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NIAeA?AEAIEA:

Aaaaeaiea

1. Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea: ia?aciaaiea Nia?oaineiai ainoaea?noaa.

2. Oeaeue, caaea/e e nenoaia nia?oaineiai ainieoaiey.

3. Niaea?aeaiea e iaoiaeu ainieoaiey iaeue/eeia a Nia?oa. Oece/aneia e
iocueaeueiia ia?aciaaiea.

4. AEaineia ainieoaiea a Nia?oa.

5. Oeeiniou Ae?aaiae A?aoeee i oece/aneii ainieoaiee eae i aeaaiii
aniaeoa aiaiiiai ainieoaiey.

Caeeth/aiea.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U:

A?enoioaeue «Nia?aiey a /aou?ao oiiao» o.4 I 1984 «Iuneue»
Ecaeaoaeuenoai Aeaaeaiee Iaoe NNN?. Einoeooo oeeinioee.

Aeiie/oe E. «Ethaee, i?aau, iau/ae Ae?aaiae A?aoeee e ?eia» I. 1988
«Aunoay oeiea»

Ae?i I. «*anoiay e iauanoaaiiay aeeciue a?aeia» Nia 1913

«Ae?aaiyy A?aoeey» I 1956 Ecaeaoaeuenoai Aeaaeaiee Iaoe NNN?. Einoeooo
enoi?ee. Ioaaonoaaiiue ?aaeaeoi? A.No?oaa, Ae.Eaeeenoia.

AEo?aeieianeee A. «I/a?ee ii enoi?ee aioe/iie iaaeaaiaeee» I 1963
Ecaeaoaeuenoaa Aeaaeaiee Iaaeaaiae/aneeo Iaoe ?NON?

Eeueeineay E. «Ae?aaiyy A?aoeey: enoi?ey, auo, eoeueoo?a» I 1997

Eieiaiaa E., Aeoneeia E. «I/a?ee enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee» Nia 1958

Iaaeaaiae/aneay yioeeeeiiaaeey o4 «Niaaoneay yioeeeeiiaaeey» I 1968

Ieooa?o «N?aaieoaeueiua aeeciaiienaiey» o.1 I «Iaoea» 1994. Iiae
?aaeaeoeeae N.Aaa?eioeaaa, I.Aania?iaa, N.Ia?eeo

«Oai?aiey Ieaoiia» o.14 Caeiiu e iineaneiaey e caeiiai. Iaoa?ao?a
Academia 1923.

Aaaaeaiea.

N ae?aaieo a?aiai aii?inu e i?iaeaiu ainieoaiey e ia?aciaaiey anaaaea
caieiaee iaeio ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo iiceoeee n?aaee i?i/eo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caaea/. I?e/ai eaaeaeay yiioa aiineo naie
eiioeaiooaeueiua iiaoanoaa a iiiyoea ainieoaiey, oi anoue niaea?aeaiea
e iaoiaeu aai o?iiieiae/anee iaiythony, ii oeaeue anaaaea iaeia:
ainieoaoue ananoi?iiia ?acaeooth ee/iinoue, a ?aieao aeinoeaiooiai
i?ia?anna, eioi?ay niiaea au nouanoaiaaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiie
enoi?e/aneie ianoaiiaea. Ia nenoaio, niaea?aeaiea e iaoiaeu ainieoaiey
a iniiaiii aieueoia aeeyiea ieacuaatho o?e oaeoi?a: o?iiieiae/aneee,
iieeoe/aneee e aaia?aoe/aneee. Iaeiaei a enoi?ee ae?aaiinoe
ecaanoai i?eia?, eiaaea a ?aieao iaeiiai ainoaea?noaa (Ae?aaiae A?aoeee)
i?aaeoaeuenoaa ninaaeieo iieenia i?eaea?aeeaaeenue ?acee/iuo
iai?aaeaiee a ainieoaiee, i?eaioe?oynue ia ?acee/iua oeaee, a,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e au?iaaouaay ?acee/iua iaoiaeu. Iaeaieaa y?eei
i?eia?ii yaeythony Aoeineee iieen, n aai /aoeie oaiaeaioeeae e
ynoaoe/aneiio ainieoaieth, e Nia?oaineee, iieiinoueth aai io?eoeaaoee,
e noaayuee a ea/anoaa ia?aii/a?aaeiie caaea/e ainieoaiea aiaiii
iao/aiiiai e oece/anee iiaeaioiaeaiiiai ia?iaea.

Neaaeoy yoiio oaeoo, y iinoaaeea ia?aae niaie oeaeue a naiae ?aaioa
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue nenoaio, niaea?aeaiea e iaoiaeu nia?oaineiai
ainieoaiey a ia?eiae nouanoaiaaiey ainoaea?noaa. A aeey yoiai i?aaeaea
anaai iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue enoi?e/aneea iniaaiiinoe ca?iaeaeaiey e
?acaeoey naiiai iieena n oai, /oiau iiiuoaoueny auyaeoue niaoeeoeeo aai
ainieoaoaeueiuo oeaeae e caaea/; iciaeiieoueny n nenoaiie e iaoiaeaie
ainieoaiey ioaeaeueii iaeue/eeia e aeaai/ae ia ?aciuo aic?anoiuo yoaiao;
e e?iia oiai, i?iniio?aoue o?oaeu ioaeaeueiuo oeeinioia, nia?aiaiieeia
iienuaaaiie yiioe, aeey oiai, /oiau auynieoue eo acaeyaeu ia
oeaeaniia?aciinoue anae nenoaiu e iaoiaeia nia?oaineiai ainieoaiey.

***

1. Enoi?e/aneay ni?aaea: ia?aciaaiea Nia?oaineiai ainoaea?noaa.

Aicieeiiaaiea Nia?oaineiai ainoaea?noaa oanii naycaii n iineaaeieie
e?oiiuie ia?aaeaeaeaieyie ieaiai aei?eeoeaa ia Aaeeaineii iieoino?iaa a
eiioea XIII aaea aei i.y. I?iaeaeaaynue cia/eoaeueiie iannie, aei?yia
iinoaiaiii caoaaouaaee aeieeio Aa?ioa – Eaeiieeo – e i?eeaaathuea e iae
oa??eoi?ee. Yoe caaiaaaiey ia auee naycaiu n iiaieiaiui ii?aaiuaieai
ianoiiai ianaeaiey, iioiio /oi nii?iaiaeaeaeenue ino?ie aiaoiae e
aioo?aiiae ai?ueaie, iaeiaei oaea e IX aaeo aei i.y. aei?eeneea ieaiaia
eiio?iee?iaaee anth oa??eoi?eth Eaeiieee, noi?ie?iaaa aiia?ao
ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna – Nia?oaineia ainoaea?noai. Oaea iinea yoiai
ia/aeny i?ioeann ii?aaiuaiey ianoiiai ianaeaiey – eeioia, eioi?ue
nii?iaiaeaeaeny ?aceei iaino?aieai eeanniaie ai?ueau, i?iaeieaeaaoaeny
a oa/aiea iyoe iieieaiee. A ioiioaiee ii?aaiuaiiuo aeeoaeae Eaeiieee
aeaaea neiaeeeanue ii?aaeaeaiiay oeeinioneay oi/ea c?aiey, eioi?ay
aeaneea, /oi «oaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii n iiiaioa ?iaeaeaiey iaeioi?ua
nouanoaa ?acee/athony a oii ioiioaiee, /oi iaeie ec ieo i?aaeiacia/aiu e
iiae/eiaieth, ae?oaea – e aeanoaiaaieth.»

Ia?aiia/aeueii (a ia/aea naiae caaiaaaoaeueiie iieeoeee) Nia?oa iaei /ai
ioee/aeanue io nia?aiaiiuo ae ae?oaeo a?a/aneeo iauei, iaeiaei a iiauo
oneiaeyo aeecie yoa ?acieoea noaiiaeony e?aeia nouanoaaiiie: iaaieueoay
iaueia nia?oeaoia auioaeaeaia auea inouanoaeyoue caaea/o ainiiaenoaa
iaae iiaeaaeythuei aieueoeinoaii eaeiineiai ianaeaiey oeaiie iinoiyiiie
aiaiiie aioiaiinoe a?aaeaeai. Yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai iaeiaeeei naie
ioia/aoie ia aanue auo nia?oaineie iaueiu, iniaaiiinoueth eioi?iai aue
aai y?ei au?aaeaiiue aiaiiue oa?aeoa?, eioi?ue yaeyeny ii?aaeaeythuae
/a?oie iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie e nioeeaeueiie noa? aeecie iauanoaa.
Aeaaiia ianoi ai anae i?aaiecaoeee nia?oaineiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey ioaiaeeeinue aiaiii-iieeoe/aneiio ainieoaieth a?aaeaeai.

