?oiaioiaee.

Cia/aiea iaeiaeee, eae iniiaiiai au?aceoaeueiiai yeaiaioa iocuee,
ineaaeyaony, a oi aea a?aiy aic?anoaao ?ieue eaaeaaa?iiie/aneiai ycuea
e i?eano?iaie iaeeo?u,aneeo naieo aiciiaeiinoae aieaa neeiiiuo e
ia?aaea/a ea?oeiii-ia?aciiai e eiei?enoe/aneiai ia/ae.

*anoia ia?auaiea Aeaathnne e ?aaaey e noa?eiiui ia?iaeiui eaaeai, a
oae aea e oeaeioiiiiio caoei?yaeo a ni/aoaiee n iaoo?aeueiui iaaei?ii e
ieii?ii aiaeiae/ii eieinnaeueiiio iaiaauaieth oeaaoiaie iaeeo?u
ooaeiaeieeia-eii?anneiienoia: aeeeoaeueiia “aaeaine?iaaiea” iaaeaeo
aeaoiy ioaeaeaiiuie oiiaeueiinoyie aac yaiiai i?aaeii/oaiey iaeiie ec
ieo ianeieueei iaiiieiaao oiieoth ea?o naaoioaiae ia iieioia:
niiinoaaeaiea ianeieueeioiie/aneeo o?acao/ee eee eo ia?auaiee a
ioaeaeaiiuo oiiaeueiinoyo i?iecaiaeeo aia/aoeaiea, aiaeiae/iia iaeeei
iaceai “/enouo” e?anie ?aniieiaeaiiuo ?yaeii ia oienoa e ia?acothueo
iaiaeeaeaiii iiaia oeaaoiaia ni/aoaiea.

Iocueaeueiue ycue E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey aiaao ia?ac?aoaiiuie aeei?-

aeiauie caaea?aeaieyie, iiiaeei?aeaie, oiaeaoeeiaeei?aeaie.
Aeueoa?e?iaaiiua e eaa?oiaua nicao/ey ia ?ac?aoathony, a i?e/oaeeeai
niaiythony, eae yeaiaiou caoeiaiai eiei?eoa.

Iniaoth naaaeanoue iocuea eiiiiceoi?ia-eii?anneiienoia i?eaeaei
i?aoai?aiea eaaeiauo e ?eoie/aneeo yeaiaioia, caeinoaiaaiiuo ec
oieueeea?a ia?iaeia Ainoiea, Eniaiee, Aia?eee. A /anoiinoe ia Aeaathnne
iniaia aia/aoeaiea i?iecaaea iocuea, eioi?oth eniieiye eiaeiiaceeneee
i?eano? “aaiaeai”: iaioaoiie/aneee caoei?yae, naiaiaeiia
aieiniaaaeaiea, iaiau/iua aa?iiiee, naiaia?aciay oaia?iaay ie?anea.
Ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou yoiai naiaia?aciiai eneonnoaa Aeaathnne i?aaie/ii
aaae a “Eaa?oao”, ntheoo “Aeey oi?oaieaii”, a oi?oaieaiioth iueano
“Iaaiaeu”. A iineaaeiai neo/aa iie aunooiatho a eiiieaena: oaia
aicieeaao ia iniiaa iaioaoiie/aneiai caoei?yaea, au?eniauaaynue ia oiia
i?eaeiaeueiaeoeo aa?iiiee, a eioi?uo iiae/a?eioou naeoiaeu e eaa?ou:

I?EIA? N 1.

Aaaeii, /oi ainoi/iay iocuea ?ane?aiinoeea iuneue eiiiiceoi?a io
ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe aa?iiaeneie aa?iiiee e ii?iaeeea ecoieoaeueiue ii
e?ani/iinoe e iiaecia aa?iiie/aneee ycue.

Neeueiui oaea/aieai Aeaathnne e ?aaaey noaea iocuea Eniaiee. A
i?iecaaaeaieyo Aeaathnne “Aa/a? a A?aiaaea”, “I?a?aaiiay na?aiaaea”,
“Ai?ioa Aeueaaia?u”, “Ianee”, “Eaa?ey” i?aoai?ai ia oieueei iaiiaoi?eii
naiiauoiue iocueaeueiue ycue aiaeaeoneeneiai oieueeei?a, ii e aai
oa?aeoa?iue aeoo. Iinea nicaeaiey iueannu “Aa/a? a A?aiaaea”, Aeaathnne
noae enoeiiui ?iaeiia/aeueieeii iiaie eniaineie oeieu, ia?ac?uaii
naycaiiie n eii?anneiienoe/aneei noeeai.

Aeey ?aaaey Eniaiey, aa eoeueoo?a auee iiaeao auoue aua aieaa
i?eaeaeaoaeueiuie, /ai aeey Aeaathnne. “Eniaineee /an”, “Eniaineay
?iiniaeey”, “Aaea?i”, “Ianie Aeii-Eeoioa” – yoi aeaeaei ia iieiue
ia?a/aiue i?iecaaaeaiee i?iiecaiiuo ?eoiaie, iaeiaeeyie e
eino?oiaioaeueiuie i?eaiaie, naienoaaiiuie ia?iaeiie eniaineie iocuea.
A “Eniaineie ?ainiaeee” aia?aua a iieiie ia?a neacaeanue aeecinoue
?aaaey e eniaineiio oieueeei?o.

Iia i?iyaeeanue ia oieueei a eniieueciaaiee iiaeiaiiie ia?iaeiie
iaeiaeee a IV /anoe, ii e a i?aaie/iii i?aoai?aiee oeie/iuo iniaaiiinoae
ia?iaeiiai iocueaeueiiai eneonnoaa oeaeiai ?yaea iaeanoae Eniaiee a
noa?a iaeiaeeee, iao?i?eoia, eaaea e aa?iiiee, a eieoe?iaaiee cao/aiey
ia?iaeiuo eniaineeo eino?oiaioia:

I?EIA? N 2.

Ia?iaeii-oaioeaaaeueiua yeaiaiou ?aaaeue i?aaie/ii i?aoai?ee a
“Oeeaaineie ?ainiaeee” aeey ne?eiee n i?eano?ii. Iie iaeiaeeee
ioia/aoie eae ia “iaiaiioth” ?eoieeo i?iecaaaeaiey, oae e ia aai
aa?iiie/aneee ycue (iai?eia?, ia niiinoaaeaiee ieii?a e iaaei?a).

Eneaiey iicaeiaai ia?eiaea oai?/anoaa Aeaathnne ioia/aiu eioa?anii
eiiiiceoi?a e aeaeaco. A “Eye-oiea” ec “Aeaoneiai oaieea” e
oi?oaieaiiie i?aethaeee “Iaiano?aee” – Aeaathnne i?aoai?ee aai naiua
oa?aeoa?iua i?eciaee: aethciaua eioiiaoeee, neieiie?iaaiiue
“ea/athueeny” ?eoi, aa?iiiee aaiaeaei (ia?aeeaeueiua naioaeei?aeu),
iaioaoiie/aneay iaeiaeeea e oeie/iua ao?eeaineea aa?iiiee, iino?iaiiua
ia ionouo eaeioao e naeoiaeao.

A ioee/ea io ?yaea aieaa iicaeieo iai?aaeaiee (yei?enneiieci,
eiino?oeoeaeci, o?aaaieci e ae?.) eneonnoai eii?anneiienoia ainiaaaao
ie? anoanoaaiiuo /aeiaa/aneeo ia?aienuaaiee (eiiaaea ae?aiaoe/aneeo), ii
/aua ia?aaeaao ?aaeinoiia iuouaiea aeecie. Aieueoeinoai ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
e iocueaeueiuo eii?anneiienoe/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee eae au caiiai
ioe?uaatho ia?aae neooaoaeyie i?ae?aniue iiyoe/iue ie? i?e?iaeu,
ia?eniaaiiue oiieeie,/a?othueie e ieaieoaeueiuie e?aneaie.

3. N?AAIEOAEUeIAss OA?AEOA?ENOEEA NOEEAE E.AeAATHNNE E I.?AAAEss.

Iaeaieaa y?eeie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eii?anneiiecia a iocuea i?eiyoi
n/eoaoue E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey. Oioy iooe iaieo eiiiiceoi?ia
ia?anaeaeenue, iie ai iiiaii inoaaaeenue iaiioiaeeie ae?oa ia ae?oaa.
Aeaathnne aue ii/oe ia 30 eao noa?oa ?aaaey e ia eiiiiceoi?neii
iii?eua aunooiee cia/eoaeueii ?aiueoa, ii aea?iaaiea aai, i?ieaey
aeieaee iooue oi?ie?iaaiey, iieiinoueth ?ane?ueinue eeoue a na?aaeeia
90-o aiaeia. A yoi a?aiy iiyaeeenue oaeea i?iecaaaeaiey, eae
“Iineaiieoaeaiiue ioaeuo oaaia”, eaa?oao e ae?. Oai?/aneay ee/iinoue
?aaaey noi?ie?iaaeanue cia/eoaeueii ?aiueoa, eiaaea eiiiiceoi?o auei
anaai 20 eao. Aai oi?oaieaiiay “Oaaaia?a”, iaienaiiay a na?aaeeia 90-o
aiaeia oaea aiieia oa?aeoa?ecoao aoaeouaai aaoi?a “Aaea?i”. A
aeaeueiaeoai aeayoaeueiinoue Aeaathnne e ?aaaey ?acaeaaeanue a oa/aiea
aeaoo aeanyoeia eao ia?aeeaeueii e auea ioia/aia noiaeiuie yaeaieyie a
iaeanoe eiiiiceoi?neeo noeeae.

Eiiiiceoi?neea ii/a?ee Aeaathnne e ?aaaey naeeaeaao ecuneaiiinoue
iocueaeueiiai ycuea, aacoei?eciaiiue aeon e oio iniaue a?enoie?aoeci
aeooa, eioi?ui i?iieeioou oai?aiey iiiaeo o?aioeocneeo iocueaioia.

?aaaeue auniei oeaiee iocueo Aeaathnne. Ii au?aaeae ainoeuaiea aai
oi?oaieaiiuie iueanaie, ea?ae eo ioaee/ii, aue a ainoi?aa io “Oaaia” e
“Eaa?ee”, i eioi?uo ienae a iaeiie ec naieo noaoae, /oi aue “o?iioo aei
neac yoie no?oyuaeny “Eaa?eae”, aa a?iiaoaie ii/e, oae aeoaiei
aieiothueie”.(oeeo. ii 21, n.95) Iocuea Aeaathnne ioe?uea ?aaaeth oeaeue
ie? aiaaoaeoeo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae: eneeth/eoaeueioth
ia?aciinoue, aaeaieiooii aicieeathuea cuaeea iaoeiaeiua iuouaiey,
i?eoioeeai niaiythuea ae?oa ae?oaa, ea?o e?anie, aeeaiieniinoue
iocueaeueiie oaeoo?u.

?aaaeue iiiaia caeinoaiaae ec a?naiaea oai?/aneeo iaoiaeie Aeaathnne.
Yoe caeinoaiaaiey iao?oaeii iaeoe a aa?iiie/aneii ycuea iieiaeiai ?aaaey
– iai?eia? /oanoaaiioth ?ineioue iyaei aeenaie?othueo aeei?aeia a
“Oaoa?acaaea”, iaeeea iiiaeei?aeiauo nicao/ee a “Ea?a aiaeu”, a
oaeaea /anoia /anoia ia?auaiea eiiiiceoi?a e noa?eiiui eaaeai,
aeeaoiie/aneei e iaoo?aeueiui caoei?yaeai. Oyaioaiea ?aaaey e
eii?anneiiecio ia ia?aie/eeinue eiiieaenii iiaaeoeo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa
– ynoaoeea eii?anneiiecia, n aa eoeueoii aia/aoeaiey-iuouaiey e
i?aaeiaia?aiiie oeenaoeeae aaeeie/iiai, noaea ia ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy
ynoaoeeie naiiai ?aaaey (“Io?aaeaiey”, “Ea?a aiaeu”, “I?ec?aee ii/e”).

Iocuea Aeaathnne e ?aaaey oanii naycaia (oioy yoi ia anaaaea caiaoii
aiaoia) n iaoeeiiaeueiuie o?aaeeoeeyie o?aioeocneiai eneonnoaa
(“Aa?aaianneay ntheoa” Aeaathnne, niiaoeia aeey oi?oaieaii “A?iaieoea
Eoia?aia” ?aaaey). Oai?/anoai iaieo eiiiiceoi?ia eniuoaei eioa?aniaeoaa
aeeyiea eniaineiai oieueeei?a, eioi?ue noae aeeaeoaeueiui enoi/ieeii,
iaiaaoeaoee ia?aciue no?ie, iaeiaeeeo e eaaeiaa?iiie/aneee ycue eo
ni/eiaiee.

Iaa eiiiiceoi?a no?anoii i?eaaonoaiaaee ana iiaia a eneonoaa, ?acei
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyy a naiae iocuea ?aoeoaeueiia iaiiaeaiea oi?i e
iaoiaeia oai?/anoaa caeinoaiaeiio aeaaeaiecio.

Iaeiaei, aoaeo/e i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iaeiiai iai?aaeaiey o?aioeocneie
iocuee, Aeaathnne e ?aaaeue aunooieee eaaeaeue ni naiae
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iiceoeee. Aeaathnne ooaa?aeaeae naiei eneonnoaii
eaeaaeu, /anoi ?anoiaeyueany n o?aaeeoeeyie eeanneee, ii aia?aua ia
ycuea iocuee caaiai?ee i oaeeo aauao, i eioi?uo aei iaai ieeoi ia
aiai?ee, i?e/ai naeaeae yoi oae, eae aei iaai ieeoi ia aeaeae.
?aaaeue, iaiai?io, aieaa oyaioae e o?aaeeoeeyi XVIII-XIX aaeia, ia
ii?uaae n ieie. I?e yoii neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi o?aaeeoeey
iaiieiyaony o ?aaaey nia?aiaiiui niaea?aeaieai.

Aeaathnne ii/oe ia aiai?eo i /oanoaao. Ii “iiyo iuouaiee”(33 n.19).
?aaaeue, iai?ioea i?aaeii/eoaao ianoiyuea /aeiaa/aneea /oanoaa – y?eea e
no?anoiua: O?ei, “Aaea?i”, eiioea?o ?a iaaei? aeey oi?oaieaii n
i?eano?ii – aeinoaoi/ii oaaaeeoaeueiua oiio i?eia?u.

Aeaathnne, eae enoeiiue eii?anneiieno, ia?aaeaaae a naiae iocuea
iiyoe/aneea aia/aoeaiey io aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe n iaecaaaeiui i?eaeonii
noauaeoeaecia, ?aaaeue aea i?aaeii/eoaao eiae/aneoth ia?a?aaioeo oaea
nouanoaothueo iocueaeueiuo aeai?ia (ia?iaeiay ianiy, ia?iaeiue oaiaoe,
aaeuenu yiioe Oo?aona) e, neaaeiaaoaeueii aunooiaao eae aieaa
iauaeoeaiue e aianoa n oai iaiaa iaiin?aaenoaaiiue ooaeiaeiee”(3 n.35).
A aeaiiii auneacuaaiee aa?ii iiaeia/aii ei?aiiia ?acee/ea noeeae e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoae, ii?aaeaeythuaa niiiauoiinoue eneonnoaa aeaoo
ianoa?ia. Iii i?iyaeyaony a oeaeii ?yaea eiiiiiaioia eo
iocueaeueiiai ycuea. Oae,aeinoaoi/ii ioee/aaony o?aeoiaea
eiiiiceoi?aie iocueaeueiie oi?iu. O Aeaathnne eiaeea aa auno?aeaaaony
nei?aa ia ii i?eioeeio aeeiaie/aneiai ia?anoaiey, a niia?acii
ecyuiiio e i?iaeoiaiiiio ?ani?aaeaeaieth iaoa?eaea. Aeaaiia aieiaiea
eiiiiceoi?a nin?aaeioi/aii ia ia?aaea/a iooaieia iniiaiiai ia?aca
(oi/iaa aia/aoeaiey), aiaeiae/iui aeaoaeyi ea?oeiu. Ae?oaeie neiaaie,
caeanue ainiiaenoaoao i?eioeei c?eoaeueiiai, a ia neooiaiai aini?eyoey.
No?aieaiea Aeaathnne caia/aoeaoue ana ieiieaoiia e ia?aiai/eaia
i?eaiaeeo e i?aiaeaaeathuae ?iee eioiiaoeee, aeaoaee iaae eiaeeie
anaai oeaeiai, e iiae/eiaieth ia?aiio aoi?iai. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiinoue,
anoanoaaiiinoue eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai iiiaioa noaee aeey iaai aaaeiaa,
/ai i?ioeannoaeueiinoue ?acaeoey iunee e yiioeee. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e
oneeaieth a iocuea Aeaathnne ea?oeiiinoe, noaoeee. Iia ii/oe anaaaea
au?aaeaao oi eee eiia yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea, a ia aai noaiiaeaiea
(“Iaeaea”, “Ii?a”). Oi?ia, a oeaeii nio?aiyy ni?acia?iinoue e
no?ieiinoue i?iii?oeee, a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie oa?yao ?aeueaoiinoue,
iai?yaeaiea, oi?oainoue.

?aaaeue aea no?aieony e yniinoe oi?iu: “Nia/aea y iaia/ath ai?eciioaee
e aa?oeeaee, a iioii, au?aaeaynue ycueii aeeaiienoeaa, ia/eiath
iaeaaaoue” (oeeo.21 ii n.19). Oi?ie?iaaiea ?aaaey yanoaaiii oyaioaao e
eeanne/aneiio. Aai iocuea ?acaa?nouaathuayny niioaaonoaaiii eaiiiai
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oi?i ii?aaeaao aeeainoueth naiaai oaiia?aiaioa,
nia?aiiinoueth e oeaeaono?aieaiiinoueth. Anee oeaeue Aeaathnne –
ne?uoue oi?io ai eiy iiycee “/enoiai /oanoaa”, oi no?aieaiea ?aaaey
– aeenoeeieeie?iaaoue noa?o yiioeee. Iii ii?aaeaeaao niaa?oaiiua
iooi/aiiua eiioo?u.

Iaeiaeeea Aeaathnne i/aiue ?aciiia?acia e ia oeeaaeuaaaony a ?aiee
eaeie-eeai iaiauathuae oi?ioeu. Ii aai oaiu anaaaea ieanoe/iu e
ouaoaeueii iooeeoiaaiu. Iaeiaeey Aeaathnne no?aieony ia e /aoeei,
caaa?oaiiui ia?eiaeai e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiui no?oeoo?ai, a e aaneiia/iinoe
e ia?an/eaiaiiinoe. Oaeiau, iai?eia?, eiioo?u oaiu oeaeou ec i?aethaeee
“Iineaiieoaeaiiue ioaeuo oaaia” iieiie iaae e enoiiu, o?iiaoe/anee
eciu?aiiie e eaaeiai iaii?aaeaeaiiie.

I?EIA? N 3.

Oei iaeiaeeee, nicaeaiiue Aeaathnne niaa?oaiii i?eaeiaeai: a iae aeaeay
nenoaia aa?eaioia iniiaiie eioiiaoeee, eae au ia?aeeaathueony iaeei a
ae?oaie i?aiaeaaeaao iaae yniinoueth ?enoiea, eciai/eainoue – iaae
onoie/eainoueth. Aaaeiaeoea ea/anoaa oai Aeaathnne – o?oieinoue,
eai?eciinoue, caoooaaaiiinoue eiioo?ia, /oi ioaa/aao caaea/ai au?aaeaiey
eciai/eauo iano?iaiee, oneieuecathueo iooaieia yiioeee (“Ia?ona”, “Oaae
ia niaao”). Eo/oea no?aieoeu iocuee Aeaathnne iiea?ytho
iai?a?uaiinoueth e ieaaiinoueth iaeiaee/aneiai iioiea, oioy aioo?aiiaa
no?iaiea ioee/aaony “iee?iau?aceoaeueiinoueth” (ii?aaeaeaiea Iacaey)
(oeeo. ii 9,n. ). A i?ioeaiaan yoiio aeey

?aaaey iaeiaeey auea aaaeouei oaeoi?ii iuoeaiey. Oaea a ni/eiaieyo
20-o aiaeia i?ioyaeaiiay iaeiaee/aneay eeiey ana /aua i?eoiaeeo ia
niaio i?aaeiae ea?a ei?ioeeo iioeaia. Yoi iiaeii iaaethaeaoue a
ia/aeueiieoaia o?ei, aeaaiie ia?oee ne?eie/iie niiaou, a oaia
iaaeeaiiie /anoe eiioea?oa nieue iaaei?, ia/aeueiie oaia “Aaea?i”.

