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Познавательные процессы в обучении детей младшего школьного возраста с использованием компьютера

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Aaaaeaiea

Iiciaaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu: aini?eyoea, aieiaiea, aiia?aaeaiea, iaiyoue,
iuoeaiea, ?a/ue – aunooiatho eae aaaeiaeoea eiiiiiaiou ethaie
/aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Aeey oiai, /oiau oaeiaeaoai?eoue naie
iio?aaiinoe , iauaoueny , ea?aoue, o/eoueny e o?oaeeoueny, /aeiaae
aeieaeai aini?eieiaoue ie?, ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia oa eee eiua iiiaiou
eee eiiiiiaiou aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaenoaaeyoue oi, /oi aio ioaeii
aeaeaoue , caiiieiaoue, iaaeoiuaaoue, auneacuaaoue noaeaeaiey. Iiyoiio,
aac o/anoey iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia /aeiaa/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
iaaiciiaeia, iie aunooiatho eae aa iaiouaieaiua aioo?aiiea iiiaiou. Iie
?acaeaathony a aeayoaeueiinoe, e naie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iniaua aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?enooiay e iaaeaaiae/aneie ?aaioa n aeaoueie, i?aaeaea anaai, ioaeii
?acia?aoueny a oii, /oi ?aaaieo aeaii io i?e?iaeu e /oi i?eia?aoaaony
iiae aicaeaenoaeai n?aaeu.

?acaeoea /aeiaa/aneeo caaeaoeia, i?aa?auaiea eo a niiniaiinoe – iaeia ec
caaea/ iao/aiey e ainieoaiey, ?aoeoue eioi?oth aac ciaiee e ?acaeoey
iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia iaeuecy. Ii ia?a eo ?acaeoey,
niaa?oainoaothony e naie niiniaiinoe, i?eia?aoay ioaeiua ea/anoaa.
Ciaiea ineoieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia, caeiiia eo
oi?ie?iaaiey iaiaoiaeeii aeey i?aaeeueiiai auai?a iaoiaea iao/aiey e
ainieoaiey. Aieueoie aeeaae a eco/aiea e ?acaeoea iiciaaaoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia aianee e oaeea o/aiua, eae: E.N. Auaiaeneee, A.I. Eaiioueaa,
E.N. Naoa?ia, A.I. Nieieia, AE Ieaaea, N.E. ?oaeiooaei e ae?.

Eie auee ?ac?aaioaiu ?acee/iua iaoiaeeee e oai?ee oi?ie?iaaiey
iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia. E nae/an, /oiau oniaoii ?acaeaaoue
iiciaaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu a o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iaiaoiaeeii, eneaoue
aieaa nia?aiaiiua n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu iao/aiey. Eniieueciaaiea
eiiiuethoa?a n aai ia?iiiuie oieaa?naeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie ia o?ieao
ECI e aoaeao yaeyoueny iaeiei ec oaeeo n?aaenoa.

Enoiaey ec auoaneacaiiiai, iu n/eoaai, /oi oaia iaoaai enneaaeiaaiey
“?acaeoea iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia ia o?ieao ECI n i?eiaiaieai YAI”
aeooaeueia e ia aeaiiue iiiaio iaaeinoaoi/ii eco/aia. N ?acaeoeai
nia?aiaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee, nenoaia “/aeiaae e eiiiuethoa?”
auno?i i?aa?aoeeanue a i?iaeaio, eioi?ay eanaaony anao /eaiia iauanoaa,
a ia oieueei niaoeeaeenoia, iiyoiio aicaeaenoaea /aeiaaea n
eiiiuethoa?ii aeieaeii auoue iaania/aii oeieueiui ia?aciaaieai. *ai
?aiueoa iu yoi ia/iai, oa auno?aa aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny iaoa iauanoai, oae
eae nia?aiaiiia iauanoai eioi?iaoeee o?aaoao ciaiee ?aaiou n
eiiiuethoa?ii.

I?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiey – i?ioeann ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia
ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia ia o?ieao ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa n?aaenoaaie
eiiiuethoa?iiai iao/aiey.

Iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey – i?ioeann iao/aiey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia ia o?ieao
ECI.

?acaeoea iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia a yoii aic?anoa i/aiue aaaeii aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey ?acaeoie e naiinoiyoaeueii iuneyuae ee/iinoe.

Aeiioaca – i?ioeann iao/aiey ecia?aceoaeueiiio eneonnoao ieaaeoeo
oeieueieeia iiaeao auoue yooaeoeaiui, anee i?e iauyniaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo
caaeaiee aoaeao eniieueciaai eiiiuethoa?, oae eae:

1) aai eniieueciaaiea iioeiece?oao aeayoaeueiinoue o/eoaey;

2) i?eiaiaiea oeaaoa, a?aoeee, caoea, nia?aiaiiuo n?aaenoa aeaeaioaoieee
iicaieyao iiaeaee?iaaoue ?acee/ea neooaoeee e n?aaeu, ?acaeaay i?e yoii
oai?/aneea e iiciaaaoaeueiua niiniaiinoe o/aueony;

3) ii iicaieyao oneeeoue iiciaaaoaeueiua eioa?anu o/aieea:

Oeaeue enneaaeiaaiey – eco/eoue oneiaey ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia ia o?ieao ECI n?aaenoaaie
eiiiuethoa?iiai iao/aiey.

Caaea/e enneaaeiaaiey:

– eco/eoue ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea, iaoiaee/aneea aniaeou
eniieueciaaiey eiiiuethoa?ia a i?ioeanna iao/aiey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia
ia o?ieao ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa;

– yenia?eiaioaeueii eco/eoue yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ia o?ieao
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa YAI a ia/aeueiie oeiea;

– ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo ?ac?aaioaoue eiiieaen iaoiaee/aneeo
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?iaaaeaieth o?ieia ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa n
i?eiaiaieai YAI.

Iao/iay iiaecia enneaaeiaaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aaoi? eco/aao
oneiaey eniieueciaaiey eiiiuethoa?a a i?ioeanna iao/aiey ecia?aaeathuoth
ea?o, eae oaeoi? ?acaeoey iuoeaiey, aieiaiey, aiia?aaeaiey e ae?.

I?aeoe/aneie cia/eiinoueth enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony oi, /oi iaoa?eaeu
?aaiou iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a i?aeoeea o/eoaey ecia?aceoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa e ia/aeueiuo eeannia.

A oiaea yenia?eiaioa auee i?eiaiaiu neaaeothuea iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey:

– aiaeec ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo, iaoiaee/aneeo o?oaeia ii oaia
enneaaeiaaiey;

– iaaethaeaiea ca o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiui i?ioeannii a ia/aeueiuo
eeannao;

– iiaeai? e ninoaaeaiea caaeaiey aeey eiiiuethoa?iiai iao/aiey ii ECI a
ia/aeueiuo eeannao.

– Yenia?eiaioaeueiia iao/aiea e ia?aaioea iieo/aiiuo aeaiiuo.

Enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeeeenue a Eaiaaeanneie n?aaeiae oeiea a.sseoonea. A
oiaea yenia?eiaioa o/anoaiaaee 1 “a” eeann, a eiee/anoaa 19 /aeiaae.

?aaioa ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, 2 aeaa, caeeth/aiey, nienea eeoa?aoo?u e
i?eeiaeaiey.

Aeaaa 1.

§1. Iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannao.

Iiciaiea ie?a a iuouaieyo e a aini?eyoee. Aeey oiai, /oiau aeeoue e
i?eaioe?iaaoueny a ie?oaeathuai, /aeiaae aeieaeai aini?eieiaoue e
ia?a?aaaouaaoue eioi?iaoeeth, oiaoue aa aiaeece?iaaoue, auaeaeyoue ec
iaa iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua aeey naay naaaeaiey. Cia/eiie, eee
nouanoaaiiie, iacuaaaony oaeay eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay naycaia n
aeooaeueiuie iio?aaiinoyie /aeiaaea e ianao a naaa naaaeaiey i oii, /oi
iniaaiii aaaeii aeey eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey. Cia/eiay eioi?iaoeey aeeth/aao
a naay ?aciiia?aciua aeaeu yia?aee, aicaeaenoaothuae ia /aeiaaea:
iaoaie/aneoth, oeie/aneoth, yeaeo?iiaaieoioth, a?aaeoaoeeiiioth e ae?.
Ca ieeeeiiu eao ii?iaeeea e aeiaaea aei niaa?oainoaa niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua
i?aaiu aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea, niiniaiua aini?eieiaoue eioi?iaoeeth,
niaea?aeauothny a ?acee/iuo aeaeao yia?aee e ia?aaeaaaaioth a aeaea
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei (c?aiea), iaoaie/aneeo aicaeaenoaee (eiaeiay
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue), oeie/aneeo aeeyiee (iaiiyiea e aeon), eieaaaiee
aeaaeaiey aicaeooa (neoo). Ana ia?a/eneaiiua i?aaiu iacuaathony i?aaiaie
/oanoa.

Eioa?anothuay /aeiaaea eioi?iaoeey ia anaaaea i?aaenoaaeaia eiaiii a oii
aeaea, a eioi?ii iia aio iaiaoiaeeia e iaiin?aaenoaaiii aini?eieiaaony
aai i?aaiaie /oanoa. Iiyoiio eioi?iaoeeth i ie?a iaiaoiaeeii ia oieueei
aini?eieiaoue, ii e ia?a?aaaouaaoue, auaeaeyy a iae oi, /oi ne?uoi io
i?yiiai aini?eyoey. Eiiaaea /aeiaaeo i?eoiaeeony ?aoaoue aeiaieueii
neiaeiua caaea/e, iai?inoui iooai ecaeaeay ec iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeee
naiua ioaeiua naaaeaiey. Aeey yoiai o ieo anoue oaeea ineoieiae/aneea
iiciaaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu, eae aieiaiea, aiia?aaeaiea, iaiyoue, iuoeaiea
e ?a/ue.

Ia?ae/iua, enoiaeiua naaaeaiey i ie?a /aeiaae iieo/aao /a?ac iuouaiey.
Iie i?aaeinoaaeytho /aeiaaeo naaaeaiey i ?aciiia?aciuo naienoaao
aicaeaenoaothuae ia iaai ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie. Aini?eyoea, a ioee/ea io
iuouaiee, ainnicaeaao ie? a ia?acao e iicaieyao /aeiaaeo oeaeinoii
i?aaenoaaeyoue ie?oaeathuea i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey a niaieoiiinoe iiiaeo
oa?aeoa?iuo aeey ieo naienoa.

Iuouaiey, aini?eyoea, aiia?aaeaiea, iaiyoue ioiinyony e /oanoaeoaeueiiio
iiciaieth /aeiaaeii ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. A ioee/ea io ieo, iuoeaiea e
?a/ue iacuaatho niiniaaie ?aoeeiiaeueiiai, eee oinoaaiiiai, iiciaiey
ie?a. N iiiiuueth iuoeaiey e ?a/e /aeiaae ociaao i ie?a ia/oi oaeia, /oi
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a aai iuouaieyo e aini?eyoee ia i?aaenoaaeaii.

Aiia?aaeaiea e iaiyoue eae iiciaaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu.

Aiia?aaeaiea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae niiniaiinoue /aeiaaea aieaaui
oneeea ainnoaiiaeoue e i?aaenoaaeoue a ia?aciie oi?ia oa iuouaiey e
aini?eyoey, eioi?ua auee ?aiueoa, eee i?eaeoiaoue e i?aaenoaaeoue ia/oi
iiaia, /aai ia auei ?aiueoa ie a iuouaieyo, ie a aini?eyoee. Ia?acu
aiia?aaeaiey ia iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue oiio, /oi iie a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe niaie i?aaenoaaeytho. A ioee/ea io yoiai ia?acu
iaiyoe iau/ii a oie eee eiie noaiaie niioaaonoaotho oie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eioi?oth iie io?aaeatho, e ii/oe ia ianoo a naaa
yeaiaioia oaioacee.

Aiia?aaeaiea anaaaea eiaao oi?io ia?aca, a iaiyoue iiaeao auoue ia
oieueei ia?aciie, ii e eiae/aneie (iaiyoue ia iunee), yiioeeiiaeueiie
(iaiyoue ia iuouaiey e /oanoaa).

N iiiiuueth naiaai aiia?aaeaiey /aeiaae oai?/anee i?aia?aciauaaao ie?, e
iii, eae i?ioeann, i?aaie/ii aeeth/aii a oai?/anoai. Aeaaiaea?y
aiia?aaeaieth /aeiaae eiaao aiciiaeiinoue eae au aeaeaoue iaia?aae,
i?aaenoaaeyoue oi, /oi aua i?aaenoieo naeaeaoue.

Iaiyoue a aeecie ethaeae ea?aao aua aieaa nouanoaaiioth ?ieue. Aac
iaiyoe /aeiaae ia iia au ie/aio iao/eony, caiiiieoue oi, /oi onaiaii,
nio?aieoue ia aoaeouaa aia/aoeaiey i i?aaeeueiuo aeaenoaeyo e
aeiiouaiiuo ioeaeao. *aeiaae caiiieiaao, aini?iecaiaeeo e eniieuecoao a
ioaeiue iiiaio oa ciaiey, eioi?ua iiaoi?ythony e eioi?ua eia/a eaaeaeue
?ac i?eoeinue au iaoiaeeoue caiiai.

A iiciaiee /aeiaaeii ie?oaeathuaai ie?a aiia?aaeaiea e iaiyoue
acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii, i?e/ai eo acaeiiaeaenoaea
inouanoaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii ii ianeieueeei eeieyi:

1. Iaiaia niaea?aeaieai ia?acia: iaoa?eae aeey aiia?aaeaiey /anoe/ii
iinoaaeyaony iaiyoueth, a iaiyoue eniieuecoao ia?acu aiia?aaeaiey.

2. Acaeiiie noeioeyoeee: aiia?aaeaiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/anoaoao a
i?ioeannao iaiyoe, niinianoaoy aa oeo/oaieth; iaiyoue, aeeth/aynue a
aiia?aaeaiea, aeaeaao aai aieaa i?iaeoeoeaiui e oai?/aneei.

3. Niaianoiiai aeeyiey ia ae?oaea ineoieiae/aneea i?ioeannu iaiyoue e
aiia?aaeaiea o /aeiaaea ninoaaeytho, iai?eia?, iniiao iaeiiai ec
aaaeiaeoeo aeaeia iuoeaiey – ia?aciiai.

E?aoeia?aiaiiay iaiyoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niinia o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee
a oa/aiea ei?ioeiai i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie.

Iia?aoeaiie iacuaatho iaiyoue, ?ann/eoaiioth ia o?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee a
oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai, ca?aiaa caaeaiiiai n?iea, a aeeaiaciia io
ianeieueeeo naeoiae, aei ianeieueeeo aeiae.

Aeieaia?aiaiiay – yoi iaiyoue, niiniaiay o?aieoue eioi?iaoeeth a oa/aiea
i?aeoe/anee iaia?aie/aiiiai n?iea. I?e eniieueciaaiee aa aeey
i?eiiieiaiey ia?aaeei o?aaoaony iuoeaiea e oneeey aiee (iiyoiio, aa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ia ia?aie/aii).

Aaiaoe/aneoth iaiyoue, – a eioi?ie eioi?iaoeey o?aieony a aaiioeia,
ia?aaeaaony e aini?iecaiaeeony ii ianeaaenoao.

C?eoaeueiay iaiyoue naycaia n nio?aiaieai e aini?iecaaaeaieai
c?eoaeueiuo ia?acia. Aeaiiue aeae iaiyoe i?aaeiieaaaao ?acaeooth o
/aeiaaea niiniaiinoue e aiia?aaeaieth.

Neooiaay iaiyoue – yoi oi?ioaa caiiieiaiea e oi/iia aini?iecaaaeaiea
?aciiia?aciuo caoeia, iocueaeueiuo e ?a/aauo. Oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi
/aeiaae ath iiaeao auno?i e oi/ii caiiiieoue niune /eoaaiiai oaenoa e
o.i.

Aeaeaaoaeueiay iaiyoue – caiiieiaiea e nio?aiaiea, a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
e aini?iecaaaeaiea n aeinoaoi/iie oi/iinoueth iiiaioaciuo neiaeiuo
aeaeaeaiee.

