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Современная молодежная речь: норма или антинорма

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IEIENOA?NOAI IAUAAI E I?IOANNEIIAEUeIIAI IA?ACIAAIEss ?INNEENEIE
OAAeA?AOeEE

Iineianeee Iaaeaaiae/aneee Oieaa?neoao

EAOAAe?A IAAeAAIAEEE

O?enothe Aioii Ieeieaaae/

nooaeaio 3 eo?na eeiaaenoe/aneiai oaeoeueoaoa

NIA?AIAIIAss IIEIAeAAEIAss ?A*Ue:

II?IA EEE AIOEII?IA?

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

Ai?iiia Aeaaeeie? Aeeoi?iae/

– 2001 –

NIAeA?AEAIEA:

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
………………………………….3

Iniiaiay /anoue:

2.1. ?ieue nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia a oi?ie?iaaiee ?a/e nia?aiaiiuo
iiae?inoeia…………………………………………………….
………………………..5

2.2. Iio?aaiinoue oeieueieea a naiiau?aaeaiee e
iiieiaiee…………….8

?anoe?aiea noa?u iauaiey
iieiaeaaee……………………………………11

2.4. ?ieue o/eoaey a oi?ie?iaaiee ?a/e
oeieueieeia……………………..16

I?aeoe/aneay
/anoue…………………………………………………………
………………19

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
………………………………22

Nienie
eeoa?aoo?u……………………………………………………..
………………….24

1. Aaaaeaiea

Iauaiea ioiineony e /eneo aaaeiaeoeo aeey iiae?inoea e noa?oaeeannieea
noa? aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe. Io oiai, eae aoaeao neeaaeuaaoueny iauaiea,
caaeneo oi?ie?iaaiea aoaeouae ee/iinoe. I?e iauaiee ?a/ue nia?aiaiiie
iieiaeaaee i?eaiaeeo a iaaiaeiaaiea o/eoaeae, ?iaeeoaeae,
i?aaenoaaeoaeae noa?oaai iieieaiey, ino?i ?aaae?othueo ia ?aaeouea ooi
au?aaeaiey. A naiii aeaea, anoue i /ai aaniieieoueny: ii aeaiiui
iineaaeieo enneaaeiaaiee, a iiae?inoeiaie n?aaea noaiaiue aea?aiiecaoeee
?a/e (ii?aaeaeaiiay a oaeie, eacaeinue au, aaciaeaeiie noa?a
iauaioeaii/iuo neia-neiiieiia: «oi?ioi» – «ieioi») i?aauoaao 50% aeey
thiioae e 33% aeey aeaaooae, o.a. caoeaenue, oe(o, ioiaae, noia?, e?ooi,
eeannii, ee(ai e iiaeiaiua neiaa/ee iaiieiaeio auoaniytho eeoa?aoo?iua
au?aaeaiey.

?a/ue – yoi niaoeeoe/aneay oi?ia io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iia
neaaeoao ca eciaiaieyie, i?ienoiaeyueie a iaoae aeecie, naycaiiuie ni
niaiie eoeueoo?iuo i?eaioe?ia, oeaiiinoae, onoaiiaie. Oi, /oi auei
oa?aeoa?ii aeey oea?neie ?innee, iiaeaa?aeinue a naia a?aiy io?eoeaieth
e ia?ainiuneaieth a ?aieao niaaoneie eoeueoo?u. Oi, /oi iu iaaethaeaai
nae/an, ai iiiaii naycaii n io?eoeaieai eoeueoo?u niaaoneie. E, eiia/ii,
naienoaa ?a/e e naienoaa n?aaeu acaeiinaycaiu. Eae iiae?inoie ia
nouanoaoao aia naiuee, oeieu e o.ae., oae e yoe iauanoaaiiua einoeooou
ia nouanoaotho ioaeaeueii io acaeiiaeaenoaothueo n ieie e aeaaiaea?y ei
eiaeeaeaeia, aeeyy oai naiui ia ?a/ue.

Oeaeue ianoiyuae ?aaiou ninoieo a eco/aiee i?e/ei oiio?aaeaiey a ?a/e
iiae?inoeia aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aea?aiieciia e ?iee o/eoaey a
oi?ie?iaaiee eoeueoo?u ?a/e, eae niaieoiiinoe iaaueia e ciaiee o/aieea,
iaania/eaathueo oeaeaniia?aciia e iacao?oaeiaiiia i?eiaiaiea ycuea a
oeaeyo iauaiey ia oieueei ni naa?noieeaie.

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee a ?aaioa i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ?aoaiea
oeaeiai ?yaea iiyoaiiuo caaea/:

?ieue nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia a oi?ie?iaaiee ?a/e nia?aiaiiuo
iiae?inoeia.

Iio?aaiinoue oeieueieea a naiiau?aaeaiee e ano?a/iii iiieiaiee.

?anoe?aiea noa?u iauaiey iieiaeaaee – aiieiuaiea iio?aaiinoe ia?aaeeoue
iiaue iiuo, eniuoaoue naay a iiaie ?iee.

?ieue o/eoaey a oi?ie?iaaiee ?a/e oeieueieeia.