I?EIA? N 4

A iniiao “Aaea?i” eaaea y?eay, i?eaeiaeueiay oaia, ni/aoathuay a
naaa iaiiaoi?eii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue eiei?eo, iaeiaee/aneoth ieanoeeo e
e?anioo n oa?aeoa?iuie /a?oaie eniaineiai ia?iaeiiai oaioea. Iniaia
au?aceoaeueiia cia/aiea eiaao iao?i?eoie/aneay noi?iia. Ana a?aiy
niauaaiua aeoeaiou e neieiie?iaaiiua inoaiiaee ia ?aciuo aeieyo oaeoa
i?eaeatho oaia aieueooth aeaeinoue e aioo?aiithth iai?a?uaioth
ono?aieaiiinoue. A eaaeiaie i?aaiecaoeee i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea “aaeay”
Aei iaaei?iay aeeaoiieea, iiae/a?eeaathuay iniaoth yniinoue,
ia?aicaeaiiinoue cao/aiey eaace-ia?iaeiiai iaiaaa.

A ae?oaeo i?iecaaaeaieyo ?aaaeue a iaeiaeee ecaaaaao aaiaeiioiiiainoe
(Iaaaia, Ea?oao, Niiaoeia, “Ea?a aiaeu”). Ei?ie aa
naeoiaeiai-eaa?oiaiai, iaioaoiie/aneiai no?iaiey ooiaeyo a a?oae/iua
ieanou ia?iaeiie ianie.

A ioaeaeueiuo ni/eiaieyo Aeaathnne iaia?oaeeaaao no?aieaiea e /aoeie e

no?iaie  _?eoie/aneie . i?aaiecaoeee iooai iiiaie?aoiiai iiaoi?aiey
iaeiaai ?eoie/aneiai “yae?a” ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai i?iecaaaeaiey eee
aai ?acaeaea.(I?aethaeey ec oeeeea “Aeey oi?oaieaii”, “Naaeu iiae
aeiaeaeai”, “Aa/a? a A?aiaaea”, “Ai?ioa Aiaaia?u”, aaea ?eoi oaaaia?u
yaeyaony “noa?aeiai” anaai ni/eiaiey, “Eoeieueiue
eye-oie”,iniiaaiiue ia oa?aeoa?iii aeey yoiai oaioeaaaeueiiai
aeai?a?eoia ). A ni/eiaieyo n ia?iaeii-aeai?iaui oaiaoeciii eiiiiceoi?
ioioii i?eiaiyao eiioeueneaiua ?aaoey?iua ?eoiu (oaaaia?u,
oa?aioaeeu, eye-oiea, ia?oaianoaey), e iai?a?uaii iiaeoeanouaathuea
inoeiaoiua aeaeaeaiey. Iiieii oaea iacaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, y?ee-

ie i?eia?aie iiaeiaiiai ?iaea yaeythony e?aeiea ?acaeaeu
“I?acaeianoa”, “Oieiu Aiaeai?e”, “Oanoaea ec “Iaeaiueeie ntheou” aeey
oi?oaieaii.

I?EIA? N 5

A ae?oaeo neo/ayo ?eoieea Aeaathnne cuaea e iaii?aaeaeaiia, iia aiaaoa
iuethainaie, iiyoe/aneeie eai?ecaie iooaieia, no?aieaieai i?aiaeieaoue
aeanoue oaeoiaie /a?ou, oaiiiaie naiaiaeu:

I?EIA? N 6

?eoieeo ?aaaey ioee/atho /aoeinoue, no?iainoue e “eeanne/iinoue”.
Oae, O?ei i?iiecaii oa?aeoa?iie ?eoieeie aaneneeo ia?iaeiuo oaioeaa
?eoi ia?aie /anoe, 8/8 io/aoeeai /eaieony ia 3/8, 2/8 e 3/8, i?eaeaaay
iocueaeueiie oeaie aeaeinoue e iniaoth “yeanoe/iinoue”, a oeiaea
eniieuecothony i?eoioeeai /a?aaeothueany ia/aoiua ?eoiu 5/4 e 7/4. A
“Oaaaia?a”ec “Eniaineie ?ainiaeee” ?eoie/aneee eaeoiioea i?ioiaeeo /a?ac
anth iueano. A “Aiea?i” ?eoie/aneay oeao?a
yaeyaony aaeeiui noa?aeiai anaai i?iecaaaeaiey e nicaeaao i?eaeiaeueiua
iiee?eoie/aneea ni/aoaiey ni naiaiaeiie e aeaeie a ?eoie/aneii ioiioaiee
oaiie.

A iaeanoe  _aa?iiiee . ieeiio aei Aeaathnne ia oaeaaaeinue a oaeie
ia?a auaeaeeoue “oeaao” e “aeon” ?aciiia?aciuo eaaeiauo no?oeoo? e
aa?iiie/an-

eeo eiiieaenia. “I?eioeei aa?iiie/aneiai iuoeaiey Aeaathnne –
/a?aaeiaaiea

eee eiio?anoe?iaaiea aa?iiiee niaeanii naienoaai eo “ooneeinoe” eee
“y?einoe”, aoeeinoe eee caiieinoe, “oa?ieinoe” eee
“neaaeinoe”,”ni/iinoe” eee “nooinoe”. Eiaiii oae niiinoaaeye ii e
aa?iiie/aneea eiiieaenu (iai?eia?, iaaei?iua e oaaee/aiiua o?acao/ey) e
oeaeua aa?iiie/anee eaaeiaua nenoaiu (oeaeioiiiainoue e
iaioaoiieeo)… Iaaeaeo onoiyie oiieee, noaaeiieiaiou e aeiieiaiou
Aeaathnne aeeeiee noieueei ia?aoiaeia e ia?aeeaia, /oi iaeo?aeeciaae e
?anoai?ee eo. A eoiaa ana noaei oiieeie, ii eiathuaa aaneiia/iia /enei
aieaa yniuo e aieaa niooiuo aa?eaioia”(17, n.225). Yoa oeeoaoa, ia
iao acaeyae, i/aiue oi/ii oa?aeoa?ecoao noa?o aa?iiiee Aeaathnne.

Eioa?anii, /oi a ?yaea aai i?iecaaaeaiee n oaiie-iaeiaeeae oaniaeoei
ia?acii acaeiiaeaenoaoao aa?iiiey, a iaeioi?uo yieciaeao i?eia?aoay
aaaeouaa cia/aiea. Iai?eia? a i?aethaeee e “Iineaiieoaeaiiiio ioaeuoo
oaaia” iieac aiaaoaeoeo aiciiaeiinoae eiei?enoe/aneie o?aeoiaee aa?iiiee
noaiiaeony iniiaiui niiniaii ?acaeoey oaiu (eniieueciaaiea
?aciiia?aciuo iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae naioaeei?aeia e iiiaeei?aeia,
ni/aoaiea o?iiaoeee e aeeaoiieee. AEeaiieniay aoiinoa?a a iiaeiaiuo
i?iecaaaeaieyo ainnicaeaaony

e?ani/iuie ni/aoaieyie oaia?iai-aa?iiie/aneeo nicao/ee, a eioi?uo
aeei?ae oneiaeiyaony aei ainueiecao/ey aaaaeaieai iaiau/aeiuo eaaeiauo
ia?aciaaiee, ia?aeeaeeciia, aoi?aathueony “neo/aeiuo” iio. Ana yoi
i?eaiaeeo e iiiaiieaiiainoe iocueaeueiie oaeoo?u.

I?EIA? N 7

I?eaaaeaiiue o?aaiaio yaii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oiieinoe, ecuneaiiinoe
aa?iiie/aneiai iuoeaiey Aeaathnne. Ia?auaao ia naay aieiaoaeueiinoue
ouaoaeueiinoue aieiniaaaeaiey, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio iocueaeueiay oeaiue
noaiiaeony i?ic?a/iie e yniie aeaaea oai, aaea noaeeeaathony ?acei
aeenniie?othuea cao/aiey.

Ni/eiaiey ?aaaey i?eeiauaatho e naaa aieiaiea /anoi aeaaiaea?y
eneeth/eoaeueiiio aiaaonoao, ianoiyuae ?ineioe aa?iiie/aneie iaeeo?u.
Eiiiiceoi? ianoa?nee iiaeae?aao ioaeiua aio e?anee – ii?ie ineaieoaeueii
y?eea, nieia/iua (“Aeueai?aaea”), /aua oaiaaua, noia?a/iua,
i?eaeooaiiua (“Aeieeia caiiia”, “Ia/aeueiua ioeoeu”). A iaeioi?uo
ni/eiaieyo eiaiii aa?iiieyauaeaeyaony eae aeaaiia n?aaenoai
iocueaeueiie au?aceoaeueiinoe. Oae, a Ia?aie /anoe “Eniaineie
?ainiaeee” – “I?aethaeee ii/e” iniiaioth ?ieue ea?aao ia oaia –
iaeiaeey, aa?iiie/aneee eiiieaen: “eaiaeueee” naeoiae o oeaeo,
eea?iaoia e a?o ia oiia inoeiaoiie,”canouaoae” iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe o
ne?eiie e aeueoia:

I?EIA? N 8.

I?eaeiaeueia eiio?aioieoe/aneay oaoieea ni/aoaiey eiiniiainia e
aeenniiainia, i?eaiu ia?aeeaeeciia eioa?aaeia e aeei?aeia, “ooieuaiea”
iaeiaee/aneie eeiee a iueana “Aenaeeoea”. A oeaeii a iaeanoe aa?iiiee
?aaaeue yaeyaony iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo iiaaoi?ia XX aaea. Eiiiiceoi?
nai eiiaaea ii?aaeaeyao naie ooaeiaeanoaaiiua caaea/e eae iienee iiaiai
a aa?iiie/aneii ycuea. Oae, iai?eia?, i?iecioei a neo/aa n iueanaie
oeeeea “Io?aaeaiey”. A “Aaoiaeia?aoee” ?aaaeue ieoao: “Io?aaeaiey”
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oeeee iuean, iaia/athueo a iiai aa?iiie/aneii
?acaeoee aeiaieueii cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey” (oeeo. ii 33, n.29).
Iaeneiaeueii ?anoe?yy nouanoaiaaaoea i?aaenoaaeaiey i aa?iiiee,
eiiiiceoi?, iaeiaei, ieeiaaea ia ?ac?ooae anoanoaaiiuo iniia
iocueaeueiie ?a/e. Aiaaoui, ecuneaiii ?anoeaa/aiiui aa?iiieyi ?aaaey
anaaaea naienoaaiia ooieoeeiiaeueiay ii?aaeaeaiiinoue, yniinoue
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo naycae.

Eeiae Aeaathnne e Ii?en ?aaaeue – iaeaieaa y?eea i?aaenoaaeoaee
eii?anneiiecia a iocuea. Eo oaa?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue a oa/aiea aeaoo
aeanyoeia eao i?ioaeaea ia?aeeaeueii, iiyoiio a eiiiiceoi?neeo noeeyo
Aeaathnne e ?aaaey anoue iauaa: iii?a ia o?aioeocneea ia?iaeiua
o?aaeeoeee, eioa?an e nia?aiaiiie ei eeoa?aoo?a e aeeaiiene, e?oa
ia?acia, ecuneaiiinoue iocueaeueiiai ycuea. Oioy oai?/aneea iooe
Aeaathnne e ?aaaey ia?anaeaeenue, iie ai iiiaii inoaaaeenue iaiioiaee,
i?aaeaea anaai a ioiioaiee e eeanne/aneei o?aaeeoeeyi. ?acee/ey aeaeiu
oaeaea i?e ?anniio?aiee oaeeo n?aaenoa iocueaeueiie au?aceoaeueiinoe eae
oi?ia, iaeiaeey, ?eoi, aa?iiiey. Ii ia ii?aaeaeaiiii io?acea a?aiaie
e Aeaathnne e ?aaaeue no?aieeenue e aaeeiie oeaee – ia?aaeaoue
ieiieaoiua iuouaiey, /oanoaa, ia?acu. Iiyoiio iaieo eiiiiceoi?ia
ioiinyo e iaeiiio iai?aaeaieth – eii?anneiiecio.

AEAAA II. Aeaoneay oi?oaieaiiay iocuea eii?anneiienoia

a i?aeoeea iocueaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey.

1. IACI? O*AAIUO I?IA?AII.

Yoa aeaaa iinayuaia ?anniio?aieth ianoa ni/eiaiee eiiiiceoi?ia –
eii?anneiienoia a o?ao i?ia?aiiao ii iocuea, ii eioi?ui a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy i?iaiaeyony caiyoey a oeieao. Yoi i?ia?aiiu neaaeothueo
aaoi?ia: I.A.Oa?aioueaaie, TH.A.Aeeaaa e Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneiai. O eaaeaeiai
ec ieo naie iiaeoiae e eniieueciaaieth eii?anneiienoe/aneeo ni/eiaiee ia
o?ieao iocuee:

– n eaeie iocueie eii?anneiienoia neaaeoao ciaeiieoue aeaoae
(iocueaeueiue iaoa?eae),

– eae yoi aeaeaoue (iaoaeu),

– eiaaea (oaiaoeea e aic?ano aeaoae).

Iu iinoa?aeenue iaeneiaeueii iiae?iaii ?acia?aoueny a yoeo aii?inao e a
iii?a ia ieo auno?ieoue iaci? i?ia?aii.

I?ia?aiia “Iocuea” I.A.Oa?aioueaaie.

I.A.Oa?aioueaaa a i?ia?aiia “Iocuea” (iocueaeueii-ynoaoe/aneia
ainieoaiea I – IV eeannu. I.: I?inaauaiea, 1994 a.) aeoeaioe?oao
aeooaeueiinoue eaeae eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea e iocueaeueii-ynoaoe/aneiio
ainieoaieth aeaoae. Oi?ie?iaaiea e ainieoaiea ynoaoe/aneiai /oanoaa
o ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia inouanoaeyaony i?e ciaeiinoaa e iaeaaeaiee
iniiaaie o?ao aeaeia eneonnoa – iocuee, aeeaiiene, eeoa?aoo?u (n
o?aaiaioa?iui iiaeeeth/aieai oaao?a, eeii, a?oeoaeoo?u). I?e yoii
noa?aeiaaui aeaeii eneonnoaa a aeaiiie i?ia?aiia yaeyaony iocuea. A
ioai?aiocueaeueiiai iaoa?eaea aaoi? ia iaoiaeeo aieiaieai e oai?/anoai
eiiiiceoi?ia-eii?anneiienoia. Ia?auaiea e iaio ia nea/aeii, o.e.
iocuea eii?anneiienoia i?aaeiieaaaao ?anniio?aiea ai acaeiinayce n
ae?oaeie aeaeaie eneonnoa.

Oae, caiyoea ii oaia “Iiao ceia, aoeaao” (2 eeann) a ea/anoaa iocuee
aeey neooaiey i?aaeeaaaaony iueana “Niaa oaioeoao” ec oeeeea “Aeaoneee
oaieie” E.Aeaathnne. Aeey aieueoae aeoaeiu aini?eyoey iocuee aeaoyi
i?aaeeaaaaony i?ineooaoue noeoioai?aiea A.O?ooiaaie “Ceia”. Oeaeue
o?iea – iniuneaiea iiiyoey “ia?ac”. Iiyoiio iinea cao/aiey iocuee e
noeoia o/eoaeue caaeaao neaaeothuee e?oa aii?inia:

1. Eaeie ia?ac aiciee ia?aae aaie i?e i?ineooeaaiee iocueaeueiiai e

iiyoe/aneiai i?iecaaaeaiee?

2. *oi yaeyaony ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ia?aca?

3. *oi iauaai iaaeaeo ia?acaie, aiieiuaiiuie a iueana E.Aeaathne e noe-

oioai?aiee A.O?ooiaaie?

4. A/ai ?acee/ea iaaeaeo ieie?

Iinea aeaoe iieo/atho caaeaiea e?aneaie ia?eniaaoue naie aia/aoeaiey,
nuii?iaece?iaaoue aeaeaeaiea iiae iocueo E.Aeaathnne.

A o?ie ii oaia “Iocuea eana” (2 eeann) aeeth/ai o?aaiaio ec aaeaoa
“Aeaoien e Oeiy” I.?aaaey, (“Ainoiae nieioea”). O/eoaeue i?aaeeaaaao
aeaoyi niaa?oeoue iuneaiioth i?iaoeeo ii eano, iiethaiaaoueny aai
e?ani/iuie ea?oeiaie, oneuoaoue eaniua aieina. Iniiaiay oeaeue aucaaoue
a niciaiee o ?aaaiea iuneue i oii, /oi /aeiaae, niiniaiue i?iieeiooueny
/oaeaniui ie?ii i?e?iaeu, ianiiiaiii aoaeao caaioeoueny e iaa?aaaoue aa,
ainoeuaoueny ath. O/eoaeue i?ineo ioaaoeoue ia aii?in: eaeia
iano?iaiea, /oanoai i?iaoaeaeaao a aan i?icao/aaoay iocuea? E
iinoeaeaieth ia?aca yoiai ni/eiaiey neaaeoao iiaeaanoe o/aueony /a?ac
aiaeec n?aaenoa iocueaeueiie au?aceoaeueiinoe, a /anoiinoe, ioiaoeoue
naiaia?aciua ecaeau iaeiaee/aneie eeiee, ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia
iocueaeueiua eino?oiaiou, eniieueciaaiiua ?aaaeai. Iinea aiaeeca
iocueaeueii-au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa yieciaea “Ainoiae nieioea” iaaeaaia
i?ineo ?anneacaoue i oii, /oi i?ienoiaeeo n i?e?iaeie a oo?aiiea
/anu.Aeey oneeaiey au?aceoaeueiinoe e?ani/iie caoeiaie ea?oeiu
i?inuiathuaeny i?e?iaeu a i?iecaaaeaiee I.?aaaey, I.A.Oa?aioueaaa
eniieuecoao noeoioai?aiea N.Anaieia “Neiee iae.Ca?aaay oaieuiue.” Aeaeaa
neaaeoao n?aaiaiea ecia?aaeaiey caoeaie ea?oeiu oo?aiiaai eana a
iocuea “Ainoiae nieioea” I.?aaaey e e oaa?oth?a e iia?a “Aeeueaaeuei
Oaeeue” Aeae.?inneie. Auyaeythony iauea iiiaiou – niieieiia, neaaea
iiea/eaathuaany aeaeaeaiea iocuee, annioeee?othuaany n aeoiiaaieai
aao?a, oneeaiea aeeiaieee, iaiaauaiea cao/iinoe ca n/ao aeeth/aiey
iiauo eino?oiaioia, iaiiieiathuaa i?iaoaeaeaiea ioeoe e caa?ae.
Eioa?anii neaaeothuaa iinea yoiai caaeaiea e?aneaie ia eenoa aoiaae
ecia?aceoue iooaiee iano?iaiey, ia?aaeaoue yiioeeiiaeueiua aia/aoeaiey
io i?ineooaiiie iocuee, iieacaoue niaio oa?aeoa?a ninoiyiey.

E niaeaeaieth yoei i?iecaaaeaieyie ia?aie/eaaaony ia?auaiea aaoi?a e
oai?/anoo E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey: a iineaaeothueo 3 – 4 eeannao
iocuea eii?anneiienoia ia eniieuecoaony. Aa?iyoii, ia?aie/aiea yoi
I.A.Oa?aioueaaie naeaeaii niciaoaeueii. Iineieueeo I?ia?aiia ?an/eoaia
ia ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia, iia ia aeieaeia auoue ia?aa?oaeaia noieue
neiaeiie a ieaia ycuea iocueie (eaeie yaeyaony iocuea eii?anneiienoia).

Oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue, /oi oaiu “Iiao ceia, aoeaao” e “Iocuea eana”
i/aiue i?aaie/ii aieaoatho a naay i?iecaaaeaiey eii?anneiienoia.

Iocueaeueiue iaoa?eae, i?aaeeiaeaiiue I.A.Oa?aioueaaie aiieia aeinoo-

iai aeaoyi ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa. Ii, ia iao acaeyae, ia
noieo n?aaieaaoue iocueo Aeae.?inneie (Oaa?oth?a e iia?a “Aeeueaaeuei
Oaeeue”) e I.?aaaey (“Ainoiae nieioea”), oai?eaoeo a ?aciua
enoi?e/aneea ia?eiaeu.