***

2. Oeaeue, caaea/e e nenoaia ainieoaiey a Nia?oa.

Oa?iei «ainieoaiea» iaiau/aeii iiiaia?aiai, anee ?anniao?eaaoue aai a
o?iiieiae/aneii aniaeoa, eai ia eaaeaeii enoi?e/aneii yoaia, nooue aai
aa?uee?oaony a caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy ?acaeoey e iieeoeee oiai eee eiiai
ainoaea?noaa.

A VIII – IV aaea aei i.y., a nayce n auoaiienaiiie iai?yaeaiiie
enoi?e/aneie ianoaiiaeie, a Nia?oa auea au?aaioaia aaniethoii iiaay
nenoaia ainieoaiey, i eioi?ie aiai?eo A?enoioaeue a iaeiii ec naieo
o?oaeia: «a Eaeaaeaiiia … ii/oe ana ainieoaiea a?aaeaeai e ii/oe any
caeiiiaeaoaeueiay nenoaia eiatho a aeaeo aiaiiua oeaee». Niaa?oaiii
i/aaeaeii, /oi ainoaea?noai a ea/anoaa iniiaiie e aaeeinoaaiiie oeaee
ainieoaiey aeaeaei nicaeaiea aaniethoiie aiaiiie iaoeee e ana naie neeu
iai?aaeei ia ?acaeoea iiaiai iieieaiey, oece/anee neeueiiai e niiniaiiai
e auaeeaaieth a oneiaeyo aieinoaaiiie iieeoeee, i?iaiaeeiie Nia?oie.

A nayce n yoei, a iieena aue onoaiiaeai no?iaee ainoaea?noaaiiue
eiio?ieue ca i?ioeannii ainieoaiey e ia?aciaaiey. A i?ia?aiio iao/aiey
aioee oieueei oa i?aaeiaou, eioi?ua niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth oece/aneeo
iaaueia e ii?aeueioth auaea?aeeo e noieeinoue, niaa?oaiii auoaniea
i?i/ea iaoee, naycaiiua n ?acaeoeai ynoaoe/aneie noi?iiu aeooe /aeiaaea.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue ia eiie?aoiuo i?eia?ao e enoi?e/aneeo oaeoao iaoiaeu
i?iaaaeaiey iiaeiaiie iieeoeee.

***

3. Niaea?aeaiea e iaoiaeu ainieoaiey iaeue/eeia a Nia?oa.
Oece/aneia e iocueaeueiia ia?aciaaiea.

3.1 Ainieoaiea a naiuea.

Naiua aeaaiua ea/anoaa, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee ioee/aoue nia?oaioea io
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ae?oaeo ia?iaeia auee neea, auiineeainoue e
iaeneiaeueiay aioiaiinoue e aeeciaiiui o?oaeiinoyi. I?eaeaaiea e
?acaeoea iiaeiaiuo ea/anoa ia/eiaeinue n ia?auo aeiae aeecie ?aaaiea: a
ieaaeai/aneii aic?anoa aai ieeiaaea ia iaeaiaee e ia oe?uaaee, inoaaeyy
ia nieioea, aao?a eee aeiaeaea. Eiaaea ?aaaiie iiae?anoae, aai ioo/aee
io no?aoa ia?aae oaiiioie e iaeeii/anoaii, caie?ay a oaiiua iiiauaiey ia
oeaeua nooee, a oaeaea ioo/aee io eai?ecia e iuouey, iaeacuaay iaeeie.

Oece/aneia iaeacaiea auei iaiouaieaiie /anoueth ainieoaiey ?aaaiea
aioo?e naiuee. E iaeiei ec iiiai/eneaiiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa oiio neoaeeo
iaeaeaiiay a?oaieiaaie aaca, ia eioi?ie ecia?aaeaia ae?aaiaa?a/aneay
aeaiueia, ecaeaathuay ?aaaiea nianoaaiiie naiaeaeeae – ianoieueei i?i/ii
iiaeiaiia yaeaiea auei naycaii n auoiaie aeeciueth, /oi aai oaaeiaa/eee
a ?enoieao ia ?iaia n ?eooaeueiuie i?acaeieeaie, noeaiaie aiaa e
ae?oaeie ea?oeiaie iianaaeiaaiuo caaio.

Oaea n ieaaeai/aneiai aic?anoa nia?oaineeo aeaoae i?eo/aee e aiaiiie
aui?aaea. A naiuea caeeaaeuaaeenue iniiau aeaaiuo ea/anoa aoaeouaai
caueoieea ainoaea?noaa: i?aiaa?aaeaiea aieueth e no?aoii.

3.2 Ia?eiae ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey.

Nouanoaiaaaoay a Nia?oa nenoaia ia?aciaaiey auea i/aiue /aoei
nieaie?iaaia e ?ann/eoaia ia a?aaeaeai a aic?anoa io 7 aei 30 eao e
iiae?acaeaeyeanue ia o?e yoaia: io 7 aei 15, io 15 aei 20 e io 20 aei 30
eao. I?e/ai ia anao yoeo o?ao yoaiao iniaaiii y?ei i?iniao?eaaaony
aeiieie?othuaa aeeyiea eioa?ania ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia cai?auaei
a?aaeaeaiai ainieouaaoue aeaoae ii nianoaaiiiio oniio?aieth, iiae/eiea
yoio i?ioeann naiei ocei-aiaiiui ioaeaeai.

3.2.1. Ainieoaiea a aic?anoa io 7 aei 15 eao.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae a yoio ia?eiae auei ?acaeoea niiniaiinoe
naiinoiyoaeueii i?aiaeieaaaoue aeeciaiiua o?oaeiinoe, a oaeaea
ainieoaiea iniiaiuo ii?aeueiuo ea/anoa ianoiyuaai aieia: o?aa?inoe,
naiiiaeaaeaiey, auaea?aeee, oeaaeiie?iaey ia?aae nia?oueth. I?e/ai
i?ioeann ainieoaiey i?ioiaeee iiae iaonoaiiui eiio?ieai o/eoaey,
ainoaea?noaa e anao a?aaeaeai.

A naiue eao iaeue/eeia ioieiaee o ?iaeeoaeae e, iauaaeeiea eo a aaaeu
(iaaieueoea io?yaeu), ainieouaaee niiaua, i?eo/ay e no?iaie, aiaiiie
aeenoeeieeia. Ai aeaaa eaaeaeie aaaeu noiye ioae/eia, eioi?ue
i?ineaaeeny ioaeanoaii ia iiea aiy e n eioi?iai aeaoe iiaee au a?aoue
i?eia?. Iniiaiie caaea/ae yoeo ethaeae auei ainieoaiea o?aa?inoe
aoaeoueo aieiia. Iaeaieaa /anoi aeey yoie oeaee eniieueciaaeny i?eai
«iao?aaeeaaiey» iaeiiai io?yaea ia ae?oaie: eiaaea ethaie iaeaeoee
iiaiae, eneonii i?aiiaeianaiiue o/eoaeai, neoaeee aeey oiai, /oiau
iinni?eoue aeaoae. Ioae/eiu neaaeeee ca ?acaycaaoeieny ae?aeaie n oai,
/oiau ii ieii/aiee iioaaeeoue iaeaieaa o?aa?uo e ioee/eaoeony e
iaeacaoue iaeeaie oao, eoi iniai ia i?iyaee naay a aith.