2. Iniiaiay /anoue

2.1. ?ieue nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia a oi?ie?iaaiee ?a/e nia?aiaiiuo
iiae?inoeia

Iieiaeaaeiay ?a/ue io?aaeaao iaonoie/eaia eoeueoo?ii-ycueiaia ninoiyiea
iauanoaa, aaeaine?othuaa ia a?aie eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea e aea?aiia. A
?aciua ia?eiaeu ?acaeoey iauanoaa ?aciui aue e ycue. A 20–30-a aa.
?acaiai?ioth ?a/ue caoeanouaaee aieiu oee/iie noeoee – aani?eci?ieeia,
ai?ia, – a oaeaea ieoeiaiaue ycue ?aaiethoeeiiiuo iao?inia e nieaeao (io
ieo – ia?auaiea a?aoeoea). Ino?i anoae aii?in i nio?aiaiee eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea, i iooyo aai aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey a nayce n eciaiaieai
eiioeiaaioa iineoaeae – a yoie oi?ioee?iaea auaeathuaainy eeiaaenoa
A.Ae. Iieeaaiiaa /oanoaoaony ia oieueei ?aaiethoeeiiiue yiooceaci yiioe,
ii e ai?a/ue, e niciaiea o?aaecia iiiaioa, aucaaaoaai eciaiaiea
eiioeiaaioa iineoaeae. E nio?aieeny, aunoiye ?onneee ycue – a
niioaaonoaee n ia?aaeienii A.Ae. Iieeaaiiaa: ?acaeoea eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea caeeth/aaony, a /anoiinoe, a oii, /oi ii ana iaiueoa eciaiyaony.
AEa?aii, eae aeaeii, yaeaiea ia iiaia a iaoae ycueiaie enoi?ee. Aea e ia
oieueei a iaoae. AEa?aii – aiaeeeneee neaia, o?aioeocneia a?ai –
yaeaiea, oa?aeoa?iia aeey ycueiaiai ?acaeoey. A ?aciua ia?eiaeu enoi?ee
niiauanoaa ethaeae, iauaaeeiaiiua iauei aeaeii, iaueie eioa?anaie, a
aieaa anaai – niciaieai a?aonoaa e io/oaeaeaiiinoe io inoaeueiiai
iauanoaa, ecia?aoaee e naie iniaua niiniau iauaiey, onoiua e
ienueiaiiua. Aeey ieo aaaeii auei, /oiau iinoi?iiiea eo ia iiiyee, – e
ionthaea anyeea i?eaiu caoeo?iauaaiey e iaoaoi?ecaoeee, ia?aiina
cia/aiee neia.

Nae/an aea oae iacuaaaiue iauee aea?aii – caieaeaiiue noeeue ?a/e,
?aciuaathuee e ii?iu ycuea, e ii?iu ?a/aaiai yoeeaoa, – noaiiaeony
i?eau/iui ia oieueei a iianaaeiaaiii iauaiee, ii e cao/eo a oaea- e
?aaeeiyoe?a. A oaeaea i?enoonoaothuay a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa
aeooaeueiinoue eoeueoo?iuo aeinoeaeaiee caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee – aiieia
anoanoaaiiay ieaoa ca oaa, naeaeaiiue ae iaano?a/o. Oi, /oi oai naycaii
n eiaeono?eae oio, a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeao ianeieueei yenieoaoe?oaiuo
iauanoaii eaeae, naycaiiuo n aeaiueaaie, naenii, ianeeeai, aea?aiiii, e
oi, /oi oai aini?eieiaaony i?aeiouanoaaiii eae iaeay c?aeeuiay oi?ia,
cao/eo o ian eae naiaia?aciia ?oeiaiaenoai e aeaenoaeth.

Iieiaeaaeue, yaeyynue i?aeiouanoaaiiui iineoaeai aea?aiia, aeaeaao aai
yeaiaioii iii-eoeueoo?u, eioi?ue a naith i/a?aaeue aeaeaao aai
i?anoeaeiui e iaiaoiaeeiui aeey naiiau?aaeaiey. I?eia?ia oiio
aeinoaoi/ii a oaenoao ianai («Iia ana ii aa?aaaio» – a?oiia «Nieei»,
«Caeieaaae ou» – a?oiia «Aeeneioaea Aaa?ey», neiaa ec ianie Ieoay
Aeaeoiaiaeaee: «…aeaau eee /oiau iiiyoue oeaio eaeoa…» (io
aiaeeeneiai neiaa life – aeeciue), a ?aaeeiia?aaea/ao e iocueaeueiii
oaeaaeaeaiee, ia eioi?ua i?eaioe?oaony nia?aiaiiue noa?oaeeanniee.

No?aieoaeueiia e iinoiyiiia onei?aiea e iaiiaeaiea — aaaeouea
oa?aeoa?enoeee nia?aiaiiie aeecie, eioi?ie aeeaao ?inneeneee iiae?inoie.
Iao/ii-oaoie/aneea ?aaiethoeee aeaeatho iauaiea /?acau/aeii aeeiaie/iie
nenoaiie, noeioee?oy ?aaeeeaeueiia eciaiaiea nioeeaeueiuo naycae e oi?i
/aeiaa/aneeo eiiioieeaoeee. A nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?a i?enoonoaoao y?ei
au?aaeaiiue neie eiiiaaoeee, eioi?ua iinoiyiii aceaiuaatho e
ia?ano?aeaatho eoeueoo?ioth o?aaeeoeeth, cao?oaeiyy oai naiui i?ioeannu
nioeeaeecaoeee e aaeaioaoeee /aeiaaea e iinoiyiii iaiythueiny oneiaeyi e
o?aaiaaieyi aeecie. Oneiaeiaiea nioeeieoeueoo?iie ?aaeueiinoe,
nii?iaiaeaeathuaeny eiieie o?aaeeoeee e ii?i ?aciuo noa? aeecie,
no?aieoaeueiia e anaioaaouaathuaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea i?iaeoeoia ianniaie
eoeueoo?u iaoneiaeeaatho oa?iaeathuea ianooaau nia?aiaiiiai e?ecena
iauaiey.

