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I.A.NAEACIAA, A.I.NAEACIAA

IAAeAAIAE*ANEAss AENEIEIAEss

E NIA?AIAIIIUE O*AAII-AINIEOAOAEUeIUE

I?IOeANN

Oe?aniieue – 1998a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaaeaaiae/aneay aeneieiaey noaea iieueciaaoueny aieiaieai
enneaaeiaaoaeae eeoue a iineaaeiea aiaeu. I?ienoiaeyuea a iauanoaa
ia?aiaiu aeoeaece?iaaee iiene iiauo, aeeciaiii aaaeiuo oeaiiinoae aeey
iieiaeaaee, iao/iia eo iainiiaaiea, a oaeaea iaoiaeeee anneieeyoeee eo
nia?aiaiiui o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiui i?ioeannai.

A noaouea ?anniao?eaaaony e iainiiauaaaony eiiieaen aaaeiaeoeo aeey
nia?aiaiiie oeieu iiciaaaoaeueiuo i?aanoaaiiuo, ynoaoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo
oeaiiinoae. Iaia/athony ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeaeueiaeoae eo ?ac?aaioee e
aiaae?aiey a i?aeoeeo nia?aiaiiie oeieu (0,8 i.e.).

Noaouey aae?aniaaia oeieueiui ?aaioieeai anao o?iaiae, nooaeaioai,
anie?aioai, i?aiiaeaaaoaeyi aocia aoiaieoa?iuo aeenoeeieei.

Iaaeaaiae/aneee i?ioeann anaaaea naycai n inaiaieai aaaeiaeoeo aeey
?anoouaai /aeiaaea oeaiiinoae. Au?aaioaiiua /aeiaa/anoaii eaeaaeu e
oeaiiinoe, ii iiaieth A.A.Nooiieeineiai, a oneiaeyo oeieu noaiiayony
aiaaonoaii ee/iinoe ainieoaiieeia. «ss aeiaeaathnue oiai – ienae ii, –
/oiau i?aanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe, nicaeaiiua e caaiaaaiiua /aeiaa/anoaii a
i?ioeii e iieo/eaoea ?anoeaao a iaoe aeie, noaee aeooiaiui aiaaonoaii
eaaeaeiai ?aaaiea».1

Oeiea ianao ainieoaiieeo eiiieaen aaaeiaeoeo oeaiiinoae, iaae eioi?uie
ii ?aciuoeyao, aeaao ei ioeaii/iia iniuneaiea e eioi?ua caoai inaaeaaao.
Io oeaiiinoae anaiaueo e eiie?aoiui oeaiiinoyi, eo oe?ioa e
?aciiia?aceth a iiuoa oeieueieea – eiaiii yoi noaiiaeony iaeaieaa
nouanoaaiiui iiiaioii a oi?ie?iaaiee aai ee/iinoe.

N iaaeaaiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey oeaiiinoyie neaaeoao n/eoaoue oi, /oi
iieacii aeey aeecie oeieueieea, /oi niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth e
niaa?oainoaiaaieth aai ee/iinoe. «Oeaiiinoueth iiaeao auoue eae yaeaiea
aiaoiaai ie?a (i?aaeiao, aauue, niauoea, iinooiie), oae e oaeo iunee
(eaeay, ia?ac, iao/iay eiioeaioeey).2

Aanue o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiue i?ioeann aeieaeai auoue i?iieeioo eaeaae
iieaciinoe aeey o/aieea, /oi aiieia niaeanoaony n iuneyie, eioi?ua a
naia a?aiy auneacae ss.A.Eiiaineee: «I?ioeaiyaeeai

__________________________________________

1. A.A. Nooiieeineee. Eca?.iaae.ni/.a 3-o oo., I: Iaaeaaiaeea, 1979-81
aa., o.1, n.216

2. Ooaa?eiia A.I. Ee/iinoue e iauanoai. – I.: Iuneue, 1965, n.63

iaaaaeanoao yaeyaony ia?aciaaiea, eioi?ui a oeieao aeieaeiu auoue
iaieoaiu aeooe iieiaeuo ethaeae… Iii aoaeao enoeiiui, anee
i?aiiaeathony e eco/athony i?aaeiaou, oieueei iieaciua aeey aeecie».1 O
?aaaiea aic?anoaao eioa?an e oeaiiinoe ca n/ao oiai, /oi ii ia/eiaao
iiieiaoue aeeciaiioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iae.