Ainieoaiea aeaoae ia aaa?yeinue a ?oee oieueei eeoue ia?aie/aiiiai /enea
ethaeae: aii?inu ainieoaiey iiae?anoathuae iieiaeaaee ?anniao?eaaeenue
eae iauaa aeaei anaai eeanna. E yoio oae iacuaaaiue i?eioeei
«iauanoaaiiiai eiio?iey» yaeyeny iaeiei ec iniiaiuo a iauae nenoaia
nia?oaineiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey. A?enoioaeue ienae: «Oae eae
ainoaea?noai a aai oeaeii eiaao a aeaeo iaeio eiia/ioth oeaeue, oi ynii,
/oi aeey anao ioaeii aaeeiia e iaeeiaeiaia ainieoaiea, e caaioa ia yoii
ainieoaiee aeieaeia auoue iauei, a ia /anoiui aeaeii…*oi eiaao iauee
eioa?an, oai e caieiaoueny neaaeoao niaianoii.» A iiyoiio, ia
ninoycaiey, i?iaiaeeiua a aeiianeyo, ?aaoey?ii i?eaeaoaee
i?aaenoaaeoaeae noa?oa-ai iieieaiey «eai anyeee n/eoaao naay aei
iaeioi?ie noaiaie iooeii, ainieoaoaeai e ?oeiaiaeeoaeai ethaiai ec
iiae?inoeia». Ia yoii iniiaaiee eaaeaeue noa?ee iia iiiu?eoue eee
iaeacaoue ethaiai ec aeaoae. E yoi n/eoaeinue ia oieueei aai i?aaii, ii
e iaycaiiinoueth.

E?iia oiai, ia ioaeneea ni?aaiiaaiey ia?aaeei a ea/anoaa c?eoaeae
i?eaeaoaee e aeaai/ae, eioi?ua naiei i?enoonoaeai noeioee?iaaee thiioae
e aeinoeaeaieth a`ieueoeo oniaoia.

Ii ia?a oiai, eae iaeue/eee iiae?anoaee, eo ainieouaaee ai ana aieaa
no?iauo oneiaeyo. «N aeaaiaaeoeaoeeaoiaai aic?anoa iieiaeua ethaee
oiaeeee ii/oe aac iaeaaeaeu, ainua e n iaiaaeaiiie aieiaie; eaoii e
ceiie iie iineee iaeio e oo aea iaeaaeaeo, eioi?ie ei aeieaeii auei
oaaoaoue ia oeaeue aiae. Eo aieinu auee ei?ioei ino?eaeaiu. Ei
cai?auaeinue iuoueny e i?eieiaoue aeaaiaiiey, eneeth/ay ii?aaeaeaiiuo e
?aaeeeo aeiae. Iie niaee aac iaeayea, ia naia, nieiia, ia o?inoieeao eee
ia eaiuoao», eioi?ua i?eiineee naaa naie n aa?aaia Aa?ioa, eiiay aai
oai ?oeaie.

E?iia oiai, aeaoyi oiuoeaiii auaeaaaee neeoeii neoaeiia ieoaiea, /oiau
iao/eoue eo nianoaaiiuie neeaie ai?ioueny n eeoaieyie e naeaeaoue ec ieo
eiaeeo e neeueiuo ethaeae. Aeey oiai, /oiau i?iei?ieoue naay thiua
nia?oeaou aeieaeiu auee ai?iaaoue, i?iyaeyy iaeaieueooth inoi?iaeiinoue
e oeo?inoue. Iiiaaeaaoeony ecaeaaee ieaoueth e canoaaeyee aieiaeaoue.
Iiyoiio aeaoe ?acee/iuie niiniaaie no?aieeenue ne?uaaoue naie
i?anooieaiey. Oe?iei ecaanoia enoi?ey ia iaeiii iaeue/eea, eioi?ue oe?ae
eenaiea e ni?yoae aai iiae ieauii. Ii aei?iaa aeiiie thiioa ano?aoee
aieiia, eioi?ua caaycaee n iei ?acaiai?, a a yoi a?aiy caa?ae ?anii?ie
aio coaaie aeeaio. Ia aeaeay naay auaeaoue, iaeue/ee i?iaeieaeae
aanaaeo, ia ?aaae?oy ia no?aoioth aieue ie neiaii, ie aeanoii, iiea ia
oiae caia?oai.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeiaiua “o?iee aeecie” ia oieueei i?eo/aee aeaoae
ai?ioueny n eeoaieyie, ii oaeaea e caeaeyee a ieo niaeinoue,
naiiiaeaaeaiea e auaea?aeeo – ea/anoaa noieue iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
aoaeouaai aieia.

Ii eniieiaiee 15 eao iaeue/eee aeieaeiu auee auaea?aeaoue ianeieueei
naiaia?aciuo yecaiaiia, aeey oiai, /oiau ia?aeoe a neaaeothuoth
aic?anoioth a?oiio. Iaeii ec ieo – iieacaoaeueiia n?aaeaiea nia?oaineie
iieiaeaaee, ia eioi?ii a ea/anoaa c?eoaeae auee iaycaiu i?enoonoaiaaoue
ana: ia/eiay io oea?y e caeai/eaay ?yaeiauie /eaiaie iaueiu –
ianoieueei na?ueacii ainoaea?noai iiaeoiaeeei e aii?inai ainieoaiey e
aai eiio?ieth. Iieacaoaeueiia eniuoaiea i?iaeieaeaeinue aeaa aeiy: a
ia?aue aeaiue thiua aieiu i?eiineee aea?oao aiao aieiu, ia aoi?ie aeaiue
ia/eiaeinue n?aaeaiea, iniiaiie oeaeueth eioi?iai auei oie/oiaeeoue
eae iiaeii aieueoa i?ioeaieeia. A ai?ueaa ?ac?aoaeinue iieueciaaoueny
ethauie n?aaenoaaie, ca eneeth/aieai i?oaeey. A inoaeueiii aea – iieiay
naiaiaea aeaenoaeyi e niaeaeea. Iaeue/eee ae?aeenue iiaaie, ?oeaie,
a?uceenue coaaie, auoea?aiuaaee ae?oa ae?oao aeaca, iaiaaeaee ii
iaeeii/ea eee io?yaeaie, noa?aynue noieeiooue i?ioeaieeia a aeoaieee
?ia, ie?oaeaaoee ieiuaaeeo aeey aiy. I/aiue iiiaea thiioe iiaeaaee eee
inoaaaeenue eaeaeaie ai a?aiy oaeeo n?aaeaiee, inoaeueiua aea
ia?aoiaeeee e neaaeothuaio yecaiaio – na/aiea o aeoa?y ia i?acaeieea
A?oaieaeu I?oee.

Yoi ioaee/iia eniuoaiea yaeyeinue iaeiie ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo oi?i oaea
oiiiyiooiai auoa i?eioeeia «iauanoaai-iiai eiio?iey» iaae ainieoaieai e,
eiay a naiae iniiaa eaeath niia?ie/anoaa – iniiaiie i?eioeei anaai
nia?oaineiai ia?aciaaiey – yaeyeinue naiaia?aciie oi?iie ninoycaiey a
oa?iaiee e auiineeainoe.

Aai nooue caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi a ii?aaeaeaiiua aeie ia?aae aeoa?ai
aiaeie A?oaieaeu thiioae naeee caeaiuie eaiauie eicaie. Ae/aaaiea auei
no?iaui, e iieiaeie nia?oaiaoe aeieaeai aue aai auaea?aeaoue aac
aaeeiiai noiia. Eia/a ia oieueei ii, ii e any aai naiuey iaaeaeee au ia
naay iauanoaaiiia i?ac?aiea.

A naieo enoi?e/aneeo naeaeaoaeuenoaao Eoeeai oae ieoao ia yoii
i?acaeieea: «Ia niaeny, anee oaeaeeoue, eae nia?oaineeo thiioae ae/otho
ia?aae aeoa?yie e iie iaeeaathony e?iaueth, a eo iaoa?e e iooeu noiyo
caeanue aea e ia aeaeatho eo, a oa?iaeatho ei, anee iie ia
auaea?aeeaatho oaea?ia, e oiieytho eo aeieueoa oa?iaoue aieue e
nio?aiyoue naiiiaeaaeaiea. Iiiaea oia?ee a yoii ninoycaiee, ia aeaeay
i?e aeecie naeaoueny ia aeacao o naieo aeiiaoieo eee iieacaoue, /oi iie
ineaaaee.» E aeaeaa ienaoaeue aeaao i/aiue aunieoth ioeaieo i?iaeaeaieth
iiaeiaiuo eniuoaiee: «Iiiaa a ieai, oaeie thiioa ia auaeano oaei
ioa/anoaa, aeaaea anee a?aae aoaeoo aai io/eoue, e n ianiaoeie aoaeao
ia?aiineoue oaea?u ae/a, ninoycoynue n auethuei aai, eoi ec ieo ia?aui
onoaiao.» Aiciiaeii, na/aiea o aeoa?y – yoi yooaeoeaiue niinia
?acaeoey ioaeanoaa e auaea?aeee o aeaoae. Iaeiaei, i/aaeaeia oaeaea e
aioeaoiaiiinoue eae yoiai, oae e iiiaeo ae?oaeo iaoiaeia nia?oaineiai
ainieoaiey.