2.2. Iio?aaiinoue oeieueieea a naiiau?aaeaiee e iiieiaiee

Ae?oaie i?e/eiie oiio?aaeaiey a iieiaeaaeiie ?a/e aea?aiieciia yaeyaony
iio?aaiinoue iieiaeuo ethaeae a naiiau?aaeaiee e ano?a/iii iiieiaiee.

Ianiio?y ia ooaa?aeeaoeany i?aaenoaaeaiey i noa?oaeeannieeao, eae i
ethaeyo, iieiinoueth ia?auaiiuo a aoaeouaa, iiaeii iaeoe iaiaei
naeaeaoaeuenoa eo iiaeiuaiiinoe ianoiyuei. Aeaaea naiiii?aaeaeaiea, oioy
e iai?aaeaii anaie naieie oeaeyie, iaeeaeaieyie, iaaeaaeaeaie a
aoaeouaa, inouanoaeyaony ana aea, eae naiiii?aaeaeaiea a ianoiyuai – a
i?aeoeea aeeaie ?aaeueiinoe e ii iiaiaeo oaeoueo niauoee. N yoeo
iiceoeee neaaeoao ioeaieaaoue e cia/aiea iauaiey – aeayoaeueiinoe,
caieiathuae ia?iiiia ianoi a aeecie iiae?inoeia e noa?oeo oeieueieeia e
i?aaenoaaeythuae aeey ieo naiinoiyoaeueioth oeaiiinoue.

Iaoi?iaeueiia iauaiea iiae/eiaii oaeei iioeaai, eae iiene iaeaieaa
aeaaii?eyoiuo ineoieiae/aneeo oneiaee aeey iauaiey, iaeeaeaiea
ni/oanoaey e niia?aaeeaaiey, aeaaeaea ene?aiiinoe e aaeeinoai ai
acaeyaeao, iio?aaiinoue naiiooaa?aeeoueny. A naaoa anaai auoa
ia?a/eneaiiiai iauaiea n oiaa?euaie noaiiaeony aieueoie oeaiiinoueth
aeey iiae?inoea. Iii ia?aaeei noaiiaeony ianoieueei i?eoyaaoaeueiui e
aaaeiui, /oi o/aiea ioiaeaeaaaony ia aoi?ie ieai, aiciiaeiinoue iauaiey
n iooeii e iaoa?ueth auaeyaeeo oaea ia oaeie i?eaeaeaoaeueiie.
Iieiioeaiiia iauaiea a iieiaeaaeiie n?aaea iaaiciiaeii aac aeaaeaiey aa
ycueii.

Iieiaeaaeiue aea ycue iiae?acoiaaaao eniieueciaaiea aea?aiiiuo neia,
a?aiiuo iai?ioia ?a/e eae naiaai ?iaea iaaeaeiiaoee eee i?inoi niiniaia
nayce i?aaeeiaeaiee, ia au?aaeathuea io?eoeaoaeueiuo yiioeee. Oai ia
iaiaa a?oaay aa?anneaiinoue iiaeiaiie oi?iu ?a/e, aeaaea eeoaiiay
inei?aeoaeueiie iai?aaeaiiinoe, iaeii?eaeaeaoaeueia e a?yae ee iiaeao
neoaeeoue naeaeaoaeuenoaii aeona e e?anii?a/ey. Nei?aa yoi i?iyaeaiea
«ycueiaie aieacie» – aacaeoiiinoe e io?eoeaiey ii?i, i?eieoeaecia e
ycueiaiai aoaaecia, i?enouea iiae?inoeiaiio aic?anoo. Iaeii aeaei,
eiaaea aac «a?oeeey a…» /aeiaae ia iiaeao ?acaiaa?eaaoue e ieacuaaaony
a ninoiyiee naanoe anth oe?ioo ?onneiai ycuea e aan/eneaiiui
i?iecaiaeiui io 3-4 ei?iae. Ii iaeiicia/ii noaaeoue e?ano ia yoie
noi?iia ycuea oiaea iaeuecy – eae oiaaea /eoaoue «Iineao-Iaoooee»,
iai?eia?, oiai aea Iooeeia, a eiioea eiioeia? Ioaa?iooueny io yoiai,
naeaeaoue aeae, /oi yoiai ia nouanoaoao, iiaeii, ii iacuaaaony yoi
oaiaeanoaii. Aieaa oiai, e ianoo e ei a?aiaie oiio?aaeaiiia iiae?inoeii
iaoa?iia neiai (anoanoaaiii, a iiaeiaathuae ianoaiiaea) iiaeao
ieacaoueny aieaa aeaenoaaiiui, iaaeaee i?ino?aiiua ?annoaeaeaiey e
aeieaea aanaaeu. Ii-aeaeeiiio, a ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae ?inoa iieiaeaaee
i?eoiaeeony ia?aaieaoue yoie aieaciueth, /oiau, i?aiaeieaa aa
ia?aiauoioth noeoeth, iniciaoue aeinoieinoai e neeo ?onneiai ycuea.

E o/eoaeth neaaeoao ainieoaoue oaeie acaeyae o naieo o/aieeia eae oi: ia
a?inaoueny ia «aia?aco?o» oaeaaeci?a, eiaaea eaeoo oeeueiu n
oiio?aaeaieai iaiiaeiaathuae eaeneee, aacaeoiii «aieouaaoue» anth
eaeneeo, acyooth ec eioa?iaoa, a /anoiinoe /aoia. Iaiiiai aaaeiaa
iieacaoue iiae?inoeo, /oi e?aneai, a /oi ia?cei, /oi aeaenoaeoaeueii
i?eyoii aeey neooa, a /oi aucuaaao eeoue ioa?auaiea. Oiaaea aeaoe ia
aoaeoo ienaoue ia noaiao e eniieueciaaoue a naiae ?a/e «?onneia
ia?iaeiia neiai» e iie aoaeoo ciaoue, /oi oiio?aaeaiiia a i?enoonoaee
ac?ineiai iaoa?iia neiai ?anoeaieaaaony eae inei?aeaiea e aoaeoo
noa?aoueny ia aeaeaoue yoiai.