Iai?aaeaiiinoue ee/iinoe /aeiaaea ia oa eee eiua oeaiiinoe nicaeatho
aio niaa?oaiii naiaia?aciue iaeee. «AEeciue naia ii naaa – ie aeaai, ie
cei, – ni?aaaaeeeai caia/aao ia yoio n/ao. I.Iiioaiue, – iia aianoeeeua
e aeaaa, e cea, niio?y ii oiio, ai /oi au naie i?aa?aoeee aa».2 Ii aai
iiaieth, iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue i?aaeaea anaai aa/iua, iai?aoiaeyuea
oeaiiinoe, eioi?uie aeeee ethaee a i?ioeii e aoaeoo aeeoue a aoaeouai.
«Anee au i?iaeeee iaeei aaeeinoaaiiue aeaiue, au aeaeaee oaea ana… yoi
nieioea, yoi eoia, yoi caacaeu, yoi ono?ienoai anaeaiiie – ana yoi oi
aea, io /aai aeoneee i?auo?u aaoe e /oi ac?anoeo aaoeo iioiieia».3

I niaea?aeaoaeueiie noi?iia aeeciaiii aaaeiuo aeey /aeiaaea oeaiiinoae
ecaeaaia aaeenue nii?u, i?e yoii n ia?aiaiiuie oniaoii iiaaaeo
iaea?aeeaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee naiuo ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaiee e acaeyaeia. A
ae?aaiaeoea a?aiaia i?eaa?aeaioeaie «naieo» oeaiiinoae auee noieee,
yieeo?aeoeu, nia?oaioeu, a aieaa iicaeiea a?aiaia – i?aaenoaaeoaee
?acee/iuo ?aeeaeiciuo aa?iaaiee, aaaeiienou, aeueo?oenou, iacioenou e
o.ae.

Eiiaaea i?eaycaiiinoue e iaeiei oeaiiinoyi aaea eo iineoaeae ia oieueei
e y?inoiiio iai?eyoeth ae?oaeo oeaiiinoae, ii e no?iaie, iai?eie?eiie

ai?ueaa n oaie, eoi eo i?iiiaaaeiaae. Iiaaaeaeaiiua ia?aaeei
?aniea/eaaeenue aeeciueth ca ianiaeanea aeeoue oeaiiinoyie iiaaaeeoaeae.

Ciay i oeaiiinoiuo i?ioeai?a/eyo, eo/oea oiu /aeiaa/anoaa anaaaea
iuoaeenue iaeoe ?acoiiue auoiae ec yoiai, i?eie?eoue a?aaeaeothueo,
iao/eoue ethaeae aeeoue a niioaaonoaee n aunoae ioae?inoueth e
?annoaei/iinoueth. Oae ?iaeeeanue eaeay au?aaioee

3. Eaiaineee ss.A. Orbis senalium pictus. //Iaaeaaiaeea, 1992, ? 5-6, n.
90.

4. I. Iiioaiue. Iiuou-I: Aiein, 1992, n. 99

5. Oai aea, n. 99

aaeeiiai iiaeoiaea e oyniaieth oeaiiinoiuo nouiinoe ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eiie?aoiie aaue, yaeaiey, iinooiea n oi/ee c?aiey eo
iieaciinoe eee aaniieaciinoe aeey ethaeae e /aeiaaea. «Anee au /aeiaae
aue ioae?, ii ?anoeaieaae au anyeoth aauue a caaeneiinoe io oiai,
ianeieueei iia iieacia e ioaeia aio a aeecie».1

Noi?iiieeii oaeiai iiaeoiaea e auyaeaieth cia/eiuo aeey /aeiaaea
oeaiiinoae aue ss.A. Eiiaineee. «Enoeiiay ioae?inoue, – aiai?ee ii, –
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau noaeeoue i aauao ni?aaaaeeeai, /oiau n/eoaoue
eaaeaeoth aauue oieueei oaeie, eaeay iia anoue ia naiii aeaea, ia
no?aieoueny e ionoiio, eae aoaeoi au iii auei ae?aaioeaiiui, eee ia
ioa?anuaaoue ae?aaioeaiiiai, i?eieiay aai ca ionoia, ia ii?eoeaoue
oiai, /oi caneoaeeaaao iioaaeu e ia ainoaaeyoue caneoaeeaathuaai
ii?eoeaiey».2

Nai Eiiaineee anaaaea caaioeeny i oeaiiinoyo, eioi?ua aeaaaee au e
/aeiaaeo, e iauanoao aieueoa «naaoa, ii?yaeea, ie?a e niieienoaey».
«Oeaeue ia aoaeao aeinoeaiooa, -i?aaeoi?aaeaeaao ii,- anee aeooe anao ia
aoaeoo iiaeaioiaeaiu ei anaio, /oi i?aaenoieo a aeecie». Iaeaieaa
aaaeiuie aeey ?anoouaai /aeiaaea a ieaaeoai aic?anoa, ii aai iiaieth,
yaeythony oaeea oeaiiinoe: aeaai/anoea, oia?aiiinoue, ii?yoiinoue,
ii/oeoaeueiinoue, i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiinoue, no?aieaiea e i?aaa e
ni?aaaaeeeainoue, aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoue, o?oaeiethaea, oa?iaiea,
aeaeeeaoiinoue e aioiaiinoue neoaeeoue noa?oei, oiaiea aea?aeaoue naay n
aeinoieinoaii. E?iia oiai, ?yae iiciaaaoaeueiuo oeaiiinoae ec oeceee,
iioeee, ano?iiiiee, aaia?aoee, enoi?ee, yeiiiieee, a?eoiaoeee,
a?aiiaoeee e ae?.iaoe.3