Yiioeeiiaeueiay iaiyoue – yoi iaiyoue ia ia?aaeeaaiey. Ia iae
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iniiaaia i?i/iinoue caiiieiaiey iaoa?eaea: oi, /oi o
/aeiaaea aucuaaao yiioeeiiaeueiua ia?aaeeaaiey, caiiieiaiey eee aac
iniaiai o?oaea e ia aieaa aeeeiiue n?ie.

Inycaoaeueiay, iaiiyoaeueiay, aeoniaay eo ?ieue naiaeeony e
oaeiaeaoai?aieth aeieiae/aneeo iio?aaiinoae eee iio?aaiinoae, naycaiiuo
n aaciianiinoueth e naiinio?aiaiee i?aaiecia.

N ?aiiaai aeaonoaa i?ioeann ?acaeoey iaiyoe ?aaaiea aaaeaony ii
ianeieueeei iai?aaeaieyi. Ai-ia?auo, iaoaie/aneay iaiyoue iinoaiaiii
aeiiieiyaony e caiaiyaony eiae/aneie. Ai-aoi?uo, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
caiiieiaiea ni a?aiaiai i?aa?auaiey a iiin?aaenoaaiiia, naycaiiia n
aeoeaiui e iniciaiiui eniieueciaaieai aeey caiiieiaiey e
aini?iecaaaeaiey ?acee/iuo iiaiioaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa e i?eaiia.
A-o?aoueeo, iai?iecaieueiia caiiieiaiea, aeiieie?othuaa a aeaonoaa, o
ac?ineiai /aeiaaea i?aa?auaaony a i?iecaieueiia.

Nouanoaaiiue aeeaae a iiieiaiea oeeiaaiaoe/aneiai ?acaeoey iaiyoe aian
I.I. Aeiineee . Ii auneacae e ?acaee iuneue i oii, /oi ?acee/iua aeaeu
iaiyoe, i?aaenoaaeaiiua o ac?ineiai /aeiaaea, yaeythony oaeaea ?aciuie
nooiaiyie aa enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, e eo, niioaaonoaaiii, iiaeii
n/eoaoue oeeiaaiaoe/aneeie nooiaiyie niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaiyoe. Yoi
ioiineony e neaaeothuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeaeia iaiyoe:
aeaeaaoaeueiay, aooaeoeaiay, ia?aciay e eiae/aneay. I.I. Aeiineee [7, c.
37-39] auneacae e iainiiaae iuneue i oii, /oi a enoi?ee ?acaeoey
/aeiaa/anoaa yoe aeaeu iaiyoe iineaaeiaaoaeueii iiyaeeenue iaeei ca
ae?oaei.

Iiae ianeieueei eiui oaeii c?aiey ?anniao?eaae enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea
iaiyoe /aeiaaea E.N. Auaiaeneee [15, c. 176-185]. Ii n/eoae, /oi
niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaiyoe /aeiaaea a oeeiaaiaca oei aeaaiui ia?acii ii
eeiee oeo/oaiey n?aaenoa caiiieiaiey e eciaiaiey naycae iiaie/aneie
ooieoeee n ae?oaeie ineoe/aneeie i?ioeannaie e ninoiyieyie /aeiaaea.

Niaoeeaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai e iiin?aaeiaaiiiai
caiiieiaiey a aeaoneii aic?anoa i?iaae A.I. Eaiioueaa [50, c.112-140].
Ii yenia?eiaioaeueii iieacae, eae iaeei iiaie/aneee i?ioeann –
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia caiiieiaiea – n aic?anoii iinoaiaiii caiauaaony
ae?oaei iiin?aaeiaaiiui. ?ieue iiaiioaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa a
niaa?oainoaiaaiee iaiyoe, ii iiaieth A.I. Eaiioueaaa, ninoieo a oii, /oi
“ia?auaynue e oiio?aaeaieth aniiiiaaoaeueiuo n?aaenoa, iu oai naiui
eciaiyai i?eioeeieaeueioth no?oeoo?o eaaeaeiai aeoa caiiieiaiey;
i?aaeaea i?yiia, iaiin?aaenoaaiiia iaoa caiiieiaiea noaiiaeony
iiin?aaenoaaiiui”.

A oi?ie?iaaiee aioo?aiieo n?aaenoa caiiieiaiey oeaio?aeueiay ?ieue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?a/e. ?a/ue yaeyaony iniiaiui n?aaenoaii /aeiaa/aneiai
iauaiey. Aaaeii ioee/aoue ycue io ?a/e. sscue – yoi nenoaia oneiaiuo
neiaieia, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo ia?aaeathony ni/aoaiey caoeia, eiathuea
aeey ethaeae ii?aaeaeaiiua cia/aiey e niune. ?a/ue aea yoi niaieoiiinoue
i?ieciineiuo eee aini?eieiaaiuo caoeia, eiathueo oio aea niune e oi aea
cia/aiea, /oi e niioaaonoaothuay ei nenoaia ienueiaiiuo ciaeia.

Iia yaeyaony ia oieueei n?aaenoaii iauaiey, ii e n?aaenoaii iuoeaiey,
iineoaeai niciaiey, iaiyoe, eioi?iaoeee, n?aaenoaii oi?aaeaiey
iiaaaeaieai ae?oaeo ethaeae e ?aaoeyoeee nianoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey
/aeiaaea. Nianoaaiii iiiaeanoao aa ooieoeee ?a/ue yaeyaony iieeii?oiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, o.a. a naieo ?acee/iuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iacia/aieyo
i?aaenoaaeaia a ?aciuo oi?iao: aiaoiae, aioo?aiiae, iiiieiaa, aeeaeiaa,
ienueiaiiie, onoiie e o.ae.

Onaiaiea ?a/e ?aaaieii ia/eiaaony n auaeaeaiey ?a/aauo neaiaeia ec anae
niaieoiiinoe caoeiauo ?acae?aaeeoaeae. Caoai a aai aini?eyoee yoe
neaiaeu iauaaeeiythony a ii?oaiu, neiaa, i?aaeeiaeaiey, o?acu. Ia aaca
eo oi?ie?oaony nayciay, iniuneaiiay aiaoiyy ?a/ue, ianeoaeeaathuay
iauaiea e iuoeaiea. I?ioeann ia?aaiaea iunee a neiai eaeao a ia?aoiii
iai?aaeaiee.

A.I. Nieieia [65, c. 47] iieacae, /oi a i?ioeanna iuoeaiey aioo?aiiyy
?a/ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeoeaiue a?oeeoeyoeeiiiue, ianiciaaaaiue
i?ioeann, aani?aiyonoaaiiia oa/aiea eioi?iai i/aiue aaaeii aeey
?aaeecaoeee oao ineoieiae/aneeo ooieoeee, a eioi?uo aioo?aiiyy ?a/ue
i?eieiaao o/anoea.

Aia/aoeaiey, eioi?ua /aeiaae iieo/aao ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a, inoaaeytho
ii?aaeaeaiiue neaae, nio?aiythony, cae?aieythony, a i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe e
aiciiaeiinoe – aini?iecaiaeyony. Yoe i?ioeannu iacuaathony iaiyoueth.
“Aac iaiyoe, – ienae N.E. ?oaeiooaei, – iu auee au nouanoaaie iaiiaaiey.
Iaoa i?ioeia auei au ia?oai aeey aoaeouaai. Ianoiyuaa, ii ia?a aai
i?ioaeaiey, aacaica?aoii en/acaei au a i?ioeii”. O /aeiaaea anoue o?e
aeaea iaiyoe: i?iecaieueiay, eiae/aneay e iiin?aaenoaiaaiiay. Ia?aay
naycaia n oe?ieei aieaaui eiio?ieai caiiieiaiey, aoi?ay – n
oiio?aaeaieai eiaeee, o?aouey n eniieueciaaieai ?aciiia?aciuo n?aaenoa
caiiieiaiey, aieueoae /anoueth i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a aeaea i?aaeiaoia
iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u.

Iniiaiua aeaeu iaiyoe:

Iaiiaaiiay, eee eeiie/aneay; iaiyoue naycaia n oaea?aeaieai oi/iie e
iieiie ea?oeiu oieueei /oi aini?eiyoiai i?aaiaie /oanoa, aac eaeie au oi
ie auei ia?a?aaioee iieo/aiiie eioi?iaoeee.

Aiia?aaeaiea iiaeao auoue /aou?ao iniiaiuo aeaeia: aeoeaiia, ianneaiia,
i?iaeoeoeaiia e ?ai?iaeoeoeaiia. Aeoeaiia aiia?aaeaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony
oai, /oi, iieuecoynue ei, /aeiaae ii nianoaaiiiio aeaeaieth, oneeeai
aiee aucuaaao o naay niioaaonoaothuea ia?acu. I?iaeoeoeaiia aiia?aaeaiea
ioee/aaony oai, /oi a iai aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue niciaoaeueii
eiino?oe?oaony /aeiaaeii, a ia i?inoi iaoaie/anee eiie?oaony eee
ainnicaeaaony. Ii i?e yoii a ia?aca iia ana aea oai?/anee i?aia?acoaony.
A ?ai?iaeoeoeaiii aiia?aaeaiee noaiiaeony caaea/a aini?iecaanoe
?aaeueiinoue a oii aeaea, eaeiaa iia anoue.

A aeecie /aeiaaea aiia?aaeaiea auiieiyao ?yae niaoeeoe/aneeo ooieoeee.
Ia?aay ec ieo ninoieo a oii, /oiau i?aaenoaaeoue aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue a
ia?acao e eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue iieueciaaoueny eie, ?aoay caaea/e. Aoi?ay
ninoieo a ?aaoee?iaaiee yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee. O?aouey naycaia n aai
o/anoeai a i?iecaieueiie ?aaoeyoeee iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia e
ninoiyiee /aeiaaea. *aoaa?oay ooieoeey ninoieo a oi?ie?iaaiee
aioo?aiiaai ieaia aeaenoaee – niiniaiinoe auiieiyoue eo a oia,
iaieioee?oy ia?acaie. Iyoay ooieoeey – yoi ieaie?iaaiea e
i?ia?aiie?iaaiea aeayoaeueiinoe, ninoaaeaiea oaeeo i?ia?aii, ioeaiea eo
i?aaeeueiinoe, i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee.

“Aiaeec iieacuaaao, – ienae E.N. Auaiaeneee [16, c. 6-164], /oi iuoeaiea
?aaaiea ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony aai iaiyoueth… Iuneeoue aeey ?aaaiea
?aiiaai aic?anoa – cia/eo aniiieiaoue… ieeiaaea iuoeaiea ia
iaia?oaeeaaao oaeie ei??aeyoeee n iaiyoueth, eae a oaeii ?aiiai
aic?anoa. Iuoeaiea caeanue ?acaeaaaony a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caaeneiinoe
io iaiyoe”.

Oai?aoe/aneia iiiyoeeiia iuoeaiea – yoi oaeia iuoeaiea, iieuecoynue
eioi?ui /aeiaae a i?ioeanna ?aoaiey caaea/e ia?auaaony e iiiyoeyi,
auiieiyao aeaenoaey a oia, iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia eiay aeaei n iiuoii,
iieo/aaiui i?e iiiiue i?aaiia /oanoa.

Oai?aoe/aneia ia?aciia iuoeaiea – iaoa?eae, eioi?ue /aeiaae eniieuecoao
aeey ?aoaiey caaea/, yaeyaony ia?aciui. Iie eee iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ecaeaeathony ec iaiyoe, eee oai?/anee ainnicaeathony aiia?aaeaieai.

Iaaeyaeii-ia?aciia iuoeaiea ninoieo a oii, /oi iuneeoaeueiue i?ioeann a
iai iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycai n aini?eyoeai iuneyuei /aeiaaeii
ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e aac iaai niaa?oaoueny ia iiaeao.
Aeaiiay oi?ia iaeaieaa iieii e ?acaa?iooi i?aaenoaaeaia o aeaoae
aeioeieueiiai e ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa.

Iaaeyaeii-aeaenoaeoaeueiia iuoeaiea – i?ioeann iuoeaiey i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie i?aeoe/aneoth i?aia?aciaaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue,
inouanoaeyaioth /aeiaaeii n ?aaeueiuie i?aaeiaoaie.

A iaoae no?aia iaeaieaa oe?ieia i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea iieo/eea oai?ey
oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey eioaeeaeooaeueiuo iia?aoeee, ?ac?aaioaiiay
I.ss. Aaeueia?eiui [19, c. 63-74]. A iniiao aeaiiie oai?ee auei
iieiaeaii i?aaenoaaeaiea i aaiaoe/aneie caaeneiinoe aioo?aiieie
eioaeeaeooaeueiuie iia?aoeeyie e aiaoieie i?aeoe/aneeie aeaenoaeyie.
?aiaa yoi iieiaeaiea iieo/eei ?ac?aaioeo ai o?aioeocneie ineoieiae/aneie
oeiea (A. Aaeeii) e a o?oaeao AE. Ieaaea. Ia iai iniiauaaee naie
oai?aoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua ?aaiou E.N. Auaiaeneee, A.I.
Eaiioueaa, A.A. Aeaauaeia, A.A. Caii?iaeaoe e iiiaea ae?oaea.

I.ss. Aaeueia?ei [19, c. 63-74] ?ac?aaioae oai?eth oi?ie?iaaiey
iuoeaiey iieo/eaoay iacaaiea eiioeaioeee ieaiiia?iiai oi?ie?iaaiey
oinoaaiiuo aeaenoaee. Aaeueia?ei auaeaeee yoaiu eioa?ei?ecaoeee aiaoieo
aeaenoaee, ii?aaeaeee oneiaey, iaania/eaathuea eo iaeaieaa iieiue e
yooaeoeaiue ia?aaiae ai aioo?aiiea aeaenoaey n caaeaiiuie naienoaaie.

Iniaia ianoi a enneaaeiaaieyo, iinayuaiiuo ?acaeoeth iuoeaiey,
i?eiaaeeaaeao eco/aieth i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey iiiyoee.

Ia?aciaaiea iiiyoee – ?acoeueoao aeeeoaeueiie, neiaeiie e aeoeaiie
oinoaaiiie, eiiioieeaoeaiie e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae,
i?ioeanna eo iuoeaiey. Ia?aciaaiea iiiyoee o eiaeeaeaea naieie ei?iyie
ooiaeeo a aeoaieia aeaonoai. E.N. Auaiaeneee e E.N. Naoa?ia [16, c.
6-164] auee iaeieie ec ia?auo o/aiuo-ineoieiaia a iaoae no?aia, eoi
aeaoaeueii enneaaeiaae yoio i?ioeann. N iiiiuueth yoie iaoiaeeee auei
onoaiiaeaii, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea iiiyoee o aeaoae i?ioiaeeo /a?ac 3
iniiaiua nooiaie:

1. Ia?aciaaiea iaioi?ieaiiiai, iaoii?yaei/aiiiai iiiaeanoaa ioaeaeueiuo
i?aaeiaoia, eo neie?aoe/aneiai noeaieaiey, iaicia/aaiiai iaeiei neiaii.

2. Ia?aciaaiea iiiyoee-eiiieaenia ia iniiaa iaeioi?uo iauaeoeaiuo
i?eciaeia.

3. Ia?aciaaiea ianoiyueo iiiyoee.

Neie?aoe/aneia iuoeaiea e iuoeaiea a iiiyoeyo-eiiieaenao oa?aeoa?iu aeey
aeaoae ?aiiaai, aeioeieueiiai e ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa.

O/anoea iuoeaiey a i?ioeannao iiciaiey.

Iieiioeaiiia /aeiaa/aneia iiciaiea ie?oaeathuaai ie?a aac iuoeaiey e
?a/e auei au i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii. A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aeeauo
nouanoa /aeiaae nio?aiyao e ia?aaeaao ethaeyi naie iunee e /oanoaa, a
aeey yoiai aio iaiaoiaeeia ?a/ue. Aac iaa iaaiciiaeia auea au aiaoiyy
oi?ia /aeiaa/aneiai eioaeeaeoa neiaanii-eiae/aneia iuoeaiea.
I?aeoe/anee ana iao/iua ciaiey, eioi?ua iaeiieei /aeiaa/anoai n
iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai, i?aaenoaaeaiu a neiaaniie oi?ia. Ana i?aaeiaou
iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u, eioi?uie ethaee iieuecothony aeey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey naieo eioa?ania e iio?aaiinoae, eiatho iacaaiey, ana iie
nicaeaiu i?e o/anoee iuoeaiey.