2.3. ?anoe?aiea noa?u iauaiey iieiaeaaee

Aaaeiaeoeie i?ioeannaie ia?aoiaeiiai aic?anoa Eaaei n/eoaao ?anoe?aiea
aeeciaiiiai ie?a ee/iinoe, e?oaa aa iauaiey, a?oiiiaie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
e oeia ethaeae, ia eioi?uo iia i?eaioe?oaony. Nia?aiaiiua oaoiieiaee
?acaeaeaatho ?aiee iauaiey. Iai?eia?, iiyaeaiea eioa?iaoa iicaieeei
nia?aiaiiie iieiaeaaee «caaenaoue» a /aoao (io aiaeeeneiai neiaa chat –
aieoiaiy) e oai naiui cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eoue naie e?oa iauaiey. E
iineieueeo iniiaiay ianna, iauathuayny oaeei ia?acii, – iieiaeaaeue, oi
ie/aai oaeeaeoaeueiiai iao, /oi i?ienoiaeeo onaiaiea niioaaonoaothuee
ii?iu ?a/e. E o. e. iiaaaeaiea iiae?inoea, thiioe ii?aaeaeyaony,
i?aaeaea anaai, i?iiaaeooi/iinoueth aai iieiaeaiey, oi ia?aoiaey ec
aeaoneiai ie?a ai ac?ineue, iiae?inoie ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo iieiinoueth ie e
oiio, ie e ae?oaiio, oai naiui eua iiaeaea?aeee o naa?noieeia e no?iy
noaio io/oaeaeaiey io ac?ineiai. Niaoeeoe/iinoue aai nioeeaeueiie
neooaoeee e aeeciaiiiai ie?a i?iyaeyaony e a ineoeea, aeey eioi?ie
oeie/iu aioo?aiiea i?ioeai?a/ey, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue o?iaiy i?eoycaiee,
iiauoaiiay canoai/eainoue e iaeiia?aiaiii aa?anneaiinoue, neeiiiinoue
i?eieiaoue e?aeiea iiceoeee e oi/ee c?aiey. Yoa iai?yaeaiiinoue e
eiioeeeoiinoue oai aieueoa, /ai ?ac/a ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ie?ii aeaonoaa e
ie?ii ac?ineinoe e /ai aaaeiaa ?acaeaeythuea eo a?aie. Iiyoiio noaiaiue
«iiae?inoeiainoe iiaaaeaiey» ieeiaaea ia auaaao iaeeiaeiaie. Iia
i?eieiaao ?aciua oi?iu: i?ioanoii a /anoiinoe neoaeeo ycue iiae?inoea. A
noeoey, ieoathuay yoio iieiaeaaeiue ycue, – yoi ana iiaia,
iao?aaeeoeeiiiia eee ioaa?aaaiia: ?a/ue iocueaeueiuo oaiaoia,
iocueaeueiia oaeaaeaeaiea, a /anoiinoe MTV, e ?a/ue ia?eiiaiia,
eiiiuethoa?iue aea?aii e ai?iaeneia i?inoi?a/ea, aiaeeeneee ycue e
ai?ianeia a?ai. Eaaeaeay ec yoeo ninoaaeythueo eiaao naith noa?o, naie
i?aaeiao e a oi aea a?aiy i?aaenoaaeyao oe?ieia iiea aeey caeinoaiaaiey
(ia a?oce iaiy – ec aea?aiia eiiiuethoa?ueeia; oauonue, oi?/o io Aeaoeea
– ec aea?aiia ia?eiiaiia). Caeinoaiaaiiua ec eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea
yeaiaiou ia?ainiuneythony a ea?iaii, e?iie/aneii eeth/a: iia yoi
aaniethoii ia?aeeaeueii, noaoai oeieaoiai, ii aa?aaaio.

Aeey iieiaeaaeiiai aea?aiia oa?aeoa?ii, iiieii io/oaeaeaiiinoe,
yiioeeiiaeueii-ea?iaia ia/aei. Ii/aio, anee iieiaeaaeue ciaao, eae
aiai?eoue i?aaeeueii, iia aiai?eo iai?aaeeueii? Ii/aio i?aaeii/eoaao
eniieueciaaoue inoaeaeaaiua oi?iu ?a/e, ciay i?anoeaeiua, ii?iaoeaiua?
Aea i?inoi iioiio, /oi o iaa ae?oaay nenoaia oeaiiinoae, ae?oaie
i?anoeae, ae?oaay ii?ia – aioeii?ia. E a yoie aioeii?ia aeaaiue i?eioeei
– yeaiaio oiea, ano?ynee, /oiau caeieaaaoue ia?iae, e yeaiaio ianiaoee,
/oiau auei ia neo/ii, niaoii, i?eeieueii. A yoii e aucia aeaaiiieo/iiio,
i?aoniaaathuaio iauanoao, e iai?eyoea aai ii?i, aai ia?acoeia, aai
i?eee/ee. Oe(o, ioiaae, i?aaci! – oae iiaeao au?aceoue ainoi?a
naaiaeiyoiyy oeieueieoea, neo/ioth iocueo iaciaao aeai?anniye, a
i?eia?iiai iaeiieeannieea – aioaiee.