A aieaa noa?oai aic?anoa aeey ?aaaiea aaaeiu, ii iiaieth Eaiaineiai,
oaeea oeaiiinoe eae aicaea?aeaiea, oia?aiiinoue, aeaeaia, iineooaiea,
i?aaaeeainoue, ?aaeooea, no?aieaiea e aeayoaeueiinoe, oiaiea iie/aoue,
oa?iaiea, oneoaeeeainoue, aaaeeeainoue, i?eaaoeeainoue, iiiyoea i oii,
/oi yaeyaony i?eee/iui e /oi iai?eee/iui e ae?.4

A ?innee auai?o iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oeieu oeaiiinoae iiiai aieiaiey
oaeaeye E.Ae. Ooeineee. Nia?aiaiiay oeiea, ioia/ae ii, iniiauaaaony ia
ioaeeaoeo, noieanoe/aneeo oeaiiinoyo, «i?eooieythueo» oinoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue oeieueieeia e «o?iaeothueo» eo i?aanoaaiiinoue. ?aaaiie
ia oieueei ia ?acaeaaaony, ii nei?aa ayiao io «ia?oayuaai i?eeiniiaaiey»
oaeie oeieu. Aeaaiay i?e/eia, ii aai iiaieth, – oi?iaeeci eae
iaaeaaiae/aneie iaoee, oae, e iaaeaaiae/aneie i?aeoeee. «Iaaieueoay
ioae?inoue e ia aieueoie o?oae iaienaoue: oiio-oi o/eoue, oiio-oi ia
o/eoue, oi nouanoaaiii iieacii, yoi nianai aaniieacii e aeaaea a?aaeii
ai anao aiciiaeiuo ioiioaieyo – oinoaaiiii, i?aanoaaiiii, ?aeeaeiciii,
ynoaoe/aneii, iieeoe/aneii e o.ae. Ii iaienaoue e i?aaeienaoue aua ia
cia/eo naeaeaoue aeaei: a i?iaeieaeaiee iineaaeieo eao ianeieueei ?ac
iaiyeenue o ian iiaeiaiua i?aaeienaiey e eii/eeinue niaa?oaiiie
iooaieoeae».5

Oeaiiinoe, ia eioi?ua aeieaeia i?eaioe?iaaoueny ?inneeneay oeiea,
iiae/a?eeaaao Ooeineee, iaycaiu io?aaeaoue iio?aaiinoe ia?iaea, e
aeieaeiu

auoue ia oieueei ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiaiiuie, ii e naiiauoiuie. «*oiau
iiaanoe ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea i?yiui e aa?iui iooai iaaeiaii niio?aoue
ia ia oi, /oi ioaeii aeey Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Aiaeee e o.ae…., a ia
oi, /oi ioaeii ?innee a aa nia?aiaiiii ninoiyiee, /oi niaeanii n oiaeii
aa enoi?ee, n aeooii e iio?aaiinoyie ia?iaea. Ia iaeiiai e?oaa o/aiuo,
ia iaeiiai nineiaey, ia iaeiie eeoa?aoo?iie eee eaeie-ieaoaeue ia?oee, a
anaai ia?iaea io iaea aei aaeeea».6

____________________________

1. I. Iiioaiue. Iiuou., o. 2, n. 168.

2. Eiiaineee ss.A. Eca?.iaae.ni/.a 2-o oo. – I.: Iaaeaaiaeea, o. 1, n.
405.

3. Oai aea, o. 1, n. 210-213.

4. Oai aea n. 299.

5. E.Ae. Ooeineee. Nia?. Ni/. A 9-oe oo. – I: AII ?NON?, 1948, o. 3, n.
321.

6. Oai aea, n. 322

A aei?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?eiae aii?in i niaea?aeaiee oeieueiuo oeaiiinoae
oae e ia aue ?aoai. Iooaieoea e ia?acaa?eoa n oeaiiinoyie i?iaeieaeaaony
e a ia?aua iinea?aaiethoeeiiiua aiaeu. «Niaaoneia ainieoaiea, -ieoao
A.N. Iaea?aiei a yoe aiaeu, – ia i?aaenoaaeyao ie/aai ie
?aaiethoeeiiiiai, ie niaaoneiai, ie i?inoi aeaaea ?acoiiiai… Iaoe
iaaeaaiae i?inoi ia ciatho, /oi iie aeieaeiu aeaeaoue, eae aea?aeaoue
naay, a iaoe ainieoaiieee i?inoi aeeaoo a iaoeo aeaoneeo aeiiao, oi
anoue aaeyo, niyo, eia-eae oae?atho iinea naay. Ea?oeia i/aiue
ia/aeueiay».1

