.

Место интенсивной методики в системе обучения иностранному языку в средней школе ([Курсовая])

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1885
Скачать документ

Eacaineee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee

oieaa?neoao

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

Ianoi eioaineaiie iaoiaeeee a nenoaia

iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo a n?aaeiae oeiea

Nooaeaioa 403 a?oiiu ICI

Oaaeioiaa A.E.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

Aocaeueaaaaa O.N.

Eacaiue 1998 a.

Niaea?aeaiea

No?.

1.
Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
.3

2. Oeaee e caaea/e eioaineaiiai iaoiaea iao/aiey

eiino?aiiui ycueai…………………………………………6

3. Iienaiea iaoiaea…………………………………………..11

4. Eniieueciaaiea eioaineaiiai iaoiaea a oeiea…15

5.
Eeoa?aoo?a……………………………………………………25

1. Aaaaeaiea

60-a e 70-a aiaeu iaoaai aaea aieaeoo a enoi?eth iaoiaeeee iao/aiey
eiino?aiiui ycueai eae aiaeu aicieeiiaaiey e ?ac?aaioee oeaeiai ?yaea
iiauo iaoiaeia iao/aiey, ecaanoiuo iiae iauei iacaaieai “eioaineaiua
iaoiaeu iao/aiey”. Aicieeoea ia?aiia/aeueii a ?acee/iuo no?aiao e a
?aciua aiaeu yoiai ia?eiaea, ana yoe iaoiaeu, oai ia iaiaa yaeythony
iauei ioaaoii iaoiaeeee ia nioeeaeueiue caeac nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay ianoaiiaea yoiai ia?eiaea, iao/ii-oaoie/aneay
?aaiethoeey, iiaeaeoay ca niaie eioi?iaoeeiiiue ac?ua, e iaoneiaeaiiia
auoaoeacaiiui aiaea/aiea ana aic?anoathuaai /enea niaoeeaeenoia a ?aciuo
iaeanoyo iaoee e oaoieee a iaiin?aaenoaaiiia inouanoaeaiea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo naycae, nii?iaiaeaeaaiuo
cia/eoaeueiui ?inoii e ?anoe?aieai eoeueoo?iuo e aeaeiauo eiioaeoia, –
ana yoi i?aaeuyaeei naie o?aaiaaiey e oa?aeoa?o aeaaeaiey eiino?aiiui
ycueii e oai naiui aeaoa?ieie?iaaei iaeioi?ua i?eioeeiu e ia?aiao?u
iiauo iaoiaeia iao/aiey, a /anoiinoe, eiino?aiiuie ycueai.

Oneiaey eiiycu/iiai iauaiey a nia?aiaiiii ie?a, eiaaea eiino?aiiue ycue
yaeyaony n?aaenoaii iauaiey, iiciaiey, iieo/aiey e iaeiieaiey
eioi?iaoeee, i?aaeii?aaeaeeee iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaaeaiey anaie aeaeaie
?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe: aiai?aieai e iiieiaieai ia neoo ?a/e ia aeaiiii
eiino?aiiii ycuea, a oaeaea /oaieai e ienueiii. O?iaaiue aaeaeaaoiinoe
aeaaeaiey oai eee eiui aeaeii ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?iaa?yaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?aeoeea eiiycu/iiai iauaiey, i?e /oaiee aooaioe/iie
e aunieiniaea?aeaoaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u ii niaoeeaeueiinoe, i?e iaiaia
ienueiaiiie eioi?iaoeeae a aeaea noaoae, eiea, aiiioaoeee e iei, oacenia
aeey eiioa?aioeee, aeaeiauo aoiaa e o.ae. *anoi “eniuoaiea i?aeoeeie”
canoaaeyao iiaeaa?aiooue niiiaieth i?aaeeueiinoue yecaiaiaoeeiiiie
ioeaiee ii eiino?aiiiio ycueo a n?aaeiae oeiea, oae eae, ianiio?y ia
ea/anoaaiii iiaua, aeiaieueii eiie?aoiua o?aaiaaiey e o?iaith aeaaeaiey
eiino?aiiui ycueii, yecaiaiu ii-i?aaeiaio ieaioe?iaaiu ia o?aaeeoeeiiiue
eee eaeie-eeai ae?oaie iaoiae iao/aiey, aaea ciaieyi i ycuea i?eaeaaony
a(eueoaa cia/aiea, /ai oiaieyi e iaaueai a naiii ycuea, e aaea aeaaeaiea
onoiie ?a/ueth iineo aoi?e/iue iiae/eiaiiue oa?aeoa?, a ia yaeyaony
oneiaeai nicaeaiey ae?oaeo ?a/aauo iaaueia: iaauea /oaiey e ienueia.

Iiyaaeaoeany eae nioeeaeueii-iaoneiaeaiiia iineaaenoaea
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ac?uaa, iiaua iaoiaeu iao/aiey, anoanoaaiii, ia
iiaee ia aia?aoue e ia ioia?aceoue a naaa nia?aiaiiiai o?iaiy ciaiee
iae?ioeceieiaee, ineoieiaee, a /anoiinoe, ineoieaee aii?eyoey, ineoieaee
iaiyoe, niciaoaeueiiai e aanniciaoaeueiiai, oai?ee eioi?iaoeee e ae?.
Iiaua iaoiaeu eniieueciaaee iiuo e ciaiey ae?oaeo iia?aie/iuo e niaaeiuo
iaoe, a /anoiinoe ycueiciaiey, ineoieeiaaenoeee, ineoiaeaeaiu.

Noaaanoiiaaee/aneia iai?aaeaiea a iaaeaaiaeea iiyaeeinue a nayce n
iiiuoeie aieaa?neiai a?a/a ineoioaaiaaoa Aai?aey Eicaiiaa eniieueciaaoue
noaaanoeth eae n?aaenoai aeoeaecaoeee ?aca?iuo ineoe/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae
ee/iinoe a o/aaiii i?ioeanna, a /anoiinoe i?e iao/aiee eiino?aiiui
ycueai (ni., iai?., [1 – 5]). Noaaanoey (ii Eicaiiao [1])- yoi
n?aaenoai, a iniiaiii iai?yiiai, eiiioieeaoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey ia
/aeiaaea a aiae?noaothuai ninoiyiee, nicaeathuaa oneiaey aeey
aeoeaecaoeee ?aca?aiuo aiciiaeiinoae ee/iinoe.

A.Eicaiia auaeaeye o?e aeaea noaaanoee, eioi?ua eniieuecothony a o/aaiii
i?ioeanna aeey niyoey anyeiai ?iaea ineoieiae/aneeo aa?uea?ia o
iao/aaiuo. E?aoei eceiaeei nooue eaaeaeiai ec ieo.

Ineoieiae/aneay noaaanoey. O/eoaeue i?iaiaeeo o?ie n o/aoii
ineoioaaiaaoe/aneeo, ineoieiae/aneeo e ineoiaeaeaie/aneeo oaeoi?ia, a
oaea n o/aoii yiioeeiiaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey, eniieuecoy eiae/aneea oi?iu
iiaea/e iaoa?eaea.

Aeeaeaeoe/aneay noaaanoey. Ia caiyoeyo i?eiaiythony iniaua i?eaiu,
aeoeaece?ouea iao/aiea.

Ooaeianoaaiiay noaaanoey.O/eoaeue eniieuecoao ia caiyoeyo ?acee/iua
aeaeu eneonnoaa (iocueo, aeeaiienue, yeaiaiou oaao?a) n oeaeueth
yiioeeiiaeueiiai aicaeaenoaey ia oeieueieea e aa?iiiecaoeeth o?iea.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey noaaanoiiaaeee naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio:

– iao/aiea aeieii auoue ?aaeinoiui e iaiai?yaeaiiui;

– aai neaaeoao inouanoaeyoue eae ia niciaoaeueiii, oae e ia
iiaeniciaoaeueiii o?iaiyo;

– a iao/aiee neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue iau/ii iacaaeaenoaoaiua ?aca?au
niciaiey n oeaeueth iiauoaiey ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe.

A iaoae no?aia iineaaeiaaoaeyie A.Eicaiiaa noaee A.A.Eeoaeai?iaeneay,
A.A.Eaiioueaa, I.A.Nie?iiaa, E.TH.Oaooa?, E.O.Aaaa/ei?e,
A.A.Iao?oneineee e ae?oaea, a nai iaoiae iieo/ee ia?aiia/aeueii iacaaiea
“eicaiianeee”, caoai “yeni?ann-iaoiae” e, iicaea, “eioaineaiue iaoiae”.
Eaeae Eicaiiaa auee aaeaioe?iaaiu e ?acaeou niaaoneeie iaaeaaiaii
Eeoaeai?iaeneie A.A. [6 – 10] e ineoieiaii Eaiioueaaui A.A. [10 – 20],
eioi?ua e noaee aaaeoueie niaoeeaeenoaie ii eioaineaiui iaoiaeeeai
iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai a Niaaoneii Nithca e caoai a ?innee. Eie aue
nicaeai i?iaeaiiue niaao ii eioaineaiui iaoiaeai iao/aiey eiino?aiiui
ycueai [21], eioi?ue nia?ae e iaiauee iaoe?iua ?acoeueoaou ii
i?eiaiaieth eioaineaiuo iaoiaeia iao/aiey eiino?aiiui e iai?aaee ?aaioo
iaaeaaiaia no?aiu ii inaiaieth e eniieueciaaieth yoeo iaoiaeia.
Iiiai/eneaiiua ioaeeeaoeee noi?iiieeia eioaineaiuo iaoiaeee iieacaee,
/oi i?aaeeueiia i?eiaiaiea iaaeioee eioaineaiiai iao/aiey iicaieyao
aeinoe/ue aia/aoeythueo ?acoeueoaoia a iao/aiee eiino?aiiiio ycuea eae
ii iauaio onaiaiiiai, oae e ii n?ieai iao/aiey. Ana yoe iiceoeaiua
?acoeueoaou, iaeiaei, ia iiaoo ne?uoue oiai oaeoa, /oi i?eiaiaiea
eioaineaiuo iaoiaeee a n?aaeiae oeiea eiaao na?ueaciua ia?aie/aiey,
eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue eaaeaeiio i?aiiaeaaaoaeth n?aaeiae oeieu
i?e auai?a “naiaai” iaoiaea.

2. Oeaee e caaea/e eioaineaiiai iaoiaea iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai.

Noi?ioee?oai iniiaiua oeaee e caaea/e eioaineaiiai iaoiaea iao/aiey
eiino?aiiui ycueai (ni. [21]).

Eoae, aeaaiie caaea/ae eioaineaiiai iaoiaea iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo
yaeyaony iaeaaeaoue, a oneiaeyo aeanoeiai eeieoa a?aiaie, eiino?aiiui
ycueii eae n?aaenoaii iauaiey e n?aaenoaii iiciaiey, au?aaioaoue oiaiey
e iaauee iiieiaiey onoiie ?a/e ia eiino?aiiii ycuea a ii?iaeueiii
(anoanoaaiiii) eee aeeceii e ii?iaeueiiio oaiia i?e i?aeoe/anee
iaia?aie/aiiie auoiaie, iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie e iauaiao/iie oaiaoeea.

Oiaiea iiieiaoue onoioth ?a/ue, au?aaaouaaaiia ia naiii ia/aeueiii yoaia
eioaineaiiai iao/aiey, niaa?oainoaoaony, i?aa?aoaaony a iaaue oaea a
naiii eo?na iao/aiey, e iaania/eaaao iiieiaiea io 50% aei 100% iauaia
iieo/aaiie ia neoo eioi?iaoeee. A ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo iauaiey iauai
iiieiaiey onoiie ?a/e ia eiino?aiiii ycuea iiaeao auoue oaaee/ai ca n/ao
?acaeoey iaauea aioeoeeie?iaaiiiai iiieiaiey, ca n/ao “eiiycu/iie
aeoeaiinoe” neooathuaai, eioi?ue iiaeao caaeaoue aii?in ii iiaiaeo
iaiiiyoiai ei eee iii?ineoue ?acuynieoue ioaeaeueiua iiiaiou ?a/e.