Ae?oaie ea?iaie i?eai, eniieuecoaiue a iieiaeaaeiii aea?aiia, – yoi
naeeaeaiea neia ia iniiaa caoeiaiai iiaeiaey, caoeiaie ia?aiin: e
i?eia?o, eeiii aianoi ieeeeii, iuei, aiaey aianoi e-mail (io aiaeeeneiai
neiaa yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa).

Eoae, oooea, ea?a – yoi iiceoeaiue yeaiaio iieiaeaaeiie ?a/e. A?yae ee
eoi-ieaoaeue ana?ueac iiaeao ai?ioueny n yoei.

Ae?oaay aaaeiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iieiaeaaeiie ?a/e – aa «ia?aiauoiinoue».
Annioeeaoeey n ycueii eaeiai-ieaoaeue ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa aicieeaao,
eiaaea iaaeaaiae iaaethaeatho ianoaaeeueiinoue, iinoiyiioth
eciaiyaiinoue aea?aiia eae ai a?aiaiiii, oae e a i?ino?ainoaaiiii
ecia?aiee. Ia oniaa cae?aieoueny, iaeie oi?iu ?a/e onooiatho ianoi
ae?oaei: oae, ia noieue aeaaiaa aea?aiiiia iaie (io aiaeeeneiai neiaa
money – aeaiueae) caiaieee aaenu e aaaee. Aiaeiae/iua i?ioeannu
ioia/aeenue a ia/aea aaea enneaaeiaaoaeyie-yoiia?aoaie a ycueao
thaeiiaia?eeaineeo eiaeaeoeaa, aeey eioi?uo ienneiia?u ia oniaaaee
ia?aienuaaoue neiaa?e. Yoi anoanoaaiiia ninoiyiea ethaiai ycueiaiai
ia?aciaaiey a ia?eiae aai noaiiaeaiey.

Aua iaeei i?eciae «ia?aiauoiinoe» iieiaeaaeiiai aea?aiia –
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue, ?aciuoinoue cia/aiee aoiaeyueo a iaai neia. No?(iii,
e?ooi, y i?onue iiaoo auoue e iieiaeeoaeueiie, e io?eoeaoaeueiie
ioeaieie neooaoeee. Nthaea ioiinyony eae aeei! e aeu-iaeu!,
eniieuecoaiua a aea?aiia oieueei a ea/anoaa yiioeeiiaeueiuo
aineeeoeaiee, oae e neiaa oeia ei?ea (ei?ee), i?eeie, e?ooiye, oe(o,
/oia. Aoaeo/e eniieueciaaiiuie a ea/anoaa yiioeeiiaeueiuo iaaeaeiiaoee,
iie i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth oa?ytho naia cia/aiea, eioi?ia auoaniyaony
neeueii aeoeaioe?iaaiiui a ii?aaeaeaiiie neooaoeee yiioeeiiaeueiui
eiiiiiaioii cia/aiey. E yoie aea a?oiia ioiinyony neiaini/aoaiey iieiue
aoan, iieiue aacaoe, iieiue ienaoe.

A caaeneiinoe io neooaoeee e e?oaa iauaiey aeaiiua neiaa iiaoo
au?aaeaoue ?aciiia?aciua – aieioue aei i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo – yiioeee:
?aci/a?iaaiea, ?acae?aaeaiey, ainoeuaiea, oaeeaeaiea, ?aaeinoue e o. ae.
I?e yoii aieaa eee iaiaa aaeaeaaoiia «ociaaaiea» au?aaeaaiie yiioeee
neooaoaeai ia iiaeao inouanoaeoueny aac o/aoa eioiiaoeee, ieieee,
aeanoeeoeyoeee aiai?yuaai, a oaeaea eiioaenoa.

Iiaeiaiia yaeaiea auei a naia a?aiy ioia/aii Ae.N. Eeoa/aaui aeey
oaieiaii-eaaa?iiai aea?aiia. Ii ioa?aeoa?eciaae aai eae aoaaenoe/aneee
i?eieoeaeci ?a/e, noiaeiue n aeeooociinoueth ia?aiauoiie naiaioeee.
Aiaeiae/iue i?eia? i?eaiaeee e O.I. Aeinoiaaneee, iaaethaeay, eae
ioaeeee iaoiaeyony a naiai iauaiee iaeiei iaia/aoiui neiaii, aeeaaeuaay
a iaai eaaeaeue ?ac iiaua niuneu. Yoio ia?aiauoiue aoaaeci Eeoa/aa
n/eoae aieaciueth ycuea – «eioaioeeeciii ycueiauo oi?i». Aio n yoie
aieaciueth e neaaeoao o/eoaeth aanoe ai?ueao. Aeey iaa oa?aeoa?ii, /oi
iieiaeaaeue /anoi eniieuecoao neiaa e au?aaeaiey, cia/aiey eioi?uo aei
eiioea ia iniuneeaaao e ia no?aieony iniuneeoue, ea?ay ia aiaoiae
y?einoe ia?aca (iaiy eieaaneo; iieaeo iieieaaoonue). A ia?aaeei e
cao?oaeiyaony iniuneeoue, ii?iaeaeay a ?a/e oeaii/ee neia-«ia?aceoia»,
ia ai?ueaa n eioi?uie ia oae aeaaii nin?aaeioi/eaaee iniiaiia aieiaiea
iaaeaaiae.