Aeey aeaoae  _ieaaeoaai . oeieueiiai aic?anoa oaeia n?aaiaiea i/aiue
neiaeiay caaea/a. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oi, /oi ea?oeia i?inuiathuaainy
eana a oa.

Aeae.?inneie – eeoue oii, ia eioi?ii ?acai?a/eaathony nthaeaoiua
niauoey iia?u, a o ?aaaey iia – naiioeaiiue yieciae aaeaoa, aaea
e?ani/iue iocueaeueiue ycue ninoaaeyao naio nooue iocuee. Aieaa oaea/iui
ia iao acaeyae, aoaeao n?aaiaiea yieciaea “Ainoiaea nieioea” I.?aaaey n
“Oo?ii” Y.A?eaa ec ntheou “Ia? Athio”.

Aaoi? i?ia?aiiu ia naieo o?ieao oe?iei eniieuecoao i?eioeei
oeaeinoiinoe, o.e. aeey aeaoae ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa iniaaiii
oa?aeoa?ii neie?aoe/aneia aini?eyoea ie?a. Aeey aieaa iieiiai iiieiaiey
i?aaeeiaeaiiie iocuee, o/aieeai i?ineooaoue noeoe, ecia?aceoue a e?aneao
iano?iaiey iocuee, ieanoe/anee i?ieioiie?iaaoue aa. Ii noeoe,
i?aaeeiaeaiiua I.A.Oa?aioueaaie, a oi/iaa eo yiioeeiiaeueiue no?ie, ia
iao acaeyae ia niioaaonoaoao ie?o /oanoa oie iocuee, aeey oneeaiey
aini?eyoey eioi?ie iie i?aaeiacia/aiu. Aieaa oaea/iui auei au
i?eaea/aiea ia?acia ec iiycee neiaieenoia.

I?ia?aiia Iocuea 1 – 8 eeannuiiae ?aae.

TH.A.Aeeaaa I.: I?inaauaiea, 1993 a.

I?ia?aiia “Iocuea” iiae ?aaeaeoeeae TH.A.Aeeaaa i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia/aei
ciaeiinoaa aeaoae n iocueie eii?anneiienoia oaea ai 2-i eeanna. A
eiioaenoa oaiu aiaea “Au?aceoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe iocuee” ai II-ie
/aoaa?oe (oaia “Iocuea au?aceoaeueiay”) aaoi? i?aaeeaaaao a ea/anoaa
iaoa?eaea aeey neooaiey oi?oaieaiioth ieieaoth?o E.Aeaathnne “Eoiiue
naao” ec “Aa?aaianneie ntheou”, a a III-e /aoaa?oe (oaia “Eoi eniieiyao
iocueo”) – iueano aeey oeaeou niei “Ne?eien” oiai aea aaoi?a.
Aeinoioi/ii ?aiiaa i?eiauaiea aeaoae e iocuea eii?anneiienoia (a
/anoiinoe E.Aeaathnne) auaeyaeeo aiieia eiae/iui a oeaaoa oeaio?aeueiie
eaeae I?ia?aiiu – iinoaiaiiia iinoeaeaiea o/aieeaie oa?aeoa?iuo
iniaaiiinoae enoi?eei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo iai?aaeaiee a iocuea (a oii
/enea eii?anneiiecia). Ii eae iai eaaeaony i?aaeeiaeaiiay iocuea
ianeieueei neiaeia aeey aeaoneiai aini?eyoey (a iniaaiiinoe yoi
eanaaony iueanu aeey oeaeou niei “Ne?eien”) e ia ia/aeueiii yoaia
ciaeiinoaa n eii?anneiieciii oeaeaniia?aciaa eniieueciaaoue aieaa
aeinooiiua ni/eiaiey. Oaeiauie aiieia iiaee au auoue i?iecaaaeaiey
E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey, aae?aniaaiiua aeaoneie aoaeeoi?ee.

Neaaeothuaa nii?eeiniiaaiea n oai?/anoaii E.Aeaathnne aicieeaao ai
II-ie /aoaa?oe 3 eeanna. Oaia yoie /aoaa?oe – “Neioiie/aneay iocuea.
Neioiie/aneee i?eano?, a?oiiu aai eino?oiaioia”. Aeey i?ineooeaaiey
aiiaue i?aaeeaaaaony “Eoiiue naao” E.Aeaathnne, ii oaea a ia?aeiaeaiee
aeey a?ou. E caeanue iai eaaeaony oaea/iui iiiaio ia?auaiey e ciaeiiie
iocuea, cao/auae a ae?oaii eniieiaiee. Oae aea a ?aieao oaiaoeee II-ie
/aoaa?oe iiaeii aeiaaaeoue aieueoa i?eano?iaie iocuee eii?anneiienoia a
aeaea o?aaiaioia (iai?eia?, “Iaeaea” E.Aeaathnne, “Aaea?i” I.?aaaey e
ae?.)

A n?aaeieo e noa?oeo eeannao oeaio?aeueiie caaea/ae i?ia?aiiu

TH.A.Aeeaaa noaiiaeony oi?ie?iaaiea o o/aueony i?aaenoaaeaiee i
?acee/iuo enoi?eei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo noeeyo. Iinea ?anniio?aiey a 5
eeanna noeey ?onneie eiiiiceoi?neie oeieu, a 6 eeanna o/aueany
i?enooiatho e inaiaieth iiiyoey iocueaeueiiai noeey ai anao aai aeaeao e
i?iyaeaieyo.

A 7 eeanna o/aueany iieo/atho i?aaenoaaeaiea i oaeeo noeeaauo
iai?aaeaieyo a eneonnoaa eiioea XIX – ia/aei XXa.a. (e niioaaonoaaiii
iocueaeueiuo noeeae), eae eii?anneiieci, yeni?enneiieci,
iaieeanneoeeci. N?aaee oai I-ie /aoaa?oe, iinaauaiiuo yoei iai?aaeaieyi
ano?a/aai oaio “Eii?anneiieci a iocuea”. Iia ?ane?uaaaony ia i?eia?ao
neaaeothueo iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee: aeey neooaiey – “Eoiiue naao”
ec “Aa?aaianneie ntheou”, i?aethaeee aeey oi?oaieaii “Aeaaooea n
aieinaie oeaaoa eueia” e “Naaeu iiae aeiaeaeai”, i?aethaeey
“Iineaiieoaeaiiiio ioaeuoo Oaaia”, E.Aeaathnne: “Ea?a aiaeu”,
“E?anaaeoea e /oaeiaeua” e “Aieoaaiue naae” ec ntheou “Iiy iaoooea
aonuiy”, “Aiea?i” I.?aaaey. Aeey iaiey – “Ianiy aeeoy” ec iia?u “Aeeoy
e aieoaanoai” I.?aaaey: ?iiainu “*oaeiue aa/a?”, “?iaeaeanoaaineay
ianiy aacaeiiiuo aeaoae” E.Aeaathnne.

E?oa i?iecaaaeaiee i?aaeeiaeaiiuo TH.A.Aeeaaui, ia iao acaeyae
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeai aeey o/aieeia 7 eeanna (iniaaiii aieaeueiua
ni/eiaiey). Aeaiiue auai? iocueaeueiiai iaoa?eaea, aaoi? i?ia?aiiu
iaoneaaeeaaao aaaeiinoueth ia?aciaaoaeueiie eeiee, o.e. a i?yiie
caaeneiinoe io iieo/aiiuo ciaiee neacuaaaony o?iaaiue ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
aeona iiae?inoea, aai eaeaaeu, oaaaeaeaiey, ynoaoe/aneea iio?aaiinoe
e oai?/aneea niiniaiinoe.

Oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue, /oi ia?aiia/aeueii aeaiiay I?ia?aiia auea
?ann/eoaia ia 10 eao iao/aiey ii 2 (aeaa) /ana a iaaeaeth, caoai oio aea
iauai iaoa?eaea aue “oeiaeai” a 8 eao ii iaeiiio /ano a iaaeaeth.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii e eii?anneiiecio ?aayoa au ia?auaeenue a 9 – 10
eeannao, e i?e caiyoeyo iocueie 2 /ana a iaaeaeth ciaeiinoai n e?oaii
iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, ii?aaeaeaiiuo TH.A.Aeeaaui, auei au aiieia
i?iaeoeoeaiui. Ii aaeaeo ia?aie/aiiiai eiee/anoaa /ania e n?aaieoaeueii
iaaieueoiai aic?anoa o/aieeia neaaeiaaei au ianeieueei eciaieoue auai?
i?aaeeaaaaiuo aeey eco/aiey i?iecaaaeaiee e auaiaeii aeiiieieoue aai
aeaoneie iocueie E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey. Iai eaaeaony, /oi aieaeueiua
ni/eiaiey eii?anneiienoia iiaeii inoaaeoue a noi?iia, eae e i?aethaeeth
e “Iineaiieoaeaiiio ioaeuoo Oaaia” E.Aeaathnne e “Ea?o aiaeu”
I.?aaaey, o.e. a yoeo i?iecaaaeaieyo iocueaeueiue ycue i/aiue neiaeai, e
o/aieeai aoaeao o?oaeii iiiyoue e i?eiyoue aai.

Aaoi? I?ia?aiiu ia inoaiaaeeaaaony ia iaoiaeao iiaea/e iaoa?eaea,
oeaeeeii iieaaaynue ia oai?/aneee iiaeoiae o/eoaeai iocuee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi oaia “I noeeyo a iocuea” aia?aua aaiaeeony a
oeieueioth i?ia?aiio. E aua iaeei iieiaeeoaeueiue iiiaio – i?eaea/aiea
i?iiecaaaeaiee E.Aeaathnne ia o?ieao iocuee a ia/aeueiie oeiea, /oi
aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue iinoaiaiiiio iaeaaeaaaieth iniiaaie noieue
neiaeiiai iai?aaeaiey eae eii?anneiieci.

Eaaaeaaneee Ae.A. I?ia?aiia ii iocuea aeey iaua ia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu.
I.: I?inaauaiea, 1983a.

A  _I?ia?aiia ii iocuea . aeey iauaia?aciaaoaeueiuo oeie
 _Ae.A.Eaaaeaan _eee . ia i?iecaaaeaieyo eii?anneiienoia niaoeeaeueii ia
inoaiaaeeaaaony. Ii aeeth/aao eo a ea/anoaa iocueaeueiuo i?eia?ia a oaiu
iauaai oa?aeoa?a.

Oae, a IV-ie /aoaa?oe 4 eeanna (oaia “Iiaeai ee iu oneuoaoue
aeeaiienue?”) a ea/anoaa iocuee aeey neooaiey i?aaeeaaaaony “Oaaaia?a”
ec “Eniaineie ?ainiaeee” I.?aaaey. Ae.A. Eaaaeaaneee aeaeaao aeoeaio ia
neooiaii aiaeeca oaia?iaiai ioi?ieaiey iniiaiie. Yoi aiieia
caeiiiia?ii, iineieueeo eii?anneiienoai naienoaaiii iiae/a?eiooia
aieiaiea e oaia?iaui e?aneai. Iiiaea i?iecaaaeaiey E.Aeaathnne e
I.?aaaey aini?eieiathony eae aeeaiieniua caoeiaua ea?oeiu. A “Oaaaia?a”
aaoi? I?ia?aiiu niaaooao iaaeaaiao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ?aayo ia
iaiau/ii iyaeia, iaaeiia cao/aiea o?oau. Ana aeaoe ciatho o?oao eae
aieinoaaiiue, aiaaie, i?ecuaiue eino?oiaio e ioe?uoea eie iiauo
caoeiauo ea/anoa oi?ioi ecaanoiiai iocueaeueiiai eino?oiaioa
niinianoaoao aic?anoaieth eioa?ana, eae e oaia?o naiiai eino?oiaioa,
oae e e iocuea, eioi?oth ii eniieiyao. A aeaiiii neo/aa ia nae?ao,
/oi aiaaonoai aiciiaeiinoae ?aciuo eino?oiaioia i?eano?a ia?aaeei
“auiaaeaao” ec iiey c?aiey aeaoae, e ciaeiinoai n iocueie
eii?anneiienoia – /?acau/aeii aeaaiaeaoiue iaoa?eae aeey ainiieiaiey
iiaeiaiuo iioa?ue.

Eae i?iecaaaeaiea aeey neooaiuey eniieuecoaony iaeei ec neioiie/aneeo
iieoth?iia E.Aeaathnne – “I?acaeiainoaa” (4 eeann, IV /aoaa?oue). Ii
iunee Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneiai, iocuea “I?acaeiainoa” aeieaeia “aucuaaoue y?eea
c?eoaeueiua ia?acu – ea?oeiu ia?iaeiiai aoeyiey” (i?ia?. E. n.37). Ii a
aeaiiii neo/aa aaoi?neay i?ia?aiia E.Aeaathnne, io eioi?ie yaii
iooaeeeaaeny a iinoaiiaea naiae iaaeaaiae/aneie caaea/e
Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneee, ia oieueei ia i?iyniyy neooaoeeth niaea?aeaiey a
iocuea , a ia iai?io – oneiaeiyao aa. Ii neiaai eiiiiceoi?a,
“I?acaeiainoaa” caia/aoeaee ainiiieiaiey i ia?iaeiuo ii/iuo aoeyieyo a
Aoeiineii eano a aeaea “ineaieoaeueiuo e oeia?e/aneeo aeaeaiee” (oeeo.
ii 9, n.76). Iai aeoiaaony noaeeoue i oaeeo ia?acao oeieueieeai
/?acau/aeii o?oaeii. Yoi eanaaony e aicieeiiaaiey o ieo c?eoaeueiuo
annioeeaoeee ii/iiai ia?iaeiiai i?acaeieea ai O?aioeee, aeey /aai
ioaeii auoue inaaaeiieaiiuie i eoeueoo?a yoie no?aiu. Ia iao acaeyae
iaiiaeaioiaeaiiui neooaoaeyi, eaeeie yaeythony o/aieee … eeanna,
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeii aaeaeaaoii aini?eiyoue y?ei-eii?anneiienoe/aneia
i?iecaaaeaiea. Aeey yoiai o?aaoaony aiaaoue iiuo iauaiey n
eii?anneiienoaie.

Aac iiaeaioiaeoaeueiiai yoaia niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeii iinoeaeaiea
oaeiai neiaeiiai i?iecaaaeaiey eae “Aiea?i” I.?aaaey. Iii oeao?e?oao a
ea/anoaa iocuee aeey neooaiey ia o?ieao I-ie /aoaa?oe a 6 eeanna
(oaia “Iocueaeueiue ia?ac”). Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneee aeaeeo caaea/o
iaaeaaiaa a oii, /oiau iiii/ue aeaoyi aini?eiyoue yoi i?iecaaaeaiea eae
aaeeiue, ?acaeaathueeny ia?ac oaioea. Ii iaoaio iiaieth, oaeay
caaea/a iiaeao auoue oniaoii

?aoaia i?e neaaeothueo oneiaeyo:  _ai-ia?auo ., i?e iaee/ee
iieiaeeoaeueiiai iiuoa i?aaeuaeouaai iauaiey o/aieeia n e?oiiuie,
ianooaaiuie i?iecaaaeaieyie  _ai-aoi?uo ., i?e oiaiee o/aueony ia
oieueei ?acee/aoue oaia?u iocueaeueiuo eino?oiaioia, ii e neuoaoue
oaia?iaia ?acaeoea neioiie/aneie ia?oeoo?u,  _iaeiiaoe ., aaaeia
niiniaiinoue iaaeaaiaa oaea/ue aeaoae, iiaanoe eo ca niaie.

A i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo caia/aieyo aaoi? aiai?eo, /oi iaeiie ec caaea/
o/eoaey ia o?ieao iocuee yaeyaony ainieoaiea o o/aieeia /oanoaa noeey,
eioi?ia oi?ie?oaony a ?acoeueoaoa iaeiieaiey iocueaeueiiai iiuoa. Ii oio
iiuo, eioi?ue i?eia?aoatho o/aueany, ia?aoeaoenue e iocuea E.Aeaathnne
e I.?aaaey, i/aiue iae aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee. E nai
Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneee ia io?eoeaao aiciiaeiinoe ?anoe?aiey e?oaa eca?aiiuo ei
i?iecaaaeaiee.

Ni/eiaiey E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey iiaeii i/aiue i?aaie/ii aeeth/eoue ai

iiiaea oaiu, cayaeaiiua a i?ia?aiia.

Iai?eia?, a oaia “Iaaeaeo iocueie ?aciuo ia?iaeia ie?a iao
iaia?aoiaeeiuo a?aieoe” iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ethaoth /anoue ec
“Aeaoneiai oaieea” (a iniaaiiinoe “Eoeieueiue eye-oie”), eee “Iiae
iaoooee aonuie”.

A 4 eeanna a eaaeaeie /aoaa?oe oaeaea aiciiaeii ia?auaiea e iocuea

eii?anneiienoia – a oaiao “*oi noaei au n iocueie, anee au ia auei
eeoa?aoo?u” (“Iiy iaoooea aonuiy”) e “Iiaeai ee iu oaeaeaoue iocueo e
oneuoaoue aeeaiienue?” (Caeanue ioaeii aeeth/aoue i?iecaaaeaiey aieaa
iieacaoaeueiua

a ieaia eii?anneiienoe/aneiai noeey: “Iaeaea”, “Ia?ona”, “Caoiioaoee
niai?” E.Aeaathnne n i?eaea/aieai ?ai?iaeoeoeee aeeaiienoeaa Y.Iiia,
Y.Aeaaa, I.?aioa?a).

A oaia “Iocueaeueiue ia?ac” ni/eiaiee eii?anneiienoia iiaoo auoue
i?aaenoaaeaiu a ?acee/iuo aa?eaioao. I?aaeeaaaaony eae ia?auaiea e
oaea ciaeiiui (“Iaeaiueeee ianooo” E.Aeaathnne, “?acaiai? E?anaaeoeu e
*oaeiaeua”, “Iaeue/ee n iaeue/ee”, “I?eioeanna aeo?iooea” I.?aaaey) oae
e e iacao/aaoei ?aiaa i?iecaaaeaieyi “Aeaaooea n aieinaie oeaaoa eueia”,
I?aethaeey

e “Iineaiieoaeaiiiio ioaeuoo Oaaia” E.Aeaathnne, “Oeiaeeia” I.?aaaey)

Iu i?aaeeaaaai aeeth/eoue i?iecaaaeaiey eii?anneiienoia e a 8 eeann a

oaio “*oi cia/eo nia?aiaiiinoue a iocuea”. Caeanue eo/oa i?eaeaeaoue
ni/eiaiey, a eioi?uo i?aoai?ythony yeaiaiou nia?aiaiiiai iocueaeueiiai
ycuea

- a /anoiinoe, aeaeaca (“Eoeieueiue eye-oie”, “Aaia?ae Eyaei –
yenoeaio?ee”, “Iaiano?aee” E.Aeaathnne).

A naiae I?ia?aiia Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneee ia?aie/eaaaony i/aiue oceei e?oaii
i?iecaaaeaiee eii?anneiienoia: “I?acaeiainoaa” E.Aeaathnne, “Oaaaia?a” e
“Aiea?i” I.?aaaey. E oiio aea, anee o/eouaaoue neiaeiinoue
au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa a yoeo i?iecaaaeaieyo, oi aa?iyoiinoue eo
iieiioeaiiiai aini?eyoey aeaoueie i/aiue iaea.

Iai aeaeyony ii e?aeiae ia?a aeaa iooe ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu:
1)nenoaiaoe/aneia ia?auaiea e ni/eiaieyi eii?anneiienoia ii i?eioeeio
“io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio”, i?aeaiaeyuaa e iiieiaieth iiiaie?ani/iuo,
ianuuaiiuo cao/aiee e auno?iaiiie niaa?oaiii ii-iniaiio eiaeee
?acaeoey ia?acia a “I?acaeiainoaao”, “Aiea?i” e ae?. iiaeiaiui ei
e?oiiuo i?eano?iauo i?iecaaaeaiee, 2)i?e ionoonoaee ia?aie aiciiaeiinoe
aa?iyoii iaiaoiaeeia caiaia noieue neiaeiuo ia?acia iocueaeueiiai
eii?anneiiecia ia aieaa aeinooiiua aeey aini?eyoey oeieueieeaie (eae ii
oaiaoeea, oae e ii eiiiiceoi?neiio ycueo).