I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi aeey nicaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii aunieiai o?iaiy
iaauea aoaee?iaaiey iao/aaiue aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue “neiaa?ai
aoaee?iaaiey”, ?aaiui i?eaeeceoaeueii 6 oun. neiaa?iuo aaeeieoe. Yoi
iniaue aeae neiaa?y, ciaiea eioi?iai ?aaeecoaony ca n/ao ia oieueei
?aaeueii ciaeiiuo, enoiaeiuo neia, ii e ca n/ao ciaiee i?aaee
neiaiia?aciaaiey. Ii aeeth/aao iaciaeiiua neiaa, iiiyoiua aneaaenoaee
nicaeaiey o iao/aaiiai iaauea eiioaenooaeueiiai aioeoeeie?oaiiai
iiieiaiey. A yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, aiciiaeii i?e nicaeaiee o iaoaai
iao/aaiiai aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u eco/aaiiai eiino?aiiiai ycuea e ca n/ao
eiathuaainy o eaaeaeiai o/anoieea iauaiey iiuoa iauaiey aiiaua.

O/anoea a iauaiee i?aaeiieaaaao iaeaaeaiea onoiie ?a/ueth ia eiino?aiiii
ycuea, o.a. nicaeaiea iaauea aiai?aiey. A ioee/ea io aoaee?iaaiey,
nianoaaiii aiai?aiea ia i?aaeuyaeyao noieue aunieeo o?aaiaaiee e iauaio
neiaa?y, iauaio ycueiaiai iaoa?eaea eae oneiaeth, iaania/eaathuaio
?aaeecaoeeth yoiai iaauea. Iaeiaei, aiai?aiea aeiaieueii aeanoei
onoaiaaeeaaao iauai iaiaoiaeeiiai ieieioia neiaa?iiai e aiiaua ycueiaiai
iaoa?eaea, eioi?ui aeieaeai iaeaaeaoue iao/aaiue aeey iieiioeaiiiai
o/anoey aai eae ee/iinoe a i?ioeanna iauaiey. Yoio ieieioi, e?iia
neiaa?iiai e a?aiiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea ycuea, i?aaeiieaaaao iaeaaeaiea
oeaeui ?yaeii iniiaiuo yeno?aeeiaaenoe/an/eeo n?aaenoa aeaiiiai ycuea,
eae iai?eia?, aaniethoiue oaii ?a/e, oa?aeoa? iaoc (eo aeeeoaeueiinoue e
?aciauaiea), a oae aea aeanoi-ieie/aneea iniaaiiinoe aeaiiiai ycuea.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi nicaeaiea aeinoaoi/ii
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai, oioy e ia aeinoaoi/ii niaa?oaiiiai iaauea aiai?aiey
aiciiaeii i?e oneiaee iaeaaeaiey neiaa?iui iauaiii ia iaiaa 2500 – 3000
aaeeieoe, i?aaiecoaiuo n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa ii?iaoeaiie a?aiiaoeee
aeaiiiai ieino?aiiiai ycuea e ii?aaeaeaiiuo n?aaenoa neiaiia?aciaaiey e
noeeenoeee. I?e yoii oaii ?a/e iao/aaiiai aeieaeai ninoaaeyoue ia iaiaa
1/2 io iieacaoaey oaiia ?a/e iineoaey ycuea, a oa?aeoa? e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
a ?a/e iao/aaiiai iaoc ?aaeoeee e iaoc oaceoaoeee aeieaeiu a
aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie iiaoi?youe oa?aeoa? e ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaoc a ?a/e
iineoaeae ycuea i?e i?iii?oeeiiaeueiii aic?anoaiee eo aeeeoaeueiinoe.

Iaa yoe oeeo?u – neiaa?ue-ieieioi aoaee?iaaiey e neiaa?ue-ieieioi
aiai?aiey, ninoaaeythuea niioaaonoaaiii 6000 e 3000 neiaa?iuo aaeeieoe,
– e aeieaeiu i?aaenoaaeyoue niaie neiaa?e, ia ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo iiaoo
auoue iino?iaiu eioaineaiua eo?nu eiino?aiiuo ycueia. Iaeiaei, i?eiyoi
n/eoaoue, /oi /anoioiue neiaa?ue, ninoaaeythuee 1500 neiaa?iuo aaeeieoe,
yaeyaony aeinoaoi/iui aeey nicaeaiey iaauea aoaee?iaaiey e aiai?aiey.
Aiaeec oaeiai neiaa?y iieacuaaaao, /oi /ooue ee ia iieiaeia iauaia
neiaa?y i?eoiaeeony ia neiaa neoaeaaiua, aniiiiaaoaeueiua,
yiioeeiiaeueii-iaeo?aeueiua. Iie ia aeatho aiciiaeiinoe aeey
inouanoaeaiey iieiioeaiiie eiiioieeaoeee o/anoieeia iauaiey, oae eae ia
aeeth/atho neiaa i?eau/iua, ii n ieceei iieacaoaeai /anoaoiinoe,
eneeth/atho neiiieieth, a oai naiui e aiciiaeiinoue ?aaeecaoeee a
iauaiee ee/iinoiuo niuneia aiai?yueo.

Iino?iaiea ia/aeueiuo eo?nia eiino?aiiuo ycueia ia oaeii iauaia neiaa?y
yaeyaony niaethaeaieai iaeiaai “iaoiaee/aneiai i?aoeaaeaioa”,
i?aaeienuaathuaai ia oieueei iaaieueoie iauee neiaa?ue eo?na, ii e
ii?aaeaeythuaai iee?iaeicu o/aaiiai iaoa?eaeaia eaaeaeue o?ie.
I?eaioe?iaaiiinoue eioaineaiiai eo?na iao/aiey, iino?iaiiiai ia
nia?aiaiiuo enneaaeiaaieyo oeaeiai ?yaea iaoe, ia oaeie
o?aaeeoeeiiii-iaeue iauai neiaa?y icia/aei au, /oi oaeia
ea/anoaaiii-iiaia yaeaiea eae eioaineaiia iao/aiea ecia?yaony,
ii?aaeaeyaony e ioeaieaaaony n oi/ee c?aiey e a oeeo?ao noa?uo
o?aaeeoeee. Neiaa?ue ia/aeueiiai yoaia eioaineaiiai iao/aiey ii iaoiaeo
aeoeaecaoeee ?aca?aiuo aiciiaeiinoae o/aueony ninoaaeyao iau/ii 2700
neiaa?iuo aaeeieoe, /oi i?eaeeceoaeueii niioaaonoaoao neiaa?ue-ieieioio
aiai?aiey, oiiieiaaoaiony auoa. Aunieay eiiioieeaoeaiay e
eioi?iaoeeiiiay “noieiinoue” neiaa?y eo?na iaania/eaaaony aeeth/aieai a
iaai aieueoiai /enea i?eeaaaoaeueiuo, a oii /enea iiaeaeueii-ioeaii/iuo
i?aaeeeaoeaiuo i?eeaaaoaeueiuo oeia “i?ae?anii”, “caia/aoaeueii”,
“oaeeaeoaeueii”, “iai?eyoii”, “eioa?anii”, “iaiiiyoii” e o.ae. Aieaa 75%
iauaai iauaia neiaa?y ninoaaeytho nouanoaeoaeueiua, i?eeaaaoaeueiua,
iieiicia/iua aeaaieu, ia?a/ey. Inoaeueiay /anoue – yoi neiaa
neoaeaaii-ioi?ieoaeueneie eaeneee: ee/iua, i?eoyaeaoaeueiua,
oeacaoaeueiua, aii?ineoaeueiua e ae?oaea ianoieiaiey, /eneeoaeueiua,
i?aaeeiae, nithcu, iiaeaeueiua e neoaeaaiua aeaaieu, iacaaiey aeiae
iaaeaee, ianyoeaa, a?aiai aiaea, neiaa, iaicia/athuea i?ino?ainoai,
iacaaiea naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ie?oaeathueo ian i?aaeiaoia, o.a. neiaa
neoaeaaiua e iiae/eiaiiua eae a a?aiiaoe/aneii, oae e a niuneiaii
ioiioaiee. Eo iauaa /eneininoaaeyao i?eaeeceoaeueii 600-700 neiaa?iuo
aaeeieoe e yaeyaony iaeeiaeiaui eae aeey neiaa?y a 1500 aaeeieoe, oae e
aeey neiaa?y eioaineaiiai eo?na a 2700 aaeeieoe. I/aaeaeii, /oi ?acieoea
iaaeaeo neiaa?yie, ninoaaeythueie 1200 neiaa?iuo aaeeieoe, i?eoiaeeony
ia eiiioieeaoeaii-iieiicia/iua neiaa.

Oaeei ia?acii, oaeoe/aneay ?acieoea iaaeaeo /anoioiui neiaa?ai
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iaoiaea e neiaa?ai eioaineaiiai eo?na, ninoaaeythuay 50%
ii iauaio, i?aa?auaaony a iioaioeeaeueioth ?acieoeo, ?aaioth 300% ii
iauaio. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi neiaa?ue eo?na – yoi neiaa?ue-ieieioi
aiai?aiey. Ii ninoaaeyao iniiao neiaa?y-ieieioia aoaee?iaaiey,
?anoe?yaiiai ca n/ao iioaioeeaeueiiai neiaa?y neiaiia?aciaaiey e neiaa?y
aioeieoee?oaiie e eiioaenooaeueiie aeiaaaeee. Iai?eia?, o/auaiony
iaecaanoii neiai “CIIO”. Aia?aua ii neuoeo aai a ?a/e i?aiiaeaaaoaey a
neooaoeee, eiaaea iiieiaiea aai eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoue ioeaee.
Iai?eia?, “Ia oeeoea oae aeiaeaeue, a y ieeae ia iia ?ane?uoue naie …
CIIO …, e iiyoiio auiie”. Ii ia?a oiai, eae o/aueeny iaiaeiie?aoii
ociaao aai i?e i?e aoaee?iaaiee, neiai ia?aoiaeeo a ?ac?yae noeioeia
aeey iineaaeothuae ?aaeoeee iao/aaiiai. Iai?eia?, i?aiiaeaaaoaeue
aiai?eo: “ss niae?athnue iieoe iiaoeyoue, a ia oeeoea aeiaeaeue. ss ia
acye naiiai ciioa. Au ia iiaaee au iaeieaeeoue aao?” E o/aueeny
i?aaeeaaaao naie CIIO eee ioeacuaaaony aeaoue naie CIIO, iioeae?oy
eaeei-oi ia?acii naie ioeac, iieuecoynue iaiaeiie?aoii neiaii CIIO ia
o?iaia ?ai?iaeoeoeee. Caoai, a neaaeothuai caaeaiee i?aiiaeaaaoaeue
iiaeao ni?ineoue niaaoa o o/auaainy, neacaa: “Iia iaycaoaeeueii ioaeii
eaeoe ii aaaeiiio aeaeo nae/an, a ia oeeoea, eaaeaony, aeiaeaeue
niae?aaony. *oi aea iia aeaeaoue?” Ia yoii yoaia neiai CIIO, cia/aiea
eioi?iai aia/aea auei oieueei oaaaeaii, noaiaiue aeaaeaiey cia/aieai e
oi?iie eioi?iai ia?aoei a oiaiea /a?ac ciaiea, aeinoeaaao o?iaiy iaauea,
eiaaea o/aueeny naiinoiyoaeueii niciaoaeueii neooaoeaii oiio?aaeyao aai.
O/aueeny ?aeiiaiaeoao acyoue CIIO, i?aaeeaaaao naie CIIO e o.ae.