?aciuoeyy i oii, /oi eiaiii aeieaeii noaoue niaea?aeaieai aeecie
ainieoaiieeia, Iaea?aiei ioia/aao iaiaoiaeeiinoue oi?ie?iaaiey o ieo
aa?iiai ioiioaiey ei anaio eiiieaeno aeeciaiii aaaeiuo oeaiiinoae,

iicaieythueo «i?iaeeoue eae iiaeii aeieueoa e eae iiaeii ?aaeinoiaa.
Iaaei oiaoue aeaeaoue i?aeanoue naaiaeiyoiaai e caao?aoiaai aeiy e
aeeoue yoie i?aeanoueth. A yoii e caeeth/aaony ioae?inoue aeecie…».2

Ana aaaeiaeoea oeaiiinoe A.N. Iaea?aiei iauaaeeiyao iauei iiiyoeai
«/aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u», eoaea ii aai iiaieth, iai?aiaiii aeieaeiu
aieoe ia?aciaaiiinoue, aeenoeeieeia, /oanoai aeieaa, iiiyoea i /anoe,
aaaeeeainoue, aeia?ioa, oiaiea aeaaeaoue niaie, aeeyoue ia ae?oaeo,
oiaiea auoue aanaeui, aiae?ui, iiaeoyiooui, niiniaiui ai?ioueny e
no?ieoue, niiniaiui aeeoue e ethaeoue…, auoue n/anoeeaui.3 Ia?aiin
aieiaiey n oeaiiinoae oi?iaeueiuo ia oeaiiinoe «cae?aaiai niunea» –
aeenoeeieeiu, ii?yaeea, i?aeoe/aneiai aeaea noaei cia/eoaeueiui
aeinoeaeaieai ainieoaoaeueiie nenoaiu A.N. Iaea?aiei.

Yooaeoeaiinoue iaoiaeeee Iaea?aiei iae?aiei naycaia e n nenoaiaoe/aneei
oeaiiinoiui enneaaeiaaieai ee/iinoe eaaeaeiai ainieoaiieea. A
oa?aeoa?enoeeao, iaienaiiuo ?oeie Iaea?aiei ia ainieoaiieeia, iu
ian/eoaee ieiei 90 iaiaoiaeeiuo, ii aai iiaieth, aeey ee/iinoe
auioneieea oeaiiinoae. N?aaee ieo ia ia?aii ianoa – ?aaioiniiniaiinoue,
eoeueoo?a iiaaaeaiey, /anoiinoue, aaaeeeainoue, niiniaiinoue e iaoeai e
ae?.4

A oa?aeoa?enoeeao iacaaii e ieiei 60 aioeoeaiiinoae, n?aaee eioi?uo
iaeaieaa iai?eaieaiuie, ii iiaieth Iaea?aiei, yaeythony neaaeothuea:
eaiue, a?oainoue, ionoonoaea ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee a aeecie, ieioea
niiniaiinoe, iaeieoeueoo?iinoue, iaaeaeaiea o/eoueny e ae?.

Eae iieacuaatho enneaaeiaaiey, a aieueoeinoaa nia?aiaiiuo ?aaio ii
iaaeaaiaeea aii?in i oeieueiuo oeaiiinoyo oaeaea iaoiaeeony iiae
i?enoaeueiui aieiaieai aaoi?ia. Ii iiaieth iiiaeo ec ieo, aeaaiie
caaea/ae oeieu yaeyaony ?acaeoea o ainieoaiieeia ia oieueei i?aaeeueiiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey i anao aaaeiaeoeo aeey ieo oeaiiinoae, aoiaeyueo a
iiiyoea «eoeueoo?a /aeiaa/anoaa», ii e oiaeiai inaiaiey oao ec ieo,
eioi?ua ninoaaeytho iniiao eo ee/iinoe.

A nayce n i?ienoiaeyueie nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeie ia?aiaiaie a no?aia,
aii?in i oeaiiinoiii niaea?aeaiee o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna a
iniaaiiinoe iaino?eeny. A n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee ia yoo oaio
iiyaeeanue iaiaei auneacuaaiee, i?ioei ianeieueei aeeneonnee,
ninoiyeenue e?oaeua noieu n o/anoeai aaaeoueo iaaeaaiaia no?aiu A
oeaio?a aieiaiey ana oio aea ia ?aoaiiue aii?in i ?acoiiii, iao/ii
iainiiaaiiii ioai?a oeaiiinoae aeey oeieueieeia, a oaeaea naycaiiue n
iei aii?in i oii, eae yoe oeaiiinoe «ano?ieoue a oeieo, eae aeiaanoe eo
aei eaaeaeiai o/eoaey, a caoai e eaaeaeiai o/aieea».5