A aic?anoa 15 eao thiioe anooiaee a oae iacuaaaiue “eniuoa-oaeueiue
aiae» naiae aiaiiie iiaeaioiaee. Ia/eiay n yoiai aic?anoa iiae?inoee
iieo/aee i?aai iioaiey i?oaeey, eioi?ui iie iaa?aaeaeaeenue ii
ieii/aiee i?acaeieea a /anoue A?oaieaeu I?oee. Aiae eniuoaiee (eee
e?eioey) i?ioaeae aeey iieiaeaaee aia Nia?ou. Ec iiae?inoeia oi?ie?iaaee
io?yaeu e ?annueaee eo ai ana /anoe no?aiu aeey ianaiey iieeoeaeneie e
aiaiiie neoaeau. Ae?aaiea oeeiniou aeatho i/aiue eanoiua iocuau i
iiaeiaiuo ia?ii?eyoeyo: «N iath (e?eioeae) naycaii e oiaeaeaiea ceiie
aineeii, niaiuea aac iinoaeae, ianeoaeeaaiea naiiai naay aac iiiiue
neoa, neeoaiea ii/ueth e aeiai ii anae no?aia…/oi niinianoaiaaei
oe?aieaieth oaea e aeooa eai niioaaonoaiaaei oneiaeyi ianoiyuaai
aiaiiiai iioiaea.» A /oiau iaeneiaeueii i?eaeeceoue yoo eeethceth e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?aaeoaeuenoai aaeaaiaeii iauyaeyei «aieio» eeioai,
caeaaaeaiiiio ei?aiiiio ianaeaieth Eaeiieee. Iiiai/eneaiiua oece/aneea
oi?aaeiaiey, eieeaeoeaiua aiaiiua ea?u, ninoycaiey, eco/aiea aiaiiie
oaeoeee e oiaiea aeaaeaoue eiiueai e ia/ii – ana yoi oi?ie?iaaei ia
oieueei oece/anee neeueiuo aieiia, i?eaueoeo e aeaeaciie aeenoeeieeia,
ii e au?aaaouaaei o aeaoae /oanoai nianoaaiiiai i?aainoiaenoaa iaae
aieaa neaauie, a aianoa n oai e ?aaneoth eaeaieiaeth. A ainoaea?noaa,
aaea a?aaaae, oaeenoai e ai?ianoai n/eoaeenue aeiaeanoueth e
aeaai?iaenoaii, iiaaaeaeaiiue iai?eyoaeue ?anniao?eaaeny eae nouanoai
iaiieiioeaiiia e aeinoieiia i?ac?aiey. E eiaiii iiyoiio ainieoaiiua a
iiaeiaiie n?aaea thiua nia?oeaou aini?eiyee naia i?aai ai a?aiy e?eioee
oaeaaoue ethaiai eeioa, eaaeouaainy iiaeic?eoaeueiui, ia niaethaeay
ieeaeeo i?aaiauo oi?iaeueiinoae, n iaiau/aeiui iaeneiaeeciii. Aaeaaiaeii
a no?aia iiaeaaee nioie iaaeiiuo ?aaia, iianthaeo oea?ee oa??i?,
eioi?ue iieiinoueth iiaeaea?aeeaaeny caeiiaie ainoaea?noaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, a aic?anoa 15 eao iaeue/eeia oaea aaiaeeee a aoiinoa?o
aiaiiuo aeaenoaee, i?eo/ay eo ?aaiiaeooii ioiineoueny e nia?oe e e
oaeenoaai, aeaa i?i/oanoaiaaoue anth ?aaeinoue iiaaaeu iaae i?ioeaieeii.

«I?iaiue aiae» caaa?oaeny ii aica?auaieth a Nia?oo iiaui ioaee/iui
aaiiii ii aiaeiaee n na/aieai o aeoa?y A?oaieaeu I?oee, iinea /aai
iieiaeaaeue ca/eneyeanue a ninoaa e?aiia – iiiiuieeia ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
ainieoaiey. Iniiaiie caaea/ae e?aiia auei oece/aneia iaeacaiea ieaaeoeo
/eaiia aaaeu, e ni?aaeyeenue iie n iae e?aeia noa?aoaeueii, eai anee
ii?ea ia auea aeinoaoi/ii no?iaie, oi oiaaea oaea nai noa?oee
i?aiiaeaaaoaeue nae naiaai iiiiuieea.

E?iia oiai, a iaycaiiinoe e?aia aoiaeeei ?acaeoea ?a/e e iuoeaiey o
aeaoae. Aiaiiay eaeaieiaey ia o?aaiaaea aieueoie a?aiiioiinoe e
oiio?aaeaiey neiaeiuo o?ac e iai?ioia a iauaiee iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Ia
iiea aiy oeaieeenue e?aoeea e /aoeea ioaaou. E oaeay niiniaiinoue
i?eaeaaeanue aeaoyi n naiiai ?aiiaai aic?anoa. «E?ai i?aaeeaaae
ainieoaiieeai aii?inu, o?aaothuea ?aciuoeaiey e niia?aceoaeueiinoe,
a?iaea oaeeo, eae: «Eoi eo/oee n?aaee ioaeae?» A ioaaoa iieaaaeinue
iacaaoue i?e/eio oiai eee eiiai noaeaeaiey e i?eaanoe aeieacaoaeuenoaa,
iaeaeoe iuneue a naiua e?aoeea neiaa… Aeaoae o/eee aiai?eoue oae,
/oiau a eo neiaao aaeeay ino?ioa niaoeaaeanue n ecyuanoaii, /oiau
e?aoeea ?a/e aucuaaee i?ino?ainoaaiiua ?aciuoeaiey». Iicaeiaa iiiyoea
«eaeiie/aneay» ?a/ue (io iacaaiey ainoaea?noaa – Eaeiieea) noaiiaeony
eiaiai ia?eoeaoaeueiui aeey iaicia/aiey e?aoeinoe e eiae/iinoe a
ia?aaea/a iunee.

Ia?eiae n 7 aei 15 eao ieacuaaeny aeey nia?oaineeo iiae?inoeia iaeaieaa
ianuuaiiui e o?oaeiui.

3.2.2. Ainieoaiea a aic?anoa io 15 aei 20 eao; io 21 aei 30 eao.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiaiiiai ainieoaiey aai niaea?aeaiea
ianeieueei iaiyaony: anee aei 15 eao nia?oaineiio iaeue/eeo i?eaeaaeenue
oieueei eeoue iauea iaauee ii auaeeaaieth a oneiaeyo iinoiyiiie aiaaie
aioiaiinoe, i?e/ai iao/aiea i?ioiaeeei iiae iinoiyiiui iaaethaeaieai
noa?oeo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, oi ii aeinoeaeaiee c?aeinoe thiioe aeieaeiu
auee ii?iaiaaoue ana iieo/aiiua iaauee ia i?aeoeea ?aaeueiuo aiaiiuo
aeaenoaee. E e?iia oiai, ia/eiay n yoiai aic?anoa ainoaea?noai aia?aua
ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoue iaeioi?oth caaioo ia eioaeeaeooaeueiii ?acaeoee
aeaoae: a i?ia?aiio iao/aiey oaia?ue aoiaeyo ia oieueei oece/aneea
oi?aaeiaiey, ii oaeaea e caiyoey a?aiiaoeeie e iocueie.

N aic?anoii nenoaia ainieoaiey noaiiaeony iaiaa no?iaie, e ia?eiae
aeecie io 21 aei 30 eao yaeyaony iaeioi?ui ia?aoiaeiui a?aiaiai:
iieiaeie /aeiaae oaea eiaao i?aai aeeoue naiaeiie aeeciueth e oa?aeoa?
aai caiyoee i?eaeeaeaaony e aiaiii-eaaa?iie aeecie iaueiu. Iniaaiii
auniei oeaieeinue iieo/aiiia a yoii aic?anoa i?aai i?eieiaoue o/anoea a
i?acaeieeao e niaianoiuo o?aiacao ioae/ei, ia eioi?uo aaeenue aanaaeu i
ainoaea?noaaiiuo e aiaiiuo aeaeao. Eiiaaea iieiaeui ethaeyi aeaaea
iicaieyeinue auneacaoue naith iuneue, oioy a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iie
aeieaeiu auee neaeaoue iie/a e iaae?aoueny iiuoa.