Eeoeaoenue iuoeaiey, /aeiaae ia?anoae au aiiaua auoue /aeiaaeii, ii
n?aco aea i?aa?aoeeny au a aanneiaaniia aeeaioiia. Iuneue /aeiaaea a
i?ioeanna iiciaiey i?aeoe/anee o/anoaoao ai anao aai aeaeao, aac iaa ia
iiaoo nouanoaiaaoue ie iuouaiey, ie aini?eyoea, ie aiia?aaeaiea, ie
iaiyoue, oae eae ai anao i?ioeannao /aeiaaeo iinoiyiii i?eoiaeeony
?aoaoue ?aciiia?aciua caaea/e.

?ieue aieiaiey, niciaoaeueiiai e aanniciaoaeueiiai a iiciaiee.

Iiae aieiaieai iiieiaaony ecae?aoaeueiinoue a ?aaioa anao i?aaiia
/oanoa.

Aieiaiea n?aaee anao iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia auiieiyao iniaoth ?ieue.
Iia ninoieo a oii, /oiau, ai-ia?auo, ?acaeaeeoue anth aini?eieiaaioth e
iaia?a?aaaouaaaioth /aeiaaeii eioi?iaoeeth ia /anoe ii noaiaie eo
aaaeiinoe; ai-aoi?uo, niinianoaiaaoue auaeaeaieth e iaeeo/oae
ineoieiae/aneie ia?a?aaioea eiaiii oie /anoe eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay a
aeaiiue iiiaio iaeaieaa nouanoaaiia. Ia?aue aeae aieiaiey iacuaaaony
/oanoaaiiui, a aoi?ie – eioaeeaeooaeueiui.

Anoue ianeieueei o?iaiae ineoieiae/aneiai ?acaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee ii
noaiaie aa cia/aiey: niciaoaeueiue, iieoniciaoaeueiue e
aanniciaoaeueiue. Niciaoaeueiue – yoi o?iaaiue, naycaiiue n
iaoeaio?e?iaaiiui aieiaieai. Ii aeeth/aao a naay oo /anoue iieo/aaiuo
/aeiaaeii naaaeaiee i ie?a, eioi?ay aini?eieiaaony iaeaieaa io/aoeeai.

Iieoniciaiea niaea?aeeo a naaa oi, /oi aini?eieiaaony n ?annayiiui
aieiaieai, ia anaaaea iniciaaony e a aeaiiue iiiaio ia iniaaiii aaaeii
aeey /aeiaaea. Oai ia iaiaa, yoi iiaeao auoue iniciaii e iienaii
neiaaie, o.e. i?aaenoaaeyaony a ?aaeueiuo iuouaieyo e ia?acao.

Aanniciaoaeueiia – yoi oa /anoue aini?eieiaaiie eioi?iaoeee e
ia?a?aaaouaaaiie /aeiaaeii eioi?iaoeee, eioi?oth ii aiiaua ia iniciaao e
a aeaiiia a?aiy ia iiaeao iienaoue neiaaie eee i?aaenoaaeoue a iuouaieyo
e ia?acao. Yoi oi, /oi ia iaoiaeeony e aiiaua ia iiaeao auoue a noa?a
aieiaiey a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie. Iai?eia?, /aeiaae iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoue aieiaoaeueii eaeoth-oi aeaoaeue ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ea?oeiu.
A yoio iiiaio iia aoaeao i?aaenoaaeaia a noa?a aai niciaiey. A oi aea
naiia a?aiy naiei ia?eoa?e/aneei niciaieai /aeiaae iiaeao
iieoniciaoaeueii aini?eieiaoue ianoaiiaeo a iiiauaiee, aaea iaoiaeeony
ea?oeia, iooe iaiaoiaeeiinoe iienaoue aa. Ii ie a aeaiiue iiiaio, ie a
eaeie-eeai ae?oaie ii ia iiaeao ii?aaeaeaiii e oaaaeeoaeueii iauynieoue
, a cia/eo – iniciaoue e iienaoue neiaaie oi, ii/aio aai aieiaiea
i?eaeaeea eiaiii yoa, a ia eaeay-ieaoaeue ae?oaay aeaoaeue ea?oeiu.

Eaaeaeue ec iacaaiiuo i?eciaeia: niciaiea, iieoniciaiea e
aanniciaoaeueiia – auiieiyao a aeecie /aeiaaea e a iiciaiee ei
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a naith, niaoeeoe/aneoth ooieoeeth. Niciaiea i?e iiiiue
aieiaiey auaeaeyao a ie?oaeathuai iaeaieaa aaaeioth aeey /aeiaaea a
aeaiiue iiiaio /anoue eioi?iaoeee; iieoniciaiea aeeth/aao a naay oi, /oi
iiaeao a ethaie iiiaio iiiaaeiaeoueny aeey ?acoiiie i?aaiecaoeee
iiaaaeaiey, ii nae/an aua ia iniaaiii iaiaoiaeeii; aanniciaoaeueiia
niaea?aeeo oi, /oi aaaeii aeey oi?aaeaiey iiaaaeaieai e ?aaioie
i?aaiecia /aeiaaea ia o?iaia ?aoeaenia.

Nouanoaotho ?aciua ineoieiae/aneea oai?ee aieiaiey. Iaeia ec iaeaieaa
ecaanoiuo – iioi?iay oai?ey aieiaiey O. ?eai. Ii, n/eoae, /oi aieiaiea,
iacaaeneii io oiai, yaeyaony iii ineaaeaiiui eee oneeaiiui, anaaaea
naycaiii n yiioeeyie e aucuaaaony eie.

Eiaaony aua iaeia oai?ey, oai?ey onoaiiaee, i?aaeeiaeaiiay ss.I.
Ociaaeca. Onoaiiaea, ii iiaieth ss.I. Ociaaeca [68,c. 266], iai?yioth
naycaia n aieiaieai. “Ia iniiaa aeooaeueiie a eaaeaeii aeaiiii neo/aa
onoaiiaee a niciaiee noauaeoa au?anoaao ?yae ineoe/aneeo niaea?aeaiee,
ia?aaeeaaaiuo ei n aeinoaoi/iie noaiaiueth yniinoe e io/aoeeainoe aeey
oiai, /oiau… auoue a ninoiyiee i?eaioe?iaaoueny a oneiaeyo neooaoeee”.

Eioa?anioth oai?aoe/aneoth eiioeaioeeth i?aaeeiaeee I.ss. Aaeueia?ei.

Aeaeu aieiaiey:

I?e?iaeiia aieiaiea aeaii /aeiaaeo n naiiai aai ?iaeaeaiey a aeaea
a?iaeaeaiiie niiniaiinoe ecae?aoaeueii ?aaae?iaaoue ia oa eee eiua
aiaoiea eee aioo?aiiea noeioeu, ianouea a naaa yeaiaio eioi?iaoeeiiiie
iiaeciu.

Nioeeaeueii-iaoneiaeaiiia aieiaiea neeaaeuaaaony i?eaeeciaiii a
?acoeueoaoa iao/aiey e ainieoaiey naycaii n aieaaie ?aaoeyoeeae
iiaaaeaiey, n ecae?aoaeueiui ?aaae?iaaieai ia iauaeou.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aieiaiea ia oi?aaeyaony ieeai, e?iia oiai iauaeoa, ia
eioi?ue iii iai?aaeaii e eioi?ue niioaaonoaoao aeooaeueiui eioa?anai e
iio?aaiinoyi /aeiaaea. Iiin?aaeiaaiiia aieiaiea ?aaoee?oaony n iiiiuueth
niaoeeaeueiuo n?aaenoa (oanoia, neia e ae?.).

Enoi?eth ?acaeoey aieiaiey, iuoaeny i?ineaaeeoue E.N. Auaiaeneee [16,
c. 6-164] a ?acaeaea naiae eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie eiioeaioeee eo
oi?ie?iaaiey. Eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea aieiaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi i?e
iiiiue ac?ineiai ?aaaiie onaaeaaao ?yae eneonnoaaiiuo noeioeia –
n?aaenoa, iin?aaenoaii eioi?uo ii aeaeueoa iai?aaeyao naia nianoaaiiia
iiaaaeaiea e aieiaiea.

Iauay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey aieiaiey ii E.N.
Auaiaeneiio [16, c. 6-164] ninoieo a neaaeothuai: “Nia/aea ethaee
aeaenoaotho ii ioiioaieth e ?aaaieo, caoai ii nai anooiaao ai
acaeiiaeaenoaea n ie?oaeathueie, iaeiiaoe, ii ia/eiaao aeaenoaiaaoue ia
ae?oaeo e oieueei a eiioea ia/eiaao aeaenoaiaaoue ia naay… Aia/aea
ac?ineue iai?aaeyao aai aieiaiea neiaaie ia ie?oaeathuea aai aaue e
au?aaaouaaao, o.i., ec neia iiaouanoaaiiua noeioeu – oeacaiey, caoai
?aaaiie ia/eiaao aeoeaii o/anoaiaaoue a yoii oeacaiee e nai ia/eiaao
iieueciaaoueny neiaii e caoeii eae n?aaenoaii oeacaiey, o.a. ia?auaoue
aieiaiea ac?ineuo ia eioa?anothuee aai i?aaeiao”.

A oeieueiii aic?anoa ianooiaao ia?aeii a ?acaeoee , eioi?ue
oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi ia?aiia/aeueii aiaoia iiin?aaenoaiaaiiia
aieiaiea iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaaony ai aioo?aiiaa iiin?aaenoaiaaiiia, e ni
a?aiaiai caieiaao iniiaiia ianoi n?aaee anao aai aeaeia.

?acthia.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe a iao/aiee iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe:

aii?oaeaao ciaieyie, oiaieyie, iaaueaie;

niaeaenoaoao ainieoaieth ie?iaicc?aiey, i?aanoaaiiuo, ynoaoe/aneeo
ea/anoa o/aueony;

?acaeaaao eo iiciaaaoaeueiua neeu, ee/iinoiia ia?aciaaiea, aeoeaiinoue,
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, iiciaaaoaeueiue eioa?an auyaeyao e ?aaeecoao
iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe o/aueony;

i?eiauaao e iieneiaie e oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ea?a:

niaeaenoaoao ?acaeoeth iiciaaaoaeueiuo nee o/aueony;

noeioee?oao oai?/aneea i?ioeannu eo aeayoaeueiinoe;

niinianoaoao ?ac?yaeea iai?yaeaiiinoe;

nieiaao ooiieaiea;

nicaeaao aeaaiiieo/ioth aoiinoa?o o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, ioneaaeeaaao
o/aaioth aeayoaeueiinoue;

niaeaenoaoao ?acaeoeth eioa?ana e o/aieth;

Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue:

niaeaenoaoao ynoaoe/aneiio ainieoaieth e inaiaieth aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe;

?acaeaaao ooaeiaeanoaaiiue e?oaici?;

oi?ie?oao oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee a iaeanoe eneonnoaa

iaiaauaao yiioeeiiaeueioth noa?o oeieu

auyaeyao e ?acaeaaao oai?/aneea niiniaiinoe o/aueony.

§2. Eiiiuethoa?iia iao/aiea a ia/aeueiuo eeannao.

Ao?iia ?acaeoea iiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e aiaae?aiea eo a
?innee iineaaeiea iyoue eao iaeiaeeee ii?aaeaeaiiue ioia/aoie ia
?acaeoea ee/iinoe nia?aiaiiiai ?aaaiea. Iiuiue iioie iiaie eioi?iaoeee,
?aeeaiu, i?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?iuo oaoiieiaee a oaeaaeaeaiee,
?ani?ino?aiaiea ea?iauo i?enoaaie, yeaeo?iiiuo ea?ooae e eiiiuethoa?ia
ieacuaatho aieueoia aeeyiea ia ainieoaiea ?aaaiea e aai aini?eyoea
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a. Nouanoaaiii eciaiyaony e oa?aeoa? aai ethaeiie
i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe – ea?u, eciaiythony e aai ethaeiua aa?ie e
oaea/aiey.

Ia/eiay o/eoueny a oeiea, ii iiaeao ii/oanoaiaaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue
aeeneiioi?o. Ia ai anao oeieao naaiaeiy aua anoue iniauaiiua
oaoiieiae/aneea eeannu, onoa?aaoea o/aaiua i?ia?aiiu e iaoiaee/aneea
i?eaiu i?eaiaeyo e nouanoaaiiiio nieaeaieth iioeaaoeee o/aiey
oeieueieeia, canoaaeyy aaeoi/eauo iaaeaaiaia eneaoue aieaa nia?aiaiiua
n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu iao/aiey.

Iaeiei ec oaeeo n?aaenoa, iaeaaeathueo oieeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie e
oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo e ai?iae?iaaiiuo a oeieao eiaeono?eaeueii
?acaeouo aea?aeaa, e yaeyaony eiiiuethoa?.

Ni/aoay a naaa aiciiaeiinoe oaeaaeci?a, aeaeaiiaaieoioiia, eieae,
eaeueeoeyoi?a, yaeyynue oieaa?naeueiie ea?ooeie, niiniaiie eieoe?iaaoue
ae?oaea ea?ooee e naiua ?acee/iua ea?u, nia?aiaiiue eiiiuethoa? aianoa
n oai yaeyaony aeey ?aaaiea oai ?aaiii?aaiui ia?oia?ii, niiniaiui
i/aiue oiiei ?aaae?iaaoue ia aai aeaenoaey e cai?inu, eioi?iai aio oae
ii?ie ia oaaoaao. Oa?iaeeaue oiaa?eu e ioae?ue ianoaaiee, oai?aoe
neaci/iee ie?ia e ia?niiaeee, aa?oeia eioaeeaeooaeueiuo aeinoeaeaiee
/aeiaa/anoaa, eiiiuethoa? ea?aao ana aieueooth ?ieue a aeinoaiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe nia?aiaiiuo aeaoae e a oi?ie?iaaiee eo ineoioece/aneeo
ea/anoa e ?acaeoee ee/iinoe. Eniieueciaaiea eiiiuethoa?ia a o/aaiie e
aiao?i/iie aeayoaeueiinoe oeieu auaeyaeeo i/aiue anoanoaaiiui n oi/ee
c?aiey ?aaaiea e yaeyaony iaeiei ec yooaeoeaiuo niiniaia iiauoaiey
iioeaaoeee e eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee aai o/aiey, ?acaeoey oai?/aneeo
niiniaiinoae e nicaeaiey aeaaiiieo/iiai yiioeeiiaeueiiai oiia.

Aeey eniieueciaaiey ea?iauo ?acaeaathueo eiiiuethoa?iuo n?aaenoa
iao/aiey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia Oeaio?ii iiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee
Eaeeieia?aaeneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa naycaii n iaaeaaiaaie
oeieu-eeoeay ?23 e n?aaeiae oeieu ?97 ?ac?aaaouaaaony e oniaoii
i?eiaiyaony a yoeo oeieao a oa/aiee o?ao eao i?ia?aiiu – iaoiaee/aneee
eiiieaen “?aaeoaa a eiiiuethoa?a”. Aai ia?aay aa?ney i?aaeiacia/aiiay
aeey i?eiaiaiey a 1 eeanna, iaeia?aia Oaaea?aeueiui yenia?oiui niaaoii
ii iauaio ia?aciaaieth Ieienoa?noaa ii iauaio ia?aciaaieth Ieienoa?noaa
ia?aciaaiey ?innee e ?aeiiaiaeiaaia e ecaeaieth e eniieueciaaieth a
ia/aeueiie oeiea.

Iniiaa eiiieaena – iao/athuea e ?acaeaathuea eiiiuethoa?iua ea?u,
neoaeauea aeey onaiaiey e cae?aieaiey oeieueiie o/aaiie i?ia?aiiu.

Eiiiuethoa?iay ea?a eiiieaena i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ea?iaoth n?aaeo ia
ye?aia eiiiuethoa?a, iaiiieiathuoth ioeueooeeuei. A yoie n?aaea a
niioaaonoaee n iinoaaeaiiuie ia?aae iei caaea/aie ?aaaiie iiaeao
auiieiyoue ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeoe/aneea aeaenoaey, eniieuecoy naie
niiniaiinoe, iaauee e ciaiey. Ea?iaay eiiiuethoa?iay n?aaea,
niaaeeiyynue n eiie?aoiie o/aaiie caaea/ae, iicaieyao ?aaaieo onaaeaaoue
iaoa?eae eae au iacaiaoii aeey naay, e i?e yoii, /oi i/aiue aaaeii,
eniieueciaaoue aai a naiae ethaeiie i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe –
eniieueciaaiea iaieioeyoi?a “Iuoue” iicaieyao o/aieeo auno?i inaieoue
?aaioo ia eiiiuethoa?a.