Aiaeec oaiaoe/aneiai ieaia I?ia?aiiu oaaaeee ian, /oi iaeioi?ua ec oai
i/aiue i?aaie/ii iiaoo aeeth/aoue a naay i?iecaaaeaiey E.Aeaathnne e
I.?aaaey.A oeaeii I?ia?aiia Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneiai aeaao aanueia oe?ieea
aiciiaeiinoe i?eaea/aiey ni/eiaiee eii?anneiienoia ia o?ieao iocuee a
oeiea.

Iiae?iaii i?iaiaeece?iaaa i?ia?aiiu I.A.Oa?aioueaaie ,
TH.A,Aeeaaa,Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneiai, iu oaaaeeeenue, /oi o eaaeaeiai ec ieo
naie iiaeoiae e eniieueciaaieth eii?anneiienoe/aneeo ni/eiaiee ia o?ieao
iocuee.

I.A.Oa?aioueaaa a I?ia?aiia iocueaeueii-ynoaoe/aneia ainieoaiea oaea

ai aoi?ii eeanna aeeth/aao a o?iee iocueo E.Aeaathnne e
I.?aaaey,i?eaeaeay ia iiiiuue ae?oaea aeaeu eneonnoa.Oaiu o?ieia i/aiue
i?aaie/ii aeeth/atho a naay i?aaeeiaeaiiua aaoi?ii i?iecaaaeaiey.

TH.A.Aeeaa a naiae I?ia?aiia ciaeiinoai n iocueie eii?anneiienoia
inouanoaeyao a 7 eeanna a eiioaenoa eco/aiey noeeae e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
iai?aaeaiee.Ii i?aaeeaaaao i?iecaaaeaiey ia oieueei aeey neooaiey, ii
e aeey iaiey.

Ni/eiaiey eiiiiceoi?ia-eii?anneiienoia aeeth/aiu e a I?ia?aiio
Ae.A.Eaaaeaaneiai.Ii i?eaeaeaao eo a ea/anoaa iaoa?eaea aeey neooaiey.

Iu i?aaeeiaeeee iaeioi?ua aa?eaiou aeiiieiaiee i?iaiaeece?iaaiiuo

i?ia?aii,eioi?ua caeeth/athony a aieaa ?aiiai ia?auaiee e ni/eiaieyi
E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey,a ?anoe?aiee ?aia?ooa?a can/ao aeaoneie
oi?oaieaiiie iocuee yoeo aaoi?ia e iineaaeiaaoaeueiii eco/aiee
eii?anneiienoe/aneeo ni/eiaiee.

AIAEEC AeAONEEO OI?OAIEAIIUO OeEEEIA

E.AeAATHNNE E I.?AAAEss.

E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaeue – naiua y?eea i?aaenoaaeoaee eii?anneiiecia
a iocuea.Oai?/anoai yoeo eiiiiceoi?ia aeeth/aao aieueoie e?oa
?aciiaeai?iauo i?iecaaaeaiee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ?aciuo
eniieieoaeueneeo ninoaaia.Iocueaeueiue ycue eii?anneiienoia
y?eee,ianuuaiiue,ii i/aiue neiaeiue.Iu ?aoeee,/oi eo/oa inouanoaeoue
ciaeiinoai oeieueieeia n iocueie eii?anneiienoia ia i?eia?a oi?oaieaiiuo
ni/eiaiee aeey aeaoae:”Aeaoneee oaieie” E.Aeaathnne e “Iiy
iaoooea-aonuiy” I.?aaaey,iineieueeo a ieo iocueaeueiue ycue aeinoaoi/ii
oi?iuai.E aeaaea iaeei ec aaoi?ia (I.?aaaeue) aiai?ee, /oi “iaia?aiea
aini?ecaanoe a yoeo iueanao iiyceth aeaonoaa i?eaaei … e oi?iuaieth
iiaai noeey e i/euaieth iiaai ii/a?ea”.(oeeo.ii 21,

n.84).Oioy iu ia eneeth/aai aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey ae?oaeo
ni/eiaiee yoeo eiiiiceoi?ia (eae oeaeeeii,oae e a aeaea
o?aaiaioia).I?aaeeaaaaiue iaoa?eae iiaeao neoaeeoue iiniaeai aeey
o/eoaey iocuee,aeaeathuaai iiciaeiieoue o/aieeia n aeaoneeie
oi?oaieaiiuie ni/eiaieyie eii?anneiienoia.

A 1908 aiaeo E.Aeaathnne iaienae oeeee ec 6 iuean aeey oi?oaieaii
iiae iacaaieai “Aeaoneee oaieie”.Yoi i?iecaaaeaiea ii iinayoee naiae
ai?y/i ethaeiie aei/a?e Yiia :”iiae aei?iaie iaeaiueeie Oooo n iaaeiuie
ecaeiaieyie iooea ca oi, /oi iineaaeoao”.Ana iueanu “Aeieoi? Gradus ad
Parnassum”,”Eieuaaeueiay Aeaeeiai”,”Na?aiaaea eoeea”,”Niaa
oaioeoao”,”Iaeaiueeee ianooo”,”Eoeieueiue eye-oie” – yoi iaaieueoea
ca?eniaee, a eioi?uo eiiiiceoi? ianoa?nee nicaeae ia?acu e ea?oeiu
aeaonoaa.

A “Aeaoneii oaieea” E.Aeaathnne ia?aoeeny e oi?ia
ntheou,aic?iaeaeaiiie eiiiiceoi?aie-?iiaioeeaie.Iiaay “?iiaioe/aneay”
ntheoa nouanoaaiii ioee/aeanue io noa?eiiie naiei niaea?aeaieai e
eiiiiceoeeiiiuie /a?oaie.A ni/eiaiee eiiiiceoi?a-eii?anneiienoa iaoiaeei
oaeea aa i?eioeeiu,eae:

a) no?aieaiea e eiie?aoiinoe iocueaeueiuo ia?acia,e
i?ia?aiiiinoe,eioi?ia i?iyaeyaony o E.Aeaathnne a iacaaiee ia oieueei
oeeeea,ii e eaaeaeie ieieaoth?u;

a) naiaiaeiia oiiaeueiia niiinoaaeaiea /anoae:ana iueanu iaienaiu a
?aciuo oiiaeueianoyo(C dur, B dur, E dur, d moll, A dur, Es dur),n yaiui
i?aiaeaaeaieai iaaei?iiai eaaea.Ni/aoaiea iaaei?iuo oiiaeueiinoae n
iaeeaeaiiuie oaiiaie ia neo/aeii – iii yaii io?aaeaao
aeecia?aaeinoiinoue,ethaiciaoaeueiinue,iiaeaeaeiinoue,naienoaaiiua
iiaaaeaieth aeaoae.N yoei naycaii e aeinoaoi/ii aeai?iaia ?aciiia?acea
iuean (n?aaee ieo anoue aeai?iaua noeaiee-“Na?aiaaea eoeea”,”Eoeieueiue
eye-oie”,”Eieuaaeueiay Aeaeeiai”;ii?o?aoiua ca?eniaee-“Iaeaiueeee
ianooo”;aieoaaiue iaecaae, ?iaeaeaiiue aeaoneie oaioaceae-“Niaa
oaioeoao”).

Iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o ni/eiaiey noaea aai thii?enoe/aneay
ie?anea.Iocueiaaae I.Eii/aaneee ieoao, /oi oiieee aaoi?neee “thii?
caeeth/ai oaea a aiaeeeneeo caaieiaeao ntheou e aa /anoae – yoi eae au
oooeeaia ia?auaiea iooea e ?aaaieo, eioi?ue ainieouaaaony iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii aiaeeeneie “ienn””(15,n.171).THii?enoe/aneia iano?iaiea
nicaeaao ia?iaee?iaaiea yothaeia I.Eeaiaioe (nai?iee “Gradus ad
Parnassum”-“Iooue e Ia?iano”) e ecaanoiie iocuee ?.Aaaia?a (“O?enoai e
Ecieueaea”).Ia?ainiuneaiea oai e iocueaeueiuo ia?acia yoeo ni/eiaiee
y?ei i?iyaeeinue a ia?aie e iineaaeiae iueanao oeeeea.

Oi?oaieaiiay ntheoa E.Aeaathnne “Aeaoneee oaieie” – i?ecaaaeaiea,a
eioi?ii aiieiuai iaeaiue e ioae?ue, neaci/iue e ?aaeueiue, caaaaiue
e a?onoiue, a oeaeii /oaeaniue e aeia?ue ie? aeaonoaa.E oioy ni/eiaiea
auei nicaeaii a ia/aea aaea, aeaaiua aa?ie ntheou – eoeea, ea?ooa/iue
neii, ianoooie – ethaeiu, aeecee e iiiyoiu nia?aiaiiui aeaoyi.

Ia?aay iueana oeeeea iacuaaaony “Aeieoi? Gradus ad Parnassum”. Aa
caaeaaea naycaii ni ciaiaieoui oeeeeii yothaeia
I.Eeaiaioe.Nenoaiaoe/aneea oi?aaeiaiey a oaoieea ea?u ia oi?oaieaii,
i?aaeeaaaaiua I.Eeaiaioe a aeaea yothaeia – iaeei ec iooae, iinoaiaiii
i?eaeeaeathueo thiiai ieaienoa e aa?oeiai eniieieoaeueneiai
ianoa?noaa.Ni/eiaiea aea E.Aeaathnne “Aeieoi? Gradus ad Parnassum”
ioa?aeoa?eciaaia naiei aaoi?ii eae “?iae aeaeaie/aneie e i?ia?anneaiie
aeiianoeee, neaaeiaaoaeueii iiaeiaaao ea?aoue yoo iueano eaaeaeia oo?i
iaoiuae, ia/eiay oia?aiii, /oiau caeii/eoue iaeeaeaiii”(oeeo.ii
17,n.68).A neiaao eiiiiceoi?a cao/eo oiieay e?iiey a aae?an
anaaiciiaeiuo oaoie/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee.Aa iiae/a?eeaatho aaoi?neay
?aia?ea “?iaii e aac nooinoe”,iyaeinoue oeao?aoeee, nicao/ey,
ianuuaiiua naeoiaeiauie ni/aoaieyie.Oaeoo?a iniiaaia ia ?iaiii e
iai?a?uaiii aeaeaeaiee oanoiaaeoeaouo, i?ae?auathuainy iaiaaeieai – a
oeaio?aeueiii yieciaea, aaea eiiiiceoi? ecia?aaeaao ?annayiiinoue
o/aieea:

I?EIA? N 9.

AEeaiio iaiin?aaenoaaiiiio ?acaeoeth ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ia?aca
niinianoaoao ioeac eiiiiceoi?a io noaiae/iuo, eaaae?aoiuo no?oeoo?,
noieue naienoaaiiuo yothaeo. E?iiece?oy oaeei ia?acii iaae eino?oeoeaiui
aeai?ii, Aeaathnne iaeiia?aiaiii cia/eoaeueii iiiyoece?iaae aai.

“Eieuaaeueiay Aeaeeiai” (oae caaee ea?ooa/iiai neiia Oooo) ?iaeaeaao a
iaoai i?aaenoaaeaiee ia?ac iaoeethaeaai, iaiiiai oyaeaeiaaniiai
nouanoaa, aucuaathuaai iaeiaei, naiua aeia?ua /oanoaa. AEai?
eieuaaeueiie eae iaeuecy eo/oa iiiiaaao iieacaoue ia?ac n eaaeei
iooaieii thii?a. Aaaeue cao/aiea eieuaaeueiie /aua anaai annioeee?oaony
n /ai oi iaeaiueeei, aaccaueoiui e iaaeiui. O Aeaathnne aea yoio aeai?
oa?aeoa?ecoao ionoue e ea?ooa/iiai, ii anaoaee neiia. Ionthaea – e
iaoeie/iia aeey eieuaaeueiie eniieueciaaiea ia i?ioyaeaiee anae iueannu
ieceiai ?aaeno?a, e iao?aaeeoeeiiiue aeey eieuaaeueiie aeeiiiaiaiaio a
aeaea /a?aaeothueony aieueoeo naeoiae. Oyaeaeiaaniay, ianeieueei
oaeiaaoay iaeiaeey eieuaaeueiie iino?iaia ii caoeai iaioaoiie/aneiai
caoei?yaea, /oi i?eaeaao iocuea iaeioi?ue ainoi/iue eiei?eo:

I?EIA? N 10

Iniiaiui,”no?ieoaeueiui” iaoa?eaeii iueanu yaeythony naeoiaeu, eioi?ua
oi “eieuooony”, oi “oii/oony” ia ianoa, ia?acoy aianoa n
nii?iaiaeaeaieai oeaeioiiiaia cao/aiea. Eniieueciaaiea noieue iaiau/iuo
au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa – iaeii ec i?iyaeaiee naycae Aeaathnne n
?onneie iocueie. A/anoiinoe, iiaeii i?iaanoe aiaeiaeth n ?iiainii
A.I.Ai?iaeeia “Niyuay eiyaeia”, a eioi?ii eiiiiceoi? oe?iei i?eiaiee
oeaeioiiiaua iineaaeiaaiey, ia?oeathuea naeoiaeu a nii?iaiaeaeaiee e
iaioaoiie/aneia no?iaiea iaeiaeee.

?acaeoea iaoa?eaea a “Eieuaaeueiie Aeaeeiai” inouanoaeyaony ii
neaiciiio i?eioeeio: eaaeaeia iiaia iaeiaee/aneia ia?aciaaiea
iiaeaioaaeeaaaony i?aaeoanoaothuei e iiyaeyaony iacaiaoii. A oeaeii yoa
iueana aiaaoa oiieeie iooaieaie iano?iaiey, i/aiue aeeaiienia ii
eiei?eoo e ieaiyao oaeeaeoaeueii ianoa?neei eniieueciaaieai ne?iiiie
iaeeo?u au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa.

I/aiue ecyuia e a?aoeeicia o?aouey /anoue ntheou – “Na?aiaaea eoeea”.
Ia aa aeai?iaoth i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue oeacuaaao oaea naii iacaaiea. Eae
ecaanoii, na?aiaaea i?eaaonoaaiiay eee ethaiaiay ianiy, eniieiyaiay
iiae ieiii aicethaeaiie. Aeaaiua i?eciaee aeai?a – ieaaiay,
au?aceoaeueiay iaeiaeey e aeeiiiiieiaio, iiae?aaeathuee cao/aieth aeoa?u
eee iaiaeieeiu.

A “Aeaoneii oaieea” aa?ieiae na?aiaaeu, Aeaathnne naeaeae eoeeo,
iiyoiio ia?a/eneaiiua aeai?iaua i?eciaee caeeth/atho a naaa ia/oi
ea?ooa/iia. Oaea ia?aay aaoi?neay ?aia?ea, i?aaeienuaathuay eniieiyoue
anth iueano ia eaaie iaaeaee iiae/a?eeaaao i?ic?a/iinoue e iaeioi?oth
eeethci?iinoue cao/aiey iocuee. Aanue eiiieaen
iocueaeueii-au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa oa?ae-

oa?ecoao “eoeieueiia” cao/aiea na?aiaaeu: iaeaa/aiiay oaeoo?a,
caaaaiay “i?uaathuay” iaeiaeey, iino?iaiiay ia oe?ieeo eioa?aaeao e
i?aaeai?yaiay oi?oeaaii, naiaia?aciay aa?iiiey, a eioi?ie auaeaeyaony
cao/aiea ionouo eaa?o e eaeio, aiacaiiua aeeiaie/aneea eiio?anou, ?aceea
niaiu aeaaiiai e io?uaenoiai aeaeaeaiey:

I?EIA? N 11.

A “Na?aiaaea eoeea” iniaaiii iaaeyaeii i?iyaeeinue oiaiea eiiiiceoi?a
auaiaeeoue iaeei iioea ec ae?oaiai, aeaaiaea?y /aio iieo/aaony /oi,
any oeaiue eae au nioeaia ec iaoa?eaea aaeeiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey.
Aia/aoeaiey io iiyoe/iie ieieaoth?u Aeaathnne i/aiue oi/ii noi?ie?iaae
E.E.Ia?ouiia: “A yoie, eacaeinue au, iai?eoycaoaeueiie aeaoneie iueana
eiiiiceoi? aeinoeaaao ecuneaiiinoe noeey, nicaeaaay i/a?iaaoaeueioth
ea?oeieo, aaiaeyuoth a ie? ?aaaiea, oaea/aiii ea?athuaai n eoeeie.
Caeanue iao eneonnoaaiiinoe, iiaeaeaeee iiae aeaoneoth ineoieiaeth,
anoue ianoiyuay iocuea aeey iaeaiueeeo neooaoaeae, ?aaii eioa?aniay e
aeey ac?ineuo”.(20, n.218).

Neiaii oiieie aeaa?aeueiie eenoueth iaienaia /aoaa?oay iueana oeeeea
“Niaa oaioeoao”. E?oa ?iaenoaaiiuo ae ia?acia iicaea aua
aeaoaeece?iaaiiaa aoaeao aiieiuai a i?aethaeee “Oaae ia niaao”. Iaeiaei
e caeanue Aeaathnne aeinoeaaao iaiau/aeiie eiei?enoe/iinoe cao/aiey e
y?eie ia?aciie au?aceoaeueiinoe. Iueana “Niaa oaioeoao” auaeaeyaony
ec anao /anoae ntheou naiae eii?anneiienoe/aneie ie?aneie. Iia ia i?inoi
iaecaae, ea?oeiea i?e?iaeu. Iaeiiia?acii iaaeathuee niaa aucuaaao o
/aeiaaea /oanoai a?onoe e nianoaaiiiai iaeeii/anoaa. A iocuea yoe
iano?iaiey ia?aaeaiu iiiioiiiinoueth aeaeaeaiey, aaeeiiia?acey
oeao?aeueiiai ?enoiea, neoaeauaai aeeaiieniui oiiii aeey au?aceoaeueiuo
iaeiaee/aneeo iino?iaiee.

I?EIA? N 12.

Aeey iueanu “Niaa oaioeoao” Aeaathnne eca?ae aeai? oieeaou. (E iaio ii
iaiaeiie?aoii ia?auaeny a naiai oi?oaieaiiii oai?/anoaa: Oieeaoa ec
nai?ieea “Aeey oi?oaieaii”, iueana “Aeaeaeaiea” ec I-e oao?aaeu
“Ia?acia”, “Naaeu iiae aeiaeaeai” ec “Ynoaiii”). A iniiaa oieeaou
eaaeeo oa?aeoa?iue eniieieoaeueneee i?eai – auno?ia /a?aaeiaaiea iaaeo
?oe, eioi?ia nicaeaao iuouaiea iioi?iinoe, iai?a?uaiinoe oa/aiey iocuee.
A aeaiiii aea ni/eiaiee oieeaoiue aeai? ioee/ai oaeoo?iui iiiaiia?aceai,
i/aiue eioa?aniui aa?iiie/aneei ycueii, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio
nicaeaaony iniaue eiei?eo iaonoie/eainoe, iaaeineacaiiinoe e cuaeinoe.
Aeaathnne ia?auaaony e aa?ooiciiiio ia ?aaee ?aoaiey oaoie/aneeo
caaea/. Aai eii?anneiienoe/aneay oieeaoa i?eia/aoaeueia i?aaeaea anaai
naiei iaiau/iui ia?aciui niaea?aeaieai, eioi?ia iicaieyao ioianoe
“Niaa oaioeoao” e iaeaieaa eioa?aniui e iiaaoi?neei no?aieoeai
“Aeaoneiai oaieea”.

Aieueoie iiyoe/iinoueth e oaieioie /a?oao iueana “Iaeaiueeee ianooo”.
A iae eiiiiceoi? aini?iecaiaeeo cao/aiea nae?aeueiuo iaea?uoae, ii
niiauaao ei aieueooth ?aaeueiinoue e yiioeeiiaeueioth ianuuaiiinoue ii
n?aaiaieth iai?eia, n i?eano?iaie I?aethaeeae e “Iineaiieoaeaiiiio
ioaeuoo Oaaia”. A iniiaa iueanu – aeaa oaiaoe/aneeo yeaiaioa,
eieoe?othueo iaea?uoe iaeaiueeiai ianoooa: nica?oeaoaeueii-ia/aeueiue e
oi?iaiaeii-oaioeaaaeueiue. Ianiio?y ia ?acee/ea oa?aeoa?a, iaa iaiaaa
eiatho iauea /a?ou: auaeaeaiea cao/aiey o?eoiia, i?e/oaeeeaue e
eai?eciue ?eoie/aneee ?enoiie, eioi?iio o?eiee i?eaeatho iuouaiea
naiaiaeu e iai?aioaeaeaiiinoe. Iiaeii ioiaoeoue

eioiiaoeeiiiua nayce iaea?uoae n iocueaeueiuie oaiaie aieaa ?aiieo
 _i?i _ecaaaeaiee Aeaathnne .: ia?aue iaea?uo aeecie oeaeoiaiio
eaeoiioeao Oaaia (I?aethaeey e “Iineaiieoaeaiiiio ioaeuoo Oaaia”), a
oaeaea iniiaiie oaia Ne?eien “iueana aeey oeaeou niei “Ne?eien”).