Oaeia iooue ?anoe?aiey neiaa?y aiai?aiey ca n/ao neiaa?y aoaee?iaaiey.
Ii ia?a niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaaueia ai anao aeaeao ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe
?anoao eae neiaa?ue aoaee?iaaiey, oae e neiaa?ue aiai?aiey i?e
nio?aiaiee ?ac?uaa a iauaia iaaeaeo ia?aui e aoi?ui e iia?aaeathuai
?inoa ia?aiai. Neiaa?ue aoaee?iaaiey ii nouanoao e yaeyaony “ianneaiui
neiaa?ai”, iinoiyiii /a?ac o?aie?iaeo iiiieiythuei aeoeaiue neiaa?ue
o/auaainy.

Iiaaeaeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiaieueii aieueoiai neiaa?y a eioaineaiii
eo?na iao/aiey aeey ?aaeecaoeee oeaeae iao/aiey, oi?ioee?oaiuo eae
?acaeoea anao aeaeia ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe /a?ac nicaeaiea ?a/aauo
oiaiee e iaaueia, iaania/eaathueo aeaaeaiea eiino?aiiui ycueii eae
n?aaenoaii iauaiey e n?aaenoaii iiciaiey, iaiaoiaeeii iainiiaaoue
iaeioi?ua i?eioeeiu ioai?a e i?aaiecaoeee o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea, a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue aai ?ani?aaeaeaiea ai a?aiaie e iiyoaiioth aeice?iaeo.

Ioai? neiaa?iiai iaoa?eaea aeey eo?na eioaineaiiai iao/aiey i?ienoiaeeo
ii /anoioii-oaiaoe/aneiio i?eioeeio. Yoi icia/aao, /oi i?e oaiaoe/aneie
i?aaiecaoeee eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai oaenoa o?iea oaiaoe/anee aeinoiaa?iua
neiaa i?ioiaeyo aeiiieieoaeueiue oeeueo?-i?iaa?eo n oi/ee c?aiey eo
/anoioiinoe, aunieie naiaioe/aneie noieiinoe, ni/aoaaiinoe, iaee/ey e
aiciiaeiinoe aaaaeaiey eo neiiieiia, aioiieiia eee iiiieiia.

*oi eanaaony a?aiiaoe/aneo yaeaiee ycuea, oi ana iie iaoee io?aaeaiea a
eo?na. I?e eo aaaaeaiee niaethaeaaony oi aea i?eioeei: ycueiaay
aeinoiaa?iinoue (caeia, aeaei-a?aiaiiua oi?iu, a?oeeeue), niuneiaay
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiiinoue e aiciiaeiinoue i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue aa ia
iaoa?eaea o?iea.

Iniaia cia/aiea a eioaineaiii eo?na iao/aiey i?eia?aoaao aii?in
?ani?aaeaeaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea ai a?aiaie. Iii ii?aaeaeyaony e
?aaoee?oaony oeaeui ?yaeii oaeoi?ia ?acee/iie i?e?iaeu:
aeeaeaeoe/aneeie, iaoiaee/aneeie, ineoieiae/aneeie,
nioeeiineoieiae/aneeie. Ana yoe oaeoi?u iaeeiaeiai aaaeiu, acaeiinaycaiu
e iiae/eiaiu caaea/ai iao/aiey.

Ia/aeueiue eo?n iao/aiey ?an/eoai iau/ii ia 120 aoaeeoi?iuo /ania.
Iao/aiea ai aoi?ie nooiaie, oeaeueth eioi?iai yaeyaony niaa?oainoaiaaiea
iaaueia e oiaiee, i?eia?aoaiiuo a ia/aeueiii eo?na, i?e niioaaonoaothuai
oaaee/aiee iauaia ciaiee, oaeaea ?ann/eoaii ia 100-120 /ania.
Iaaacuioa?anii ioiaoeoue, /oi, oioy iauai i?aaeeaaaaiie e onaiaieth
eioi?iaoeee a ia/aeueiii eo?na, i?aeoe/anee ?aaai iauaio aoi?iai,
i?iaeaeiooiai yoaia, caeiiu aai i?aaiecaoeee e ?ani?aaeaeaiey a oa/aiea
eo?na i?eioeeieaeueii eiua.

I?inoui aeaeaieai eiee/anoaa neiaa?iiai iaoa?eaea ia eiee/anoai o/aaiuo
/ania (2700:120) iieo/aai /enei aaeeieoe o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea – neiaa?iuo
aaeeieoe ia aaeeieoeo a?aiaie (22,5 aae//an). Yoi /enei a /aou?a n
eeoiei ?aca i?aaaoaao niioaaonoaothuee iieacaoaeue aeey iau/iiai
iao/aiey. Iaeiaei, iia ia io?aaeaao aaeaeaaoii eiioeaio?aoeee e
?ani?aaeaeaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea a eioaineaiii eo?na. Eioaineaiia
iao/aiea i?aaeiieaaaao eiiieaenii-ia?aeeaeueiia ?acaeoea anao aeaeia
?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aeoe/anee iaeiia?aiaiiia nicaeaiea iaaueia e
oiaiee aoaee?iaaiey e aiai?aiey ia eiino?aiiii ycuea, n iaaieueoie
ion?i/aiiinoueth ai a?aiaie aeey iaauea /oaiey e ienueiaiiie ?a/e.
Nicaeaiea anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo iaaueia ia naiie ia/aeueiie noaaeee
iao/aiey yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aeey: a) iiaeaea?aeaiey aunieiai
o?iaiy iioeaaoeee a iao/aiee, a) oniaoiinoe iao/aiey e a) yooaeoeaiinoe,
o.a. niaiaaeaiey oeaeae e ?acoeueoaoia iao/aiey.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi iaoa?eae ia/aeueiuo eo?nia, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, iicaieyao nicaeaoue oneiaey aeey ?aaeecaoeee anao iaiaoiaeeiuo
iaaueia ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia eiino?aiiii ycuea, e, n ae?oaie
noi?iiu, eo/oa anaai nio?aiyaony a iaiyoe o/aueony, nicaeaaay iniiao,
naiaai ?iaea “?aoaoeo e?enoaeeecaoeee” i?e eco/aiee eiino?aiiiai ycuea.
Anee iauea ?acoeueoaou ciaiee eaene/aneiai iaoa?eaea eo?na ninoaaeytho
81-83%, oi ciaiea eaene/aneiai iaoa?eaea ia?auo /aou?ao o?ieia a eiioea
eo?na (o. a. /a?ac 20 aeiae iinea eo aaaaeaiey) e iinea aai ieii/aiey
(ion?i/aiiay i?iaa?ea iaoa?eaea o?ieia i?iaiaeeony /a?ac ianyoe iinea
ieii/aiey eo?na) nioaaeyao 95-96% i?aaeeiaeaiiiai e i?iaa?ea iauaia.

Noiie?oy auoaneacaiiia iiaeii noi?ioee?iaaoue oeaee eioaineaiiai iaoiaea
neaaethuei ia?acii: iao/eoue o/aueony iaaueai aoaee?iaaiey e aiai?aiey n
eniieueciaaieai aieueoiai (ia?iiiiai ii n?aaiaieth n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie
iaoiaeaie) eaene/aneiai iaoa?eaea ca ei?ioeee (e?ao/aeoee ii n?aaiaieth
n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie iaoiaeaie) i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie.

I?e yoii iaecaaaeiua ineoieiae/aneea ia?aa?ocee nieiathony ca n/ao naiie
iaoiaeeee iao/aiey. A eiaiii, iaaethaeaiea ca ineoioeceieiae/aneei
ninoiyieai o/aueony iicaieeei naeaeaoue auaiae i aunieii o?iaia
aieiaiey, “iaianuuaiiinoe” eioi?iaoeeae, aunieii o?iaia i?eaioe?iai/iie
aeayoaeueiinoe ai?ioeanna iao/aiey, iai?aaeaiiie ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee
iao/aiey ia aiaoiea yaeaiey, iaooiieaiiinoe io aeayoaeueiinoe, eae i
aaaeiuo oaeoi?ao, niinianoaothueo aunieiio o?iaith caiiieiaiey e aunieei
iieacaoaeyi i?i/iinoe caiiieiaiey a i?ioeannaa iao/aiey. A /ai aea
eiie?aoii caeeth/aaony eioaineaiue iaoiae iao/aiey e eaeiau
ineoieiae/aneea iniiau aai eniieueciaaiey.

3. Iienaiea iaoiaea.

Iiiia?aoey Eeoaeai?iaeneie A.A. “Iaoiaeeea eioaineaiiai iao/aiey “ [9]
aeaao iiae?iaiia iienaiea iaoiaea. Iu aea inoaiiaeiny ia aieaa e?aoeii,
e iiyoiio aieaa i?eaieeiii a aeaiiii neo/aa, iienaiee ec o/aaiiai
iiniaey [23] e noaouee [24]. Aia/aea ?anniio?ei aiaoiea ao?eaoou
eioaineaiiai iaoiaea: aoaeeoi?eth, ?ani?aaeaeaiea o/aueony, ?iee e o.ae.

Caiyoey ii eioaineaiie iaoiaeeea i?iaiaeyony a aoaeeoi?eyo neeueii
ioee/athueony io iau/iuo eeannia e aieueoa iioiaeeo ia eiiiaou
ineoieiae/aneie ?aca?ocee. Iau/ii, yoi iiiauaiey n caoaiiaiiuie ieiaie e
oaiiuie iaiyie ia noaiao. Inaauaiea naeaeaii oaeei ia?acii, /oi aai
eioaineaiinoue iiaeii iaiyoue io y?eiai naaoa aei iieoi?aea. A?oiia aeey
caiyoee ii eioaineaiie iaoiaeeea aeieaeia ninoiyoue ec 10-12 /aeiaae, n
aiciiaeiui oaaee/aieai aei 20 /aeiaae. Oaeia eiee/anoai iao/aaiuo
iicaieyao, n iaeiie noi?iiu, eiio?iee?iaaoue i?aiiaeaaaoaeth eaaeaeiai
iao/aaiiai eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, a n ae?oaie, eniieueciaaoue iaaeaaiae/aneea
aiciiaeiinoe eieeaeoeaa, ?ieue eioi?iai a yoii iaoiaea /?acau/aeii
aaeeea e aoaeao a aeaeueiaeoai iiae?iaii i?iaiaeece?iaaia. ?aniieiaeaiea
o/aueony oaeaea ioee/aaony io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai – o/aueany neaeyo
iieoe?oaii a iyaeeo aeoaieeo e?aneao. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii aeey nicaeaiey
anoanoaaiiuo oneiaee iauaiey, iaeaa/aiey aecoaeueiuo eiioaeoia e
eniieueciaaiey i?eaiia noaaanoee i?e iao/aiee. Aoaeeoi?ey aeieaeia auoue
iai?oaeiaaia neaeae-i?iaeoi?ii, aeaoiy iaaieoioiiaie, ye?aiii e aeineie
eee o?aea-i?iaeoi?ii. Yoi – ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiua oaoie/aneea
n?aaenoaa aeey ii?iaeueiiai iaania/aiey o/aaiiai i?ioeanna. Aeey
oi?aaeaiey oaoieeie aeaeaoaeueii eiaoue niaoeeaeueii iiaeaioiaeaiiiai
annenoaioa, iaania/eaathuaai aoaeei-aecoaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo.

Aei ia/aea caiyoee ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?iaanoe n o/aueieny aanaaeo, ai a?aiy
eioi?ie i?aiiaeaaaoaeue ciaeiieony n iao/aaiuie e iauyniyao ei, eae
aoaeao i?ioaeaoue o/aaiue i?ioeann, eaeea caaea/e noiyo ia?aae ieie, eae
iie aeieaeiu caieiaoueny a aoaeeoi?ee e aeiia, e ia eaeea ?acoeueoaou
iie iiaoo ?annn/eouaaoue.