Oieueei a o?eaeoeaoue eao caeai/eaaaony ia?eiae iaycaoaeueiiai aiaiiiai
ia?aciaaiey, e nia?oeao noaiiaeony iieiii?aaiui a?aaeaeaieiii,
iaeaaeathuei anai niaeo?ii nioeeaeueiuo e iieeoe/aneeo i?aa.

A aic?anoa io 7 aei 30 eao nia?oaineea thiioe i?ioiaeeee ia?eiae
eioaineaiie aiaiiie iiaeaioiaee, i?e/ai iniiaiie aeoeaio i?e yoii
aeaeaeny eiaiii ia ?acaeoea oece/aneie neeu /aeiaaea. Iaeiaei, auaeaeioa
ia ia?aue ieai caaioo i oaea, nia?oaioeu eaii?e?iaaee iiiaea iaoee, /oi
aeaei aiciiaeiinoue iaeioi?ui oeeinioai iacuaaoue eo «aaniethoii
aaca?aiioiuie» ethaeueie. Ia neieueei aa?ia yoa iuneue, iiaeii noaeeoue
ii ieaeai?eaaaeaiiui oaeoai.

3.3 Ianoi a?aiiaoeee e iocuee a nenoaia ia?aciaaiey.

Iao/aiea aiaiiui iaaueai, aeaenoaeoueeueii, ea?aei aaaeouoth ?ieue a
nenoaia nia?oaineiai ainieoaiey. Caaioa aea ia eioaeeaeooaeueiii
?acaeoee aeaoae auea naaaeaia e ieieioio. Oae, iai?eia?, a?aiioa
iaeue/eeia o/eee oieueei a i?aaeaeao iaiaoiaeeiinoe: /oiau oiaee
i?i/eoaoue i?eeac e iiaeienaoue naia eiy. Aeaeueiaeoaa oaeoaeaiea a
i?aaeiao n/eoaeinue ?ineioueth e aai oeaeaniia?aciinoue io?eoeaeanue.

A i?ioeaiaan yoiio aieueoia aieiaiea nia?oaineea aeanoe oaeaeyee
oi?iaiio iaieth. Oaea ae?aaieie oeeinioaie auei caia/aii, /oi «?eoi e
iaeiaeey niaea?aeao a naaa aeeaea anaai i?eaeeaeathueany e ?aaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ioia?aaeaiey aiaaa e e?ioinoe, ioaeanoaa e
oia?aiiinoe… a oaeaea i?i/eo i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoa.». Oi?ii iaee
iaeue/eee a aaaeao, ioae/eiu ia i?acaeieeao, aieiu ia iiea aiy. Iocuea
niea/eaaea ethaeae, nicaeaaaea iano?iaiea aaeeinoaa e neeu e auea
aicaaaeaia nia?oaioeaie aei o?iaiy eoeueoa. «A ianiyo auei caeeth/aii
naiaai ?iaea aeaei, aoaeeaoaa ioaeanoai, ia/oi, oaeaeaaoaa aeooo
ainoi?aeaiiui ii?uaii e aeaenoaeth». Ana ianie iineee aiaiiue oa?aeoa? e
auee eeai oaaeaaiuie, i?ineaaeyaoea iaaoeo ca Nia?oo, eeai ii?eoeaaoea
o?onia e i?ecuaathuea e iiaeaeao.

A?aiioa e iocuea auee aaeeinoaaiiuie i?aaeiaoaie, iiieii oece/aneeo
oi?aaeiaiee, i?aiiaeaaaaiua aeaoyi a ia?eiae ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ia?aciaaiey. Oaeei ia?acii iu aeaeei, /oi a nia?oaineeo aeiiaceyo
aieueoiai aieiaiey ie iaoeai, ie eneonnoao ia oaeaeyeinue. Iaeiaei yoi
ia aeaao i?aai iacuaaoue nia?oaioeaa «aaniethoii aaca?aiioiuie» ii oie
i?e/eia, /oi iie ieacaeenue iaaaaeanoaaiiuie oieueei a oao iaeanoyo
ciaiee, eioi?ua ia eanaeenue eo aiaiii-eaaa?iiai ia?aca aeecie. A
iaeanoe aea ainieoaiey neeu oaea e aeooa e ae?oaeo aii?inao, naycaiiuo n
aiaiiie iieeoeeie ainoaea?noaa (eoaea nia?oaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai ioianei
oaeaea a?aiaoeeo e iocueo, iieiinoueth ieeeoa?eciaaa yoe iaoee e
iiae/eiea eo naiei oeaeyi), nia?oaioeaa oi?aeiooue a iaaaaeanoaaiiinoe
iaeuecy.

***

4. AEaineia ainieoaiea a Nia?oa.

Ainieoaiea nia?oaineeo aeaaooae iaei /ai ioee/aeinue io thiioaneiai
ainieoaiey. A?a/aneeie oeeinioaie auei i?iaicaeaoaii ii/oe iieiia
?aaiii?aaea iieia: «Niiniaiinoe iaeeiaeiai ?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo iieaie,
e ana caiyoey aeinooiiu ii i?e?iaea e aeaiueia e ioae/eia,»- yoa iuneue
i?iniao?eaaaony ai anao iniiaiuo oeeinioneeo o?oaeao oiai a?aiaie.
Aeaaooae o/eee aaaaoue, i?uaaoue, ai?ioueny, iaoaoue aeenee e ae?ioeee;
iie o/eeenue oae aea oaioeai e iaieth. I?e/ai oece/aneea oi?aaeiaiey ii
naiae neiaeiinoe ia onooiaee ioaeneei. Yoi iauyniyeinue oai, /oi «io
caei?iauo e neeueiuo noi?oaia e aeaoe aoaeoo neeueiuie e caei?iauie».
AEaiueiai oaeaea, ii aeinoeaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai aic?anoa, ?ac?aoaeinue
i?eieiaoue o/anoea a aiaiiuo iioiaeao e e?eioeyo. E e?iia oiai, iie
i?enoonoaiaaee i?e anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo, aiaiiuo e ?aeeaeiciuo
i?acaeieeao, eniieiyy ianie e ?eooaeueiua oaioeu.

A?aaeaeaineea i?aaa aeaineay iieiaeia ianaeaiey Nia?ou oaeaea iieo/aea
iinea 30 eao. A yoi aea a?aiy ii caeiio caeai/eaieny i?ioeann
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey, oae eae yoio aic?ano neiaieece?iaae
aeinoeaeaiea iieiiai oece/aneiai e i?aanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey aeey
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaieo iieia.

Nia?oaineea aeaaooee ie/ai ia onooiaee a o?iaia naiae aiaiiie
iiaeaioiaee thiioai, iaeiaei eo ?iee a nioeeoia ianeieueei ?acee/aeenue:
anee ioae/eia aue i?aaeaea anaai aieiii, ii aeaiueia, ii o?aaeeoeee,
?anniao?eaaeanue eae o?aieoaeueieoea aeiiaoiaai i/aaa.

***

5. Oeeiniou Ae?aaiae A?aoeee i oece/aneii

ainieoaiee eae i aeaaiii aniaeoa aiaiiiai ainieoaiey.

Iciaeiieaoenue n nenoaiie ainieoaiey a Nia?oa, ?anniio?ei oaia?ue
oeeinioneea eiioeaioeee ae?aaieo, naycaiiua n yoei aii?inii.
Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie nia?oaineiai ainieoaiey yaeyaony aai ocei aiaiiay
iai?aaeaiiinoue, eioi?ay iiae?acoiaaaao iiae niaie i?aaeaea anaai
?acaeoea oece/aneeo iaaueia e oiaiee. A iiyoiio eco/ei ioiioaiea
oeeinioia eiaiii e aniaeoo oece/aneiai ainieoaiey, e aai ii?iai e
oeaeyi.

Ec anao oeeinioia Ae?aaiae A?aoeee iaeaieaa cia/eiuie aeey ian
i?aaenoaaeythony Ieaoii e aai o/aiee A?enoioaeue. E eiaiii iiyoiio iu e
inoaiiaeiny ia eo ?aaioao.

5.1. Oeeinioneea acaeyaeu Ieaoiia.

Ianiio?y ii oi, /oi iaa yoe oeeinioa eiaee iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea
ae?oa ia ae?oaa, iie ana aea yaeyeenue i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aeeaiao?aeueii
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo eaeaeiuo oa/aiee: Ieaoiio aue naienoaaiai
iaoaoece/aneee iiaeoiae e aeecie, A?enoioaeue aea ioioae io yoiai
iai?aaeaiey e aue noi?iiieeii aieaa ?aaeenoe/aneeo acaeyaeia. Iaeiaei eo
iiaiey, iniaaiii ioiineoaeueii aii?inia ainieoaiey iieiaeaaee ai iiiaii
niaiaaeatho.