I?EIA?U N 13, 14.

Iaeei ec aa?eaioia aoi?iai iaea?uoa iaia?oaeeaaao noiaenoai n aeaa-

iie oaiie oi?oaieaiiie iueanu “Ino?ia ?aaeinoe”.

I?EIA?U N 15, 16.

Iaeiaei i?e eioiiaoeeiiiii ?iaenoaa oaiaoecia “Iaeaiueeiai ianoooa” n
i?eaaaeaiiuie ni/eiaieyie ia?aciay noa?a iueanu aeinoaoi/ii neeueii
ioee/aaony io naaoeuo iaecaaeae i?eano?iaae i?aethaeee e “Ino?iaa
?aaeinoe”. Iocuea iineo caeanue na?ueaciue oa?aeoa?, iaaaaaao iunee i
caoa?yiiinoe iaeaiueeiai /aeiaaea a ia?iiiii ie?a. Oaeie iooaiie
ia?aciiai niaea?aeaiey yaii auaeaeyao “Iaeaiueeiai ianoooa” n?aaee
inoaeueiuo iuean ntheou eae ee?e/aneia ionooieaiea ia?aae iineaaeiae
/anoueth oeeeea.

AE yaeyaony “Goll:wogg,s cake walk”. Caeeth/eoaeueiue iiia? eiaao
aanueia i?eaeiaeueiue caaieiaie – “Eye-oie Aieeeaiaa”. Aieeeaia – eoeea
– iaa?eoaiie n /a?iuie, oi?/aueie ai ana noi?iiu aieinaie, a oaeaea
iaeii ec i?icaeu “eiiaaeeeiiai” iaa?a a iaiano?aeueiuo
i?aaenoaaeaieyo. Eye-oie (/oi aeineiaii icia/aao “oanoaea ca ie?iaeiui”)
– auoiaie aia?eeaineee oaiaoe, ia?auaiea e eioi?iio io?aaeaao ia?iiiue
eioa?an Aeaathnne e ca?iaeaeaaoaiony eneonnoao aeaeaca. Eneeiie?iaaiiui
?eoiai Aeaathnne ia?auaaony iicaeiaa: a iueana “Iaeaiueeee
iaa?eoaiie”, a i?aethaeee “Aaia?ae Eaaei-yenoeaio?ee”, a ia?oa
aiaeeeneiai nieaeaoa ec ia?aie ea?oeiu aaeaoa “ssuee n ea?ooeaie”. A
“Eoeieueiie eye-oiea” eiiiiceoi? eniieueciaae iaeaieaa y?eea i?eciaee
yoiai aeai?a – /aoeoth, iaoaienoe/anee oi/ioth ?eoieeo n neieiiaie,
ino?ua naeoiaeiaua cao/aiey a aeei?aeao, ?acei eiio?anoioth
aeeiaieeo. E?iie/aneee eiioaeno iineaaeiae iueanu ntheou au?aceeny a
oii, /oi Aeaathnne aaae a aa n?aaeithth /anoue ciaiaieoue “iioea
oiieaiey” ec “O?enoaia e Ecieueaeu” ?.Aaaia?a. Noaaoee a naia a?aiy
naiaia?aciui eicoiaii aaaia?enoia, o Aeaathnne ii cao/eo eae
ino?ioiiay oooea. Iioea ec “O?enoaia”, nii?iaiaeaeaaiue ?aia?eie “n
aieueoei /oanoaii”, iiyaeyaony a ie?oaeaiee aeei?aeia, eieoe?othueo
niao:

I?EIA? N 17.

Yoa iueana /?acau/aeii i?eaeaeaao naiei nia?aiaiiui cao/aieai.

A aiae nicaeaiey Aeaathnne “Aeaoneiai oaieea” I.?aaaeue iaienae
i?aeanoioth na?eth iocueaeueiuo “eeethno?aoeee” e neaceai iiae
iacaaieyi “Iiy iaoooea – aonuiy”. ?aaaeue no?anoii ethaee aeaoae.
Ieeiaaea ia ciay iooeianoaa, ii anth neeo naiae ia?ano?a/aiiie ethaae
ia?aian ia iaeaiueeeo AEaia e Ieie Aiaeaaneeo – aeaoae aai aeaaieo
i?eyoaeae. Aeey ieo e auei ni/eiaii yoi i?iecaaaeaiea, i?e/ai nia?aa
i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi “iaeaiueeea ae?ocuey eiiiiceoi?a” noaioo ia?auie
eniieieoaeyie ia ioaee/iii eiioea?oa.(Ii aeaoe auee i/aiue
canoai/eau, e iueanu auee nua?aiu iaeaiueeeie ieaienoeaie – AEaiaaueaaie
Aeth?ie e AEaiiie E?ea).

?aaioay iaae oeeeeii “Iiy iaoooea – aonuiy”, ?aaaeue ienae:”iia
iaia?aiea aini?iecaanoe a yoeo iueanao iiyceth aeaonoaa, anoanoaaiii,
i?eaaei iaiy e i/euaieth iiaai ii/a?ea”.(oeeo. ii 21,n.84). ?aaaeue
iiyniyao oi?io eaaeaeie ec iuean, eniieuecoy aeaoo- e o?ao/anoiua
noaiu. I?e aeinoaoi/ii ?acaeoie iaeiaeee ia no?aieoeao “Iiae iaoooee –
aonuie” iao ie ineaieoaeueiuo iannaaeae, ie neiaeiuo aeey eniieiaiey
aeei?aeiauo ianneaia oaeoo?a caeanue i?ic?a/ia e eaaea. Yeiiiie/iinoue
a iieueciaaiee au?aceoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie aiai?eo i aeaeaiee
eiiiiceoi?a aeinoe/ue i?inoiou e aaceneonnoiinoe iiaanoaiaaiey. A
oiaea a?aiy inoaaony neiaeiui aa?iiie/aneee ycue, aiaaoue aeeiaie/aneeie
iuethainaie, ia?aaeathuea oiieea caoeiaua a?aaeaoeee.

Ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea aanueia iaiau/iia iacaaiea oeeeea
i?ienoiaeeo iii io eiaie ia?niiaaea o?aioeocneiai oieueeei?a, noa?ie
neaci/ieoeu – Iaoooee – aonuie. *anoi aa ia?ac naycuaatho n ei?ieaaie
Iaaeie, eioi?ay ecia?aaeaeanue n ia?aiii/aouie eaiaie. Aea e naii aa
eiy – Iaaeie icia/aao “aoneiay eiaea”. Neacee Iaoooee – aonuie aioee ai
o?aioeocneoth eeoa?aoo?o n iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai. A XVII aaea
O.Ia??i oae iacaae “Neaceaie Iaoooee – aonuie” naie ciaiaieoue nai?iee
neacie, iniiaaiiue ia ia?iaeiuo i?aaeaieyo. I.?aaaeue, i/aiue ethaeaoee
eeoa?aoo?o e eneonnoai XVII – XVIII aaeia, a 1908a., iaienae
oi?oaieaiiua iueanu ia nthaeaou O.Ia??i (/ae nai?iee ii?aaeaeee
iacaaiea oeeeea) e ae?oaeo o?aioeocneeo ienaoaeae – neaci/ieeia oao
a?aiai. Ia?aae iueanaie NN 2,3,4 ?aaaeue, eniieueciaae a ea/anoaa
yiea?aoa O.Ia??i, I.E.ae”Iioa e E.aea Aiiii aeey iaeaa/aiey aini?eyoe
iocuee aeaoueie. Ana iueanu – “Iaaaia niyuae e?anaaeoeu”, “I?eioeana –
aeo?iooea”, “E?anaaeoea e *oaeiaeua”, “Iaeue/ee – n iaeue/ee” e
“Neaci/iue naae” – ea?oeiu, i?inou ii oaeoo?a e niaea?aeao eioa?aniaeoea
iocueaeueiua iaoiaeee.

Ia?aay iueana iacuaaaony “Iaaaia niyuae e?anaaeoeu”. Iaaaia – yoi
oea?aiiiiue oaiaoe XVI – ia/aea XVII aa.; iiae iaaeeaiioth iocueo
eioi?iai oanoaiaaee eaaaea?u e aeaiu a iuoiuo ia?yaeao. Aua a noa?ua
a?aiaia oaiaoe iieeioe aaeu e “iinaeeeny” a noa?eiiuo oaioeaaaeueiuo
ntheoao.(Iie iacuaaeenue oaioeaaaeueiuie, oioy auee i?aaeiacia/aiu
i?inoi aeey neooaiey). ?aaaeue aia?aua ia?aoeeny e yoiio oaioeo a
1899 aiaeo a i?iecaaaeaiee “Iaaaia ia nia?oue eioaiou” noaaoae iaeiie ec
iiioey?iaeoeo oi?oaieaiiuo iuean ?aaaey. Aa eniieiaiea aiieia aeinooiii
ia oieueei eneooaiiui ieaienoai, ii e ethaeoaeyi. Iueana i?eaeaeaao
aeaai?iaeiui naea?aeaiiui ee?eciii. Iia ieaiyao i?aaeaea anaai naiae
iaeiaeeae – ynii aeeaoiie/aneie, ooiaeyuae ei?iyie ai o?aioeocneoth
ia?iaeioth (a?aoiineoth) iocueo ianaiiinoue. Oaia eceiaeaia a
n?aaeiai ?aaeno?a – ?aaeno?a /aeiaa/aneiai aieina, iaayia aai aeuoaieai
e yiioeeiiaeueiui oaieii. Aa iaiaaiinoue iooaiyao aeeiiiiiaiaio,
aini?iecaiaeyuee oeoia e iyaeia cao/aiea ethoiu. A eaaeain ?aaaeue
aieaoaao “oaatheeaathuea” iai?iou. Iueana ?acaa?ouaaaony eae
eino?oiaioaeueiay iiyia – neacea eee eaaaiaea; a iae ii?uau, ia/ou,
aicieeathuea “iacaeaoiea” aeaeaiey /a?aaeothony n ia?aiia/aeueiui
ia?acii, i?ioiaeyuei eae iaeee ?ao?ai o?e ?aca e eaaeaeue ?ac
?anoeaa/eaathueiny iiauie oaeoo?iuie e aa?iiie/aneeie e?aneaie.

“Iaaaia niyuae e?anaaeoeu” ec “Iiae iaoooee – aonuie” aua iaeii /oaei
ee?e/aneie i?inoiou e ecyuanoaa. Aeaaiia, aeaeay, o?iaaoaeueiay,
/ooue a?oniay iaeiaeey iaienaia a oa?aeoa?a eieuaaeueiie. Iia eeoaia
oe?aoaiee e eceiaeaia a i?ic?a/iie oaeoo?a. Iocuea auaea?aeaia a
no?iaii aeaoo- e o?aoaieinee (ca eneeth/aieai oao oaeoia, aaea
iiyaeyaony ia?aie/aiiue ioieo).

I?EIA? N 18.

Iueana “Iaeue/ee-n-iaeue/ee” i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea naiae oiieie
caoeiecia?aceoaeueiinoueth. Iaeiaeey auaeaeyaony aa?iiiaeaeaiie
eioiiaoeeae iaeaiinoe ia?niiaaea neacee. Iai?a?uaiia, ianiaoiia
aeaeaeaiea ia?aeeaeueiuie oa?oeeyie, ninoaaeythuaa oii, neiaii
?anneacuaaao i ianeai/aaiii iooe a?aaeouaai aeiiie
iaeue/eea-n-iaeue/eea:

I?EIA? N 19.

Oi?oeaae a aunieii ?aaeno?a – ecia?aaeaiea ioeoe, iiaaeathueo
?aca?inaiiua ii iooe oeaaiua e?ioee (i ieo aiai?eony a neiaaniii
yiea?aoa). Eiaaea iaeue/ee-n-iaeue/ee ia iaoiaeeo oeaaiuo e?ioae, ii a
io/ayiee iioneaaony ia eieaie. A iocuea yoi ia?aaeaii iiaoi?aieai
eioiiaoeee “iaaeathuae” eaeiou. Iaeue/ee-n-iaeue/ee ia/aeueii
oaeaeyaony – niiaa cao/ao ainoiaeyuea ?yaeu oa?oeee.

Neaaeothuay iueana – “I?eioeana – aeo?iooea” – ea?aao a ntheoa
?ieue nea?oei. Ecyuiay ieieaoth?a oeaeeeii iniiaaia ia oie oi?ia
iaioaoiieee, eioi?ay a Aa?iia n/eoaaony eeoaeneie. Ia/aei iueanu cao/eo
ia /a?iuo eeaaeoao: fis,gis,ais,cis,dis, /oi i?aaeaao
ia?eiiaoi/iinoue, ea?ooa/iinoue cao/aieth. Iaeeea aeeacia e aunieea
?aaeno?u oneeeaatho naaoeue, aeanoyuee oa?aeoa? iocuee:

I?EIA? N 20.

Iaioaoiie/aneea naeoiaeu nicaeatho ?eoie/aneoth iniiao aeey eaaeie
i/a?/aiie, eae au ia?aeea/aoie iaeiaeee. Iia ii?oaao a aa?oiai
?aaeno?a, eiiaaea onooiay ianoi ia?acaiio eieieieue/eeia.

Iueana “?acaiai? E?anaaeoeu e *oaeiaeua” aica?auaao neooaoaey a
ee?e/aneoth noa?o. Yoa /anoue ntheou iaienaia a aeai?a iaaeeaiiiai
a?aoeeiciiai aaeuena. Ecuneaiiay, oe?iei ?acaa?iooay iaeiaeey E?anaaeoeu
ni/aoaaony n oyaeaeiaaniuie, cao/aueie a ieceii ?aaeno?a ?aieeeaie
*oaeiaeua.

I?EIA?U N 21, 22.

I?aa?auaiea *oaeiaeua a I?ae?aniiai i?eioea ia?aaeaii
“ia?a?iaeaeaieai” aaniauo iaoeethaeeo oiaeia a e?aneaoth iaeiaeeth a
aa?oiai ?aaeno?a. A caeeth/aiee iueanu oaiu E?anaaeoeu e I?ae?aniiai
i?eioea (*oaeiaeua) neeaathony a au?aceoaeueiii aeoyoa.

Iineaaeiyy iueana – “Aieoaaiue naae” – niieieiue /aou?aoiieiniue oi-

?ae. Caeanue oea?eo yniay aeeaoiieea aaeuo eeaaeoue. Naaoeue oa?aeoa?
ainiiaenoaoao e a eiaea, iino?iaiiie ia niiinoaaeaiee o?ecao/ee
noaaeiieiaioiaie eoiie/aneie a?oii, cao/aueo ia oiia i?aaiiiai ioieoa e
aeennaiaei a aa?oiai ?aaeno?a:

I?EIA? N 23.

Yoi aiioeic aieoaaiie neacee, caeai/eaathuaeny oi?aeanoaii aeia?iai
naaoiiiniiai ia/aea.

?aciiia?acea oaia?iauo e aa?iiie/aneeo e?anie yoie aiaoia ne?iiiie
oi?oaieaiiie ntheou iiaoaeeei I.?aaaey e nicaeaieth aa i?eano?iaie
?aaeaeoeee. Iaeei ec aaaeoueo aeayoaeae o?aioeocneiai iocueaeueiiai
oaao?a AE.?ooa iiaeae eiiiiceoi?o eaeath iaaieueoiai aaeaoa. Oaeaeoenue
oaeei i?aaeeiaeaieai, ?aaaeue, ni/eiea aeiiieiaiea e iyoe iueanai
oeeeea, iaienae aaeao “Nii Oei?eiu”.

Niiniaiinoue i?iieeaoueny neaci/iui aeooii i?iyaeeanue a aieaeueiii
ni/eiaiee “?iaeaeanoaaineea neacee” e a iia?a “Aeeoy e aieoaanoai”.
Aeaoneea oi?oaieaiiua ni/eiaiey I.?aaaey e E.Aeaathnne – aua iaeei
i?eia? ia?aeee/ee aeaoo ianoa?ia. No?aieaiea ?ane?uoue a iocuea ie?
aeacaie ?aaaiea i?eaaei yoeo eiiiiceoi?ia e oi?iuaieth iocueaeueiiai
ycuea, eioi?ue a oiaea a?aiy ia oo?aoee naiae i?eaeiaeueiinoe. Ia?acu
yoeo i?iecaaaeaiee aeecee e iiiyoiu aeaoyi.

Ii a “Aeaoneii oaieea” oea?eo aoiinoa?a ?aaeueiinoe, eiiaaea aeaaea
nia?aiaiiinoe (“Eoeieueiue eye-oie” iaeei ec ia?auo iocaoeia
oaioeaaaeueiuo ?eoiia XX aaea a aa?iiaeneie iocuea). A “Iiae
Iaoooea-aonuia” neacee (iueanu ii?aaeatho naiae i?inoioie, niaaeeiaieai
eoeaaie i?aeanoe n ooii/aiiie iaiau/aeiinoueth a iocuea, /oi ?iaeieo
I.?aaaey ni neaci/ieeaie i?ioeuo aaeia).

E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaeue – iaeie ec iaiiiaeo eiiiiceoi?ia ii ianoiyuaio
iiieiaaoeo aeaoae e oiaaoeo ienaoue aeey ieo aeinooiiui e eioa?aniui
ycueii. A yoii ioiioaiee eo iiaeii iinoaaeoue a iaeei ?yae n Ooiaiii
e*aeeianeei.

AEAAA III. Iaeioi?ua ?acoeueoaou

naiinoiyoaeueiie iiuoiie ?aaiou.

1. CAIssOEss IINAssUAIIUA CIAEIINOAO N AeAONEEIE OI?OAIEAIIUIE
NI*EIAIEssIE E.AeAATHNNE E I.?AAAEss.

Iniiaie niaea?aeaiey aeaiiie aeaau yaeyaony oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeioi?uo
?acoeueoaoia iiuoiie ?aaiou a iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeiea N 7 a.Ia?ie.
Yoa ?aaioa i?iaiaeeeanue a 6-7 eeanna. Auei i?iaaaeaii 12 o?ieia.

I?iaiaeece?iaaa naiinoiyoaeueiua aeaoneea iocueaeueiua oeeeeu E.Aea-

athnne e I.?aaaey e iciaeiieaoenue n ?acai?ii eo iocuee a
iocueiaaae/aneie (niaoeeaeueiie e iiioey?iie) eeoa?aoo?a, a oaeaea a
iaoiaee/aneeo ?ac?aaioeao iu iiiuoaeenue eniieueciaaoue iueanu
“Aeaoneiai oaieea” e “Iaoooee -aonuie” ia o?ieao iocuee a ea/anoaa
iaoa?eaea aeey neooaiey. Aaaeouay oeaeue, eioi?oth iu i?aneaaeiaaee
– a aeinooiiie aeey aeaoneiai aini?eyoey oi?ia inouanoaeoue ia?aia
ciaeiinoai oeieueieeia n iocueaeueiui eii?anneiieciii, n oai?/aneie
iaia?ie eiiiiceoi?ia. A nayce n yoei ia neo/aeiui ieacaeny auai?
ni/eiaiee iinayuaiiuo aeaoneie oaiaoeea: iia ai iiiaii niinianoaoao
aieaa oniaoiiio aeinoyaeaieth oeaee o?ieia. A aeaeueiaeoae ?aaioa iu
iiiuoaeenue aueoe ia iaiauathuoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo iocueaeueiiai
eii?anneiiecia.

A ianoiyuae aeaaa iu iienuaaai o?aaiaiou caiyoee, ciaeiiyueo
oeieueieeia n iocueie E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey.