Ea?u eiiieaena iiaoo i?iaiaeeoueny eae n o/anoeai iaeiiai o/aieea, oae e
n o/anoeai aeaoo. Eiio?ieue ca oiaeii auiieiaiey ea?u nii?iaiaeaeaaony
caoeiauie neaiaeaie. A ea/anoaa iiiu?aiey eniieuecothony iocueaeueiua
o?aaiaiou e yeaiaiou ioeueoeieeeaoeee.

Aeaaiaea?y aunieie nei?inoe aaiaea eioi?iaoeee iao/aiey iiaeao
i?ioiaeeoue a eioaineaiii ?aaeeia, a ?acee/iua caoeiaua e a?aoe/aneea
yooaeou ia oieueei aucuaatho yiioeeiiaeueiue iiaeuai, ii e iicaieytho
niyoue iai?yaeaiea e ?anneaaeoueny.

A eiiieaena – 12 ea?, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?acaeoea oaoieee ?aaiou n
iaieioeyoi?ii “Iuoue”, ?aaeoeee, aieiaiey e c?eoaeueiie iaiyoe,
eiiaeie?iaaiiiai iuoeaiey, aiaeeoe/aneeo e oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae,
?acaeoea iaaueia /oaiey, neiaeaiey /enae. Eae i?aaeei, ethaay
eiiiuethoa?iay ea?a ?acaeaaao n?aco ianeieueei iaaueia, aeaaiia, /oiau
yoi auei naeaeaii naiaa?aiaiii e i?eaeaeaoaeueii.

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth eiiieaena yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue aeaeiai
eniieueciaaiey aieueoeinoaa ec aai ea? aeey eco/aiey ?acee/iuo o/aaiuo
oai iooai caiaiu eo aeeaeaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea e iano?ieee ia
eiie?aoioth oaio eee o/aieea, a oaeaea ia?aie/aiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
ea?u ii a?aiaie eee ii eiee/anoao caaeaiee. Aeaeaaony yoi i?e iiiiue
niaoeeaeueiie eiiiuethoa?iie i?ia?aiiu “Eiino?oeoi? o?iea”,
i?aaeiacia/aiiie aeey o/eoaey eee oaoie/aneiai ?aaioieea eiiiuethoa?iiai
eeanna e o?aaothuae naiuo ieieiaeueiuo ciaiee e iaaueia ?aaiou n
eiiiuethoa?ii. Aieueoeinoai ea? i?aaeoniao?eaaao nio?aiaiea eo
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo i ?acoeueoaoao auiieiaiey caaeaiee. Iaoiaee/aneia
iiniaea ii ?aaioa n eiiiuethoa?ii iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue aai a
oa/aiea anaai o/aaiiai aiaea a i?ioeanna iao/aiey aeiiieieoaeueii e
oeiiaie o/aaiie i?ia?aiia.

O/eoaeth a eniieueciaaiee eiiieaena ioaiaeeony i/aiue aaaeiay ?ieue. Ii
iiaeae?aao ea?u e o?ieo, aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
caaeaiey, iiiiaaao o/aieeai a i?ioeanna ?aaiou ca eiiiuethoa?ii,
ioeaieaaao eo ciaiey e ?acaeoea. Eioaa?e?iaaiea iau/iiai o?iea n
eiiiuethoa?ii iicaieyao aio ia?aeiaeeoue /anoue naiae ?aaiou ia
eiiiuethoa?, aeaeay i?e yoii i?ioeann iao/aiey aieaa eioa?aniui e
eioaineaiui. I?e yoii eiiiuethoa? ia caiaiyao o/eoaey, a oieueei
aeiiieiyao aai. Iiaeai? eiiiuethoa?iuo ea? caaeneo i?aaeaea anaai io
oaeouaai o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea e o?iaiy iiaeaioiaee iao/aaiuo. Caeanue
eiiieaen i?aaeinoaaeyao iieioth naiaiaeo oai?/anee ?aaioathuaio o/eoaeth
e iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue aai n ?acee/iuie o/aaiuie i?ia?aiiaie e
iaoiaee/aneeie iiniaeyie.

A oneiaeyo oaeouaai ?anienaiey ?aaiou eiiiuethoa?iiai eeanna aeaee eeann
ia 2-3 a?oiiu, /oiau aeaoe iiaee ?aaioaoue ia eiiiuethoa?ao
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii eee oioy au ii aeaia. I?e oaeii niiniaa aeaoe
auiieiytho naiaia?aciua eaai?aoi?iua ?aaiou, i?eia?aoay ia o?ieao
ciaiey, ?acaeaay naie oiaiey e iaauee, caoai iie eniieuecotho eo ia
i?aeoeea, a ea?iaie aeayoaeueiinoe a eiiiuethoa?iii eeanna. Ia iaeiii
caiyoee iie iiaoo eniieueciaaoue 3-9 eiiiuethoa?iuo ea?. Oaiu ea?, eo
?aaeeiu e aeeaeaeoe/aneee iaoa?eae iiaoo auae?aoueny eae n oeaeueth
eco/aiey iiaiai iaoa?eaea, cae?aieaiey eee iiaoi?aiey, oie e aeey
eiio?iey ciaiee. Ca n/ao niaiu ea? e eo iaeie i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
(10-15 iei) o aeaoae nio?aiyaony aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaue eioa?an e
?aaioiniiniaiinoue ia caiyoee.

Nae/an iiaeaioiaeeanue e auioneo aoi?ay /anoue eiiieaena,
i?aaeiacia/aiiay aeey o/aueony 2 eeanna; e eaeao ?ac?aaioea aeey 3
eeanna. A ieo o/oaiu iaeiieaiiue iiuo e ineoieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe
aeaoae yoiai aic?anoa. A aeaeueiaeoai, a aieaa noa?oeo eeannao, aeey
i?iaeieaeaiey iao/aiey n i?eiaiaieai eiiiuethoa?ia, n o/aoii aic?anoiuo
e eioaeeaeooaeueiuo niiniaiinoae o/aueony, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oaeea
ecaanoiua ?ac?aaioee eae i?ia?aiiii-iaoiaee/aneee eiiieaen
“?iaioeaiaeey” ec Ia?aneaaey-Caeanneiai, naia?neee eo?n “Eioi?iaoeeiiiay
eoeueoo?a”, nenoaio “Logo-Writer”.

Eiiiuethoa? anoanoaaiii aienuaaaony a aeeciue oeieu e yaeyaony aua
iaeiei yooaeoeaiui oaoie/aneei n?aaenoaii, i?e iiiiue eioi?iai iiaeii
cia/eoaeueii ?aciiia?aceoue i?ioeann iao/aiey. Eaaeaeia caiyoea aucuaaao
o aeaoae yiioeeiiaeueiue iiaeuai, aeaaea ionoathuea o/aieee ioioii
?aaioatho n eiiiuethoa?ii, a iaoaea/iue oiae ea?u aneaaenoaea i?iaaeia
a ciaieyo iiaoaeaeaao /anoue ec ieo ia?auaoueny ca iiiiuueth e o/eoaeth
eee naiinoiyoaeueii aeiaeaaoueny ciaiee a ea?a. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yoio
iaoiae iao/aiey i/aiue i?eaeaeaoaeai e aeey o/eoaeae: iiiiaaao ei eo/oa
ioeaieoue niiniaiinoe e ciaiey ?aaaiea, iiiyoue aai, iiaoaeaeaao
eneaoue iiaua, iao?aaeeoeeiiiua oi?iu e iaoiaeu iao/aiey. Yoi aieueoay
iaeanoue aeey i?iyaeaiey oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae aeey iiiaeo: o/eoaeae,
iaoiaeenoia, ineoieiaia, anao, eoi oi/ao e oiaao ?aaioaoue, iiaeao
iiiyoue naaiaeiyoieo aeaoae, eo cai?inu e eioa?anu, eoi eo ethaeo e
ioaeaao ei naay.

Neaaeoao ee aeaoyi eniieueciaaoue eiiiuethoa?u a oeiea?

Iiiaea iaaeaaiae n/eoatho, /oi aea. O iaeioi?uo eiathony aic?iaeaeaiey
oeeinioneiai eee /enoi i?aeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a. Iaeiaei ana niaeaniu n
oai, /oi eaeay-oi aaeaioaoeey oeieu e eiiiuethoa?iiio aaeo iaiaoiaeeia.

Iauanoai i?aoa?iaaaao auno?ua e ooiaeaiaioaeueiua ia?aiaiu a no?oeoo?a e
iaeanoyo aeayoaeueiinoe. Ei?ie iiiaeo eciaiaiee e?ithony a iiauo
niiniaao nicaeaiey, o?aiaiey ia?aaea/e e eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeee. Iu
iaoiaeeiny a ninoiyiee ia?aoiaea io eiaeono?eaeueiiai aaea e
eioi?iaoeeiiiiio. Yoi icia/aao, a /anoiinoe, /oi ana aieueoaa /enei
ethaeae ana /aua noaeeeaaaony n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aaioee iinoiyiii
aic?anoathuaai iauaia eioi?iaoeee.

Eiiiuethoa?iua e eiiioieeaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee yaeytho niaie aiieia
i/aaeaeiua i?iyaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie ?aaiethoeee. Iiyoiio noaiiaeony
iiiyoiui oio i?enoaeueiue eioa?an, eioi?ue i?iyaeytho e eiiiuethoa?iie
a?aiioiinoe iaaeaaiae, caieiathueany iieneaie iooae aaeaioaoeee oeieu e
nia?aiaiiiio ie?o. Ana aieueoaa /enei ?iaeeoaeae, o/eoaeae e o/aueony
i?eoiaeyo e oaaaeaeaieth, /oi ?acoeueoaoa iieo/aiiuo ciaiee i
eiiiuethoa?ao e i?eia?aoaiiuo iaaueia ?aaiou ia ieo aeaoe aoaeoo eo/oa
iiaeaioiaeaiu e aeecie e iaoa?eaeueiiio aeaaiiieo/eth a iaiythuainy
ie?a.

*anoue ethaeae oaaaeaeaiu a oii, /oi eiiiuethoa? i?aaeinoaaeyao iiaua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey oai?/aneiai ?acaeoey aeaoae e eo o/eoaeae, iicaieyao
inaiaiaeeoueny io ioaeiiai o?aaeeoeeiiiiai eo?na iao/aiey e ?ac?aaioaoue
iiaua eaeae e n?aaenoaa au?aaeaiey, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?aoaoue aieaa
eioa?aniua e neiaeiua i?iaeaiu.

Oeaio?aeueiui ooiaeaiaioii a iieueco aaaaeaiey eo?na eiiiuethoa?iie
a?aiioiinoe aeey o/aueony ieaaeoeo eeannia yaeyaony i?eioeei
?aaiii?aaiiai aeinooia e ia?aciaaieth. Anee noaaeony caaea/a iao/eoue
aeaoae eniieueciaaoue aiciiaeiinoe au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, eco/aiea
eiiiuethoa?ia ia iiaeao auoue oaeaeii oieueei noa?oaeeannieeia.

?yae iaaeaaiaia niiiaaathony a ?aaeueiinoe aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae
eiiiuethoa?iie a?aiioiinoe a ieaaeoeo eeannao. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo
n/eoatho, /oi eiiiuethoa?u i?aaenoaaeytho ia /oi eiia, eae aua iaeii
n?aaenoai ioaea/aiey aieiaiey aeaoae a eeanna. Ae?oaea ianoaeaatho ia
oii, /oi iaaiciiaeii iiaeaioiaeoue o/eoaeae e eniieueciaaieth
eiiiuethoa?ia ia o?ieao e eiiiaoaioiiio iao/aieth aeaoae eiiiuethoa?iie
a?aiioiinoe aac na?ueaciie i?ioanneiiaeueiie iiaeaioiaee eo a iaeanoe
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieea. O?aouee au?aaeatho iianaiea, /oi iinoiyiiia
eniieueciaaiea eiiiuethoa?ia a oeiea i?eaaaeao e oaeiio iieiaeaieth,
eiaaea oeaeueiia iieieaiea ethaeae ia niiaeao neeaaeuaaoue e au/eouaaoue
/enea, anee ia aoaeao ?yaeii eiiiuethoa?a. Iaeiei ec na?ueaciuo
a?aoiaioia i?ioea aeeth/aiey eiiiuethoa?ia a niaea?aeaiea oeieueiiai
iao/aiey yaeyaony noieue auno?ia ?acaeoea au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, /oi
aeaaea iinoiyiii iaiiaeyaiay i?ia?aiia aoaeao o?iie/anee ionoaaaoue io
iaai.

Aua aieaa na?ueaciui aic?aaeaieai yaeyaony oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi aeaoe
aoaeoo ai?acaei iaiueoa iauaoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii, iineieueeo
cia/eoaeueioth /anoue a?aiaie iie aoaeoo i?iaiaeeoue ca eiiiuethoa?ii. A
yoie nayce au?aaeaaony iianaiea, /oi aeaoe, i?eaueoea e iauaieth n
eiiiuethoa?aie, aoaeoo ieacuaaoue aieaa aunieia i?aaeii/oaiea oaeei
oi?iai iauaiey, eioi?ui naienoaaiiu oi/iinoue e /aoeinoue, a ia
eiooeoeey eee iaiaeiicia/iinoue, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu aeey eneonnoaa e
aoiaieoa?iuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oeeinioey, ninoieo a oii, /oi o oeieu iao eiiai auai?a, e?iia eae
aaeaioaoeey aa e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio aaeo. Iciaeiieaiea n au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieeie yaeyaony oieueei /anoueth oaeie aaeaioaoeee. Iniiaiay aea
oeaeue aaeaioaoeee a oii, /oi aeaoae iaiaoiaeeii iao/eoue ia?aaaouaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth, ?aoaoue caaea/e, iauaoueny n ethaeueie e iiieiaoue nooue
eciaiaiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo a iauanoaa.

Anee eiiiuethoa?u iaeaaeatho oaie iiuiuie eioaeeaeooaeueiuie ea/anoaaie,
eioi?ua ei i?eienuaathony, oi eie iiaeii aiieia ainiieueciaaoueny aeey
aeinoeaeaiey e yoie oeaee. Oeaee eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee iao/aiey e
niaea?aeaiea o/aaii-ia?aciaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a oeiea aeieaeiu
auoue eioaa?e?iaaiu ia o?ieao iaoaiaoeee, iauanoaaiiuo aeenoeeieei,
anoanoaiciaiey e ?iaeiiai ycuea.