Ana caiyoey iauaaeeieiu iaeiei nthaeaoii – a?oiia eiino?aiiuo ainoae
iinauaao iaoo no?aio. Yoi iicaieyao iaania/eoue eiae/iue ia?aoiae io
o?iea e o?ieo. O/aueany noaiiayony o/anoieeaie oo?enoe/aneie a?oiiu e,
oai naiui, o/anoieeaie anao niauoee, eioi?ua n iae i?ienoiaeyo. I/aiue
aaaeii, /oi ia ia?aii caiyoee ana o/aueany iieo/atho eiaia eiino?aiiuo
ainoae, eioi?ua noaiiayony eo eiaiaie (ianeaie, ?ieyie) ia ana a?aiy
eo?na. Yoi iiiiaaao ?aoaieth oeaeiai ?yaea na?ueaciuo caaea/:
ineoieiae/aneeo, ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneeo, iaoiaee/aneeo, ycueiauo e o.ae. A
/anoiinoe yoi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iaania/eoue “iia?oaeaiea” iao/aaiuo a
ycueiaoth n?aaeo e ia a?aiy eae au “ioeeth/eoue” ?iaeiie ycue, caiaiea
aai eco/aaiui ycueii.

?iee, a eioi?uo aunooiaao o/aueeny, iiiiaatho aio aeoeaece?iaaoue naie
oai?/aneea aiciiaeiinoe, niinianoaotho ?ane?uoeth e i?iyaeaieth aai
ee/iinoe. ?ieaaua ea?u, ea?iaay aeayoaeueiinoue iiauoatho
yiioeeiiaeueiue noaoon o/aaiiai i?ioeanna. A ?acoeueoaoa caiyoey
i?aa?auathony a aeeaoth, eioa?anioth, caoaaouaathuoth iao/aaiiai
aeayoaeueiinoue.

Aanue ycueiaue iaoa?eae eo?na ?acaeo ia iee?ioeeeeu, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
niaea?aeeo: iniiaiie oaeno-iieeeia, oaenou iiiieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a,
eaeneei-a?aiiaoe/aneee eiiiaioa?ee, aeiiaoiea onoiua e ienueiaiiua
caaeaiey. Ana iieeeiae, eae auei neacaii auoa, iauaaeeiaiu neaiciui
nthaeaoii – iinauaieai iaoae no?aiu a?oiiie eiino?aiiuo oo?enoia.
Eaaeaeue iieeeia – iaeei ec yoaiia aeceoa. Oaeei ia?acii iiaeaee?oaony
?a/aaia iiaaaeaiea o/aueony a ?aciiia?aciuo neooaoeeyo ?a/aaiai iauaiey.

Iniiaiie oaeno-iieeeia eaaeaeiai iee?ioeeeea niaea?aeeo ia iaiaa 150
iiauo eaene/aneeo aaeeieoe (ia?aua o?e – ia iaiaa 300 aae. eaaeaeue) e
ioia?aiiua a?aiiaoe/aneea yaeaiey. E?iia oiai, a eaaeaeii iieeeiaa anoue
a?aiiaoe/aneee iaoa?eae ia iia?aaeaiea. Eaeneei-a?aiiaoe/aneee iaoa?eae
aeeth/ai a neooaoeee, ?acaeaathuea oaio aeaiiiai o?iea. Aeeaeiae
aeeiaie/iu e anoanoaaiiu, /oi niinianoaoao eo eaaeiio caiiieiaieth. Iie
i?aaenoaaeaiu n iio?aciaui ia?aaiaeii ia ?iaeiie ycue aeey oiai, /oiau
ia?aaeaoue aieaa oi/iue niune auneacuaaiey e eneeth/eoue iio?aaiinoue
iao/aaiiai a neiaa?a, /oi i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeii ia ia/aeueiii yoaia.
Ia?aaiae ia ?iaeiie ycue yaeyaony ia eeoa?aoo?iui ia?aaiaeii, a eiaao
oa?aeoa? iiaeno?i/ieea.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua oaenou iinyo, a iniiaiii, iiiieiae/aneee oa?aeoa?. Iie
naycaiu n iniiaiui oaenoii oaiaoe/anee e iino?iaiu ia aai
eaeneei-a?aiiaoe/aneii iaoa?eaea. Oaenou ninoaaeaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oiau
o/aueany iiaee niiinoaaeyoue, n?aaieaaoue ?aaeee iaoae no?aiu e no?aiu
eco/aaiiai ycuea e, oai naiui, i?eiauaoueny e eoeueoo?a yoiai ia?iaea.
Oaenou iicaieytho ?aoaoue iaeiia?aiaiii ianeieueei caaea/ a oiaea
iao/aiey. I?aaeaea anaai iie yaeythony aeiiieieoaeueiui n?aaenoaii aeey
iao/aiey iiiieiae/aneie ?a/e. Aoaee?iaaiea e iao/aiea anai aeaeai
/oaiey, a oaeaea oaoieee /oaiey inouanoaeyaony eiaiii ia yoeo oaenoao.
E?iia oiai, iie iinoaiaiii iiaeaioaaeeaatho o/aueony e /oaieth
aaeaioe?iaaiiie, a caoai e i?eaeiaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aeiiaoiea caaeaiey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie oi?io naiieiio?iey onaiaiey
eco/aaiiai ycuea. Onoiua caaeaiey i?aaeeaaatho o/aueiny i?iaeoiaoue e
iaeoe ycueiaua n?aaenoaa aeey ?aoaiey eiie?aoiie caaea/e. Yoi canoaaeyao
o/auaainy oeaeaiai?aaeaiii i?iniio?aoue iieeeia, aua?aoue e
neiiaeie?iaaoue ioaeiua aio eiiioieeaoeaiua aeiee, ia?aoeoueny e
eiiiaioa?eyi ca ?acuyniaieai, o.a. i?iaanoe iniuneaiioth ?aaioo. Eoia
oaeiai iienea oeene?oaony a ienueiaiiie eee onoiie oi?ia. Ienueiaiiua
caaeaiey o?aie?otho oiio?aaeaiea oi?i ycueiaiai iaoa?eaea, ii?aaeaeaiiuo
a?aiiaoe/aneeo yaeaiee e o.i.

Eaeneei-a?aiiaoe/aneee eiiiaioa?ee yaeyaony iii?ie aeey
naiinoiyoaeueiiai nenoaiaoecaoeee ycueiaiai iaoa?eaea o/aueieny.
O/aueiny i?aaeeaaaaony iciaeiieoueny n eiiiaioa?eyie eeoue iinea oiai,
eae ana iauyniayaiua a eiiiaioa?eyo yaeaiey oaea ciaeiiu o/aueiny, oae
eae iiiaie?aoii oiio?aaeyeenue eie a ?a/e.

Inoaiiaeiny iiae?iaiaa ia iaoiaeeea ?aaiou n iniiaiuie aeeaeaeoe/aneeie
aaeeieoeaie eioaineaiie iaoiaeeee oaenoaie-iieeeiaaie. Iaoiaeeea
i?aaeiieaaaao /aou?aoe?aoiia aaaaeaiea iieeeiaa.

1. Ia?ae/iia i?aaeuyaeaiea eee aaaaeaiea a neooaoeeth. Ia yoii yoaia
aaaaeaiey o/eoaeue yiioeeiiaeueii, a eeoeao io eiaie ?ieae-ianie,
eceaaaao niaea?aeaiea iieeeiaa n ia?aaiaeii ia ?onneee ycue eaaeaeie
o?acu. Oae aaiaeyony ia?aua o?e iieeeiaa, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho onoiue
aaiaeiue eo?n. A aeaeueiaeoai , ii caaa?oaiee yoiai eo?na, ia?aaiaeyony
eeoue iaciaeiiua neiaa eee o?acu. I?aiiaeaaaoaeue aeieaeai ciaoue
iieeeia iaeconoue (!). Yoi iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea aeey naiaiaeiiai
anoanoaaiiiai iauaiey n o/aieeaie i?e aaaaeaiee iiaiai iaoa?eaea.

Aaaaeaiea a neooaoeeth iiaeao caieiaoue io 30 aei 5-10 ieioo a
aeaeueiaeoai. Ia?aua o?e iieeeiaa, i?e i?iaaaeaiee aaiaeiiai eo?na,
eceaaathony e ia?aaiaeyony iiae?iaii. Ia/eiay n /aoaa?oiai, eceaaaaony
oieueei iauay neooaoeey e aeaeaaony auai?i/iue ia?aaiae.

2. Aoi?ia i?aaeuyaeaiea, eee aeaoeo?aoeey iieeeiaa. ia?aaeia/aeeii
aoi?iai i?aaeuyaeaiey o/eoaeue, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iii?inea o/aueony
anoaoue a e?oa, aiai?eo: ”Niio?eoa ia iaiy! Neooaeoa iaiy! Iiaoi?yeoa ca
iiie! N iieie aeanoaie, n iiae ieieeie, n iiae eioiiaoeeae”.

Yoio yoai aaaaeaiey caieiaao 30-40 ieioo. Ii i?iaiaeeony ii noaia:
o/eoaeue (o?aca ia eiino?aiiii ycuea) – oi? (iiaoi?aiea ca o/eoaeai) –
o/eoaeue (ia?aaiae) – o/eoaeue (aua ?ac iiaoi?yao eiino?aiiue oaeno) –
oi? (iiaoi?yao ca o/eoaeai). O?oaeiua o?acu e ioaeaeueiua ?a/aaua
iiaeaee eiaeii iiaoi?youe aei 15 ?ac. *oiau aeiaeoueny caiiieiaieye
niyoue iiiioiiiinoue, eniieuecothony oaeea n?aaenoaa eae ieieea, aeanou,
eioiiaoeey (au?aaeaiea iiiaiia?aciuo yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee,
?acee/iua aeaeu ?eoie/aneiai i?iaiaa?eaaiey, ia?ani?inu, i?iiaaaiea
ioaeaeueiuo o?ac e o. ae.

3. O?aouea i?aaeuyaeaiea, eee aeoeaiue naain. O/aueiny aeaaony onoaiiaea
ia i?eiiieiaiea iaiaoeeie o?acu iinea i?iecianaiea o/eoaeai ?onneie
o?acu e ia i?iaiaa?eaaiea i?i naay iaiaoeeie o?acu iinea i?iecianaiea aa
o/eoaeai. Iinea onoiiai aaiaeiiai eo?na o/aueany iieo/atho ?ania/aoaiiua
iieeeiae, niio?yo ia iaiaoeeee oaeno e i?i naay iiaoi?ytho aai ca
o/eoaeai. O/eoaeue /eoaao ii a oi?ia oae iacuaaaiie “eioiiaoeeiiiie
etheueee” (oeoi-n?aaeia-a?iiei). I?e yoii ?onneee oaeno anaaaea
i?ieciineony oeoi e iaeo?aeueii.

Aeiioneaaony e i?inoi yiioeeiiaeueiia i?i/oaiea oaenoa ii oie aea noaia
(?onneay o?aca – aiaeeeneay o?aca). Oeaeue yoiai yoaia – i?iecaieueiia
caiiieiaiea iiaiai iaoa?eaea iooai aai ociaaaiey. Ia yoi cao?a/eaaaony
10-15 ieioo.

4. *aoaa?oia i?aaeuyaeaiea, eee iocueaeueiue naain. Yoi iineaaeiee yoai
aaaaeaiea iiaiai iieeeiaa – /oaiea o/eoaeai iiae niieieioth
eeanne/aneoth iocueo (Aeaaeueaee, Iaoea?oa, Ia?naea, Aaeaeia e ae?.)
oaenoa iieeeiaa ia iaiaoeeii ycuea (aac ia?aaiaea). Ia?aae ia/aeii
iocueaeueiiai naaina o/eoaeue aiai?eo: “Nae/an au oneuoeoa
caia/aoaeueioth iocueo. Iiae iocueo y aoaeo /eoaoue aai iaiaoeeee oaeno
iieeeiaa. Ono?ieoanue a e?aneao iioaeiaiaa, ?anneaaueoanue, eae ia
eiioea?oa. Iiaeii auoyiooue iiae e cae?uoue aeaca, /oiau iieo/eoue
iaeaieueoaa oaeiaieuenoaea io iauaiey n iocueie. Eoae, au ia eiioea?oa”.