_____________________________________

1. A.N. Iaea?aiei. Iaae.ni/. a 8-ie oo. – I: Iaaeaaiaeea, 1983-86 aa.,
o. 1, n. 225.

2. Oai aea, o. 8, n. 80

3. Oai aea, o. 1, n. 138.

4. Oai aea, o. 1, n. 195

Eae aeaeei, a oeiea, noiyuae ia ii?iaa cia/eoaeueiuo ia?aiai, ii nae
aeaiue nio?aiyaony iieiay iayniinoue, ia iniiaaiee /aai e eae
ia?ano?aeaaoue iaaeaaiae/aneee i?ioeann. «Oaea ia?aua iiiuoee ia?aeoe io
aueueaa?ii-eeanniaiai, i?ieaoeoeueoianeiai iiaeoiaea e iaua/aeiaa/aneei
oeaiiinoyi i?eaaee e noiyoeoea ai anao i?ia?aiiao ainieoaiey. Anee
caeanue aeaenoaiaaoue iai?iaeoiaiii, oi i?iecieaeao i/a?aaeiia
oa?aoaiuea ec e?aeiinoe a e?aeiinoue».1

O/anoieee iaeiiai ec e?oaeuo noieia, ii?aaeaeyy, /oi ec oaea
au?aaioaiiuo /aeiaa/anoaii oeaiiinoae yaeyaony aeaaiui aeey nia?aiaiiie
oeieu, iacaaee: nioeeaeueioth ni?aaaaeeeainoue, aeia?ioo,
ii?yaei/iinoue, niaanoeeainoue (A.I. Oeeiiia), ai?ueao ca ie?, o?oae,
naiueth (A.N. Eaioi), caei?iaue ia?ac aeecie, no?aieaiea e aeieaieaoeth,
ieeina?aeea, i?aanoaaiiia e oece/aneia niaa?oainoai, caaioo ia
ie?oaeathuai e ie?oaeathueo (A.A. Eooeaa), eoeueo i?aaeeia,
aeaaiaiaaeiia ioiioaiea e i?ioeiio (A.A. ssiao?a) e ae?.2

Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi aii?in iaiieiaiey oeieueiuo i?ia?aii
eiie?aoiuie oeaiiinoyie aeieaeai ?aoaoueny ia n oi/ee c?aiey eo i?inoie
enoi?e/aneie cia/eiinoe aeey ethaeae, a n oi/ee c?aiey nia?aiaiiie,
i?iaeeeoiaaiiie naiie aeeciueth iio?aaiinoe oeieueieea a ieo. A naiii
neiaa «oeaiiinoue» caeiaeaia eaeay aa naaiaeiyoiae iieaciinoe aeey
?anoouaai /aeiaaea. Oeaiiui aeey iaai noaiiaeoueny ana oi, /oi iiaeao
noaoue aeeciaiii aaaeiui eaieoaeii a aai oaia?aoiae e aeaeueiaeoae
aeecie.

A nayce n yoei iaiaoiaeei aieaa i?iaeoiaiiue iiaeoiae e ioai?o
oeaiiinoae eae a niaea?aeaoaeueiii oae e eiee/anoaaiiii ioiioaiee. Eaeay
iieaciinoe iicaieyao iaeeo/oei ia?acii iaiieieoue o/aaiua ieaiu,
i?aaeiaoiua i?ia?aiiu, o/aaieee oaeeie oeaiiinoyie, eioi?ua ai?iae?iaaiu
iiiaieaoiae oeieueiie i?aeoeeie, aeiiieieoue eo oaeeie, eioi?uo oai aei
neo ii? ia auei, ii a eioi?uo i/aiue ioaeaeaaony nia?aiaiiue o/aiee.

Yoa aea eaeay iicaieyao iieiaeeoue eiiaoe ia?aa?oaeaiiinoe oeieueiuo
i?ia?aii e o/aaieeia aoi?inoaiaiiui, aaniieaciui, ie/aai ia cia/auei
aeey ?acaeoey ee/iinoe o/aieea iaoa?eaeii.

Iieaciinoue aeieaeia ni/aoaoueny n ?acoiiui iauaiii oeaiiinoe, eioi?ue
onoaiaaeeaaaony n o/aoii aic?anoiuo e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae,
iniaaiiinoae o/aueony. Ii aeieaeai niioaaonoaiaaoue o?aaiaaieyi
aeinooiiinoe e iineeueiinoe aeey oeieueieea.

?aaeecaoeee iaiaoiaeeiiai eiiieaena oeaiiinoae a o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiii
i?ioeanna aoaeao niinianoaiaaoue iao/ii iainiiaaiiay nenoaiaoecaoeey eo,
i /ai iiea aeieaeiui ia?acii ia caaeoiuaaeenue ie iaaeaaiae/aneay iaoea,
ie oeieueiay i?aeoeea. Nenoaiaoecaoeey no?ieony ia iniiaa yniuo e
no?iaeo e?eoa?eaa, /oi iiiiaeao eneeth/eoue ?ac?iciaiiinoue oeaiiinoae,
noaoue ei aeey o/aueony ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai iao/aiey a oeiea
iainiiaaiiui ieieioiii ie?iaie eoeueoo?u.