Oaeay eioaa?aoeey ia iiaeao auoue caaa?oaia a oa/aiea iaeiiai aiaea eee
noaoue ?acoeueoaoii ?aaeecaoeee eaeiai-oi i?iaeoa eee iaeiie?aoiiai
ia?aniio?a i?ia?aiiu eo?na iao/aiey. Iaiai?io, yoi i?ioeann, o eioi?iai
iao eiioea. Ii niaea?aeeo niaieoiiinoue iaueo oeaeae eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee
o/aaiiai i?ioeanna, ?aaeecaoeey eioi?iai aiciiaeia a ?acoeueoaoa
niaianoiie ?aaiou aaeieieno?aoeee, o/eoaeae e iaaeaaiaia,
niaoeeaeece?othueony ia ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii iao/aiey. ?aaeecaoeey yoeo
oeaeae aoaeao aa?uee?iaaoueny io oeieu e oeiea, io iaeiiai oeieueiiai
i?aaeiaoa e ae?oaiio, io o/eoaey e o/eoaeth, io iaeiiai aiaea iao/aiey e
ae?oaiio. Ii aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ana yoe aa?eaoeee aoaeoo
i?ienoiaeeoue a ?aieao iaueo oeaeae, ?anniao?eaaaiuo a ii?aaeaeaiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe, /oi iicaieeo eaaeaeiio o/aieeo ec aiaea a aiae
iiiieiyoue naie ciaiey e oi?ie?iaaoue iiaua i?aeoe/aneea iaauee ?aaiou
ia eiiiuethoa?ao ia iniiaa ?aiaa i?eia?aoaiiiai iiuoa. Iniiaiua iaoiaeu
e iiaeoiaeu e ?aoaieth caaea/, niiniau iaoeiiie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee e
nioeeaeueiua aniaeou eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee aoaeoo iinoaiaiii oneiaeiyoueny
e ianoaeaeaoueny ?acee/iuie niiniaaie a oa/aiea anaai oeeeea iao/aiey ia
o?ieao iaoaiaoeee, anoanoaiciaiey, iauanoaaiiuo aeenoeeieei e ?iaeiiai
ycuea. A oaeie neooaoeee eiiiuethoa? noaiao n?aaenoaii ?ani?ino?aiaiey e
iaiaia eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo o/aieeaie e o/eoaeyie. Anee aea
eiiiuethoa?iay aeayoaeueiinoue ia o?iea i?eaioe?iaaia ia iiaeaea?aeeo
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai eo?na iao/aiey, oi a yoii neo/aa iia ia oieueei ia
aoaeao ioaeaeaoue aeaoae io oeieueiiai i?aaeiaoa, a nei?aa aoaeao
niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth o ?aaaiea iiauoaiiiai eioa?ana e iaio. A oii
neo/aa, eiaaea iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony i?eioeeiai ia?aaioee
eioi?iaoeee e ?aoaiey caaea/, a ia oaoie/aneei oiieinoyi ono?ienoaa
eiiiuethoa?a, ?ene nicaeaiey oaeeo o/aaiuo eo?nia, eioi?ua aaciaaeaaeii
onoa?aaatho aua aei oiai, eae ii iei ia/eiatho o/eoue aeaoae, aoaeao
iaiueoa.

Eiiiuethoa? yaeyaony eeoue oi/eie oieona aeey oao eciaiaiee a
niaea?aeaiee iao/aiey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue inouanoaeaiu a ea/anoaa
ioaaoiie ?aaeoeee ia naeaeae, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a ie?a.

Ii n?aaiaieth n i?ioeui a iaoa a?aiy iieueciaaoueny eiiiuethoa?ii noaei
iaiiiai i?iua, aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ii “ae?oaeanoaaiiia” ii ioiioaieth e
iieueciaaoaeth i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea n i?inoui iaith e eaaei
auiieiyaiuie eino?oeoeeyie, a eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeyaony n iiiiuueth
/aoeeo a?aoe/aneeo ecia?aaeaiee e caoeiauo yooaeoia. *oiau canoaaeoue
eiiiuethoa? aeaeaoue oi, /oi au oioeoa, oaia?ue aiana iaiaycaoaeueii
aeaaeaoue i?ia?aiie?iaaieai. Ian iianthaeo ie?oaeaao iiaay oaoieea, e
aeey nia?aiaiiuo aeaoae eiiiuethoa? naaiaeiy no?aoai ia aieaa, /ai
noa?ainenoaia.

I?ia?aiie?iaaiea, eiia/ii, eioa?aniay e caieiaoaeueiay oooea (e e oiio
aea oi?ioee niinia ?acaeoey iaaueia ?aoaiey caaea/), iaeiaei oiaoue
i?ia?aiie?iaaoue eee ciaoue, eae io?aiiioe?iaaoue eiiiuethoa?
iieueciaaoaeth nianai iaiaycaoaeueii. Aaaeue ia anyeee iau/iue
aiaeeoaeue yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii e iiuoiui aaoiiaoaieeii.

Eiia/ii, nouanoaotho iniiau, eioi?ua aeieaeiu ciaoue aeaoe,
iieuecothueany eiiiuethoa?ii. Iie aeieaeiu iao/eoueny nio?aiyoue oaeeu,
ciaoue eeaaeaoo?o, ciaoue i?aaeea ia?auaiey n aeeneaie e o.ae.

Aeey ?ac?aaioee iiaiai aunieiea/anoaaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey
niaa?oaiii iaiaoiaeeii oaniia nio?oaeie/anoai eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
niaoeeaeenoia ii i?ia?aiiiiio iaania/aieth e iiuoiuo iaaeaaiaia
ia/aeueiuo eeannia. Eiaiii aeey naiuo ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia neaaeoao
o?aaiaaoue nicaeaiey naiiai eo/oaai, aeeaeaeoe/anee i?iaeoiaiiiai e
iioeae?iaaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Niaoeeaeueii auaeaeyai caiyoey ii eneonnoao, a eioi?uo iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu ?acee/iua a?aoe/aneea i?ia?aiiu, o.e. i?eiaiaiea
eiiiuethoa?ia a yoie iaeanoe aucaaei au iaaeiionoeiia ia?aie/aiea
aeaoneie iaiin?aaenoaaiiinoe e oai?/aneiai ia/aea: nia?aiaiiua
i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou cia/eoaeueii onooiatho oai?/aneei aiciiaeiinoyi
aeaoae.

Naeio? Iaeia?o ioaaoee ia aii?in, o?aaoaony ee ieaaeoei oeieueieeai
ycuee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, a naiae ecaanoiie eieaa “Ica?aiey” iaeiicia/ii:
“Aea”. Niaoeeaeueii aeey aeaoae ii i?eaeoiae ycue EIAI. Oai ia iaiaa,
/oiau iieo/eoue iainiiaaiiue ioaao ia iinoaaeaiiue aii?in, iaiaoiaeeiu
yenia?eiaiou. O/eouaay nia?aiaiiue o?iaaiue ?acaeoey au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee, iu neeiiiu e ioeaco io iao/aiey yenia?eiaioaeueiiio
i?ia?aiie?iaaieth a ieaaeoai oeieueiii aic?anoa. Aeaaiay iuneue i ?aaioa
N. Iaeia?oa – aeaoue ?aaaieo aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeyoue eiiiuethoa?ii, a
ia i?aa?auaoue ?aaaiea a iiae?o/iiai iaoeiu. Naaiaeiy, aeaaiaea?y iiaie
oaoieea yoio caiunae iiaeii ?aaeeciaaoue aieaa i?inoui iaoiaeii. N
iiiiuueth “iuoe” e iaith ieaaeoea oeieueieee iiaoo oai?/anee ?aaioaoue
ni neiaeiuie a?aoe/aneeie i?ia?aiiaie, oaenoiauie ?aaeaeoi?aie e
i?ia?aiiaie eiiiuethoa?iie aa?noee, ia eiay aeaaea iaaueia
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey.

Aeaaiaea?y yoei iiaui oaoiieiaeyi, eioi?ua anoanoaaiii, aoaeoo
niaa?oainoaiaaoueny, niaoeeaeueiua ciaiey ii YAI (?acee/iua ycuee
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, iaoiaeu ?ac?aaioee i?ia?aii e o.ae.) aoaeoo
o?aaiaaoueny eeoue io ia?aie/aiiiai e?oaa niaoeeaeenoia. O/eouaay oaeea
i?iaiicu, ca/ai i?eioaeaeaoue anao aeaoae e eco/aieth iiaeiaiuo
niaoeeaeueiuo aii?inia?

Noieo iiae/a?eiooue, a aoaeoueo yenia?eiaioao ia neaaeoao aeaeaoue oii?
ia aaaaeaiea ?acee/iuo oaoie/aneeo “iiaeiie”, i?aa?auathueo ia/aeueioth
oeieo a ioe?uoue ?uiie aeey iiaue oaoiieiaee. Iaaeaaiaeea ia/aeueiie
oeieu i?ecaaia naaiaeiy e?eoe/ii iiaeoiaeeoue e iaiythuaeny
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, ie?oaeathuae aeaoae a aunieioaoiieece?iaaiiii ie?a.
I?e yoii neaaeoao iauaeoeaii eco/aoue e n?aaieaaoue eae iaaaoeaiua
aicaeaenoaey, oae e iiceoeaiua aeeaeaeoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe iiauo
oaoiieiaee, /oiau au?aaioaoue i?eaioe?iaaiioth ia aoaeouaa iaoiaeeeo e
i?aeoeeo iino?iaiey o/aaiuo caiyoee a ia/aeueiie oeiea.

§3. Eniieueciaaiea eiiiuethoa?a ia o?ieao ECI.

Aeeaiacii eniieueciaaiey eiiiuethoa?a a o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiii i?ioeanna
i/aiue aaeee: i oanoe?iaaiey o/aueony, o/aoa eo ee/iinoiuo iniaaiiinoae
aei ea?u. Eiiiuethoa? iiaeao auoue eae iauaeoii eco/aiey, oae e
n?aaenoaii iao/aiey, o.a. aiciiaeiu aeaa aeaea iai?aaeaiey
eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee iao/aiey: eco/aiea eioi?iaoeee e oaeaea aai
eniieueciaaiea i?e eco/aiee ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia. I?e yoii eiiiuethoa?
yaeyaony iiuiui n?aaenoaii iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iao/aiey. Aua
ieeiaaea o/eoaey ia iieo/aee noieue iiuiiai n?aaenoaa iao/aiey.

Eiiiuethoa? cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ee aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeuyaeaiey o/aaiie
eioi?iaoeee. I?eiaiaiea oeaaoa, a?aoeee, caoea, nia?aiaiiuo n?aaenoa
aeaeaioaoieee iicaieyao iiaeaee?iaaoue ?acee/iua neooaoeee e n?aaeu.

Eiiiuethoa? iicaieyao oneeeoue iioeaaoeeth o/aieea. Ia oieueei iiaecia
?aaiou n eiiiuethoa?ii, eioi?ay naia ii naaa niinianoaoao iiauoaieth
eioa?ana e o/aaa, ii e aiciiaeiinoue ?aaoee?iaaoue i?aaeuyaeaiea o/aaiuo
caaea/ ii noaiaie o?oaeiinoe, iiiu?aiea i?aaeeueiuo ?aoaiee iiceoeaii
neacuaaaony ia iioeaaoeee.

E?iia oiai, eiiiuethoa? iicaieyao iieiinoueth ono?aieoue iaeio ec
aaaeiaeoeo i?e/ei io?eoeaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e o/aaa – iaoniao,
iaoneiaeaiiue iaiiieiaieai, cia/eoaeueiuie i?iaaeaie a ciaieyo. ?aaioay
ia eiiiuethoa?a, o/aiee iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue aeiaanoe ?aoaiea caaea/e
aei eiioea, iie?aynue ia iaiaoiaeeioth iiiiuue. Iaeiei ec enoi/ieeii
iioeaaoeee yaeyaony caieiaoaeueiinoue. Aiciiaeiinoe eiiiuethoa?a caeanue
iaen/a?iaaiu, e i/aiue aaaeii, /oiau yoa caieiaoaeueiinoue ia noaea
i?aaaee?othuei oaeoi?ii, /oiau iia ia caneiiyea o/aaiua oeaee.

Eiiiuethoa? iicaieyao nouanoaaiii eciaieoue niiniau oi?aaeaiey o/aaiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, iia?oaeay o/aueony a ii?aaeaeaiioth ea?iaoth
neooaoeeth, aeaaay aiciiaeiinoue o/aueiny cai?ineoue ii?aaeaeaiioth
oi?io iieiiue, eceaaay o/aaiue iaoa?eae n eeethno?aoeeyie, a?aoeeaie e
o.ae.

Cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ythony oeiu caaea/, n eioi?uie o/aueany ?aaioatho:
iiaeaee?iaaiea, ninoaaeaiea aeai?eoia, i?ia?aiie?iaaiea e o.ae.

Eiiiuethoa? iicaieyao ea/anoaaiii eciaieoue eiio?ieue ca
aeayoaeueiinoueth o/aueony, iaania/eaay i?e yoii aeaeinoue oi?aaeaiey
o/aaiui i?ioeannii. Eiiiuethoa? iicaieyao i?iaa?eoue ana ioaaou, a ai
iiiaeo neo/ayo ii ia oieueei oeene?oao ioeaeo, ii aeiaieueii oi/ii
ii?aaeaeyao aa oa?aeoa?, /oi iiiiaaao aia?aiy ono?aieoue i?e/eio,
iaoneaaeeaathuoth aa iiyaeaiea. O/aieee aieaa ioioii ioaa/atho
eiiiuethoa?o e anee eiiiuethoa? noaaeo ei aeaieeo, oi ai?yo aeaeaieai
eae iiaeii nei?aa aa eni?aaeoue. O/eoaeth ia ioaeii i?ecuaaoue o/aueony
e ii?yaeeo e aieiaieth. O/aiee ciaao, /oi anee ii ioaea/aony, oi ia
oniaao ?aoeoue i?eia? eee caienaoue neiai, o.e. ia ye?aia /a?ac 10-15 n
iiyaeony neaaeothuaa caaeaiea.

Eiiiuethoa? niinianoaoao oi?ie?iaaieth o o/aueony ?aoeaenee naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe, iicaieyao o/aueiny iaaeyaeii i?aaenoaaeoue ?acoeueoao
naieo aeaenoaee.

I?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee aeaeaao o?ie i?eaeaeaoaeueiui e
ii-ianoiyuaio nia?aiaiiui, i?ienoiaeeo eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeey iao/aiey,
eiio?ieue e iiaeaaaeaiea eoiaia i?ioiaeyo iauaeoeaii e naiaa?aiaiii.

?acaeoea iiciaaaoaeueiuo eioa?ania, oi?ie?iaaiea eioa?ania, iio?aaiinoae
ee/iinoe oeieueieea inouanoaeyaony ?acee/iuie n?aaenoaaie, a oii /enea e
n?aaenoaaie ecia?aceoaeueiua eneonnoaa.

Oniao caeanue iiaeao auoue iaania/ai eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea o/aueany
ia?yaeo n naiinoiyoaeueiie ecia?aceoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth
iiaeaioiaeai e aini?eyoeth ea?oei, ?enoieia, neoeueioo?, i?iecaaaeaiee
a?oeoaeoo?u e aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa.

O/eoaeue ia/aeueiie oeieu iaycai iao/eoue aeaoae o/eoueny, nio?aieoue e
?acaeoue iiciaaaoaeueioth iio?aaiinoue o/aueony, iaania/eoue
iiciaaaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey onaiaiey iniia iaoe.
Iiyoiio iaeia ec aeaaiuo oeaeae – ?acaeaaoue iiciaaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu.

Iiciaaaoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue ?acaeaaao iiciaaaoaeueiua i?ioeannu,
eiae/aneia iuoeaiea, aieiaiea, iaiyoue, ?a/ue, aiia?aaeaiea,
iiaeaea?aeeaaao eioa?an e iao/aieth. Ana yoe i?ioeannu acaeiinaycaiu.

Aeoeaece?iaaoue aieiaiea o/aieea, caeioa?aniaaoue a i?aaeeueiii
nicaeaiee ecia?aaeaiey iiiiaaao o/eoaeth eniieueciaaiea niaoeeaeueiuo
i?ia?aii YAI ii ecia?aceoaeueiiio Eneonnoao.

Oiaiea a?aiioii i?aaieciaaoue ?aaioo ia o?iea, nicaeaoue oneiaey
iai?eioaeaeaiiinoe e caeioa?aniaaiiinoe o anao o/aueony iicaieyao
o/eoaeth eniieueciaaoue aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe (iai?eia?,
i?eiaiaiea YAI) aeey ?acaeoey ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo niiniaiinoae eaaeaeiai
?aaaiea. Oaeay i?aaiecaoeey caiyoee iiiiaaao a aieaa ei?ioeia a?aiy
aniiiieoue e cae?aieoue oa ecia?aceoaeueiua i?eaiu, eioi?ua ecaanoiu
aeaoyi n aeioeieueiiai aic?anoa, iieiaa iaania/eoue iaeaaeaiea aiiaue
iieacaiiuie o/eoaeai.

?acaeaathuaa cia/aiea YAI aeey ?acaeoey niiniaiinoae ieaaeoaai
oeieueieea i/aiue aaeeei. I?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?ia ia o?iea ECI nicaeaao
yiioeeiiaeueiue iano?ie, yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, iieiaeeoaeueii
neacuaaaony ia ?acaeoee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa. Eco/ay aeai?u
aeeaiiene, e ciaeiiy aeaoae n iacaaieai oiai eee eiiai oaoie/aneiai
i?eaia, n iiaui ooaeiaeanoaaiiui iaoa?eaeii, oa?ieiii eniieuecoaony
eiiiuethoa?. Yoi aucuaaao aieueoie eioa?an o aeaoae e eco/aaiiio oa?ieio
eee iiiyoeth, iiauoaao aieiaiea e a oi aea a?aiy yaeyaony iiaoi?aieai
ecaanoiuo ?aiaa iacaaiee iaoa?eaeia e eino?oiaioia, oa?ieiia,
eniieuecoaiuo ooaeiaeieeii.