Ianeieueei ia?auo o?ieia auee iinayuaiu iocuea “Aeaoneiai oaieea”
E.Aeaathnne. A aeaeo aeinoaoi/iie neiaeiinoe e iai?eau/iinoe aeey
oeieueieeia iocueaeueiiai ycuea yoiai i?iecaaaeaiey, iniiaiie oi?iie
?aaiou auea aanaaea. Aio iaeei ec aa aa?eaioia:

 _O/eoaeue . – Naaiaeiy y oi/o iiciaeiieoue aan n e?oiiaeoei
eiiiiceoi-

?ii eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX aa. aai eiy – Eeiae Aeaathnne. Iu ia?aoeiny
e iaeiiio ec aai oi?oaieaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, eioi?ia iacuaaaony
“Aeaoneee oaieie”. Eae au aeoiaaoa, i /ai iiaeao ?anneacaoue iai
iocuea n oaeei iacaaieai?

 _Aeaoe . – Ia ea?ao, aeaoyo, ea?ooeao.

 _O/eoaeue . – Aeaenoaeoaeueii, iocuea ?anneaaeao iai i aeia?ii ie?a
naaoeie oaioacee, eioi?ue ie?oaeaao /aeiaaea a aeaonoaa.

E.Aeaathnne iinayoee yoi i?iecaaaeaiea naiae iaeaiueeie /aou?aoeaoiae
aei/a?e Yiia. A naiuea aa eaneiai iacuaaee Oooo. Aeaai/ea auea i/aiue
aanaeie, iiaeaeaeiie, e, ia eae ana aeaoe, ethaeea ea?aoue ni naieie
ea?ooea-

ie. Eiaaea ?iaeeoaee a?aee aa n niaie a oee?e eee iaeaiueeee eoeieueiue
oaao?, Oooo oioioaea io caaaaiuo a?eiann eoeie e eeioiia,
oaioeaaaaoeo iiaeiua oiaaea oaioeu. Aa?ioaoenue aeiiie, iia
?acua?uaaea oeaeua noeaiee n iaeoaoaeyie naiaai aeaoneiai oaieea. A
yoii iaeaiueeii oaao?a Oooo canoaaeyea no?aaeaoue e niayoueny, iaoue e
oaioeaaaoue naieo ethaeiuo eoeie e caa?ooae.

Eiiiiceoi? E.Aeaathnne, iaaethaeay yoi, ?aoee ia?eniaaoue caoeaie
iaeioi?ua yieciaeu ec aeecie naiae iaeaiueeie aei/a?e, oae e iiyaeeinue
i?iecaaaeaiea, n eioi?ui iu aoaeai ciaeiieoueny – “Aeaoneee oaieie” iia
aeeth/aao oanoue ?aciioa?aeoa?iuo iuean. Eaaeaeay ec ieo eiaao naia
iacaaiea, ca eioi?ui ne?uaaaony aa aa?ie. Ana aianoa iueanu
ninoaaeytho iniaoth oi?io ntheoo. Neiai “Ntheoa” – o?aioeoceia, iii
icia/aao “?yae”, “iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue”. A iocuea – yoi iau/ii
ianeieueei iuean iauaaeeiaiiuo iauei iacaaieai. A “Aeaoneii oaieea” iu
eae ?ac ano?a/aai oi?io ntheou. Nae/an i?icao/eo iaeia ec iuean
i?iecaaaeaiey.*oi au oneuoeoa ai a?aiy cao/aiey iocuee? Iinoa?aeoanue
iienaoue ea?oeiu, ia?acu, eioi?ua o aan aicieeioo.(Cao/eo eieuaaeueiay
neiia”)

 _Aeaoe . – Iia i?aaenoaaeyaony iethoaaue iaaeaaaeue, iioiio /oi
iocuea cao/eo a ieceii ?aaeno?a.

– ss i?aaenoaaeea naaa neiia – a ia/aea, iueana ea?aaony ia ieceeo
iioao, ii iaeiaeey iyaeay, iaaeiay, neaaea iaoeethaeay. A iocuea
neuoiu oaae neiia, aai iaiiai?ioeeainoue.

 _O/eoaeue . – Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aa?ie yoie iueanu – neii. Ii aaaeue iu
aiai?eee, /oi a iocuea eiiiiceoi? ecia?acee yieciae ec aeecie
ea?ooae.

*oi aea i?ienoiaeeo a yoie iueana n ea?ooa/iui neiiii?

 _Aeaoe . – Ii/ueth, eiaaea ana niyo, neii iaeeaaao e iaaeeaiii
oiaeeo ii aeiio.

– ss aeoiath, /oi neii eaaeeo a e?iaaoe e ia/oaao.

 _O/eoaeue . – Aaoe i?aaeeiaeaiey i/aiue aeecee e enoeia, ii /oiau
i?iaa?eoue ianeieueei oi/ii au oaaaeaee, eaeei iieacae ea?ooa/iiai
neiia nai eiiiiceoi?, i?aaeeaaath aai niaoue iaeiaeeth iueanu.
Iiaeoiaeoa, a eaeie ianoaiiaea iiaea au cao/aoue oaeay iocuea /oi iiaeii
iiae iaa aeaeaoue?

(iaiea iaeiaeee a n?aaeiai ?aaeno?a ia caoe “a”)

 _Aeaoe . – iiae yoo iocueo iiaeii oea/eaaoue ?aaaiea. Iia iioiaea ia
eieuaaeueioth. A yoie iaeiaeee anoue /a?ou anao eieuaaeueiuo: iaaeeaiiue
oaii, iyaeea oaatheeaathuea eioiiaoeee.

 _O/eoaeue . – Aa?ii, aeai? yoie iueanu eieuaaeueiay, ii ana ee a
iae iau/ii, o?aaeeoeeiiii, eae iu i?eaueee neuoaoue a eieuaaeueiuo
ianiyo?

 _Aeaoe . – Iau/ii eieuaaeueiua ianie iaienaiu a n?aaeiai eee aunieii

?aaeno?a, a caeanue ieceea ?aaeno?u, iioiio, /oi yoi eieuaaeueiay
aeey neiiaiea.

 _O/eoaeue . – I?aaeeueii, eiiiiceoi? iacaae iueano ia i?inoi
“Eieuaaeueiay”, a “Eieuaaeueiay Aeaeeiai” – oae caaee ea?ooa/iiai
neiiaiea Oooo. A iocuea Aeaathnne iu neuoei, eae iaia neiieoa iiao aio
eieuaaeueioth. A aeey eiai eniieiyaony neaaeothuay iueana.

(neooaiea iueanu “Na?aiaaea eoeea”)

 _Aeaoe . – Iia eaaeaony, /oi yoa ianiy iiaony aeey ioe/ae, oae
iaeiaeey iaiiieiaao ioe/uea iaiuea.

– ss oneuoaea caoee aeoa?u, e i?aaenoaaeea naaa e?aneaoth eoe-

eo, aeey eioi?ie eaaaea? iiao e ea?aao ia aeoa?a.

 _O/eoaeue . – Aa?ii, yoa iueana i?aaenoaaeyao eiaiii oaeoth noeaieo.
E iacuaaaony iia “Na?aiaaea eoeea”. Eoi ec aan ciaao /oi oaeia
na?aiaaea?

 _Aeaoe . – Yoi ianiy, eioi?oth iae ?uoea?ue iiae ieiii naiae
aicethaeaiie.

Ana?aiaaea ?uoea?ue ainiaaaao naith Aeaio Na?oea, iiyoiio iocuea
iau/ii acaieiiaaiiay.

 _O/eoaeue . – Aa?ii. A iiaeii ee na?aiaaeo, eioi?oth iu iineooaee
iac-

aaoue ethaiaiie ianiae?

 _Aeaoe . – Iao iaeuecy, iioiio /oi ethaiaiay ianiy aeieaeia auoue
iaiiiai a?oniie, acaieiiaaiiie, a yoi – iiaei?uaeaathuay, aanaeay,
oaioeaaaeueiay.

 _O/eoaeue . – I?aaeeueii, ii oa?aeoa?o yoa iocuea nianai ia iioiaea ia

na?aiaaeo, ii ii/aio oiaaea eiiiiceoi? oae iacaae aa?

 _Aeaoe . – ss aeoiath, /oi a yoie iueana eiiiiceoi? ecia?acee, eae
Yiia ea?aao ni naieie eoeeaie a oaao?, e ea?ooa/iue ?uoea?ue iiao
e?aneaie eoeea na?aiaaeo. Ana, e aeoa?u e c?eoaee aanaeu e aeiaieueiu.

 _O/eoaeue . – ss n aaie niaeania, e iia eaaeaony, /oi E.Aeaathnne
ni/eiee yoo iueano, iaaethaeay iiaeiaioth noeaieo a ea?ao aei/a?e.

A eaeea aia/aoeaiey iiaee aaeioiiaeoue eiiiiceoi?a ia nicaeaiea yoiai

i?iecaaaeaiey?

(neooaiea iueanu “Niaa oaioeoao”)

 _Aeaoe . – Aeiaeaeue, iioiaeee ia iaaeathuea eaiee.

– Iia i?aaenoaaeeny oaiiue ia?e, e n aea?aaueaa iiaaeatho e?oaeanue
eenouey.

– ss i?aaenoaaeea i?ae?aniua, eaaeea niaaeeiee, aeanoyuea a
naaoa oee/iuo oiia?ae. Iie aiaeyo a aicaeooa oi?iaiaeu, a iioii
ieaaii iioneathony ia caieth.

 _O/eoaeue . – Yoa iueana iacuaaaony “Niaa oaioeoao”. Aa iocuea
ia?aaeaao e?oaeaiea, naiaia?aciue oaiaoe niaaeeiie. Eaeia iano?iaiea ii
iaaaaaao?

 _Aeaoe . – Oinee, a?onoe, iaeeii/anoaa.

 _O/eoaeue . – Eiiiiceoi? ecia?acee i?inoi ceiiee iaecaae?

 _Aeaoe . – Iao, eiiiiceoi? ia oiia oaioeothuaai niaaa iieacae
/oanoaa, eioi?ua aucuaaao o iaai oaiaoe.

 _O/eoaeue . – Nae/an iu iineooaai aua iaeei oaiaoe.

(neooaiea iueanu “Eoeieueiue eye-oie”)

 _Aeaoe . – Yoio oaiaoe iioiae ia yno?aaeiue. O iaai ia?iaiue ?eoi, a
eioiiaoeey iaiiieiaao aeaeac.

 _O/eoaeue . – Iiaeii ee i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ac?ineuo ethaeae,
oaioeothueo iiae yoo iocueo?

 _Aeaoe . – Iao, iioiio /oi iocuea noaoeeaay, ea?ooa/iay, iineo
oooianeie oa?aeoa?.

 _O/eoaeue . – Aa?ii, a yoii oaioea anoue /oi oi caaaaiia,
eiie/aneia. Eiiiiceoi? iacaae yoo iueano “Eoeieueiue eye-oie”, a
aeaaiui aa?iai aa naeaeae niaoioth eoeeo – iaa?eoaiea, n oi?/aueie ai
ana noi?iiu aieinaie.

Eye-oie – yoi oaiaoe, eioi?ue aiciee a NOA e noae iiioey?ai a Aa-

?iia a ia/aea iaoaai aaea. Caoai aio ia niaio i?eoee aethc, oieno?io,
/a?euecoii e iiiaea ae?oaea yno?aaeiua oaioeu.

Oioaeinue au ioiaoeoue, /oi yoa iueana aucaaea o ?aayo iieiaeeoaeueiue
yiioeeiiaeueiue ioeeee. Oaea ia ia?auo o?ieao aue caiaoai eioa?an
o/aueo-

ny e i?aaeeiaeaiiie iaie iocuea. (E niaeaeaieth a eiiniaeo o?iea ia
aioee i/aiue iiiaea aa?eaiou ioaaoia aeaoae).Ec ntheou “Aeaoneee oaieie”
iniaaiii iii?aaeeanue o/aueiny iueana “Niaa oaioeoao”.Yoi auei aeey ian
iaeioi?ie iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth, oae eae iocueaeueiue ycue aeaiiie
ieieaoth?u auaeaeyaony ia oiia inoaeueiuo iiia?ia eae iaeaieaa
neiaeiue.Iaeiia?aiaiii yoi i?iecaaaeaiea y?/a anaai iieacuaaao
iniaaiiinoe ei?anneiienoe/aneiai noeey.Oaeeaeoaeueii, /oi aeaoe
ii/oanoaiaaee iuouaiey, eioi?ua ianao iocuea, a cia/eo – naio nooue
eii?anneiiecia.Enoiaey ec yoiai iu naeaeaee auaiae i aiciiaeiii
ia?auaiee e iaeioi?ui oi?oaieaiiui i?aethaeeyi E.Aeaathnne e
o?aaiaioai i?eano?iauo i?iecaaaeaiee E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey,
yaeythueony aieaa neiaeiuie.Eniieueciaaiea yoiai iocueaeueiiai
iaoa?eaea a aeaeueiaeoae ?aaioa iicaieeo oaeoaeoue i?aaeoaaeaiey
o/aueony ia iniaaiiinoyo iocueaeueii-au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa
eiiiiceoi?ia-eii?anneiienoia.

Iineaaeothuea ianeieueei o?ieia auee iinayuaiu oeeeeo iuean “Iiy
iaoooea-aonuiy”.Ciaeiinoai n yoei oeeeeii iio?aaiaaei iiiai ?acuyniaiee
e eiiiaioa?eaa,iiyoiio oi?ia o?ieia oyaioaea e ?anneaco.

O.-A aiae nicaeaiey E.Aeaathnne “Aeaoneiai oaieea” Ii?en ?aaaeue
iaienae i?aeanoioth na?eth iocueaeueiuo eeethno?aoeee e ecaanoiui
o?aioeocneei neaceai iiae iacaaieai “Iiy iaoooea-aonuiy” aeey
oi?oaieaii a 4 ?oee.I.?aaaeue i/aiue ethaee aeaoae.Naieo aeaoae o iaai
ia auei e ii anth neeo naiae ia?ano?a/aiiie ethaae ia?ai?n ia
iaeaiueeeo AEaia e Ieie Aiaeaaneeo – aeaoae aai aeaaieo i?eyoaeae.Aeey
ieo e auei iaienaii yoi i?iecaaaeaiea. Eiiiiceoi? i?aaeiieaaae,/oi aai
iaeaiueeea ae?ocuey noaioo ia?auie eniie-

ieoaeyie iuean ia ioaee/iii eiioea?oa.

Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea, eaeia iaiau/iia iacaaiea iineo i?iecaaaeaiea –
“Iiy iaoooea-aonuiy”.Au ia ciaaoa eoi oaeay iaoooea-aonuiy?

Ae.-Iao.

O.-Yoi- noa?ay neaci/ieoea, ia?niiaae o?aioeocneiai oieueeei?a.Neacee
iaoooee-aonuie aioee ai o?aioeocneoth eeoa?aoo?o n iacaiyiyoiuo a?ai?i.A
XVIII aaea Oa?eue Ia??i oae e iacaae naie ciaiaieoue nai?iee neacie,
iniiaaiiue ia ia?iaeiuo i?aaeaieyo.I.?aaaeue, i/aiue ethaeaoee
eeoa?aoo?o e eneonnoai XVII-XVIII aaeia, iaienae oi?oaieaiiua iueanu ia
nthaeaou o?aioeocneeo ienaoaeae-neaci/ieeia oao a?ai?i.Ia?aae iueanaie
eiiiiceoi? i?ea?e a aeaea yiea?aoia io?uaee ec neacie.ss ca/eoath aeaa
yiea?aoa:

1.(/oaiea yiea?aoa e iueana “Iaeue/ee-n-iaeue/ee”.)Yoa neacea aai

ciaeiia.

2.Neaaeothuee io?uaie ec neacee “Cae?iay ciay”.(E?aoeia eceiaeaiea

niaea?aeaiey neacee, a caoai /oaiea yiea?aoa e iueana
“I?eioeanna-aeo?iooea”.)

Nae/an i?icao/ao aeaa iueanu.Aaoa caaea/a – ii?aaeaeeoue e eaeie
iueana iiaeoiaeeo eaaeaeue ec yiea?aoia.

(Neooaiea iuean “Iaeue/ee-n-iaeue/ee”,”I?eioeanna-aeo?iooea”.)

Iinea neooaiey o/aieee i?aaeeueii ii?aaeaeeee i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue
yiea?aoia:

Ae.-Iaeue/ee-n-iaeue/ee caaeoaeeeny e iocuea oiaea oaeay oineeeaay,
oiueay, eae au aeoaeaeathuay ii o?iiiio eano.

-ss oneuoae aieina ioeoe, eioi?ua nuaee oeaaiua e?ioee.Iie
ecia?aaeaiu a iocuea caaiyueie caoeaie a aa?oiae ?aaeno?a.

O.-I?aaeeueii, yoa iueana iacuaaaony “Iaeue/ee-n-iaeue/ee”.A oaia?ue
iiiuoaeoanue iauynieoue iiaeoiaeeo ee e ae?oaie iueana io?uaie ec
neacee “Cae?iay ciay”?

Ae.-A yiea?aoa aiai?eoueny i iaeaiueeeo /aeiaa/eao, eioi?ua ea?atho
ia iocueaeueiuo eino?oiaiao.A iocuea y oneuoaea eo cao/aiea, iioiio /oi
iaeiaeey auea i/aiue caiieie, ea?ooa/iie.Iia iaiiiieea iia eeoaeneoth
iocueo,

O.-Yoi ianeo/aeii, iioiio /oi iueana iniiaaia ia iniaie aaiia, eioi?ay
a Aa?iia iacuaaaony eeoaeneie.

Neaaeothuaa i?iecaaaeaiea e eioi?iio iu ia?aoeiny, iacuaaaony
“Aieoaaiue naae”.Iii caaa?oaao ntheoo.Iinea i?ineooeaaiey y iii?ioo aan
ioaaoeoue ii/aio eiaiii yoie iocueaeueiie neaceie eiiiiceoi? caeai/eaaao
anth ntheoo?

(Ceooaiea iueanu “Aieoaaiue naae”.)

Ae.-Iocuea nia?aa niieieiay, oaeinoaaiiay.ss i?aaenoaaeea naaa naae
ec ioeueooeeueia “Aeaiueeee oeaaoi/ae”.Aie?oa ai? i/aiue e?aneai:
oiioaiu, o?iie/aneea aea?aauey, ii /aai-oi ia oaaoaao.E aae?oa iu
iaoiaeei oi. /oi aeieai eneaee – aeaiueeee oeaaoi/ae.

O.-Aea.”Aieoaaiue naae” – yoi aeii /oaeaniie neacea, n iai?aiaiiui
oi?aeanoaii aeia?iai, naaoiiiniiai ia/aea.

Aeaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea (“Iiy iaoooea-aonuiy”) i?aaeiieaaaei iiaea/o
o/aieeai aioiaiai iaoa?eaea.Aeaoe n aieiaieai neooaee, anie /oi-oi auei
iaiiiyoii – ia?ani?aoeaaee.Iniaaiii aeeaie eioa?an aucaaea iueana
“I?eioeanna-aeo?iooea” e neacea “Cae?iay ciay”, ii iioeaai eioi?ie iia
auea iaienaia.O/aieee ii oa?aeoa?o iocuee naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeeee
no?aio, a eioi?ie ?acai?a/eaaaony aeaenoaea neacee e iii?ineee
i?ineooaoue yoi i?iecaaaeaiea iiaoi?ii.

Iinea iciaeiieaiey n oi?oaieaiiuie ntheoaie E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey ii
ioaeaeueiinoe, aue i?iaaae?i iaiauathuee o?ie, aeeth/athuee
iocueaeueioth aeeoi?eio.?aayoai iaaei auei iaienaoue iacaaiea
i?icao/aaoae iueanu e a? aaoi?a.I?eaeeceoaeueii 65% aeaoae
ni?aaeeenue n yoei caaeaieai iieiinoueth,inoaeueiua –
/anoe/ii.Ionoonoaoao io?eoeaoaeueiue ?acoeueoao ii?ina, a yoi cia/eo,
/oi iocuea caeioa?aniaaea aeaoae, aucaaea eo aeeaie ioeeee.Iaoe
i?aaeiieiaeaiey iiaeoaa?aeeee e ienueiaiiua auneacuaaiey o/aieeia i
aeaoneeo ni/eiaieyo E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey.Aio iaeioi?ua ec ieo:

“Iia iii?aaeeanue any iocuea, iioiio /oi neooay a?, y aniiieiaea

aeia?ua, naaoeua neacee.Yoa iocuea i/aiue i?eaeiaeueiay, e?aeay e
caiieay, eae aeaonoai.”

“A oio iiiaio, eiaaea y neooath yoo iocueo, eaaeaony, /oi ie?
i?ae?anai e ia auaaao ieioeo aeiae.”