Iaiaoiaeeii /aoei i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oi eaaeaeue oeieueiue i?aaeiao-
yoi, ii nouanoao, eeoue /anoue oeaiiinoae io anaai eiiieaena oaea
nicaeaiiuo /aeiaa/anoaai iao/iuo, ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo, yoe/aneeo,
ynoaoe/aneeo e ae?oaeo oeaiiinoae e enoiaeeoue a ?aaioa n o/aieeii
eiaiii ec yoiai, ia iicaieyy aeia?o?ioe?iaaoue cia/eiinoue iaeieo e
iaaeiioeaieo ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia. Ana iie a iniiaa naiae acaeiinaycaiu
aoiaienoe/aneei ia/aeii e iai?aaeaiu ia oi?ie?iaaiea o oeieueieea
ananoi?iiiaai aeeciaiiiai iiuoa, aunieie eoeueoo?u, acaeiiiiieiaiey n
ae?oaeie ethaeueie. E.I. Oienoie a nayce n yoei

________________________________

1. Iieiaeaaeue e iauanoai // Niaaoneay iaaeaaiaeea – 1990 – 12, n.5

2. Oai aea, n. 3-18.

ni?aaaaeeeai caia/aao: «Ec anao iaoe, eioi?ua /aeiaae iiaeao e aeieaeai
ciaoue, aeaaiaeoay anoue iaoea i oii, eae aeeoue, aeaeay eae iiaeii
iaiueoa cea e eae iiaeii aieueoa aeia?a».1

Iao iaiaoiaeeiinoe ooi/iyoue, eaeoth a?iiaaeioth ?ieue a yoii i?ioeanna
nua?aao oai?/aneee iiaeoiae o/eoaey e aeaeo. Eiaiii oai?/aneee iiaeoiae
iiiiaeao aio iao/eoueny oyniyoue nouiinoue e aeooaeueiinoue oeaiiinoae a
aeecie, a i?ia?aiiao e o/aaieeao, aeaaaoue ei iaiaoiaeeiia ioeaii/iia
iainiiaaiea. Oaeay ?aaioa aiieia ii neeai aeoiathuaio, e
caeioa?aniaaiiiio a oniaoa aeaea o/eoaeth.

Inaaeaay oeaiiinoue, o/aiee a oie eee eiie ia?a nai noaiiaeony
eiiieaeniie oeaiiinoueth, /oi oaeaea o?aaoao iaaeaaiae/anee
oeaeaniia?aciiai iniuneaiey, ioeaiee n oi/ee c?aiey iauaia, aeoaeiu e
ae?oaeo iieacaoaeae iaee/ey oeaiiinoe a aai ee/iinoe. Oeaiiinoiia
niaea?aeaiea ee/iinoe o/aieea aeieaeii auoue caaioie anao i?e/anoiuo e
aeaeo ainieoaiey ethaeae: ?iaeeoaeae, o/eoaeae, ianoaaieeia,
ainieoaoaeae. E niaeaeaieth, eae iieacuaatho iaaethaeaiey, yoi naiia
oycaeiia ianoi iaaeaaiae/aneiai i?ioeanna. O?aaeeoeeiiii caeanue ana
naiaeeony eeoue e ioeaiea ciaiee, i aeeciaiiie cia/eiinoe eioi?uo o/aiee
ii?ie ia eiaao ieeaeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey. Anee auyaeaiea o?iaiy
aeinoeaeaiee o/aieea ia niioiineony e eiie?aoiie oeaiiinoueth eee
oeaiiinoyie, oi ?acaiai? ia yoeo aeinoeaeaieyo aoaeao anaaaea
noauaeoeaiui e ?anieua/aoui. Ciaiey, ia i?aa?auaiiua oneeeyie iaaeaaiaia
a oeaiiinoe e ia inaiaiiua o/aieeii eiaiii eae oeaiiinoe, eaaei
caauaathony e ieeiaaea ia noaiiayony niuneiia?acothuei oaeoi?ii.

?acaiai? i oeaiiinoyo aeieaeai auoue ninoaaiie /anoueth eaaeaeiai yoaia
?aaiou n ainieoaiieeii. Iaeuecy caauoue i neiaao ecaanoiiai
aia?eeaineiai oeeinioa Eai Ai?aea: «Eae oieueei iu oie/oiaeaai
oeaiiinoe, iu oie/oiaeaai ainieoaiea». Ii aai iiaieth, naia «aeeciue
yaeyaony iieai auai?a oeaiiinoae».2 Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue oeaiiinoae, eo
iauaia e oa?aeoa?a iio?aaeaiey o/aieeii ia ?oeo eeoue iaaeinoaoi/ii
iiaeaioiaeaiiiio iaaeaaiao. A oaeeo oneiaeyo ii iieo/aao iaaeanioth
aiciiaeiinoue (e ii/oe anaaaea iieuecoaony oaeie aiciiaeiinoueth)
«iiaei?aaeyoue» niaea?aeaiea o/aaiiai e ainieoaoaeueiiai iaoa?eaea iiae
naie o?iaaiue oeaiiinoiiai ?acaeoey. Enoieeiaaiea iaoa?eaea, ioeaii/iia
aai iniuneaiea aaaeaony oaeei ianoaaieeii n o/aoii naiaai «aeona», naieo
i?eno?anoee, neiiaoee e /aio-oi eee, iaiai?io, y?ei au?aaeaiiuo
aioeiaoee.