Ia iocueaeueiue naain ioaiaeeony 10 ieioo. E?iia ooieoeee ioaeuoa e
ainnoaiiaeaiey nee o/aueony yoio naain niinianoaoao iiyaeaieth /oanoaa
oaa?aiiinoe a naieo neeao, oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe iao/aieai, oae eae,
i?ineooaa iieeeia a /aoaa?oue ?ac aac ia?aaiaea, o/aueany eaaei
aini?eieiatho e iiieiatho oaeno ia iaiaoeeii ycuea.

Caeii/ea /eoaoue oaeno, o/eoaeue ooiaeeo ec aoaeeoi?ee, ia anooiay a
eiioaeou n o/aueieny. Aeaeueiaeoaa iauaiea i?aiiaeaaaoaey n a?oiiie ia
?aeiiaiaeoaony. Aeiiaoiaa caaeaiea (i?ineooeaaiea iaaieoioiiiie caiene
iieeeiaa aeiia) e ana ?acuyniaiey aeathony ca?aiaa, ia?aae ia/aeii
iocueaeueiiai naaina.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue aaaeiinoue ?eooaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a aaaaeaiey
iieeeiaa. ?eooae ninoieo a oii, /oi aaaaeaiea ethaiai iieeeiaa aeeth/aao
4 iienaiiuo auoa i?aaeuyaeaiey. Ni a?aiaiai o/aueany i?eaueatho e oaeie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe a ?aaioa e aini?eieiatho aa eae caeia naiaai oniaoa
a inaiaiee eiino?aiiiai ycuea.

4. Eniieueciaaiea eioaineaiiai iaoiaea a oeiea

Eioaineaiue iaoiae iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai ?ac?aaaouaaeny e
eniieueciaaeny ia?aiia/aeueii aeey ac?ineie aoaeeoi?ee. Aiciiaeiinoe e
oeaeaniia?aciinoue eniieueciaaiey aai i?e eco/aiee eiino?aiiuo ycueia a
oeiea ianoaeaeaaony n iiiaioa aai iiyaeaiey e aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie. Ia
eiay nianoaaiiiai iiuoa iao/aiey ii eioaineaiie iaoiaeeea, i?eaaaeai
a?aoiaiou e auaiaeu i?aiiaeaaaoaeae [24 – 27] iioaeeeiaaiiua a aeo?iaea
“Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea” n eioa?aaeii a 6 eao. Ioiaoei n?aco, /oi oii
noaoae ii yoie i?iaeaiaoeea caiaoii iaiyeny, ia/eiay io ainoi?aeaiiiai,
a ia?eiae ieea iiaeu ia eioaineaiua iaoiaeu, aei o?acai-e?eoe/aneiai, a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy.

Eoae ?anniio?ei aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey eioaineaiuo iaoiaeee a oeiea ii
o?ai aniaeoai:

– niioiioaiea eiee/anoaa o/aaiuo /ania ii eioaineaiie iaoiaeeea e ii
ainoaea?noaaiiiio noaiaea?oo n?aaeiae oeieu;

– n?aaiaiea i?ia?aii iao/aiey;

– ?acoeueoaou iao/aiey ii iau/iie e ii eioaineaiie iaoiaeeea.

O?iiieiae/anee, eioaineaiue iaoiae a n?aaeiae oeiea i?eiaiyeny aia/aea
ia aiaeeanniuo e e?oaeeiauo caiyoeyo. Iiiyoii, /oi i?e aiaeeanniii
eniieueciaaiee eioaineaiiai iaoiaea i?iaeaia aai niioiioaiey e n?aaiaiey
n o?aaeeoeeiiiuie iaoiaeeeaie ii o?ai, oeacaiiui auoa aniaeoai, ia
noieo. Oai ia iaiaa inoaiiaeiny ia yoii aii?ina iiae?iaiaa ii iaoa?eaeo
noaouee Aeaieniaie E.A. [24].

Anoanoaaiii, /oi a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aaoi? ?anniao?eaaao iaiaoiaeeiue
ieieioi /ania aeey i?iaaaeaiey yoeo caiyoee, e i?aaeeaaaa neaaeothuaa.
“AEaeaoaeueiue ieieioi a?aiaie – 6 /ania a iaaeaeth, o.a. 3 caiyoey ii 2
/ana eaaeaeia.” Iiieiay, /oi oaeiai eiee/anoaa /ania iieo/eoue
iaaiciiaeii, aeieaaaeyao “Anee iao aiciiaeiinoe auaeaeeoue oaeia
eiee/anoai /ania, iiaeii nie?aoeoue a?aiy caiyoee aei o?ao /ania a
iaaeaeth, o.a. 3 caiyoey ii iaeiiio /ano.” Eoae, aeaaea aeey aiaeeanniuo
caiyoee ii eioaineaiie iaoiaeeea a oeiea iaaiciiaeii auaeaeeoue
aeinoaoi/iie eiee/anoai /ania aeey nio?aiaiey “eioaineaiinoe”, e ana
inoaeueiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aaoi?a i?aa?auathony a oai?aoe/aneea,
aano?aeoiua, iai?aieeiua aeey oeieu ?annoaeaeaiey.

Aiaeiae/ii, ioeaieaaao neooaoeeth n i?eiaiaieai eioaineaiie iaoiaeeee
Aeooeia I.A. [26]. “Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo ioee/eoaeueiuo i?eciaeia
eioaineaiuo iaoiaeia iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai yaeyaony
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiinoue o/aaiuo caiyoee: io 10 /ania a iaaeaeth –
iieoeioaineaiue eo?n, aei 20 /ania a iaaeaeth – oia?aiii eioaineaiue
eo?n, 7-9 /ania a aeaiue – naa?oeioaineaiue eo?n. I/aaeaeii,” aeaeaao
auaiae aaoi? ”/oi yoe ia?aiao?u ia niioaaonoaotho oneiaeyi iao/aiey a
n?aaeiae oeiea, aaea naoea /ania ia i?aauoaao 1 – 6 /ania a iaaeaeth, a
iao/aiea aeeeony io 7 aei 11 eao.” E i?iaeieaeaao “A yoii neo/aa
i?aaiia?iaa aiai?eoue ia ia eioaineaiii iao/aiee eae oaeiaii, a ia
eioaineoeeaoeee iao/aiey.”

Iaeiaei iaeaieaa iiae?iaii i?iaeaio eioaineaiiai iaoiaea a oeiea
enneaaeoao Aeaieniaa E.A. a noaouea “Ianoi eioaineaiie iaoiaeeee a
nenoaia iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai a n?aaeiae oeiea” [25]. Iia, a
/anoiinoe, ieoao neaaeothuaa.

“Aaoi?u eae i?aeoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, oae e iaoiaee/aneeo noaoae
i?aaeeaaatho ?aciiia?aciia iiiaeanoai oneiaee, nenoai e iiaenenoai a
?aieao oeieueiiai eniieueciaaiey eioaineaiuo iaoiaeee. Ana yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oniaoiinoe i?eiaiaiey eioaineaiuo iaoiaeia ia
?aciuo yoaiao e i?e iaee/ee naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oneiaee iao/aiey a
n?aaeiae oeiea.

Ianoaei a?aiy nenoaiaoece?iaaoue e auaeaeeoue iioeiaeueiua aa?eaiou.
?anniio?ei eioaineaiua iaoiaeeee a o?ao “ecia?aieyo”, auyaei aa
niioianaiiinoue n 1) ainoaea?noaaiiui noaiaea?oii ii eioaineaiui
iaoiaeeeai; 2) ?acee/iuie iiaeaeyie iao/aiey; 3) iauai?ia?aiiiuie
o?aaiaaieyie e oeaeyie iao/aiey.

Iio?aaiinoue a ainoaea?noaaiiii ia?aciaaoaeueiii noaiaea?oa aicieeea a
nayce n aeaiie?aoecaoeeae ?inneeneiai ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ay iicaieeea
eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie oeiea auno?aeaaoue aieaa iaiaa aaoiiiiioth nenoaio
n?aaeiaai ia?aciaaiey. A yoeo oneiaeyo noaiaea?o yaeyaony noa?aeiai e
iniiaie, eioi?ay yaeyaony iaycaoaeueiie e iaeciaiiie aeey anao oeiia
oeie.

Ainoaea?noaaiiui noaiaea?oii ii eiino?aiiui ycueai noaiiaeony aaciaue
o?iaaiue iao/aiiinoe. Aeinoeaeaiea aai iaycaoaeueii aeey anao o/aueony,
iacaaeneii io oeia oeieu e niaoeeoeee eo?na iao/aiey. Aaciaue o?iaaiue
iao/aiiinoe ii eiino?aiiui ycueai a iaeaieueoae noaiaie niioiineony n
eo?nii iao/aiey, eioi?ue ioaaouaaao V-IX eeannu iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie
ianniaie oeieu.

Eioaineaiay iaoiaeeea iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny a aeaoo ?aeo?nao
ioiineoaeueii noaiaea?oa: a) eae oaoiieiaey, iicaieythuay ?aaeeciaaoue
oeaee, eceiaeaiiua a ?aieao noaiaea?oa; a) eae oaoiieiaey, aeathuay
aiciiaeiinoue i?aauneoue o?iaaiue iao/aiey, caeiaeaiiue a noaiaea?oa.

N?aaee aieueoiai ?aciiia?acey iiaeaeae iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai a
nia?aiaiiie n?aaeiae oeiea neaaeoao auaeaeeoue ianeieueei iaeaieaa
oeie/iuo e ca?aeiiaiaeiaaaoeo naay iieiaeeoaeueii.

Yoi i?aaeaea anaai naiay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay iiaeaeue eiaiii
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie ianniaie oeieu – n V ii IX eeann, – eioi?ay ii
naiei oneiaeyi iao/aiey iaeaieaa niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaaieyi noaiaea?oa.

Ae?oaay ecaanoiay iiaeaeue – n I ii XI eeann – i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eae
au ?anoe?aiiia eco/aiey eiino?aiiiai ycuea a ?aieao iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie
oeieu.

Aeiaieueii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu oeieu n oaeoaeaiiui eco/aieai
eiino?aiiiai ycuea, aaea iiaeaeue “I – XI” ioee/aaony oieioiaiiinoueth
ii ai?eciioaee: eiee/anoai /ania a iaaeaeth (4 – 8 /ania) cia/eoaeueii
i?aauoaao eiee/anoai /ania a iaaeaeth a iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeiea (3
/ana).

Iiaeaeue i?ioeeueiiai iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai ia noa?oai yoaia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie “iaaeno?ieeo” iaae noaiaea?oii. Iao/aiea aaaeaony a
X – XI eeannao e ioaaouaaao oao o/aueony, eioi?ua iiaeaeaee
niaa?oainoaiaaoueny a eiino?aiiii ycuea, eca?aa iaeei ec i?aaeeaaaaiuo
i?ioeeae: aoiaieoa?iue, ynoaoe/aneee, yeiiiie/aneee,
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneee, oaoie/aneee, anoanoaaiiiiao/iue.

E iaeiiaoe, iiaeaeue “aoi?ie eiino?aiiue ycue a n?aaeiae oeiea”
nouanoaoao a ianeieueeeo aa?eaioao, iniiaiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony: a) n
V ii XI eeann; a) n VII ii XI eeann; a) n VIII ii XI eeann; a) n X ii XI
eeann.

Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi eioaineaiua iaoiaeeee a oie eee eiie ia?a,
noaiaie, a oii eee eiii iauaia, ia oii eee eiii yoaia iao/aiey
eiino?aiiui ycueai iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia a eaaeaeie ec
ia?a/eneaiiuo iiaeaeae. Iaeiaei i?e o/aoa aa niaoeeoeee – iao/aiea
onoii?a/aaiio iauaieth a ei?ioeea n?iee – iaeaieaa oniaoii iia iiaeao
auoue i?eiaiaia:

a) ia caaa?oathuai yoaia ia/aeueiie oanoeeaoiae oeieu (V – VI eeannu);

a) ia caaa?oathuai yoaia iao/aiey a aaciaie oeiea (VIII – IX eeannu);

a) ia caaa?oathuai yoaia iao/aiey a iieiie n?aaeiae oeiea (i?ioeeueiue
eo?n: X – XI eeannu);

a) ia ia/aeueiii yoaia i?e iao/aiee aoi?iio eiino?aiiiio ycueo.

Caiaoei, /oi ia caaa?oathueo yoaiao eae au ooiaeeo ia aoi?ie ieai oaeay
aaaeiay ooieoeey eioaineaiiai iaoiaea, eae aaaaeaiea e cae?aieaiea
iiaiai ?a/aaiai, eaene/aneiai e a?aiiaoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea a iauaiao,
cia/eoaeueii i?aauoathueo iauai?eiyoue ieieioi.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae caaa?oathueo yoaiia eae a ?aieao aaciaie, oae e iieiie
n?aaeiae oeieu noaiiaeony aeoeaecaoeey i?eia?aoaiiuo ?aiaa oiaiee a
/aou?ao aeaeao ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe e oi?ie?iaaiea ia eo aaca aieaa
aunieiai o?iaiy eiiioieeaoeaiie eiiiaoaioeee a eiino?aiiuo ycueao.
Oniaoiia ?aoaiea yoie caaea/e o?aaoao i?eaea/aiey eioaineoeoee?iaaiiuo
oaoiieiaee iao/aiey, iaeiie ec eioi?uo yaeyaony eioaineaiue iaoiae. Aeey
?aaeecaoeee aeoeaece?othuae e eioaineoeoee?othuae ooieoeee eioaineaiiai
iaoiaea eniieuecoaony aaca, i?eia?aoaiiay o/aueieny ca i?aaeoanoaothuea
caaa?oathuaio yoaio aiaeu iao/aiey, eioi?ay ninoaaeyao iioaioeeae,
iiaeeaaeauee aeoeaecaoeee.

I?e eco/aiee aoi?iai eiino?aiiiai ycuea neooaoeey ianeieueei eiay: o
oeieueieeia oaea eiaaony iiuo iaeaaeaiey ia?aui eiino?aiiui ycueii, /oi
iicaieyao eco/eoue aoi?ie eiino?aiiue ycue a aieaa naeaoua n?iee. Iiuo a
ia?aii eiino?aiiii ycuea oaeaea niinianoaoao aieaa aeoeaiiio
caiiieiaieth e eniieueciaaieth a ?a/e eaeneee e a?aiiaoeee, a
eioaineaiue iaoiae iiaeao onei?eoue yoio i?ioeann. Aaaaeaiea e
cae?aieaiea aieueoeo iauaiia o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea a ia/aea iao/aiey
aoi?iio eiino?aiiiio ycueo noaiiayony ia?ainoaiaiii cia/eiuie. Ae?oaei
na?ueaciui a?aoiaioii a iieueco eioaineaiiai iaoiaea i?e iao/aiee
aoi?iio eiino?aiiiio ycueo yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu
nio?aiaiey e iiaeaea?aeaiey iioeaaoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, neaaeoao o/eouaaoue ?aciua aiciiaeiinoe eioaineaiiai
iaoiaea i?e aai eniieueciaaiee ia caaa?oathueo yoaiao (VIII – IX eeannu
aaciaie oeieu e X – XI eeannu iieiie n?aaeiae oeieu, iai?eia?,
i?ioeeueiia iao/aiea) e ia ia/aeueiii yoaia (iai?eia?, i?e iao/aiee
aoi?iio eiino?aiiiio ycueo). Ia caaa?oathueo yoaiao eioaineaiue iaoiae
auiieiyao niae?aoaeueioth e aeoeaece?othuoth ooieoeeth, iia caaa?oaao
nenoaio iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo a n?aaeiae oeiea. Ia ia/aeueiii
yoaia (aoi?ie eiino?aiiue ycue) o/auaiony i?eoiaeeony ia/eiaoue n acia,
n naiiai ia/aea; eniieueciaaiea eioaineaiiai iaoiaea a ni/aoaiee n
ycueiaui iiuoii , i?eia?aoaiiui a ia?aii eiino?aiiii ycuea, nicaeaao
oaa?aeoth iniiao aeey aeaeueiaeoae aiaeeoe/aneie e i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ai aoi?ii eiino?aiiii ycuea.

A nayce n aeaiie?aoe/aneeie i?aia?aciaaieyie a iauanoaaiiie aeecie
?innee i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey e a noa?a ia?aciaaiey. Iaeiei ec ieo
yaeyaony iieiay niaia i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ii anai i?aaeiaoai. A
i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe “eiino?aiiue ycue” oaea nicaeai ?yae i?ia?aii aeey
oiiiyioouo auoa iiaeaeae iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai. A ieo o/oaiu
ia?aaeiaua oaiaeaioeee a eiino?oe?iaaiee i?ia?aii ii eiino?aiiui ycueai,
eniieueciaai iiuo, iaeiieaiiue iaaeaeoia?iaeiui niiauanoaii,
enneaaeiaaiey ioa/anoaaiiuo aaoi?ia.

Nia?aiaiiua i?ia?aiiu ii eiino?aiiui ycueai niaea?aeao iaoa?eaeu,
i?eaioe?iaaiiua eae ia eiia/iue i?iaeoeo, oae e ia i?ioeann iao/aiey.
I?ia?aiiu, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia i?iaeoeo, io?aaeatho eiia/iua oeaee
iao/aiey. A i?ia?aiiao i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia i?ioeann, aeaeaaony aeoeaio ia
n?aaenoaa iao/aiey, ia iienaiea eiie?aoiuo iaoiaee/aneeo i?eaiia, a
iaeaieueoae noaiaie iiaeoiaeyueo aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aiiiuo oeaeae.
Yoio aeae i?ia?aii iaiaa i?eau/ai aeey ?inneeneiai o/eoaeuenoaa e
yaeyaony eiiiaaoeeae a iaeanoe ioa/anoaaiiie oai?ee i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey.

A i?ia?aiiao, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia i?ioeann, oae eee eia/a io?aaeathony
iniiaiua iaoiaee/aneea iiaeoiaeu, i?eiaiaiea eioi?uo iicaieyao ?aoaoue
caaea/e iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai iaeaieaa aaeaeaaoii. Naiui ecaanoiui
e iiioey?iui a ioa/anoaaiiie iaoiaeeea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeythony oaeea
iiaeoiaeu e iao/aieth eiino?aiiui ycueai, eae eiiioieeaoeaiue,
ee/iinoii-aeayoaeueiinoiue, eiaieoeaiue, nioeeieoeueoo?iue e
noaaanoiiaaee/aneee (eioaineaiue).

Ana yoe iiaeoiaeu eniieuecothony ia a /enoii aeaea, a a ?acee/iuo
eiiaeiaoeeyo. Aeey ian aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi noaaanoiiaaee/aneee
iiaeoiae a iao/aiee eiino?aiiui ycueai ia eaii?e?oaony a yoeo
eiiaeiaoeeyo, oae eae ii, aeaaiaea?y iniaie oaoiieiaee, niiniaai ?aoeoue
?yae o/aaiuo caaea/ cia/eoaeueii oniaoiaa, /ai ae?oaea oaoiieiaee.
N?aaee oaeeo caaea/ neaaeoao ioiaoeoue iao/aiea onoiui oi?iai iauaiey,
iiauoaiea iioeaaoeee iao/aiey, niyoea ineoieiae/aneeo aa?uea?ia. A oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea a i?ia?aiiiuo oeaeyo oaeaeyaony cia/eoaeueiia ianoi
onoii?a/aaui oi?iai iauaiey – neooaieth e aiai?aieth, – iiaeii niaei
?aeiiaiaeiaaoue noaaanoiiaaeeth a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec iaeaieaa oniaoiuo
iiaeoiaeia aeey aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae, iai?eia? a ?aieao
eiiioieeaoeaiiai iiaeoiaea.

Iaoiaeeea eioaineaiiai iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai ia?aiia/aeueii
nicaeaaaeanue aeey oneiaee eo?niaiai iao/aiey. Cai?in n?aaeiae oeieu ia
noaaanoiiaaee/aneoth (eioaineaioth) iaoiaeeeo o?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiie
ei??aeoeee oai?aoe/aneeo iieiaeaiee, ia?aiiaeaioiaeo o/eoaeae e
nicaeaiea iiauo o/aaiuo eo?nia, niioaaonoaothueo oneiaeyi oeieueiiai
iao/aiey.

Oneiaey iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai ii eioaineaiie iaoiaeeea a n?aaeiae
oeiea i?aaeaea anaai naycaiu n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth o/aoa
nioeeaeueii-aic?anoiuo iniaaiiinoae oeieueieeia. Yenia?eiaioaeueiay
?aaioa iieacaea, /oi noaaanoiiaaee/aneay iaoiaeeea iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny i?e ?aaioa ni anaie aic?anoiuie a?oiiaie. Iaeiaei
noa?oee yoai iao/aiey i?aaeinoaaeyao aieueoa anaai aiciiaeiinoae.
I?e/eiaie oiio yaeythony: iaeaieueoay noaiaiue noi?ie?iaaiiinoe
ee/iinoe, iaoe?iue eioi?iaoeeiiiue caian, no?aieaiea e iiciaieth ie?a
/a?ac iauaiea n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, iaee/ea enoiaeiie ycueiaie aacu.
Iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue aic?anoiua iniaaiiinoe i?e iiaeai?a oai e
neooaoeee iauaiey, iaania/aiea niaea?aeaoaeueiie noi?iiu o/aaiiai
i?ioeanna, oi?ioee?iaea eiiioieeaoeaiuo caaeaiee.

O/eouaathony e iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee o/aaiiai i?ioeanna a n?aaeiae
oeiea: eiino?aiiue ycue aienuaaaony a iauoth naoeo /ania e eco/aaony
ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie o/aaiuie i?aaeiaoaie. Iaeiaei noaaanoiiaaee/aneia
iao/aiea i?aaeiieaaaao ii?aaeaeaiioth eiioeaio?aoeeth o/aaiuo /ania. Ia
noa?oeo yoaiao oeaeaniia?acii auaeaeyoue oanoue /ania a iaaeaeth ca n/ao
oeieueiiai eiiiiiaioa o/aaiiai ieaia, eo noieo ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e
caiyoey ii aeaa /ana eaaeaeia. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiee/anoai /ania a
iaaeaeth iiaeii naanoe e o?ai e i?iaiaeeoue o?e caiyoey a iaaeaeth ii
iaeiiio /ano eaaeaeia. Ae?oaie aiciiaeiue aa?eaio – /aou?a /ana a
iaaeaeth: aeaa caiyoey ii aeaa /ana eaaeaeia eee /aou?a caiyoey ii
iaeiiio /ano.

Aiciiaeiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea /ania i?e ?aaioa ii eioaineaiie iaoiaeeea a
oeiea

Aa?eaiou

Aaeaeaaoiue (iaeaieaa aeaaii?eyoiue)

Aiciiaeiua

Eiee/anoai /ania a iaaeaeth

6

4

3

Eiee/anoai /ania / caiyoee a iaaeaeth

3 caiyoey ii 2 /ana

2 caiyoey ii 2 /ana

4

caiyoey ii 1 /ano

3

caiyoey ii 1 /ano

Iiieii aeoeaecaoeee i?eia?aoaiiuo ?aiaa oiaiee e onaiaiey aieueoeo
iauaiia o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea a naeaoua n?iee niaoeeoeeo oeieueiiai
eioaineaiiai eo?na eiino?aiiuo ycueia oaeaea ninoaaeytho aieaa iauaiiua
oeaee iao/aiey. ?anoe?eoue oeaee iao/aiey iicaieyao i?ieiiae?iaaiiue
oa?aeoa? oeieueiiai eioaineaiiai eo?na: ii n?aaiaieth n eeanne/aneei
(eo?niaui) aa?eaioii ii ?anoyaeaaaony ia ianeieueei eao (iai?eia?,
aeaooaiaee/iue eo?n aeey X – XI eeannia).

A naiii iauai aeaea oeaeue noaaanoiiaaee/aneiai eo?na ii?aaeaeyaony
i?aaeaea anaai eae iao/aiea onoiui oi?iai iauaiey ia eco/aaiii ycuea:
aoaee?iaaieth e aiai?aieth. Iaeiaei i?ieiiae?iaaiiinoue oeieueiiai
noaaanoiiaaee/aneiai eo?na aeaao aiciiaeiinoue oaeaeeoue na?ueaciia
aieiaiea ienueiaiiui oi?iai iauaiey. Ienueiaiiia iauaiea i?aaeiieaaaao
inaiaiea oaeeo aeaeia ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe, eae /oaiea e ienueii
(ienueiaiiay ?a/ue).

?anoe?aiea oeaeae iao/aiey a oeieueiii noaaanoiiaaee/aneii eo?na
i?aaeiieaaaao aeoeaecaoeeth i?eia?aoaiiuo ?aiaa ?a/aauo oiaiee,
oi?ie?iaaiea aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy eiiioieeaoeaiie eiiiaoaioeee, a
oaeaea aieaa aeoaieoth nenoaiaoecaoeeth a?aiiaoe/aneeo ciaiee o/aueony.

Iniiaiiieaaathueie a oeieueiii eioaineaiii eo?na iiaeii n/eoaoue
neaaeothuea iieiaeaiey.

1. Acaeiiaeaenoaea noaaanoiiaaeee n eiiioieeaoeaiui,
ee/iinoii-aeayoaeueiinoiui e nenoaiiui iiaeoiaeaie a iao/aiee
eiino?aiiui ycueai. ?anoe?aiea oeaeae o?aaoao acaeiiaeaenoaey ?aciuo
iiaeoiaeia e iao/aieth, ?aciiia?acey oaoiieiaee. ?anniao?eaay
noaaanoiiaaeeth a ea/anoaa ninoaaeythuae eiiioieeaoeaiiai iai?aaeaiey e
eniieuecoy aa eae oeaio?aeueioth oaoiieiaeth, iaeuecy ia o/eouaaoue
iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ae?oaeo ecaanoiuo iiaeoiaeia, niinianoaothueo
aieaa ieiaeioai?iiio ?aoaieth iaoiaee/aneeo caaea/. O/ao eiiioieeaoeaiuo
oaeoi?ia ia?yaeo n noaaanoeaiuie iiiiaaao iioeiece?iaaoue i?ioeann
eiiycu/iiio iauaieth. Ee/iinoii-aeayoaeueiinoiue iiaeoiae aeaeaao
o/aieea oeaio?aeueiie oeao?ie o/aaiiai i?ioeanna. Nenoaiaoecaoeey
ycueiauo ciaiee, eaaeaueo a iniiaa eiiioieeaoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
o/aueony, niinianoaoao iiauoaieth iauaai o?iaiy eo eiiioieeaoeaiie
eiiiaoaioeee.

2. ?aaeecaoeey ee/iinoe o/auaainy /a?ac eiino?aiiua ycuee. Inaiaiea eae
?iaeiiai, oae e eiino?aiiiai ycueia oanii naycaii n ineoieiae/aneeie
i?ioeannaie aai onaiaiey e ee/iinoiiai i?enaiaiey. Ecaanoii, /oi /aeiaae
ia iiaeao iieueciaaoueny ycueiauie ciaieyie, neieue ie aaeee iauai yoeo
ciaiee, aei oao ii?, iiea iie ia aoaeoo niioianaiu n aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuie ea/anoaaie e ee/iinoiuie i?eaioaoeeyie. Oieueei iinea
oiai, eae eaaeaeia neiai, o?aca, i?aaeeiaeaiea iaeaeoo naia ianoi ia
oeaea ee/iinoiuo oeaiiinoae, i?aaeii/oaiee, ioiioaiee e o.ae., iie iiaoo
auoue eniieueciaaiu eae n?aaenoai naiiau?aaeaiey, naiiooaa?aeaeaiey e
naii?aaeecaoeee ee/iinoe. O/ao acaeiiaeeyiey ee/iinoe ia eco/aiea
eiino?aiiiai ycuea e aai ia ee/iinoue niinianoaoao onaiaieth
eiiioieeaoeaiuo i?ioeannia. i?eaeeaeay o/aaiia iauaiea e ?aaeueiiio.

3. Iaeneiaeueiay iioeae?iaaiiinoue o/aaiuo neooaoeee. Eae i?aaeei,
aeaeay iaania/eo iioeaaoeeth eco/aiey eiino?aiiiai ycuea, o/eoaeue
iauyniyao o/aieeai ia?niaeoeao aai eniieueciaaiey a aoaeouai. Oaeay
ion?i/aiiay iioeaaoeey eco/aiey ia anaaaea n?aaaouaaao ioaeaeueii acyoii
o?iea e oai aieaa a eaaeaeue iiiaio o?iea. Iiyoiio oeieueiue eioaineaiue
eo?n a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec iniiaiuo oneiaee auaeaeaaao iaeneiaeueiue
o/ao eioa?ania o/aueony a oneiaeyo eiiioieeaoeaiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey ia
o?iea. Iaania/aiea iioeaaoeee ia eaaeaeii o?iea i?aaeiieaaaao aieiaiea e
iiaieth e noaeaeaieth eaaeaeiai o/anoieea iauaiey, oaaaeaiea e aai oi/ea
c?aiey. O/aaiua neooaoeee ia aeieaeiu auoue ioi?aaiiuie io ?aaeueiinoe
eee neeoeii iaiauaiiuie. Oniao iao/aiey iaania/eaaaony oai, /oi ethaay
ec iiaeaee?oaiuo neooaoeee yaeyaony aeeciaiii cia/eiie aeey o/aueony.

4. Iieiaeeoaeueiay yiioeeiiaeueiay ianuuaiiinoue anao eiiiiiaioia
iao/aiey. Noaaanoiiaaeey oe?iei iie?aaony ia iieiaeaiea i ?aciuo
ooieoeeyo aeaoo iieooa?ee aieiaiiai iicaa, iaeii ec eioi?uo (eaaia)
ioaa/aao, eae ecaanoii, ca eiae/aneea oi?iu iiciaiey, ae?oaia (i?aaia) –
ca yiioeeiiaeueiua. Yoi canoaaeyao ia?aniio?aoue oaeea i?eaiu iao/aiey,
eioi?ua iieiyony a iniiaiii ia eiae/aneeo niiniaao aini?eyoey e iiciaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe (caaeaenoaoaony, oaeei ia?acii, oieueei iieiaeia
ioiouaiiuo /aeiaaeo aiciiaeiinoae). Iiaeeeth/aiea yiioeeiiaeueiuo
oaeoi?ia e iao/aieth eiino?aiiui ycueai cia/eoaeueii aeoeaece?oao
i?ioeann onaiaiey, ioe?uaay iiaua ia?niaeoeau a ?acaeoee iaoiaeeee
iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai. Any aoiinoa?a caiyoee i?aaiecoaony oaeei
ia?acii, /oi inaiaieth ycuea niioonoaotho iieiaeeoaeueiua yiioeee. N
iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi yaeyaony aaaeiui noeioeii aeey nicaeaiey e
iiaeaea?aeaiey eioa?ana e i?aaeiaoo. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
eioaeeaeooaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue o/aueony, iiaee?aieaiiay
yiioeeiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth, iaania/eaaao iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiia
caiiieiaiea iaoa?eaea e iaeaaeaiea ?a/aauie oiaieyie.

Eioaineaiay iaoiaeeea – yoi nenoaia iao/aiey, eioi?ay iiyaeeanue a ioaao
ia o?aaiaaiea a?aiaie. A naiii iauai aeaea yoe o?aaiaaiey iiaeii naanoe
e onei?aieth i?ioeanna iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai i?e ieieiaeueiuo
yia?aaoe/aneeo cao?aoao noauaeoa (o/auaainy).

A oneiaeyo n?aaeiae oeieu eioaineaiay iaoiaeeea a neeo naiae aeaeinoe,
i?eniiniaeyaiinoe e aunieie ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe iao/aiey iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia ia ethaii yoaia iao/aiey. Ii?aaeaeei oeaee eaaeaeiai ec
yoeo yoaiia.

Ia/aeueiue yoai:

– nicaeaiea onoie/eaiai eiiioieeaoeaiiai yae?a;

– iiaeaea?aeaiea aeoaieie caeioa?aniaaiiinoe, eioi?ay neoaeeo noeioeii
aeey i?iaeieaeaiey eco/aiey eiino?aiiuo ycueia ia n?aaeiai e noa?oeo
yoaiao;

– i?aaiecaoeey aeoeaiiai ?a/aaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey.

N?aaeiee yoai:

– aeoeaecaoeey i?eia?aoaiiuo ?aiaa oiaiee a noa?a onoii?a/aaiai iauaiey;

– i?aaiecaoeey aeoeaiiai ?a/aaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey;

– i?aeoe/aneia inaiaiea eeiaaino?aiiaaae/aneeo e nioeeieoeueoo?iuo
oaeoi?ia iooai nicaeaiey eiiioieeaoeaiuo oneiaee, aeeceeo e
anoanoaaiiui;

– aiciaiiaeaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea eioa?ana e eco/aieth eiino?aiiiai ycuea
e aa?a a naie neeu e niiniaiinoe.

Noa?oee yoai:

– niaa?oainoaiaaiea oiaiee ?a/aaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey;

– ?anoe?aiea oaiaoeee, noa? e neooaoeee iauaiey aeey aeoeaiiai
iieueciaaiey eco/aaiui eiino?aiiui ycueii;

– ?anoe?aiea eiiioieeaoeaiiai neiaa?y o/aueony, aeoeaecaoeey
oiio?aaeaiea eiiioieeaoeaii cia/eiuo a?aiiaoe/aneeo eiino?oeoeee;

– oaeoaeaiea eeiaaino?aiiaaae/aneeo e nioeeieoeueoo?iuo ciaiee iooai eo
?aaeueiiai aeeth/aiey a “aeeaia “ iauaiea;

– nicaeaiea iioeaaoeee aeey aeaeueiaeoaai niaa?oainoaiaaiey a eco/aaiii
eiino?aiiii ycuea.