“Iia i?aaenoaaeeenue ea?oeau ooaeiaeieeia, eae aoaeoi ei aeaee caaea-

iea ia?eniaaoue iiae iocueo.”

“O Aeaaynne naiy aa?iiiey,ia iioiaeay ia iocueo ae?oaeo eiiiiceoi?ia”

“Iia i/aiue iii?aaeeenue ana i?iecaaaeaiey, ii aieueoa anao ii aeooa
i?eoeanue iueana Aeaathnne “Niaa oaioeoao”.ss aeoiath, iia oaeaea
iii?aaeeanue e aei/a?e Eeiaea Aeaathnne Yiia”

“Iia aieaa y?eie iieacaeanue iueana Aeaathnne “Niaa oaioeoao”.Iia
iaiau/ia, e eae-au io?aaeaao iunee, aicieeathuea, eiaaea ou niio?eoue
ia iaaeathuee a noia?eao niaa.ss aeaaii oaea caiaoeea, /oi eiiiiceoi?
n?iaeie ienaoaeth, e ou, neooay iocueo, eae au /eoaaoue a?.A yoie
iocuea aeaeia enoi?ey e ee/ii iia iia iaiiieiaao iaeio ec neacie
A.O.Aiaea?naia”.

Neaaeothuee oeeee o?ieia i?iaiaeeeny /a?ac iieaiaea iinea
ia?aiai.Ii i?ioiaeee a oao aea eeannao.Ia caiyoeyo aeaiiiai oeeeea iu
iiiuoaeenue ia oieueei oaeoaeoue ciaeiinoai o/aieeia n iocueie
E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey, ii e auyaeoue iauea iniaaiiinoe
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai iai?aaeaiey, a ?aieao eioi?iai iie oai?eee.*oiau
naeaeaoue yoi iaeneiaeueii aeinooiii, iu i?eaeaeaee eeethno?aoeaiue
iaoa?eae – a /anoiinoe, ?ai?iaeoeoeee ea?oei
ooaeiaeieeia-ei?anneiienoia.*a?ac n?aaiaiea au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa
aeeaiiene e iocuee iu no?aieeenue “iiaeoieeiooue” o/aieeia e iniciaieth
iaeiaai noiaenoaa i?iyaeaiee eii?anneiiecia a iocuea e aeeaiiene.

Iniiaiie iaoae caaea/ae auei i?aiiaeianoe iocueo eii?anneiienoia
oae, /oiau iia iaoea ioeeee a aeooa ?aayo,aucaaoue o ieo aeaeaiea
ia?auaoueny e iae aiiaue e aiiaue.O?iee auee iauaaeeieiu
oaiie:”Au?aceoaeueiua n?aaenoaa eii?anneiienoe/aneie iocuee e
aeeaiiene”.

Ia?aue o?ie noae ia/aeueiui yoaiii iinoeaeaiey iniaaiiinoae ycuea
eii?anneiienoia:

O.-?aayoa, eae au ciaaoa, eaaeaeue aeae eneonnoaa eiaao naie n?aaenoaa
au?aceoaeueiinoe.Eaeea au?aceoaeueiua n?aaenoaa o aeeaiiene?

Ae.-Eeiey, oeaao, eiei?eo…

O. iieacuaaao aeaoyi ?ai?iaeoeoeee ea?oei: “Aao?aiiue aeaiue a
Aai?”A.Neneay,”?oaineee niai? aa/a?ii”,”Neaeu a Aaeue-Eeue” E.Iiia e
caaea?o aii?in:”Iiaeii ee neacaoue, /oi a yoeo i?iecaaaeaieyo noiaeiua
au?aceoaeueiua n?aaenoaa?”

Ae.-Aea.Eeiee iao, a a? ?ieue auiieiyao niiinoaaeaiea oeaaoia,
eiio?ano eee noiaenoai iaaeaeo ieie.

O.-*oi aea aeinoeaaaony yoei?

Ae.-Iuouaiea aicaeooa, aai i?ic?a/iinoe, anoanoaaiiinoe ecia?aaeaiey.
O.-Oaia?ue aeaaaeoa aniiiiei au?aceoaeueiua n?aaenoaa iocuee.
Ae.-Iaeiaeey, ?eoi, aa?iiiey, oaia?.

O.-Iii?iaoae i?iaanoe ia?aeeaee iaaeaeo au?aceoaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie
aeeaiiene e iocuee.A aeeaiiene – eeiey, a a iocuea – …

Ae.-Iaeiaeey.

O.-A aeeaiiene oeaao, e?anee, a a iocuea – …

Ae.-Aa?iiiey.

O.-A ea?oeiao, eioi?ua iu n aaie ?anniao?eaaee, iniiaiui
au?aceoaeueiui n?aaenoaii yaeyaony ia eeiey, a oeaao, e?anee.A eaeia
au?aceoaeueiia n?aaenoai, iaeiaeey eee aa?iiiey, aunooiaao ia ia?aue
ieai a iocueaeueiii io?uaea,eioi?ue y nae/an nua?ath.

(O. eniieiyao o?aaiaio ec oi?oaieaiiie i?aethaeee E.Aeaathnne
“Caoiioaoee niai?”)

Ae.-Iaeiaeee, eioi?oth iiaeii niaoue iao, iniiaiia, /oi iu neuoei
yoi aa?iiiey, ii iia i/aiue iaeiaee/iay.

O. i?aaeeaaaao o/aueiny i?ineooaoue i?iecaaaeaiea oeaeeeii a caiene e
caiiiieoue naie aia/aoeaiey io iocuee.Aeaeaa i?ienoiaeeo iaiai
o/aueony neooiauie aia/aoeaieyie.

O.-Anoanoaaiii, /oi o eaaeaeiai ec aan i?e i?ineooeaaiee i?iecaaaeaiey
aicieeee naie annioeeaoeee, naie aia/aoeaiey.O eiiiiceoi?a, ni/eieaoaai
yoo iueano, iie oiaea auee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie, iniaaiiuie.Aai,
iaaa?iia, aoaeao eioa?anii ociaoue, /oi E.Aeaathnne ia ethaee neeoeii
oi/ii iiyniyoue eo.Eiiaaea ii ia oioae eaeei-eeai ia?acii
eiie?aoece?iaaoue niaea?aeaiea naieo iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee.Ii
iiaieth eiiiiceoi?a yoi “oaeaaao oaeio” iocuee.Oae, a i?aethaeeyo
aeey oi?oaieaii caaieiaee ii ?aniieiaeee a eiioea iuean, ia aeaeay
iaaycuaaoue eniieieoaeth eee neooaoaeth

naie nianoaaiiua aia/aoeaiey.

I?iecaaaeaiea, eioi?ia oieueei /oi i?icao/aei – iaeia ec i?aethaeee
aeey oi?oaieaii iie iacaaieai “Caoiioaoee niai?”.Iia aicieeea iiae
aia/aoeaieai io a?aoiineie eaaaiaeu i ae?aaiai ai?iaea En, iaeiaaea
iiaeiu?iiii ii?ai, e, ii ?anneacai ?uaaeia, eiiaaea iiaeieiathuainy
ia ca?a ec aiei iiae aeae?eee ia?acaii eieieieia.Eiiiiceoi?a a yoii
neaci/iii nthaeaoa i?eaeaeea aeeaiieniay noi?iia.N?aaenoaa iocueaeueiie
au?aceoaeueiinoe iiae/eiaiu caeanue caaea/a aiciiaeii aieaa oiieiai
aini?iecaaaeaiey a iocuea ea?oeiu ii?neiai iaecaaea,iinoaiaiii
?annaeaathuaainy ooiaia E ianooiathuaai ?annaaoa, eieieieueiiai caiia,
aeiiinyuaainy ec aeoaeiu aiae, e, iaeiiaoe, iiaeieiathuaainy ni aeia
ii?y ai?iaea.A caaa?oaiee i?aaenoa?o ia?aiia/aeueiue ii?neie iaecaae:
neuoiu oeoea anieanee aiei,niueathueony iaae en/acioaoei niai?ii.

Caoai O. i?aaeeaaaao o/aieeai i?ineooaoue au? ?ac yoi i?iecaaaeaiea e
caienaoue naie aia/aoeaiey a oao?aaee.Aio iaeioi?ua ec ieo:

“ss i?aaenoaaeea naaa noa?eiiue caiie n i?eaaaeaieyie.Ca oaeinoaaiiui
ooiaiii, eioi?ue iinoaiaiii ?annaeaaaony, iieacuaaaony eiiiaoa.A iae
an? iie?uoi aaeiaie iueueth.Aio noa?eiiue ?aciie noie, a ia i?i
noiiea oienouo ?oeiieniuo n?aaeiaaaeiauo eiea.A eiiiaoa oaiii, ii naa/a
aae?oa caaeeaaaony naia niaie e inaauaao eiiiaoo.Ia noaia aeneo
aieueoia ca?eaei.A i?i io?aaeathony ana niauoey, /oi i?iecioee a yoii
ai?iaea, caiea, eiiiaoa.Iaeioi?ua ec ieo ?aaeinoiua, iiaeioi?ua –
a?onoiua.A aieueoeinoai – aaee/aaua e niieieiua, eae iocuea, eioi?oth y
neuoo nae/an.”

“Nia/aea ec aiaeu neuoai oi?, iioii caii eieieieia.Ai?iae ia/eiaao
iiaeieiaoueny ec aiaeu.Iocuea noaiiaeony oi?aeanoaaiiie.A yoio iiiaio
ai?iae aiiaue iia?oaeaaony a io/eio.Iioii iocuea oniieaeaaaony, eae
aoaeoi oniieaeaaaony aiaea, iie?uaoay ai?iae.Iao ?yae, aeaaea ia
aeoao aaoa? e aiiaue cao/eo oa aea iocuea, eae e a ia/aea, aoaeoi ia
auei ie/aai.”

Eiia/ii yoi ia ana aeaoneea ?aaiou, ii e iie iieacuaatho, /oi oaeia

neiaeiia ii iocueaeueiiio ycueo i?iecaaaeaiea, eae “Caoiioaoee
niai?”, auei aini?eiyoi o/aieeaie e nicaeaei a eo aiia?aaeaiee
naiaia?aciua ea?oeiu.

Neaaeothuee o?ie aue iinayu?i aiaaoie e?ani/iie iaeeo?a i?eano?iaie
iocuee eiiiiceoi?ia-eii?anneiienoia:

O.-Nae/an y nua?ath /aoa?a o?aaiaioa ec ni/eiaiee E.Aeaathnne.Naie
aia/aoeaiey i ieo eiiiiceoi? ii?aaeaeee neaaeothuei ia?acii:

1.”Ea?oeia iaiiaeaeaeiiai iaainaiaea, ii eioi?iio oeoi e ia/aeueii
ieuaoo

iaeaea, iinoaiaiii iia?oaeaynue a na?ia iaauoea.

2.Ne?aia ia?ioiaea, ieuaouaai ii Naia.

3.Ainiiieiaiey i noa?uo ia?iaeiuo oaanaeaieyo a Aoeiineii eano, eeeth-

ieie?iaaiiii e iaaiaei?iiii oieiie.

4.Ainiiieiaiea ia i?eano?a ?anioaeeeaineie aaa?aeee, ea?athuai ioaie.”
Aaoa caaea/a – ii?aaeaeeoue niioaaonoaey iocueaeueiuo o?aaiaioia

i?icao/aaoei aaoi?neei iienaieyi.

O. ea?aao ianeieueei ?ac neaaeothuea i?eia?u: oaio oa?aioaeeu e oaio
oanoaey ec neioiie/aneiai iieoth?ia “I?acaeianoaa”, oaio iaeaeia e oaio
aiaeeeneiai ?iaeea ec neioiie/aneiai iieoth?ia “Iaeaea”.O/aieee
auiieiytho caaeaiea ienueiaiii.I?iaa?ea iieacaea, /oi i?e
iacia/eoaeueiuo ?aciiaeaneyo, o aieueoeinoaa o/aieeia ioaaou
niaiaee.Niioaaonoaey auee ii?aaeaeaiu a oeaeii aa?ii.

O.-Yoe o?aaiaiou ec aeaoo i?iecaaaeaiee E.Aeaathnne – iieoth?iia aeey
neioiie/aneiai i?eano?a “Iaeaea” e “I?acaeianoaa”.I?eia/aoaeueii, /oi
aeey eiiiiceoi?a neioiie/aneee i?eano? caeanue ia noieueei n?aaenoai
nicaeaiey caoeiaie iiue, neieueei aiaaoay iaeeo?a e?anie.Iiiuoaainy
ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeeie ec ieo eiiiiceoi? ?enoao “Iaeaea”?*oi
i?eia/aoaeueii a oaiao yoiai i?iecaaaeaiey?

(Neooaiea iieoth?ia “Iaeaea”)

Ae.-Eiiiiceoi? caeanue eniieuecoao ?acee/iua iooaiee aaeie, na?ie e
aieoaie e?anee.Ia?aay oaia – oaia iaeaeia.Iia cao/aea a aa?oiai
?aaeno?a iaoi?iieeai e niieieii.Iia eaaeaony, /oi iia i?iieeiooa
ia/aeueth.Iinea oaiu iaeaeia cao/eo oaia ne?aiu ia?ioiaea.Iia i?ioiaeeo
ianeieueei ?ac ia eciaiyynue ia oiia cuaeie oaiu iaeaeia.

O.-*oi au iiaeaoa neacaoue i ?eoia yoiai i?iecaaaeaiey?

Ae.-?eoi ia/?oeee .A i?eano?a ionoonoaotho oaea?iua eino?oiaiou,
iiyoiio ii ia auoiaeeo ia ia?aue ieai.?iaiue e niieieiue ii iiiiaaao
nic-

aeaoue ea?oeio ia?iiai e ieaaiiai aeaeaeaiey iaeaeia.

O.-Nae/an iu i?ineooaai i?iecaaaeaiea, eioi?ia
iacuaaaony”I?acaeianoaa”.Eaeea aia/aoeaiey aicieeioo o aan? Eaeea e?anee
au caeanue oneuoeoa?

(Neooaiea iieoth?ia “I?acaeianoaa”.)

Ae.-Nia?aa aicieeaao iuouaiea oaiiiou, e iocuea, aeiiinyuayny
ecaeaeaea, aini?eieiaaony eae oi?io.Ii iinoaiaiii au?eniauaaaony
iaeiaeey, oae eae i?acaeiee iiaeoiaeeo an? aeeaea.E aio ii oaea
?yaeii, e aai aeo?ue caoaaouaaao ian.Aae?oa iocuea niieeaao, e ana
ia/eiatho i?eneooeaaoueny neuoiu aeae?eea caoee ia?oa.Ecaeaeaea o?oau
ea?atho iaeiaeeth, ii oanoaey iiea au? ia aeaeii.Iocuea an? a?ii/a e
a?ii/a – oanoaea i?eaeeaeaaony. Aio iii i?ioiaeeo ieii ian e oiaea
ieacuaaaony ai aeanoe caaeeaaoaeueiiai oaioea – oaia oanoaey e oaia
oaioea cao/ao aianoa.A ioee/ea io “Iaeaeia” iano?iaiea caeanue i/aiue
aeecia?aaeinoiia,an? ene?eony e naa?eaao.?eoi caeanue – eae ioeuen –
ia i?ae?auaaony ie ia naeoiaeo.Ii eae noa?aeaiue, aie?oa eioi?iai
auethony iaeiaeey e aa?iiiey.

O.-E.Aeaathnne ioa?aeoa?eciaae yoo iocueo neaaeothueie
neiaaie:”Aeaeaeaiea, ieyoouee ?eoi aoiinoa?u ni ac?uaaie aiacaiiiai
naaoa…yieciae oanoaey – ineaieoaeueiia e oeia?e/aneia aeaeaiea,
i?ioiaeyuaa neaicue i?acaeiee e neeaathuaany n iei.Oii cao/eo
aani?a?uaii yoi…niaoaiea iocuee ni naaoyuaeny iueueth”(oeeo.ii
9,n.76).Eae au aeoiaaoa, /oi ca n?aaenoaa iiiiaatho eiiiiceoi?o
nicaeaoue a iocuea iaieo i?iecaaaeaiee ianoiyuea caoeiaua ea?oeiu?

Ae.-Oaia?.A neioiie/aneee i?eano? aoiaeyo ?aciua eino?oiaiou e,
aeaaiaea?y eo oaia?ai, nicaeathony ?acee/iua oeaaoiaua iuouaiey.

O.-A yoeo i?iecaaaeaieyo E.Aeaathnne ?aciiia?aciaeoaa ii i?e?iai,
niaa?oaiii i?eaeiaeueiia e?ani/iia i?eano?iaia ienueii, eioi?ia
iieiinoueth au?aaeaao aai ooii/?iiia e niaoeeoe/aneia iiieiaiea
eiei?enoe/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae i?eano?a.Eae eii?anneiienou-aeeaiienoeu,
aeinoeaoea ii?aceoaeueiuo yooaeoia ia iniiaa oai?ee /enouo,
“?acaeae?iiuo” oeaaoia, oae e E.Aeaathnne no?aieony, /oiau ia aai
i?eano?iaie iaeeo?a ia?aeeaaeenue e?anee aac niaoaiey oaia?ia.Ii/oe
iinoiyiii eiiiiceoi? oeacuaaao a iioao iniaua i?e?iu eciaiaiey oaia?a
eino?oiaioia, o?aaothuea niaoeeaeueiiai caoeiecaea/aiey.

Nae/an y i?aaeeaaath au? ?ac ii?aaeaeeoue niioaaonoaey iocueaeueiuo
o?aaiaioia iienaieyi eiiiiceoi?a.

Iinea i?ineooeaaiey i?eia?ia a i?eaeiaeueiii eniieiaiee ana o/aieee
aeaaiiieo/ii ni?aaeeenue n caaeaieai.

O.-Ii/aio a ia/aea o?iea aicieeee ?aciiaeaney, a nae/an au ana
i?eoee e aaeeiiio iiaieth?

Ae.-O?aaiaiou a ia/aea o?iea cao/aee ia oi?oaieaii, a a eiioea – a
eniieiaiee neioiie/aneiai i?eano?a.Oaia?u aai eino?oiaioia iiiiaee iai
i?aaeeueii auiieieoue caaeaiea.

Iineaaeiee o?ie aue eoiaiaui.Iuoaynue nicaeaoue o o/aieeia oeaeueiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eii?anneiiecia, iu i?aaeeiaeeee ei ii?aaeaeeoue aai
iniaaiiinoe ia oieueei a iocuea,ii e a aeeaiiene.O?ie ia/aeny n
i?iniio?a ?ai?iaeoeoeee ea?oei eii?anneiienoia:”Oaieie naaea a
Iiiaea?iia”, “Aoeueaa? Eaiooeeiie a Ia?eaea”, “?oaineee niai?
aa/a?ii” E.Iiia,”Aoeueaa? Iiiia?o? a Ia?eaea” E.Ienna??i, “Aa?aaa ?aee a
Nai-Iaiiana” A.Neneay.

O.-Ia i?ioeii caiyoee au neacaea,/oi aeaaainoaothuoth ?ieue a ea?oeiao
ooaeiaeieeia-eii?anneiienoia ea?aao niiinoaaeaiea e?anie, ionoonoaoao
/?oeay i?i?eniaea eeiee.*oi au? iauaai iaaeaeo yoeie iieioiaie?

Ae.-Aeaenoaea anao ea?oei i?ienoiaeeo ia i?e?iaea – ia oeeoea, ia aa-

?aao ii?y,oi anoue ia ioe?uoii aicaeooa.

O.-Ooaeiaeieee- aaoi?u oaeaeaiiuo aaie i?iecaaaeaiee – ethaeee
?aaioaoue ia ioe?uoii aicaeooa.Auoiae ec ianoa?neie ia ieaiy? iaa?e
eo ia iuneue, /oi aeeaiienaoe aeieaeai oeaaeeaaoue e ia?aaeaaaoue
ia?acu i?e?iaeu, aicieeathuea oieueei ia iniiaa aia/aoeaiey.Nooue iiaiai
oai?/aneiai iaoiaea oi/ii au?acee Y.Iaia:”Ia nicaea?ony iaecaae,
ia?eia(ii?a), eeoei, a nicaea?ony aia/aoeaiea io iaecaaea, ia?eiu,
eeoea”.A /oi ia?auaao ia naay aieiaiea a iauae oeaaoiaie aaiia yoeo
ea?oei?