Ii ianoiyuaio iniuneaiiay oeaiiinoue e iiieiaaony, e i?eieiaaony
o/aieeii ai?acaei nei?aa. O ?aaaiea aic?anoaao eioa?an e iae ca n/ao
oiai, /oi ii ia/eiaao iiieiaoue aeeciaiioth iaiaoiaeeiinoue a iae. Ia
yoii aua a 18 a. Aiai?ee Oaioai I?ieiiiae/. O/aiee, ii aai iiaieth,
aeieaeai oi?ioi iiieiaoue, /aai iiaeii «aeinoeaiooue /a?ac nea eee eiia
o/aiea». Iaaei, «/oiau o/aieee aeaeaee aa?aa, e eioi?iio ieuaoo, e
eo/ooth ioioo au aicuiaee, e iiciaee au iianaaeiaaioth i?eaueue naith,
oaeiae e iaaeinoaoee».3

Oeaiiinoue iaia?oaeeaaaony oiaaea, eiaaea noaaeony oeaeue iaia?oaeeoue
aa. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeia aaeoi/eaay, aiaeeoe/aneay ?aaioa o/eoaey.
Niaea?aeaiea eco/aaiiai iaoa?eaea neaaeoao niioianoe n oai, /oi yoi
aeano ainieoaiieeo e ia noaiao ee yoi i?inoui aeey iaai
a?aiyi?ai?iaiaeaeaieai. Iinoaiaiii iaaei ?acaeaaoue o naay iaauee
no?aieoaeueiiai ?acee/ey oeaiiinoae a ethaii o/aaiii iaoa?eaea, eaeei au
aano?aeoiui e o?oaeiui ii ie eacaeny ia ia?aue acaeyae.

Nio?oaeie/ay n o/aieeii, neaaeoao oaeaea aeiaeaaoueny oiai, /oiau
inaaeaaaiay oeaiiinoue auniei oeaieeanue ei; oieueei a yoii neo/aa iia
ia?aoiaeeo a aai iio?aaiinoue. Anee aea o ?aaaiea ia noi?ie?iaaeinue
iieiaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea e oeaiiinoe, o iaai ia aicieeaao aeaeaiea
i?enaaeaaoue aa. Iacaeioa?aniaaiiia ioiioaiea e nooe onaaeaaaiiai, a

__________________________________

1. Ec ienueia e ?. ?ieeaio.

2. Ward Leo R.Philosophy of Education. Chicago, 1963. P. 152.

3. Aioieiaey iaaeaaiae/aneie iunee ?innee XVII a. – I.: Iaaeaaiaeea,
1986, n. 48.

ia?aaeei e iieiia ionoonoaea eaeiai-eeai ioiioaiey – aeaaiay i?e/eia
ieceie yooaeoeaiinoe ia?aciaaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. Ioeaii/iay iiceoeey
o/aueony a yoii neo/aa – yoi iiceoeey iaaa?ey a aeeciaiioth cia/eiinoue
onaaeaaaiuo oeaiiinoae, a eo oanioth naycue n aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth.
«Oiaaea e iiyaeyaony eiaiii oi, /oi i?eiyoi iacuaaoue oi?iaeeciii
ciaiee».1

Ionoonoaea o iiiaeo o/aueony aunieie ioeaiee onaaeaaaiuo oeaiiinoae
yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii nia?aiaiiiai iaaeaaiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna. Aiai?eoue ia oniaoiii i?enaiaiee oeieueieeii iiciaaaoaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi ii ociae i ieo, ia eiaao niunea.

E niaeaeaieth, oeiea, eae e i?aaeaea, i?iaeieaeaao i?eaioe?iaaoueny
eeoue ia ciaiey o/aieea, ii ieeae ia ia ananoi?iiiaa iaiaauaiea aai
ee/iinoe aeeciaiii aaaeiuie aeey iaai oeaiiinoyie. «Inoaaea a noi?iia
ae?aai aeecie, iu aanii?yaei/ii no?aieiny e iaeiiio oieueei ae?aao
iiciaiey».2

Aeooaeueiie caaea/ae nia?aiaiiie oeieu inoaaony caaea/a oi/iiai

ii?aaeaeaiey oiai iieiaiiiai ?yaea oeieueiuo oeaiiinoae, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ananoi?iiiaai ?acaeoey e niaa?oainoaiaaiey ee/iinoe
ainieoaiieea. Iooaeeeaaoueny i?e yoii iaiaoiaeeii io iniiaiuo,
enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeony a?oii oeaiiinoae:

iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe – ana oi, /ai ?aniieaaaao naia oeiea,

ie?oaeathuay n?aaea, naiuey, iauanoai a oeaeii.