Iaa oeeinioa aiai?yo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oece/aneiai ainieoaiey n naiiai
?aiiaai aeaonoaa iin?aaenoaai ?aciiia?aciuo ea?. A?enoioaeue oeacuaaao
ia aaaeiinoue aeaeaeaiey aeey aeaoae a ?aiiai aic?anoa e niaaooao
iiiu?youe iiaeaeaeiua ea?u. Oaeaea, ii aai iiaieth, ia noieo iaoaoue
a?iieiio iey/o aeaoae, oae eae “yoi yaeyaony aeey ieo naiaai ?iaea
aeiianoeeie.” E anee A?enoioaeue aeaeeo a ea?ao oieueei eeoue iieueco
aeey oece/aneiai caei?iauey, oi o Ieaoiia ianeieueei ae?oaie iiaeoiae:
ii ianoaeaaao ia aaaeaiee i?aiiaeaaaiey iin?aaenoaai ea?u.
“*aeiaae…aeieaeai n iaeieaonoaa oi?aaeiyoueny oi a aeaea caaaau, oi
ana?ueac, ai anai, /oi e yoiio (e aoaeouae aeecie) ioiineony. Iai?eia?,
eoi oi/ao noaoue oi?ioei caieaaeaeueoeai eee aeiiino?iai, oio a ea?ao
aeieaeai: ia?aue – ia?aaaouaaoue caieth, aoi?ie- aicaiaeeoue eaeea
ieaoaeue iino?ieee.” Eae aeaeii ec i?eaaaeaiiie auoa oeeoaou Ieaoii ia
aini?eieiae oece/aneia ainieoaiea a /enoii aeaea: iii o iaai iineo
ianeieueei nioeeaeueiue e aeaaea ?aeeaeiciue ie?an.

Iniiauaaynue ia naieo iaoaoece/aneeo acaeyaeao, oeeinio auaeaeaaao ia
ia?aue ieai eaeae i?aanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey, aiai?y i oii, /oi “?acaeoea
aeooe” ea?aao aaaeouoth ?ieue, ii eiaiii iiyoiio neaaeoao oneeaiii
caaioeoueny i oece/aneii ?acaeoee, iineieueeo “i?aiaa?aaeaiea iineaaeiei
aaaeao e eciaaeaiiinoe, a eciaaeaiiinoue aeaeaao oa?aeoa? aeaoae
oyaeaeui.” E iiyoiio Ieaoii i?iaicaeaoaao: “Iniiaiia
ia/aei…-aeaeaeaiea.” Ii e naia nooue aeaeaeaiey o oeeinioa iineo
ianeieueei iniaue oa?aeoa?: “…ana aeieaeiu ecaaaaoue a aeecie
iaoia?aiiuo nei?aae e ianeaaeaeaiee e anaaaea aea?aeaoueny eaeie-oi
na?aaeeiu.” Yoo cieiooth na?aaeeio Ieaoii aicaiaeeo a aeaaiue
ainieoaoaeueiue i?eioeei e, i?iaeieaeay eaeath ia eciaaeaiiinoe oaea,
aiai?eo: anee “eciaaeaiiinoue aeaeaao oa?aeoa? aeaoae oyaeaeui…oi
eceeoiaa e a?oaia ii?aaiuaiea aeaeaao aai i?eieaeaiiui.”

Yoio eeieoe?othuee e?eoa?ee, aiyciue e?aeiinoae e ia?aa?ocie ioiineony
i?aaeaea anaai e oece/aneiio ainieoaieth aeaoae. Ii iunee Ieaoiia
iaeue/eeai iinea 6 eao “neaaeoao caieiaoueny aa?oiaie acaeie,
no?aeueaie ec eoea, ec i?aue, iaoaieai ae?ioeeia. Anee aeaai/ee
niaeanyony, oi iie, oioue ii e?aeiae ia?a, ionoue iao/aony oiio; a
iniaaiiinoe ei neaaeoao iao/eoueny ia?auaiieth n i?oaeeai…Inoaeueiua
aea o?oaeu, caaaau e iiia/aiey i naiai oaea ia naienoaaiiu
naiaiaei?iaeaeaiiui ethaeyi,”- oae caeai/eaaao naie ?aciuoeaiey i
oece/aneii ?acaeoee aeaoae oeeeinia, oeacuaay ia oi, /oi yoeo
oi?aaeiaiee aoaeao aiieia aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau ainieoaoue naiaiaeiiai
a?aaeaeaieia.

O Ieaoiia oaeaea naie acaeyaeu ia iieueco io oece/aneiai ainieoaiey. Aai
ooieoeee ii naiaeeo oieueei eeoue e o/anoeth a ainoaea?noaaiiuo
ia?ii?eyoeyo: “Aeaoyi, iiea iie aua ia eaeoo ia aieio, iaaei auei au i?e
niaa?oaiee oanoaee e oi?aeanoaaiiuo i?ioeannee, anaaaea oe?aoaoueny
i?oaeeai, neaeaoue ia eiia, a oaeaea nii?iaiaeaeaoue iieeoau oaioeaie a
/anoue aiaia e aa?iaa…Ninoycaiey e iiaeaioiaeoaeueiua ?aaiou e iei
iaaei ono?aeaaoue oieueei eeoue ?aaee yoie oeaee.”

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, oece/aneia ainieoaiea iiae/eiaii o Ieaoiia aunoei
aeeciaiiui caaea/ai. E caeanue iniaia cia/aiea i?eia?aoaao i?aiiaeaaaiea
aeiianoeee, iineieueeo “?aciiia?aciua, i?aaeaea anaai, aiaiiua,
oi?aaeiaiey aeieaeiu niaeaenoaiaaoue oiio, /oi oaei i?aa?auaaony a
iiei?iia i?oaeea aiee a eiia/iii no?aieaiee enoeiiiai oeeinioa,” eioi?ui
yaeyaony aeaeaiea oiiaeiaeoueny aiaeanoao. Yoa eaeay yaeyaony i?ioioeiii
auneacaiiie iicaea iunee: a caei?iaii oaea caei?iaue aeoo.

Oeeinioey Ieaoiia, iniiaaiiay ia iaoaoece/aneii ie?iaicc?aiee,
iieiinoueth iiae/eiyao nooue oece/aneiai ainieoaiey eaeayi aeooiaiiai
ii?yaeea. E oioy iia e ia io?eoeaao aai aaaeiiai cia/aiey, iaeiaei
niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeia aai aoi?inoaiaiiinoue.

5.2. Oeeinioneea acaeyaeu A?enoioaey.

Ae?oaie ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oeeinia, i eioi?ii oaea auei neacaii auoa, –
A?enoioaeue – a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue Ieaoiio i?eaeaao oece/aneiio
ainieoaieth eieinnaeueioth ?ieue e auaeaeaaao aai ia ia?aia ianoi:
“caaioa i oaea aeieaeia i?aaeoanoaiaaoue caaioa i aeooa,”- aiai?eo ii e
a oi aea a?aiy ?acei inoaeaeaao nia?oaineoth ainieoaoaeueioth i?aeoeeo,
iineieueeo nia?oaioeu “iinoiyiiuie oyaeaeuie oi?aaeiaieyie ia?auatho
aeaoae a naiaai ?iaea aeeaioiuo; iinooiatho iie oae a oii ?an/aoa,
aoaeoi au yoi iieacii aeey ?acaeoey ioaeanoaa. Iaeiaei, eae ia yoi
/anoi auei oeacaii, ia neaaeoao ia?auaoue ana naie caaiouia iaeio
oeaeue…” Nia?oaineia i?aaeoaeuenoai aeaenoaiaaei a?ac?ac n yoie
eaeaae, /oi aiineaaenoaee i?eaaei e aeiaaeueiie eaoano?ioa.

A ea/anoaa iniiaiiai i?eioeeia i?aaeeueiiai ainieoaiey A?enoioaeue, oae
aea, eae e Ieaoii, aeaeae no?aieaiea e “cieioie na?aaeeia.” N aai oi/ee
c?aiey, “aeey oaeaniie neeu aeaaeueiu e /?acia?iua caiyoey, e
iaaeinoaoi/iua…a iaeaaeaiea na?aaeeiie aeaaineeiiii.”