Eoae, iniiaiia caneoaeeaathuaa inoaeaeaiey ea/anoai iieiaeaaeiiai
aea?aiia, eioi?ue oi?ie?oaony e?oaii iauaiey iiae?inoea, – aai
au?aaeaiiue aoaaenoe/aneee i?eieoeaeci. E?iia ?anieua/aoie naiaioeee, ii
i?iyaeyaony e a caieaeaiiinoe oao noa? eaeneee, ioeoaea /a?iathony aa
?ano?nu, e a noeeenoe/anee caieaeaiiuo a?aiiaoe/aneeo n?aaenoaao,
eniieuecoaiuo a ?a/e; yoi, a /anoiinoe, oie/eaeeoaeueiua noooeenu –
-iye, -iy (iooiaeiye, aeai?anniye, ooniye, ooniy), ona/aiey (aioai),
oaieeuey?iua noooeenu a ee/iuo eiaiao (Aeeiii, Eieyi, TH?aoe). E,
iaeiiaoe, a cia/eoaeueiie aeiea caeinoaiaaiee ec i?inoi?a/iie eaeneee.
Ana yoe i?eaiu – iniciaiiue auai?, inouanoaeyaiue a ?a/aaii iiaaaeaiee
iaaeaeo iiae?inoeaie. A ?a/aaia iiaaaeaiea oaeaea ?aaoee?oaony ii?iie
eee aioeii?iie. Nia?aiaiiue iieiaeaaeiue aea?aii auae?aao aioeii?io.

2.4. ?ieue o/eoaey a oi?ie?iaaiee ?a/e oeieueieeia

O/eoaeue, ai-ia?auo, – /aeiaae eioaeeeaaioiue, ia?aciaaiiue, eoeueoo?iue
iaiuneei aac oi?ioae ?a/e. Ai-aoi?uo, aeinoe/ue ianoa?noaa a iaeanoe
i?aaeeueiie ?a/e iiaeii oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ?aaioaoue iaae niaie:
iiiieiyoue ciaiey, ?anoe?youe e?oaici?, aeoeaii iauaoueny n ae?oaeie
ethaeueie, onaaeaay ia oieueei eo/oea ia?acoeu ?a/aaiai iiaaaeaiey, ii e
iinoiyiii aeooiaii iaiaauay naay.

Niaoeeoeea o/eoaeueneie i?ioannee caeeth/aaony a iinoiyiiii aeayoaeueiii
eiioaeoa, a iniiaiii n iiae?inoeaie. ?aaioa o/eoaey iai?aaeaia ia
oi?ie?iaaiea ee/iinoe o/aieea, au?aaioeo ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee
iiaaaeaiey, eioaeeaeooaeueiia ?acaeoea. I?aiiaeaaaoaeue aeieaeai
iaeaaeaoue ia oieueei ineoieiae/aneeie, niaoeeaeueiuie ciaieyie, ii
oaeaea e iaaueaie i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iauaiey. ?a/ue o/eoaey — iniiaiia
i?oaeea iaaeaaiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey e iaeiia?aiaiii ia?acaoe aeey
o/aueony.

?a/ue o/eoaey neoaeeo ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee neooaoaeyi. E?iia oiai a iae
anaaaea i?enoonoaoao aeeaeaeoe/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue, o.a. iaeiia?aiaiii
n ia?aaea/ae eioi?iaoeee ?aoathony caaea/e iao/aiey. Yoi auaeaeaaao
iniaua o?aaiaaiey e ioai?o, niiniaai i?aaiecaoeee e eceiaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee, o.a. e niaea?aeaieth e oi?ia iaaeaaiae/aneie ?a/e.

Anyeia iaaeaaiae/aneia iauaiea anoue iauaiea ainieoaoaey e ainieoaiieea.
Ainieoaoaeueiay iai?aaeaiiinoue ?a/e o/eoaey i?aaeiieaaaao iniaue
iiaeoiae e ioai?o eioi?iaoeee e aa iiaea/e.

?a/ue o/eoaey neoaeeo ia?acoeii, eioi?ue aini?eieiaao iiae?inoie e ii
eioi?iio ii o/eony no?ieoue naith ?a/ue. I?e yoii neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi
aeey o/aieea ?a/ue o/eoaey ca/anooth yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui ia?acoeii
eeoa?aoo?iie ii?iu e i?aaeeueiiai iino?iaiey ?a/e aiiaua. A neeo yoiai
iniaia aieiaiea neaaeoao ia?auaoue ia oi?io iaaeaaiae/aneie ?a/e, aa
ii?iaoeaiue oa?aeoa?, aeaeaoue aeinooiiie ia oieueei aeey aini?eyoey, ii
a ecaanoiie ia?a e aeey iiae?aaeaiey.