Iniaaiii aaaeii i?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?ia iinea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai
iauyniaiey iiaiai iaoa?eaea eee iiiaie?aoiiai iiaoi?aiey niiniaa
ecia?aaeaiey, /oiau niyoue o ?aaaiea onoaeinoue. N yoie oeaeueth iiaeii
eniieueciaaoue ea?iaua i?ia?aiiu, aaea, iai?eia?, aeaoyi i?aaeeaaaaony
?aceiaeeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ?ai?iaeoeoeee ea?oei n
ecia?aaeaieai ?aciuo a?aiai aiaea, ?aceiaeeoue eo ii aeai?ai,
iauaaeeieoue i?aaeiaou aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa a a?oiiu ii
aeaeai eee ninoaaeoue oci? ec ioaeaeueiuo ?aciuo i?aaeeaaaaiuo
yeaiaioia.

Aeeth/aiea ea?iauo i?aaeiaoia iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii e aeey
cae?aieaiey eco/aiiiai iaoa?eaea, iaiauaiey i?e iieaca iniiaiuo i?eaiia
?aaiou.

Eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo oi?i e i?eaiia ?aaiou ia o?iea
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa iicaieyao ?aaaieo aeoeaii aeeth/aoueny a
oai?/aneee i?ioeann, ?acaeaaoue aiia?aaeaiea e oaioaceth, iiiiaaao
aeaeaoue iiaia aai ?aoaiea a oie eee eiie oaoieea, iaiaauaoue
ia?aiia/aeueiue caiunae, e ?acoeueoao ecia?aceoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?eia?aoaao aieueooth au?aceoaeueiinoue. I?aaie/ii aeeth/aiea a oiae
caiyoey eiiiuethoa?ia, ioaeaeueiua i?eaiu ?aaiou a ?acee/iie oaoieea
nicaeatho iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey aeey ?acaeoey o aeaoae oai?/aneeo
niiniaiinoae ia o?ieao ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa.

Aeaaa 2. Eiiiuethoa?iia iao/aiea eae n?aaenoai ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia ia o?ieao ECI

§1. I?ia?aiiu “A?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? aeey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia” e “EIAI”

Iia iicaieyao ?eniaaoue e eiino?oe?iaaoue ?enoiee ia ye?aia aeenieay,
nio?aiyoue iieo/aiiua ecia?aaeaiey ia aeenea. A ea/anoaa “ea?aiaeaoa”
iiaoo aunooiaoue ?acee/iua oeao?u: oi/ee, e?oae, iieoe?oae,
o?aoaieueieee, ?aceiee. ?aaeaeoi? ?aniieaaaao neaaeothueie
aiciiaeiinoyie

Auai? ea?aiaeaoa (F1-iien aia?aae, F2-iien iacaae);

Eciaiaiea oeaaoa ea?aiaeaoa (F3);

Eciaiaiea oeaaoa oiia (F4);

I/enoea ye?aia (F5);

Caiiieiaiea ?enoiea (F6);

N/eouaaiea ?enoiea(F7);

?aaeaeoi? iicaieyao auiieiyoue ecia?aaeaiey ii i?aaeeaaaaiiio ?enoieo, a
oaeaea ii naiaio caiuneo.

Eae ecaanoii, nia?aiaiiua a?aoe/aneea ?aaeaeoi?u aeey ?acee/iuo
eiiiuethoa?ia n ?acee/iuie a?aoe/aneeie nenoaiaie iaeaaeatho aieueoeie
aiciiaeiinoyie a nicaeaiee e ?aaeaeoe?iaaiee ecia?aaeaiee iau/ii
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony auai? a?aoe/aneeo i?eieoeaia, onoaiiaeaiea eo
?acia?ia, auai? oeaaoiaie aaiiu, noe?aiaa ioeai/ii i?iaaaeaiiuo eeiee e
auiieiaiiuo ?enoieia e o.ae.

Aianoa n oai eco/aiea oaeeo ?aaeaeoi?ia ii?ie cao?oaeiaii ec-ca
inaiaiey aieueoiai /enea iia?aoeeiiiuo aeaenoaee. Iiyoiio, ia iao
acaeyae, aieaa oeaeaniia?acii i?aaeeaaaoue o/aueiny ia/aeueiie oeieu
aieaa i?inoua ?aaeaeoi?u, iiaeaee?othuea eeoue ioaeaeueiua
ooieoeeiiaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe “i?ioanneiiaeueiuo ?aaeaeoi?ia”. A ieo
iia?aoeeiiaeueiua iaauee ia aeieaeiu caoaiyoue aeayoaeueiinoue ,
naycaiioth n iino?iaieai ecia?aaeaiee.

I?aaeeaaaaiue a?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? iino?iai eiaiii ii yoiio i?eioeeio.
Eae iieacuaaao i?iaaaeaiiue yenia?eiaio, inaiaiea ieaaeoeie oeieueieeaie
?aaeeiia aai ?aaiou i?ienoiaeeo ca i/aiue ei?ioeia a?aiy 4-7 iei a 1
eeanna.

Yoi iicaieyao i/aiue auno?i aeeth/aoue oeieueieeia a ?aaioo ii
auiieiaieth ?acee/iuo ?enoieia.

Iu n/eoaai, /oi aeey o/aieeia a oaeea ?aaeaeoi?u aeieaeiu noaoue eo
“i?ioanneiiaeueiui” eino?oiaioii. Iiyoiio ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth oaeeo
?aaeaeoi?ia o?aaoao aeoaieiai iniuneaiey e aeieaeia auiieiyoueny
aeinoaoi/ii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiii (a aeaiiii neo/aa iu a aieueoae noaiaie
aeaeaai oii? ia ?aaeecaoeeth eaeae, e niaeaeaieth, ii?ie a oua?a
i?ia?aiiiiio eniieiaieth).

Aeaiiue a?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? iicaieyao ?acaeaaoue oi?ioee?iaaiiia ?aiaa
iieiaeaiea ia iia?e?iaaiee o/aueony iiiyoeyie “iauaeo”, “eiy”,
“cia/aiea”. Iai?eia?, iiaeii, i?aaeeaaay o/aueiny ?aaeueiua iauaeou
(ea?ooa/iua aaoiiiaeee, aeiieee e o.i.), iao/aoue eo nicaeaieth
(eiino?oe?iaaieth) ecia?aaeaiey ia ye?aia aeenieay, caoai caiiieiaieth
ecia?aaeaiee iiae iaeioi?ui eiaiai, auciao (n/eouaaieth) ecia?aaeaiey ii
oeacaiiiio eiaie.

E?iia oiai, aeeth/aiea ?aaeaeoi?a a o/aaioth aeayoaeueiinoue iicaieeo
anoanoaaiiui ia?acii ciaeiieoue o/aueony n ?acee/iuie aaiiao?e/aneeie
oeao?aie e iia?e?iaaieth n ieie.

Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao iaoiaeeea iao/aiey ?aaioa n a?aoe/aneei
?aaeaeoi?ii. Aia/aea o/aueiny ?anneacuaaaony i ?aaeeiao ?aaiou,
i?aaeeaaaaony eniuoaoue iaeioi?ua ?aaeeiu (iai?eia?, auai? ea?aiaeaoa,
eciaiaiea aai oeaaoa, eciaiaiea oeaaoa oiia ecia?aaeaiey), caoai
i?aaeeaaaaony auiieieoue eiie?aoiia caaeaiea ii ia?acoeo. Iinea yoiai
ianoaeaeathony ?aaeeiu caiiieiaiey e auciaa auiieiaiiuo ?enoieia. A
aeaeueiaeoai iiaeii ?aciiia?aceoue aeayoaeueiinoue o/aueony:
i?aaeeaaaoue aeey eiie?iaaiey ?acee/iua i?inoua e neiaeiua ?enoiee,
caoai i?iaiaeeoue iino?iaiea ?enoieia ?aaeueiuo iauaeoia.

Yoe i?ia?aiiu iao/aiey iai?aaeaiu ia ?acaeoea ?acee/iuo iiciaaaoaeueiuo
niiniaiinoae aeaoae. Neiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeyaony oai, /oi, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iaiaoiaeeii no?aieoueny e ?acaeoeth oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae
aeaoae, a n ae?oaie aeaaaoue ei ciaiey i ie?a nia?aiaiiuo eiiiuethoa?ia
a oaeaeaoaeueiie, eioa?aniie oi?ia. Iniiaiay oeaeue yoeo caiyoee –
iao/eoue ?anoouaai /aeiaaea naiinoiyoaeueii iuneeoue, ?acaeaaoue
oaioaceth e i?aeoe/anee aiieiuaoue naie eaeae n iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?a.
Iaeaieaa anoanoaaiiui, aeinooiiui e eioa?aniui i?aeoe/anee anai aeaoyi
ia ia/aeueiii yoaia iao/aiey yaeyaony i?ioeann ?eniaaiey. Iiaiea
nia?aiaiiuo o/aiuo: ?aaioa iaeueoeaie ?acaeaaao ?a/ue. A ?enoiea
iiaanoaiaaoue cia/eoaeueii i?iua. ?enoy, ?aaaiie io?aaeaao e
oii?yaei/eaaao naie ciaiey i ie?a. Iniciaao naay a iai. I?aaeaa?eoaeueii
ecia?acea niauoea, aio eaa/a ?anneacaoue i iai. Aio ii/aio, ii iiaieth
niaoeeaeenoia, ?eniaaoue oae aea iaiaoiaeeii, eae e ?acaiaa?eaaoue.

Iiyoiio iauaa ciaeiinoai n eiiiuethoa?aie, iaeiie ec ia?aie
naiinoiyoaeueiie oai?/aneie ?aaiou aeey aeaoae yaeyaony ?eniaaiea ia
ye?aia aeenieay. Ciaeiinoai n a?aoe/aneei ?aaeaeoi?ii – yoi ia oieueei
?eniaaiea, ii e iiciaiea oi?iu ?acee/iuo aaiiao?e/aneeo oeao?, eo
acaeiiiai nii?yaeaiey, eiiiiiiaee, a oaeaea ?acaeoea i?ino?ainoaaiiiai e
eiino?oeoi?neiai iuoeaiey.

Oaea ia ia/aeueiii yoaia iao/aiey iiaeii i?iaiaeeoue ?aaioo, eiathuoth
i?aeoe/aneoth cia/eiinoue.

Oai?/aneia caaeaiea “Ia?enoe naiia e?aneaia e naiia iae?aneaia”
iicaieyao auyaeoue iiieiaiea aeaoueie e?aniou. Caaeaiey oeia “*ae oci?
eo/oa?”, “*oi oaeia eaoi” niinianoaoao ia oieueei ooaeiaeanoaaiiiio
?acaeoeth aeaoae, ii e oinoaaiiiio.

Aeaoe ethayo ana, /oi naeaeaii nianoaaiiuie ?oeaie. A i?ioeanna ?aaiou
n a?aoe/aneei ?aaeaeoi?ii iiaeii i?i/anoue n aeaoueie eo ethaeiua
eieaeee e iiaeaioiaeoue e iei eeethno?aoeee. Iiaeii naeaeaoue eieaeeo,
ninoiyuoth ec ecia?aaeaiee aeeaioiuo eee oeaaoia. Aaaeiui iiiaioii
n?aaiaiey naieo ?aaio /oaeeie yaeyaony “aunoaaea”. Caeanue
ooaa?aeaeaaony i?aai eaaeaeiai ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue e ieeoi ia
iiaeaa?aaaony e?eoeea.

N aieueoei aeaeaieai aeaoe ?aaioatho ia caiyoeyo ii nicaeaieth
aiieeeaoeee. Neiiao?ey, ?eoi aucuaaao o ieo aeaeaiea aini?iecaanoe
oaeaeaiiia. Ii aeaaea ia naiii ia/aeueiii yoaia iaaei noaaeoue ia?aae
?aaaieii oneiaey auiieiaiey caaeaiey ia eiie?iaaieai ia?acoea, a aai
aeaeieciaiaieai. Ia caiyoeyo ecaioiaeaiey aiieeeaoeee aeaoe o/aony
ieaie?iaaoue naith ?aaioo, iaia/aoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey
iia?aoeee, iauaoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii, /oi noeioee?oao ?acaeoea
oai?/anoaa ?aayo.

I?eia?ii eieeaeoeaiie ?aaiou iiaeao noaoue i?iaeoe?iaaiea ia
eiiiuethoa?a no?ieoaeuenoaa ec eoaeeia aeaoneiai ai?iaeea. Ia caiyoee
aeaoe ?acaeaathony ia a?oiiu, a eaaeaeoth ec eioi?uo aoiaeyo a?oeoaeoi?u
(i?iaeoe?othuea ai?iae ia eiiiuethoa?a), no?ieoaee (niae?athuea ai?iae
ec eoaeeia).

Aeaaiui a iao/aiee yaeyaony ia eiiiuethoa?, a i?eaioaoeey ia ?acaeoea
iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia, naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a auiieiaiee oai?/aneeo
?aaio. A yoii i?ioeanna aeaaiia, /oi eaaeaeue ?aaaiie iiaeao au?aceoue
naay, ?ane?uoue naie aiciiaeiinoe.

EIAI – ycue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e aianoa n oai iniaay iao/athuay noa?a.
?ac?aaioaee Eiai aaaeouea aia?eeaineea enneaaeiaaoaee a iaeanoe
eneonnoaaiiiai eioaeeaeoa. sscue yoio ii neioaeneno i?aaeaeueii i?ino e
aeecie e anoanoaaiiiio. A oi aea a?aiy ii iaeaaeaao iiuiuie nia?aiaiiuie
n?aaenoaaie, oi?ie?othueie eoeueoo?o iuoeaiey e iicaieythueie
nicaeaaaoue i?ia?aiiu i/aiue eaeiie/iua, i?ic?a/iua ii no?oeoo?a e
yooaeoeaiua.

Eiai – caianoeoaeueiia n?aaenoai aeey iiaeaee?iaaiey /aai oaiaeii. A
?ani?ino?aiaiee io iaeiiai aei /aou?ao eniieieoaeae – /a?aiaoae, eioi?ua
iiaoo iaiyoue naith oi?io, nicaeaaaoue ?enoiee, aeaeaaoueny ii ethaui
o?aaeoi?eyi n ?aciuie nei?inoyie, niiaueoue aai aeaiiua i oie iaeanoe
ye?aia, aaea iie iaoiaeyony. Eiai – i?ae?aniia n?aaenoai aeey ?acaeoey
iuoeaiey e naiinoiyoaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee a naiuo ?aciuo
eioaeeaeooaeueiuo iaeanoyo e n ?acee/iuie o?iaiyie neiaeiinoe.

Au niiaeaoa nicaeaaaoue n ?aayoaie ethaua oaenou, iao/athuea e aeaaea
iao/aaiua. Aaoe o/aieee niiaoo eco/aoue Eiai ana oeieueiua aiaeu,
nicaeaaay, ea?ay e ?aaioay n i?inouie ea?oeieaie e ioeueoeeaie, a
iicaea n ae?oaeie i?ia?aiiaie. Iiaeii aanoe o?iee, ia/eiay n ieaaeoeo
eeannia e eii/ay noa?oaeeannieeaie.

I?aaenoaaeaiea ia o?aaiiaaoaiiinoe e aa?iiiee naienoaaiiu ia?iaeai n
ae?aaieo a?aiai.

Iu ana eiaai eiooeoeaiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi oaeia neiiao?ey.
Iaeiaei aeey oiai, /oiau aa iaia?oaeeoue (ii/oe aacaea), iaaei ciaoue,
eae aa eneaoue. E oiaaea, eae ooaa?aeaeaao aia?eeaineea iaoaiaoee I.
Naiaoaeue, i?ineaaeeaaiea oci?ia neiiao?ee, iinoeaeaiea naycae iaaeaeo
ioaeaeueiuie /anoyie e oeaeui niiniaii aeinoaaeoue iniaoth ?aaeinoue e
iiaeao noaoue enoi/ieeii eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ianeaaeaeaiey.