Iniaoth cia/eiinoue eioaineaiay nenoaia iao/aiey i?eia?aoaao ia noa?oeo
yoaiao, e a yoii niunea iia aieaa anaai i?eniiniaeaia aeey oneiaee:

a) caaa?oaiey aaciaiai eo?na iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo (VIII – IX
eeannu), oae eae aieueoeinoai oeieueieeia caeai/eaatho eo?n n?aaeiaai
ia?aciaaiey ii eiino?aiiiio ycueo eiaiii a aaciaie oeiea; a aeaeueiaeoai
iie a eo/oai neo/aa iiaoo iieo/eoue aeaooaiaee/iue eo?n iiaeaea?aeee,
anee oeiea ia ieaie?oao oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai oaeoaeaiiiai eo?na
eiino?aiiiai ycuea a ?aieao i?ioeeueiiai iao/aiey;

a) i?ioeeueiiai iao/aiey (X – XI eeannu), oi anoue i?ioanneiiaeueii
i?eaioe?iaaiiiai eco/aiey eiino?aiiiai ycuea, aeaaiie oeaeueth eioi?iai
yaeyaony iaania/aiea ieaaiiai ia?aoiaea e aoiaieoa?iiio eee
anoanoaaiii-iaoaiaoe/aneiio aocianeiio ia?aciaaieth.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue ae?oaoth niaoeeoe/aneoth ooieoeeth iao/aiey
eiino?aiiiio ycueo. Ciaiea eiino?aiiiai yaeyaony iai?aeiaeiui i?e
inaiaiee ethaie niaoeeaeueiinoe e oa?aeoa?ecoao aunieieeanniiai
niaoeeaeenoa a ethaie iaeanoe ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa. Oaeei ia?acii,
aeaaea anee oeiea ia noaaeo oeaeueth iiaeaioiaeo o/aueony e iinooieaieth
a aoc, aeoaieia e aeinoaoi/ii naiaiaeiia aeaaeaiea eiino?aiiui ycueii
iaiaoiaeeii aeey auioneieeia n?aaeiae oeieu – aoaeoueo niaoeeaeenoia a
naiuo ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa.

Iniiaiuie ?acoeueoaoeaiuie iiiaioaie, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueie yooaeoeaiinoue
noaaanoiiaaee/aneiai iiaeoiaea e iao/aieth eiino?aiiui ycueai,
yaeythony:

1) aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea onaiaiiuo ciaiee e oiaiee a i?aeoeea
onoii?a/aaiai iauaiey ia eiino?aiiii ycuea; o/aiea eniieueciaaoue
iieo/aiiue ycueiaue iaoa?eae ia oieueei a nianoaaiiie ?a/e, ii e i?e
iiieiaiee ?a/e niaanaaeieea;

2) oi?ie?iaaiea aeaeiai iaauea ia?aiina onaiaiiuo ?a/aauo aaeeieoe a
aa?uethe?oaiua neooaoeee iauaiey;

3) nicaeaiea neeueiie iaiaaeeaiiie iioeaaoeee iao/aiey, inouanoaeyaiiai
a oi?ia iaoi?iaeueiiai iauaiey e iioeaaoeee iauaiey i?eaeeaeaiiiai e
?aaeueiiio;

4) i?aiaeieaiea ineoieiae/aneeo aa?uea?ia, a /anoiinoe aa?uea?a no?aoa
ia?aae aiai?aieai ia eiino?aiiii ycuea e aa?uea?a no?aoa ia?aae
aiciiaeiinoueth naeaeaoue ioeaeo, a oaeaea i?aiaeieaiea aioo?aiiae e
aiaoiae neiaaiiinoe e noaniaiey;

5) aunieay e iaiaaeeaiiay ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue iao/aiey: oaea ia aoi?ie
aeaiue caiyoee o/aueany iauathony ia eco/aaiii eiino?aiiii ycuea,
eniieuecoy ?a/aaua eeeoa, caeiaeaiiua a iniiaiii o/aaiii oaenoa –
iieeeiaa; oaeno iieeeiaa aaiaeeony a ia?aue aeaiue caiyoee n
eniieueciaaieai noaaanoeaiuo n?aaenoa aicaeaenoaey (a oii /enea ia
iaiyoue), iaeiei ec eioi?uo yaeyaony ?eooaeueiue oa?aeoa? aaaaeaiey
iaoa?eaea;

6) i?aaeuyaeaiea e onaiaiea aieueoiai eiee/anoaa ?a/aauo, eaene/aneeo e
a?aiiaoe/aneeo aaeeieoe; ca iaeii i?aaeuyaeaiea aaiaeyony e onaaeaathony
150-200 iiauo neia, 30-50 ?a/aauo eeeoa e ianeieueei oeie/iuo ?a/aauo
yaeaiee.

Eioaineaiay iaoiaeeea iaoea naia ianoi ia anao yoaiao iao/aiey
eiino?aiiui ycueai a n?aaeiae oeiea: ia ia/aeueiii, n?aaeiai, noa?oai.
Noaaanoiiaaee/aneay oaoiieiaey iiaeao iaiieieoue iiaui niaea?aeaieai
iiyaeaoeany a iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiaua iiaeaee iao/aiey eiino?aiiui
ycueai, n?aaee ieo: iiaeaeue i?ioeeueiiai iao/aiey, iiaeaeue iao/aiey
aoi?iio eiino?aiiiio ycueo, iiaeaeue ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey.

?ac?aaioea eioaineaiiai iaoiaea aeey oneiaee n?aaeiae oeieu ioe?uaaao
ia?niaeoeau aeey ?acaeoey yoiai iai?aaeaiey a neaaeothueo aniaeoao:

– niauaiea ia?aiao?ia iao/aiey n eiee/anoaaiiuo ia ea/anoaaiiua;

– iao/aiea anai aeaeai ?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe n iiiiuueth
noaaanoiiaaee/aneie oaoiieiaee;

– ia?aniio? niioiioaiey iaaeaeo aeiiaoiae e eeanniie iaa?oceie o/auaainy
a iieueco iineaaeiae;

– auno?aeaaiea iiaiai oa?aeoa?a acaeiiaeaenoaey o/eoaey e o/aieea, a
oaeaea o/aueony ae?oa n ae?oaii.

Ana auoaneacaiiia iicaieyao naeaeaoue auaiaeu i oii, /oi

– iniiaiui i?eioeeieaeueiui ioee/eai eioaineaiiai iaoiaea io
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai yaeyaony ?ani?aaeaeaiea a?aiaie,

– eioaineaiue iaoiae ia i?eiaiei a iieiii iauaia aeey eco/aiey oeieueiie
i?ia?aiiu ii eiino?aiiiio ycueo,

– ioaeaeueiua i?aiu eioaineaiiai iaoiaea iiaoo auoue oniaoii
eniieueciaaiu ia o?ieao eiino?aiiiai ycuea a oeiea.

5. Eeoa?aoo?a

Eicaiia A. Noaaanoieiaey. Nioey, 1971.

Eicaiia A. Iniiau noaaanoieiaee. – A ei.: “I?iaeaie ia noaaanoieiaeyoa”.
Nioey , 1973, n.55-70.

Eicaiia A., Iiaaeia A. Noaaanoiiaaee/aneay iaoiaeeea i?eiao/aiee
eiino?aiiui ycueai. – A ei.: “I?iaeaie ia noaaanoieiaeyoa”. Nioey ,
1973, n.127-135.

Eicaiia A. Noaaanoiiaaeey i?e iao/aiee eiino?aiiui ycueai. – A na.:
“Iaoiaeu eioaineaiiai iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai”. Aui. 1, I., 1973,
n.9-17.

Eicaiia A. Nouiinoue, enoi?ey e yenia?eiaioaeueiua ia?niaeoeau
noaaanoiiaaee/aneie nenoaiu i?eiao/aiee eiino?aiiui ycueai. A na.:
“Iaoiaeu eioaineaiiai iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai”. Aui.3, I., 1977,
n.7-16.

Eeoaeai?iaeneay A.A. Aaaaeaiea iiaiai iaoa?eaea eae yeaiaio
noaaanoiiaaee/aneie no?oeoo?u o/aaiiai i?ioeanna. – A na.:” “Iaoiaeu
eioaineaiiai iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai”. Aui.1, I., 1973, n.94-101.

Eeoaeai?iaeneay A.A. “Eioaineaiue eo?n. Iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneia iiniaea
aeey i?aiiaeaaaoaeae”. I., 1979.

Eeoaeai?iaeneay A.A. Eioaineaiia iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai. –
Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1980, ? 2, n.67-73.

Eeoaeai?iaeneay A.A. Iaoiaeeea eioaineaiiai iao/aiey. – I., “Aunoay
oeiea”, 1986.

Eeoaeai?iaeneay A.A., Eaiioueaa A.A. Niaea?aeaiea e a?aieoeu iiiyoey
eioaineaiia iao/aiea. A na.: “ Iaoiaeeea e ineoieeiaey eioaineaiiai
iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai”. Ecae. AII NNN?, I., 1981.

Eaiioueaa A.A. Iuneeoaeueiua i?ioeannu a onaiaiee eiino?aiiiai ycuea. –
Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1975, ? 5, n. 72-76.

Eaiioueaa A.A. Iaeioi?ua ineoieeiaaenoe/aneea aniaeou ia/aeueiiai yoaia
i?ioeanna iaeaaeaiey ycueii. – A ei.: “Aii?inu iao/aiey ?onneiio ycueo
eiino?aioeaa ia ia/aeueiii yoaia”. I., 1976, n.23- 31.

Eaiioueaa A.A. Iaiyoue a onaiaiee eiino?aiiiai ycuea. – Eiino?aiiua
ycuee a oeiea, 1975, ? 3, no?.91-96.

Eaiioueaa A.A. Ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou ee/iinoe e aeayoaeueiinoe. –
Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1974, ? 1, no?.80-86.

Eaiioueaa A.A. Ineoieiaey aii?eyoey e aini?eyoea ?a/e. – Eiino?aiiua
ycuee a oeiea, 1975, ? 1, no?.76-81.

Eaiioueaa A.A. ?a/ue e iauaiea. – Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1974, ? 6,
no?.80-85.

Eaiioueaa A.A. Nioeeaeueiay ineoieiaey e iao/aiea eiino?aiiui ycueai. –
Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1976, ? 2, no?.70-74.

Eaiioueaa A.A. Oi?aaeaiea onaiaieai eiino?aiiiai ycuea. – Eiino?aiiua
ycuee a oeiea, 1975, ? 2, no?.83-87.

Eaiioueaa A.A. Yiioeeiiaeueii-aieaaua i?ioeannu a iaeaaeaiee eiino?aiiui
ycueii. – Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1975, ? 6, no?.93-97.

Eaiioueaa A.A. Iaaeaaiae/aneia iauaiea. – I., 1979.

Eeoaeai?iaeneay A.A. Nicaeai i?iaeaiiue niaao ii eioaineaiui iaoiaeai
iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai. – Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1976, ? 3,
no?.116-117.

Iaei?iaa I.A. Iaeioi?ua ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe ioai?a,
iauaia e ?ani?aaeaeaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea a eioaineaiii eo?na iao/aiey
ii iaoiaeo aeoeaecaoeee ?aca?aiuc aiciiaeiinoae ee/iinoe o/auaainy. – A
na.: “Aeoeaecaoeey o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe”. Aui.1, I., 1981 no?.18-32.

Eeoaeai?iaeneay A.A. O?aioeocneee ycue. – I., 1992.

Aeaieniaa E.A. Eioaineaiay iaoiaeeea ia aiaeeanniuo caiyoeyo a oeiea. –
Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1989, ? 2, n. 69-76, ? 3, n. 58 – 63.

Aeaieniaa E.A. Ianoi eioaineaiie iaoiaeeee a nenoaia iao/aiey
eiino?aiiiio ycueo a n?aaeiae oeiea. – Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1995,
? 4, n. 6 – 12.

Aeooeia I.A. I aeeth/aiee yeaiaioia eioaineaiiai iao/aiey a
i?aiiaeaaaiee eiino?aiiiai ycuea a n?aaeiae oeiea. – Eiino?aiiua ycuee a
oeiea, 1990, ? 6, n. 7.

?aaeiiae/ O.I., Naoa?iaa O.A. Eioaineaiua iaoiaeu iao/aiey e n?aaeiyy
oeiea. – Eiino?aiiua ycuee a oeiea, 1991, ? 1, n. 9.

PAGE

PAGE 25

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019