Noeeue iaaeaaiae/aneiai iauaiey – yoi niaieoiiinoue iiaaaeai/aneeo
?aaeoeee, a eioi?uo i?iyaeythony ea/anoaa ee/iinoe o/eoaey, iaia?a
iauaiey iaaeaaiaa n iieiaeaaeueth, a oaeaea aai iiaaaeaiea a ?acee/iuo
neooaoeeyo i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Noeeue iaaeaaiae/aneiai
iauaiey caaeneo, eae neacaii, io eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ea/anoa
i?aiiaeaaaoaey: ineoe/aneeo naienoa ee/iinoe, eioaeeaeoa, a oaeaea io
oie ?ieaaie onoaiiaee, eioi?oth ii?aaeaeyao aeey naay iaaeaaia, o.a. io
oiai, eae e eaeei ii aeaeeo, oi/ao aeaeaoue naay a iauaiee n aeaoueie,
eaeoth ?ieue ea?aao a i?ioeanna i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iauai?eiyoie eeanneoeeaoeee noeeae iaaeaaiae/aneiai iauaiey iao.
Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu neaaeothuea: 1) iauaiea-ono?aoaiea (o/eoaeue
iiaeaaeyao aeaoae, aeeeooao naie oneiaey, ea?aao ?ieue «aeaniioa»,
«aeeeoaoi?a»); 2) iauaiea-caea?uaaiea (o/eoaeue, ia oaa?aiiue a naieo
ciaieyo e iaaeaaiae/aneii ianoa?noaa, eae au iuoaaony caeeth/eoue
«naeaeeo» n o/aieeaie; a iaiai ia nieaeaiea o?aaiaaiee e iei ii
iieo/aao, iai?eia?, eo/ooth aeenoeeieeio a eeanna); 3) iauaiea n /aoei
au?aaeaiiie aeenoaioeeae (o/eoaeue iinoiyiii iiae/a?eeaaao ?acieoeo
iaaeaeo niaie eae aieaa iiuoiui, ciathuei. Iiieiathuei e o/aieeaie,
eioi?uo ii aini?eieiaao eae o/aueony, iaycaiiuo aai neooaoueny); 4)
iauaiea ae?oaeaneiai ?aniieiaeaiey (o/eoaeue aunooiaao a ?iee noa?oaai
ae?oaa, i?eyoaey, aieaa ciathuaai, aeaeathuaai i?eeoe ia iiiiuue
o/aieeo); 5) iauaiea niaianoiie oaea/aiiinoe (o/eoaeue e o/aieee –
eieeaae, aiaea/aiiua a i?ioeann niaianoiie eioaeeaeooaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia o?iea).

Ia?aua aeaa noeey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i i?ioanneiiaeueiie iai?eaiaeiinoe
o/eoaey, o. e. yoi «ioioaeaaao» iiae?inoea io iao/aiey. Yeaiaiou o?ao
iineaaeieo ano?a/athony a noeeyo iauaiey ?aciuo o/eoaeae. Eeoaiiua
e?aeiinoae, yoe noeee iiaoo iiii/ue a ?aciuo neooaoeeyo iauaiey e
oi?ie?iaaiee ii?iu ?a/e o iiae?inoeia.

I?aeoe/aneay /anoue

Iaoa enneaaeiaaiea auei iai?aaeaii ia auyaeaiea o?iaiy aea?aiiecaoeee
?a/e o/aueony 10-ai eeanna n?aaeiae oeieu. Ii?ioaii auei 23 o/aieea. Iai
iaiaoiaeeii auei auynieoue, /oi nia?aiaiiua noa?oaeeannieee oiio?aaeytho
a naiae ?a/e e ?aaeoeey ia eo ?a/ue ac?ineuo. Aeey yoiai iu i?iaaee
aieaoe?iaaiea.

Aii?inu aieaou auaeyaeeee neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Eniieuecoaoa ee au aea?aiiiua neiaa i?e iauaiee ni naa?noieeaie?

a) Aea.

a) Iao.

Eaeie Aao iie?

a) Ioaeneie

a) AEaineee

N eaeie oeaeueth au oiio?aaeyaoa aea?aiiiua neiaa?

a) Naiiooaa?aeeoueny.

a) Iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oi?ioea ioiioaiey n oiaa?euaie ii oeiea.

a)Iaiaieaaoueny eioi?iaoeeae e ociaaaoue iiaia.

a) i?eaeaoue naiae ?a/e aeeainoue, thii?.

Eaeea aea?aiiiua neiaa au eniieuecoaoa a naiae iianaaeiaaiie ?a/e?

a) Iaoa?iua.

a) THii?enoe/aneea.

a) Eiiaaea: ana caaeneo io neooaoeee eee eiiiaiee.

Iii?aaeytho ee o/eoaey Aaoo ?a/ue?

a) Aea.

a) O/eoaey ia ia?auatho aieiaiey ia iith ?a/ue.

a) Ia anaaaea, ii ana aea aeaeatho caia/aiey.

Eae ioiinyony ?iaeeoaee e Aaoae ?a/e?

a) Ei ia aaaeii, eae y aiai?th.

a) Iie iinoiyiii aiai?yo, /oiau y neaaeee ca oai, eae y aiai?th.

a) Eiiaaea ?iaeeoaee aeaeatho caia/aiey ii iiaiaeo iiae ?a/e.

*uey ?a/ue aeey Aan yaeyaony yoaeiiii?

a) iieo ae?ocae.

a) iieo ?iaeeoaeae.

a) iieo o/eoaeae.

a) oi, eae aiai?yo ia oaeaaeaeaiee e ?aaeei.

Eaeea oaeaaeceiiiua eaiaeu Au niio?eoa?

a) oieueei iocueaeueiua eaiaeu.

a) iaiocueaeueiua eaiaeu.

a) ana eaiaeu.

I?iaiaeece?oai a oaaeeoea iieo/aiiua aeaiiua aieaoe?iaaiey.

Eiee/anoai o/aueony eeanna

?

Aa?eaiou ioaaoia

aii?ina a a a a

1 23

– –

2 8 15 – –

3 3 4 13 3

4 4 8 11 –

5 13 3 7 –

6 10 5 8 –

7 19 3 1

8 12 2 9 –

4. Caeeth/aiea

Oeaeueth aeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey, eae oaea oiiieiaeinue auoa, yaeyaony
eco/aiea aea?aiiecaoeee ?a/e nia?aiaiiuo oeieueieeia iiae?inoeiaiai e
?aiiaai thiioaneiai aic?anoa. Aiaeec iieo/aiiuo iaie ?acoeueoaoia
iicaieyao naeaeaoue neaaeothuea auaiaeu:

Ana ii?ioaiiua o/aueany ioiaoeee, /oi n/eoatho aea?aiiecaoeeth ?a/e
iaiouaieaiie /anoueth iauaiey n?aaee naa?noieeia. Oaeea neiaa iicaieyao
ei naiiooaa?aeaeaoueny, iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oi?ioea ioiioaiey n oiaa?euaie
ii oeiea, iaiaieaaoueny eioi?iaoeeae e ociaaaoue iiaia.