Eiai – n?aaea, eioi?ay iicaieyao iinoe/ue e?anioo caeiiia neiiao?ee
aeaaea o/aueiny ia/aeueiie oeieu. Naiay i?inoay niaaeeiea, iaeaaeathuay
iiai?ioiie neiiao?eae oanoiai ii?yaeea, iiaeao auoue cai?ia?aiie?iaaia
aeaoueie a ia/aea iao/aiey eiiaiaeai /a?aiaoee. Niaaeeiee,
?aniieiaeaiiua ia ye?aia a ii?aaeaeaiiii ii?yaeea aeinoaaeytho ?aaaieo
iaiaeeaeaiioth ?aaeinoue. Yoi aai ia?aua i?iaiaioaeueiua iino?iaiey, a
eioi?uo ?aaeecoaony naienoaaiiay /aeiaaeo ethaiaue e aa?iiiee e
oii?yaei/aiiinoe.

Aaiiao?ey /a?aiaoee /?acau/aeii oaeiaia aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ oi?iaeueiiai
e eiiiiceoeeiiiiai iino?iaiey i?iaiaioa. Anyeee i?iaiaio yaeyaony
aaiiao?e/anee i?aaeeueiui. Yoi icia/aao, /oi aai iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue aac
inoaoea ia ?aaiua /anoe ioiineoaeueii iaeioi?iai aaiiao?e/aneiai
i?eciaea. Oai?/aneay caaea/a a iino?iaiee i?iaiaioa ninoieo, i?aaeaea
anaai, a ?ac?aaioea iniiaiiai iioeaa i?iaiaioa, iiaoi?yaiinoueth
eioi?iai ia ninaaeieo o/anoeao e nicaeaaony i?iaiaioaeueiay eiiiiceoeey.

Iioeau i?iaiaioa – yoi neiaeiua iino?iaiey, ninoiyuea ec eiiaeiaoeee
i?inouo (ia?ae/iuo oci?ia). E oaeei ia?ae/iui oci?ai ioiinyony:

· oi/ea, iaei cia/auay naia ii naaa, ii aeathuay yooaeo i?e aa oianoiii
?aniieiaeaiee e iiaoi?aiee;

· eeiey eee eaioa, i?eiaiythuayny aeey ?aca?aie/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
iioeaia i?iaiaioa;

· ceacaa (eiiaiay eeiey);

· iiiaioaieueiee (o?aoaieueiee, eaaae?ao, ?iia e ae?.)

· neionieaea e nie?aeue;

· anaaiciiaeiua e?anou e naanoeee;

· e?oa, iieoe?oa, aeoaa e ae?.

A?aoe/aneee i?iaiaio ?acai?a/eaaaony ia aeaoia?iie ea?oeiiie ieineinoe.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, n?aaea Eiai yaeyaony i/aiue oaeiaiui eino?oiaioa?eai
aeey iino?iaiey i?iaiaioia. N iaeiie /a?aiaoeie ?aaeecothony iaoiaeu
niaiauaiey, a n ianeieueeeie noaiiayony i/aiue iaaeyaeiuie i?ioeannu
iino?iaiey i?iaiaioia n ca?eaeueiie neiiao?eae.

Aeey ia/aeueiiai yoaia ?aaiou ec eeanna aaiiao?e/aneeo i?iaiaioia iiaoo
auoue auaeaeaiu oieueei oa, eioi?ua iniiaaiu ia eniieueciaaiee ?acee/iuo
iiiaioaieueieeia a ea/anoaa ia?ae/iuo yeaiaioia. I?inoi aeoo
caoaaouaaao, eiaaea acaeyaeo ioe?uaathony iio?ynathuea naiae e?anioie
iaiyoieee Naia?eaiaea. Ia niaa?oaiioth a?oeoaeoo?ioth eiino?oeoeeth
iiiaeo ec ieo iaianaiu “eaaae?aoiue” i?iaiaio – i?iaiaio, ninoaaeaiiue
ec ?aciioeaaoiuo neiiao?e/ii ?aniieiaeaiiuo eaaae?aoia. Aoiaeaeaiea a
Eiai aac eaaae?aoa ia iaoiaeeony: eaaae?aou ?enotho, cae?aoeaatho,
iiai?a/eaatho, ec ieo no?iyo aeiieee e o.ae.

Ioi?ieaiea iiauo eiiaiae aeey /a?aiaoee (“eaaae?ao” e “o?aoaieueiee”)
iicaieyao ia?aeoe e iino?iaieth i?iaiaioaeueiuo eiiiiceoeee.

1. “Iieinea” – iieiniaie i?iaiaio, eioi?ue no?ieony eae ?yae ec
ieineeo eaaae?aoia, iniiaiie iioea. A ea/anoaa ia?aiao?ia eiiaiaeu
caaeathony cia/aiey noi?iiu eaaae?aoa e eo eiee/anoaa a iieinea.
Ioiaoeoue, /oi anyeay iiaay eiiaiaea ioi?ieyaony n niaethaeaieai
i?eioeeia, i?ic?a/iinoe /a?aiaoee (/a?aiaoea anaaaea aica?auaaony a
enoiaeiia ninoiyiea, ia?eniaaa ia?aue o?aaiaio).

2. “?ac?ac oeoee” – iieiniaie i?iaiaio,
iino?iaiiue ec i?yiioaieueiuo o?aoaieueieeia, eaaeaueo ia aeiioaioca,
o.a. i?yiui oaeii aaa?o, e niaaeeiythueony ae?oa n ae?oaii ,
ia?aie/aiiue naa?oo eeieae niioaaonoaothuae aeeeiu.

3. “Ceacaa” – ai?aeth?, ninoaaeaiiue ec aeaoo “?ac?acia oeoee”,
ca?eaeueii-neiiao?e/aneeo e naeaeioouo ae?oa ioiineoaeueii ae?oaa ia
iieiaeio aeiioaiocu i?yiioaieueiiai o?aoaieueieea.

Iaeeea i?iaiaioia aaneiia/ii. Ia/aa n i?yiioaieueiuo i?iaiaioia, aeaoe n
oaea/aieai ia?aoiaeyo e iino?iaieth aieaa neiaeiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
no?oeoo? ia iniiaa e?oaa, aeoa e nie?aeae.

Eco/ay aaiiao?eth i?iaiaioia, aeaoe i?eiauathony e ooaeiaeanoaaiiiio
eoeueoo?iiio ianeaaeeth naiaai ia?iaea e ia?iaeia anaai ie?a, aeoaaea
ciaeiiyony n enoi?eae no?ai e ia?iaeia.

I?ia?aiia “Aaiiao?ey oeao?u”

A i?ia?aiia i?aaenoaaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey aaiiao?e/aneeo oeao? ii oi?ia e
oeaaoo. A oeaio?a ye?aia iiyaeythony aaiiao?e/aneea oeao?u, ?aciua ii
oi?ia e oeaaoo, e i?aaeeaaaaony ?acianoeoue:

1) e?oae a aa?oiae /anoe ye?aia, a o?aoaieueieee – a ieaeiae;

2) eaaae?aou a eaaie /anoe ye?aia, a i?yiioaieueieee – a i?aaie;

3) oeao?u caeaiiai oeaaoa a i?aaie /anoe ye?aia, e?aniiai oeaaoa – a
eaaie;

4) o?e o?aoaieueieea a i?aaii aa?oiai oaeo, a aeaa e?oaa – a eaaii
ieaeiai.

Aiciiaeiu e ae?oaea caaeaiey, i?ia?aiia aeano oe?ieee i?inoi? oaioacee.
Auai? eiie?aoiie oeao?u i?iecaiaeeony n iiiiuueth oeacaoaey-no?aeee,
eioi?ay ia?aae ia/aeii ?aaiou iaoiaeeony a i?aaii aa?oiai oaeo ye?aia.
Eeaaeoaie oi?aaeaiey eo?ni?ii oeacaoaeue onoaiaaeeaaaony ia ioaeioth
oeao?o. I?e iaaeaoee eeaaeoe “aaiae” oeacaoaeue i?iiaaeaao e iiyaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue ia?aiauaoue aua?aiioth oeao?o eeaaeoaie oi?aaeaiey
eo?ni?ii. Eae oieueei oeao?a i?eaaaeaia ia ioaaaeaiiia ae ianoi, iia
oeene?oaony eeaaeoae “aaiae”. ?aaioa n iineaaeothueie oeao?aie
inouanoaeyaony aiaeiae/ii. Iinea auiieiaiey caaeaiey iaaeeiaaony eeaaeoa
“i?iaae” e ia ye?aia iiyaeyaony iiaue iaai? oeao? (ninoaa oeao? e eo
oeaao iiaeae?athony neo/aeii).

Aeaoe n eioa?anii ?aaioatho ia YAI. Eo i?eaeaeatho aeeiaieea, y?einoue
?aciiia?acea nthaeaoia. Iie auno?i inaaeaatho eeaaeaoo?o, /oi nicaeaao
i?aaeiinueee aeey aeaeueiaeoae oniaoiie ?aaiou ia YAI. Inaiaiea
eeaaeaoo?u inouanoaeyaony iinoaiaiii. Eaaeaeay i?ia?aiia io?aaaouaaao
eaeoth-oi a?oiio eeaaeo (oeeo?u, eeaaeoe ni no?aeeaie, i?iaaee ae?.)

?aaioa ia YAI au?aaaouaaao oneae/eainoue, aieiaoaeueiinoue,
aeeo?aoiinoue. Eae neaaenoaea iiauoaaony yooaeoeaiinoue iao/aiey.

1 eeann.

1. Ciaeiinoai n eiiiuethoa?ii

1.1. Eino?oeoeey ii oaoieea aaciianiinoe. Aeeth/aiea e aueeth/aiea
eiiiuethoa?a. Aeaiiino?aoeeiiiay ea?a

1.2. Oi?aaeaiea eo?ni?ii: ea?a “Ioae?ue e?ieee”.

2. Eiiiuethoa? – eino?oiaio i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

2.1. A?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi?: eco/aiea iacia/aiey e aiciiaeiinoae.

2.2. ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth ?enoiea n iiiiuueth a?aoe/aneiai ?aaeaeoi?a
aeey eaiee ec ieanoeeeia, au?acaiey aiieeeaoeee, ioi?ieaiea eeanniie
noaiiie aacaou.

2.3. Eco/aiea e iacia/aiey aiciiaeiinoae oaenoiaiai ?aaeaeoi?a.

3. Eiiiuethoa? – n?aaenoai ?acaeoey iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia.
Oai?/aneay ?aaioa ii nicaeaieth n iiiiuueth eiiiuethoa?ia eeethno?aoeee
a aeaea eiiiuethoa?iuo ea?oeiie e noeoai. Ecaioiaeaiea ec eoaeeia
ni?iaeoe?iaaiiiai ia eiiiuethoa?a ai?iaeea; eaiea ec ieanoeeeia oeao?,
iieo/aiiuo ia eiiiuethoa?a; au?acaiea e iaeeaeaaiea aiieeeaoeee,
ia?eniaaiiie ia aeenieaa e ?ania/aoaiiie ia i?eioa?a; iiaeaioiaea
eeanniie noaiiie aacaou ec ?aaio, auiieiaiiuo ia eiiiuethoa?a.

§2 I?iaaaeaiea iiuoii-yenia?eiaioaeueiie /anoe enneaaeiaaiey.

Iiuoii-yenia?eiaioaeueiie aacie enneaaeiaaiey iineoaeeea Eaiaaeanneay
n?aaeiyy oeiea a. sseoonea. A oiaea yenia?eiaioa o/anoaiaae 1 “a” eeann,
a eiee/anoaa 19 /ae.

1 “a” eeann aeaeeony ia 2 a?oiiu, /oiau eaaeaeue o/aiee iia
naiinoiyoaeueii ?aaioaoue ca eiiiuethoa?ii.

I a?oiia II a?oiia

1. 1. ?acoaaa Ianoy

2. Ianyeeia Eaoy

3. Eoeeia Aiy

4. Aaiaeia Naoa

5. Aaeeieeia ?iia

6. Aiaeueeei Na?aae

7. *oaaoia Einoy

8. ?iaiaeeeia Eeca

9. Oiaeue Aeaoa

10. Aeyaethoeia Iaoa

1. *a?aiaiiaa Enthoa

2. Naaaeia Aa?y

3. AEo?aae Ieaa

4. A?onaiei Eaaa

5. Euoeei Aaaoaoii

6. Ai?eeia AEaiy

7. Caoaaaa Aa?a

8. E?eaioaieeia Na?aueaia

9. Eeea?eiiiaa Aeaia

O?ie 1.

Oaia: Ia?aia ciaeiinoai n eiiiuethoa?ii. Iaeaaeaiea eeaaeoaie

Oeaeue: 1) ?anoe?eoue e?oaici? aeaoae e iiaeaioiaeoue ananoi?iiia
?acaeoiai /eaia iauanoaa

2) Iiii/ue aeaoyi iiciaaaoue ie?oaeathuee ie?, ?acaeaaoue eo
iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue, i?eo/aoue eiae/anee iuneeoue, iniciaaaoue
oaeaeaiiia.

3) ?acaeoea eioa?ana e o?ieai ECI.

Ieai:

1. Oaoieea aaciianiinoe – 10 iei.

2. Ciaeiinoai n eiiiuethoa?ii – 10 iei.

3. ?aoaiea eiae/aneie caaea/e ia eiiiuethoa?a (“Snakeit”).

Iauyniaiea iiiyoee eo?ni?, oi?aaeaiea eie (iciaeiieaiea n eeaaeoaie ) –
10iei.

– caaea/a ea?a – 15 iei.

Oiae o?iea:

1) Onoii ?anneacaoue i?aaeea ii oaoieea aaciianiinoe. Ii?ineoue
o/aieeia.

2) ?anneacaoue i eiiiuethoa?a e aeenieaa. *oi aeeth/aoue e eae, a eaeie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe.

3) – ?annaaeeoue ii ?aai/ei ianoai.

– aeeth/eoue iaoeiu.

– iauynieoue, aaea eo?ni?, aeaoue caaeaiey aeey eeaaeo

– iauynieoue caaea/o ea?u “Snakeit”.

Iaeay ciaeea ?aoeea iiiaaaeaoue a aieoaaiii ai?iaea, eae oieueei iia
nuano oeaaoie caeaiue, iia iiae?anoao, ii anee iia nuano yaeiaeoue a?ea,
ooo aea iiaeaaao.

Anoue o?oaeiinoe:

– eiaaea nuaaeaao caeaiue oeaaoie, oi iiyaeyaony aaeue.

– eiaaea nuaaeaao aaeue oeaaoie, iiyaeyaony yaeiaeoue a?ea.

Au aeieaeiu nuanoue ana aaeua e caeaiua oeaaoee, ii ia o?iiooue ie
iaeiiai a?eaa.

Naiinoiyoaeueiay ?aaioa:

ia?eniaaoue ii aaoaio aeaeaieth ea?oeio, eaeoth au naaa i?aaenoaaeyaoa
enoiaey ec yoie caaea/e.

Aiaeec ?aaio.

Aunoaaeaiea ioeaiie.

O?ie 2.

Oaia: ?aoaiea eiae/aneie caaea/e “Ia?aaic/ee”. Iaeaaeaiea eeaaeoae

Oeaeue: 1) ?acaeoea ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey o aeaoae;

2) ?acaeaaoue ciaiea yeaiaioa?iuo iniia ?aaeenoe/aneiai ?enoiea.
I?eaeaaoue iaauee e oiaiey a ecia?aceoaeueiii eneonnoaa;

3) I?eaeaaoue ethaiaue e o?oaeo, ainieouaaoue aeeo?aoiinoue e
ianoie/eainoue a ?aaioa.

Ieai:

1. Aii?inu ii oaia i?ioeiai o?iea – 10 iei.

2. Iauyniaiea caaea/e e oi?aaeaiea aai eeaaeoaie – 10 iei.

3. Niaianoiia (n o/eoaeai) ?aoaiea caaea/e, iaeaaeaiea eeaaeoaie
oi?aaeaiey – 15 iei.

4. Aiaeec ?aaiou ca iaoeiie e ?acoeueoaou ?aoaiey caaea/e – 5 iei.

5. Iauyniaiea aeiiaoiaai caaeaiey – 5 iei.

Oiae o?iea:

1) Aii?inu ii oaia o?iea ?1

1. Eae ioaeii aanoe naay a eaaeiaoa eioi?iaoeea, /oi iaeuecy aeaeaoue?

2. Eae iacuaaaony /anoe iaoeiu? (aeenieae, eiiiuethoa?, aeeneaoa)

3. Eaeea eeaaeoe au ciaaoa? Eae iie iacuaathony?

2) Caaea/a: Ia aa?aao ?aee aeeaao /aeiaae. Aio iaaei ia?aaanoe ia
ae?oaie aa?aa aieea, eico e eaionoo a oeaeinoe e nio?aiiinoe. Iu
aeieaeiu aio iiii/ue. O iaai ie/aai ia iieo/aaony.