?aceie e?eoeea iiaeaa?aaao oeeinia eae n?aaenoaa, oae e oeaee
nia?oaineiai ainieoaiey: eaeae A?enoioaey, naycaiiua n aiaiiui
ainieoaieai ianeieueei eiua. A i?ioeaiaan nia?oaineiio i?aaeoaeuenoao ii
n/eoaao, /oi “i aiaiiie aui?aaea a?aaeaeai ioaeii caaioeoueny ia ?aaee
oiai, /oiau iie ii?aaioeee iaaeinoieiuo, ii aeey oiai, /oiau iie
i?aaeaea anaai ia iiiaee naie a ?aanoai,” a oi a?aiy eae Nia?oa
iinoiyiii i?aneaaeiaaea ?acei i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oeaee: ?anoe?aiea naieo
aeaaeaiee iooai caoaaoaninaaeieo oa??eoi?ee.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaiaeece?iaaa iaeioi?ua ?aaiou ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo
oeeinioia, noaiiaeony i/aaeaeii, /oi eo/oea iuneeoaee oiai a?aiaie ai
iiiaii ia auee niaeaniu ni nia?oaineei iaeneiaeeciii ioiineoaeueii
oece/aneiai ainieoaiey e noieue aieueoie eiioeaio?aoeeae aieiaiey ia
aiaiiuo ioaeaeao ainoaea?noaa a oua?a ynoaoe/aneiio ?acaeoeth ia?iaea.
Iaeiaei iaa oeeinioa iiaeaea?aeeaatho iaeioi?u ioaeaeueiua eaeae,
i?eciaaay eo yooaeoeaiuie e aeooaeueiuie aeey naiae yiioe.

***

Caeeth/aiea.

Nia?oaineia ainoaea?noai aicieeei a IX a. aei i.y. a ?acoeueoaoa
caoaaoie/aneeo aeaenoaee ni noi?iiu iaeiiai ec a?a/aneeo ieaiai ii
ioiioaieth e aeeceaaeauei oa??eoi?eyi. Aei?eeneei ieaiaiai iiaaaea
aeaeanue oyaeaei, oae eae ei?aiiia ianaeaiea ieacuaaei neeueiia
nii?ioeaeaiea caoaao/eeai. A nayce n oai, /oi iaino?aiiay eeanniaay
ai?ueaa ia caoeoaea a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aaeia, nia?oaineia
i?aaeoaeuenoai auioaeaeaii auei iai?aaeoue ana naie neeu ia oi, /oiau
oaea?aeaoue aeanoue a naieo ?oeao. A aeey yoiai i?aaeaea anaai auei
iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue neeueioth, aiaiii-iao/aiioth iaoeeth. Oaeei
ia?acii, iniaaiiinoe nia?oaineiai ainieoaiey auee caeiaeaiu aua
ecia/aeueii, eai yoa caaea/a eaaea ia iea/e iaaeaaiaia.

A nayce n yoie iai?yaeaiiie enoi?e/aneie ianoaiiaeie a Nia?oa
au?aaaouaaaony iniaay nenoaia ainieoaiey, eioi?ay noaiiaeony
ia?ainoaiaiiie caaea/ae ainoaea?noaa e iieiinoueth iiae/eiyaony aai
iieeoe/aneei ioaeaeai. Nenoaia ainoaea?noaaiiiai ainieoaiey
?ani?ino?aiyeanue ia ethaeae a aic?anoa io 7 aei 30 eao e
iiae?acaeaeyeanue ia o?e ia?eiaea.

Ia ia?aii yoaia aeaoyi a aic?anoa io 7 aei 15 eao i?eaeaaeenue iniiaiua
ii?aeueiua ea/anoaa aieia: niaeinoue, neea aeooa, i?aiaa?aaeaiea
nia?oueth, a oaeaea thiuo nia?oeaoia o/eee auaeeaaoue a no?iauo
i?e?iaeiuo oneiaeyo. Aeey yoeo oeaeae eniieueciaaeenue ?aciiia?aciua
iaoiaeu. Oae, iai?eia?, aeey ainieoaiey ioaeanoaa oe?iei i?eiaiyeenue
aeanoieea ioaee/iua iaeacaiey e iieacaoaeueiua aie aac eniieueciaaiey
i?oaeey, i?aai ia iioaiea eioi?iai iaiaoiaeeii auei caneoaeeoue. A
io?yaeao aeaoae iaia?aiii ei?ieee i/aiue iaei aeey oiai, /oiau iao/eoue
aeaoae naiinoiyoaeueii aeiauaaoue naaa ieuo. E e?iia oiai, a aic?anoa 15
eao thiioa aia?aua i?eieiae o/anoea a “aieia” n ?aaaie, oaeei ia?acii
i?aiaeieaaay no?ao ia?aae nia?oueth e oaeenoaii. Aieueoia aieiaiea a yoi
a?aiy oaeaeyeinue oaeaea ?acaeoeth eiae/aneie e e?aoeie ?a/e o
aeaoae eae iaiaoiaeeiiai ea/anoaa aoaeouaai aieia.

Aoi?ie yoai ainoaea?noaaiiiai nia?oaineiai ia?aciaaiey (15-20 eao) aue
iaiaa eioaineaiui e ianuuaiiui. In-iiaiia aieiaiea caeanue oaeaeyeinue
cae?aieaieth oaea iieo/aiiuo iaaueia e oiaiee. Aueaey ec iiae iiaee
o/eoaeae, nia?oeaou aeieaeiu auee aeieacaoue naia i?aai auoue
a?aaeaeaieiii, i?eieiay o/anoea a ianoiyueo n?aaeaieyo e aiyo. A yoi
a?aiy thiioe iaeaaeaaatho acaie a?aiiou e caieiathony iocueie,
eioi?ay oaeaea iaoiaeeoueny a iiae/eiaiee aiaiiie eaeaieiaee.

O?aoee yoai (21-30 eao) iai?yioth naycai n iieo/aieai anao
nioeeaeueiuo e a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa, aoiaeaeaieai a iieeoe/aneoth
aeeciue iaueiu e iieo/aieai ?ac?aoaiey i?eiaoue o/anoea a iauanoaaiiiuo
o?aiacao.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaicia/eeanue iniiaiay oaiaeaioeey nia?oaineiai
ainieoaiey: aai eneeth/eoaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue ia ?acaeoea oece/aneeo
niiniaiinoae a oua?a ynoaoe/aneie ea/anoa aeooe /aeiaaea.

Iiaeiaiay iieeoeea ainieoaiey ia iaoea iieiiai iaeia?aiey n?aaee eo/oeo
oeeinioia oiai a?aiaie. E Ieaoii e A?enoioaeue ?acei inoaeaeatho
nia?oaineee iaeneiaeeci, noaa noi?iiieeaie “cieioie na?aaeeiu”, iniaaiii
ioiineoaeueii oiai, /oi eanaaony ainieoaiey ?aaaiea. Ia niaeaoathony iie
oaeaea e n oeaeyie nia?oaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, no?aiyuaainy nicaeaoue
aiaiioth iaoeeth aeey aieueoaai oe?aieaiey e ?anoe?aiey a?aieoe naiaai
ainoaea?noaa. Ieaoii a ainieoaiee oaea aeaeeo eeoue iiaeaioiaeo /aeiaaea
e oiiaeiaeaieth aiaeanoao. A?enoioaeue aea aiai?eo i oii, /oi oece/aneia
ainieoaiea iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeaea anaai aeey iai?iieoaeueiie, a ia
caoaaoie/aneie iieeoeee. Iaeiaei iaa oeeinioa iiaeaea?aeeaatho iaeioi?ua
ainieoaoaeueiua iaoiaeu nia?oaioeaa.

The previous version.

N ae?aaieo a?aiai aii?inu e i?iaeaiu ainieoaiey e ia?aciaaiey anaaaea
caieiaee iaeio ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo iiceoeee n?aaee i?i/eo
ainoaea?noaaiiuo caaea/, iineieueeo eo ia?ainoaiaiiay cia/eiinoue
i/aaeaeia. Oae, anee o aeanoe a no?aia noieo iieeoe/anee aaca?aiioiue
/aeiaae, oi eaeeie au eieinnaeueiuie ?ano?naie yoi ainoaea?noai ia
iaeaaeaei, iii ana ?aaii iiiaaeao a iiae/eiaiea aieaa ?acaeoui no?aiai.