I?e eco/aiee o?iaiy aea?aiiecaoeee ?a/e auyaeaii: ia?aia ianoi o
thiioae caieiatho iaoa?iua neiaa, aeey aeaaooae aea?aii yaeyaony
i?aaeaea anaai ea?ie neia, i?eaeaiea ?a/e eaaeiai thii?enoe/aneiai
oa?aeoa?a. A iaoai enneaaeiaaiee o/aueany ioiaoeee aunieee o?iaaiue
aea?aiiecaoeee ?a/e aaaeoueo a oaea- e ?aaeeiia?aaea/ao, a ioaeeeaoeeyo
aacao e aeo?iaeia.

Naaiaeiy caneeea aea?aiiecaoeee ?a/e iaoneiaeaii eciaieaoeieny
nioeeaeueiuie oneiaeyie – i?ei?eoao iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae,
?acaeaeaiea iauanoaa (ia aiaaouo e aaaeiuo), eciaiaiea iaaeee/iinoiuo
ioiioaiee e o.ae. ?aayoa ana /aua noaeeeaathony n aac?acee/eai,
a?oainoueth, ceinoueth. A yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?eaiaeeo e i?ioanoo,
eioi?ue au?aaeaaony, a /anoiinoe, iiauoaiiie aea?aiiecaoeeae ?a/e i?e
iauaiee oeieueieeia. Iauaiea ni naa?noieeaie, a oaeaea n ae?ocueyie
aieaa noa?oaai aic?anoa i?iaeieaeaao auoue cia/eiui aeey eniuooaiuo. Iie
ioia/atho, /oi oioyo i?iaiaeeoue n ieie eae iiaeii aieueoa a?aiaie –
aoeyoue, ioaeuoaoue, ?acaeaeaoueny, a cia/eo iie aeieaeiu ?acaiaa?eaaoue
ia «naiai» (aea?aiiiii) ycuea.

Oaeei ia?acii, iieo/aiiua aeaiiua a oiaea enneaaeiaaiey iiaeoaa?aeaeatho
auaeaeioooth iaie oeaeue: iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e aic?anoaieth
o?iaiy aea?aiiecaoeee ?a/e n?aaee iiae?inoeia e o/aueony noa?oeo
eeannia. Anee iaiaueoue iieo/aiiua aeaiiua, oi iiaeii iienaoue i?e/eiu
oaaee/aiey aeiee aea?aiiecaoeee ?a/e nia?aiaiiiai iiae?inoea e
noa?oaeeannieea.

Nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u.

Cia/eiinoue «naiaai» (aea?aiiiiai) ycuea aeey iauaiey ni naa?noieeaie
(aeaeaiea iiae?inoea ooaa?aeeoueny eae n?aaee naieo naa?noieeia oae e a
nianoaaiiuo aeacao).

Aeeyiea NIE (/oaiea aacao e iieiaeaaeiuo aeo?iaeia, i?iniio?
oaeaia?aaea/) ia ?a/ue iiae?inoea.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Aaee/aaa N. A. Neiaeiue ie? iiae?inoea. – Naa?aeeiane, N?aae.-O?ae. Ei.
Ecaeaoaeuenoai, 1984.

Aiaaoi A. A., Eaaeeiaa N. E. Nia?aiaiiua oaiaeaioeee iieiaeaaeiie
eoeueoo?u: eiioeeeo eee i?aainoaaiiinoue iieieaiee?//Iauanoaaiiua iaoee
e nia?aiaiiinoue. – 1996. – ? 3. – N. 56 – 60.

Aiaeaeaa A. A. Ee/iinoue e iauaiea: Eca?. o?. – I.: Iaaeaaiaeea, 1983.

Ai/aieia A. Eneonnoai e iao – /uey aicueiao? A iieneao cieioie na?aaeeiu
iaaeaeo oaiaeainoaii e anaaeicaieaiiinoueth.// O/eoaeueneay aacaoa. –
2001. – ?15. – ai?. – N.20.

A?oaeiue A. A. Iiieiaiea e iauaiea. – I.: Ciaiea, 1989.

Auaioneee E.N. Iaaeieiaey iiae?inoea: i?iaeaia aic?anoa // Nia?.ni/.: A
6 o. – I., 1984.

Eii E.N. Ineoieiaey noa?oaeeannieea. – I.: I?inaauaiea, 1982.

Ioae?ee A.A. Naiua o?oaeiua aiaeu. – I.: Ciaiea, 1990.

Ianoa?aiei A. sscue iaoa?ieiinoe e ycue aeiaa?ey.//Naiaiaeiay iuneue. –
1992. – ? 2. – N. 74 – 77.

I?eoiaeai A. I., Oienouo I. I. Iiae?inoie a o/aaieea e a aeecie. – I.:
ciaiea, 1990. – (Iiaia a aeecie, iaoea e oaoieea. Iaaeaaiaeea e ineoie.,
?5).

?onaoeeee A. O. Eoeueoo?a ?a/e o/eoaey. I?aeoeeoi: – Ii.:
Oiiaa?nioyoeeaa, 1999.

Oienouo A. A. Iiae?inoie a iaoi?iaeueiie a?oiia. – I.: Ciaiea, 1991. –
(Iiaia a aeecie, iaoea, oaoieea. Iaaeaaiaeea e ineoieiaey; ?2).

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