Oi?ie?iaaiea o o/aueony ?acoiiiai ioiioaiey e iei – iaeia ec aaaeiaeoeo
caaea/ nia?aiaiiie oeieu. Ianeo/aeii a iineaaeiea aiaeu a
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiue i?ioeann aaaaeaiu oaeea eo?nu eae yeiiiie/aneia,
yeieiae/aneia, naiaeiia ainieoaiea, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea oi?ie?iaaiea o
oeieueieeia i?aaeeueiiai ioiioaiey i?aaeaea anaai e oeaiiinoyi
iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u;

i?aanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe – aeooiaiia ianeaaeea, ooaa?aeaeathuaa ia

caiea aicauoaiiua eaeaaeu aeia?a e ni?aaaaeeeainoe, i eioi?uo oae
ouaoaeueii caaioeeenue iaaeaaiae io A.ss. Eiiaineiai aei A.A.
Nooiieeineiai.

Anee ei a?aiaie ieii/aiey oeieu, eco/ea iiiaeanoai i?aaeiaoia, o/aiee
oae e ia iao/eeny ?acee/aoue, /oi anoue aeia?i e cei, /oi oaeia oi?ioi e
/oi oaeia ieioi, oi aia anyeiai niiiaiey, iinoaaeaiiay oeieie oeaeue ii
oi?ie?iaaieth i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoa ee/iinoe ia aeinoeaiooa;

iao/ii-iiciaaaoaeueiua oeaiiinoe – ana oi, /oi naycaii n iiciaieai

enoeiu, oi?ie?iaaieai i?aaeeueiuo ioeaii/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia
ie?oaeathuai ie?a, ae?oaii /aeiaaea, naiii naaa.

ooaeiaeanoaaiii-ynoaoe/aneea oeaiiinoe – a?oiia oeaiiinoae ecaanoiuo

/aeiaa/anoao n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai, naycaiiuo ia oieueei n ia?aciui
aini?eyoeai ie?oaeathuaai, ii e ?acaeoeai o /aeiaaea ia iniiaa eaoa?nena
iio?aaiinoe aeeoue ii caeiiai e?aniou.

oeaiiinoe oece/aneie eoeueoo?u e aeaeaiu – ana oi, /oi i?aaeoniao?eaaao

oece/aneia niaa?oainoai /aeiaaea e aai caei?iauea, oiaiea
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue e nio?aiyoue a caei?iaii oaea caei?iaue aeoo.

Iaaeaaiae/aneay aeneieiaey a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie eciaiyao oa?aeoa?
nio?oaeie/anoaa o/eoaey n o/aieeii. A oeaio?a aieiaiey ieacuaathony ia
i?inoi ciaiey, oiaiey, iaauee eee oi?ie?iaaiea eaeeo-oi i?eau/ae o
o/aieea, a oeaeue eiiieaena aeeciaiii aaaeiuo oeaiiinoae, oi?ie?iaaiea o
iaai iio?aaiinoe i?enaaeaaoue eo, aeeoue eie. Oeiea ia/eiaao
iaiin?aaenoaaiii o/eoue ainieoaiieea oiaieth oaa?aiii

_____________________________________

1. O?anoiiaoey ii aic?anoiie e iaaeaaiae/aneie ineoieiaee. – i.: IAO,
1980, n. 284.

2. A.ss.Eiiaineee. Eca?.iaae.ni/.a 2-o oo., I.: Iaaeaaiaeea, 1982, o. 1,
n. 301.

i?eaioe?iaaoueny a ie?oaeathuai ie?a, a niaa?oainoaa ?acee/aoue
ea/anoaaiioth, a /anoiinoe, oeaiiinoioth aai iaiaeii?iaeiinoue. Noaiaiue
?acaeoey o oeieueieea oaeiai oiaiey noaiiaeony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo
iieacaoaeae o?iaiy aai ainieoaiiinoe.

Oeaiiinoiay c?aeinoue naiiai iaaeaaiaa ii?aaeaeyao yooaeoeaiinoue
nio?oaeie/anoaa n o/aueieny a inaiaiee iaiaoiaeeiuo ei oeaiiinoae,
aeaeaiea eee iaaeaeaiea neaaeiaaoue i?eia?o iaaeaaiaa, oeaeaono?aieaiii
?aaioaoue iaae niaie. Oi?aaeaiea oneeeyie e aiciiaeiinoyie ainieoaiieeia
inoaaony a ?oeao oiaeiai, oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiiiai a aeneieiae/aneii
ioiioaiee ianoaaieea. E yoi aeieaeii noaoue a nia?aiaiiii
iaaeaaiae/aneii i?ioeanna ia neo/aeiui, a nenoaiaoe/aneei e
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui aeaeii.

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