1. Ionoue i?aaeeueii aeeth/ao iaoeiu.

2. Caa?ocea ea?u-caaea/e.

3. Ioi?aaeoue eiaeeo ia ae?oaie aa?aa.

– eeaaeoa “aia?aae”

– aa?iooue ia noa?ue eeaaeoae iacaae

– aua?aoue eico, eaionoo eee aieea eeaaeoa

– eiiaiaea ieuoue eeaaeoa

3) ?aayoa, aeaaaeoa iii?iaoai iiii/ue!

1. Eiai iiaacai aia/aea?

2. Eaeoth eeaaeoo iaaeaoue, /oiau ieuoue ia ae?oaie aa?aa (“aia?aae”)?
Iaaeaoue aa.

3. I?ieoe i?iaa?eoue o/anoie.

4. Auaa?ai eiai aanoe, iaaeeiay i?iaae ( ) Iaaeieoa 1
?ac.

5. Eiai aeaeeoa? (aieea).

6. Eiiaiaeoeoa eiaei/ea ieuoue ( )

7. *oi neo/eeinue ia noa?ii aa?aao? (eica nuaea eaionoo)

8. Cia/eo, eiai aea iiaacai aia/aea? (eico, o.e. inoaiaony aiee n
eaionoie, a ii aa ia ethaeo)

9. Aa?iai oaia?ue ionooth eiaei/eo ia?aoii. I?inoi eeaaeoa “iacaae” e
aeaoue eiiaiaeo ieuoue (iaaeaoue eeaaeoo )

10. Eiai iiaacai oaia?ue. Aeaaaeoa aieea.

11. Oaia?ue oaacai eico io aieea.

12. Eiai iiaacai oaia?ue, eaionoo (aaaeue aiee aa ia ethaeo)

13. Aa?iai eiaeeo ia noa?ue aa?aa.

14. Iiaacai oaia?ue eico.

15. Iu auea?aee, ian iicae?aaeytho.

4) A /ai nae?ao yoie ea?u? Ioaeii aeoiaoue, eiai aacoe e eiai inoaaeyoue
ia aa?aao, aaaeue aiee nuano eico, a eica eaionoo. A n eiaei/ieeii iie
aaaeoo naay “ii?iaeueii”, anee oieueei ii eo ia inoaaeo aac i?eniio?a.
Aeaoue aiciiaeiinoue naiinoiyoaeueii ni?aaeoueny n caaea/ae.

5) Io /oi, ia iieo/eeinue? Aeinoaiueoa ea?aiaeao, oao?aaeue. Ia?enoai
?aoaiea caaea/e.

6) Naiinoiyoaeueiay ?aaioa.

7) Aiaeec ?aaiou o/aieeia.

8) Aunoaaeaiea ioeaiie.

O?ie 3

Oaia: Ciaeiinoai n a?aoe/aneei ?aaeaeoi?ii.

Oeaeue: 1) ?acaeoea iuoeaiey o/aueony, io?aaioea niaoeeaeueiuo i?eaiia
?annoaeaeaiey

2) eoeueoo?a iiaaaeaiey e ia?auaiey n eiiiuethoa?ii. Oiaiey e
iaauee ieiaeioai?iie e oai?/aneie ?aaiou.

Ieai:

1. Aii?in ii i?ioaaeoei o?ieai

2. Iauyniaiea caaea/e ia naaiaeiyoiee o?ie.

3. I?aeoe/aneay ?aaioa ca ?N, iaeaaeaiea eeaaeoaie F5 e CTRL + STOP.

4. Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia ?aaiou.

Oiae o?iea:

1) Cae?aieaiea i?ieaeaiiiai iaoa?eaea:

1. Eae iacuaaeenue /anoe iaoeo iaoei?

2. Eaeea eeaaeoe au ciaaoa?

3. *oi iu aeaeaai ia i?ioeii o?iea?

2) Naaiaeiy iu n aaie aoaeai ?eniaaoue ia ye?aia iiieoi?a. Aeey yoiai
caa?ocei aai niaoeeaeueioth i?ia?aiio “Ea?aiaeao”. N aa iiiiuueth au
aoaeaoa eiiaiaeiaaoue ea?aiaeaoii.

Ioe?ieoa oao?aaee e oai aaea o aan iinoaaeaia oi/ea ia/iai ?eniaaoue
neaaeii ca iiie (i?aae. ?acaeaeeoue ianoi aeey i?ia?aiiu a oao?aaeyo e
iinoaaeoue oi/eo io eoaea iie aoaeoo ?eniaaoue).

1 1

11 11

3 3

10 11

1 10

0 12

12 0

11 12

11

?enoai aiec eeieth ia 4 eeaoi/ee. Eaeoth eeaaeoo aoaeaoa iaaeeiaoue ia
?N? Ia/a?oei aa a i?ia?aiia.

?enoai eeieth iacaae ia 5 eeaoi/ae?

Eaeoth eeaaeoo aoaeaoa iaaeeiaoue ia ?N? Ia/a?oei aa.

?enoai eeieth aaa?o ia 7 eeaoi/ae? –//–

?enoai eeieth aia?aae ia 4 eeaoi/ee? –//–

?enoai eeieth aiec ia 6 eeaoi/ae? –//–

?enoai eeieth iacaae ia 3 eeaoi/ee? –//–

?enoai eeieth aaa?o ia 4 eeaoi/ee? –//–

?enoai eeieth aia?aae ia 2 eeaoi/ee? –//–

?enoai eeieth aiec ia 4 eeaoi/ee? –//–

?enoai eeieth iacaae ia 1 eeaoi/eo? –//–

?enoai eeieth aaa?o ia 3 eeaoi/ee? –//–

3) 3. Eae i?aaeeueii aeeth/aoue ?N?

1. *oiau caionoeoue i?ia?aiio iaaei iaaeaoue eeaaeoo F5

2. *oiau inoaiiaeoue i?ia?aiio iaaei iaaeaoue iaeiei iaeue/eeii eeaaeoa
CTRL aoi?ei STOP. (Aucaaoue 3-o o/aieeia, /oiau iii?iaiaaoue)

4. Nyaeueoa ii naiei ianoai e aeeth/eoa iaoeiu?

5. Ioe?uoue i?ia?aiio “Ooaeiaeiee”?

6. Ia/iai ?aaioo. Anee ia iieo/eeinue, iaaeieoa eeaaeoe CTRL + STOP, a
iioii niiaa caionoeoa i?ia?aiio.

7. Eoi ni?aaeony n caaeaieai, iiaeao ?eniaaoue, /oi aio i?aaeony.

4) Eoae, /oi aea iu onaieee ia o?iea.

1. Oi?aaeyy eiiiuethoa?ii, iu iieo/eee ?enoiie, eioi?ue oioaee.

2. Naaiaeiy iu eco/eee aua aeaa iiauo eeaaeoe F5 e CTRL + STOP.

3. Auaaaeaiea eiiiuethoa?ii ?enoiea ia aoiaao eaaeaeiio o/aieeo.

5) Iiaeaaaeaiea eoiaia ?aaiou.

§ 3. Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia iiuoii-yenia?eiaioaeueiie /anoe enneaaeiaaiey.

Auei i?iaaaeaii 3 o?iea a 1 “a” eeanna ii ecia?aceoaeueiiio eneonnoao n
i?eiaiaiea YAI.

Aeaeay caeeth/aiea ec yoeo o?ieia iiaeii neacaoue, /oi i?eiaiaiea YAI
i/aiue yooaeoeaii iiiiaaao a ?acaeoee iiciaaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna
ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia.

Ana aeaoe ?aaioaee i/aiue oaea/aiii, aeenoeeieeia ia o?iea auea
ioee/iay, aeaoe auee i/aiue aieiaoaeueiu. Ei i/aiue i?aaeeinue ?aaioaoue
ia eiiiuethoa?a, auno?i ?aoaee iinoaaeaiiua ia?aae ieie caaea/e.

?aaiou aeaoae i/aiue ?aciiia?aciu, eaaeaeue ii-naiaio oaeaeae e
i?aaenoaaee ea?oeio ?aoaaiie caaea/e, eioi?oth iioii e ecia?acee a naiai
aeueaiia. Ec yoeo ?aaio iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, eae eiiiuethoa?
iiiiaaao ?acaeaaoue oaioaceth, aiia?aaeaiea o aeaoae, ianeieueei iie
eioa?aniu e e?ani/iu. Ana ?aaiou aeaoae auee caeii/aiu.

Ana aeaoe, aeeth/ay e naiuo neaauo, ia aiyeenue ioeaeoueny, ?aaioaee n
eioa?anii. ?aayoa auno?i caiiieiaee iacaaiea e ooieoeee ?acee/iuo
eeaaeo eiiiuethoa?a, e iieueciaaeenue eie naiaiaeii. Auee iiaoi?aiu
?acee/iua aaiiao?e/aneea oa?ieiu. ?aayoa auee i/aiue aeoeaiu,
i?aaeeaaaee ?acee/iua ?aoaiey caaea/e, i?iaiaaee i?aeoe/anee oaeaeaoue
?acoeueoao, anee ia iieo/aeinue, aeaaaeenue iiaua aa?eaiou iiea ia auei
aeinoeaiooi i?aaeeueiia ?aoaiea caaea/e.

Aiaeec ?enoieia.

Iu aeaeei ianeieueei e?ani/ii e ?aciiia?acii iieo/eeenue ?enoiee aeaoae.
Eaaeaeue ii-naiaio i?aaenoaaee naaa e ecia?acee ?enoiie. Aiee, eica e
eaionoa o eaaeaeiai ?aaaiea ?aciua. Ii/oe ana aeaoe ia?eniaaee eiaeeo e
aeaaea eiaei/ieea. Iie ia?eniaaee e ianoi a eioi?ii ii eo
i?aaenoaaeaieth iaoiaeeeenue iaoe aa?ie. ?enoiie au?aaeae ia oieueei eo
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia oaeaeaiiii, ii e ?aoaiea caaea/e.

?acthia

O?iee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa caeeth/atho a naaa iaennyeaaiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey ananoi?iiiaai ?acaeoey ee/iinoe ieaaeoaai oeieueieea.

Ano?a/a n eneonnoaii ia eaaeaeii o?iea, iao/aiea aeaoae aeaeaieth
i?ae?aniiai a aeecie e eneonnoaa, aeoeaiay oai?/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue
eaaeaeiai ec o/aueony, iauay ?aaeinoue ca naeaeaiiia ia o?iea – aio
aeaaiua ioee/eoaeueiua i?eciaee o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna ia
o?ieao ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa.

O?iee ECI ia iiaoo auoue neo/iuie, iaeioa?aniuie aeey aeaoae, a
i?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee aua aieueoa ?acaeaaao iiciaaaoaeueiue
eioa?an aeaoae e yoiio o?ieo.

Caaea/e, eioi?ua noaaeeenue ia?aae iaie iu aeinoeaee.

O?iee ?ac?aaioaiu ia iniiaa i?ia?aiiii-iaoiaee/aneiai eiiieaena “?aaeoaa
a eiiiuethoa?a” (oeaio?a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee Eaeeieia?aaeneiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa) iu oniaoii eniieueciaaee a naiae
i?aeoeea.

Caeeth/aiea.

Ec aiaeeca i?i/eoaiiie eeoa?aoo?u e iiuoa eniieueciaaiey eiiiuethoa?ia a
?aaeueiii o/aaiii i?ioeanna, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi a oneiaeyo IEO
iiyaeythony iiaua aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey:

– nioeeaeueiie e iiciaaaoaeueiie aeoeaiinoe aeaoae: eiaaony a aeaeo
o?iaaiue noauaeoeaiiai eiio?iey o/aieea, eioaeeaeooaeueiay eieoeeaoeaa;

– eiiiaoaioiinoe oeieueieea eae o/aieea: eiaaony a aeaeo aai
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue, eioi?iaoeeiiiay a?aiioiinoue, oaa?aiiinoue a naaa,
i?iyaeythueany a niiniaiinoe i?eiyoue ?aoaiea, a oaeaea i?eaioaoeey ia
caaea/o e eiia/iue ?acoeueoao, ioaaonoaaiiinoue, nioeeaeueiay
iacaaeneiinoue;

– Niiniaiinoe ?aaaiea e naii?aaeecaoeee: a /anoiinoe, no?aieaiea e
?aaeecaoeee ciaiee a i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoao, a iiciaaaoaeueiie
aiao/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oniaoiinoue ?aaeecaoeee, oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue
?acoeueoaoaie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– Aa?iiie/iie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, niioiioaiea i?aeoe/aneiai e
aa?aaeueiiai eioaeeaeoa, yiioeeiiaeueiay noaaeeueiinoue, niioiioaiea
aoiaieoa?iuo eioa?ania e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iio?aaiinoae, aeoeaiinoe
?aaaiea e aai eiiiaoaioiinoe. IEO aeaoa?ieie?oao niaoeeaeueioth
iaaeaaiae/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, iaania/eaathuoth nicaeaiea oneiaee
aeey ?acaeoey eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeoeaiinoe aeaoae, aeaeiai ioe?uoiai
iuoeaiey, niiniaiinoe e eieeaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aeey ainieoaiey
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca i?eieiaaiua ?aoaiey.

Caaea/e, eioi?ua iu noaaeee a naiai enneaaeiaaiee auee aeinoeaioou.
I?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?a ia o?ieao ECI – yooaeoeaiue iaoiae a ?acaeoee
iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia.

I?eiaiaiea a oeiea eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieea o/eoaeyie ia/aeueiuo eeannia
iiiiaeao naeaeaoue oeieueiia i?aiiaeaaaiea aieaa yooaeoeaiui.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aua eaeao ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiii-eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea
eiiiuethoa?iiai iao/aiey a ia/aeueiie oeiea.

Aeaiiua i?ia?aiiu (“A?aoe/aneee ?aaeaeoi? aeey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia” e
“Eiai”) iiiiaoo a ?aaioa o/eoaeyi ia/aeueiuo eeannia ?aciiia?aceoue naie
o?iee e naeaeaoue eo aieaa yooaeoeaiuie a ?acaeoee iiciaaaoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia.

Eoae, iu i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi i?eiaiaiea eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee ia
o?ieao ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa ?acaeaaao iiciaaaoaeueiua niiniaiinoe
o/aueony: aieiaiea, aiia?aaeaiea, iaiyoue, eiae/aneia iuoeaiea. Oeo/oaao
aini?eyoea ie?a.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

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2. Aieeoii ?. *aeiaa/aneay iaiyoue e i?ioeann iao/aiey. –I., 1980.

3. Aniieia A.A. I?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee iaiyoe /aeiaaea.
Nenoaiii-aeayoaeueiinoiue iiaeoiae e eco/aieth iiciaaaoaeueiuo
i?ioeannia: O/aaii-iaoiaee/aneia iiniaea. –I., 1983.

4. Aaaeaiiaa A.E. I?eioeeiu iao/aiey oeieueieeia iniiaai ye?aiiie
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5. Aaeaaeia E.A. Aini?eyoea ?aaaieii eiiiuethoa?a e eiiiuethoa?iuo ea?.
// Aii?in ineoieiaee. – 1993. – ?3.

6. Aaeaaeia E.A. Ineoieiae/aneea iineaaenoaey eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee
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7. Aeiineee I.I. Eca?aiiua iaaeaaiae/aneea e ineoieiae/aneea ni/eiaiey.
–O.2. –I., 1979.

8. Aooeei A.N. Iao/aiea ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia ia/aeai eioi?iaoeee.
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11. Aaeea? E.I. Ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu: A 3 o. –O.3. –E., 1981.

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–I., 1989.

14. Aieeia E. I. O/ei oai?/anoao. –I., 1988.

15. Auaiaeneee E.N. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee a 6 o. –O.6 – I., 1984.

16. Auaiaeneee E.N. Nia?aiea ni/eiaiee: A 6 o. – O.3 –I., 1983 (i?iaeaiu
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