Ae.-A iaeieo ea?oeiao oeaaoiaay aaiia aeiaieueii ne?iiia, a ae?oaeo
i/aiue ianuuaia, ii a eaaeaeie anoue iuouaiea aicaeooa, aai
i?ic?a/iinoe.

O.-Yoi iuouaiea nicaea?ony aeaaiaea?y iiaie oaoieea aeeaiiene.Iia

aicieeea ec iaaethaeaiee eii?anneiienoia iaae ea?ie naaoa ia aiaea: ia
a?

ae?iaeauae iiaa?oiinoe iie caiaoeee ?aceiaeaiea e niaaeeiaiea
e?anie.Oae ?iaeeeanue eaeay eeanoue eo ia iieioii iaeio e ae?oaie, ia
niaoeaay i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ia iaeeo?a.Ooaeiaeieee i?aaeii/eoaee
iieueciaaoueny oieueei oaie oeaaoaie, eioi?ua eiathony a nieia/iii
niaeo?a.Ia iieioia e?ani/iua iyoiuoee aucuaatho o c?eoaey aia/aoeaiea
aea?aoeee, i?ic?a/iinoe, aicaeooiinoe.

Ae.-Au? ea?oeiu iauaaeeiyao i?enoonoaea nieia/iiai naaoa.Naiiai
nieioea ia ea?oeiao iao, ii i noaiaie aai y?einoe iiaeii aeiaaaeaoueny
ii oaiyi: iie oi aeaaeiua, aaeaa caiaoiua, oi ni/iua, ianuuaiiua.

O.-Eiaiii iiyoiio ea?oeiu eii?anneiienoia iacuaatho “iiyiaie naaoa”.
Eae au oaea caiaoeee, aai i?iyaeaiey iiiaiia?aciu – io y?eiai neyiey aei
iyaeeo ?aaeoaeiuo aeeeia, io oiieeo o?aiauoueo ia?oeaiee aei eaaeie
aeai/oaeiie aeuiee.

Eioa?anii, /oi nia?aa iiaia eneonnoai ooaeiaeieeia auei ano?a/aii
neaioe/anee e a?aaeaeaaii, ii iinoaiaiii caaiaaaei i?eciaiea. Iii noaei
iiaui ooaeiaeanoaaiiui iai?aaeaieai a aeeaiiene, iieo/ea iacaaiea
“eii?anneiieci”. Neiai “Eii?anneiieci” i?iecioei io iacaaiey ea?oeiu
E.Iiia “Aia/aoeaiea.Ainoiae nieioea” (ii o?aioeocnee impression –
aia/aoeaiea).

Iocueaeueiue eii?anneiieci aiciee ianeieueei iicaea, ia “ii/aa”,
iiaeaioiaeaiiie aeeaiienueth. *oi aea iauaai iaaeaeo aeeaiieniui
eii?anneiieciii e iocueaeueiui?

Ae.-O eiiiiceoi?ia iniiaiui au?aceoaeueiui n?aaenoaii noaiiaeony
aa?iiiey, a ia iaeiaeey, iiaeiaii oiio, eae o ooaeiaeieeia e?anea
i?aiaeaaeaao iaae eeieae.

Iocueaeueiia i?iecaaaeaiea, eae e ea?oeia, nicaeaaony iiae
aicaeaenoaeai eaeiai-eeai aia/aoeaiey. I?e yoii aaoi? ia iaaycuaaao naie
ia?aaeeaaiey, a aeaao aieueoie i?inoi? aiia?aaeaieth c?eoaey e
neooaoaey. A iocuea E.Aeaathnne eioa?anii iiiauaiea iacaaiee
i?iecaaaeaiee ia a ia/aea, a aeiioea.

Oaia?u neioiie/aneiai i?eano?a o?aeoothony eae e?anee, eiiiiceoi?u ia
niaoeaatho ?aciua a?oiiu eino?oiaioia, a iieacuaatho aiciiaeiinoe
eaaeaeie ec ieo a ioaeaeueiinoe.

Aeaeaa o/aieeai i?aaeeaaaaony i?ineooaoue o?aaiaiou aeaoo /anoae
“Eniaineie ?ainiaeee” I.?aaaey :”I?aethaeee ii/e”, e “Ia?iaeiiai
i?acaeieea”. Ai a?aiy neooaiey o/eoaeue i?ineo ienueiaiii iiiuoaoueny
ioaaoeoue ia aii?in: “Ii/aio E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey iacuaatho
eiiiiceoi?aie eii?anneiienoaie?”

Ioaaou aeaoae:

– N ia?aie iiou i?iecaaaeaiee Aeaathnne e ?aaaey ia?aae aeacaie
i?aaenoaao eaeay-oi ea?oeia. Neooay “I?aethaeeth ii/e” y ynii
i?aaenoaaeea oaiioth ii/ue, caacaeiia aeoaieia iaai. Neuoiu oi?ioe e
caoee aeieaoathuae ioeoaea-oi iocuee. Eiiiiceoi? oaia?aie iocueaeueiuo
eino?oiaioia ia?eniaae ea?oeio Eniaineie ii/e.

– Eiiiiceoi?ia E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey ioiinyo e eiiiiceoi?ai –
eii?anneiienoai, iioiio /oi iie eae e ooaeiaeieee – eii?anneiienou,
au?aaeatho a iocuea naie aia/aoeaiey. Yoe ethaee ieooo na?aeoeai –
iocuea enoiaeeo ec aeoaeiu eo aeooe. E iaaei noiaoue oneuoaoue,
ii/oanoaiaaoue aa, neaaeoy ca aaaeaieai eiiiiceoi?a. A iocuea Aeaathnne,
eae e a ea?oeiao ooaeiaeieeia eii?anneiienoia, iao /aoeeo eeiee,
eiioo?ia. Oieueei aa?iiiey oeaaoa e naaoa.

Eiiiiceoi?u – yoi oiaea ooaeiaeieee, oieueei iie ?enotho naie /oanoaa
iocueie, a ooaeiaeieee – e?aneaie e eenoi/eie. Iaeiaeey, iiou – aio
e?anea e eenoi/ea eiiiiceoi?ia. ss n/eoath, /oi Aeaathnne e ?aaaey
iacuaatho eii?anneiienoaie, iioiio /oi iie ni/eiyee iocueo ii naiei
aia/aoeaieyi, /oanoaai. Iiyoiio iocuea o ieo iaiiiai iai?eau/iay. ss
ioe?uea aeey naay yoo iocueo. Iia ecia?aaeaao ?acee/iua ea?oeiu
(i?e?iaeu, eee ia?iaeiiai i?acaeieea) e a oi aea a?aiy ianao a naaa
/oanoaa, iiaoaeaeathuea niia?aaeeaaoue ae. Neooay “Iaeaea” Aeaathnne e
i?aaenoaaeyy ea?oeio ianio?iiai iaaa, y iuneaiii oiineeanue a aunue e
iaiy ioaaouaaei aac?acee/ea ei anaio i?ienoiaeyuaio, oi aae?oa
noaiiaeeinue oineeeai e a?onii. A a “I?acaeianoaao” y aoaeoi-au
auea o/anoieeii ii/iuo aoeyiee a eano e aeaeaea oaeinoaaiiia oanoaea.

Aeaathnne e ?aaaeue, iiaeiaii ooaeiaeieeai-eii?anneiienoai,
iaeeaaeuaatho oo?eoe oi iaeiie e?aneie, oi ae?oaie. Yoe oo?eoe – iiou a
i?iecaaaeaiee, a e?anee – oaia?u iocueaeueiuo eino?oiaioia. Eo noiia
iicaieyao oaeaeaoue

/oi-oi a aeuiea, a ooiaia. Aiiaua caoee iiaeiaiu aoiiai, aianoa iie
ninoaaeytho iieaeoeo, eioi?ay yaeyaony ie/oiaeii iaeie /anoueth
/aai-oi ia?iiiiai e i?ae?aniiai.

A ?acoeueoaoa iiuoiie ?aaiou iu i?eoee e neaaeothuei auaiaeai:

1. Aaaaeaiea iocuee eii?anneiienoia a oeieueioth i?ia?aiio aiciiaeii
inouanoaeoue ii neaaeothuei i?eioeeiai:

a) io i?inoiai e neiaeiiio

a) io oi?oaieaiiuo ni/eiaiee e iocuea aeey neioiie/aneiai i?eano?a
(aiciiaeii, e e aieaeueii-oi?iaui aeai?ai)

a) aica?auaiea e i?ieaeaiiiio

a) neaiciie oa?aeoa? ?anniio?aiey iaoa?eaea.

2. Eniieueciaaiea iocuee eii?anneiienoia ia o?ieao a oeiea iicaieyao
aueoe ia i?iaeaio ciaeiinoaa ni noeeyie e iai?aaeaieyie a eneonnoaa (a
/anoiinoe, n iocueaeueiui ei?anneiieciii).

Ii a iaoae ?aaioa iu niciaoaeueii inoaiaaeeaaainy ia ia?aii yoaia
?aaeecaoeee oaiu “Eii?anneiieci a iocuea” – oi?ie?iaaiea i?aaenoaaeaiee

i oai?/anoaa E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey ia i?eia?a eo aeaoneeo
 _oi?oaieaiiuo  _ni/eiaiee ..

3. N ia?aiai aei iineaaeiaai o?iea iu iaaethaeaee ana aic?anoathuee
eioa?an e iocuea yoeo eiiiiceoi?ia: ?aayoa aieiaoaeueii neooaee, aeoeaii
ioaa/aee ia aii?inu, i?e/ai eaaeaeue no?aieeny auneacaoue naie iunee,
oaioacee. A yoi cia/eo, /oi ia?acu “Aeaoneiai oaieea” e “Iiae
iaoooee-aonuie” aucuaatho o ?aayo ciaeiiua aeeciaiiua annioeeaoeee, a
oaeaea aeaeaiea niia?aaeeaaoue e ?aciuoeyoue. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea yoiio –
ienueiaiiua aia/aoeaiey aeaoae i iocuea E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey, a oaeaea
aeaiiua iocueaeueiie aeeoi?eiu. Ec aia/aoeaiee, auneacaiiuo
o/aieeaie neaaeoao, /oi neiaeiue iocueaeueiue ycue eii?anneiienoia ia
noae i?aa?aaeie ia iooe iiieiaiey ?aayoaie iocuee. Caiyoey aoi?iai
oeeeea iieacaee, /oi aiciiaeii

e niaoeeaeueii ?anniao?eaaoue iniaaiiinoe eii?anneiienoe/aneiai
noeey. Anee yoi aeaeaoue a aeinooiiie e eioa?aniie aeey aeaoneiai
iiieiaiey oi?iu.

4. A aeaeueiaeoai iie?aynue ia iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iiaeii i?aaieci-

aaoue aieaa oaeoaeaiiue aa?eaio eco/aiey iocuee eii?anneiienoia a aeaea
?acee/iuo aiaeeanniuo ia?ii?eyoee: oaiaoe/aneiai eeanniiai /ana,
oaeoeueoaoeaa e o.i.

 _CAEETH*AIEA.

1. ?anniio?aa iiiyoea noeey a ?aciuo aeaeao eneonnoa, aieaa iiae?iaii
iu inoaiiaeeenue ia aai o?aeoiaea a iocuea. I?iaiaeece?iaaa oieeiaaiea
iocueaeueiiai noeey o ?aciuo iocueiaaaeia, iu oaaaeeeenue a neiaeiinoe
e iaiaeiicia/iinoe yoiai oa?ieia. Iaeaieaa iaauathuei oa?aeoa?ii
iaeaaeaao iiaeoiae e noeeth, eae e enoi?e/aneiio yaeaieth.

N yoeo iiceoeee i?eiyoi aiai?eoue i oae iacuaaaiuo
enoi?eei-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo noeeyo, iaeei ec eioi?uo – eii?anneiieci.

2. Iuoaynue auyaeoue nouiinoue iu auaeaeyai neaaeothuea aai
iniaaiiinoe: a) eniieueciaaiea eiiiiceoi?aie aa?iiiee eae caoeiaie
e?anee.

a) ooiae aa?iiiee ia aoi?ie ieai

a) i?eoioeeainoue ?eoieee.

I?iaa?yy n?aaieoaeueioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo eiiiiceoi?neeo noeeae
E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey iu auaeaeeee neaaeothuea iauea ea/anoaa eo
iocuee:

a) nii?eeiniiaaiea ia?aciiai niaea?aeaiey

a) oyaioaiea e i?ia?aiiinoe, aeeaiieniinoe

a) i?aiaeaaeaiea eiei?enoe/aneie o?aeoiaee aieueoeinoaa
iocueaeueii-au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa.

3. Aiaeec aeaoneeo oi?oaieaiiuo oeeeeia E.Aeaathnne (“Aeaoneee
oaieie”) e I.?aaaey (“Iiy iaoooea-aonuiy) iieacae /oi eiaiii n yoeo
ni/eiaiee aeaeaoaeueii ia/eiaoue ciaeiinoai oeieueieeia n iocueie
eii?anneiienoia, iineieueeo aoaeo/e aeinoaoi/ii y?eeie, iie a oi aea
a?aiy aeinooiiu aeaoyi ii naiaio iocueaeueiiio ycueo. Iaeioi?ua iiiaiou
iocueaeueii-oai?eoe/aneiai ?acai?a iiaoo auoue eioa?anii eniieueciaaiu
ia o?ieao iocuee.

4. I?iaiaeece?iaaa i?ia?aiiu n oi/ee c?aiey eniieueciaaiey a ieo
iocuee eii?anneiienoia, iu i?aaeeaaaai eo ianeieueei aeiiieieoue:

a) ?anoe?eoue e?oa i?iecaaaeaiee E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey, eco/aaiuo a
oeiea, oae eae ia iao acaeyae, o/aueiny iaiaoiaeeii aeaoue aieaa
/aoeia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oaeii aaaeiii yaeaiee a eneonnoaa eae
eii?anneiieci.

a) ia/aoue ciaeiinoai aeaoae n eii?anneiieciii ia i?eia?ao aeaoneie
oi?-

oaieaiiie iocuee E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey.

a) nenoaiaoe/anee ia?auaoueny e ni/eiaieyi yoeo aaoi?ia n oeaeueth
oi?ie?iaaiey oeaeinoiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i noeea.

5. A ?acoeueoaoa iiuoiie ?aaiou iu i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi iocuea
E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey, a i?aaeeiaeaiiuo iaie i?iecaaaeaieyo, eioa?ania
aeaoyi. Neiaeiue iocueaeueiue ycue yoeo eiiiiceoi?ia ia noae aa?uea?ii
aeey ieo, o.e. e?oa ia?acia aeaoneeo oi?oaieaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee oanii
nii?eeanaaony n aioo?aiiei ie?ii aeaoae, aucuaaao o ieo aeaeaiea
niia?aaeeaaoue e ?aciuoeyoue.

A oiaea iiuoiie ?aaiou auee iieacaiu neaaeothuea ?acoeueoaou: ec
iauaai eiee/anoaa o/aueony (100%), 65% aeaoae ii?aaeaeeee ia neoo
aaoi?ia e iacaaiey i?icao/aaoeo i?iecaaaeaiee, inoaeueiua o/aieee
auiieieee caaeaiea ia iieiinoueth, io?eoeaoaeueiue ?acoeueoao
ionoonoaoao.

Aeiioaca i oii, /oi i?aaenoaaeaiey i noeea iocueaeueiiai eii?anneiiecia
o oeieueieeia n?aaeieo eeannia oi?ie?oaony a i?ioeanna iinoaiaiiiai
i?eiauaiey e yoiio eneonnoao, iaoea iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea a ?acoeueoaoa
iiuoiie ?aaiou.

EEOA?AOO?A.

1. Aa?aaeia A.A. Iocuea E.Aeaathnne a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii iinoeaeaiee ie?a
oeieueieeaie. Iiauoaiea iaaeaaiae/aneiai ianoa?noaa ii i?aaeiaoo
“iocuea”. O/aaii-iaoaaee/aneea iaoa?eaeu, 1992.

2. Aiae?aaa E.A. Eii?anneiieci. I.:Ecae-ai IAO,1980.

3. Aeueaaia A. I?iecaaaeaiey E.Aeaathnne e I.?aaaey. I.:Iocuea, 1963.
4. Anoaoueaa A.A. I iocuea XX aaea. I.:Iocuea,1982.

5. A?aoaei A.I. Anaiauay enoi?ey iocuee. I.:I?iiaoae, 1927.

6. Ai?thiiaa E. Ia iooe e iaaeaaiaeea eneonnoaa. Iocuea a oei-

ea, 1987 N 4.

7. Aeaathnne e iocuea XX aaea. Na.no. E.: Iocuea, 1983.

8. Eii?anneiienou, eo nia?aiaiieee e ni?aoieee: aeeaiienue. A?aoe-

ea. Eeoa?aoo?a. Iocuea. Iiae ?aae. A.Ae.*aaiaeaaaa. I.:Eneonnoai,
1976.

9. Enoi?ey ca?oaaaeiie iocuee. Iiae ?aae. E.Ianouaa. I.: Iocuea,

1988, A 5.

10. Eaaaeaaneee Ae.A. I?ia?aiia ii iocuea aeey iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie

oeieu. I.:I?inaauaiea, 1983.

11. Eaaaeaaneee Ae.A. Eae ?anneacuaaoue aeaoyi i iocuea? I.:I?inaaua-

iea, 1989.

12. Eaaaeaaneee Ae.A. I?i o?ao eeoia e iiiaia ae?oaia. Ia?iue:

Ei. ecae-ai, 1975.

13. Eaaaeaaneee Ae.A. ?iaanieee. I.:Iocuea, 1987, A.1.

14. Eieaa ii ynoaoeea aeey iocueaioia Iiae ?aae. E.A.Eiinoaioeiiaa.

I.:Iocuea, 1983.

15. Eii/aaneee I. “Aeaoneee oaieie” E.Aeaathnne I.:Iocuea, 1976.

16. E?aoeee neiaa?ue ii ynoaoeea. Iiae ?aae. I.O.Ianyiieeiaa. I.:Ii-

eeoecaeao,1963.

17. E?aieaa TH. Eca?aiiua noaouee. E.:Iocuea, 1976.

18. Eiaaiiaa I. Iocueaeueiue noeeue e aeai?: enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue.

I.:Nia.eiiiiceoi?, 1990.

19. Iaeea?ia N. Nia?aiea noeoioai?aiee. I.:Ooae.eeoa?aoo?a, 1990.

20. Ia?ouiia E.E. Eeiae Aeaathnne. I.:Iocuea, 1964.

21. Ia?ouiia E.E. Ii?en ?aaaeue. I.:Iocuea, 1979.

22. Ianeiaa E. Eae iu neuoei aeeaiienue? Iocuea a oeiea.1. 1987 N4.

23. Ieoaeeia I.E. Noeeue a iocuea. E.:Iocuea, 1981.

24. Iocuea XX aaea. Iiae ?aae. Ae.A.AEeoiie?neiai. I.:Iocuea, 1977.

25. Iocueaeueiay eeoa?aoo?a ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai. Iiae ?aae.
A.Eaaeea. I.:Iocuea, 1980.

26. Iocueaeueiay yioeeeeiiaaeey. Iiae ?aae.TH.A.Eaeaeuoa. I.:Nia.
yioeeeeiiaaeey, 1981, o.5.

27. I?ia?aiia Iocuea 1 – 8 eeannu. Iiae ?aae. TH.Aeeaaa.
I.:I?inaauaiea, 1993.

28. ?icaioeeueae E. Iieiaeie Aeaathnne e aai nia?aiaiieee.
I.:Iocaec, 1963.

29. Ne?aaeia N.N. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiua i?eioeeiu iocueaeueiuo
noeeae. I.:Iocuea, 1973.

30. Nioi? A.I. Noeeue, iaoiae, iai?aaeaiea. Aii?inu oai?ee e ynoaoeee
iocuee. I.:Iocuea, 1965. A.4.

31. Nooiaeue A.I. Ii?en ?aaaeue. I/a?e aeecie e oai?/anoaa. E.:Iocuea,
1975.

32. Oa?aioueaaa I.A. Iocuea (iocueaeueii-ynoaoe/aneia ainieoaiea) 1 –
4 eeannu. I.:I?inaauaiea, 1994.

33. Oeuiei A.I. Ii?en ?aaaeue. I.:Iocaec, 1953.

34. ss?ioeeiueneee N. Aeaathnne, eii?anneiieci e neiaieeci.
I.:I?ia?ann, 1978.

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