Anee aea iu ia?aoeiny e enoi?ee ae?aaiaeoaai ie?a, oi aeaaea caeanue
iiaeii iaeoe iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey oaceno i aaaeiinoe ia?aciaaiey, oioy iii e
eiaei ianeieueei ae?oaea oi?iu. Ianiiiaiii ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa ioe?uoea iaiy, a?iicu, ia?auo i?oaeee o?oaea. E ana yoe
ciaiey ia?aaeaaaeenue iioiieai iin?aaenoaai ianeaeueiuo ?enoieia e
iaaeienae, /oi nua?aei aieueooth ?ieue a i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey
oeeaeeecaoeee.

Eoae iu aeaeei, /oi eaaeaeay yiioa aiineo naie eiioeaiooaeueiua
iiaoanoaa a iiiyoea ainieoaiey, oi anoue niaea?aeaiea ia?aciaaiey
o?iiieiae/anee iaiyaony, ii oeaeue aai anaaaea iaeia: ainieoaoue
ananoi?iiia ?acaeooth ee/iinoue, a ?aieao aeinoeaiooiai i?ia?anna,
eioi?ay niiaea au nouanoaiaaoue a ii?aaeaeaiiie enoi?e/aneie ianoaiiaea.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaeo iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia?aciaaiey i/aaeaeai. Iaeiaei,
eaeoth ?ieue iii ea?aao aeey ainoaea?noaa a oeaeii?

A?enoioaeue ienae: “… a oao ainoaea?noaao, aaea i?aaeiao ainieoaiey
iaoiaeeony a i?aiaa?aaeaiee, iii naii oa?ieo io oiai oua?a. Aaaeue aeey
eaaeaeie oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai no?iy niioaaonoaaiiia ainieoaiea –
i?aaeiao ia?aie iaiaoiaeeiinoe.” Oaeei ia?acii oeeinio i?eoiaeeo e
auaiaeo i nouanoaiaaiee oaniie acaeiinayce iaaeaeo ia?aciaaieai e
ainoaea?noaaiiuie eioa?anaie. Neaaeoy yoiio oaeoo, y iinoaaeea ia?aae
niaie oeaeue a naiae ?aaioa eco/eoue, ianeieueei neeueii ainieoaiea
iiaeao iiaeeyoue ia ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie e ia aai noaeueao. A aeey
yoiai i?aaeaea neaaeoao iiae?iaii eco/eoue nenoaio ainieoaiey ia
ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa, a caoai i?ineaaeeoue aai
enoi?e/aneea iineaaenoaey.

A ea/anoaa i?eia?a y aua?aea iaeei ec iieenia Ae?aaiae A?aoeee – Nia?oo.
Yoi aiaiiia ainoaea?noai, ia iie acaeyae, yaeyaony iaeaieaa y?eei
ia?acoeii acaeiinayce o?aae/aneie noaeueau ia?iaea n iieeoeeie
ainieoaiey.

Caeeth/aiea.

A caeeth/aiee ?aaiou iiaeaaaeai aeaaiue eoia iniiaiie oeaee aeaiiiai
?aoa?aoa. Ia i?eia?a ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa Nia?ou
io/aoeeai aeaeii ianeieueei neeueii aeeyiea ainieoaiey eae ia nio?aiaiea
iauanoaaiiiai no?iy, oae e ia ii?aaeaeaiea noaeueau oeaeiai
ainoaea?noaa.

Ooaa?aeeaoenue a IO aaea aei i.y. a ea/anoaa iiaie aaeieieno?aoeaiie
aaeeieoeu, Nia?oa nicaeaao ana oneiaey aeey ainieoaiey ianeieueeeo
aeanyoeia oece/anee neeueiuo e aiaiii iao/aiiuo iieieaiee, eioi?ua oaea
a V – IV aaeao noiaee iiae/eieoue naaa anth A?aoeeth. Iaeiaei nia?oeaou
ia auee aioiau i?eiyoue ia naay aeanoue oi?aaeaiey a neeo ia?aie/aiiinoe
naiaai eoeueoo?iiai o?iaiy e ia?aciaaiey. Aaeeeee ia?iae, ainieoaiiue a
eo/oeo aiaiiuo o?aaeeoeeyo naiaai a?aiaie, ieacuaaaony aaniiiiuiui a
iiauo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo ie?iiai nouanoaiaaiey. Iaaioiaue e
ianiiniaiue e oaeie aeecie, ii naiioie/oiaeaaony ecioo?e: i?ienoiaeeo
iieiia ?anoeaiea i?aaia e iaaeaiea anao aeeciaiiuo onoiaa iauanoaa.
Neaaenoaeai yoeo aioo?aiieo e?ecenia noaei iieiia ineaaeaiea e,
oaeoe/anee, oie/oiaeaiea iaeiaaea neeueiaeoaai ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia
aeaaea ia inoaaeei iinea naay ieeaeiai eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey, oae eae
ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee nouanoaiaaiey ainoaea?noaa i?aaeoaeuenoai
caaioeeinue oieueei eeoue i aiaiiii ainieoaiee a?aaeaeai, niaa?oaiii
oionoea ec aeaeo eo ynoaoe/aneia ?acaeoea. «Eaeaaeaiiiyia aea?aeaeenue,
iiea iie aaee aieiu, e noaee aeaiooue, aeinoeaioa aaaaiiiee: iie ia
oiaee iieueciaaoueny aeinoaii e ia iiaee caiyoueny eaeei-eeai ae?oaei
aeaeii, eioi?ia noiyei au auoa aiaiiiai aeaea,»- e oaeiio auaiaeo
i?eoiaeyo oeeiniou.

A naaoa yoiai enoi?e/aneiai oaeoa niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi
i?aaeeueiinoue auai?a iai?aaeaiey ia?aciaaiey ea?aeeiaeueii aeeyao ia
oiae anae enoi?ee: iia iiaeao aicianoe ainoaea?noai e aa?oeiai
aeaaiiieo/ey eee aea i?eaeaoue aai iieiiio oie/oiaeaieth e caaaaieth. A
aeey oiai, /oiau iauanoai ooieoeeiie?iaaei ii?iaeueii, iaiaoiaeeia /aoei
i?iaeoiaiiay e ouaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiay i?ia?aiia, eioi?ay nicaeano ana
oneiaey aeey ainieoaiey ananoi?iiia ?acaeoiai /aeiaaea e ia iiaoi?eo
ioeaie nia?oaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia noceei aanue niaeo?
iaaeaaiae/aneeo i?iaeai, iieiinoueth ieeeoa?eciaaa iieeoeeo ia?aciaaiey
e oai naiui iiaeienaa nia?oiue i?eaiai? oeaeiio ia?iaeo.

A?enoioaeue Iieeoeea I, 2

A?enoioaeue Iieeoeea VII, 2, 5

A?enoioaeue, Iieeoeea, VIII, 1, 1-3, 1337a

Eeeo?a XVII

I. Ae?i «*anoiay e iauanoaaiiay aeeciue a?aeia» N-Iaoa?ao?a
Ecaeaiea E.O. Iaioaeaaaa 1897 no?.77

Eoeeai. Aiaoa?nen, eee ia oi?aaeiaiee oaea o.1 I-E Academia 1935 n.
348-349

Ieaoii Caeiiu I , 7 , 633 n

Ieooa?o «N?aaieoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee» Eeeo?a XVIII, XIX

A?enoioaeue Iieeoeea, VIII , 5, 4

Ieooa?o «N?aaieoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee» Eeeo?a XXI

Ieaoii Ainoaea?noai V , 413

Enaiioiio Eaeaaeaiiineia ainoaea?noai I ,3,4

Ieaoii Ainoaea?noai III 401 a

Ieaoii Caeiiu I, 3, 791d

Ieaoii Caeiiu I, 3, 791d

Ieaoii Caeiiu I, 3, 793a

Ieaoii Caeiiu I, 6, 796 d

Ieaoii Caeiiu I, 6.796 d

Ieaoii Caeiiu I, 6, 796 c,d

Ieaoii Ainoaea?noai III, 412 a

A?eoioaeue Iieeoeea VII,13,23

A?enoioaeue Iieeoeea VIII, 3,3

A?enoioaeue Ieeiiaoiaa yoeea I, 104a, 15

A?enoioaeue Iieeoeea VII,13,14

A?enoioaeue Iieeoeea VIII, 1,1

A?enoioaeue Iieeoeea, II, 6, 22

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